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1

Applying the community partnership approach to human biology research.  

PubMed

Contemporary human biology research employs a unique skillset for biocultural analysis. This skillset is highly appropriate for the study of health disparities because disparities result from the interaction of social and biological factors over one or more generations. Health disparities research almost always involves disadvantaged communities owing to the relationship between social position and health in stratified societies. Successful research with disadvantaged communities involves a specific approach, the community partnership model, which creates a relationship beneficial for researcher and community. Paramount is the need for trust between partners. With trust established, partners share research goals, agree on research methods and produce results of interest and importance to all partners. Results are shared with the community as they are developed; community partners also provide input on analyses and interpretation of findings. This article describes a partnership-based, 20 year relationship between community members of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation and researchers at the University at Albany. As with many communities facing health disparity issues, research with Native Americans and indigenous peoples generally is inherently politicized. For Akwesasne, the contamination of their lands and waters is an environmental justice issue in which the community has faced unequal exposure to, and harm by environmental toxicants. As human biologists engage in more partnership-type research, it is important to understand the long term goals of the community and what is at stake so the research circle can be closed and 'helicopter' style research avoided. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 27:6-15, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25380288

Ravenscroft, Julia; Schell, Lawrence M; Cole, Tewentahawih Tha

2015-01-01

2

Estuarine Science: Biological Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explores the plant and animal communities that exist within an estuary. Specifically, it examines the planktonic, pelagic, benthic and intertidal communities, and focuses on organisms that are characteristic of the community, how scientists investigate these organisms, and why such organisms are important to the biological community of estuaries. Additionally, the site provides specific examples of each community found within the Narragansett Bay.

3

An NIH- and NSF Funded Program in Biological Research for Community College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a program supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation, selected students in biology courses at Valencia Community College actively pursue the scientific method in a series of laboratory exercises. Results are then published as reports written in the format of a scientific paper. Faculty from the disciplines of biology and English composition

Thomas P. Arnold; Frances A. Frierson; Sebacher Neil Jr

2000-01-01

4

Soil Biological Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Idaho provides this electronic resource on soil communities. With introductory text, illustrations, and references, these pages provide a general overview of soil communities, including Biological Crusts, Fungi, Bacteria, Protozoa, Nematodes, and Arthropods. The site also introduces general readers to Soil Food Webs and Burrowing Mammals, with an emphasis on the western United States. A series of select links to soil-related resources rounds out the site.

5

Communities Complicate Gene Transplant Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confrontations have arisen between local communities and universities involved in molecular biology research. The situation in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is described in which citizens have opposed work undertaken at Harvard and MIT. (LBH)

Randal, Judith

1976-01-01

6

Advancing the Microbiome Research Community  

PubMed Central

The human microbiome has become a recognized factor in promoting and maintaining health. We outline opportunities in interdisciplinary research, analytical rigor, standardization, and policy development for this relatively new and rapidly developing field. Advances in these aspects of the research community may in turn advance our understanding of human microbiome biology. PMID:25303518

Huttenhower, Curtis; Knight, Rob; Brown, C. Titus; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Clemente, Jose C.; Gevers, Dirk; Franzosa, Eric A.; Kelley, Scott T.; Knights, Dan; Ley, Ruth E.; Mahurkar, Anup; Ravel, Jacques; White, Owen

2014-01-01

7

An emerging synthesis between community ecology and evolutionary biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthesis between community ecology and evolutionary biology is emerging that identifies how genetic variation and evolution within one species can shape the ecological properties of entire communities and, in turn, how community context can govern evol- utionary processes and patterns. This synthesis incorp- orates research on the ecology and evolution within communities over short timescales (community genetics and diffuse

Marc T. J. Johnson; John R. Stinchcombe

2007-01-01

8

Community Research Mythology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is dedicated to an in-depth discussion of the theme community and the implications the multiple meanings of community hold for the field of qualitative research. This theme surfaced from Walderns 2003 study entitled Resistance to Research in Vancouvers Downtown Eastside, which dealt with participant resistance to joining research

Waldern, Barbara

2006-01-01

9

Community University Research Agreement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the process of engaging the extended Indigenous community within Saskatoon and the surrounding First Nations communities in what would be a first major research project between Indigenous communities and the University of Saskatchewan. A management committee was established comprised of all the major Saskatoon/Saskatchewan…

Settee, Priscilla; Thomas-Prokop, Shelley

2007-01-01

10

Space biology research development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

Bonting, Sjoerd L.

1993-01-01

11

Building a Diverse Biological Community  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the pages of magazine, the online version of our education column in BioScience provides educators with updates in science education, examples of successful initiatives to transform biology teaching, and new ways of improving student understanding. This Eye column highlights efforts by the Ecological Society of America and the American Society for Limnology and Oceanography to increase diversity within the scientific community and provides key strategies implemented by successful programs.

Abraham Parker (American Institute of Biological Sciences;)

2006-01-01

12

Encouraging Student Biological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication encourages student involvement in biological research through student research with the cooperation of teachers and scientists. The contents of the book are divided into two sections. The first section introduces students to research investigations and includes: (1) "How the Investigations Are Set Up and the Rationale Behind Their…

Frame, Kathy, Ed.; Hays, Rachel, Ed.; Mack, Alison, Ed.

13

Biology Research Assignment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students relate a specific aspect of biology to its current impact on the world around us in a 3-5 page research paper on a biology-related topic of their own choosing. Suggested topics and evaluation rubrics are included.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Michael Lowry N:Lowry; Michael ORG:The McCallie School REV:2005-04-08 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

14

Undergraduate Research Communities: A Powerful Approach to Research Training  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We applied the concept of learning communities, whereby students develop their ideas in cohort-based settings, to undergraduate research training. This creates powerful research communities where students practice science from observation to experimental design to interpretation of data. We describe a biology program, but the approach suits many discovery-based disciplines.

Gaynor, John J.; Adams, Sandra D.; Kight, Scott

2006-07-01

15

Undergraduate Research Communities: A Powerful Approach to Research Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We applied the concept of learning communities, whereby students develop their own ideas in cohort-based settings, to undergraduate research training. This creates powerful research communities where students practice science from observation to experimental design to interpretation of data. We describe a biology program, but the approach suits…

Kight, Scott; Gaynor, John J.; Adams, Sandra D.

2006-01-01

16

Microbialites and microbial communities: Biological diversity, biogeochemical functioning, diagenetic  

E-print Network

Microbialites and microbial communities: Biological diversity, biogeochemical functioning is dedicated to microbialites and microbial communities and addresses their biological diversity the study of microbial communities and microbialites: their biological diversity, their biogeochemical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.  

PubMed

The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow. PMID:24911500

Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

2014-06-01

18

Research Councils UK Synthetic biology  

E-print Network

. As an approach, it offers the potential to help society meet some of the major challenges we face in the 21stResearch Councils UK Synthetic biology #12;Synthetic biology Research funded by the Research of collaborative research programmes, investment in major research capabilities, such as national research

Berzins, M.

19

SNOW Research Community of Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SNOW Research Community of Practice, sponsored by the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, is a collaboration of professionals whose goal is to "provide a one-stop solution to customers' snow science and engineering problems." The 48 members have expertise in a variety of areas, including geophysics, chemistry, biology, physics, and mechanical, geological, electrical, civil, and geological engineering. This website provides contact information for snow experts and describes the tools and facilities that are at their disposal. They also provide a wealth of information on various aspects of snow research, including snow models, snow chemistry, and GIS/Remote sensing of snow. Also described here is research on snow mechanics and engineering, which can be used "to develop instrumentation, physical understanding and models and combined with other physical principals to solve problems in hydrology, transportation, engineering infrastructure, and climate change." In addition, the group provides updates on snow impacts in the news, such as the extensive snowfall in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan that has affected safety, transportation, and flooding in those regions, and a link to a map of U.S. snow coverage from the National Weather Service. This site is also reviewed in the March 11, 2005_NSDL MET Report_.

20

Community College Biology Lesson Index.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog contains lesson descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: introductory material on experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; reproduction and…

Manteuffel, Mary S., Comp.; Herrick, Kathie, Comp.

21

Community College Biology Lesson Catalogue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog contains descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; bioenergetics - enzymes and cellular metabolism;…

Herrick, Kathie G.

22

Developing small worlds of e-science: using quantum mechanics, biological science, and oceanography for education and outreach strategies for engaging research communities within a univeristy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poster will use text, diagrams, screenshots, models, and developing e-science digital collections at Florida State University (FSU) Libraries as an experimental approach in developing a digital preservation management policy strategy that promotes current and future use of FSU Libraries digital assets. Scientific research from quantum mechanics, biological science, and oceanography research disciplines will be used as digital collection development

Smith Plato L. II; Sharon Schwerzel; Tamara Weatherholt

2010-01-01

23

Community-Based Research/ Creative Scholarship  

E-print Network

Community-Based Research/ Creative Scholarship Traditional Academic Research/Creative Scholarship What is the purpose of the Research/Creative Scholarship? To provide the community with the tools is the Research/Creative Scholarship intended to serve? The local community and the academic community

Firestone, Jeremy

24

Community Systems Research at Yahoo! Community Systems Group  

E-print Network

Community Systems Research at Yahoo! Community Systems Group Yahoo! Research Sunnyvale, CA 94089 and New York, NY 10018 {ramakris}@yahoo-inc.com ABSTRACT The web and its continued evolution present the Community Systems group here at Yahoo! Research to address these challenges. Categories and Subject

Garofalakis, Minos

25

The European Commission Community Research  

E-print Network

evaluation. The application allows browsing of recorded multi-modal meetings through user- selectedThe European Commission Community Research Information Society Technologies Deliverable D4.3: Report on Final Demonstrator and Evaluation 25 February 2005 #12;Report on Final Demonstrator

Wrigley, Stuart

26

Community systems research at Yahoo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The web and its continued evolution present unprecedented opportunities for database researchers and practitioners to deliver unique user experiences that are not possible traditionally, e.g., mass collaborations through (automatically) established online communities and exploration of large scale structured information. Along with these opportunities, however, come significant challenges. The challenges are two-fold: systems, the infrastructures that allow us to deliver information

2007-01-01

27

Office of Biological and Environmental Research  

E-print Network

Sciences Fusion Energy Sciences Advanced Scientific Computing Research Nuclear Physics Biological SystemsOffice of Science Office of Biological and Environmental Research Next Generation Ecosystem, 2011 Dan Stover Mike Kuperberg #12;Department of Energy · Office of Science · Biological

28

NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP)  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved Please check this page often for updates. Last updated: 04:27 pm EST, Tuesday, November 12, 2013. If you have questions about the NCORP Funding Announcements,

29

Farmworkers and Pesticides: Community-Based Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A workshop brought together scientists, community organization members, and agency representatives to review community-based research on the environmental health risks of pesticide exposure for migrant farmworkers; to share appropriate, successful community-based research methods and models; and to determine future research directions and needs…

Arcury, Thomas A.; Quandt, Sara A.; McCauley, Linda

2000-01-01

30

Recruiting Research Participants at Community Education Sites  

PubMed Central

Background Minority groups are underrepresented in research, making it difficult to apply medical advances with confidence. In this study, we explored whether community-based cancer education sites and educators serving the African American community could be used to recruit minority participants to research. Methods We invited Individuals at community education sites to provide buccal scrapings, saliva samples, psychometric data, and personal information anonymously. Results Culturally aligned community sites (100%) collaborated in the research recruitment, as did 83% of the individuals at those sites. Conclusion Community-based education sites offer exceptional promise for teaching about research benefits and recruiting members of minority groups to research studies. PMID:16497136

SADLER, GEORGIA ROBINS; PETERSON, MELANIE; WASSERMAN, LINDA; MILLS, PAUL L.; MALCARNE, VANESSA L.; ROCK, CHERYL; ANCOLI-ISRAEL, SONIA; MOORE, AMANDA; WELDON, RAI-NESHA; GARCIA, TENISHA; KOLODNER, RICHARD D.

2006-01-01

31

Biological defense research program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The proposed action, and subject of this Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), is continuation of the Biological Defense Research Program (BDRP). The BDRP is a research, development, test and evaluation (RDT E) program conducted by the Department of Defense (DoD), with the Department of the Army (DA) serving as the executive agent. This FEIS addresses the ongoing program and provides a basis for evaluating future BDRP activities. The objectives of the BDRP are to develop measures for detection, treatment, protection and decontamination of potential biological warfare threat agents. Development of medical defensive measures, such as prophylactic vaccines and drugs, therapeutic measures, and patient treatment and management protocols are important components of the program. The purpose of the BDRP is to maintain and promote a solid national defense posture with respect to potential biological warfare threats. The BDRP supports RDT E efforts necessary for the maintenance and development of defensive measures and materiel to meet these threats. In addition to promoting the national defense posture, the BDRP benefits the scientific community in general through its research and development efforts, and benefits the global population in the development of diagnostic methods, and vaccine and drug therapies for the treatment of diseases.

Not Available

1989-04-01

32

Department of Biological Sciences UNDERGRADUATE INDEPENDENT RESEARCH  

E-print Network

Department of Biological Sciences UNDERGRADUATE INDEPENDENT RESEARCH Student Plan of Study Biol of Study Page | 1 #12;RESEARCH PROPOSAL (Attach separate paper if needed) PROPOSAL TITLE: PROPOSAL TO RESEARCH AREA: PREVIOUS RESEARCH EXPERIENCE: INTERNSHIPS: OTHER: Undergraduate Independent Research Plan

Harms, Kyle E.

33

Structuring Research Opportunities for All Biology Majors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a required research experience program for all biology majors instituted in the biology department of Carroll College. Discusses successes and challenges of coordinating a program that involves 20-40 research projects each year. (Author/NB)

Lewis, Susan E.; Conley, Lisa K.; Horst, Cynthia J.

2003-01-01

34

Puerto Rico Sustainable Communities Research Project  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHCRP) is to inform and empower decision?makers to equitably weigh and integrate human health, socio?economic, environmental, and ecological factors to foster community sustainability. Pue...

35

Genome Annotation in a Community College Cell Biology Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Biology Department at Salt Lake Community College has used the IMG-ACT toolbox to introduce a genome mapping and annotation exercise into the laboratory portion of its Cell Biology course. This project provides students with an authentic inquiry-based learning experience while introducing them to computational biology and contemporary learning…

Beagley, C. Timothy

2013-01-01

36

Institutional Research in the Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institutional research in the junior-community college is discussed as related to the following questions: (1) What is institutional research? (2) Why has there been such an emphasis on it in recent years?; (3) What should be the goals and guiding principles of a community college institutional research operation? (4) Where should the…

Kovach, Robert V.

37

Discovering Our Delta: A Learning Guide for Community Research. Teacher Guide [and] Student Community Research Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher guide and student community research guide unit are intended to help students learn to conduct research in their community and to communicate the results of that research to classmates and others. The unit, which can be used in conjunction with a video, helps students learn about community research, oral history, and folklore…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies.

38

Exploring community structure in biological networks with random graphs  

PubMed Central

Background Community structure is ubiquitous in biological networks. There has been an increased interest in unraveling the community structure of biological systems as it may provide important insights into a system’s functional components and the impact of local structures on dynamics at a global scale. Choosing an appropriate community detection algorithm to identify the community structure in an empirical network can be difficult, however, as the many algorithms available are based on a variety of cost functions and are difficult to validate. Even when community structure is identified in an empirical system, disentangling the effect of community structure from other network properties such as clustering coefficient and assortativity can be a challenge. Results Here, we develop a generative model to produce undirected, simple, connected graphs with a specified degrees and pattern of communities, while maintaining a graph structure that is as random as possible. Additionally, we demonstrate two important applications of our model: (a) to generate networks that can be used to benchmark existing and new algorithms for detecting communities in biological networks; and (b) to generate null models to serve as random controls when investigating the impact of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and modularity in empirical biological networks. Conclusion Our model allows for the systematic study of the presence of community structure and its impact on network function and dynamics. This process is a crucial step in unraveling the functional consequences of the structural properties of biological systems and uncovering the mechanisms that drive these systems. PMID:24965130

2014-01-01

39

Creating a New Breed of Biology Education Researchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Society of Microbiology (ASM) has created the Scholars-in-Residence program to introduce biology faculty to the scholarship of teaching and learning -- a broad term describing the professional responsibility of faculty to conduct rigorous evaluations of their own teaching practices and to publicly share their findings to develop a community of practice. The Scholars-in-Residence program trains microbiologists to use educational research to improve their teaching.Building on the success of the Scholars-in-Residence program, the ASM created the Biology Scholars Program, which is open to the larger community of biology educators. The Biology Scholars Program offers three independent virtual residencies that allow faculty to explore biology education in greater depth and to obtain a better understanding of the scholarship of teaching and learning.

Brian Stagg (AIBS;)

2008-05-01

40

Global Biology Research Program: Program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biological processes which play a dominant role in these cycles which transform and transfer much of this material throughout the biosphere are examined. A greater understanding of planetary biological processes as revealed by the interaction of the biota and the environment. The rationale, scope, research strategy, and research priorities of the global biology is presented.

1983-01-01

41

BioDEAL: community generation of biological annotations  

PubMed Central

Background Publication databases in biomedicine (e.g., PubMed, MEDLINE) are growing rapidly in size every year, as are public databases of experimental biological data and annotations derived from the data. Publications often contain evidence that confirm or disprove annotations, such as putative protein functions, however, it is increasingly difficult for biologists to identify and process published evidence due to the volume of papers and the lack of a systematic approach to associate published evidence with experimental data and annotations. Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools can help address the growing divide by providing automatic high-throughput detection of simple terms in publication text. However, NLP tools are not mature enough to identify complex terms, relationships, or events. Results In this paper we present and extend BioDEAL, a community evidence annotation system that introduces a feedback loop into the database-publication cycle to allow scientists to connect data-driven biological concepts to publications. Conclusion BioDEAL may change the way biologists relate published evidence with experimental data. Instead of biologists or research groups searching and managing evidence independently, the community can collectively build and share this knowledge. PMID:19891799

Breimyer, Paul; Green, Nathan; Kumar, Vinay; Samatova, Nagiza F

2009-01-01

42

Human Health Research Program: Systems biological approaches  

EPA Science Inventory

Research using systems analytic approaches to integrate biological and toxicological data across scales of biological organization (e.g. molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, full body, population), with the goal of identifying toxicity pathways, biomarkers, and bioindicators for a...

43

The Biological Flight Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Ames Research Center is building a research facility, the Biological Flight Research Facility (BFRF), to meet the needs of life scientists to study the long-term effects of variable gravity on living systems. The facility will be housed on Space Station Freedom and is anticipated to operate for the lifetime of the station, approximately 30 years. It will allow plant and animal biologists to study the role of gravity, or its absence, at varying gravity intensities for varying periods of time and with various organisms. The principal difference between current Spacelab missions and those on Space Station Freedom, other than length of mission, will be the capability to perform on-orbit science procedures and the capability to simulate earth gravity. Initially, the facility will house plants and rodents in habitats which can be maintained at microgravity or can be placed on a 2.5-m diam centrifuge. However, the facility is also being designed to accommodate future habitats for small primates, avian, and aquatic specimens. The centrifuge will provide 1 g for controls and will also be able to provide gravity from 0.01 to 2.0 g for threshold gravity studies as well as hypergravity studies. The BFRF will provide the means to conduct basic experiments to gain an understanding of the effects of microgravity on the structure and function of plants and animals, as well as investigate the role of gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physiological changes observed in microgravity.

Johnson, Catherine C.

1991-01-01

44

Biology and medical research at the exascale.  

SciTech Connect

Advances in computational hardware and algorithms that have transformed areas of physics and engineering have recently brought similar benefits to biology and biomedical research. Biological sciences are undergoing a revolution. High-performance computing has accelerated the transition from hypothesis-driven to design-driven research at all scales, and computational simulation of biological systems is now driving the direction of biological experimentation and the generation of insights.

Wolf, L.; Pieper, G. W. (CLS-CI); ( MCS)

2010-01-01

45

COMPARISON OF BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of biological communities or assemblages to make richness or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Traditionally, sample size is based on numbers of replicates or area collected or numbers of individuals enum...

46

Council on Undergraduate Research Biology Division  

E-print Network

Council on Undergraduate Research Biology Division Student Travel Awards Announcement 2014 ­ 2015 The Biology Division of the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) is offering a limited number of travel grants, up to $250 each, for undergraduate students presenting original research results at a regional

Maxwell, Bruce D.

47

Some values guiding community research and action  

PubMed Central

The dual purposes of applied research—contributing to understanding and improvement—are only partially served by method systems that encourage studying (with increasing precision) a narrow range of questions of modest societal importance. To optimize contributions to challenging societal problems, a field's cherished standards should be adapted to support more adventuresome forms of community research and action. This paper outlines 10 values for community research and action, based on insights from the fields of behavioral and community psychology. These values—reflect the goals and challenges of establishing collaborative relationships with research participants, determining research goals and methods, designing and disseminating interventions, communicating research findings, and advocating for community change. Critical challenges are outlined, and implications for the field and its clients are discussed. PMID:16795759

Fawcett, Stephen B.

1991-01-01

48

The Biological Flight Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) is building a research facility, the Biological Flight Research Facility (BFRF), to meet the needs of life scientists to study the long-term effects of variable gravity on living systems. The facility will be housed on Space Station Freedom and is anticipated to operate for the lifetime of the station, approximately thirty years. It will allow plant and animal biologists to study the role of gravity, or its absence, at varying gravity intensities for varying periods of time and with various organisms. The principal difference between current Spacelab missions and those on Space Station Freedom, other than length of mission, will be the capability to perform on-orbit science procedures and the capability to simulate earth gravity. Initially the facility will house plants and rodents in habitats which can be maintained at microgravity or can be placed on a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge. However, the facility is also being designed to accommodate future habitats for small primates, avian, and aquatic specimens. The centrifuge will provide 1 g for controls and will also be able to provide gravity from 0.01 to 2.0 g for threshold gravity studies as well as hypergravity studies. Included in the facility are a service unit for providing clean chambers for the specimens and a glovebox for manipulating the plant and animal specimens and for performing experimental protocols. The BFRF will provide the means to conduct basic experiments to gain an understanding of the effects of microgravity on the structure and function of plants and animals, as well as investigate the role of gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physiological changes observed in microgravity.

Johnson, Catherine C.

1993-01-01

49

Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

2013-01-01

50

AuthorReward: increasing community curation in biological knowledge wikis through automated authorship quantification  

PubMed Central

Summary: Community curation—harnessing community intelligence in knowledge curation, bears great promise in dealing with the flood of biological knowledge. To exploit the full potential of the scientific community for knowledge curation, multiple biological wikis (bio-wikis) have been built to date. However, none of them have achieved a substantial impact on knowledge curation. One of the major limitations in bio-wikis is insufficient community participation, which is intrinsically because of lack of explicit authorship and thus no credit for community curation. To increase community curation in bio-wikis, here we develop AuthorReward, an extension to MediaWiki, to reward community-curated efforts in knowledge curation. AuthorReward quantifies researchers’ contributions by properly factoring both edit quantity and quality and yields automated explicit authorship according to their quantitative contributions. AuthorReward provides bio-wikis with an authorship metric, helpful to increase community participation in bio-wikis and to achieve community curation of massive biological knowledge. Availability: http://cbb.big.ac.cn/software. Contact: zhangzhang@big.ac.cn Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23732274

Dai, Lin; Tian, Ming; Wu, Jiayan; Xiao, Jingfa; Wang, Xumin; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Zhang, Zhang

2013-01-01

51

Cancer Research in Your Community  

Cancer.gov

Information about cancer research going on across the United States and details on the National Cancer Institute's nationwide efforts to connect researchers, patients, health care providers, and others.

52

Developing the Community Empowered Research Training Program: Building Research Capacity for Community-Initiated and Community-Driven Research  

PubMed Central

Health promotion practice research conducted by or in partnership with community-based organizations (CBOs) serving Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AA and NHPI) can address health disparities. Few CBOs have the tools to integrate or initiate research into their programmatic agenda. The New York University (NYU) Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) and the Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum (APIAHF) created a partnership with the goal to support CBO research infrastructure development by creating the Community Empowered Research Training (CERT) program. Methods A survey was conducted and discussions held with CBO leaders representing AA and NHPI communities to inform the development of the CERT program. Results The majority of participants are engaged in service-related research and reported interest in building their research capacity. CBOs may require help reframing how data can be collected and used to better inform programmatic activities and to address health disparities facing AA and NHPI communities. Conclusions CBOs possess both an interest in and access to local knowledge that can inform health priorities. Findings have been applied to the CERT program to build capacity to support community-initiated/driven research to address health disparities affecting AAs and NHPIs. PMID:22643787

Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Tseng, Winston; Islam, Nadia; Cook, Won Kim; Ro, Marguerite; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

2012-01-01

53

Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

2003-01-01

54

The 2014 Gordon Research Conference: Physics Research & Education: The Complex Intersection of Biology and Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of biological physics and the physics education of biology and medically oriented students have experienced tremendous growth in recent years. New findings, applications, and technologies in biological and medical physics are having far reaching consequences that affect and influence the science community, the education of future scientists and health-care workers, and the general population. As a result leaders in Physics Education Research have begun to focus their attention on the specific needs of students in the biological sciences, the different ways physicists and biologists view the nature of science and the interactions of scientists in these disciplines. In this poster we highlight some of these findings and pose questions for discussion. The Complex Intersection of Biology and Physics will be the topic of the next Gordon Research Conference on Physics Research and Education to be held in June 2014. The exact date and location are still to be determined.

Sabella, Mel; Lang, Matthew

2013-03-01

55

Assessment of biological communities at Rame Head  

E-print Network

the potential biological effects of contaminants in sediments Encrusting and mobile fauna Video footage has classed as outliers. Further detail can be found in the Rame Head report (CEFAS, 2005). To summarise the status of the fauna. This has been done in three ways: · Video footage to describe the encrusting

56

My Swinburne Research Community Swinburne Research  

E-print Network

by the Drugs and Driving Research Unit to assess the effects of alcohol and illicit drugs on driving behaviours Rates for 2011 Quick Reference Guide 7 8 9 My Supervision Terms of Engagement Practices of Effective Never Forget Staff at the Brain Sciences Institute (BSI) talk about research being conducted

Liley, David

57

Systems biology approaches in aging research.  

PubMed

Aging is a systemic process which progressively manifests itself at multiple levels of structural and functional organization from molecular reactions and cell-cell interactions in tissues to the physiology of an entire organ. There is ever increasing data on biomedical relevant network interactions for the aging process at different scales of time and space. To connect the aging process at different structural, temporal and spatial scales, extensive systems biological approaches need to be deployed. Systems biological approaches can not only systematically handle the large-scale datasets (like high-throughput data) and the complexity of interactions (feedback loops, cross talk), but also can delve into nonlinear behaviors exhibited by several biological processes which are beyond intuitive reasoning. Several public-funded agencies have identified the synergistic role of systems biology in aging research. Using one of the notable public-funded programs (GERONTOSYS), we discuss how systems biological approaches are helping the scientists to find new frontiers in aging research. We elaborate on some systems biological approaches deployed in one of the projects of the consortium (ROSage). The systems biology field in aging research is at its infancy. It is open to adapt existing systems biological methodologies from other research fields and devise new aging-specific systems biological methodologies. PMID:25341520

Chauhan, Anuradha; Liebal, Ulf W; Vera, Julio; Baltrusch, Simone; Junghanß, Christian; Tiedge, Markus; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Köhling, Rüdiger

2015-01-01

58

Research collaboration in health management research communities  

PubMed Central

Background This study uses scientometrics methodology to reveal the status quo and emerging issues of collaboration in health management. Methods We searched all the articles with the keyword “health management” in the period 1999–2011 in Web of Knowledge, then 3067 articles were found. Methods such as Social network analysis (SNA), co-authorship, co-word analysis were used in this study. Results Analysis of the past 13 years of research in the field of health management indicates that, whether the production of scientific research, or authors, institutions and scientific research collaboration at the national level, collaboration behavior has been growing steadily across all collaboration types. However, the international scientific research cooperation about health management study between countries needs to be further encouraged. 17 researchers can be seen as the academic leaders in this field. 37 research institutions play a vital role in the information dissemination and resources control in health management. The component analysis found that 22 research groups can be regarded as the backbone in this field. The 8 institution groups consisting of 33 institutions form the core of this field. USA, UK and Australia lie in the center by cohesive subgroup analysis; Based on keywords analysis, 44 keywords with high frequency such as care, disease, system and model were involved in the health management field. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although it is growing steadily, collaboration behavior about health management study needs to be enhanced, especially between different institutions or countries/regions, which would promote the progress and internationalization of health management. Besides, researchers should pay attention to the cooperation of representative scholars and institutions, as well as the hot areas of research, because their experience would help us promote the research development of our nation. PMID:23617236

2013-01-01

59

Research Challenges and Lessons Learned From Conducting Community-Based Research With the Hmong Community.  

PubMed

Background. Conducting research with underserved communities with little exposure to research presents a number of challenges and opportunities. Our study used a community-based approach to better understand factors that influence breast and cervical cancer screening among Hmong women. Objective. This article shares lessons learned during the process of developing and conducting qualitative research with a Hmong community with limited experience with research. Method. We conducted 17 key informant and 84 in-depth interviews with Hmong women and men. Research team discussions, insights from Hmong research team members, input from our Community Advisory Committee, and project documents were sources of information about the process of conducting research in this community. Results. Lessons learned concern including a cultural insider as an investigator; building community partnerships and support; establishing and working with a community advisory committee; hiring and training bilingual, bicultural staff; and using culturally appropriate materials and methods in a small, kinship-based community. We used multiple strategies to ensure that this study was conducted in a culturally appropriate manner. Conclusion. The lessons learned from our experiences can provide guidance to researchers on methodological and practical issues in conducting research with the Hmong and can inform future research with the Hmong and other similar underserved populations. PMID:25445983

Kue, Jennifer; Thorburn, Sheryl; Keon, Karen Levy

2014-12-01

60

Protecting communities in pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing EELS literature has usefully identified the scope of ethical issues posed by pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic research. The time has come for in-depth examination of particular ethical issues. The involvement of racial and ethnic communities in pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic research is contentious precisely because it touches upon the science and politics of studying racial and ethnic difference. To date,

Charles Weijer; P. B. Miller

2004-01-01

61

Community-driven computational biology with Debian Linux  

PubMed Central

Background The Open Source movement and its technologies are popular in the bioinformatics community because they provide freely available tools and resources for research. In order to feed the steady demand for updates on software and associated data, a service infrastructure is required for sharing and providing these tools to heterogeneous computing environments. Results The Debian Med initiative provides ready and coherent software packages for medical informatics and bioinformatics. These packages can be used together in Taverna workflows via the UseCase plugin to manage execution on local or remote machines. If such packages are available in cloud computing environments, the underlying hardware and the analysis pipelines can be shared along with the software. Conclusions Debian Med closes the gap between developers and users. It provides a simple method for offering new releases of software and data resources, thus provisioning a local infrastructure for computational biology. For geographically distributed teams it can ensure they are working on the same versions of tools, in the same conditions. This contributes to the world-wide networking of researchers. PMID:21210984

2010-01-01

62

Training for research in community mental health.  

PubMed

Training institutions need to do a more adequate job in socializing students early and continuously for the role of community mental health researcher. While psychology is singled out to illustrate this thesis, all the disciplines that make up the community mental health team could profitably be examined from this standpoint. The university climate in which psychologists are reared is examined and nuclear shortcomings in respect to basic trust, feelings of competence, and sense of identity are dramatized. PMID:24186607

Baler, L A

1967-09-01

63

Community outreach at biomedical research facilities.  

PubMed Central

For biomedical researchers to fulfill their responsibility for protecting the environment, they must do more than meet the scientific challenge of reducing the number and volume of hazardous materials used in their laboratories and the engineering challenge of reducing pollution and shifting to cleaner energy sources. They must also meet the public relations challenge of informing and involving their neighbors in these efforts. The experience of the Office of Community Liaison of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in meeting the latter challenge offers a model and several valuable lessons for other biomedical research facilities to follow. This paper is based on presentations by an expert panel during the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held 1--2 November 1999 at NIH, Bethesda, Maryland. The risks perceived by community members are often quite different from those identified by officials at the biomedical research facility. The best antidote for misconceptions is more and better information. If community organizations are to be informed participants in the decision-making process, they need a simple but robust mechanism for identifying and evaluating the environmental hazards in their community. Local government can and should be an active and fully informed partner in planning and emergency preparedness. In some cases this can reduce the regulatory burden on the biomedical research facility. In other cases it might simplify and expedite the permitting process or help the facility disseminate reliable information to the community. When a particular risk, real or perceived, is of special concern to the community, community members should be involved in the design, implementation, and evaluation of targeted risk assessment activities. Only by doing so will the community have confidence in the results of those activities. NIH has involved community members in joint efforts to deal with topics as varied as recycling and soil testing. These ad hoc efforts are more likely to succeed if community members and groups have also been included in larger and longer term advisory committees. These committees institutionalize the outreach process. This can provide the facility with vocal and influential allies who create an independent line of communication with the larger community. PMID:11124126

Goldman, M; Hedetniemi, J N; Herbert, E R; Sassaman, J S; Walker, B C

2000-01-01

64

Biological Communities at the Florida Escarpment Resemble Hydrothermal Vent Taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dense biological communities of large epifaunal taxa similar to those found along ridge crest vents at the East Pacific Rise were discovered in the abyssal Gulf of Mexico. These assemblages occur on a passive continental margin at the base of the Florida Escarpment, the interface between the relatively impermeable hemipelagic clays of the distal Mississippi Fan and the jointed Cretaceous

C. K. Paull; B. Hecker; R. Commeau; R. P. Freeman-Lynde; C. Neumann; W. P. Corso; S. Golubic; J. E. Hook; E. Sikes; J. Curray

1984-01-01

65

Invertebrate community characteristics in biologically active carbon filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biologically active carbon (BAC) system was set up in a water plant of South China during January to December 2007, to study the invertebrate community characteristics of BAC filter. Thirty-seven invertebrate species were found, of which 28 belonging to rotifers. Filter operation could lead to an output of invertebrates in high abundances with the filtrate, and the maximum density could

Xiaowei Li; Yufeng Yang; Lijun Liu; Jinsong Zhang; Qing Wang

2010-01-01

66

Research Experiences in Community College Science Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The benefits of student access to scientific research opportunities and the use of data in curriculum and student inquiry-driven approaches to teaching as effective tools in science instruction are compelling (i.e., Ledley, et al., 2008; Gawel & Greengrove, 2005; Macdonald, et al., 2005; Harnik & Ross. 2003). Unfortunately, these experiences are traditionally limited at community colleges due to heavy faculty teaching loads, a focus on teaching over research, and scarce departmental funds. Without such hands-on learning activities, instructors may find it difficult to stimulate excitement about science in their students, who are typically non-major and nontraditional. I present two different approaches for effectively incorporating research into the community college setting that each rely on partnerships with other institutions. The first of these is a more traditional approach for providing research experiences to undergraduate students, though such experiences are limited at community colleges, and involves student interns working on a research project under the supervision of a faculty member. Specifically, students participate in a water quality assessment study of two local bayous. Students work on different aspects of the project, including water sample collection, bio-assay incubation experiments, water quality sample analysis, and collection and identification of phytoplankton. Over the past four years, nine community college students, as well as two undergraduate students and four graduate students from the local four-year university have participated in this research project. Aligning student and faculty research provides community college students with the unique opportunity to participate in the process of active science and contribute to "real" scientific research. Because students are working in a local watershed, these field experiences provide a valuable "place-based" educational opportunity. The second approach links cutting-edge oceanographic research with my community college students by partnering with a research oceanographer. Through this partnership, students have had access to an active oceanographic researcher through classroom visits, use of data in curriculum, and research/cruise progress updates. With very little research activity currently going on at the community college, this "window" into scientific research is invaluable. Another important aspect of this project is the development of a summer internship program that has allowed four community college students to work directly with an oceanographer in her lab for ten weeks. This connection of community college students with world-class scientists in the field promotes better understanding of research and potentially may encourage more students to major in the sciences. In either approach, the interaction with scientists at different stages of their careers, from undergraduate and graduate students at universities to post docs and research scientists, also provides community college students with the opportunity to gain insight into possible career pathways. For both majors and non-majors, a key outcome of such experiences will be gaining experience in using inquiry and reasoning through the scientific method and becoming comfortable with data and technology.

Beauregard, A.

2011-12-01

67

Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acting as part of the European Commission's INNOVATION Programme, the Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS) provides information on European Union research, development, and innovation activities to help strengthen the competitiveness of European organizations, particularly small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). CORDIS's ten searchable databases covering various news and research publications, EU-funded research programs, and organizational contact and partnership directories are designed to help SMEs find data and funding. An Acronym dictionary of EU research and development terms aids search navigation, and key pages are available in English, French, German, and Italian.

68

Lifesat - A satellite for biological research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lifesat program, which provides for the development and operation of an unmanned, free-flying, recoverable, reusable satellite for microgravity biological research, is briefly reviewed. The payload modules will support research in radiation biology, general biology, and biomedical disciplines. The Lifesat will be capable of long-duration flights of up to 60 days and will be able to fly directly into trapped radiation belts and in circular or eccentric polar orbits. The Lifesat will also serve as a testbed for Space Station Freedom experiments.

Morey-Holton, Emily; Ballard, Rodney W.; Cipriano, Leonard F.; Davies, Philip

1990-01-01

69

Messages to the Research Community  

Cancer.gov

May 2013Message to Grantees About NCI Funding and Grant Support for FY2013On May 7, 2013, NCI Director Harold Varmus sent an email to all NCI grantees informing them of reductions to NCI’s budget for fiscal year 2013. The reductions, due in large part to sequestration, are spread across NCI’s portfolio to protect NCI’s ability to issue new and competing research project grants.

70

Evaluation of a workshop to improve community involvement in community-based participatory research efforts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Community based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that has gained attention in health and public health research. Community members and researchers partnering in a CBPR project recognized the need for community education about the research process and research eth...

71

MSci (Hons) in Biology MSci (Hons) in Biology (research placement)  

E-print Network

) do not yet meet our entry requirements for admission direct to the first year of this course, we BSc or a four-year MSci. The first three years in both degrees are identical. The MSci adds a research) in Biology Foundation year for UK and EU students Refer to the BSc (Hons) in Biosciences (with a foundation

Sussex, University of

72

Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research.  

PubMed

The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of 'governmentality', and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389

Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

2013-12-01

73

Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research  

PubMed Central

The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of ‘governmentality’, and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389

Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

2013-01-01

74

NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP)  

Cancer.gov

The overall goal of NCORP is to bring cancer clinical trials, as well as cancer care delivery research (CCDR), to individuals in their own communities, thereby generating a broadly applicable evidence base that contributes to improved patient outcomes and a reduction in cancer disparities.

75

Genome annotation in a community college cell biology lab.  

PubMed

The Biology Department at Salt Lake Community College has used the IMG-ACT toolbox to introduce a genome mapping and annotation exercise into the laboratory portion of its Cell Biology course. This project provides students with an authentic inquiry-based learning experience while introducing them to computational biology and contemporary learning skills. Additionally, the project strengthens student understanding of the scientific method and contributes to student learning gains in curricular objectives centered around basic molecular biology, specifically, the Central Dogma. Importantly, inclusion of this project in the laboratory course provides students with a positive learning environment and allows for the use of cooperative learning strategies to increase overall student success. PMID:23382125

Beagley, C Timothy

2013-01-01

76

The relationship between learning communities and student interaction and retention in general biology courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between learning communities and student interaction and retention in community college general biology courses was investigated in this study. The purposes of the study were to discover the students' perceptions of factors influencing their desire to study science, and to examine the use of learning communities as a method of enculturation into the field of science. The learning community in the CCD science courses involved an entry-level science course that was linked with a tutorial enrichment of the underlying principles in scientific research. The coordination between the class and the learning community involved an extensive research project that incorporated important scientific principles. The project goals for student research included an understanding of the scientific method, and an increased engagement in scientific inquiry. Collaboration and communication among students was an additional goal of the leaning communities. A quasi-experiment with pre- and post-measures of student attitudes and perceptions of success in first and second semester biology courses. A premeasure was followed by a quasi experiment in which entry level biology courses were conducted using either learning communities or traditional lecture. Results show the factors students perceived as important to their success in entry-level science courses included their professors and peers. Discriminant results revealed that the factors predicted completion of the courses 75% of the time. Qualitative tests reveal that students in learning communities show a slight increase in community interactions and willingness to explore the content material beyond the material needed for the class, however these results were not significantly higher than the control courses. Future studies include collecting data on the learning communities for longer than a one-year period. The incorporation of the research projects into the courses has lasting value in terms of encouraging new professors to expand their pedagogy beyond simply reading notes from the textbook, in terms of engaging students in the scientific process and in terms of encouraging students to collaborate on conducting a scientific experiment. Research into the measurement of that value needs to be continued.

Wardle, Karen Marie

77

FDA: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is "to protect and enhance the public health through the regulation of biological and related products including blood, vaccines, allergenics, tissues, and cellular and gene therapies." Their mission is an important one, and consumers and scientists will want to bookmark this page and return to it on a regular basis. On this page, visitors can sign up for their RSS feed and read through some key resources. Users can also browse resources on biologics depending on their needs: consumer, healthcare and industry level information is provided.

78

The increasing urgency for standards in basic biologic research.  

PubMed

Research advances build upon the validity and reproducibility of previously published data and findings. Yet irreproducibility in basic biologic and preclinical research is pervasive in both academic and commercial settings. Lack of reproducibility has led to invalidated research breakthroughs, retracted articles, and aborted clinical trials. Concerns and requirements for transparent, reproducible, and translatable research are accelerated by the rapid growth of "post-publication peer review," open access publishing, and data sharing that facilitate the identification of irreproducible data/studies; they are magnified by the explosion of high-throughput technologies, genomics, and other data-intensive disciplines. Collectively, these changes and challenges are decreasing the effectiveness of traditional research quality mechanisms and are contributing to unacceptable-and unsustainable-levels of irreproducibility. The global oncology and basic biologic research communities can no longer tolerate or afford widespread irreproducible research. This article discusses (i) how irreproducibility in preclinical research can ultimately be traced to an absence of a unifying life science standards framework, and (ii) makes an urgent case for the expanded development and use of consensus-based standards to both enhance reproducibility and drive innovations in cancer research. PMID:25035389

Freedman, Leonard P; Inglese, James

2014-08-01

79

ENGAGING THE COMMUNITY IN HEALTH RESEARCH IN INDIA  

PubMed Central

Community-engaged research approaches involve members of the community in various aspects of a research endeavor to improve the health of populations. Engaging the community in research is important in the development, dissemination, and evaluation of new interventions, technologies, and other medical advancements to improve population health globally. A review of published community-engaged research studies conducted in India was performed. Fifteen published studies were identified and reviewed to evaluate the state of community-engaged research in India. The review indicated that community-engaged research in India is limited. Most published community-engaged research focused on health promotion, especially in the prevention or management of HIV/AIDS and other STIs. Community members were involved in a variety of aspects of the research, but there was not one published article indicating that community members had defined the disease of focus. Community-engaged research often led to valuable insights into the views, experiences, and behaviors of community members and also led to increased community participation in health initiatives. It is anticipated that future community-engaged research will lead to improvements in global health through increased empowerment of communities and a better ability to implement new and innovative medical advances, technologies, and interventions. PMID:24353757

Wells, Kristen J.; Preuss, Charles; Pathak, Yashwant; Kosambiya, J. K.; Kumar, Ambuj

2013-01-01

80

Connecting Research to Teaching: Professional Communities: Teachers Supporting Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on importance of strong professional communities for supporting reform. National Center for Research in Mathematical Sciences Education (NCRMSE) found significant correlation between teachers' professional community and reformed mathematics instruction. Urban Mathematics Collaboratives (UMC), Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying…

Adajian, Lisa Byrd

1996-01-01

81

University of Delaware Chapter 5 Undergraduate Research and Community Engagement  

E-print Network

University of Delaware ­ Chapter 5 Undergraduate Research and Community Engagement Essay Undergraduate Research and Community Engagement Essay competition must be written by a University of Delaware undergraduate presenting an account of a significant research or community engagement project for which

Firestone, Jeremy

82

Biologically Inspired Micro-Flight Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed- wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.

Raney, David L.; Waszak, Martin R.

2003-01-01

83

Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis  

E-print Network

Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis Instructors: Pat Collins And Marine Biology Honours programmes in which Biology or Marine Biology is the major area of study. Students Cameron Conference in February . Co-op students attend this class by registering for Biology or Marine

Adl, Sina

84

Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis  

E-print Network

Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis Instructors: 3 members of the honours committee each year. This class is required of, and restricted to, all Biology and Marine Biology Honours programmes in which Biology or Marine Biology is the major area of study. Students conduct

Adl, Sina

85

Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem.

McCullough, Dr. Dale [University of California, Berkeley; Bartholow, Dr. John [U.S. Department of Fish and Wildlife; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; al., et. [Various Institutes

2009-01-01

86

Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems, in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied, and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem. ?? Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

McCullough, D.A.; Bartholow, J.M.; Jager, H.I.; Beschta, R.L.; Cheslak, E.F.; Deas, M.L.; Ebersole, J.L.; Foott, J.S.; Johnson, S.L.; Marine, K.R.; Mesa, M.G.; Petersen, J.H.; Souchon, Y.; Tiffan, K.F.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

2009-01-01

87

CCNY-MSKCC PARTNERSHIP FOR CANCER RESEARCH, TRAINING, AND COMMUNITY OUTREACH  

E-print Network

carcinogenesis, cancer biology, molecular epidemiology, and/or behavioral issues related to cancer preventionCCNY-MSKCC PARTNERSHIP FOR CANCER RESEARCH, TRAINING, AND COMMUNITY OUTREACH FUNDING REQUEST and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center a grant to implement a partnership in cancer research, education

Lombardi, John R.

88

2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights  

SciTech Connect

LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes; and develop technology and tools which enhance healthcare. We execute our roles through integrated multidisciplinary programs that apply our competencies in: microbial and mammalian genomics--the characterization of DNA, the genes it encodes, their regulation and function and their role in living systems; protein function and biochemistry - the structure, function, and interaction of proteins and other molecules involved in the integrated biochemical function of the processes of life; computational modeling and understanding of biochemical systems--the application of high-speed computing technology to simulate and visualize complex, integrated biological processes; bioinformatics--databasing, networking, and analysis of biological data; and bioinstrumentation--the application of physical and engineering technologies to novel biological and biochemical measurements, laboratory automation, medical device development, and healthcare technologies. We leverage the Laboratory's exceptional capabilities in the physical, computational, chemical, environmental and engineering sciences. We partner with industry and universities to utilize their state-of-the art technology and science and to make our capabilities and discoveries available to the broader research community.

Prange, C

2003-03-01

89

Biological communities at the Florida Escarpment resemble hydrothermal vent taxa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dense biological communities of large epifaunal taxa similar to those found along ridge crest vents at the East Pacific Rise were discovered in the abyssal Gulf of Mexico. These assemblages occur on a passive continental margin at the base of the Florida Escarpment, the interface between the relatively impermeable hemipelagic clays of the distal Mississippi Fan and the jointed Cretaceous limestone of the Florida Platform. The fauna apparently is nourished by sulfide rich hypersaline waters seeping out at near ambient temperatures onto the sea floor.

Paull, C.K.; Hecker, Barbara; Commeau, R.; Freeman-Lynde, R. P.; Neumann, C.; Corso, W.P.; Golubic, S.; Hook, J.E.; Sikes, E.; Curray, J.

1984-01-01

90

Biological communities at the Florida Escarpment resemble hydrothermal vent taxa  

SciTech Connect

Dense biological communities of large epifaunal taxa similar to those found along ridge crest vents at the East Pacific Rise were discovered in the abyssal Gulf of Mexico. These assemblages occur on a passive continental margin at the base of the Florida Escarpment, the interface between the relatively impermeable hemipelagic clays of the distal Mississippi Fan and the jointed Cretaceous limestone of Florida Platform. The fauna apparently is nourished by sulfide rich hypersaline waters seeping out at near ambient temperatures onto the sea floor. 16 references, 3 figures.

Paull, C.K.; Hecker, B.; Commeau, R.; Freeman-Lynde, R.P.; Neumann, C.; Corso, W.P.; Golubic, S.; Hook, J.E.; Sikes, E.; Curray, J.

1984-11-23

91

Structural biological materials: Overview of current research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through specific biological examples this article illustrates the complex designs that have evolved in nature to address strength, toughness, and weight optimization. Current research is reviewed, and the structure of some shells, bones, antlers, crab exoskeletons, and avian feathers and beaks is described using the principles of materials science and engineering by correlating the structure with mechanical properties. In addition, the mechanisms of deformation and failure are discussed.

Chen, P.-Y.; Lin, A. Y.-M.; Stokes, A. G.; Seki, Y.; Bodde, S. G.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M. A.

2008-06-01

92

Creating Meaningful Partnerships Between Communities and Environmental Health Researchers  

PubMed Central

Community engagement is a necessary, although challenging, element of environmental health research in communities. To facilitate the engagement process, direct action community organizing agencies can be useful in bringing together communities and researchers. This article describes the preliminary activities that one direct action community organizing agency used in partnership with researchers to improve community engagement in the first 6 months of an environmental health study conducted in a major U.S. city. Activities included developing communication strategies, creating opportunities for researcher–community interaction, and sustaining project momentum. To conduct environmental research that is both scientifically rigorous and relevant to communities, collaborating partners had to develop professional skills and strategies outside of their areas of expertise. PMID:23875568

De Souza, Rachael; Aguilar, Genevieve C.; de Castro, A. B.

2014-01-01

93

A Pedagogy of Blending Theory with Community-Based Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blending activity theory and community-based research educational applications describes the praxis achieved through the initial design, development, implementation, and assessment of one research methods course as a pedagogy to enhance and improve the outcomes of civic and community engagement for the university, its students, and the community.…

Brown, Kathleen Taylor

2011-01-01

94

FAA 391 (SU2), 2012 Action Research Seminar: Food + Community  

E-print Network

FAA 391 (SU2), 2012 Action Research Seminar: Food + Community June 11 ­ August 2 Instructors's Market, Champaign Course Description: This course is designed for undergraduate students who are interested in communitylearning and how to use community service and research to address community issues

Frank, Thomas D.

95

ComPratica: A Virtual Community of Practice for Promoting Biology Teachers' Professional Development in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teachers' professional development is a key factor in improving science education, but it shows limited impact when only a small number of teachers is reached, or when it focuses on only one aspect of teachers' development, such as learning science content, and is disconnected from teachers' practice. In order to increase the impact of our work on teachers' professional development, we implemented in 2007 ComPratica, an online network intended to establish a virtual community of practice involving biology teachers and biological education researchers. We present here the results of the first 2 years of this project, obtained through an analysis of the number and distribution of actions performed by the participants in the community, the kinds of activities in which they are engaged, and the themes addressed in their messages. From these data, we conclude that ComPratica is effectively functioning as a community of practice and is leading to changes related to both teachers' and researchers' professional development, which seem capable of reducing the research-practice gap in science education.

El-Hani, Charbel N.; Greca, Ileana M.

2013-08-01

96

Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery  

E-print Network

- 1 - Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery April 3, 2012 Examining of a variety of cellular phenotypes for the purposes of basic cell biology research and drug discovery. LANL

97

Disturbance, biological legacies and community development in stream mesocosms.  

PubMed

Disturbances reduce the biota in stream ecosystems, and leave biological legacies, including remnant species, which potentially influence post-disturbance community development but are poorly understood. We investigated whether three remnant species, the snail Radix peregra, the mayfly Serratella ignita and the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex, affected community development in mesocosms that mimicked disturbed habitat patches in streams. Following 21 days of colonisation, we found that the occurrence of legacy effects depended on the identity of the remnant species. Radix had the strongest effect. By bulldozing epilithon, the snails acted as ecological engineers that promoted settlement of filter feeders (Simuliidae) and invertebrate predators (especially Pentaneura and Aphelocheirus) and strongly deterred settlement of non-predatory chironomids (e.g. Heterotrissocladius and Microtendipes). Gammarus increased in density (by 665%) where remnant, probably through rapid reproduction. Baetis and Pentaneura were scarce, and Asellus absent, in remnant Gammarus treatments, as a consequence of interference and/or predation by the amphipods. In contrast, Serratella tolerated the colonisation of immigrant species and did not affect the structure of the developing benthic community. Despite the observed effects on the presence and abundance of benthos, remnant fauna had no significant effect on assemblage taxon richness, or that of any specific trophic group. The contrasting effects of remnant species on immigrant colonisation echoed differences in their life-history traits and foraging behaviours. Our results indicate that biota can generate spatial patchiness of epilithon and benthic invertebrates in stream ecosystems. PMID:16639570

Ledger, Mark E; Harris, Rebecca M L; Milner, Alexander M; Armitage, Patrick D

2006-07-01

98

Welcome ASCO Community Research Forum members! | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

The American Society of Clinical Oncology sponsors a 'Community Research Forum', designed to provide community-based researchers an opportunity to unite and develop solutions to common challenges to conducting research. A hearty group of souls has been working hard over the past year to compile a great list of online resources to facilitate the conduct and management of clinical trials in the community setting. The site is designed for physician investigators and research staff.

99

The Sustainable & Healthy Communities Research Program ? EPA?s Research Approach to Assisting Community Decision Making  

EPA Science Inventory

A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably and without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs on environmental, economic, and social fronts. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research ...

100

A research associate level Developmental Biology/Cell Biology/Biochemistry Experimentalist to develop quantitative  

E-print Network

A research associate level Developmental Biology/Cell Biology/Biochemistry Experimentalist and funding availability. Send CV, research summary and 2 papers or projects, along with a brief statement cell or developmental biology, pharmacology, toxicology, cell biology, or biochemistry and experience

Menczer, Filippo

101

Using Participatory Action Research to build Healthy Communities.  

PubMed

The author contends that community-based Participatory Action Research (PAR) is ideally suited for use in Healthy Communities projects. The article begins by defining PAR and its principles and characteristics, then discusses the philosophical and methodological compatibility of PAR and Healthy Communities. After highlighting the challenges of expanding the Healthy Communities accent on participation to include PAR, the article describes the experiences of two Healthy Communities projects in the US that have successfully used PAR. PMID:10968753

Minkler, M

2000-01-01

102

Proceedings of the Biological Sciences Student Research Showcase 2010  

E-print Network

research conducted by undergraduates right here, on our university's campus. Biology affects everyoneProceedings of the Biological Sciences Student Research Showcase 2010 #12;B ack in September, Dr Biological Sciences Student Research Showcase into cohesive articles and creative illustrations. We would

Hampton, Randy

103

Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology  

SciTech Connect

The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years.

Not Available

1989-01-01

104

A framework for building research partnerships with first nations communities.  

PubMed

Solutions to complex health and environmental issues experienced by First Nations communities in Canada require the adoption of collaborative modes of research. The traditional "helicopter" approach to research applied in communities has led to disenchantment on the part of First Nations people and has impeded their willingness to participate in research. University researchers have tended to develop projects without community input and to adopt short term approaches to the entire process, perhaps a reflection of granting and publication cycles and other realities of academia. Researchers often enter communities, collect data without respect for local culture, and then exit, having had little or no community interaction or consideration of how results generated could benefit communities or lead to sustainable solutions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative to the helicopter approach and is promoted here as a method to research that will meet the objectives of both First Nations and research communities. CBPR is a collaborative approach that equitably involves all partners in the research process. Although the benefits of CBPR have been recognized by segments of the University research community, there exists a need for comprehensive changes in approaches to First Nations centered research, and additional guidance to researchers on how to establish respectful and productive partnerships with First Nations communities beyond a single funded research project. This article provides a brief overview of ethical guidelines developed for researchers planning studies involving Aboriginal people as well as the historical context and principles of CBPR. A framework for building research partnerships with First Nations communities that incorporates and builds upon the guidelines and principles of CBPR is then presented. The framework was based on 10 years' experience working with First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. The framework for research partnership is composed of five phases. They are categorized as the pre-research, community consultation, community entry, research and research dissemination phases. These phases are cyclical, non-linear and interconnected. Elements of, and opportunities for, exploration, discussion, engagement, consultation, relationship building, partnership development, community involvement, and information sharing are key components of the five phases within the framework. The phases and elements within this proposed framework have been utilized to build and implement sustainable collaborative environmental health research projects with Saskatchewan First Nations communities. PMID:24855374

Bharadwaj, Lalita

2014-01-01

105

A Framework for Building Research Partnerships with First Nations Communities  

PubMed Central

Solutions to complex health and environmental issues experienced by First Nations communities in Canada require the adoption of collaborative modes of research. The traditional “helicopter” approach to research applied in communities has led to disenchantment on the part of First Nations people and has impeded their willingness to participate in research. University researchers have tended to develop projects without community input and to adopt short term approaches to the entire process, perhaps a reflection of granting and publication cycles and other realities of academia. Researchers often enter communities, collect data without respect for local culture, and then exit, having had little or no community interaction or consideration of how results generated could benefit communities or lead to sustainable solutions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative to the helicopter approach and is promoted here as a method to research that will meet the objectives of both First Nations and research communities. CBPR is a collaborative approach that equitably involves all partners in the research process. Although the benefits of CBPR have been recognized by segments of the University research community, there exists a need for comprehensive changes in approaches to First Nations centered research, and additional guidance to researchers on how to establish respectful and productive partnerships with First Nations communities beyond a single funded research project. This article provides a brief overview of ethical guidelines developed for researchers planning studies involving Aboriginal people as well as the historical context and principles of CBPR. A framework for building research partnerships with First Nations communities that incorporates and builds upon the guidelines and principles of CBPR is then presented. The framework was based on 10 years’ experience working with First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. The framework for research partnership is composed of five phases. They are categorized as the pre-research, community consultation, community entry, research and research dissemination phases. These phases are cyclical, non-linear and interconnected. Elements of, and opportunities for, exploration, discussion, engagement, consultation, relationship building, partnership development, community involvement, and information sharing are key components of the five phases within the framework. The phases and elements within this proposed framework have been utilized to build and implement sustainable collaborative environmental health research projects with Saskatchewan First Nations communities. PMID:24855374

Bharadwaj, Lalita

2014-01-01

106

Participatory development and implementation of a community research workshop: Experiences from a community based participatory research (CBPR) partnership  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While community based participatory research (CBPR) principles stress the importance of "equitable partnerships" and an "empowering and power-sharing process that attends to social inequalities", descriptions of actual projects often cite the challenges confronted in academic–-community partnerships...

107

Sharing Control: Developing Research Literacy through Community-Based Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article suggests that the methodology of community-based action research provides concrete strategies for fostering effective community problem solving. To argue for a community research pedagogy, the author draws upon past and present scholarship in action research and participatory action research, experiences teaching an undergraduate…

Juergensmeyer, Erik

2011-01-01

108

NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Gets Underway  

Cancer.gov

NCI has awarded 53 new 5-year grants to researchers across the country to conduct multi-site cancer clinical trials and cancer care delivery research studies in their communities. The grants are being awarded under the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP)

109

Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983  

SciTech Connect

This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)

Barr, S.H. (ed.)

1984-08-01

110

78 FR 53466 - Announcement of Funding Awards for Transformation Initiative: Sustainable Communities Research...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Sustainable Communities Research Grant (SCRGP...Development and Research, HUD. ACTION...Year (FY) 2013 Transformative Initiative: Sustainable Communities Research Grant Program...complete the research projects developed...

2013-08-29

111

Community-oriented support and research structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coordinated by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Europe is restructuring and strengthening its high-performance computing infrastructure with the aim to create a model HPC ecosystem. At the tip of the pyramid, up to six centres are envisaged that will operate systems of the highest performance class. The HPC Research Infrastructure (HPC-RI) will comprise European, national and regional centres. Science communities are integral partners, strong links will include Grid and Cloud users. The HPC-RI strives at providing scientists all over Europe, on the one hand, with unlimited and independent access to state-of-the-art computer resources in all performance classes and, on the other hand, with a world-class pan-European competence and support network. While the hardware-oriented buildup of the infrastructure is making progress, high-quality user support and software development in the upcoming era of unprecedented parallelism and exascale on the horizon have become the imminent challenges. This has been clearly recognized by the European Commission, who will issue calls for proposals to fund petascale software development in summer 2009. Although traditional support structures are well established in Europe's major supercomputing centres, it is questionable if these structures are able to meet the challenges of the future: in general, support structures are based on cross-disciplinary computer science and mathematics teams; disciplinary computational science support usually is given in an ad-hoc, project-oriented manner. In this paper, we describe our approach to establish a suitable support structure-Simulation Laboratories (SL). SLs are currently being established at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre of the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany. While SLs are community-oriented, i.e. each SL focusses on a specific community, they are structured in a strictly interdisciplinary manner, comprising mathematicians, computer scientists and technicians along with disciplinary scientists. SLs are led by a disciplinary scientist, and representatives of the respective disciplines give guidance to its operation. This concept is proposed as a model for and might become an integral element of a future pan-European HPC support and software research structure.

Attig, Norbert; Eickermann, Thomas; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas

2009-07-01

112

Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Featured here is an important subscription-based resource for obtaining science articles online. Wide-ranging institutional access as well as free services make this resources useful without an individual subscription. In addition, in January 2000, the American Institute of Physics (AIP) and the American Physical Society (APS) launched a new virtual journal. Representing the first entry in a series of journals the Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research will gather "into one spot all the papers on a given topic that appear in a wide range of premier physics-related journals." The articles have been pre-selected by expert editors, so that specialists may turn to this convenient resource to stay on top of cutting-edge research. Access to articles will require a regular subscription to the specific journals, though non-subscribers do have the option of purchasing individual articles for immediate online delivery. Browsing the tables of contents and abstracts is free.

113

2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference  

SciTech Connect

The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

Michael Sussman

2010-07-23

114

Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

2013-09-01

115

Identifying Community Needs and Resources in a Native Community: A Research Partnership in the Pacific Northwest  

PubMed Central

Indigenous communities have engaged in needs and resources assessments for thousands of years. By blending CBPR/TPR approaches with community-driven assets and needs assessments, academic and community based researchers can work together to better understand and identify community strengths as well as issues of concern in Native communities. This best practice approach can set research agendas that are relevant to Native communities and result in interventions and health promotion programs that are respectful of Tribal sovereignty and that incorporate unique traditions and strengths of Native communities. A successful research partnership to develop and implement a needs and resources assessment using CBPR/TPR approaches is presented using a case study that can be used as a model for other research partnerships. PMID:23123765

Donovan, Dennis M.; Sigo, Robin L. W.

2012-01-01

116

Relevance of ammonium oxidation within biological soil crust communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thin, vertically structured topsoil communities that become ecologically important in arid regions (biological soil crusts or BSCs) are responsible for much of the nitrogen inputs into pristine arid lands. We studied N2 fixation and ammonium oxidation (AO) at subcentimetre resolution within BSCs from the Colorado Plateau. Pools of dissolved porewater nitrate/ nitrite, ammonium and organic nitrogen in wetted BSCs were high in comparison with those typical of aridosoils. They remained stable during incubations, indicating that input and output processes were of similar magnitude. Areal N2 fixation rates (6.5-48 ??mol C2H2 m-2 h -1) were high, the vertical distribution of N2 fixation peaking close to the surface if populations of heterocystous cyanobacteria were present, but in the subsurface if they were absent. Areal AO rates (19-46 ??mol N m-2 h-1) were commensurate with N2 fixation inputs. When considering oxygen availability, AO activity invariably peaked 2-3 mm deep and was limited by oxygen (not ammonium) supply. Most probable number (MPN)-enumerated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (6.7-7.9 ?? 103 cells g-1 on average) clearly peaked at 2-3 mm depth. Thus, AO (hence nitrification) is a spatially restricted but important process in the nitrogen cycling of BSC, turning much of the biologically fixed nitrogen into oxidized forms, the fate of which remains to be determined.

Johnson, S.L.; Budinoff, C.R.; Belnap, J.; Garcia-Pichel, F.

2005-01-01

117

Ithaca College Department of Biology STUDENT RESEARCH EVALUATION FORM  

E-print Network

Ithaca College Department of Biology 2003-2004 STUDENT RESEARCH EVALUATION FORM Evaluation forms to write the required research paper without substantial supervision - does the paper reflect their own with a research experience and for assisting the Biology Department in evaluating this research. #12;

118

Ithaca College Department of Biology STUDENT RESEARCH EVALUATION FORM  

E-print Network

Ithaca College Department of Biology STUDENT RESEARCH EVALUATION FORM Evaluation forms must be completed by the off-campus Research Advisor and sent directly to the Faculty Sponsor in the Biology in the research? 6. Was the student able to write the required research paper without substantial supervision

119

Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

2001-01-01

120

Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon cycling  

E-print Network

Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon experiments were conducted at sites spanning the steep oxygen, organic matter, and biological community gradients across the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone, in order to quantify the role that fauna play

121

Developing a Community Science Research Agenda for Building Community Capacity for Effective Preventive Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that prevention programming can improve community health when implemented well. There are examples of successful prevention in local communities, however many continue to face significant challenges, demonstrating a gap between science and practice. Common strategies within the United States to address this gap are available (e.g., trainings), but lack outcomes. Building community capacity to implement high quality

Matthew Chinman; Gordon Hannah; Abraham Wandersman; Patricia Ebener; Sarah B. Hunter; Pamela Imm; Jeffrey Sheldon

2005-01-01

122

Decolonizing Health Research: Community-Based Participatory Research and Postcolonial Feminist Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within Canada, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become the dominant methodology for scholars who conduct health research with Aboriginal communities. While CBPR has become understood as a methodology that can lead to more equitable relations of power between Aboriginal community members and researchers, it is not a panacea. In…

Darroch, Francine; Giles, Audrey

2014-01-01

123

Deep-Sea Research II 50 (2003) 635653 Phytoplankton growth and biological response to iron  

E-print Network

Deep-Sea Research II 50 (2003) 635­653 Phytoplankton growth and biological response to iron to determine the community response to added iron and zinc and their effect on phytoplankton growth. Seawater was collected into acid-cleaned 20-l polycarbonate carboys and incubated with varying additions of iron and zinc

Wang, Wendy

124

Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow  

MedlinePLUS

... major institutions across the United States and internationally. Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow ... some of NIA’s exciting findings about the basic biology of aging and points to directions for future ...

125

76 FR 8357 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biological and Environmental...Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy; Office of Science. ACTION...Officer, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental...Environmental Research Long-Term Vision Response Joint Genome...

2011-02-14

126

Molecular biology approaches in bioadhesion research  

PubMed Central

Summary The use of molecular biology tools in the field of bioadhesion is still in its infancy. For new research groups who are considering taking a molecular approach, the techniques presented here are essential to unravelling the sequence of a gene, its expression and its biological function. Here we provide an outline for addressing adhesion-related genes in diverse organisms. We show how to gradually narrow down the number of candidate transcripts that are involved in adhesion by (1) generating a transcriptome and a differentially expressed cDNA list enriched for adhesion-related transcripts, (2) setting up a BLAST search facility, (3) perform an in situ hybridization screen, and (4) functional analyses of selected genes by using RNA interference knock-down. Furthermore, latest developments in genome-editing are presented as new tools to study gene function. By using this iterative multi-technologies approach, the identification, isolation, expression and function of adhesion-related genes can be studied in most organisms. These tools will improve our understanding of the diversity of molecules used for adhesion in different organisms and these findings will help to develop innovative bio-inspired adhesives. PMID:25161834

Rodrigues, Marcelo; Lengerer, Birgit; Ostermann, Thomas

2014-01-01

127

Professional communication in an applied tourism research community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the amorphous nature and complexity of professional communication in an applied tourism research community. With empirical data from members of the Travel and Tourism Research Association, the study examines professional communication from the perspectives of academic versus practitioner members. Results of the study contribute to discussions on the two-community theory and utilization theories with respect to the

Honggen Xiao; Stephen L. J. Smith

2010-01-01

128

Community Music Knowledge Exchange Research in Scottish Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the usefulness of Knowledge Exchange (KE) funding streams for higher education community music research projects, with a case study of one particular project that took place between February and April 2010. The project was funded via a KE stream, linking University researchers with a well-established community music charity…

Moran, Nikki; Loening, Gica

2011-01-01

129

Plant biology research and training for the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

Kelly, K. [ed.] [ed.

1992-12-31

130

Plant biology research and training for the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

Kelly, K. (ed.)

1992-01-01

131

Community-Partnered Research Conference Model: The Experience of Community Partners in Care Study  

PubMed Central

The Problem Conducting community-partnered research conferences is a powerful yet underutilized approach to translating research into practice and improving result dissemination and intervention sustainability strategies. Nonetheless, detailed descriptions of conference features and ways to use them in empirical research are rare. Purpose of Article We describe how community-partnered conferences may be integrated into research projects by using an example of Community Partners in Care, a large cluster-randomized controlled trial that uses Community Partnered Participatory Research principles. Key Points Our conceptual model illustrates the role community-partnered research conferences may play in three study phases and describes how different conference features may increase community engagement, build two-way capacity, and ensure equal project ownership. Conclusion(s) As the number of community-partnered studies grows, so too does the need for practical tools to support this work. Community-partnered research conferences may be effectively employed in translational research to increase two-way capacity-building and promote long-term intervention success. PMID:24859106

Khodyakov, Dmitry; Pulido, Esmeralda; Ramos, Ana; Dixon, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

132

Capacity building for health through community-based participatory nutrition intervention Research in rural communities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

133

Capacity building for health through community based participatory nutrition intervention research in rural communities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

134

Biological and Environmental Engineering Soil & Water Research Group  

E-print Network

Biological and Environmental Engineering Soil & Water Research Group Creating a Topographic Index and Environmental Engineering Soil & Water Research Group · Topographic Index maps are grids derived from digital in GWLF, SWAT. #12;Biological and Environmental Engineering Soil & Water Research Group · Topographic

Walter, M.Todd

135

Biology Research Space Allocation Policy Revised May 16, 2008  

E-print Network

Biology Research Space Allocation Policy Revised May 16, 2008 Preamble Research space of this policy, research space is defined as that space used in the conduct of research and is considered to include all space used by personnel involved in the research, including faculty researchers, undergraduate

136

Translational Research in Action: Implementation of the Communities That Care Prevention System in 12 Communities  

PubMed Central

Translational research (Pentz, Jasuja, Rohrbach, Sussman, & Bardo, 2006; Woolf, 2008) is concerned with moving advances in prevention science into everyday practice in communities, yet there are few models for ensuring this transfer of knowledge. Communities That Care (CTC) provides a planned, structured, and data-driven system that trains community prevention coalitions to select evidence-based programs and replicate them with strong implementation fidelity. This paper describes the implementation of the CTC prevention system in 12 communities participating in the Community Youth Development Study. The results indicated that intervention communities enacted, on average, 90% of the core components of the CTC system, and achieved high rates of implementation fidelity when replicating school, afterschool, and parent training programs. These results held over time; communities successfully launched their prevention coalitions and programs and maintained the quality of their prevention services over five years. These results indicate that the CTC system can be used to foster translational research. PMID:22121303

Fagan, Abigail A.; Hanson, Koren; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael

2011-01-01

137

Community Researchers Conducting Health Disparities Research: Ethical and other insights from fieldwork journaling  

PubMed Central

Lay persons who are trained to conduct research in their own communities form an essential part of many research projects. However, the effects of conducting research in their own communities have not been adequately explored. This paper examines the experiences, perceptions, and challenges faced by a group of community researchers during their involvement in a research project that examined if, and how, the relationships between mothers and their adolescent daughters could be harnessed to develop a daughter-initiated cervical cancer intervention. Seven community researchers interviewed 157 mother-daughter pairs in Cape Town, South Africa. We examine the use of journaling as a tool to document the experiences of community researchers, and we consider how journaling may help the community-based researcher grapple with the research process, and, more broadly, what such journal content illustrates with respect to the nature and challenges of community-engaged health research. An analysis of the content of the journals provides a strong indication of how personal and intimate the research process can be for community researchers by virtue of the background that they bring into the process as well as the additional weight of the research process itself. The complexities of navigating dual and somewhat oppositional roles – the role of impartial scientist or researcher and the role of invested community person - has been both underestimated and insufficiently researched. PMID:21680071

Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ahmed, Rashid; Daniels, Doria; Simon, Christian

2011-01-01

138

Balancing Community and University Aims in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Pacific Islander Youth Study  

PubMed Central

Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) holds the promise of improving the planning, conduct, and long-term translation of research findings into community settings. Objectives This 2-year, exploratory study applied CBPR structures and processes to the identification of individual, cultural and community factors associated with obesity among Pacific Islander (PI) youth in Southern California. Methods We describe the CBPR principles and strategies used by a community–university partnership to develop, implement, and report on the findings from assessments of obesity, physical activity, and nutritional intake among PI youth. Results Although CBPR planning processes led to successes in community-based youth recruitment and retention, we learned key lessons regarding implementation of tailored assessment protocols, often involving problems arising from the university side of the CBPR collaborative. Conclusion CBPR has its strengths and limits; more studies are needed that report on processes to increase our understanding of how to balance research rigor with community sustainability. PMID:21441665

Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Wiersma, Lenny; Briand, Greta; Faletau, Vaka; Lepule, Jonathan; Nacpil, Lianne; Eichenauer, Jan

2013-01-01

139

A Tale of Two Cultures: Building Community by Researching Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Upon beginning postgraduate research at the Faculty of Built Environment at UNSW, the authors were surprised to find themselves working in a library-like environment, where a culture of silence prevailed. Assuming initially that this was just how postgraduate research was, they soon learned that the building also housed a second postgraduate lab…

Drane, Jon; Cai, Wenjie; Wechsler, Andrea; Mussi, Eveline; Shi, Ye; Crommelin, Laura

2012-01-01

140

Community Writing, Participatory Research, and an Anthropological Sensibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participatory research is a radical praxis through which marginalized people acquire research capabilities that they use to transform their own lives. In this article, I examine how parent writers incorporated facets of community writing into their research practice as they developed their practices and identities as researchers. I also consider…

Hurtig, Janise

2008-01-01

141

Biological specimen banking in Arctic research: an Alaska perspective.  

PubMed

The cryogenic archival of biological specimens for retrospective analysis is of significant value for present and future research on population genetics, pathology, systematics, toxicology and environmental monitoring. This realization is emphasized by the increasing support of this activity by various government agencies, institutions and international groups. The international Arctic community is no exception. Canada has been conducting such activities in association with environmental monitoring programs for many years. Similar efforts appear to be underway in other polar nations. From the perspective of the United States Arctic, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) was the earliest organized effort to develop an environmental specimen bank specifically designed for longterm archival of biological specimens under cryogenic conditions. The AMMTAP emphasizes use of standardized rigorous sampling and archival protocols, procedures that minimize contamination of samples during collection and maintaining a detailed record of sample history. The development of this specimen bank, recent activities of this project and other cryogenic specimen banks being developed in Alaska are described. PMID:8272858

Becker, P R; Koster, B J; Wise, S A; Zeisler, R

1993-11-01

142

Creating a Knowledge Base of Biological Research Papers  

Microsoft Academic Search

develop will be applicable to other branches of molecular biology. We are focusing on the Materials and Methods sections of these papers, as being both typical of texts in experimental biology and sufficiently narrow and patterned to be amenable to knowledge engineering techniques. Intelligent text-oriented tools for representing and searching the biological research literature are being developed, which combine object-oriented

Carole D. Hafner; Kenneth Baclawski; Robert P. Futrelle; Natalya Fridman Noy; Shobana Sampath

1994-01-01

143

Research News Engineering Microtools in Polymers to Study Cell Biology  

E-print Network

Research News Engineering Microtools in Polymers to Study Cell Biology By Xingyu Jiang and George M]. This article outlines some newly developed methods for studying cell biology with spatially well of cell biology. 2 Using Molecularly Defined, Patterned Surfaces to Control the Attachment and Spreading

Prentiss, Mara

144

Rural community-academic partnership model for community engagement and partnered research | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Numerous studies were undertaken by the partnership including surveys of attitudes and barriers to clinical trial participation, access to trials, biobanking issues, and patient navigation performed by community health workers for cancer screening. The partnership conducted formative research in the rural communities on the topic of biospecimen donation. Findings indicated that informed consent preferences and privacy concerns were significant factors related to distrust of researchers who do research with biospecimens, especially when the specimens are stored for future use in genetics studies.

145

PERSPECTIVE What is microbial community ecology?  

E-print Network

PERSPECTIVE What is microbial community ecology? Allan Konopka Biological Sciences Division for rigorous progress in the field. Important elements of research in microbial community ecology include by a `microbial community' and identification of important characteristics specific to community ecology. What

146

University and Community Research Partnerships: A New Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, more and more organizations have become interested in partnerships forged between institutions of higher education and local community-based organizations. Released in late 2003, this 48-page report from the Pew Partnership for Civic Change (spearheaded by Jacqueline Dugery) investigated university-community research partnerships at 19 sites around the United States. Some of these community organizations included groups working in the areas of job training, commercial revitalization, youth mentoring, and job transportation. In order to place these findings in a broader context, the Pew Partnership (in collaboration with the University of Virginia) convened a number of individuals in October 2002 to discuss "the potential for these university-community research partnerships." These remarks are summarized within the body of this paper, along with an explication of a new research model for assessment and evaluation for use by community organizations and local institutions of higher learning developed by the Pew Partnership for Civic Change.

147

Guidelines for community based partners for reviewing research grant applications: Lessons from the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR) Community Engagement Research Core (CERC)  

PubMed Central

One of most important mandates of the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) Clinical and Translational Science Award’s (CTSA) awards is to accelerate the dissemination of scientific discoveries so that the public benefits from health related research. Carrying out that mandate requires equitable and bi-directional research partnerships with those who will use these discoveries to benefit health. The mission of the Michigan Institute for Clinical & Health Research’s (MICHR) Community Engagement & Research Core is to increase community decision-making and action for health promotion, disease prevention, and treatment by involving the community in all phases of clinical research. Some of the community partners serving on MICHR’s Community Engagement Coordinating Council (CECC) have expressed concern about reviewing university/community partner research projects. They found the scientific nature of proposals somewhat challenging. These guidelines are intended to help community partners bring to bear their unique expertise and experience in the evaluation of proposed research studies that include community partners as co-principle investigators. This paper provides an approach for ensuring the community’s voice plays an important role in reviewing pilot project proposals for community-engaged research. PMID:24330687

Anderson, Robert M; Calhoun, Karen; Choate, Celeste B; De Loney, E. Hill; Paberzs, Adam; Sampselle, Carolyn M; Vereen, Donald R; Zimmerman, Marc A

2013-01-01

148

Community-based research and leisure scholarship: a discernment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many communities are realizing the importance of becoming more responsive and welcoming in light of the many local and global challenges facing them. Approaches to epistemology that are more participatory in nature may play a role in this social change process. Community-based research (CBR) is known for its ability to be both participatory and action-oriented and represents a paradigm shift

Peggy Hutchison; John Lord

2012-01-01

149

Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners' readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions…

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia

2012-01-01

150

Participatory Research for Chronic Disease Prevention in Inuit Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To develop a community-based chronic disease prevention program for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. Methods: Stakeholders contributed to intervention development through formative research [in-depth interviews (n = 45), dietary recalls (n = 42)], community workshops, group feedback and implementation training. Results: Key cultural themes…

Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Kratzmann, Meredith; Reid, Rhonda; Ogina, Julia; Sharma, Sangita

2010-01-01

151

RESEARCH PAPER Plantpollinator interactions in a Mexican Acacia community  

E-print Network

RESEARCH PAPER Plant­pollinator interactions in a Mexican Acacia community Nigel E. Raine � Alice transfer (HPT) in a community of four Acacia species in a highly seasonal tropical habitat in Mexico species (Acacia macracantha and Acacia an- gustissima) shared multiple flower visitors, raising

Chittka, Lars

152

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Klebsiella pneumoniae related community-  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Klebsiella pneumoniae related community- acquired acute lower, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very. Reported prior medication was high (42.5%). Patients' chest radiographs showed pneumonia (61.3% including

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

RESEARCH ARTICLE Local and landscape effects on the butterfly community  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Local and landscape effects on the butterfly community in fragmented Midwest USA matrix, potentially impermeable to dis- persing individuals. We examined butterfly responses to local and configuration of the landscape affects butterfly community within the fragment, 2) determine whether explanatory

Debinski, Diane M.

154

RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center Cell Dynamics Research Core  

E-print Network

RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center Cell Dynamics Research Core Laboratory for Cell Dynamics Design Research Core Laboratory for Synthetic Biology Laboratory for Cell-Free Protein Synthesis Observation Laboratory for Single Cell Gene Dynamics Laboratory for Cell Field Structure Laboratory for Cell

Fukai, Tomoki

155

RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center Cell Dynamics Research Core  

E-print Network

RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center Cell Dynamics Research Core Laboratory for Cell Dynamics for Developmental Morphogeometry Cell Design Research Core Laboratory for Synthetic Biology Laboratory for Cell Observation Laboratory for Single Cell Gene Dynamics Laboratory for Cell Field Structure Laboratory for Cell

Fukai, Tomoki

156

Community Capacity Building and Sustainability: Outcomes of Community-Based Participatory Research  

PubMed Central

Background For communities, the value of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is often manifested in the outcomes of increased capacity and sustainable adoption of evidence-based practices for social change. Educational opportunities that promote discourse between community and academic partners can help to advance CBPR and better define these outcomes. Objectives This paper describes a community–academic conference to develop shared definitions of community capacity building and sustainability related to CBPR and to identify obstacles and facilitators to both. Methods “Taking It to the Curbside: Engaging Communities to Create Sustainable Change for Health” was planned by five Clinical Translational Science Institutes and four community organizations. After a keynote presentation, breakout groups of community and academic members met to define community capacity building and sustainability, and to identify facilitators and barriers to achieving both. Groups were facilitated by researcher–community partner teams and conversations were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis for thematic content was conducted by a subset of the planning committee. Results Important findings included learning that (1) the concepts of capacity and sustainability were considered interconnected; (2) partnership was perceived as both a facilitator and an outcome of CBPR; (3) sustainability was linked to “transfer of knowledge” from one generation to another within a community; and (4) capacity and sustainability were enhanced when goals were shared and health outcomes were achieved. Conclusions Community capacity building and sustainability are key outcomes of CBPR for communities. Co-learning opportunities that engage and mutually educate both community members and academics can be useful strategies for identifying meaningful strategies to achieve these outcomes. PMID:22982848

Hacker, Karen; Tendulkar, Shalini A.; Rideout, Catlin; Bhuiya, Nazmim; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Savage, Clara P.; Grullon, Milagro; Strelnick, Hal; Leung, Carolyn; DiGirolamo, Ann

2013-01-01

157

Biology in Context: Teachers' Professional Development in Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biology in Context ("bik") is a project that aims to improve biology teaching in lower secondary schools in Germany. Based on a theoretical framework derived from the National Educational Standards, four competence areas should be fostered in biology education: subject knowledge; inquiry acquisition; subject-related communication; and valuing and…

Elster, Doris

2009-01-01

158

Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP): Linking Academic & Community Radiation Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP): Linking University & Community Radiation Oncology to Improve Cancer Outcomes Patrick D. Maguire, M.D. New Hanover Radiation Oncology Wilmington, NC CDRP: Partnerships in Radiation Oncology The Problem Clinical

159

A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

2008-01-01

160

Building research capacity in south-west Sydney through a Primary and Community Health Research Unit.  

PubMed

The Primary and Community Health Research Unit was established in 2010 in south-west Sydney to build research capacity in primary and community health services and help generate evidence to underpin clinical activities. In 2011, six project teams participated in a 12-month researcher mentoring program, undertaking projects in quality improvement and service evaluation. Project teams were linked with academic mentors and participated in four research skill development workshops covering research design, research ethics, statistical analysis and academic writing. All project teams presented their work at two or more research conferences, and all are preparing manuscripts for publication in peer-reviewed journals. The Primary and Community Health Research Unit's approach to research capacity building in primary and community health services appears to be effective in supporting novice researchers to undertake research in their clinical settings. Sustainability is dependent on securing ongoing funding. Further analysis is needed to identify strengths and weaknesses of this approach. PMID:23050636

Friesen, Emma L; Comino, Elizabeth J; Reath, Jennifer; Derrett, Alison; Johnson, Maree; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Teng-Liaw, Siaw; Kemp, Lynn

2014-01-01

161

Integrating research and education at research-extensive universities with research-intensive communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the Boyer Commission (1998) lamented the lack of research opportunities for all undergraduates at research-extensive universities, it did not provide a feasible solution consistent with the mandate for faculty to maintain sustainable physiology research programs. The costs associated with one-on-one mentoring, and the lack of a sufficient number of faculty members to give intensive attention to undergraduate researchers, make one-on-one mentoring impractical. We therefore developed and implemented the "research-intensive community" model with the aim of aligning diverse goals of participants while simultaneously optimizing research productivity. The fundamental organizational unit is a team consisting of one graduate student and three undergraduates from different majors, supervised by a faculty member. Undergraduate workshops, Graduate Leadership Forums, and computer-mediated communication provide an infrastructure to optimize programmatic efficiency and sustain a multilevel, interdisciplinary community of scholars dedicated to research. While the model radically increases the number of undergraduates that can be supported by a single faculty member, the inherent resilience and scalability of the resulting complex adaptive system enables a research-intensive community program to evolve and grow.

Ketaki V Desai (Texas A& M University Michael E DeBakery Institute)

2008-03-26

162

ORD's Sustainable & Healthy Communities (SHC) Nutrient research  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainable and healthy communities project 3.3.1 "Integrated Management of Reactive Nitrogen" aims to comprehensively examine the cascade of environmental economic and human health problems stemming from excess reactive N. Our goals are to improve understanding of the impacts o...

163

Critical Contexts for Biomedical Research in a Native American Community: Health Care, History, and Community Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Native Americans have been underrepresented in previous studies of biomedical research participants. This paper reports a qualitative interview study of Native Americans' perspectives on biomedical research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 53 members of a Southwest tribal community. Many interviewees viewed biomedical research studies as a…

Sahota, Puneet Chawla

2012-01-01

164

Community data portraiture : perceiving events, people, & ideas within a research community  

E-print Network

As a research community grows, it is becoming increasingly difficult to understand its dynamics, its history, and the varying perspectives with which that history is interpreted and remembered. This thesis focuses on three ...

Fritz, Doug, III

2010-01-01

165

The Social Justice Implications for Community Engaged Research: Whose Research Agenda? and My Relationship with the Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2010 winner of the Ernest A. Lynton Award examines two social justice themes that have emerged in his community-engaged work. He argues that the traditional model of the development of the scholars' research agenda is one that can promote and maintain the academy-community hierarchy and that the scholars' social identities play an important…

Walls, N. Eugene

2012-01-01

166

Expose and Biopan - Technical and operational aspects in the development of exposure platforms for exobiology and radiation biology research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Space Agency has been supporting the research on the effects of the space environment on biological and biochemical samples since the early 90's, when the ERA payload was flown for 11 months on the EURECA facility. Following that successful experience, two more exposure platforms have been developed to allow the scientific community to build up a solid research

P. Baglioni; R. Demets; C. Brillouet; R. von Heise-Rotenburg; W. Schulte

2004-01-01

167

Positive interactions in community ecology 1 Communicative & Integrative Biology 2009; Vol. 2 Issue 2  

E-print Network

, interactions with other species in the local community can also affect the expansion of species ranges. Studies to ecologically similar species coexisting. Second, competitive interactions will tend to prevent speciesPositive interactions in community ecology 1 Communicative & Integrative Biology 2009; Vol. 2 Issue

168

Structural biology research at the National Synchroton Light Source  

SciTech Connect

The world`s foremost facility for scientific research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation is operated by the national synchrotron Light Source Department. This year alone, a total of 2200 guest researchers performed experiments at the world`s largest source of synchrotron light. Researchers are trying to define the three- dimensional structures of biological macromolecules to create a map of life, a guide for exploring the biological and chemical interactions of the vast variety of molecules found in living organisms. Studies in structural biology may lead to new insights into how biological systems are formed and nourished, how they survive and grow, how they are damaged and die. This document discusses some the the structural biological research done at the National Synchrotron Light Source.

NONE

1996-05-01

169

Instrument Development for Biological Research (IDBR)  

NSF Publications Database

... significant impact on the study of biological systems at any level. The development of new, or ... or malfunction in human beings or animals, is not supported by IDBR. Similarly, the development or ...

170

A Research-Based Molecular Biology Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an apprenticeship-style course that mimics experiences in research laboratories and better reflects trends in educational reform, students perform team projects through collaboration with corporate research institutions. This research-based, student-ce

Buising, Charisse; Henderson, Larhee

2001-02-01

171

NEW SIGNIFICANCE FOR ANTARCTIC BIOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS AND TAXONOMIC RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collections of preserved terrestrial and freshwater plants and animals, made since the earliest expeditions to the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic, have been the basis of our understanding of the biological composition of individual areas as well as of ecosystems in general. Systematic studies of these collections have elucidated patterns of evolution, dispersal and community structure in these southern polar biomes. During

Shaun RUSSELL; R. I. Lewis SMITH

1993-01-01

172

The Biology of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study in Community Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a project for the Biology of HIV/AIDS course for undergraduate biology majors. This project challenged science students to engage the community on two different levels. They first had to interact directly and personally with HIV/AIDS activists. The proposal then encouraged them to think about and describe ways of engaging a…

Caccavo, Frank, Jr.

2008-01-01

173

Community engagement in biomedical research in an African setting: the Kintampo Health Research Centre experience  

PubMed Central

Background Community engagement (CE) is becoming relevant in health research activities; however, models for CE in health research are limited in developing countries. The Kintampo Health Research Centre (KHRC) conducts research to influence health policy locally and also internationally. Since its establishment in 1994 with the mandate of conducting relevant public health studies in the middle part of Ghana, KHRC has embarked on a series of clinical and operational studies involving community members. In these studies, community members have been engaged through community durbars before, during and also after all study implementations. Lessons learnt from these activities suggested the need to embark on further CE processes that could serve as a model for emerging research institutions based in African communities. Methods Interactive community durbars, workshops, in-depth discussions, focus group discussions and radio interactions were used as the main methods in the CE process. Results Community members outlined areas of research that they perceived as being of interest to them. Though community members expressed continual interest in our traditional areas of research in communicable, maternal, neonatal and child health, they were interested in new areas such as non- communicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. Misconceptions about KHRC and its research activities were identified and clarified. This research provided KHRC the opportunity to improve communication guidelines with the community and these are being used in engaging the community at various stages of our research, thus improving on the design and implementation of research. Conclusion KHRC has developed a culturally appropriate CE model based on mutual understanding with community members. The experience obtained in the CE process has contributed to building CE capacity in KHRC. Other health research institutions in developing countries could consider the experiences gained. PMID:24090148

2013-01-01

174

Community-Based Participatory Research Conceptual Model: Community Partner Consultation and Face Validity.  

PubMed

A national community-based participatory research (CBPR) team developed a conceptual model of CBPR partnerships to understand the contribution of partnership processes to improved community capacity and health outcomes. With the model primarily developed through academic literature and expert consensus building, we sought community input to assess face validity and acceptability. Our research team conducted semi-structured focus groups with six partnerships nationwide. Participants validated and expanded on existing model constructs and identified new constructs based on "real-world" praxis, resulting in a revised model. Four cross-cutting constructs were identified: trust development, capacity, mutual learning, and power dynamics. By empirically testing the model, we found community face validity and capacity to adapt the model to diverse contexts. We recommend partnerships use and adapt the CBPR model and its constructs, for collective reflection and evaluation, to enhance their partnering practices and achieve their health and research goals. PMID:25361792

Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie E; Duran, Bonnie; Tafoya, Greg; Baker, Elizabeth A; Chan, Domin; Chang, Charlotte; Greene-Moton, Ella; Kelley, Michele A; Wallerstein, Nina

2014-10-31

175

Community Efforts Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individual, departmental and community efforts have all played a major role in developing a thriving research effort addressing thinking and learning in the geosciences. Community efforts have been effective in elevating the importance of the field, defining a research agenda, fostering collaborations with cognitive science and education communities, building capacity within the geosciences, and developing reviewer awareness of the importance and opportunities within geoscience education research. Important community efforts include a call for geoscience education research in the 1997 NSF report Geoscience Education: A Recommended Strategy and in the subsequent 2000 NSF report ‘Bridges: Connecting Research and Education in the Earth System Sciences’. A research agenda and supporting recommendations for collaboration and capacity building were jointly developed by geoscience educators, cognitive scientists and education researchers at the 2002 NSF/Johnson Foundation funded workshop Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences. This research agenda emphasized studies of geoscience expertise, learning pathways (and their challenges) that are critical to the development of that expertise, and materials and environments that support this learning, with a focus on learning in the field and from large data sets, complex systems and deep time, spatial skills, and the synthesis of understanding from multiple sources of incomplete data. Collaboration and capacity building have been further supported by the NAGT sponsored professional development program “On the Cutting Edge” with workshops bringing together cognitive scientists, educators and geoscientists on topics including developing on-line learning resources, teaching with visualizations, the role of the affective domain in geoscience learning, teaching metacognition, and teaching with data. 40 successful educational research proposals are attributed to participation in On the Cutting Edge. An NSF funded synthesis of research on learning in the geosciences is currently expanding the interdisciplinary base for research on geoscience teaching and learning through the collaborative development of papers addressing spatial thinking, geologic time, complex systems, and learning in the field. Participants in this project include anthropologists and philosophers in addition to geologists, oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, education researches and psychologists. The project is currently seeking commentators to respond to an initial set of papers and has initiated the Earth and Mind blog as a mechanism for increased discussion and community interaction. This project builds on the GSA special volume ‘Earth and Mind’ which included writing by geoscience researchers, psychologists and education researchers addressing how we teach and learn about the Earth. These community efforts are an essential aspect of scientific research supporting discussion and synthesis of results and generation of new questions. The breadth of participants in this community indicates the importance of the work within and beyond the geosciences and is an indicator of its robustness.

Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Kastens, K. A.

2009-12-01

176

VIMS Molluscan Ecology Oyster Reef Community Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Molluscan Ecology research program at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS). Research projects investigate cephalopods, coastal habitats, hard clams, oysters, and rapa whelks. Background information is given regarding the history of the research, including management efforts and associated publications. Maps of restoration areas are available in addition to information about molluscan educational materials (including instructional publications and cds). Fees apply for cds.

177

EPA priorities for biologic markers research in environmental health  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology allow for measurement of biologic events or substances that may provide markers of exposure, effect, or susceptibility in humans. The application of these new and emerging techniques to environmental health offers the possibility of significantly reducing the uncertainties that traditionally hamper risk assessments. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health research program emphasizes the validation of appropriate biologic markers and their application to high-priority Agency issues. The rationale for EPA's biomarker research program is presented, and future research directions are discussed. Exposure biomarkers will receive most of the research emphasis in the near term, particularly body burden indicators of exposure to high-priority chemicals, such as benzene, ozone, selected heavy metals, and organophosphate pesticides. Research on effects biomarkers will attempt to validate the relationship between the observed biological effects and adverse health consequences in humans, especially for cancer, pulmonary toxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive/developmental toxicity.

Fowle, J.R. III; Sexton, K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-11-01

178

EPA priorities for biologic markers research in environmental health  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology allow for measurement of biologic events or substances that may provide markers of exposure, effect or susceptibility in humans. The application of these new and emerging techniques to environmental health offers the possibility of significantly reducing the uncertainties that traditionally hamper risk assessments. The EPA health research program places a high priority on the validation of appropriate biologic markers and their application to high priority Agency issues. The rationale for EPA's biomarker research program is presented and future research directions are discussed. Exposure biomarkers will receive most of the research emphasis in the near term, particularly body burden indicators of exposures to high priority chemicals, such as benzene, ozone, selected heavy metals, and organophosphate pesticides. Research on effects biomarkers will attempt to validate the relationship between the observed biological effects and adverse health consequences in humans, especially for cancer, pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive/developmental toxicity.

Fowle, J.R.; Sexton, K.

1992-01-01

179

Communities” in Community Engagement: Lessons Learned from Autism Research in South Africa and South Korea  

PubMed Central

Scientific Abstract Little research has been conducted on behavioral characteristics of children with ASD from diverse cultures within the US or from countries outside of the US or Europe, with little reliable information yet reported from developing countries. We describe the process used to engage diverse communities in ASD research in two community-based research projects—an epidemiological investigation of 7–12 year olds in South Korea and the Early Autism Project, an ASD detection program for 18–36 month old Zulu-speaking children in South Africa. Despite the differences in wealth between these communities, ASD is under-diagnosed in both settings, generally not reported in clinical or educational records. Moreover, in both countries there is low availability of services. In both cases, local knowledge helped researchers to address both ethnographic as well as practical problems. Researchers identified the ways in which these communities generate and negotiate the cultural meanings of developmental disorders. Researchers incorporated that knowledge as they engaged communities in a research protocol, adapted and translated screening and diagnostic tools, and developed methods for screening, evaluating, and diagnosing children with ASD. PMID:22566396

Grinker, Roy Richard; Chambers, Nola; Njongwe, Nono; Lagman, Adrienne E.; Guthrie, Whitney; Stronach, Sheri; Richard, Bonnie O.; Kauchali, Shuaib; Killian, Beverley; Chhagan, Meera; Yucel, Fikri; Kudumu, Mwenda; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Grether, Judith; Wetherby, Amy M.

2012-01-01

180

STEMdex: A Searchable Database of Education Research for Our Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

STEMdex is a new resource for the astronomy Education and Outreach community, designed to improve our community’s knowledge of the published literature pertinent to our work. While we all understand that it is important to base our practice on sound research, there are currently 801 peer-reviewed education journals in existence, and members of our community are hard pressed to cover all the published literature. STEMdex consolidates the research relevant to EPO work into a single searchable database, with summaries written by astronomy educators and posted for the entire community to use. The database will ultimately include research across the spectrum of astronomy education, including formal and informal education, outreach, grades K-16, pedagogy, evaluation and many other topics. The site is currently under development, but we have had significant interest from the community, and have a team of 19 EPO professionals and community volunteers from 14 different institutions signed up to contribute to the project. The STEMdex site can be found at stemdex.ipac.caltech.edu.

Brinkworth, Carolyn; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Bartolone, L.; Llamas, J.; Crane, M.; Martin, A.; Wenger, M.; Squires, G. K.; Hurt, R. L.

2014-01-01

181

Interdisciplinary research and education at the biology-engineering-computer science interface: a perspective.  

PubMed

Progress in the life sciences, including genome sequencing and high-throughput experimentation, offers an opportunity for understanding biology and medicine from a systems perspective. This 'new view', which complements the more traditional component-based approach, involves the integration of biological research with approaches from engineering disciplines and computer science. The result is more than a new set of technologies. Rather, it promises a fundamental reconceptualization of the life sciences based on the development of quantitative and predictive models to describe crucial processes. To achieve this change, learning communities are being formed at the interface of the life sciences, engineering and computer science. Through these communities, research and education will be integrated across disciplines and the challenges associated with multidisciplinary team-based science will be addressed. PMID:16182211

Tadmor, Brigitta; Tidor, Bruce

2005-09-01

182

Research on Schools, Neighborhoods and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Research on Schools, Neighborhoods, and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility" focuses on research and theoretical developments related to the role of geography in education, human development, and health. William F. Tate IV, the Edward Mallinckrodt Distinguished University Professor in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis and…

Tate, William F., IV, Ed.

2012-01-01

183

Ethical Issues Affecting Human Participants in Community College Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing demand of constituents to conduct analyses in order to help inform the decision-making process has led to the need for Institutional Research (IR) guidelines for community college educators. One method of maintaining the quality of research conducted by IR staff is to include professional development about ethics. This article…

Wurtz, Keith

2011-01-01

184

Community plans for future of ocean biogeochemical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the biogeochemical research community are taking steps to keep their work thriving in the next millennium. Since 1984, major questions in ocean biogeochemical research have been studied in a concerted manner in the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) program. This effort as well as the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics program (GOED)

James W. Murray; Gustav-Adolf Paffenhofer

1998-01-01

185

Challenges of Introducing Participant Observation to Community Health Research  

PubMed Central

Participant observation elicits unique observation data from both an insider's and an outsider's perspectives. Despite the growing tendency to adopt participant observation strategies in health care research regarding health-related beliefs and types of behavior, the use of participant observation in current research is mostly limited to structured clinical settings rather than community settings. In this paper, we describe how we use participant observation in a community health research study with Chinese-born immigrant women. We document discrepancies between these women's beliefs and types of behavior regarding health and health promotion. We further discuss the ethnical, time, and setting challenges in community health research using participant observation. Possible solutions are also discussed. PMID:24527223

2014-01-01

186

Community-based Inquiry Improves Critical Thinking in General Education Biology  

PubMed Central

National stakeholders are becoming increasingly concerned about the inability of college graduates to think critically. Research shows that, while both faculty and students deem critical thinking essential, only a small fraction of graduates can demonstrate the thinking skills necessary for academic and professional success. Many faculty are considering nontraditional teaching methods that incorporate undergraduate research because they more closely align with the process of doing investigative science. This study compared a research-focused teaching method called community-based inquiry (CBI) with traditional lecture/laboratory in general education biology to discover which method would elicit greater gains in critical thinking. Results showed significant critical-thinking gains in the CBI group but decreases in a traditional group and a mixed CBI/traditional group. Prior critical-thinking skill, instructor, and ethnicity also significantly influenced critical-thinking gains, with nearly all ethnicities in the CBI group outperforming peers in both the mixed and traditional groups. Females, who showed decreased critical thinking in traditional courses relative to males, outperformed their male counterparts in CBI courses. Through the results of this study, it is hoped that faculty who value both research and critical thinking will consider using the CBI method. PMID:18765755

Faiola, Celia L.; Johnson, James E.; Kurtz, Martha J.

2008-01-01

187

Phylogeny, phylogeography, phylobetadiversity and the molecular analysis of biological communities  

PubMed Central

There has been much recent interest and progress in the characterization of community structure and community assembly processes through the application of phylogenetic methods. To date most focus has been on groups of taxa for which some relevant detail of their ecology is known, for which community composition is reasonably easily quantified and where the temporal scale is such that speciation is not likely to feature. Here, we explore how we might apply a molecular genetic approach to investigate community structure and assembly at broad taxonomic and geographical scales, where we have little knowledge of species ecology, where community composition is not easily quantified, and where speciation is likely to be of some importance. We explore these ideas using the class Collembola as a focal group. Gathering molecular evidence for cryptic diversity suggests that the ubiquity of many species of Collembola across the landscape may belie greater community complexity than would otherwise be assumed. However, this morphologically cryptic species-level diversity poses a challenge for attempts to characterize diversity both within and among local species assemblages. Recent developments in high throughput parallel sequencing technology, combined with mtDNA barcoding, provide an advance that can bring together the fields of phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis to bear on this problem. Such an approach could be standardized for analyses at any geographical scale for a range of taxonomic groups to quantify the formation and composition of species assemblages. PMID:21768154

Emerson, Brent C.; Cicconardi, Francesco; Fanciulli, Pietro P.; Shaw, Peter J. A.

2011-01-01

188

Zoo Biology 27:470487 (2008) RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

, experimentation, modeling, and teaching of general and specific animal biology and behavior through work in both institutions; research; animal welfare; zoo research; academic research; academia; behavior; conservation of social and individual behavior that is relevant to housing of captive animals, relations among nearby

Timberlake, William D.

189

The cathartic reflection: Enhancing community engagement through use of qualitative research methods in post-disaster community planning.  

E-print Network

??Qualitative research methodological tools such as focus groups, key informant interviews and community surveys are traditionally used to provide context to larger quantitative research studies.… (more)

Gaffey, Abigail Marie

2013-01-01

190

EPA priorities for biologic markers research in environmental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology allow for measurement of biologic events or substances that may provide markers of exposure, effect or susceptibility in humans. The application of these new and emerging techniques to environmental health offers the possibility of significantly reducing the uncertainties that traditionally hamper risk assessments. The EPA health research program places a high priority on

J. R. Fowle; K. Sexton

1992-01-01

191

EPA priorities for biologic markers research in environmental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology allow for measurement of biologic events or substances that may provide markers of exposure, effect, or susceptibility in humans. The application of these new and emerging techniques to environmental health offers the possibility of significantly reducing the uncertainties that traditionally hamper risk assessments. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health research program emphasizes

J. R. Fowle; K. Sexton

1992-01-01

192

Microfluidic tools for cell biological research  

PubMed Central

Summary Microfluidic technology is creating powerful tools for cell biologists to control the complete cellular microenvironment, leading to new questions and new discoveries. We review here the basic concepts and methodologies in designing microfluidic devices, and their diverse cell biological applications. PMID:21152269

Velve-Casquillas, Guilhem; Le Berre, Maël; Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.

2010-01-01

193

Project Enlists Community Physicians in Cancer Research  

Cancer.gov

To enable more patients and physicians to participate in clinical studies that advance cancer care, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is conducting a pilot project, the Expanded Participation Project (EPP), to speed cancer research by broadening access to clinical trials

194

CNA2 - Communications and Community; Neighborhoods and Networks; Action and Analysis: Concepts and Methods for Community Technology Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine the challenges and opportunities of employing ICT in a community building\\/development\\u000a context through a critical reflection of the experiences of the Community Network Analysis (CNA) and ICT research project\\u000a in the Poets Corner community of Brighton and Hove, UK. Grounded in community networking, community development and community\\u000a learning theories, the CNA project

Peter Day; Clair Farenden

2007-01-01

195

Exploring the Ethics of Clinical Research in an Urban Community  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We consulted with representatives of an urban community in Washington, DC, about the ethics of clinical research involving residents of the community with limited access to health care. Methods. A semistructured community consultation was conducted with core members of the Health Partnership Program of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Three research case examples were discussed; questions and probes (a predetermined question or series of questions used to further investigate or follow-up a response) guided the discussion. Results. The community representatives who took part in the consultation were supportive of research and appreciated the opportunity to be heard. They noted the importance of respecting the circumstances, values, needs, and welfare of research participants; supported widely representative recruitment strategies; and cited the positive benefits of providing care or treatment to participants. Monitoring participants’ welfare and ensuring care at a study’s end were emphasized. Trust was a central theme; participants suggested several trust-enhancing strategies, including full disclosure of information and the involvement of advocates, physicians, and trusted church members. Conclusions. Several important strategies emerged for conducting ethical research in urban communities whose residents have limited access to health care. PMID:17018826

Grady, Christine; Hampson, Lindsay A.; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V.; Carrington, Kelli L.; Mittleman, Barbara B.

2006-01-01

196

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE - AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE RESEARCH ON PEST BIOLOGY: WEEDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over 125 permanent full-time scientists conduct research within ARS on issues related to weeds. The research emphasis of most of these scientists involves ecology and management or biological control of weeds. Many scientists perform research on weed biology as components of their primary projects o...

197

ReseaRch at the University of Maryland Bioinformatics: Computational Analysis of Biological Information  

E-print Network

ReseaRch at the University of Maryland Bioinformatics: Computational Analysis of Biological Information Bioinformatics--the use of advanced computational techniques for biological research's Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (CBCB) is at the forefront of bioinformatics research

Hill, Wendell T.

198

75 FR 6401 - Medical Devices Regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research; Availability of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. FDA-2009-M-0513] Medical Devices Regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research; Availability of Summaries...for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). This list is intended...for Biologics Evaluation and Research (HFM-17), Food and...

2010-02-09

199

A qualitative study using traditional community assemblies to investigate community perspectives on informed consent and research participation in western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background International collaborators face challenges in the design and implementation of ethical biomedical research. Evaluating community understanding of research and processes like informed consent may enable researchers to better protect research participants in a particular setting; however, there exist few studies examining community perspectives in health research, particularly in resource-limited settings, or strategies for engaging the community in research processes. Our goal was to inform ethical research practice in a biomedical research setting in western Kenya and similar resource-limited settings. Methods We sought to use mabaraza, traditional East African community assemblies, in a qualitative study to understand community perspectives on biomedical research and informed consent within a collaborative, multinational research network in western Kenya. Analyses included manual, progressive coding of transcripts from mabaraza to identify emerging central concepts. Results Our findings from two mabaraza with 108 community members revealed that, while participants understood some principles of biomedical research, they emphasized perceived benefits from participation in research over potential risks. Many community members equated health research with HIV testing or care, which may be explained in part by the setting of this particular study. In addition to valuing informed consent as understanding and accepting a role in research activities, participants endorsed an increased role for the community in making decisions about research participation, especially in the case of children, through a process of community consent. Conclusions Our study suggests that international biomedical research must account for community understanding of research and informed consent, particularly when involving children. Moreover, traditional community forums, such as mabaraza in East Africa, can be used effectively to gather these data and may serve as a forum to further engage communities in community consent and other aspects of research. PMID:23009744

2012-01-01

200

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) as a model system in community, landscape and ecosystem ecology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Model systems have had a profound influence on the development of ecological theory and general principles. Compared to alternatives, the most effective models share some combination of the following characteristics: simpler, smaller, faster, general, idiosyncratic or manipulable. We argue that biological soil crusts (biocrusts) have unique combinations of these features that should be more widely exploited in community, landscape and ecosystem ecology. In community ecology, biocrusts are elucidating the importance of biodiversity and spatial pattern for maintaining ecosystem multifunctionality due to their manipulability in experiments. Due to idiosyncrasies in their modes of facilitation and competition, biocrusts have led to new models on the interplay between environmental stress and biotic interactions and on the maintenance of biodiversity by competitive processes. Biocrusts are perhaps one of the best examples of micro-landscapes—real landscapes that are small in size. Although they exhibit varying patch heterogeneity, aggregation, connectivity and fragmentation, like macro-landscapes, they are also compatible with well-replicated experiments (unlike macro-landscapes). In ecosystem ecology, a number of studies are imposing small-scale, low cost manipulations of global change or state factors in biocrust micro-landscapes. The versatility of biocrusts to inform such disparate lines of inquiry suggests that they are an especially useful model system that can enable researchers to see ecological principles more clearly and quickly.

Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Eldridge, David; Belnap, Jayne; Castillo-Monroy, Andrea; Escolar, Cristina; Soliveres, Santiago

2014-01-01

201

Collaborative Action Research: Developing Professional Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This timely book describes the work of the School Improvement Network, a partnership in which university professors and graduate students collaborated with K-12 school leaders and teachers to design, implement, and assess schoolwide action research projects focused on long-term school improvement. Presenting a comprehensive model, this resource…

Gordon, Stephen P., Ed.

2008-01-01

202

Research at the Interface of Chemistry and Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First, chemist Matthew Shair at Harvard University presents his lab's research in "the development of biomimetic target-oriented and diversity-oriented synthesis of complex molecules and the use of these approaches to discover new molecules for studying cell biology" (1). The descriptions are equipped with figures and images to help users understand the complex research. The second website features Professor Sir Jack Baldwin group's research in bio-organic and synthetic organic chemistry at the University of Oxford (2). Users can download many of the group's publications related to its research activities in penicillin, biomimetics, parallel, and total synthesis. Next, the University of Nottingham displays its investigations "to define the chemical interactions that determine the specificity and control of biological processes" (3). Visitors can discover the individual projects and publications of the fourteen main researchers involved with the group. The fourth website addresses the research of Bruce Donald's lab at Dartmouth in the use of Physical Geometric Algorithms (PGA) to better understand computational molecular biology (4). Researchers can find information on the group's software, funding, research, and downloads to many of the group's publications. Next, visitors can discover the University of Southampton chemistry Professor Mark Bradley's use of combinatorial chemistry to synthesize many compounds efficiently (5). The website features concise summaries, lists of publications, and information on the collaborators involved with the group's numerous research projects. At the sixth website, New York University discusses the ever-expanding range of topics available to scientists utilizing biomolecular tools, including the exploration of new chemical strategies for the control of gene expression and the creation of new approaches for combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput screening (6). Users can learn about the division's emphasis on experimental and computational approaches in dealing with research problems and also its involvement in training students in biological phenomena from a physical organic perspective. The seventh website describes the courses, student projects, and grants of the interdisciplinary Chemistry-Biology Interface (CBI) Training Program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (7). This site offers a great example of educational opportunities available for students to learn how to merge chemical and biological research. Lastly, the University of Delaware features its multidisciplinary graduate program where students perform research in biochemistry, biochemical engineering, bioorganic chemistry, molecular biology, cell biology, virology, bioanalytical chemistry, structural biology, bioinorganic chemistry, materials science, and plant biochemistry (8). Users can find links to the group pages of the 34 researchers involved in the program.

203

Human Subjects Protections in Community-Engaged Research: A Research Ethics Framework1  

PubMed Central

in the 30 years since the belmont Report, the role of the community in research has evolved and has taken on greater moral significance. Today, more and more translational research is being performed with the active engagement of individuals and communities rather than merely upon them. This engagement requires a critical examination of the range of risks that may arise when communities become partners in research. In attempting to provide such an examination, one must distinguish between established communities (groups that have their own organizational structure and leadership and exist regardless of the research) and unstructured groups (groups that may exist because of a shared trait but do not have defined leadership or internal cohesiveness). In order to participate in research as a community, unstructured groups must develop structure either by external means (by partnering with a Community-Based Organization) or by internal means (by empowering the group to organize and establish structure and leadership). When groups participate in research, one must consider risks to well-being due to process and outcomes. These risks may occur to the individual qua individual, but there are also risks that occur to the individual qua member of a group and also risks that occur to the group qua group. There are also risks to agency, both to the individual and the group. A 3-by-3 grid including 3 categories of risks (risks to well-being secondary to process, risks to well-being secondary to outcome and risks to agency) must be evaluated against the 3 distinct agents: individuals as individual participants, individuals as members of a group (both as participants and as non-participants) and to communities as a whole. This new framework for exploring the risks in community-engaged research can help academic researchers and community partners ensure the mutual respect that community-engaged research requires. PMID:20235860

Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R.; Gehlert, Sarah

2010-01-01

204

1 July 2010 A biological community is an assemblage of  

E-print Network

in the community Species diversity is an index that incorporates the number of species in an area and also as fewer new species are found per unit of individuals collected. #12;Rarefaction curves are created to the species diversity of a region, especially in the Tropics and mountainous areas Resident &

Butler, Christopher J.

205

Vision and Change in the Biology Community: Snapshots of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the authors were first invited to write these columns, the editors felt it would be an interesting way to give the readers of "CBE - Life Sciences Education" an agency's-eye view of its concerns, workings, and accomplishments. This column is written with that charge in mind. It is intended to inform the community about outreach…

Vasaly, Helen L.; Feser, Jason; Lettrich, Matthew D.; Correa, Kevin; Denniston, Katherine J.

2014-01-01

206

Senior Scientist for Cancer Care Delivery Research - NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP)  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI), a major research component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), is conducting a national search for a Senior Scientist for the NCI Community Oncology Research Program, within the Outcomes Research Branch (ORB), Applied Research Program (ARP).

207

Reporting back research findings: a case study of community-based tourism research in northern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, experiences of reporting back research results to three communities in northern Canada (Churchill, Manitoba, Cambridge Bay and Pond Inlet, both in Nunavut) are described. The research examined residents' attitude towards tourism development. Reporting of initial findings was integral to the research process to ensure that results made sense from a local perspective. The research engaged a variety

Emma J. Stewart; Dianne Draper

2009-01-01

208

Reengineering the clinical research enterprise to involve more community clinicians  

PubMed Central

Background The National Institutes of Health has called for expansion of practice-based research to improve the clinical research enterprise. Methods This paper presents a model for the reorganization of clinical research to foster long-term participation by community clinicians. Based on the literature and interviews with clinicians and other stakeholders, we posited a model, conducted further interviews to test the viability of the model, and further adapted it. Results We propose a three-dimensional system of checks and balances to support community clinicians using research support organizations, community outreach, a web-based registry of clinicians and studies, web-based training services, quality audits, and a feedback mechanism for clinicians engaged in research. Conclusions The proposed model is designed to offer a systemic mechanism to address current barriers that prevent clinicians from participation in research. Transparent mechanisms to guarantee the safety of patients and the integrity of the research enterprise paired with efficiencies and economies of scale are maintained by centralizing some of the functions. Assigning other responsibilities to more local levels assures flexibility with respect to the size of the clinician networks and the changing needs of researchers. PMID:21463518

2011-01-01

209

Plant seeds in biological research in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data of 15 years of space flight and laboratory tests of plant seeds of 20 species, mainly on the combined and separate effects of launch vibration, ionizing radiation and weightlessness, are surveyed. It is concluded that plants do not show a pronounced response to space flight factors. Conditions of return to Earth, the number of heavy cosmic ray particles striking biological targets and effects of change in magnetic an electromagnetic fields have been little studied, and that more study of growing plants in space is needed.

Miller, A. T.

1982-01-01

210

International Research: Its Role in Environmental Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes an international research laboratory to investigate environmental factors in human health. By international cooperation unnecessary duplication and waste of resources can be avoided and long-term studies can examine various world-wide environments. (JM)

Higginson, John

1970-01-01

211

Research Note Conservation Biology, Pages 616621  

E-print Network

greatly to the regional biodiversity of plants and animals (Larson et al. 2000). Research conducted thus in New South Wales (Stanisic 1997), Scotland (Cameron & Greenwood 1991), Germany (Schmid 1966), Sweden

Nekola, Jeffrey C.

212

Aging, Community and Health Research Unit Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Community-Based Care of Older Adults with  

E-print Network

Aging, Community and Health Research Unit Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Community-Based Care of Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions Introduction The Aging, Community and Health Research Unit, co-led by Drs. Maureen Markle-Reid and Jenny Ploeg, will focus on promoting optimal aging at home for older

Hitchcock, Adam P.

213

[Research progresses in synthetic biology of artemisinin].  

PubMed

Abstract: The first-line drug artemisinin is widely used against malaria. Commercially available artemisinin is extracted from plants. However, the lack of sufficient raw material, artemisinin and the cost associated with the drug's manufacture have limited the supply of ACT to most malaria sufferers in the Developing World. As such, it is important to develop a low cost, fine to environment and high-quality method to supply sufficient and reliable quantities of artemisinin in the future. The field of synthetic biology, which utilizes cell factories to manipulate microbial metabolism to enhance the production of artemisinin and its intermediates, has a particularly strong impact by providing new platforms for chemical production. After a brief introduction of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway, the present review focuses on the introduction of artemisinin biosynthetic genes, such as the genes encoding amorpha-4, 11-diene monooxygenase, NADPH: cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, artemisinic aldehyde delta 11(13) reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. The review also addresses general considerations for potential contributions of synthetic biology to artemisinin production, with an emphasis on factors influencing interest compounds production in chassis cells. PMID:23672015

Kong, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Ke-Di; Zhu, Ping

2013-02-01

214

Estimating size and composition of biological communities by modeling the occurrence of species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We develop a model that uses repeated observations of a biological community to estimate the number and composition of species in the community. Estimators of community-level attributes are constructed from model-based estimators of occurrence of individual species that incorporate imperfect detection of individuals. Data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey are analyzed to illustrate the variety of ecologically important quantities that are easily constructed and estimated using our model-based estimators of species occurrence. In particular, we compute site-specific estimates of species richness that honor classical notions of species-area relationships. We suggest extensions of our model to estimate maps of occurrence of individual species and to compute inferences related to the temporal and spatial dynamics of biological communities.

Dorazio, R.M.; Royle, J.A.

2005-01-01

215

Biological research on fire in the West  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildland fires are a natural feature of many ecosystems, including grasslands, forests, and shrublands. How-ever, years of fire exclusion have led to accumulations of dead fuels and increases in the density of fire-intolerant species. In most western states, recent fires burning in these altered ecosystems have caused significant damage and huge economic losses to homes, busi-nesses, and communities. They also have dis-turbed forests and rangelands as well as their associated watersheds, plants, and animals. Every western state is concerned about dam-age from such catastrophic fires, and there is strong interest from all sectors in prevent-ing and reducing the resulting damage in the future. There is also interest in the use of fire as a management tool for reducing hazards and restoring damaged ecosystems and for returning fire to its natural role in wilderness ecosystems.

U.S. Geological Survey

2005-01-01

216

Researching and Respecting the Intricacies of Isolated Communities  

PubMed Central

Purpose Conducting research in a rural area can be challenging for nurses for a variety of different reasons. The task at hand can be especially difficult when it involves discussing a sensitive topic, such as Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. This study was conducted to describe parental perceptions of the HPV vaccine in rural areas, while simultaneously describing a method for engaging in successful nursing research in rural areas. Methods A team of nurse researchers completed a planned process to first understand rural culture in southeastern Georgia, and then more specifically, the families living in these three separate counties. This process initially involved developing a connection and working relationship with key community leaders, such as school principals. Following this, researchers worked on establishing rapport and trust with local parents and research participants themselves. Qualitative methods were then used to collect focus group and interview data on parental views of HPV, HPV vaccination, and HPV-related cancers. Findings Results indicated that parents had little knowledge of the HPV vaccine in rural Georgia, including misconceptions that the vaccine is for females only. In addition, many parents continually voiced the concern that the HPV vaccine would promote promiscuity in their children. Conclusions Providing consistent, timely, and open communication with the community members was crucial throughout the entire research process. This focused approach with respect to total community, culture, and religious value is essential in conducting research. Future studies conducted in rural areas should focus on specific intervention points that improve Parental HPV knowledge. PMID:24817833

Blumling, Amy A.; Thomas, Tami L.; Stephens, Dionne P.

2014-01-01

217

LYMPHATIC RESEARCH AND BIOLOGY Volume 5, Number 3, 2007  

E-print Network

enhance our understanding of the structure and function of the lymphatic system. Re- cent applications the Lymphatic Research Foundation (RHM). #12;INTRODUCTION VISUALIZATION OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM playsLYMPHATIC RESEARCH AND BIOLOGY Volume 5, Number 3, 2007 © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. DOI: 10.1089/lrb

Fahmy, Tarek

218

Bridging Emotion Research: From Biology to Social Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion research demonstrates that problems of theoretical interest or practical significance are not divided neatly along disciplinary boundaries. Researchers acknowledge both organic and social underpinnings of emotion, but the intersections between biological and structural processes can be difficult to negotiate. In this article, the authors…

Rogers, Kimberly B.; Kavanagh, Liam

2010-01-01

219

The interface between molecular biology and cancer research  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last thirty years, cancer research has been a remarkably fruitful resource for molecular biologists. Numerous fundamental discoveries in basic biology have come out of research into the properties of cancer cells; for example, the discovery of reverse transcriptase, RNA splicing and the protein kinases. Recently, information has started to flow in the other direction, and we are at

John Cairns

2000-01-01

220

The Office of Financial Research: building a Research Community  

E-print Network

­ OFR is now law #12;Office of Financial Research works for the Financial Stability Oversight Council components · Data Center · Research and Analysis Center #12;Dodd Frank Act is law Treasury sets up initial, NSF Funding? Potential Benefits · Future Funding · Back-up data center #12;Broader Initiatives (Other

Guiltinan, Mark

221

UCSD-Scripps Institution of Oceanography: Marine Biology Research Division  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 1,000 staff members, an annual budget of nearly $150 million, and its own fleet of ships capable of global travel, Scripps Institution of Oceanography is one of the most significant homes of scientific inquiry in the world. As part of its many diverse efforts, Scripps operates the Marine Biology Research Division which is presented at this website. The site, while simply designed and easy to navigate, is a great resource for students and researchers interested in learning more about the research activities at Scripps. Those interested in a certain type of research can narrow down the division into its specific labs, such as Cell and Developmental Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Microbiology, and Physiology. Visitors to the site can also access the many sub-laboratories, each focusing on specific subjects, such as Sea Turtles, Bioluminescence, Coral Reef ecology, and tons more. This site is also reviewed in the July 9, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

222

The evolving field of imaging mass spectrometry and its impact on future biological research  

PubMed Central

Within the past decade, imaging mass spectrometry has been increasingly recognized as an indispensable technique for studying biological systems. Its rapid evolution has resulted in an impressive array of instrument variations and sample applications, yet the tools and data are largely confined to specialists. It is therefore important that at this junction the IMS community begin to establish IMS as a permanent fixture in life sciences research thereby making the technology and/or the data approachable by non-mass spectrometrists, leading to further integration into biological and clinical research. In this perspective article, we provide insight into the evolution and current state of imaging mass spectrometry and propose some of the directions that IMS could develop in order to stay on course to become one of the most promising new tools in life science research. PMID:21322093

Watrous, Jeramie D.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

2012-01-01

223

Therapeutic research in low-income countries: studying trial communities.  

PubMed

Social scientists undertaking studies of transnational medical research in developing countries focus on 'trial communities': networks of funders, institutions, researchers, clinical staff, fieldworkers and study participants. They relate these to the political economy that brings powerful research resources to poor settings. Whereas bioethicists tend to consider universal ethical requirements, social scientists examine how ethics are practiced in given situations in the light of the concerns and interests held by different parties involved in medical research. In conditions of poverty, high morbidity and weak public health services, research subjects are heavily induced by the prospect of high quality medical care and other benefits that researchers seem to offer. Studies of medical research undertaken by well-established internationally funded institutions in Africa show that parents are keen to have their children 'join' projects at these organisations. They assess benefits and risks less in terms of specific research projects and more in terms of their overall trust in the care these institutions are known to have provided previously for others in the community. Bioethics should widen its scope beyond concern with protecting individual subjects from the risks of specific research projects. It should recognise that clinical and research functions are indistinguishable for many participants, who want information on results of clinical investigations and sustained support for improving the health of their children. PMID:24748638

Whyte, Susan Reynolds

2014-11-01

224

Reflections and perspectives of African-American community leaders regarding genetics and genomics research: sentiment and wisdom of Sankofa.  

PubMed

Advances in genetic and genomic research are shifting the typical disease timeline. For those afflicted by disease and for population groups known to experience excess disease-related morbidity and mortality, the ability to use genetics and genomics to predict an individuals' predisposition for developing a disease and/or to anticipate an individual's response to treatments holds tremendous promise. Over the past two decades several public and private institutions within the United States have been established for the purpose of collecting and storing biological specimens for the purpose of conducting genetic/genomic research. Multiple reports indicate that the involvement of racial/ethnic minority participants in these bio-repositories is limited. Little is known about the willingness of African-Americans, one of the largest and most vulnerable racial/ethnic population groups, to participate in genetic research, genomic research, and to contribute biological specimens to bio-repositories. An exploratory study was undertaken using principles of community engagement and community-based participatory research to examine the perspectives of leaders within the African-American community about participation in genetics research, genomics research, and bio-banking. Semi-structured focus groups with twenty-one African-American community leaders were the primary means of gathering the study data. Reflections and commentary of the community leaders were interspersed with sentiments of "Sankofa." The emergent themes, health-related disparities, historical injustices in medical research, the promise of genetic and genomic research, and genetics/genomic research engagement, implicated the importance of conducting genetics/genomics research in the context of the community interdependent with efforts to address determinants of health and health disparities. PMID:24218869

Underwood, Sandra Millon; Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Townsend, Leolia; Kelber, Sheryl T

2013-07-01

225

Community-Based Participatory Research with Hispanic/Latino Leaders and Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are being studied for healthcare disparities research utilizing community-based participatory research (CBPR). CBPR's active participation of community members and researchers suggests improvement in community health. Yet there are no known studies that inductively investigated the lived experience of H/L community leaders…

Amendola, Mary Grace

2013-01-01

226

The Capacity of a Scientific Community: A Study of the Travel and Tourism Research Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research communication and knowledge networking contribute to the capacity building of a scientific community. Tourism and hospitality research associations are characterized by producers and users of multidisciplinary field research, and are exemplars of an applied social scientific community. This study focuses on the role of research associations in the capacity building of an applied research community and consequently in the

Honggen Xiao

2011-01-01

227

Community Science, Philosophy of Science, and the Practice of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded in community science are implicit theories on the nature of reality (ontology), the justification of knowledge claims (epistemology), and how knowledge is constructed (methodology). These implicit theories influence the conceptualization and practice of research, and open up or constrain its possibilities. The purpose of this paper is to make some of these theories explicit, trace their intellectual history, and

Jacob Kraemer Tebes

2005-01-01

228

Toward Community Research and Coalitional Literacy Practices for Educational Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-based research can provide an avenue for understanding the complexities of students' and families' lives and working together for educational justice through what we refer to as coalitional literacy practices. In this article, we share a critical incident about a student's absence from school as an illustrative case of the…

Campano, Gerald; Ghiso, María Paula; Yee, Mary; Pantoja, Alicia

2013-01-01

229

Successful Strategies for Earth Science Research in Native Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small U.S. Geological Survey pilot project utilizes strategies that are successful at involving the Native community in earth science research. This work has ignited the interest of Native students in interdisciplinary geoscience studies, and gained the recognition of tribal community leaders from the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Canada. This study seeks to examine land use, climatic variability, and their related impacts on land-surface conditions in the ecologically sensitive Tsezhin Bii' region of the Navajo Nation. Work conducted by predominantly Native American researchers, includes studies of bedrock geology, surficial processes, soil and water quality, and plant ecology, as well as the history of human habitation. Community involvement that began during the proposal process, has helped to guide research, and has provided tribal members with information that they can use for land use planning and natural resource management. Work by Navajo tribal members who have become involved in research as it has progressed, includes K-12 science curriculum development, community outreach and education on environmental and geologic hazards, drought mitigation, grazing management, and impacts of climate change and land use on medicinal plants.

Redsteer, M. H.; Anderson, D.; Ben, N.; Bitsuie, R.; Blackhorse, A.; Breit, G.; Clifford, A.; Salabye, J.; Semken, S.; Weaver, K.; Yazzie, N.

2004-12-01

230

Research Article Microbial Community Structures of Novel Icelandic Hot  

E-print Network

microbial biomass and diversity when compared to thermophilic (*60°C) springs. Ordination anal- ysis with pH. Key Words: Microbial diversity--PhyloChip G3--Acidophilic--Thermophilic--Hot springsResearch Article Microbial Community Structures of Novel Icelandic Hot Spring Systems Revealed

Low, Steven H.

231

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Perceived morbidity and community burden  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Perceived morbidity and community burden after a Chikungunya outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, especially incapacitating polyarthralgia and fatigue. So far, little after an outbreak of Chikungunya virus, we implemented the TELECHIK survey; a retrospective cohort study

232

Architect for Research on Gender and Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quick search in the "Community College Journal of Research and Practice" for Barbara Townsend's name produces 62 entries. A handful of those entries are the articles that Barbara has authored, but many more are articles that cite her work. Another search on the Web of Science database that tracks citations in a specific set of peer-reviewed…

Lester, Jaime

2009-01-01

233

The dilemma of dual use biological research: Polish perspective.  

PubMed

Biological research with legitimate scientific purpose that may be misused to pose a biological threat to public health and/or national security is termed dual use. In Poland there are adequate conditions for conducting experiments that could be qualified as dual use research, and therefore, a risk of attack on Poland or other countries exists. Optimal solutions for limiting such threats are required, and the national system of biosecurity should enable early, reliable, and complete identification of this type of research. Scientists should have a fundamental role in this process, their duty being to immediately, upon identification, report research with dual use potential. An important entity in the identification system of dual use research should also be the Central Register of Biological and Biomedical Research, which gathers information about all biological and biomedical research being conducted in a given country. Publishers, editors, and review committees of journals and other scientific publications should be involved in evaluating results of clinical trials. The National Council of Biosecurity should be the governmental institution responsible for developing a system of dual use research threat prevention. Its role would be to develop codes of conduct, form counsel of expertise, and monitor the problem at national level, while the Dual Use Research Committee would be responsible for individual cases. In Poland, current actions aiming to provide biological safety were based on developing and passing an act about genetically modified organisms (GMO's) and creating a GMO Committee. Considering experiences of other nations, one should view these actions as fragmentary, and thus insufficient protection against dual use research threats. PMID:18546061

Czarkowski, Marek

2010-03-01

234

Genetic fingerprinting: Advancing the frontiers of crop biology research  

Microsoft Academic Search

enetic fingerprinting is one of the DNA-based techniques that have permeated a wide gamut of biological research, beginning with forensic biology and medicine and now ex- tending to agriculture. The advent of polymerase chain re - action (PCR) ushered a revolutionary approach in producing genetic fingerprints, supplanting hybridization-based techniques. PCR-based methods can be accomplished using either arbitrary markers of un-

Gabriel Romero; Cheryl Adeva; Zosimo Battad

2009-01-01

235

NON Community Networks Program Centers (CNPC) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Projects  

Cancer.gov

Strengthen the use of evidence-based education, outreach, and dissemination using the Community Guide, as well as partnership and capacity building, to improve knowledge, behavior, attitude, and beliefs with focus on the early detection of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers, clinical trial and biospecimen research.

236

University--Government--International Donor Community Cooperation in Research, Teaching and Community Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

World geo-economics of the last two decades have seriously impacted on governments' capability to finance university teaching, research and community engagement, especially in the developing world. Over the same period however, the demands and expectations exerted on universities by government and society have increased phenomenally. To meet these…

Mwaniki, M.

2010-01-01

237

Bringing the physical sciences into your cell biology research  

PubMed Central

Historically, much of biology was studied by physicists and mathematicians. With the advent of modern molecular biology, a wave of researchers became trained in a new scientific discipline filled with the language of genes, mutants, and the central dogma. These new molecular approaches have provided volumes of information on biomolecules and molecular pathways from the cellular to the organismal level. The challenge now is to determine how this seemingly endless list of components works together to promote the healthy function of complex living systems. This effort requires an interdisciplinary approach by investigators from both the biological and the physical sciences. PMID:23112230

Robinson, Douglas N.; Iglesias, Pablo A.

2012-01-01

238

Bringing the physical sciences into your cell biology research.  

PubMed

Historically, much of biology was studied by physicists and mathematicians. With the advent of modern molecular biology, a wave of researchers became trained in a new scientific discipline filled with the language of genes, mutants, and the central dogma. These new molecular approaches have provided volumes of information on biomolecules and molecular pathways from the cellular to the organismal level. The challenge now is to determine how this seemingly endless list of components works together to promote the healthy function of complex living systems. This effort requires an interdisciplinary approach by investigators from both the biological and the physical sciences. PMID:23112230

Robinson, Douglas N; Iglesias, Pablo A

2012-11-01

239

Listening to community health workers: how ethnographic research can inform positive relationships among community health workers, health institutions, and communities.  

PubMed

Many actors in global health are concerned with improving community health worker (CHW) policy and practice to achieve universal health care. Ethnographic research can play an important role in providing information critical to the formation of effective CHW programs, by elucidating the life histories that shape CHWs' desires for alleviation of their own and others' economic and health challenges, and by addressing the working relationships that exist among CHWs, intended beneficiaries, and health officials. We briefly discuss ethnographic research with 3 groups of CHWs: volunteers involved in HIV/AIDS care and treatment support in Ethiopia and Mozambique and Lady Health Workers in Pakistan. We call for a broader application of ethnographic research to inform working relationships among CHWs, communities, and health institutions. PMID:24625167

Maes, Kenneth; Closser, Svea; Kalofonos, Ippolytos

2014-05-01

240

Experience Developing a Community Pharmacy Practice-based Research Network.  

PubMed

In 2010, the Purdue University College of Pharmacy established the Medication Safety Research Network of Indiana (Rx-SafeNet), the first practice-based research network (PBRN) in Indiana comprised solely of community pharmacies. In the development of Rx-SafeNet and through our early project experiences, we identified several "lessons learned." We share our story and what we learned in an effort to further advance the work of the greater PBRN community. We have formed the infrastructure for Rx-SafeNet, including an Executive Committee, Advisory Board, member pharmacies/site coordinators, and Project Review Team. To date, 22 community pharmacies have joined and we have recently completed data collection for the network's first project. Lessons learned during the development of Rx-SafeNet may benefit PBRNs nationally. Although community pharmacy PBRNs are not yet commonplace in the U.S., we believe their development and subsequent research efforts serve as an important avenue for investigating medication use issues. PMID:25018893

Snyder, Margie E; Frail, Caitlin K; Seel, Lindsey V; Hultgren, Kyle E

2012-01-01

241

Experience Developing a Community Pharmacy Practice-based Research Network  

PubMed Central

In 2010, the Purdue University College of Pharmacy established the Medication Safety Research Network of Indiana (Rx-SafeNet), the first practice-based research network (PBRN) in Indiana comprised solely of community pharmacies. In the development of Rx-SafeNet and through our early project experiences, we identified several “lessons learned.” We share our story and what we learned in an effort to further advance the work of the greater PBRN community. We have formed the infrastructure for Rx-SafeNet, including an Executive Committee, Advisory Board, member pharmacies/site coordinators, and Project Review Team. To date, 22 community pharmacies have joined and we have recently completed data collection for the network's first project. Lessons learned during the development of Rx-SafeNet may benefit PBRNs nationally. Although community pharmacy PBRNs are not yet commonplace in the U.S., we believe their development and subsequent research efforts serve as an important avenue for investigating medication use issues. PMID:25018893

Snyder, Margie E.; Frail, Caitlin K.; Seel, Lindsey V.; Hultgren, Kyle E.

2014-01-01

242

Ethical community-engaged research: a literature review.  

PubMed

Health research has relied on ethical principles, such as those of the Belmont Report, to protect the rights and well-being of research participants. Community-based participatory research (CBPR), however, must also consider the rights and well-being of communities. This requires additional ethical considerations that have been extensively discussed but not synthesized in the CBPR literature. We conducted a comprehensive thematic literature review and summarized empirically grounded discussions of ethics in CBPR, with a focus on the value of the Belmont principles in CBPR, additional essential components of ethical CBPR, the ethical challenges CBPR practitioners face, and strategies to ensure that CBPR meets ethical standards. Our study provides a foundation for developing a working definition and a conceptual model of ethical CBPR. PMID:24134352

Mikesell, Lisa; Bromley, Elizabeth; Khodyakov, Dmitry

2013-12-01

243

Reengineering the clinical research enterprise to involve more community clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The National Institutes of Health has called for expansion of practice-based research to improve the clinical research enterprise.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This paper presents a model for the reorganization of clinical research to foster long-term participation by community clinicians.\\u000a \\u000a Based on the literature and interviews with clinicians and other stakeholders, we posited a model, conducted further interviews\\u000a to test the viability of the

Gery Ryan; Claude Berrebi; Megan Beckett; Stephanie Taylor; Elaine Quiter; Michelle Cho; Harold Pincus; Katherine Kahn

2011-01-01

244

Two Year Community: Exploring Student Engagement in an Introductory Biology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successfully engaging students with a community college's introductory biology curriculum is a challenging endeavor. Students have numerous distractions competing with faculty for their attention. Traditional presentation of information may leave students longing for something more engaging to do, and the place where most college-level…

Lysne, Steven J.; Miller, Brant G.; Eitel, Karla Bradley

2013-01-01

245

Journal of Theoretical Biology 251 (2008) 593605 Abundance patterns in multi-species communities exposed to  

E-print Network

Journal of Theoretical Biology 251 (2008) 593­605 Abundance patterns in multi-species communities from human activity is a serious threat to biodiversity. The model developed by Tilman et al. [Tilman patterns of self-organization in abundance distributions emerging as a response to habitat destruction. We

246

Investing in lay researchers for community-based health action research: implications for research, policy and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calls for greater community participation health-related research are increasingly made and, it seems, heeded–albeit to varying degrees. We report here, from the perspective of external evaluators, on practical efforts by the leaders of two community-based health action research projects to enhance such participation still further by employing a small number of local people as lay action researchers within their own

Sandra Carlisle; Stephen Cropper

2009-01-01

247

Regulation of biologic oncology products in the FDA?s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research.  

PubMed

In the United States, cancer vaccines and immunotherapies, including cell and gene therapies and peptides and proteins used as therapeutic vaccines, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research in the Office of Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies (OCTGT). Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research has licensed two immunotherapy products for urologic indications: bacillus Calmette-Guérin for superficial bladder cancer and sipuleucel-T for advanced prostate cancer. OCTGT places a high priority on scientific and regulatory activities that promote the development of safe and effective cancer therapy products. OCTGT has published guidance documents and developed innovative tools that are designed to aid the rapid development of biologic products for patient use. The success of immunotherapeutic products for urologic malignancies stands as an example for ongoing and future therapeutic research and discovery. PMID:25441459

Bross, Peter F; Fan, Chaohong; George, Bindu; Shannon, Kevin; Joshi, Bharat H; Puri, Raj K

2014-10-30

248

Perceptions Community Residents Have about Partner Institutions and Clinical Research  

PubMed Central

Introduction Engaging community residents to obtain their feedback in conducting clinical research, and including them as leaders in implementing applicable health advances is crucial for success and sustaining large center awards. Methods Forty-four adult men and women participated in one of four focus groups. Two groups each (one African American and one Caucasian) were conducted in Baton Rouge and in New Orleans. Results In an effort to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs Louisiana residents have about the Louisiana Clinical and Translational Science (LA CaTS) Center concept, four main themes emerged from focus group participants concerning the state’s research institutions, and what it means to have these institutions operating under one umbrella to improve the quality of health of its people: 1) academic/research institutions of the State are uniformly widely recognized and held in high regard; 2) increasing awareness of clinical research is a necessity; 3) establishing the LA CaTS Center is an excellent idea; and 4) effective communication including delivery style is crucial to partnerships and especially to the community. Conclusion Focus group discussions can provide insight into community residents’ perceptions, beliefs, motivations and patterns of behavior for strategically planning for large center awards. PMID:24138681

Kennedy, Betty M.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Johnson, William D.; Griffin, Willene P.; Kennedy, Kathleen B.; Cefalu, William T.; Ryan, Donna H.

2014-01-01

249

Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates.  

PubMed

Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR) system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic) contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community. PMID:23882444

Gregg, Ak; Hatay, M; Haas, Af; Robinett, Nl; Barott, K; Vermeij, Mja; Marhaver, Kl; Meirelles, P; Thompson, F; Rohwer, F

2013-01-01

250

Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates  

PubMed Central

Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR) system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic) contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community. PMID:23882444

Hatay, M; Haas, AF; Robinett, NL; Barott, K; Vermeij, MJA; Marhaver, KL; Meirelles, P; Thompson, F; Rohwer, F

2013-01-01

251

Governing through community-based research: Lessons from the Canadian HIV research sector.  

PubMed

The "general public" and specific "communities" are increasingly being integrated into scientific decision-making. This shift emphasizes "scientific citizenship" and collaboration between interdisciplinary scientists, lay people, and multi-sector stakeholders (universities, healthcare, and government). The objective of this paper is to problematize these developments through a theoretically informed reading of empirical data that describes the consequences of bringing together actors in the Canadian HIV community-based research (CBR) movement. Drawing on Foucauldian "governmentality" the complex inner workings of the impetus to conduct collaborative research are explored. The analysis offered surfaces the ways in which a formalized approach to CBR, as promoted through state funding mechanisms, determines the structure and limits of engagement while simultaneously reinforcing the need for finer grained knowledge about marginalized communities. Here, discourses about risk merge with notions of "scientific citizenship" to implicate both researchers and communities in a process of governance. PMID:25074512

Guta, Adrian; Strike, Carol; Flicker, Sarah; J Murray, Stuart; Upshur, Ross; Myers, Ted

2014-12-01

252

USGS Alaska Science Center, Biological Science Office: Research Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the research programs of the USGS Alaska Science Center - Biological Science Office (ASC-BSO). The programs are divided into several categories including Ecosystems & Habitats, Mammals, Technical Programs, Fish and Fisheries, and Birds. Links connect to research information about numerous program subcategories like Coastal and Marine, Sea Otters, Loons, Fisheries Projects, and more. The site also links to background information about the ASC-BSO, job listings, staff contact information, and the Alaska Science Center Publications Database.

2006-01-11

253

USGS Alaska Science Center, Biological Science Office: Research Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the research programs of the USGS Alaska Science Center - Biological Science Office (ASC-BSO). The programs are divided into several categories including Ecosystems & Habitats, Mammals, Technical Programs, Fish and Fisheries, and Birds. Links connect to research information about numerous program subcategories like Coastal and Marine, Sea Otters, Loons, Fisheries Projects, and more. The site also links to background information about the ASC-BSO, job listings, staff contact information, and the Alaska Science Center Publications Database.

254

Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

2008-03-21

255

Biomedical Research Experiences for Biology Majors at a Small College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program-level assessment of the biology curriculum at a small liberal arts college validates a previous study demonstrating success in achieving learning outcomes related to content knowledge and communication skills. Furthermore, research opportunities have been provided to complement pedagogical strategies and give students a more complete…

Stover, Shawn K.; Mabry, Michelle L.

2010-01-01

256

Researchers discover biological diversity in triple-negative breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

Triple-negative breast cancers are more biologically diverse than previously believed and classification should be expanded to reflect this heterogeneity, according to a study from the University of North Carolina led by researchers at the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, along with scientists from the Vall d’Hebron Institute of Oncology in Barcelona, Spain.

257

RESEARCH Open Access Coupling groundwater modeling and biological  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Coupling groundwater modeling and biological indicators for identifying river,3 and Laurent Cadilhac4 Abstract Future climate changes and the resulting modifications in anthropogenic change, the preservation of water and the functions that are asso- ciated with groundwater/surface water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research  

PubMed Central

In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts. PMID:21439242

Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

2011-01-01

259

“You’ve Gotta Know the Community”: Minority Women Make Recommendations About Community-Focused Health Research  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine what ethnic and racial minority women recommend as the best approaches to participatory health research in their communities. To achieve this goal, this study focused on HIV prevention research. Methods In 2003, Seven African American and seven Latina women (ages 33 to 52), all members of an HIV Prevention Collaborative Board, participated in individual interviews, lasting about 90 minutes each. Participants discussed their involvement in participatory research, and made recommendations as to how health researchers might better engage their communities. Data were coded independently by two coders following standard procedure for content analysis. Results Women’s voices and expertise can help guide health-related research. This study shows that: (1) participatory HIV prevention research should be founded on trust and commitment, leading to social support; (2) research partners ought to come from diverse backgrounds and be knowledgeable about the community and willing to work on common objectives; and (3) collaborative partnerships ought to portray an image of strength and cohesion, and a clear articulation of the mission around a research project. Implications To develop meaningful health research, researchers need to establish long-term ongoing relationships with community collaborators, including minority women from diverse backgrounds. Researchers ought to take a holistic approach working with communities, and ought to consider their research interests vis-à-vis the community’s needs. PMID:18581694

Pinto, Rogério M.; McKay, Mary M.; Escobar, Celeste

2009-01-01

260

Development of community plans to enhance survivorship from colorectal cancer: community-based participatory research in rural communities.  

PubMed

In 2002, 10.4% of the 10 million persons alive who have ever been diagnosed with cancer had colorectal cancer (CRC). Barriers, such as distance, terrain, access to care and cultural differences, to CRC survivorship may be especially relevant in rural communities. We tested the hypothesis that teams from rural cancer coalitions and hospitals would develop a Community Plan (CP) to enhance CRC survivorship. We used community-based participatory research and the PRECEDE-PROCEED model to train teams from rural cancer coalitions and hospitals in Pennsylvania and New York. We measured knowledge at three points in time and tested the change with McNemar's test, corrected for multiple comparisons (p < 0.0167). We also conducted a qualitative review of the CP contents. Fourteen (93.3%) of the 15 coalitions or hospitals initially recruited to the study completed a CP. Knowledge in public health, sponsorship of A National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship, and CRC survivorship and treatment increased. Teams identified perceived barriers and community assets. All teams planned to increase awareness of community assets and almost all planned to enhance treatment-related care and psychosocial care for the CRC survivor; 50% planned to enhance primary care and CRC screening. The study demonstrated the interest and ability of rural organizations to plan to enhance CRC survivorship, including linkage of CRC survivorship to primary care. Rural cancer coalitions and hospitals may be a vehicle to develop local action for A National Action Plan. Access to more comprehensive care for CRC cancer survivors in rural communities appears to be facilitated by the community-based initiative described and investigated in this study. Efforts such as these could be replicated in other rural communities and may impact the care and quality of life of survivors with many types of cancers. While access to health services may be increased through community-based initiatives, we still need to measure the impact of such initiatives on the long term health and well being of cancer survivors in rural locations. PMID:18648971

Lengerich, Eugene J; Kluhsman, Brenda C; Bencivenga, Marcyann; Allen, Regina; Miele, Mary Beth; Farace, Elana

2007-09-01

261

Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell  

E-print Network

Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development Müller stem cells for development of cell based therapies to treat end stage glaucoma' This research aims of Stem Cell Based Therapies to treat Retinal Diseases, Endogenous Regeneration of the human Retina Stem

Saunders, Mark

262

Use of CAM in local African-American communities: community-partnered research.  

PubMed Central

Although previous national surveys have shown an increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the U.S. population, racial and ethnic minority populations were under-represented in these surveys. As a result, a profile of the CAM user as white, female, affluent, middle-aged and well educated has emerged. Representing the mainstream population, these previous studies did not take into account the racial and ethnic minority populations who may have their own healing traditions and who may hold different beliefs, use different terminology, and have unique patterns of CAM use. In partnership with community-based organizations and community residents, a culturally sensitive survey instrument and protocols were designed and tested to gather data on lower income, urban African-Americans' use of, attitudes toward, and understanding of CAM. The major findings of this pilot research are 1.) Community-partnered research can help researchers gain access to sensitive data and design culturally appropriate studies; 2.) CAM terminology varies by cultural group; 3.) Certain forms of CAM (folk or family practices) are commonly found in African-American populations; and 4.) Factors that affect CAM use--including age, lack of access to conventional medicine, cultural heritage, and dissatisfaction with conventional medicine. PMID:14620706

Barnett, Marina C.; Cotroneo, Margaret; Purnell, Joseph; Martin, Danielle; Mackenzie, Elizabeth; Fishman, Alfred

2003-01-01

263

Transdisciplinary research and evaluation for community health initiatives.  

PubMed

Transdisciplinary research and evaluation projects provide valuable opportunities to collaborate on interventions to improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities. Given team members' diverse backgrounds and roles or responsibilities in such projects, members' perspectives are significant in strengthening a project's infrastructure and improving its organizational functioning. This article presents an evaluation mechanism that allows team members to express the successes and challenges incurred throughout their involvement in a multisite transdisciplinary research project. Furthermore, their feedback is used to promote future sustainability and growth. Guided by a framework known as organizational development, the evaluative process was conducted by a neutral entity, the Quality Assurance Team. A mixed-methods approach was utilized to garner feedback and clarify how the research project goals could be achieved more effectively and efficiently. The multiple benefits gained by those involved in this evaluation and implications for utilizing transdisciplinary research and evaluation teams for health initiatives are detailed. PMID:18936267

Harper, Gary W; Neubauer, Leah C; Bangi, Audrey K; Francisco, Vincent T

2008-10-01

264

The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The life sciences research facilities for the Space Station are being designed to accommodate both animal and plant specimens for long durations studies. This will enable research on how living systems adapt to microgravity, how gravity has shaped and affected life on earth, and further the understanding of basic biological phenomena. This would include multigeneration experiments on the effects of microgravity on the reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging of organisms. To achieve these research goals, a modular habitat system and on-board variable gravity centrifuges, capable of holding various animal, plant, cells and tissues, is proposed for the science laboratory.

Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

1987-01-01

265

The solar system: Importance of research to the biological sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt is made to describe the scope of scientific areas that comprise the current field of exobiology in the United States. From investigations of astrophysical phenomena that deal with the birth of stars and planetary systems to questions of molecular biology involving phylogenetic relationships among organisms, from attempts to simulate the synthesis of biological precursor molecules in the chemistry laboratory to making measurements of the organic constituents of Titan's atmosphere, these researches all converge toward a common objective--answering the question of how life came about in the universe.

Klein, Harold P.

1992-01-01

266

LifeSat - A satellite for space biological research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LifeSat Program addresses the need for continuing access by biological scientists to space experimentation by accommodating a wide range of experiments involving animals and plants for durations up to 60 days in an unmanned satellite. The program will encourage interdisciplinary and international cooperation at both the agency and scientist levels, and will provide a recoverable, reusable facility for low-cost missions addressing key scientific issues that can only be answered by space experimentation. It will provide opportunities for research in gravitational biology and on the effects of cosmic radiation on life systems. The scientific aspects of LifeSat are addressed here.

Halstead, Thora W.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.

1990-01-01

267

Evaluating Community Safety Programmes and Community Engagement: The Role of Qualitative Methods and Collaborative Approaches to Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the role of qualitative and collaborative methods when undertaking evaluation research into local community safety partnerships and neighbourhood strategies. It draws on recent examples of research and evaluation studies of regeneration and community safety programmes in a number of cities and towns in England. The discussion is set against the background of the major changes in policy

Jane Pitcher

2006-01-01

268

Opportunities and Pitfalls of Community-Based Research: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a recent community-based research project with injured workers, identifies challenges faced when academics engage in community-based research based at a university, including dealing with the constraints and requirements of academic research funding, bridging the goals of academics and community members, and functioning within the…

Polanyi, Michael; Cockburn, Lynn

2003-01-01

269

REVIEW OF COMMUNITY-BASED RESEARCH: Assessing Partnership Approaches to Improve Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based research in public health focuses on social, structural, and physical environmental inequities through active involvement of community mem- bers, organizational representatives, and researchers in all aspects of the research process. Partners contribute their expertise to enhance understanding of a given phenomenon and to integrate the knowledge gained with action to benefit the community involved. This review provides a synthesis

Barbara A. Israel; Amy J. Schulz; Edith A. Parker; Adam B. Becker

1998-01-01

270

Towards BioDBcore: a community-defined information specification for biological databases  

PubMed Central

The present article proposes the adoption of a community-defined, uniform, generic description of the core attributes of biological databases, BioDBCore. The goals of these attributes are to provide a general overview of the database landscape, to encourage consistency and interoperability between resources; and to promote the use of semantic and syntactic standards. BioDBCore will make it easier for users to evaluate the scope and relevance of available resources. This new resource will increase the collective impact of the information present in biological databases. PMID:21205783

Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Field, Dawn; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Taylor, Chris; Attwood, Teresa K.; Bateman, Alex; Blake, Judith A.; Bult, Carol J.; Cherry, J. Michael; Chisholm, Rex L.; Cochrane, Guy; Cook, Charles E.; Eppig, Janan T.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Gentleman, Robert; Goble, Carole A.; Gojobori, Takashi; Hancock, John M.; Howe, Douglas G.; Imanishi, Tadashi; Kelso, Janet; Landsman, David; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Karsch Mizrachi, Ilene; Orchard, Sandra; Ouellette, B.F. Francis; Ranganathan, Shoba; Richardson, Lorna; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Schofield, Paul N.; Smedley, Damian; Southan, Christopher; Tan, Tin W.; Tatusova, Tatiana; Whetzel, Patricia L.; White, Owen; Yamasaki, Chisato

2011-01-01

271

pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students  

PubMed Central

The Vision and Change report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area of science. We developed a laboratory module called pClone that empowers students to use advances in molecular cloning methods to discover new promoters for use by synthetic biologists. Our educational goals are consistent with Vision and Change and emphasize core concepts and competencies. pClone is a family of three plasmids that students use to clone a new transcriptional promoter or mutate a canonical promoter and measure promoter activity in Escherichia coli. We also developed the Registry of Functional Promoters, an open-access database of student promoter research results. Using pre- and posttests, we measured significant learning gains among students using pClone in introductory biology and genetics classes. Student posttest scores were significantly better than scores of students who did not use pClone. pClone is an easy and affordable mechanism for large-enrollment labs to meet the high standards of Vision and Change.

Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

2014-01-01

272

Scientific principles of education research: Experimental Biology 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IN 2002, the Committee on Scientific Principles of Education Research of the National Research Council (NRC) revisited long-standing ideas about the nature of science, so as to place them in the context of modern education research. Their report, Scientific Research in Education (3), investigated "scientifically based" education research to be used for improving education policy and practice. The report showed that while researchers may disagree about philosophical or methodological approaches to education research, they readily agree about the definition and pursuit of good quality education research (3). Research designs were categorized as quantitative versus qualitative, depending on the type of data collected. There were also categorizations of experimental versus observational, depending on the study design and the investigators' ability to draw conclusions about cause and effect. This featured topic sponsored by the American Physiological Society Teaching Section was designed to host Drs. Margaret Eisenhart and Robert DeHaan, members of the NRC committees and experts in the field of educational research. Their talks were complemented by selected educational research abstracts submitted to the Experimental Biology meeting in Washington, DC, in 2007.

PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences); Margaret Eisenhart (University of Colorado); Mr. David W. Rodenbaugh (Wayne State University Department of Physiology)

2007-08-01

273

Connecting Communities to Health Research: Development of the Project CONNECT Minority Research Registry  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prevention and treatment standards are based on evidence obtained in behavioral and clinical research. However, racial and ethnic minorities remain relatively absent from the science that develops these standards. While investigators have successfully recruited participants for individual studies using tailored recruitment methods, these strategies require considerable time and resources. Research registries, typically developed around a disease or condition, serve as a promising model for a targeted recruitment method to increase minority participation in health research. This study assessed the tailored recruitment methods used to populate a health research registry targeting African-American community members. Methods We describe six recruitment methods applied between September 2004 and October 2008 to recruit members into a health research registry. Recruitment included direct (existing studies, public databases, community outreach) and indirect methods (radio, internet, and email) targeting the general population, local universities, and African American communities. We conducted retrospective analysis of the recruitment by method using descriptive statistics, frequencies, and chi-square statistics. Results During the recruitment period, 608 individuals enrolled in the research registry. The majority of enrollees were African American, female, and in good health. Direct and indirect methods were identified as successful strategies for subgroups. Findings suggest significant associations between recruitment methods and age, presence of existing health condition, prior research participation, and motivation to join the registry. Conclusions A health research registry can be a successful tool to increase minority awareness of research opportunities. Multi-pronged recruitment approaches are needed to reach diverse subpopulations. PMID:23340183

Green, Melissa A.; Kim, Mimi M.; Barber, Sharrelle; Odulana, Abedowale A.; Godley, Paul A.; Howard, Daniel L.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle M.

2013-01-01

274

Strengthening community involvement in grant review: insights from the Community-University Research Partnership (CURES) pilot review process.  

PubMed

In 2007, the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR) at the University of Michigan received a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Within MICHR, the Community Engagement (CE) program supports partnership efforts between researchers, practitioners, and community-based organizations in specific focal communities throughout Michigan. A key component of the CE program is the Community Engagement Coordinating Council, a group that provides input and guidance on program priorities, strategic planning, and reviews pilot funding proposals for community-academic partnerships. This paper will describe a unique MICHR pilot funding mechanism for Community-University Research Partnerships (CURES) with an emphasis on the ways that community partners are involved in the review process, as well as the benefits, challenges, and insights gained over 5 years of pilot review. There is a growing need for community involvement and expertise in review of funding proposals for community-engaged research at both institutional and federal levels. The CURES pilot review process is one example of an institutional effort to engage community partners in university funding decisions and has demonstrated clear benefit toward accomplishing the aims of the CTSA. PMID:24456508

Paberzs, Adam; Piechowski, Patricia; Warrick, Debra; Grawi, Carolyn; Choate, Celeste; Sneed, Glenda; Carr, Diane; Lota, Kanchan; Key, Kent; Alexander, Valerie; Ghosh, Pratik; Sampselle, Carolyn

2014-04-01

275

Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985  

SciTech Connect

The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group.

Barr, S.H. (ed.)

1985-08-01

276

Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research  

SciTech Connect

As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: winnok.devos@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2014-10-15

277

Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

2014-10-01

278

Invited review article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.  

PubMed

As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy. PMID:25362364

De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

2014-10-01

279

Community-Based Participatory Research: Its Role in Future Cancer Research and Public Health Practice  

PubMed Central

The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009–2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impact participatory approaches can have in reducing cancer disparities. Several projects highlight the success of participatory approaches to cancer prevention and intervention in addressing many of the challenges of traditional practice and research. Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research. PMID:23680507

Simonds, Vanessa W.; Duran, Bonnie; Villegas, Malia

2013-01-01

280

The Colorado Plateau: cultural, biological, and physical research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stretching from the four corners of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah, the Colorado Plateau is a natural laboratory for a wide range of studies. This volume presents 23 original articles drawn from more than 100 research projects presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. This scientific gathering revolved around research, inventory, and monitoring of lands in the region. The book's contents cover management techniques for cultural, biological, and physical resources, representing collaborative efforts among federal, university, and private sector scientists and land managers. Chapters on cultural concerns cover benchmarks of modern southwestern anthropological knowledge, models of past human activity and impact of modern visitation at newly established national monuments, challenges in implementing the 1964 Wilderness Act, and opportunities for increased federal research on Native American lands. The section on biological resources comprises sixteen chapters, with coverage that ranges from mammalian biogeography to responses of elk at the urban-wildland interface. Additional biological studies include the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation; research on bald eagles at Grand Canyon and tracking wild turkeys using radio collars; and management of palentological resources. Two final chapters on physical resources consider a proposed rerouting of the Rio de Flag River in urban Flagstaff, Arizona, and an examination of past climate patterns over the Plateau, using stream flow records and tree ring data. In light of similarities in habitat and climate across the Colorado Plateau, techniques useful to particular management units have been found to be applicable in many locations. This volume highlights an abundance of research that will prove useful for all of those working in the region, as well as for others seeking comparative studies that integrate research into land management actions.

Cole, Kenneth L.

2004-01-01

281

Eight Years of Building Community Partnerships and Trust: The UCLA Family Medicine Community-Based Participatory Research Experience  

PubMed Central

Acknowledging the growing disparities in health and health care that exist among immigrant families and minority populations in large urban communities, the UCLA Department of Family Medicine (DFM) sought a leadership role in the development of family medicine training and community-based participatory research (CBPR). Performing CBPR requires that academic medicine departments build sustainable and long-term community partnerships. The authors describe the eight-year (2000–2008) process of building sustainable community partnerships and trust between the UCLA DFM and the Sun Valley community, located in Los Angeles County. The authors used case studies of three research areas of concentration (asthma, diabetes prevention, and establishing access to primary care) to describe how they established community trust and sustained long-term community research partnerships. In preparing each case study, they used an iterative process to review qualitative data. Many lessons were common across their research concentration areas. They included the importance of (1) having clear and concrete community benefits, (2) supporting an academic–community champion, (3) political advocacy, (4) partnering with diverse organizations, (5) long-term academic commitment, and (6) medical student involvement. The authors found that establishing a long-term relationship and trust was a prerequisite to successfully initiate CBPR activities that included an asthma school-based screening program, community walking groups, and one of the largest school-based primary care clinics in the United States. Their eight-year experience in the Sun Valley community underscores how academic–community research partnerships can result in benefits of high value to communities and academic departments. PMID:19881437

Moreno, Gerardo; Rodríguez, Michael A.; Lopez, Glenn A.; Bholat, Michelle A.; Dowling, Patrick T.

2014-01-01

282

Methods for open innovation on a genome-design platform associating scientific, commercial, and educational communities in synthetic biology.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology requires both engineering efficiency and compliance with safety guidelines and ethics. Focusing on the rational construction of biological systems based on engineering principles, synthetic biology depends on a genome-design platform to explore the combinations of multiple biological components or BIO bricks for quickly producing innovative devices. This chapter explains the differences among various platform models and details a methodology for promoting open innovation within the scope of the statutory exemption of patent laws. The detailed platform adopts a centralized evaluation model (CEM), computer-aided design (CAD) bricks, and a freemium model. It is also important for the platform to support the legal aspects of copyrights as well as patent and safety guidelines because intellectual work including DNA sequences designed rationally by human intelligence is basically copyrightable. An informational platform with high traceability, transparency, auditability, and security is required for copyright proof, safety compliance, and incentive management for open innovation in synthetic biology. GenoCon, which we have organized and explained here, is a competition-styled, open-innovation method involving worldwide participants from scientific, commercial, and educational communities that aims to improve the designs of genomic sequences that confer a desired function on an organism. Using only a Web browser, a participating contributor proposes a design expressed with CAD bricks that generate a relevant DNA sequence, which is then experimentally and intensively evaluated by the GenoCon organizers. The CAD bricks that comprise programs and databases as a Semantic Web are developed, executed, shared, reused, and well stocked on the secure Semantic Web platform called the Scientists' Networking System or SciNetS/SciNeS, based on which a CEM research center for synthetic biology and open innovation should be established. PMID:21601679

Toyoda, Tetsuro

2011-01-01

283

Research Paper 757 Optically controlled collisions of biological objects to evaluate  

E-print Network

Research Paper 757 Optically controlled collisions of biological objects to evaluate potent determinants of adhesion between two biological objects following a collision are complex, and may vary from enables precise examination of the probability of adhesion under biologically relevant conditions

Prentiss, Mara

284

Explorations: A Research-Based Program Introducing Undergraduates to Diverse Biology Research Topics Taught by Grad Students and Postdocs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate biology majors are often overwhelmed by and underinformed about the diversity and complexity of biological research that is conducted on research-intensive campuses. We present a program that introduces undergraduates to the diversity and scope of biological research and also provides unique teaching opportunities for graduate…

Brownell, Sara E.; Khalfan, Waheeda; Bergmann, Dominique; Simoni, Robert

2013-01-01

285

Research Applications of Proteolytic Enzymes in Molecular Biology  

PubMed Central

Proteolytic enzymes (also termed peptidases, proteases and proteinases) are capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds in proteins. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have great medical and pharmaceutical importance due to their key role in biological processes and in the life-cycle of many pathogens. Proteases are extensively applied enzymes in several sectors of industry and biotechnology, furthermore, numerous research applications require their use, including production of Klenow fragments, peptide synthesis, digestion of unwanted proteins during nucleic acid purification, cell culturing and tissue dissociation, preparation of recombinant antibody fragments for research, diagnostics and therapy, exploration of the structure-function relationships by structural studies, removal of affinity tags from fusion proteins in recombinant protein techniques, peptide sequencing and proteolytic digestion of proteins in proteomics. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular biological aspects of proteolytic enzymes and summarize their applications in the life sciences. PMID:24970197

Mótyán, János András; Tóth, Ferenc; T?zsér, József

2013-01-01

286

Facilities for Biological Research Aboard the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A centrifuge designed as part of an integrated biological facility for installation onboard the International Space Station is presented. The requirements for the 2.5 m diameter centrifuge, which is designed for the support of biological experiments are discussed. The scientific objectives of the facility are to: provide a means of conducting fundamental studies in which gravitational acceleration is a controllable variable; provide a 1g control; determine the threshold acceleration for physiological response, and determine the value of centrifugation as a potential countermeasure for the biomedical problems associated with space flight. The implementation of the facility is reported on, and the following aspects of the facility are described: the host resources systems supply requirements such as power and data control; the habitat holding rack; the life sciences glove box; the centrifuge; the different habitats for cell culture, aquatic studies, plant research and insect research; the egg incubator, and the laboratory support equipment.

Souza, Kenneth A.; Yost, Bruce D.; Berry, William E.; Johnson, Catherine C.

1996-01-01

287

Data management for community research projects: A JGOFS case study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the mid 1980s, much of the marine science research effort in the United Kingdom has been focused into large scale collaborative projects involving public sector laboratories and university departments, termed Community Research Projects. Two of these, the Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) and the North Sea Project incorporated large scale data collection to underpin multidisciplinary modeling efforts. The challenge of providing project data sets to support the science was met by a small team within the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) operating as a topical data center. The role of the data center was to both work up the data from the ship's sensors and to combine these data with sample measurements into online databases. The working up of the data was achieved by a unique symbiosis between data center staff and project scientists. The project management, programming and data processing skills of the data center were combined with the oceanographic experience of the project communities to develop a system which has produced quality controlled, calibrated data sets from 49 research cruises in 3.5 years of operation. The data center resources required to achieve this were modest and far outweighed by the time liberated in the scientific community by the removal of the data processing burden. Two online project databases have been assembled containing a very high proportion of the data collected. As these are under the control of BODC their long term availability as part of the UK national data archive is assured. The success of the topical data center model for UK Community Research Project data management has been founded upon the strong working relationships forged between the data center and project scientists. These can only be established by frequent personal contact and hence the relatively small size of the UK has been a critical factor. However, projects covering a larger, even international scale could be successfully supported by a network of topical data centers managing online databases which are interconnected by object oriented distributed data management systems over wide area networks.

Lowry, Roy K.

1992-01-01

288

PATHOLOGICAL INTERNET COMMUNITIES: A NEW DIRECTION FOR SEXUAL DEVIANCE RESEARCH IN A POST MODERN ERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the impact of the Internet and related technologies on the nature of deviant behavior, deviant communities, and the future of deviance research. The idea that pathological communities, once largely suppressed by time, space, and societal restraints, can now create and use virtual communities is focal. Those new communities may expand their numbers and\\/or pathology, while reinforcing their

Keith Durkin; Craig J. Forsyth; James F. Quinn

2006-01-01

289

Biological and chemical technologies research. FY 1995 annual summary report  

SciTech Connect

The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1995 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1995 (ASR 95) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1995; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents; and awards arising from work supported by the BCTR.

None

1996-03-01

290

Configuration of biological wastewater treatment line and influent composition as the main factors driving bacterial community structure of activated sludge.  

PubMed

The structure of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment facilities is a resultant of environmental conditions created by the operational parameters of the purification process. In the research, activated sludge from nine Polish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was investigated at a molecular level to determine the impact of the complexity of biological treatment line and the influent composition on the species structure and the diversity of bacterial consortia. The community fingerprints and technological data were subjected to the canonical correspondence and correlation analyses. The number of separated biological processes realized in the treatment line and the presence of industrial wastewater in the influent were the key factors determining the species structure of total and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in biomass. The N2O-reducers community composition depended significantly on the design of the facility; the highest species richness of denitrifiers was noted in the WWTPs with separated denitrification tanks. The contribution of industrial streams to the inflow affected the diversity of total and denitrifying bacterial consortia and diminished the diversity of ammonia oxidizers. The obtained data are valuable for engineers since they revealed the main factors, including the design of wastewater treatment plant, influencing the microbial groups critical for the stability of purification processes. PMID:23397107

Jaranowska, Paulina; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

2013-07-01

291

Fostering community-based wildlife health monitoring and research in the Canadian North.  

PubMed

Many northern Canadians have continued a subsistence lifestyle of wildlife harvesting and, therefore, value sustainable wildlife populations. At a regional wildlife workshop in the Sahtu Settlement Area, Northwest Territories in 2002, elders and community leaders raised concerns regarding wildlife health, food safety, and the effects of climate change on wildlife. They requested that efforts be put toward training youth in science and increasing involvement of hunters and youth in wildlife research. In response, we initiated a long-term, integrated approach to foster community-based wildlife health monitoring and research. Annual trips were made to all schools in the Sahtu from 2003 to 2009 to provide hands-on learning for 250-460 students on a range of wildlife topics. In addition, interviews were conducted with 31 hunters and elders to document their local ecological knowledge of wildlife health and local hunters were trained as monitors to collect tissue samples and measurements to assess body condition and monitor health of harvested caribou (n = 69) and moose (n = 19). In 2007 the program was extended to include participation in the annual caribou hunt held by one community. Each year since 2005, a graduate student and/or a postdoctoral trainee in the veterinary or biological sciences has participated in the program. The program has evolved during the last 6 years in response to community and school input, results of empirical research, hunter feedback, local knowledge, and logistical constraints. The continuity of the program is attributed to the energetic collaboration among diverse partners and a unified approach that responds to identified needs. PMID:19953294

Brook, Ryan K; Kutz, Susan J; Veitch, Alasdair M; Popko, Richard A; Elkin, Brett T; Guthrie, Glen

2009-06-01

292

Formative Research on Perceptions of Biobanking: What Community Members Think  

PubMed Central

Preparing healthy community members with timely communications prior to engaging them in a request to donate biospecimens promises to improve the experience of biobanking participation. To this end, a qualitative study was conducted to assess community member knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and informational needs about cancer-related biospecimen collection in a large metropolitan area in southwest Florida. The study utilized purposive sampling techniques to recruit a total of 95 participants to participate in 12 focus groups, segmented by race/ethnicity and language preference (mixed race, African American only, and Spanish speaking) and age (18–29, 30–54, and 55 and older). Focus group interviews were analyzed using content analysis to identify emergent themes. Overall, participants in the 30 years and older groups were favorable toward participating in biobanking if their concerns were addressed, such as confidentiality and consent issues, in contrast to participants aged 18–29 who were more skeptical. For all participants, the desire to participate in research that seeks new cancer treatments outweighed mistrust. Moreover, many cited the potential scientific benefit for future generations as a primary motivator. Finally, in some groups a therapeutic misconception was expressed, where participants expressed a willingness to forego confidentiality of their health status in exchange for therapeutic benefit. This study contributes to the literature on community perceptions of the benefits and barriers of biobanking and adds to the development of meaningful education communication priming tools to advance understandings about biobanking. PMID:21927867

Luque, John S.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Montel-Ishino, Francisco A.; Arevalo, Mariana; Bynum, Shalanda A.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Wells, Kristen J.; Gwede, Clement K.; Meade, Cathy D.

2013-01-01

293

Formative research on perceptions of biobanking: what community members think.  

PubMed

Preparing healthy community members with timely communications prior to engaging them in a request to donate biospecimens promises to improve the experience of biobanking participation. To this end, a qualitative study was conducted to assess community member knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and informational needs about cancer-related biospecimen collection in a large metropolitan area in southwest Florida. The study utilized purposive sampling techniques to recruit a total of 95 participants to participate in 12 focus groups, segmented by race/ethnicity and language preference (mixed race, African American only, and Spanish speaking) and age (18-29, 30-54, and 55 and older). Focus group interviews were analyzed using content analysis to identify emergent themes. Overall, participants in the 30 years and older groups were favorable toward participating in biobanking if their concerns were addressed, such as confidentiality and consent issues, in contrast to participants aged 18-29 who were more skeptical. For all participants, the desire to participate in research that seeks new cancer treatments outweighed mistrust. Moreover, many cited the potential scientific benefit for future generations as a primary motivator. Finally, in some groups a therapeutic misconception was expressed, where participants expressed a willingness to forego confidentiality of their health status in exchange for therapeutic benefit. This study contributes to the literature on community perceptions of the benefits and barriers of biobanking and adds to the development of meaningful education communication priming tools to advance understandings about biobanking. PMID:21927867

Luque, John S; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Montel-Ishino, Francisco A; Arevalo, Mariana; Bynum, Shalanda A; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Wells, Kristen J; Gwede, Clement K; Meade, Cathy D

2012-03-01

294

Current challenges and approaches for the synergistic use of systems biology data in the scientific community.  

PubMed

Today's rapid development and broad application of high-throughput analytical technologies are transforming biological research and provide an amount of data and analytical opportunities to understand the fundamentals of biological processes undreamt of in past years. To fully exploit the potential of the large amount of data, scientists must be able to understand and interpret the information in an integrative manner. While the sheer data volume and heterogeneity of technical platforms within each discipline already poses a significant challenge, the heterogeneity of platforms and data formats across disciplines makes the integrative management, analysis, and interpretation of data a significantly more difficult task. This challenge thus lies at the heart of systems biology, which aims at a quantitative understanding of biological systems to the extent that systemic features can be predicted. In this chapter, we discuss several key issues that need to be addressed in order to put an integrated systems biology data analysis and mining within reach. PMID:17432272

Ahrens, Christian H; Wagner, Ulrich; Rehrauer, Hubert K; Türker, Can; Schlapbach, Ralph

2007-01-01

295

Community Music: History and Current Practice, Its Constructions of "Community", Digital Turns and Future Soundings, an Arts and Humanities Research Council Research Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Kingdom has been a pivotal national player within the development of community music practice. There are elements of cultural and debatably pedagogic innovations in community music. These have to date only partly been articulated and historicized within academic research. This report, funded by the UK's Arts and Humanities Research

McKay, George; Higham, Ben

2012-01-01

296

A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm  

SciTech Connect

The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.

Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

2011-02-01

297

76 FR 59407 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information...report of scientific and medical literature and information...Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

2011-09-26

298

Understanding Fibromyalgia: Lessons from the Broader Pain Research Community  

PubMed Central

Fibromaylgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition marked by centrally-mediated augmentation of pain and sensory processes. Skepticism has marked the history of this condition, but more recent study has identified neurobiological underpinnings supporting many of the symptoms associated with this condition. Early research in FM had unprecedented latitude within the Rheumatology community to borrow heavily from theory and methods being applied in chronic pain research more generally. These insights facilitated rapid advances in FM research; not the least of which was the abandonment of a peripheral focus in favor of studying central mechanisms associated with central augmentation. Currently, rapid paced discovery is taking place in FM genetics, patient assessment, new therapeutic targets, and novel methods of treatment delivery. Such insights are not likely to be limited in application just to FM; but could have relevance to the broader field of pain research as well. Perspective This manuscript reviews the history of FM and its diagnosis, evidence supporting central augmentation of pain in FM, potential mechanisms of central augmentation, current approaches to integrated care of FM, and areas of active collaboration between FM research and other chronic pain conditions. PMID:19638325

Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

2009-01-01

299

HIGHER DEGREE RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES A COMMUNITY CREATED FOR ADVANCING HUMAN-CENTRED DESIGN RESEARCH  

E-print Network

also reducing the risk of further disability. International research communities Being part, sport, and aged care industry Services industry Product manufacturing industry Public good sector Roger Ball (2015) Head: Smart cap and gear core project · Ergonomics and Sports design roger

Liley, David

300

Eigenvector Centrality Based on Shared Research Topics in a Scientific Community  

E-print Network

Eigenvector Centrality Based on Shared Research Topics in a Scientific Community Antonio P researchers and interest groups that join them on the base of shared research topics in a given scientific Scientific communities are commonly defined as networks of scientists, researchers and professionals who aim

Boyer, Edmond

301

After epidemiological research: what next? Community action for health promotion.  

PubMed

The underlying purpose of all epidemiological research is ultimately to use inferences in order to prevent disease and promote health and well-being. Effective skills in translating results into appropriate policy, programs, and interventions are inherently tricky, and often politically controversial. Generally they are not taught to epidemiologists formally, even though they are a traditionally part of public health practice. To move from findings to policy change requires that the informed and committed epidemiologist should known how to: (1) organize affected parties to negotiate successfully with government and industry; (2) activate populations at risk to protect their health (3) communicate responsibly with lay persons about their health risks so as to encourage effective activism; (4) collaborate with other professionals to achieve disease prevention and health promotion goals. The paper presents and discusses four case studies to illustrate these strategies: (1) the grass-roots social action that was the response of the community to the environmental contamination at Love Canal, New York; (2) mobilization of recognized leaders within the gay community to disseminate HIV risk reduction techniques; (3) collaboration with an existing voluntary organization interested in community empowerment through health promotion in a Chicago slum by using existing hospital, emergency room admissions, and local motor vehicle accident data; (4) a self-help group, MADD (mothers against drunk driving) which fought to change public policy to limit and decrease drunk driving. In addition, the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration and responsible communication with the public is emphasized. Factors that limit the ability of the epidemiologist to move into public health action are discussed, including who owns the research findings, what is the degree of scientific uncertainty, and the cost-benefit balance of taking affirmative public action. Putting epidemiological knowledge to good use should be an integral part of an epidemiologist's repertoire. PMID:7708945

Cwikel, J G

1994-01-01

302

An eQTL biological data visualization challenge and approaches from the visualization community  

PubMed Central

In 2011, the IEEE VisWeek conferences inaugurated a symposium on Biological Data Visualization. Like other domain-oriented Vis symposia, this symposium's purpose was to explore the unique characteristics and requirements of visualization within the domain, and to enhance both the Visualization and Bio/Life-Sciences communities by pushing Biological data sets and domain understanding into the Visualization community, and well-informed Visualization solutions back to the Biological community. Amongst several other activities, the BioVis symposium created a data analysis and visualization contest. Unlike many contests in other venues, where the purpose is primarily to allow entrants to demonstrate tour-de-force programming skills on sample problems with known solutions, the BioVis contest was intended to whet the participants' appetites for a tremendously challenging biological domain, and simultaneously produce viable tools for a biological grand challenge domain with no extant solutions. For this purpose expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) data analysis was selected. In the BioVis 2011 contest, we provided contestants with a synthetic eQTL data set containing real biological variation, as well as a spiked-in gene expression interaction network influenced by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA variation and a hypothetical disease model. Contestants were asked to elucidate the pattern of SNPs and interactions that predicted an individual's disease state. 9 teams competed in the contest using a mixture of methods, some analytical and others through visual exploratory methods. Independent panels of visualization and biological experts judged entries. Awards were given for each panel's favorite entry, and an overall best entry agreed upon by both panels. Three special mention awards were given for particularly innovative and useful aspects of those entries. And further recognition was given to entries that correctly answered a bonus question about how a proposed "gene therapy" change to a SNP might change an individual's disease status, which served as a calibration for each approaches' applicability to a typical domain question. In the future, BioVis will continue the data analysis and visualization contest, maintaining the philosophy of providing new challenging questions in open-ended and dramatically underserved Bio/Life Sciences domains. PMID:22607587

2012-01-01

303

Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

1983-05-01

304

Quantifying biological integrity of California sage scrub communities using plant life-form cover.  

SciTech Connect

The California sage scrub (CSS) community type in California's Mediterranean-type ecosystems supports a large number of rare, threatened, and endangered species, and is critically degraded and endangered. Monitoring ecological variables that provide information about community integrity is vital to conserving these biologically diverse communities. Fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground should fill information gaps between generalized vegetation type maps and detailed field-based plot measurements of species composition and provide an effective means for quantifying CSS community integrity. Remote sensing is the only tool available for estimating spatially comprehensive fractional cover over large extent, and fractional cover of plant life-form types is one of the measures of vegetation state that is most amenable to remote sensing. The use of remote sensing does not eliminate the need for either field surveying or vegetation type mapping; rather it will likely require a combination of approaches to reliably estimate life-form cover and to provide comprehensive information for communities. According to our review and synthesis, life-form fractional cover has strong potential for providing ecologically meaningful intermediate-scale information, which is unattainable from vegetation type maps and species-level field measurements. Thus, we strongly recommend incorporating fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herb, and bare ground in CSS community monitoring methods. Estimating life-form cover at a 25 m x 25 m spatial scale using remote sensing would be an appropriate approach for initial implementation. Investigation of remote sensing techniques and an appropriate spatial scale; collaboration of resource managers, biologists, and remote sensing specialists, and refinement of protocols are essential for integrating life-form fractional cover mapping into strategies for sustainable long-term CSS community management.

Hamada, Y.; Stow, D. A.; Franklin, J. (Environmental Science Division); (San Diego State University, Department of Geography); (Arizona State University, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning)

2010-01-01

305

Training Partnership Dyads for Community-Based Participatory Research: Strategies and Lessons Learned From the Community Engaged Scholars Program  

PubMed Central

This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus–community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution’s Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-P provides simultaneous training to CBPR teams, with each team consisting of at least one community partner and one academic partner. Program elements include 12 months of monthly interactive group sessions, mentorship with apprenticeship opportunities, and funding for a CBPR pilot project. A modified RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation plan. Lessons learned include challenges of group instruction with varying levels of readiness among the CBPR partners, navigating the institutional review board process with community co-investigators, and finding appropriate academic investigators to match community research interests. Future directions are recommended for this promising and unique dyadic training of academic and community partners. PMID:23091303

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A.; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E.; Slaughter, Sabra

2014-01-01

306

Paul Tabbush Social Research Group Consultation and community  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Research methods

307

Reducing diabetes health disparities through community-based participatory action research: the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition.  

PubMed Central

To address disproportionately high rates of diabetes morbidity and mortality in some of Chicago's medically underserved minority neighborhoods, a group of community residents, medical and social service providers, and a local university founded the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention REACH 2010 Initiative. A community-based participatory action research model guided coalition activities from conceptualization through implementation. Capacity building activities included training on: diabetes, coalition building, research methods, and action planning. Other activities sought to increase coalition members' understanding of the social causes and potential solutions for health disparities related to diabetes. Trained coalition members conducted epidemiologic analyses, focus groups, a telephone survey, and a community inventory. All coalition members participated in decisions. The participatory process led to increased awareness of the complexities of diabetes in the community and to a state of readiness for social action. Data documented disparities in diabetes. The participatory action research approach (a) encouraged key stakeholders outside of the health care sector to participate (e.g., business sector, church groups); (b) permitted an examination of the sociopolitical context affecting the health of the community; (c) provided an opportunity to focus on preventing the onset of diabetes and its complications; (d) increased understanding of the importance of community research in catalyzing social action aimed at community and systems change and change among change agents. PMID:12815078

Giachello, Aida L.; Arrom, Jose O.; Davis, Margaret; Sayad, Judith V.; Ramirez, Dinah; Nandi, Chandana; Ramos, Catalina

2003-01-01

308

INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VENT FLUID CHEMISTRY, TEMPERATURE, SEISMIC ACTIVITY, AND BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AT A MUSSEL-DOMINATED,  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AT A MUSSEL-DOMINATED, DEEP-SEA HYDROTHERMAL VENT ALONG THE EAST PACIFIC RISE RICHARD A hydrothermal vents between 9°45# and 9°52#N along the crest of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Dramatic changes controlling biological community structure in these hydrothermal ecosystems. KEY WORDS: hydrothermal vents

Waldhauser, Felix

309

Interfacing mathematics and biology: a discussion on training, research, collaboration, and funding.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the discussion at a workshop on "Working at the Interface of Mathematics and Biology" at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. The goal of this workshop was to foster an ongoing discussion by the community on how to effectively train students from the biological, physical, engineering, and mathematical sciences to work at the intersection of these fields. One major point of discussion centered on how to be a successful interdisciplinary researcher in terms of where to publish, how to successfully write grants, and how to navigate evaluations for tenure and promotion. An emphasis was placed on the importance of developing strong multidisciplinary collaborations and clearly defining one's career trajectory to the home discipline. Another focus of the discussion was on the training of students and postdoctoral fellows in interdisciplinary work and helping these junior researchers to launch their careers. The group emphasized the need for the development of publicly available resources for biologists to learn basic tools for mathematical modeling and for mathematicians and engineers to see how their fields may be applied to current topics in the life sciences. PMID:22730496

Miller, Laura A; Alben, Silas

2012-11-01

310

Breeding biology of an afrotropical forest understory bird community in northeastern Tanzania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many aspects of the breeding biology of Afrotropical forest birds are poorly known. Here we provide a description based on the monitoring of 1461 active nests over eight breeding seasons about one or more aspects of the breeding biology for 28 coexisting understory bird species on the Amani Plateau in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Mean nest height and mean distance of nest from forest edge varied widely among species with most species constructing nests across a broad vertical and forest edge to interior gradient. However, there were important exceptions with all sunbird species and several dove and waxbill species constructing nests in close proximity to the forest edge. For 17 common species for which we recorded two or more active nests, mean clutch size across species was 1.9 eggs per clutch, the lowest site-specific mean clutch size yet reported for a tropical forest bird community. For nine bird species, a subset of the 17 common species, length of breeding season, defined as the difference between the earliest and latest recorded incubation onset date, ranged from 88–139 days. Most of these nine species displayed a unimodal distribution in incubation onset dates across a breeding season which extended from the end of August through middle January. In summary, a wide variation exists in most aspects of the breeding biology within an understory forest bird community in the East Usambara Mountains.

Mkongewa, Victor J.; Newmark, William D.; Stanley, Thomas R.

2013-01-01

311

Engaging and sustaining adolescents in community-based participatory research: structuring a youth-friendly community-based participatory research environment.  

PubMed

Community-Based Participatory Research partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low-income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly Community-Based Participatory Research environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners. PMID:25423241

LoIacono Merves, Marni; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J

2015-01-01

312

Perceptions of Community-Based Participatory Research in the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative: An Academic Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic–community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been used to develop sustainable nutrition intervention strategies. Focus groups were conducted with 22 faculty and staff members from the academic partners on the project to document their

Laura Hall Downey; Diana Cuy Castellanos; Kathy Yadrick; Amanda Avis-Williams; Susan Graham-Kresge; Margaret Bogle

2011-01-01

313

Global Biology: An Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Program at NASA Ames Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has initiated new effort in Global Biology, the primary focus of which is to understand biogeochemical cycles. As part of this effort, an interdisciplinary team of scientists has formed at Ames Research Center to investigate the cycling of sulfur in the marine coastal zone and to study the cycling of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Both studies will use remotely sensed data, coupled with ground-based research, to identify and measure the transfer of major and minor biologically produced gases between these ecosystems and global reservoirs.

Lawless, James G.; Colin, Lawrence

1984-01-01

314

Global biology - An interdisciplinary scientific research program at NASA, Ames Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has initiated new effort in Global Biology, the primary focus of which is to understand biogeochemical cycles. As part of this effort, an interdisciplinary team of scientists has formed at Ames Research Center to investigate the cycling of sulfur in the marine coastal zone and to study the cycling of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Both studies will use remotely sensed data, coupled with ground-based research, to identify and measure the transfer of major and minor biologically produced gases between these ecosystems and global reservoirs.

Lawless, J. G.; Colin, L.

1983-01-01

315

Xenopus laevis a success story of biological research in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clawed toad Xenopus laevis is a common experimental animal used in many disciplines of life sciences, such as integrative, developmental and molecular biology or experimental medicine. Since 30 years, Xenopus is used in biological research in space. Important milestones were the years 1975, when Xenopus embryos flew for the first time on the Russian space station Salut-4 and 1994, when Xenopus eggs were successfully fertilized for the first time in space during the Japanese Spacelab mission STS-47 and developed in microgravity to vital tadpoles. Most Xenopus studies were related to embryogenesis and development. Observations during and after altered gravity revealed changes such as the thickening of the blastocoel roof, the dorsalization of the tail, and modifications of vestibular reflexes, fictive and freely swimming. Many changes were reversible even during microgravity exposure. Studies about the vestibuloocular reflex or synapse formation revealed an age-related sensitivity to altered gravity. Xenopus offers useful tools for studies about microgravity effects on living systems. Its oocyte is a suitable model to study ion channel function in space; the dorsalization model can be used to analyse growth factor sensibilities. Hardware for life support of adults, tadpoles and embryos (cf. SUPPLY unit in combination with miniaquaria) as well as for controlled experiments in space are prerequisites for an extension of research with Xenopus. The application aspect is based on the fact that fundamental research per se brings benefit to man.

Horn, Eberhard R.

2006-01-01

316

State of laboratory manual instruction in California community college introductory (non-majors) biology laboratory instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

College students must complete a life science course prior to graduation for a bachelor's degree. Generally, the course has lecture and laboratory components. It is in the laboratory where there are exceptional opportunities for exploration, challenge and application of the material learned. Optimally, this would utilize the best of inquiry based approaches. Most community colleges are using a home-grown or self written laboratory manual for the direction of work in the laboratory period. Little was known about the motivation, development and adaptation of use. It was also not known about the future of the laboratory manuals in light of the recent learning reform in California Community Colleges, Student Learning Outcomes. Extensive interviews were conducted with laboratory manual authors to determine the motivation, process of development, who was involved and learning framework used in the creation of the manuals. It was further asked of manual authors their ideas about the future of the manual, the development of staff and faculty and finally, the role Student Learning Outcomes would play in the manual. Science faculty currently teaching the non-majors biology laboratories for at least two semesters were surveyed on-line about actual practice of the manual, assessment, manual flexibility, faculty training and incorporation of Student Learning Outcomes. Finally, an evaluation of the laboratory manual was done using an established Laboratory Task Analysis Instrument. Laboratory manuals were evaluated on a variety of categories to determine the level of inquiry instruction done by students in the laboratory section. The results were that the development of homegrown laboratory manuals was done by community colleges in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties in an effort to minimize the cost of the manual to the students, to utilize all the exercises in a particular lab and to effectively utilize the materials already owned by the department. Further, schools wanted to utilize the current faculty research expertise and knowledge. Unfortunately, laboratory manual authors had no real learning framework in the development of the manual. Based on the LAI, most manuals focused on the lowest levels of inquiry based instruction. Most manuals focused exercises on cell and molecular topics. The manuals had little student exploration, creation or design in the laboratory exercise and no option for repeating the exercise. There was a clear desire of faculty and authors to improve the laboratory experience and manual. Authors and faculty wished to include more inquiry and utilize the best of Student Learning Outcome (SLO) methodologies. Authors and the laboratory manuals have a major disconnect in that authors have clear desires inquiry based learning for the manual but do not effectively implement the inquiry based learning for various reasons. The manuals themselves, laboratory manuals themselves are not robust inquiry based learning models to maximize student learning. Authors and faculty are disconnected in that authors know what they want their manuals to do...but do not effectively communicate that to faculty. Finally, schools are in a "wait and see" approach as to when to integrate the latest learning theory mandated by the Chancellors Office -- Student Learning Outcomes.

Priest, Michelle

317

The Community College Presidency, 2001. Research Brief. Leadership Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on the 2001 survey results of community college presidents, administered by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). The AACC utilized the George B. Vaughan Career and Lifestyle Survey (CLS) to gather information on these community college leaders. The study surveyed 936 presidents of public American community

Weisman, Iris M.; Vaughan, George B.

318

Cambridge Healthtech Institute's Fourth Annual In silico Biology Conference "Modeling Systems Biology for Research and Target Prioritization"  

SciTech Connect

In silico biology, the computer aided analysis of biological systems, is a relatively young research area. It first has been coined in the late 1990's and emerged from Theoretical and Computational Biology. As in other fields before, biology experiences an increased use of systems mathematics and computer simulation. With the human genome sequence available, with an exponentially growing number of completely sequenced genomes from various model organisms and with expression and proteomic data at hand, the research paradigm is shifted towards systems analysis and simulation. Computer aided modeling of complex biomolecules and assemblies are already routinely performed. Nowadays, theoretical description and computer simulation of cellular components in larger intra- and inter-cellular networks is of growing importance. Together with classic biological and clinical experiments as well as data from functional genomics, in silico biology will take the leading role in the analysis of biological systems.

Forst, C. (Christian)

2002-01-01

319

Community member and faith leader perspectives on the process of building trusting relationships between communities and researchers.  

PubMed

In the first phase of this research, we conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed seven focus groups with more than 50 English- or Spanish-speaking women of childbearing age. Qualitative analysis revealed the following themes: (1) expectation that participation would involve relationships based on trust that is built over time and impacted by cultural factors; (2) perceived characteristics of research staff that would help facilitate the development of trusting relationships; (3) perceptions about the location of the visits that may affect trust; (4) perceptions of a research study and trust for the institution conducting the study may affect trust; (5) connecting the study to larger communities, including faith communities, could affect trust and willingness to participate. In the second phase of this research, we conducted, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed interviews with leaders from diverse faith communities to explore the potential for research partnerships between researchers and faith communities. In addition to confirming themes identified in focus groups, faith leaders described an openness to research partnerships between the university and faith communities and considerations for the formation of these partnerships. Faith leaders noted the importance of finding common ground with researchers, establishing and maintaining trusting relationships, and committing to open, bidirectional communication. PMID:24405695

Lakes, Kimberley D; Vaughan, Elaine; Pham, Jennifer; Tran, Tuyet; Jones, Marissa; Baker, Dean; Swanson, James M; Olshansky, Ellen

2014-02-01

320

Assessing the relationship between laboratory whole effluent toxicity test data and in-stream biological communities.  

PubMed

The ability of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests to predict in-stream effects to periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish in a habitat-impaired stream was assessed. Habitat assessment data were useful in interpreting in-stream conditions for periphyton and benthic macroinvertebrates. Various periphyton and macroinvertebrate metrics identified siltation effects as opposed to water quality effects in-stream. Pathogen effects noted in fathead minnow WET tests were not reflected in the fish community. Overall, in-stream biological conditions confirmed the absence of water quality-related effects as predicted by WET tests. PMID:19009223

Hall, Scott; Beeson, Dave; Kinsey, Mark; Heise, Liza; Lockwood, Rick

2009-03-01

321

An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion  

PubMed Central

Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0%) and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%), community programs (61.4%) and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%). Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0%) and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%), community programs (33.8%) and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%). Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated. PMID:22233608

2012-01-01

322

Pedagogies on the Edge: Researching Complex Practice in Youth and Adult Community Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research arose from our involvements in adults and community education, adult literacy, youth issues, and in researching the new movement in Australia for the inclusion of "generic skills" in education and training curriculum. We recruited twenty-two practitioners in Adult and Community Education (ACE) in a participatory action research

Sanguinetti, Jill; Waterhouse, Peter; Maunders, David

2005-01-01

323

Universities, Civil Society and the Global Agenda of Community-Engaged Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a key point of tension in contemporary discussions of community-university research engagement. Two perspectives are discussed. The first suggests that changes in the nature and structure of research have helped create democratic research spaces and opportunities within the university for communities. In this emerging…

Bourke, Alan

2013-01-01

324

Models of Community Care for Severe Mental Illness: A Review of Research on Case Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe different models of community care for persons with severe mental illness and review the research literature on case management, including the results of 75 studies. Most research has been conducted on the assertive community treatment (ACT) or intensive case management (ICM) models. Controlled research on ACT and ICM indicates that these models reduce time in the hospital and

Kim T. Mueser; Gary R. Bond; Robert E. Drake; Sandra G. Resnick

1998-01-01

325

y Models of Community Care for Severe Mental Illness: A Review of Research on Case Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe different models of community care for persons with severe mental illness and review the research literature on case management, including the results of 75 studies. Most research has been con- ducted on the assertive community treatment (ACT) or intensive case management (ICM) models. Controlled research on ACT and ICM indicates that these models reduce time in the hospital

Kim T. Mueser; Qary R. Bond; Robert E. Drake; Sandra Q. Resnick

326

Community College Journal for Research and Planning, Volume 2, Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a forum for research and discussion of issues relevant to community college researchers and planners, this journal issue begins with Kathryne Baratta-Wilders' discussion of the role of institutional research in the community college and her suggestions of ways for improving its status within an institution. Next, C. Nelson Grote…

Carter, Edith H., Ed.

1982-01-01

327

The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of space biology research to be conducted aboard the Space Station in 1990s include long-term studies of reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging in both animals and plants. They also include studies of the mechanisms by which gravitational stimuli are sensed, processed, and transmitted to a responsive site, and of the effect of microgravity on each component. The Space Station configuration will include a life sciences research facility, where experiment cyles will be on a 90-day basis (since the Space Station missions planned for the 1990s call for 90-day intervals). A modular approach is taken to accomodate animal habitats, plant growth chambers, and other specimen holding facilities; the modular habitats would be transportable between the launch systems, habitat racks, a workbench, and a variable-gravity centrifuge (included for providing artificial gravity and accurately controlled acceleration levels aboard Space Station).

Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

1987-01-01

328

2010 Tetrapyrroles, Chemistry & Biology of Gordon Research Conference  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles Gordon Conference is to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines that otherwise would not interact. By bringing biologists, chemists, engineers and clinicians with a common interest in tetrapyrroles the conference provides a forum for cross-disciplinary ideas and collaboration. The perspective provided by biologists, chemists, and clinicians working in fields such as newly discovered defects in human porphyrin metabolism, the myriad of strategies for light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms, novel tetrapyrroles that serve as auxiliary chromophores or enzyme cofactors, synthetic strategies in the design of novel tetrapyrrole scaffolds, and tetrapyrrole based cell signaling and regulatory systems, makes this conference unique in the field. Over the years the growing evidence for the role of tetrapyrroles and their reactive intermediates in cell signaling and regulation has been of increasing importance at this conference. The 2010 conference on Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles will focus on many of these new frontiers as outlined in the preliminary program listed. Speakers will emphasize unpublished results and new findings in the field. The oral sessions will be followed by the highly interactive afternoon poster sessions. The poster sessions provide all conferees with the opportunity to present their latest research and to exchange ideas in a more informal setting. As in the past, this opportunity will continue during the nightly social gathering that takes place in the poster hall following the evening lectures. All conferees are encouraged to submit and present posters. At the conference the best poster in the areas of biology, chemistry and medicine will be selected by a panel of previous conference chairs.

Angela Wilks

2010-07-30

329

Low-gravity Orbiting Research Laboratory Environment Potential Impact on Space Biology Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major objectives of any orbital space research platform is to provide a quiescent low gravity, preferably a zero gravity environment, to perform fundamental as well as applied research. However, small disturbances exist onboard any low earth orbital research platform. The impact of these disturbances must be taken into account by space research scientists during their research planning, design and data analysis in order to avoid confounding factors in their science results. The reduced gravity environment of an orbiting research platform in low earth orbit is a complex phenomenon. Many factors, among others, such as experiment operations, equipment operation, life support systems and crew activity (if it is a crewed platform), aerodynamic drag, gravity gradient, rotational effects as well as the vehicle structural resonance frequencies (structural modes) contribute to form the overall reduced gravity environment in which space research is performed. The contribution of these small disturbances or accelerations is precisely why the environment is NOT a zero gravity environment, but a reduced acceleration environment. This paper does not discuss other factors such as radiation, electromagnetic interference, thermal and pressure gradient changes, acoustic and CO2 build-up to name a few that affect the space research environment as well, but it focuses solely on the magnitude of the acceleration level found on orbiting research laboratory used by research scientists to conduct space research. For ease of analysis this paper divides the frequency spectrum relevant to most of the space research disciplines into three regimes: a) quasi-steady, b) vibratory and c) transient. The International Space Station is used as an example to illustrate the point. The paper discusses the impact of these three regimes on space biology research and results from space flown experiments are used to illustrate the potential negative impact of these disturbances (accelerations) on space biology research.

Jules, Kenol

2006-01-01

330

The Australian BioGrid Portal: Empowering the Molecular Docking Research Community  

E-print Network

with archival of these results. The portal aims to become a complete molecular docking e-Research platform, from for achieving the higher goals of the Grid ­ creating e-Research environments [2]. A number of initiatives research communities, researchers can go back to focussing on their research, and the true value of e-Research

Melbourne, University of

331

Using biological control research in the classroom to promote scientific inquiry and literacy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many scientists who research biological control also teach at universities or more informally through cooperative outreach. The purpose of this paper is to review biological control activities for the classroom in four refereed journals, The American Biology Teacher, Journal of Biological Education...

332

The roles of biological interactions and pollutant contamination in shaping microbial benthic community structure.  

PubMed

Biological interactions between metazoans and the microbial community play a major role in structuring food webs in aquatic sediments. Pollutants can also strongly affect the structure of meiofauna and microbial communities. This study aims investigating, in a non-contaminated sediment, the impact of meiofauna on bacteria facing contamination by a mixture of three PAHs (fluoranthene, phenanthrene and pyrene). Sediment microcosms were incubated in the presence or absence of meiofauna during 30 days. Bioremediation treatments, nutrient amendment and addition of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium, were also tested to enhance PAH biodegradation. Results clearly show the important role of meiofauna as structuring factor for bacterial communities with significant changes observed in the molecular fingerprints. However, these structural changes were not concomitant with changes in biomass or function. PAH contamination had a severe impact on total meiofaunal abundance with a strong decrease of nematodes and the complete disappearance of polychaetes and copepods. In contrast, correspondence analysis, based on T-RFLP fingerprints, showed that contamination by PAH resulted in small shifts in microbial composition, with or without meiofauna, suggesting a relative tolerance of bacteria to the PAH cocktail. The PAH bioremediation treatments were highly efficient with more than 95% biodegradation. No significant difference was observed in presence or absence of meiofauna. Nutrient addition strongly enhanced bacterial and meiofaunal abundances as compared to control and contaminated microcosms, as well as inducing important changes in the bacterial community structure. Nutrients thus were the main structural factor in shaping bacterial community composition, while the role of meiofauna was less evident. PMID:24206831

Louati, Hela; Said, Olfa Ben; Soltani, Amel; Got, Patrice; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert; Aissa, Patricia; Pringault, Olivier

2013-11-01

333

Primary and complex stressors in polluted mediterranean rivers: Pesticide effects on biological communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryWe examined the presence of pesticides in the Llobregat river basin (Barcelona, Spain) and their effects on benthic biological communities (invertebrates and diatoms). The Llobregat river is one of Barcelona's major drinking water resources. It has been highly polluted by industrial, agricultural, and urban wastewaters, and—as a typical Mediterranean river—is regularly subjected to periodic floods and droughts. Water scarcity periods result in reduced water flow and dilution capacity, increasing the potential environmental risk of pollutants. Seven sites were selected, where we analysed the occurrence of 22 pesticides (belonging to the classes of triazines, organophosphates, phenylureas, anilides, chloroacetanilides, acidic herbicides and thiocarbamates) in the water and sediment, and the benthic community structure. Biofilm samples were taken to measure several metrics related to both the algal and bacterial components of fluvial biofilms. Multivariate analyses revealed a potential relationship between triazine-type herbicides and the distribution of the diatom community, although no evidence of disruption in the invertebrate community distribution was found. Biofilm metrics were used as response variables rather than abundances of individual species to identify possible cause-effect relationships between pesticide pollution and biotic responses. Certain effects of organophosphates and phenylureas in both structural and functional aspects of the biofilm community were suggested, but the sensitivity of each metric to particular stressors must be assessed before we can confidently assign causality. Complemented with laboratory experiments, which are needed to confirm causality, this approach could be successfully incorporated into environmental risk assessments to better summarise biotic integrity and improve the ecological management.

Ricart, Marta; Guasch, Helena; Barceló, Damià; Brix, Rikke; Conceição, Maria H.; Geiszinger, Anita; José López de Alda, Maria; López-Doval, Julio C.; Muñoz, Isabel; Postigo, Cristina; Romaní, Anna M.; Villagrasa, Marta; Sabater, Sergi

2010-03-01

334

WHO DECIDES? - DETERMINING THE WOMEN'S HEALTH RESEARCH AGENDA FOR ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER COMMUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reflects on the issue of who determines the women's health research agenda and is based on my experiences while working as a female general practitioner in remote communities with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The higher birth rates in these communities mask subfertility or infertility. In many of these communities there are high rates of sexually transmitted

Beres Joyner

335

Community Geography as a Model for International Research Experiences in Study Abroad Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative engagement with local residents and organizations is often cited as one of the most valuable aspects of community-based research integration in classroom settings. However, little has been written on the impact of community engagement in international study abroad programs. We explore the use of community geography in Belize to…

Hawthorne, Timothy L.; Atchison, Christopher; LangBruttig, Artis

2014-01-01

336

Work Characteristics and Pesticide Exposures among Migrant Agricultural Families: A Community-Based Research Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farm- worker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in

Linda A. McCauley; Michael R. Lasarev; Gregory Higgins; Joan Rothlein; Juan Muniz; Caren Ebbert; Jacki Phillips

2001-01-01

337

Using Theory to Inform Capacity-Building: Bootstrapping Communities of Practice in Computer Science Education Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe our efforts in the deliberate creation of a community of practice of researchers in computer science education (CSEd). We understand community of practice in the sense in which Wenger describes it, whereby the community is character- ized by mutual engagement in a joint enterprise that gives rise to a shared repertoire of knowledge, artefacts, and

SALLY FINCHER; JOSH TENENBERG

338

Community-University Research Partnerships for Workers' and Environmental Health in Campinas Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three partnerships between the University of Campinas, community, and public health care services are discussed in this article. A theoretical framework underpins the critical reviews of their accomplishments following criteria proposed by scholars of community-university partnerships and community-based participatory research. The article…

Monteiro, Maria Ines; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Filho, Heleno Rodrigues Correa

2011-01-01

339

Changing the Face of Research: Tribal Colleges Address Community Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article focuses on public health research projects which are being conducted at two Indian colleges; Candeska Cikana Community College in Fort Trotten, North Dakota and Turtle Mountain Community College in Belcourt, North Dakota. Candeska Community College was given a 6 year grant funded by the National Institutes of Diabetes, Digestive and…

Bird, Dorreen Yellow

2007-01-01

340

Learning-style preferences of Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the learning-style preferences and the demographic variables of age, gender, number of prior science courses, second language learner status, and earlier exposure to scientific information. Methodology. The study design was descriptive and ex post facto. The sample consisted of a total of 332 Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in General Biology 3. Major findings. The study revealed that Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in introductory biology at a large urban community college scored higher for the learning preference element of structure. Students twenty-five years and older scored higher for the learning preference elements of light, design, persistence, responsibility, and morning time (p <= 0.05). Females scored higher in the preference elements of (a) light, (b) temperature (warmth), (c) authority and (d) auditory (p <= 0.05). Significant differences were found for the elements of sound, warmth, motivation, several ways, and intake between the students with no prior science coursework and those who completed more than one (p <= 0.05). No significant learning-style preferences were found between second English language learners and those who learned English as their primary language (p <= 0.05). Students who frequently read science articles scored higher for the elements of motivation, persistence, responsibility, and tactile (p <= 0.05). Conclusions and recommendations. The conclusions were that Latino/Hispanic students need detailed guidance and clearly stated course objectives. The recommendations were: (1) College professors, counselors, and administrators must become aware of the Dunn learning-style model and instruments and on recent learning-style research articles on ethnically diverse groups of adult learners; and (2) Instructors should plan their instruction to incorporate the learning-style preferences of their students.

Sarantopoulos, Helen D.

341

Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

2012-01-01

342

The research of city community safety management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of society, more and more emphasis put on community safety, Community Safety Manager plays an important positive role in maintaining social safety and stability and the promotion of social harmony. Therefore, How to implement the innovative model of community management system, strengthening grass-roots development and democratic self-government building and improve the city economic, political and cultural development

Lizhen Liu; Maohong Zhang; Lei Chen; Chao Du

2010-01-01

343

Research Leadership for the Community-Engaged University: Key Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Great Britain, attempts to broaden university-community engagement have taken significant steps in recent years. A wide variety of community-engagement structures and activities are now emerging. This paper uses one innovative example--University of Brighton's Community-University Partnership Program--to describe the opportunities and probe the…

Hart, Angie; Church, Andrew

2011-01-01

344

Faculty Beliefs, Perceptions, and Level of Community Involvement in Their Research: A Survey at One Urban Academic Institution  

PubMed Central

Health researchers are increasingly interested in how best to engage communities in their health-related research studies. To help determine how researchers have interacted with community members in their research, we conducted a survey of full-time faculty from the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions regarding researchers’ beliefs and experiences with community-based research. Approximately 41% of respondents who conducted human subject studies had enrolled local residents in their research. Researchers whose studies were based in the surrounding community were significantly more likely to involve community members in all stages of their research (e.g., selection of the problem, project planning, data collection, interpretation and dissemination of results, or developing an intervention) than were faculty whose studies enrolled community members as research participants but whose studies were not set in the community. Over 90% of all faculty respondents agree that community involvement improves the relevance of their research, although almost 60% had not done so. Most faculty value community involvement, but they want more institutional support for such activities and they seek better skills to involve community. Few studies have surveyed researchers who enroll community members as research participants to document practices regarding community involvement in the research process. Given that the majority (73.6%) of faculty responded that they intend to include local residents in their upcoming studies, future research to evaluate interventions designed to facilitate community involvement, especially in the inner city, would help stakeholders identify best practices for involving and engaging communities in health research. PMID:21133788

Goldberg-Freeman, Clara; Kass, Nancy; Gielen, Andrea; Tracey, Patricia; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Farfel, Mark

2011-01-01

345

“You've Gotta Know the Community”: Minority Women Make Recommendations About Community-Focused Health Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine what ethnic and racial minority women recommend as the best approaches to participatory health research in their communities. To achieve this goal, this study focused on HIV prevention research.Methods: In 2003, Seven African American and seven Latina women (ages 33 to 52), all members of an HIV Prevention Collaborative Board, participated in individual interviews, lasting about 90

Rogério M. Pinto; Mary M. McKay; Celeste Escobar

2008-01-01

346

Impacts of Volcanic Eruptions and Disturbances on Mid-Ocean Ridge Biological Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding ecological processes in mid-ocean ridge benthic environments requires a knowledge of the temporal and spatial scales over which those processes take place. Over the past 17 years, the detection and now “direct observation” of more than nine seafloor eruptions and even more numerous and diverse geologic disturbances (e.g., dyking and cracking events) have provided a broad spectrum of perturbating seafloor phenomena that serve as key agents for creating new vent habitat, providing bursts of nutrients, supporting blooms of microbial and macrobiological communities, imparting magmatic/hydrothermal fluxes, controlling fluid geochemical composition, altering the successional stage of faunal communities, guiding the temporal and spatial scales of local extinction and recolonization, and for directing the evolution of physiological adaptations. Eruptions have now been documented on the East Pacific Rise, Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Gakkel Ridge, Galapagos Rift, CoAxial, Northwest Rota, West Mata, and Loihi Seamounts, representing diverse emergent eruptive styles, from explosive pyroclastic deposits to thin lava flows, these processes are occurring in different biogeographic regions hosting different regional species pools. As such, not only do these eruptions provide a method of establishing a “time-zero” with which to construct manipulative temporal experiments, but also provide a contextual framework with which to interpret the affect eruptions and disturbance have on ecological interactions in different biogeographic regions of the world, and the timescales over which they vary. The temporal and spatial impact of these different eruptive styles in relation to the alteration of biological community structure will be discussed.

Shank, T. M.

2009-12-01

347

A comparative study of the bacterial community in denitrifying and traditional enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes.  

PubMed

Denitrifying phosphorus removal is an attractive wastewater treatment process due to its reduced carbon source demand and sludge minimization potential. Two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated in alternating anaerobic-anoxic (A-A) or anaerobic-oxic (A-O) conditions to achieve denitrifying enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR) and traditional EBPR. No significant differences were observed in phosphorus removal efficiencies between A-A SBR and A-O SBR, with phosphorus removal rates being 87.9% and 89.0% respectively. The community structures in denitrifying and traditional EBPR processes were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing of the PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes from each sludge. The results obtained showed that the bacterial community was more diverse in A-O sludge than in A-A sludge. Taxonomy and ?-diversity analyses indicated that a significant shift occurred in the dominant microbial community in A-A sludge compared with the seed sludge during the whole acclimation phase, while a slight fluctuation was observed in the abundance of the major taxonomies in A-O sludge. One Dechloromonas-related OTU outside the 4 known Candidatus "Accumulibacter" clades was detected as the main OTU in A-A sludge at the stationary operation, while Candidatus "Accumulibacter" dominated in A-O sludge. PMID:24964811

Lv, Xiao-Mei; Shao, Ming-Fei; Li, Chao-Lin; Li, Ji; Gao, Xin-Lei; Sun, Fei-Yun

2014-09-17

348

A Comparative Study of the Bacterial Community in Denitrifying and Traditional Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Processes  

PubMed Central

Denitrifying phosphorus removal is an attractive wastewater treatment process due to its reduced carbon source demand and sludge minimization potential. Two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated in alternating anaerobic-anoxic (A-A) or anaerobic-oxic (A-O) conditions to achieve denitrifying enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR) and traditional EBPR. No significant differences were observed in phosphorus removal efficiencies between A-A SBR and A-O SBR, with phosphorus removal rates being 87.9% and 89.0% respectively. The community structures in denitrifying and traditional EBPR processes were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing of the PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes from each sludge. The results obtained showed that the bacterial community was more diverse in A-O sludge than in A-A sludge. Taxonomy and ?-diversity analyses indicated that a significant shift occurred in the dominant microbial community in A-A sludge compared with the seed sludge during the whole acclimation phase, while a slight fluctuation was observed in the abundance of the major taxonomies in A-O sludge. One Dechloromonas-related OTU outside the 4 known Candidatus “Accumulibacter” clades was detected as the main OTU in A-A sludge at the stationary operation, while Candidatus “Accumulibacter” dominated in A-O sludge. PMID:24964811

Lv, Xiao-Mei; Shao, Ming-Fei; Li, Chao-Lin; Li, Ji; Gao, Xin-lei; Sun, Fei-Yun

2014-01-01

349

Native Hawaiian preferences for informed consent and disclosure of results from research using stored biological specimens.  

PubMed

Increasingly, genetic and biomedical researchers are developing protocols to reexamine human tissue specimens that were obtained and stored during clinical care or previous research studies. Although some communities and associations are developing guidelines for human-tissue research, guideline development rarely considers consumer preferences for informed consent and disclosure of results. This study, examining Native Hawaiian preferences for informed consent and disclosure of results (n = 429, 83.2% Native Hawaiian), was modeled after a national study of consumer preferences, allowing comparison between the national sample and the Hawai'i-based sample. The interview schedule included two scenarios on research requiring the re-use of clinically derived and research-derived biological specimens. For each, participants were asked if informed consent should be required: a) in general; b) if the specimen was personally identified; and c) if the specimen was de-identified, or anonymized. Participants were also asked if they would want to know the results of the research and if they would want their doctor to be told. Regardless of how specimens were obtained, 78% of Native Hawaiians would want to be asked for their consent for the re-use of identified specimens and about 35% would want to be consented for the re-use of anonymized specimens. In both cases, Native Hawaiians in the Hawai'i sample were more likely than Whites in the national sample to want an informed consent process. Similar proportions in both samples would want findings from research on stored specimens reported to them (about 90%) and to their physicians (about 80%). These findings call into question the "Common Rule" and the guidelines of the American Society of Human Genetics, which do not require researchers to obtain informed consent for research use of anonymized specimens. PMID:16281693

Fong, Megan; Braun, Kathryn L; Chang, R Mei-Ling

2004-09-01

350

The 2015 nucleic acids research database issue and molecular biology database collection.  

PubMed

The 2015 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue contains 172 papers that include descriptions of 56 new molecular biology databases, and updates on 115 databases whose descriptions have been previously published in NAR or other journals. Following the classification that has been introduced last year in order to simplify navigation of the entire issue, these articles are divided into eight subject categories. This year's highlights include RNAcentral, an international community portal to various databases on noncoding RNA; ValidatorDB, a validation database for protein structures and their ligands; SASBDB, a primary repository for small-angle scattering data of various macromolecular complexes; MoonProt, a database of 'moonlighting' proteins, and two new databases of protein-protein and other macromolecular complexes, ComPPI and the Complex Portal. This issue also includes an unusually high number of cancer-related databases and other databases dedicated to genomic basics of disease and potential drugs and drug targets. The size of NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection, http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/a/, remained approximately the same, following the addition of 74 new resources and removal of 77 obsolete web sites. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research web site (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/). PMID:25593347

Galperin, Michael Y; Rigden, Daniel J; Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M

2015-01-28

351

Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife Biology, Ecology, and Management  

E-print Network

Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife Biology, Ecology, and Management of Western Hemlock Dwarf Mistletoe in Coastal British.W. Negrave. 2007. Biology, Ecology, and Management of Western Hemlock Dwarf Mistletoe in Coastal British

352

Accelerating cancer systems biology research through Semantic Web technology.  

PubMed

Cancer systems biology is an interdisciplinary, rapidly expanding research field in which collaborations are a critical means to advance the field. Yet the prevalent database technologies often isolate data rather than making it easily accessible. The Semantic Web has the potential to help facilitate web-based collaborative cancer research by presenting data in a manner that is self-descriptive, human and machine readable, and easily sharable. We have created a semantically linked online Digital Model Repository (DMR) for storing, managing, executing, annotating, and sharing computational cancer models. Within the DMR, distributed, multidisciplinary, and inter-organizational teams can collaborate on projects, without forfeiting intellectual property. This is achieved by the introduction of a new stakeholder to the collaboration workflow, the institutional licensing officer, part of the Technology Transfer Office. Furthermore, the DMR has achieved silver level compatibility with the National Cancer Institute's caBIG, so users can interact with the DMR not only through a web browser but also through a semantically annotated and secure web service. We also discuss the technology behind the DMR leveraging the Semantic Web, ontologies, and grid computing to provide secure inter-institutional collaboration on cancer modeling projects, online grid-based execution of shared models, and the collaboration workflow protecting researchers' intellectual property. PMID:23188758

Wang, Zhihui; Sagotsky, Jonathan; Taylor, Thomas; Shironoshita, Patrick; Deisboeck, Thomas S

2013-01-01

353

Phytochemical and biological research of Fritillaria medicine resources.  

PubMed

The genus Fritillaria is a botanical source for various pharmaceutically active components, which have been commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Increasing interest in Fritillaria medicinal resources has led to additional discoveries of steroidal alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, glycosides and many other compounds in various Fritillaria species, and to investigations on their chemotaxonomy, molecular phylogeny and pharmacology. In continuation of studies on Fritillaria pharmacophylogeny, the phytochemistry, chemotaxonomy, molecular biology and phylogeny of Fritillaria and their relevance to drug efficacy is reviewed. Literature searching is used to characterize the global scientific effort in the flexible technologies being applied. The interrelationship within Chinese Bei Mu species and between Chinese species, and species distributed outside of China, is clarified by the molecular phylogenetic inferences based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. The incongruence between chemotaxonomy and molecular phylogeny is revealed and discussed. It is essential to study more species for both the sustainable utilization of Fritillaria medicinal resources and for finding novel compounds with potential clinical utility. Systems biology and omics technologies will play an increasingly important role in future pharmaceutical research involving the bioactive compounds of Fritillaria. PMID:23845541

Hao, Da-Cheng; Gu, Xiao-Jie; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Peng, Yong

2013-07-01

354

Building partnerships in community-based participatory research: budgetary and other cost considerations.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077

Hoeft, Theresa J; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B; James, Rosalina D; Boyer, Bert B

2014-03-01

355

Family Violence and the Need for Prevention Research in First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Communities.  

PubMed

Existing sources produce widely varying estimates of family violence in First Nations, Inuit, and Métis communities; taken together, they imply a convincing if poorly quantified higher risk of family violence in Aboriginal communities, with the greater burden borne by women. With the accelerating HIV epidemic in some Aboriginal communities, prevention of domestic violence takes on even greater urgency. Five planks in a prevention research platform include: training emerging researchers from all Aboriginal groups to promote culturally specific research; systematic review of unpublished and published knowledge of interventions that reduce domestic violence; intervention theory development specific to each community; attention to the particular ethical issues; and methods development focused on interventions. PMID:20975851

Andersson, Neil; Nahwegahbow, Amy

2010-01-01

356

Family Violence and the Need for Prevention Research in First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Communities1  

PubMed Central

Existing sources produce widely varying estimates of family violence in First Nations, Inuit, and Métis communities; taken together, they imply a convincing if poorly quantified higher risk of family violence in Aboriginal communities, with the greater burden borne by women. With the accelerating HIV epidemic in some Aboriginal communities, prevention of domestic violence takes on even greater urgency. Five planks in a prevention research platform include: training emerging researchers from all Aboriginal groups to promote culturally specific research; systematic review of unpublished and published knowledge of interventions that reduce domestic violence; intervention theory development specific to each community; attention to the particular ethical issues; and methods development focused on interventions. PMID:20975851

Andersson, Neil; Nahwegahbow, Amy

2010-01-01

357

Using Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) To Target Health Disparities in Families  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an action research approach that emphasizes collaborative partnerships between community members, community organizations, health care providers, and researchers to generate knowledge and solve local problems. Although relatively new to the field of family social science, family and health researchers have been using CBPR for over a decade. This paper will introduce CBPR methods, illustrate the usefulness of CBPR methods in families and health research, describe two CBPR projects related to diabetes, and conclude with lessons learned and strengths and weaknesses of CBPR. PMID:20625444

Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Doherty, William J.

2010-01-01

358

The voice of theThe voice of the research communityresearch community  

E-print Network

Automatique, France), France) Medical Research Council (UK)Medical Research Council (UK) British Heart FoundationBritish Heart Foundation Association of Medical Research CharitiesAssociation of Medical Research Charities (UKThe voice of theThe voice of the research communityresearch community February 2007February 2007

Harnad, Stevan

359

Report of the Research Secretariat on Social Services and Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Research Secretariat on Social Services and Community Development was one of the five Hispanic research task forces funded by the Ford Foundation to determine Hispanic research priorities. Its three major purposes were the following: (1) to develop an Hispanic research and policy agenda which recommends research activities and prioritizes…

National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

360

Developing a community-based participatory research model to engage transition age youth using mental health service in research.  

PubMed

We present a model for the development and conduct of a community-based participatory research project with transition age youth (TAY) mental health service users. Community-based participatory research frameworks can facilitate equitable partnerships and meaningful inclusion but have not been fully drawn upon in mental health research. The model included TAY as trained research associates involved in every aspect of the research process. We describe the development of the project, creation of the research team, training, the design and conduct of the study, and challenges faced. The methods developed successfully provided support for the meaningful participation of TAY in the project. PMID:25423247

Lincoln, Alisa K; Borg, Ryan; Delman, Jonathan

2015-01-01

361

STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)  

SciTech Connect

The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages. The development of publicly accessible, web-based servers, including the HOTPATCH server, the ProKnow Server and the SAVEs server. All of these are accessible from the home page of the Institute. Advancing the science of bioenergy, in the laboratories of the Principal Investigators of the Institute, including the laboratories of Shimon Weiss, James Liao, James Bowie, Todd Yeates, Rob Gunsalus.

Eisenberg, David S.

2008-07-15

362

Use of Community Health Workers in Research With Ethnic Minority Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To explore roles and effectiveness of community health workers in research with ethnic minority tvomen in the United States (US). Methods: Medline (1966-2002) and CINAHL (Cumulative hidex to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; 1982-2002) databases were used to locate puhlished research studies on the use of community health workers with ethnic minority women in the VS. Key words for

Jeannette O. Andrews; Gwen Felton; Mary Ellen Wewers; Janie Heath

2004-01-01

363

Virtual Communities of Practice: Bridging Research and Practice Using Web 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant dilemma for the health and human service professions continues to be the question of how best to bridge the divide between academic research and practice. Communities of practice have traditionally been a vehicle for collaborative research and for information exchange (Moore, 2008). Through collaboration, communities of practice have…

Lewis, Laura A.; Koston, Zoe; Quartley, Marjorie; Adsit, Jason

2011-01-01

364

Rockbridge Poverty Assessment 2008 A Community-Based Research Project supported by  

E-print Network

Rockbridge Poverty Assessment 2008 A Community-Based Research Project supported by the Shepherd;Rockbridge Poverty Assessment 2008 2 A Community-Based Research Study supported by the Shepherd Program at Washington and Lee University THE SHEPHERD PROGRAM FOR THE INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF POVERTY AND HUMAN

Marsh, David

365

The role of community advisory boards in health research: Divergent views in the South African experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of the growing involvement of community advisory boards (CABs) in health research, this study presents empirical findings of the functions and operations of CABs in HIV\\/AIDS vaccine trials in South Africa. The individual and focus group interviews with CAB members, principal investigators, research staff, community educators, recruiters, ethics committee members, trial participants and South African AIDS Vaccine

Priscilla Reddy; David Buchanan; Sibusiso Sifunda; Shamagonam James; Nasheen Naidoo

2010-01-01

366

Applied Concepts of Holistic NursingA Spiritual Health Community Seminar Based on Religious Commitment Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for spiritual health seminars at the work site and through hospital and other community venues. This article describes how the authors prepared for and conducted seminars in their community. The research demonstrates that religious commitment may play a beneficial role in an individual’s health. Once the authors were armed with this research and a fundamentally sound

Christine R. Lottes; Del Engstrom; Lorri F. Engstrom

2002-01-01

367

An Engineering Approach to Management of Occupational and Community Noise Exposure at NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workplace and environmental noise issues at NASA Lewis Research Center are effectively managed via a three-part program that addresses hearing conservation, community noise control, and noise control engineering. The Lewis Research Center Noise Exposure Management Program seeks to limit employee noise exposure and maintain community acceptance for critical research while actively pursuing engineered controls for noise generated by more than 100 separate research facilities and the associated services required for their operation.

Cooper, Beth A.

1997-01-01

368

Cell Science and Cell Biology Research at MSFC: Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The common theme of these research programs is that they investigate regulation of gene expression in cells, and ultimately gene expression is controlled by the macromolecular interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA. The NASA Critical Path Roadmap identifies Muscle Alterations and Atrophy and Radiation Effects as Very Serious Risks and Severe Risks, respectively, in long term space flights. The specific problem addressed by Dr. Young's research ("Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Muscle Cell Signaling") is that skeletal muscle loss in space cannot be prevented by vigorous exercise. Aerobic skeletal muscles (i.e., red muscles) undergo the most extensive atrophy during long-term space flight. Of the many different potential avenues for preventing muscle atrophy, Dr. Young has chosen to study the beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) pathway. The reason for this choice is that a family of compounds called betaAR agonists will preferentially cause an increase in muscle mass of aerobic muscles (i.e., red muscle) in animals, potentially providing a specific pharmacological solution to muscle loss in microgravity. In addition, muscle atrophy is a widespread medical problem in neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injury, lack of exercise, aging, and any disease requiring prolonged bedridden status. Skeletal muscle cells in cell culture are utilized as a model system to study this problem. Dr. Richmond's research ("Radiation & Cancer Biology of Mammary Cells in Culture") is directed toward developing a laboratory model for use in risk assessment of cancer caused by space radiation. This research is unique because a human model will be developed utilizing human mammary cells that are highly susceptible to tumor development. This approach is preferential over using animal cells because of problems in comparing radiation-induced cancers between humans and animals.

2003-01-01

369

Research to reality: moving evidence into practice through an online community of practice.  

PubMed

How can a community of practice help further the practical application of cancer control research? In 2011, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) launched an online community of practice, Research to Reality (R2R). R2R aims to infuse evidence-based strategies into communities by engaging researchers and practitioners in a joint approach to research dissemination. To measure community growth and engagement, NCI measures data across 3 program domains: content, interaction, and activity. NCI uses Web analytics, usability testing, and content analyses to manage and evaluate R2R. As of December 2013, R2R had more than 1,700 registered members. More than 500 researchers and practitioners register for the monthly cyber-seminars, and 40% return each month. R2R hosts more than 15,500 page views and 5,000 site visits in an average month. This article describes the process of convening this online community and quantifies our experiences to date. PMID:24809364

Farrell, Margaret M; La Porta, Madeline; Gallagher, Alissa; Vinson, Cynthia; Bernal, Sarah Bruce

2014-01-01

370

Research to Reality: Moving Evidence Into Practice Through an Online Community of Practice  

PubMed Central

How can a community of practice help further the practical application of cancer control research? In 2011, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) launched an online community of practice, Research to Reality (R2R). R2R aims to infuse evidence-based strategies into communities by engaging researchers and practitioners in a joint approach to research dissemination. To measure community growth and engagement, NCI measures data across 3 program domains: content, interaction, and activity. NCI uses Web analytics, usability testing, and content analyses to manage and evaluate R2R. As of December 2013, R2R had more than 1,700 registered members. More than 500 researchers and practitioners register for the monthly cyber-seminars, and 40% return each month. R2R hosts more than 15,500 page views and 5,000 site visits in an average month. This article describes the process of convening this online community and quantifies our experiences to date. PMID:24809364

La Porta, Madeline; Gallagher, Alissa; Vinson, Cynthia; Bernal, Sarah Bruce

2014-01-01

371

The Community and Phylogenetic Diversity of Biological Soil Crusts in the Colorado Plateau Studied by Molecular Fingerprinting and Intensive Cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the bacterial communities in biological soil crusts (BSCs) from the Colorado Plateau by enrichment and cultivation, and by statistically analyzed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of environmental 16S rRNA genes, and phylogenetic analyses. Three 500-m-long transects, tens of km apart, consisting of 10 equally spaced samples each, were analyzed. BSC communities consistently displayed less richness (10–32 detectable

Sathyanarayana Reddy Gundlapally; Ferran Garcia-Pichel

2006-01-01

372

Microgravity research in plant biological systems: Realizing the potential of molecular biology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sole all-pervasive feature of the environment that has helped shape, through evolution, all life on Earth is gravity. The near weightlessness of the Space Station Freedom space environment allows gravitational effects to be essentially uncoupled, thus providing an unprecedented opportunity to manipulate, systematically dissect, study, and exploit the role of gravity in the growth and development of all life forms. New and exciting opportunities are now available to utilize molecular biological and biochemical approaches to study the effects of microgravity on living organisms. By careful experimentation, we can determine how gravity perception occurs, how the resulting signals are produced and transduced, and how or if tissue-specific differences in gene expression occur. Microgravity research can provide unique new approaches to further our basic understanding of development and metabolic processes of cells and organisms, and to further the application of this new knowledge for the betterment of humankind.

Lewis, Norman G.; Ryan, Clarence A.

1993-01-01

373

Integrating Research and Education at Research-Extensive Universities with Research-Intensive Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the Boyer Commission (1998) lamented the lack of research opportunities for all undergraduates at research-extensive universities, it did not provide a feasible solution consistent with the mandate for faculty to maintain sustainable physiology research programs. The costs associated with one-on-one mentoring, and the lack of a sufficient…

Desai, Ketaki V.; Gatson, Sarah N.; Stiles, Thomas W.; Stewart, Randolph H.; Laine, Glen A.; Quick, Christopher M.

2008-01-01

374

Challenges in conducting community-driven research created by differing ways of talking and thinking about science: a researcher's perspective  

PubMed Central

Increasingly, health scientists are becoming aware that research collaborations that include community partnerships can be an effective way to broaden the scope and enhance the impact of research aimed at improving public health. Such collaborations extend the reach of academic scientists by integrating a variety of perspectives and thus strengthening the applicability of the research. Communication challenges can arise, however, when attempting to address specific research questions in these collaborations. In particular, inconsistencies can exist between scientists and community members in the use and interpretation of words and other language features, particularly when conducting research with a biomedical component. Additional challenges arise from differing perceptions of the investigative process. There may be divergent perceptions about how research questions should and can be answered, and in expectations about requirements of research institutions and research timelines. From these differences, misunderstandings can occur about how the results will ultimately impact the community. These communication issues are particularly challenging when scientists and community members are from different ethnic and linguistic backgrounds that may widen the gap between ways of talking and thinking about science, further complicating the interactions and exchanges that are essential for effective joint research efforts. Community-driven research that aims to describe the burden of disease associated with Helicobacter pylori infection is currently underway in northern Aboriginal communities located in the Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada, with the goal of identifying effective public health strategies for reducing health risks from this infection. This research links community representatives, faculty from various disciplines at the University of Alberta, as well as territorial health care practitioners and officials. This highly collaborative work will be used to illustrate, from a researcher's perspective, some of the challenges of conducting public health research in teams comprising members with varying backgrounds. The consequences of these challenges will be outlined, and potential solutions will be offered. PMID:23986884

Colquhoun, Amy; Geary, Janis; Goodman, Karen J.

2013-01-01

375

Determining What We Stand for Will Guide What We Do: Community Priorities, Ethical Research Paradigms, and Research With Vulnerable Populations  

PubMed Central

Prisoners, ex-offenders, and the communities they belong to constitute a distinct and highly vulnerable population, and research must be sensitive to their priorities. In light of recent suggestions that scientific experimentation involving prisoners be reconsidered, community-based participatory research can be a valuable tool for determining the immediate concerns of prisoners, such as the receipt of high-quality and dignified health care inside and outside prisons. In building research agendas, more must be done to ensure the participation of communities affected by the resulting policies. PMID:19141599

Treadwell, Henrie M.

2009-01-01

376

Building Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships with a Somali Refugee Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The process of establishing a partnership with a Somali community is described wherein the challenges, successes, and lessons learned in the process of conducting CBPR are examined. Challenges obtaining informed consent, language barriers, and reliance on FGC self-report were surmounted through mobilization of community social networks, trust-building, and the use of a video-elicitation device. The community partnership collaborated around

Crista E. Johnson; Sagal A. Ali; Michèle P.-L. Shipp

2009-01-01

377

BUILDING A RESEARCH-COMMUNITY COLLABORATIVE TO IMPROVE COMMUNITY CARE FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS AT-RISK FOR AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS  

PubMed Central

This article describes the formation and initial outcomes of a research-community collaborative group that was developed based on community-based participatory research principles. The group includes a transdisciplinary team of practitioners, funding agency representatives, researchers, and families of children with autism spectrum disorders, who partnered to improve community-based care for infants and toddlers at risk for autism through the implementation of evidence-based practices. Data from this group provide support for the feasibility of developing and sustaining a highly synergistic and productive research-community collaborative group who shares common goals to improve community care. PMID:23878409

Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Lewis, Karyn; Feder, Joshua D.; Reed, Sarah

2013-01-01

378

The Community-First Land-Centred Theoretical Framework: Bringing a "Good Mind" to Indigenous Education Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces an emergent research theoretical framework, the community-first Land-centred research framework. Carefully examining the literature within Indigenous educational research, we noted the limited approaches for engaging in culturally aligned and relevant research within Indigenous communities. The community-first Land-centred…

Styres, Sandra D.; Zinga, Dawn M.

2013-01-01

379

For Community College Administrators, Staff and Faculty Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists a number of popular and useful master sites that librarians use when searching for community college resources and performing "comparisons shopping" on search engines. Subject directories tend to provide lists of community colleges by state and the four to six national organizations. (VWC)

Todaro, Julie Beth

2000-01-01

380

Martorana's Legacy: Research on State Systems of Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a few of the more important national characteristics of community colleges and state community college systems, the latter in three "snapshots" taken at different times in the 20th century. This paper is divided into the following topics of discussion: state coordination and governance structures, mission evolution, and state…

Tollefson, Terrence A.

381

New Canada Research Chairs for UAlberta National research chairs will lead promising research in education, health care, cell biology and Earth  

E-print Network

in education, health care, cell biology and Earth sciences. By Michael Brown on November 14, 2013 Montpetit: Understanding the fundamentals of cell biology The research being conducted in Ben Montpetit

Machel, Hans

382

A First Attempt to Bring Computational Biology into Advanced High School Biology Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer science has become ubiquitous in many areas of biological research, yet most high school and even college students are unaware of this. As a result, many college biology majors graduate without adequate computational skills for contemporary fields of biology. The absence of a computational element in secondary school biology classrooms is of growing concern to the computational biology community

Suzanne Renick Gallagher; William Coon; Kristin Donley; Abby Scott; Debra S. Goldberg

2011-01-01

383

Edge effects in the primate community of the biological dynamics of forest fragments project, Amazonas, Brazil.  

PubMed

While much is known about abiotic and vegetative edge effects in tropical forests, considerably less is known about the impact of forest edges on large mammals. In this study, we examine edge effects in a primate community to determine: 1) the distance from the edge over which edge effects in primate density are detectable, 2) whether individual species exhibit edge effects in their density, and 3) whether biological characteristics can be used to predict primate presence in edge habitats. Given their importance to many primate species, we also examine the influence of the number of large trees. We found edge penetration distances of 150 m for the five species that experienced edge effects, suggesting that primates respond to edge-related changes in the plant community that are known to be strongest over the first 150 m. Four species had higher edge densities: Alouatta macconnelli (folivore-frugivore), Chiropotes chiropotes (frugivorous seed predator), Saguinus midas (frugivore-faunivore), and Sapajus apella apella (frugivore-faunivore); one species' density was lower: Ateles paniscus (frugivore); and the final species, Pithecia chrysocephala (frugivorous seed predator), did not show an edge-related pattern. The lone significant relationship between the biological characteristics examined (body weight, diet, group size, and home range size) and primate presence in edge habitats was a negative relationship with the amount of fruit consumed. Though we did not examine primate responses to edges that border a denuded matrix, we have shown that edges influence primate distribution even following decades of secondary forest regeneration at habitat edges. PMID:25130367

Lenz, Bryan B; Jack, Katharine M; Spironello, Wilson R

2014-11-01

384

The 1984 Research Report to the Texas Association of Junior and Community College Instructional Administrators. Junior and Community College Research: Texas, 1983-84.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports and abstracts of research studies conducted by members of the Research Committee of the Texas Association of Junior and Community College Instructional Administrators are provided. Section I presents the following reports: "A Learner Analysis Experiment: Cognitive Style versus Learning Style in Undergraduate Nursing Education," by Charles…

Texas Association of Junior and Community Coll. Instructional Administrators.

385

Research progress of nuclear, biological and chemical polluted water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a major victim of the biochemical warfare in the history, China is confronting the threat of new nuclear, chemical and biological warfare nowadays. Water is the main transmission mode of nuclear, chemical and biological warfare agent. Therefore pure water treatment becomes an important mode of Three Defenses. This paper mainly introduces the characteristics of chemical and biological pollution, the

Wang Xiaojie; Li Xiaojing; Ji Yunzhe

2011-01-01

386

Teaching Molecular Biological Techniques in a Research Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Molecular biological methods, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis, are now commonly taught to students in introductory biology courses at the college and even high school levels. This often includes hands-on experience with one or more molecular techniques as part of a general biology laboratory. To assure that most…

Stiller, John W.; Coggins, T. Chad

2006-01-01

387

Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 25 river kilometers long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek have been increasing in recent years. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the water quality and biological communities in Fish Creek. Water-quality samples were collected for analyses of physical properties and water chemistry (nutrients, nitrate isotopes, and wastewater chemicals) between March 2007 and October 2008 from seven surface-water sites and three groundwater wells. During this same period, aquatic plant and macroinvertebrate samples were collected and habitat characteristics were measured at the surface-water sites. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate nutrient concentrations (that influence biological indicators of eutrophication) and potential sources of nutrients by using stable isotope analysis and other indicator chemicals (such as caffeine and disinfectants) that could provide evidence of anthropogenic sources, such as wastewater or septic tank contamination in Fish Creek and adjacent groundwater, and (2) characterize the algal, macrophyte, and macroinvertebrate communities and habitat of Fish Creek. Nitrate was the dominant species of dissolved nitrogen present in all samples and was the only bioavailable species detected at concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level in all surface-water samples. Average concentrations of dissolved nitrate in surface water were largest in samples collected from the two sites with seasonal flow near Teton Village and decreased downstream; the smallest concentration was at downstream site A-Wck. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate in groundwater were consistently greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event. Orthophosphate was the primary dissolved species of phosphorus present in all surface-water and groundwater samples. The average concentration of dissolved orthophosphate in surface water was largest in samples collected from near Teton Village; samples from all other sites had similar average concentrations. Concentrations of dissolved orthophosphate in groundwater also were typically greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event. The aquatic plant communities in Fish Creek typically were composed of a mixture of macrophytes, macroalgae, microalgae, and moss. The composition of the aquatic plant community in Fish Creek appeared to shift in the downstream direction in 2007. On average, the proportion of macrophytes ranged from about 1 percent at site A-R1U, the most upstream site, to 54 percent of the plant community at site A-R6D, the farthest downstream site sampled during 2007. The downstream increase in macrophytes was accompanied by a downstream decrease in microalgae. The average proportion of microalgae ranged from 80 percent at site A-R1U to 24 percent at site A-R6D. The proportion of the macroalgae Cladophora in the aquatic plant community was relatively high at sites A-Wck and A-R3D in both 2007 and 2008.

Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

388

Biological perspectives on Mauna Loa Volcano: A model system for ecological research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of evaluations of volcanic hazards, most of the surface lava flows of Mauna Loa have been mapped and dated. Each of these flows represents a valuable resource for ecological studies—a single-age, single-substrate transect reaching from near the summit towards the sea, often spanning a range of nearly 20°C in mean annual temperature. The set of flows on a particular flank of the mountain represents an age sequence of parallel transects, and the influence of precipitation can be assessed separately by examining flows of comparable age on different aspects of Mauna Loa. We evaluated the development of plant communities and the functioning of ecosystems across portions of the age-elevation-precipitation matrix on Mauna Loa. On the wet east flank, plant communities develop more slowly at high elevation, although the composition of the vegetation of young flows is similar at all elevations. However, rainforest ultimately develops on older flows below 1800 m elevation, while open woodlands dominate old flows at higher elevations. Rates of both plant production and decomposition increase with decreasing elevation (increasing temperature) on a given flow—but production increases linearly while decomposition increases exponentially. Consequently, soil carbon turnover and rates of nutrient cycling increase progressively from high to low elevation. These examples of ecological research illustrate how the relative simplicity of the biological systems on Mauna Loa, in combination with their relatively well-understood geology, allow us to evaluate processes that are difficult to study in more complex continental ecosystems.

Vitousek, Peter M.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Raich, James W.; Lockwood, John P.

389

Community Perspectives on Research Consent Involving Vulnerable Children in Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Involving vulnerable pediatric populations in international research requires culturally appropriate ethical protections. We sought to use mabaraza, traditional East African community assemblies, to understand how a community in western Kenya viewed participation of children in health research and informed consent and assent processes. Results from 108 participants revealed generally positive attitudes towards involving vulnerable children in research, largely because they assumed children would directly benefit. Consent from parents or guardians was understood as necessary for participation while gaining child assent was not. They felt other caregivers, community leaders, and even community assemblies could participate in the consent process. Community members believed research involving orphans and street children could benefit these vulnerable populations, but would require special processes for consent. PMID:23086047

Vreeman, Rachel; Kamaara, Eunice; Kamanda, Allan; Ayuku, David; Nyandiko, Winstone; Atwoli, Lukoye; Ayaya, Samuel; Gisore, Peter; Scanlon, Michael; Braitstein, Paula

2013-01-01

390

A Case Study of a Community-Based Participatory Evaluation Research (CBPER) Project: Reflections on Promising Practices and Shortcomings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instrumental case study documents a community-based participatory evaluation research (CBPER) project that involved a community partner, two graduate students, a faculty member, and an external funder. It highlights the fact that a participatory evaluation model is a viable way to conduct community-based research (CBR) when a community

Puma, Jini; Bennett, Laurie; Cutforth, Nick; Tombari, Chris; Stein, Paul

2009-01-01

391

Biological soil crusts across disturbance-recovery scenarios: effect of grazing regime on community dynamics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grazing represents one of the most common disturbances in drylands worldwide, affecting both ecosystem structure and functioning. Despite the efforts to understand the nature and magnitude of grazing effects on ecosystem components and processes, contrasting results continue to arise. This is particularly remarkable for the biological soil crust (BSC) communities (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichens, and bryophytes), which play an important role in soil dynamics. Here we evaluated simultaneously the effect of grazing impact on BSC communities (resistance) and recovery after livestock exclusion (resilience) in a semiarid grassland of Central Mexico. In particular, we examined BSC species distribution, species richness, taxonomical group cover (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichen, bryophyte), and composition along a disturbance gradient with different grazing regimes (low, medium, high impact) and along a recovery gradient with differently aged livestock exclosures (short-, medium-, long-term exclusion). Differences in grazing impact and time of recovery from grazing both resulted in slight changes in species richness; however, there were pronounced shifts in species composition and group cover. We found we could distinguish four highly diverse and dynamic BSC species groups: (1) species with high resistance and resilience to grazing, (2) species with high resistance but low resilience, (3) species with low resistance but high resilience, and (4) species with low resistance and resilience. While disturbance resulted in a novel diversity configuration, which may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning, we observed that 10 years of disturbance removal did not lead to the ecosystem structure found after 27 years of recovery. These findings are an important contribution to our understanding of BCS dynamics from a species and community perspective placed in a land use change context.

Concostrina-Zubiri, L.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Martínez, I.; Flores Flores, J. L.; Reyes-Agüero, J. A.; Escudero, A.; Belnap, Jayne

2014-01-01

392

A metagenome of a full-scale microbial community carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal  

PubMed Central

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used for removal of phosphorus from wastewater. In this study, a metagenome (18.2?Gb) was generated using Illumina sequencing from a full-scale EBPR plant to study the community structure and genetic potential. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was applied as an independent method to evaluate the community structure. The results were in qualitative agreement, but a DNA extraction bias against gram positive bacteria using standard extraction protocols was identified, which would not have been identified without the use of qFISH. The genetic potential for community function showed enrichment of genes involved in phosphate metabolism and biofilm formation, reflecting the selective pressure of the EBPR process. Most contigs in the assembled metagenome had low similarity to genes from currently sequenced genomes, underlining the need for more reference genomes of key EBPR species. Only the genome of ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter', a genus of phosphorus-removing organisms, was closely enough related to the species present in the metagenome to allow for detailed investigations. Accumulibacter accounted for only 4.8% of all bacteria by qFISH, but the depth of sequencing enabled detailed insight into their microdiversity in the full-scale plant. Only 15% of the reads matching Accumulibacter had a high similarity (>95%) to the sequenced Accumulibacter clade IIA strain UW-1 genome, indicating the presence of some microdiversity. The differences in gene complement between the Accumulibacter clades were limited to genes for extracellular polymeric substances and phage-related genes, suggesting a selective pressure from phages on the Accumulibacter diversity. PMID:22170425

Albertsen, Mads; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

2012-01-01

393

EPA AND THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY - PARTNERS IN RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes EPA's anticipatory research program for establishing institutional research centers. The center concept is intended to obtain the assistance of the best available researchers to establish a focal point of continuing research in specific areas fundamental to e...

394

Analyzing the use of race and ethnicity in biomedical research from a local community perspective.  

PubMed

Lost in the debate over the use of racial and ethnic categories in biomedical research is community-level analysis of how these categories function and influence health. Such analysis offers a powerful critique of national and transnational categories usually used in biomedical research such as "African-American" and "Native American." Ethnographic research on local African-American and Native American communities in Oklahoma shows the importance of community-level analysis. Local ("intra-community") health practices tend to be shared by members of an everyday interactional community without regard to racial or ethnic identity. Externally created ("extra-community") practices tend to be based on the existence of externally-imposed racial or ethnic identities, but African-American and Native American community members show similar patterns in their use of extra-community practices. Thus, membership in an interactional community seems more important than externally-imposed racial or ethnic identity in determining local health practices, while class may be as or more important in accounting for extra-community practices. PMID:17144173

Foster, Morris W

2006-01-01

395

Social responsibility and research ethics in community-driven studies of industrialized hog production.  

PubMed Central

Environmental health research can document exposures and health effects that result from inequitable relationships between communities of low income or people of color and the institutions that derive benefits (profits, federal and state funding or services, avoidance of wastes) from activities and policies that burden these communities. Researchers, most of whom work in relatively privileged institutions, are placed in situations of conflicting loyalties if they conduct research in collaboration with, or on behalf of, communities burdened by environmental injustices. These conflicts can threaten the self-interest of researchers and may raise social and ethical issues that do not typically arise in research projects that respond to the agendas of institutions. This article describes how we addressed issues of research ethics and social responsibility in environmental health research on industrialized hog production in North Carolina. Researchers and institutional review boards are not well prepared to address ethical issues when interests of entire communities, as well as individual research participants, are involved. Community-driven research partnerships can help address problems in research ethics and can enhance the social responsibility of researchers and their institutions. PMID:12003746

Wing, Steve

2002-01-01

396

Development of a Model, Metal-reducing Microbial Community for a System Biology Level Assessment of Desulfovibrio vulgaris as part of a Community  

SciTech Connect

One of the largest experimental gaps is between the simplicity of pure cultures and the complexity of open environmental systems, particularly in metal-contaminated areas. These microbial communities form ecosystem foundations, drive biogeochemical processes, and are relevant for biotechnology and bioremediation. A model, metal-reducing microbial community was constructed as either syntrophic or competitive to study microbial cell to cell interactions, cell signaling and competition for resources. The microbial community was comprised of the metal-reducing Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Additionally, Methanococcus maripaludis S2 was added to study complete carbon reduction and maintain a low hydrogen partial pressure for syntrophism to occur. Further, considerable work has been published on D. vulgaris and the D. vulgaris/ Mc. maripaludis co-culture both with and without stress. We are extending this work by conducting the same stress conditions on the model community. Additionally, this comprehensive investigation includes physiological and metabolic analyses as well as specially designed mRNA microarrays with the genes for all three organisms on one slide so as to follow gene expression changes in the various cultivation conditions as well as being comparable to the co- and individual cultures. Further, state-of -the-art comprehensive AMT tag proteomics allows for these comparisons at the protein level for a systems biology assessment of a model, metal-reducing microbial community. Preliminary data revealed that lactate oxidation by D. vulgaris was sufficient to support both G. sulfurreducens and M. maripaludis via the excretion of H2 and acetate. Fumarate was utilized by G. sulfurreducens and reduced to succinate since neither of the other two organisms can reduce fumarate. Methane was quantified, suggesting acetate and H2 concentrations were sufficient for M. maripaludis. Steady state community cultivation will allow for a comprehensive, system biology level analysis of a metal-reducing microbial community.

Elias, Dwayne; Schadt, Christopher; Miller, Lance; Phelps, Tommy; Brown, S. D.; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry; Drake, Megin; Yang, Z.K.; Podar, Mircea

2010-05-17

397

Dimensions of Student Engagement in American Community Colleges: Using the Community College Student Report in Research and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Community College Student Report (CCSR) is a widely-used survey instrument. This article examines the reliability and validity of the instrument to assess its usefulness in institutional research and practice. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrate that factor analytic models adequately represent underlying constructs. Confirmatory factor analysis is also used to demonstrate measurement invariance across sex, part- and full-time status, and year

C. Nathan Marti

2008-01-01

398

Dimensions of Student Engagement in American Community Colleges: Using the Community College Student Report in Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Community College Student Report (CCSR) is a widely-used survey instrument. This article examines the reliability and validity of the instrument to assess its usefulness in institutional research and practice. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrate that factor analytic models adequately represent underlying constructs. Confirmatory factor…

Marti, C. Nathan

2009-01-01

399

Reconceiving with Action Research: Working within and across Communities of Practice in a University/Community College Collaborative Venture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three teacher educators worked at a US community college with two adult education staff on a grant-supported project bridging high school dropouts from adult education to employment. The teacher educators' apparently simple task of facilitating grant participants' engagement with action research became confusingly challenging. The consultants…

Taylor, Ann; Puchner, Laurel D.; Powell, Margaret B.; Harris, Valorie; Marshall, Rick

2012-01-01

400

Development of community plans to enhance survivorship from colorectal cancer: Community-based participatory research in rural communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002, 10.4% of the 10 million persons alive who have ever been diagnosed with cancer had colorectal cancer (CRC). Barriers,\\u000a such as distance, terrain, access to care and cultural differences, to CRC survivorship may be especially relevant in rural\\u000a communities. We tested the hypothesis that teams from rural cancer coalitions and hospitals would develop a Community Plan\\u000a (CP) to

Eugene J. Lengerich; Brenda C. Kluhsman; Marcyann Bencivenga; Regina Allen; Mary Beth Miele; Elana Farace

2007-01-01

401

Secondary successional patterns in a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) community as they relate to soil disturbance and soil biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between secondary succession, soil disturbance, and soil biological activity were studied on a sagebrush community (Artemisia tridentata) in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado, U.S.A. Four levels of disturbance were imposed. I: the vegetation was mechanically removed and as much topsoil as possible was left; 2: the vegetation was mechanically removed and the topsoil scarified to a depth

Mario E. Biondini; Charles D. Bonham; Edward F. Redente

1985-01-01

402

Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late-than early-successional stage biological soil crusts  

E-print Network

genera in deserts soils and their functional role in a crust-associated food web. # 2006 Elsevier B Plateau, Utah (cool, winter rain desert) and Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico (hot, summer rain desert) at 0­belowground link between biological soil crusts and nematode community composition is likely the increased food

Neher, Deborah A.

403

An experimental investigation into effects of Pulp mill effluent on structure of biological communities in Alberni inlet, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure of biological communities forming on test panels established at stations progressively removed from a pulp mill outfall indicated simplification, as measured by a number of indices relating to species diversity, and was associated with water transparency as well as other physical factors relating to effluent discharge. A dynamic interaction between influence of dark coloured mill effluent in reducing phytoplanktonic

J. Robin E. Harger; Mary L. Campbell; Roslyn Ellison; W. Peter Lock; Wendy Zwarych

1973-01-01

404

Leadership Initiative on Cancer to Promote Research in Minority Communities  

Cancer.gov

Cancer is not an equal opportunity disease. Although recent advances against cancer have inspired hope in the medical community, there are increasing disparities in cancer mortality between America's majority population and its minority populations

405

Establishing the Infrastructure to Conduct Comparative Effectiveness Research Toward the Elimination of Disparities: A Community-Based Participatory Research Framework  

PubMed Central

In Tampa, Florida, researchers have partnered with community- and faith-based organizations to create the Comparative Effectiveness Research for Eliminating Disparities (CERED) infrastructure. Grounded in community-based participatory research, CERED acts on multiple levels of society to enhance informed decision making (IDM) of prostate cancer screening among Black men. CERED investigators combined both comparative effectiveness research and community-based participatory research to design a trial examining the effectiveness of community health workers and a digitally enhanced patient decision aid to support IDM in community settings as compared with “usual care” for prostate cancer screening. In addition, CERED researchers synthesized evidence through the development of systematic literature reviews analyzing the effectiveness of community health workers in changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of African American adults toward cancer prevention and education. An additional systematic review analyzed chemoprevention agents for prostate cancer as an emerging technique. Both of these reviews, and the comparative effectiveness trial supporting the IDM process, add to CERED’s goal of providing evidence to eliminate cancer health disparities. PMID:23431128

Wilson, Danyell S.; Dapic, Virna; Sultan, Dawood H.; August, Euna M.; Green, B. Lee; Roetzheim, Richard; Rivers, Brian

2014-01-01

406

GUI to Facilitate Research on Biological Damage from Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer program has been developed to facilitate research on the damage caused by highly energetic particles and photons impinging on living organisms. The program brings together, into one computational workspace, computer codes that have been developed over the years, plus codes that will be developed during the foreseeable future, to address diverse aspects of radiation damage. These include codes that implement radiation-track models, codes for biophysical models of breakage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by radiation, pattern-recognition programs for extracting quantitative information from biological assays, and image-processing programs that aid visualization of DNA breaks. The radiation-track models are based on transport models of interactions of radiation with matter and solution of the Boltzmann transport equation by use of both theoretical and numerical models. The biophysical models of breakage of DNA by radiation include biopolymer coarse-grained and atomistic models of DNA, stochastic- process models of deposition of energy, and Markov-based probabilistic models of placement of double-strand breaks in DNA. The program is designed for use in the NT, 95, 98, 2000, ME, and XP variants of the Windows operating system.

Cucinotta, Frances A.; Ponomarev, Artem Lvovich

2010-01-01

407

Strategies for Assessing Community Challenges and Strengths for Cancer Disparities Participatory Research and Outreach  

PubMed Central

Interventions involving community–academic partnerships must be driven by a participatory approach that is informed by a comprehensive understanding of the perspectives of communities or focus populations. Often research agendas of academics are different from perceived priority needs of community members. Successful and sustainable interventions are made possible with initial open dialogue among all collaborators so that roles are clearly defined and concerns are addressed. This article describes approaches used in the development of a participatory assessment of health and social issues as defined by community and academic partners, current findings, and lessons learned. The assessment is one initial activity of the Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) to guide network directions through 2010. The TBCCN is one of 25 programs nationwide addressing cancer disparities through sustainable community-based participatory research, outreach, and screening activities. PMID:19515858

Gwede, Clement K.; Menard, Janelle M.; Martinez-Tyson, Dinorah (Dina); Lee, Ji-Hyun; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Padhya, Tapan A.; Meade, Cathy D.

2010-01-01

408

Engaging Students in Authentic Microbiology Research in an Introductory Biology Laboratory Course is Correlated with Gains in Student Understanding of the Nature of Authentic Research and Critical Thinking†  

PubMed Central

Recent recommendations for biology education highlight the role of authentic research experiences early in undergraduate education as a means of increasing the number and quality of biology majors. These experiences will inform students on the nature of science, increase their confidence in doing science, as well as foster critical thinking skills, an area that has been lacking despite it being one of the desired outcomes at undergraduate institutions and with future employers. With these things in mind, we have developed an introductory biology laboratory course where students design and execute an authentic microbiology research project. Students in this course are assimilated into the community of researchers by engaging in scholarly activities such as participating in inquiry, reading scientific literature, and communicating findings in written and oral formats. After three iterations of a semester-long laboratory course, we found that students who took the course showed a significant increase in their understanding of the nature of authentic research and their level of critical thinking skills. PMID:23858351

Gasper, Brittany J.; Gardner, Stephanie M.

2013-01-01

409

The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research  

SciTech Connect

The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a flexible and extensible community tool used to investigate a diverse set of earth system interactions across multiple time and space scales. This global coupled model is a natural evolution from its predecessor, the Community Climate System Model, following the incorporation of new earth system capabilities. These include the ability to simulate biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, ice sheets, and a high-top atmosphere. These and other new model capabilities are enabling investigations into a wide range of pressing scientific questions, providing new predictive capabilities and increasing our collective knowledge about the behavior and interactions of the earth system. Simulations with numerous configurations of the CESM have been provided to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and are being analyzed by the broader community of scientists. Additionally, the model source code and associated documentation are freely available to the scientific community to use for earth system studies, making it a true community tool. Here we describe this earth modeling system, its various possible configurations, and illustrate its capabilities with a few science highlights.

Hurrell, Jim; Holland, Marika M.; Gent, Peter R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Kay, Jennifer; Kushner, P.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Large, William G.; Lawrence, David M.; Lindsay, Keith; Lipscomb, William; Long , Matthew; Mahowald, N.; Marsh, D.; Neale, Richard; Rasch, Philip J.; Vavrus, Steven J.; Vertenstein, Mariana; Bader, David C.; Collins, William D.; Hack, James; Kiehl, J. T.; Marshall, Shawn

2013-09-30

410

A Community-Specific Approach to Cancer Research in Indian Country  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare leaders in a small rural American Indian community and university partners used the community-based participatory research (CBPR) method to survey cancer survivors. Objectives To provide support for the use of CBPR to generate ideas for how to improve the detection and treatment of cancer in American Indian communities. Methods Partners worked together to develop a mail-out survey and send it to the Indian health clinic’s patients who had cancer in the past five years. The survey sought information on their experiences with cancer screenings, cancer diagnoses, and accessing and receiving cancer treatment. Results Community leaders identified three priority areas for intervention: 1) high incidence of breast cancer; 2) lack of culturally appropriate cancer education; and 3) need for a more in-depth assessment. Conclusions CBPR’s partnership principle allowed for results to be viewed within the community’s context, availability of community resources, and relevant cultural beliefs and traditions. PMID:20097993

Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Matloub, Jacqueline; Creswell, Paul; Strickland, Rick; Anderson, Diane M.

2011-01-01

411

NASA Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century provided a unique opportunity to train individuals to conduct biological research in hypo- and hyper-gravity, and to conduct ground-based research. This grant was developed to maximize the potential for Space Biology as an emerging discipline and to train a cadre of space biologists. The field of gravitational and space biology is rapidly growing at the future of the field is reflected in the quality and education of its personnel. Our chief objective was to train and develop these scientists rapidly and in a cost effective model.

Sonnenfeld, Gerald

2000-01-01

412

Making health data maps: a case study ofa community\\/ university research collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the main findings from a collaborative community\\/university research project in Canada. The goal ofthe project was to improve access to community health information, and in so doing, enhance our knowledge of the development ofcommunity health information resources and community\\/university collaboration. The project built on a rich history ofcommunity\\/university collaboration in Southeast Toronto (SETO), and employed an interdisciplinary

David L Buckeridgea; Robin Masonb; John Franka; Richard Glaziera; Lorraine Purdond; Carl G Amrheine; Esme Fuller-Thomsong; Peter Gozdyrae; David Hulchanskig; Robert Wrighti

413

Translating Research into Evidence-Based Practice: The National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program  

PubMed Central

The recent rapid acceleration of basic science is reshaping both our clinical research system and our health care delivery system. The pace and growing volume of medical discoveries are yielding exciting new opportunities, yet we continue to face old challenges to maintain research progress and effectively translate research into practice. The National Institutes of Health and individual government programs are increasingly emphasizing research agendas involving evidence development, comparative effectiveness research among heterogeneous populations, translational research, and accelerating the translation of research into evidence-based practice, as well as building successful research networks to support these efforts. For over 25 years, the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program has successfully extended research into the community and facilitated the translation of research into evidence-based practice. By describing its keys to success, this article provides practical guidance to cancer-focused provider-based research networks as well as those in other disciplines. PMID:20572032

Minasian, Lori M.; Carpenter, William R.; Weiner, Bryan J.; Anderson, Darrell E.; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Nelson, Stefanie; Whitman, Cynthia; Kelaghan, Joseph; O'Mara, Ann M.; Kaluzny, Arnold D.

2010-01-01

414

Spatial heterogeneity of eukaryotic microbial communities in an unstudied geothermal diatomaceous biological soil crust: Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA.  

PubMed

Knowledge of microbial communities and their inherent heterogeneity has dramatically increased with the widespread use of high-throughput sequencing technologies, and we are learning more about the ecological processes that structure microbial communities across a wide range of environments, as well as the relative scales of importance for describing bacterial communities in natural systems. Little work has been carried out to assess fine-scale eukaryotic microbial heterogeneity in soils. Here, we present findings from a bar-coded 18S rRNA survey of the eukaryotic microbial communities in a previously unstudied geothermal diatomaceous biological soil crust in Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA, in which we explicitly compare microbial community heterogeneity at the particle scale within soil cores. Multivariate analysis of community composition showed that while subsamples from within the same soil core clustered together, community dissimilarity between particles in the same core was high. This study describes a novel soil microbial environment and also adds to our growing understanding of microbial heterogeneity and the scales relevant to the study of soil microbial communities. PMID:22594350

Meadow, James F; Zabinski, Catherine A

2012-10-01

415

Research Programs Constituting U.S. Participation in the International Biological Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States contribution to the International Biological Program, which aims to understand more clearly the interrelationships within ecosystems, is centered on multidisciplinary research programs investigating the biological basis of ecological productivity and human welfare. Integrated research programs have been established for the…

National Academy of Sciences--National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Biology and Agriculture.

416

From Bytes to Bedside: Data Integration and Computational Biology for Translational Cancer Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

ajor advances in genome science and molecular technologies provide new opportunities at the interface between basic biological research and medical practice. The unprecedented completeness, accuracy, and volume of genomic and molecular data necessitate a new kind of computational biology for translational research. Key challenges are standardization of data capture and communication, organization of easily accessible repositories, and algorithms for integrated

Jomol P. Mathew; Barry S. Taylor; Gary D. Bader; Saiju Pyarajan; Marco Antoniotti; Arul M. Chinnaiyan; Chris Sander; Steven J. Burakoff; Bud Mishra

2007-01-01

417

Chemical warfare - biological defense research obligations. Annual report, 1 October 1985-30 September 1986  

SciTech Connect

Partial Contents include: Chemical Research; Lethal Chemical Program; Incapacitating Chemical Program; Defensive Equipment Program; Physical Protection Investigations; Warning and Detection Investigations; Medical Defense Against Chemical Agents; Chemical Decontaminating Material; Collective Protection Concepts; Chemical Detection and Warning Material; Medical Chemical Defense Life Support Material; Training Support; Simulant Test Support; Management and Support; Biological Defense Research; Medical Defense Against Biological Warfare.

Not Available

1986-09-30

418

Research Opportunities in Subtidal Marine Biology and Ecology in the Gagnon Lab  

E-print Network

Research Opportunities in Subtidal Marine Biology and Ecology in the Gagnon Lab Opportunities are available for motivated undergraduate and graduate students to conduct research in marine biology of shallow, marine benthic ecosystems in subarctic and cold temperate regions, while contributing novel

Oyet, Alwell

419

Priorities in Community Services Research for the Northeast: A Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Community Services. Publication No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constituted to include research users, the ad hoc Committee on Community Services Research in the Northeast analyzed the problems and information needs of community service personnel during a conference session. Issues and questions derived from this initial interchange were categorized and then translated into research problems. Criteria employed…

Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, Ithaca, NY.

420

Partnering to harmonize IRBs for community-engaged research to reduce health disparities.  

PubMed

Emerging advances in health disparities research include controlled trials and comparative effectiveness studies that are frequently conducted at multiple community and academic sites. Review by different institutional review boards (IRBs) presents a major impediment to the timely and effective conduct of such research. When research involves minority and underserved communities as well as multiple geographic regions, institutional requirements and interpretation of ethical standards may vary substantially. Such variations can complicate the informed consent process and research protocol, and may undermine participant respect and trial quality. In addition, multiple IRB review can lead to unnecessary delays, jeopardizing funding and capacity to perform collaborative projects. In response to these issues, the Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN) is developing a community-partnered approach to streamlining IRB review across its consortium of 18 RCMI grantee institutions that will ensure compliance while enhancing the quality of health disparities research. PMID:22102302

Hammatt, Zoë H; Nishitani, Junko; Heslin, Kevin C; Perry, M Theresa; Szetela, Carolyn; Jones, Loretta; Williams, Pluscedia; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna; Forge, Nell G; Norris, Keith C

2011-01-01

421

Partnering to Harmonize IRBs for Community-Engaged Research to Reduce Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

Emerging advances in health disparities research include controlled trials and comparative effectiveness studies that are frequently conducted at multiple community and academic sites. Review by different institutional review boards (IRBs) presents a major impediment to the timely and effective conduct of such research. When research involves minority and underserved communities as well as multiple geographic regions, institutional requirements and interpretation of ethical standards may vary substantially. Such variations can complicate the informed consent process and research protocol, and may undermine participant respect and trial quality. In addition, multiple IRB review can lead to unnecessary delays, jeopardizing funding and capacity to perform collaborative projects. In response to these issues, the Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN) is developing a community-partnered approach to streamlining IRB review across its consortium of 18 RCMI grantee institutions that will ensure compliance while enhancing the quality of health disparities research. PMID:22102302

Hammatt, Zoë H.; Nishitani, Junko; Heslin, Kevin C.; Perry, M. Theresa; Szetela, Carolyn; Jones, Loretta; Williams, Pluscedia; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna; Forge, Nell G.; Norris, Keith C.

2013-01-01

422

Community-Based Research and Student Development: An Interview with Trisha Thorme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of universities have implemented community-based research pedagogy into their undergraduate education. Integrating academic training with community engagement has the potential to engage students in a way volunteering may not. This interview with Trisha Thorme, an anthropologist and assistant director of Princeton University's…

O'Shea, Joseph

2012-01-01

423

Recruitment Strategies and Costs Associated with Community-Based Research in a Mexican-Origin Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic-community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study…

Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S.; Mangione, Carol M.

2011-01-01

424

Community Colleges Tackle Student Health and HIV/AIDS. AACC Research Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research brief summarizes the findings of a survey conducted in 1996 to determine the involvement of community colleges in the health of their students. The survey gathered information from 535 campuses concerning administration and leadership, curriculum, and community relationships. This report focuses on HIV/AIDS and the extent to which…

Ottenritter, Nan; Barnett, Lynn

425

Considering Community Literacies in the Secondary Classroom: A Collaborative Teacher and Researcher Study Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A year long study group brought teachers and researchers working in urban contexts in US public schools together to examine literacy practices incorporating students' community literacies into schooled tasks. The goal was to provide teacher development in making connections across their students' community literacies and the academic…

Carbone, Paula M.; Reynolds, Rema E.

2013-01-01

426

Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community-  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community- associated for a Human Pandemic Clone of2013. Laura E. Spoor, Paul R. McAdam, Lucy A. Weinert, et al. aureus StaphylococcusMethicillin-Resistant Community-Associated Pandemic Clone of Livestock Origin for a Human http

Millar, Andrew J.

427

Primary Research Paper Invertebrate community and stream substrate responses to woody debris  

E-print Network

Primary Research Paper Invertebrate community and stream substrate responses to woody debris, invertebrates were collected once before (June 2000) and once after (June 2001) wood removal from the downstream. The following metrics were used to compare the invertebrate communities before and after wood removal: genera

Kraft, Clifford E.

428

Policy, Leadership, and Student Achievement: Implications for Urban Communities. The Achievement Gap, Research, Practice, and Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second book in the series examining student achievement. The chapters in this book reflect the scholarly papers presented at the July 2006 Education Policy, Leadership Summer Institute (EPLSI) by K-16 educators, researchers, community advocates, and policymakers who work in urban communities. The Institute serves as a place where…

McGuire, C. Kent, Ed.; Ikpa, Vivian W., Ed.

2008-01-01

429

Dear Colleague Letter: Biology - Research Opportunity Award (ROA): Supplement Opportunity  

NSF Publications Database

... to the Research Opportunity Award (ROA) activity that is part of the NSF-wide Research at ... research activities that enable them to explore the emerging frontiers of science. Such research not ...

430

Research on Bacteria in the Mainstream of Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stresses the importance of investigating bacterial mechanisms to discover clues for a greater understanding of cells. Cites examples of study areas of biological significance which may reveal information about the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and lead to a comprehensive theory of cell biology. (RT)

Magasanik, Boris

1988-01-01

431

Biological and Environmental Research at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

E-print Network

· In the final analysis, the drivers come from the need to produce energy and food for a growing world population processes to make cleaner fuels with high energy content · Microbes carry out some chemical processes better Lab Director May 10, 2012 Outline · Biology at National Laboratories · Biology and Energy · Summary

Homes, Christopher C.

432

PRIORITIES FOR BIOLOGIC MARKERS RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology allow for measurement of biologic events or substances that may provide markers of exposure, effect or susceptibility in humans. he application of these new and emerging techniques to environmental health offers the possibility of...

433

Through Microgravity and Towards the Stars: Microgravity and Strategic Research at Marshall's Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microgravity and Strategic research at Marshall s Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory will be reviewed. The environment in orbit provides a unique opportunity to study Materials Science and Biotechnology in the absence of sedimentation and convection. There are a number of peer-selected investigations that have been selected to fly on the Space Station that have been conceived and are led by Marshall s Biological and Physical Research Laboratory s scientists. In addition to Microgravity research the Station will enable research in "Strategic" Research Areas that focus on enabling humans to live, work, and explore the solar system safely. New research in Radiation Protection, Strategic Molecular Biology, and In-Space Fabrication will be introduced.

Curreri, Peter A.

2003-01-01

434

A Case Study Exploring Research Communication and Engagement in a Rural Community Experiencing an Environmental Disaster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a means to involve the public in research, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the Partners in Research Program and solicited research grant applications from academic/scientific institutions and community organizations that proposed to forge partnerships: (a) to study methods and strategies to engage and inform the public…

Winters, Charlene A.; Kuntz, Sandra W.; Weinert, Clarann; Black, Brad

2014-01-01

435

Variation in the Interpretation of Scientific Integrity in Community-based Participatory Health Research  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become essential in health disparities and environmental justice research; however, the scientific integrity of CBPR projects has become a concern. Some concerns, such as appropriate research training, lack of access to resources and finances, have been discussed as possibly limiting the scientific integrity of a project. Prior to understanding what threatens scientific integrity in CBPR, it is vital to understand what scientific integrity means for the professional and community investigators who are involved in CBPR. This analysis explores the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR among 74 professional and community research team members from of 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. It describes the basic definition for scientific integrity and then explores variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR. Variations in the interpretations were associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Professional investigators understood scientific integrity in CBPR as either conceptually or logistically flexible, as challenging to balance with community needs, or no different than traditional scientific integrity. Community investigators interpret other factors as important in scientific integrity, such as trust, accountability, and overall benefit to the community. This research demonstrates that the variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR call for a new definition of scientific integrity in CBPR that takes into account the understanding and needs of all investigators. PMID:24161098

Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

436

Community-based partnership to identify keys to biospecimen research participation.  

PubMed

Reported barriers to participation in biospecimen banking include unwillingness to undergo blood-draw procedures and concerns about confidentiality breaches, privacy, and discrimination. The study identified key factors and influential perspectives to address these barriers and inform methods to improve recruitment and research participation among racially diverse community. A mixed-methods, community-based participatory research orientation was used to collect formative findings to develop a pilot intervention. Methods included nine key informant interviews, three focus groups (n?=?26), and 64 community surveys. Findings showed: (1) increased concern of exploitation by pharmaceutical company sponsor; (2) varied perceptions about monetary compensation for research participation; and (3) willingness to participate in a biospecimen banking study by more than 30% of the people in the community survey. Research participation and biospecimen donation may be influenced by who is sponsoring a study. Monetary incentives for study participation may be more important for African American than White participants. PMID:23055133

Erwin, Deborah O; Moysich, Kirsten; Kiviniemi, Marc T; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Davis, Warren; Clark-Hargrave, Nikia; Ciupak, Gregory L; Ambrosone, Christine B; Walker, Charles

2013-03-01

437

The ethical community consultation model as preparation for nursing research: a case study.  

PubMed

This article describes a case study in which community consultation was used to assist in the preparation of a research project on viewing self in the mirror after mastectomy. Breast cancer survivors, nurses, and other health care professionals were consulted using a variety of interactive modalities. Over a period of three months, pre-research planning information was obtained from participants. A descriptive qualitative design was used to analyze the data. The ethical goals of community consultation provided the framework for dialogue and the synthesis of information. During this project, the potential benefits of the proposed research study were explored. Possible risks to future participants were discussed, and recommendations for participant protection suggested. Community members provided insight into the legitimacy of the study. Community consultation is a tool that researchers may consider when designing studies. PMID:21097973

Freysteinson, Wyona M

2010-11-01

438

Opportunities for Materials Science and Biological Research at the OPAL Research Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Neutron scattering techniques have evolved over more than 1/2 century into a powerful set of tools for determination of atomic and molecular structures. Modern facilities offer the possibility to determine complex structures over length scales from {approx}0.1 nm to {approx}500 nm. They can also provide information on atomic and molecular dynamics, on magnetic interactions and on the location and behaviour of hydrogen in a variety of materials. The OPAL Research Reactor is a 20 megawatt pool type reactor using low enriched uranium fuel, and cooled by water. OPAL is a multipurpose neutron factory with modern facilities for neutron beam research, radioisotope production and irradiation services. The neutron beam facility has been designed to compete with the best beam facilities in the world. After six years in construction, the reactor and neutron beam facilities are now being commissioned, and we will commence scientific experiments later this year. The presentation will include an outline of the strengths of neutron scattering and a description of the OPAL research reactor, with particular emphasis on it's scientific infrastructure. It will also provide an overview of the opportunities for research in materials science and biology that will be possible at OPAL, and mechanisms for accessing the facilities. The discussion will emphasize how researchers from around the world can utilize these exciting new facilities.

Kennedy, S. J. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai NSW 2234 (Australia)

2008-03-17

439

Opportunities for Materials Science and Biological Research at the OPAL Research Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron scattering techniques have evolved over more than 1/2 century into a powerful set of tools for determination of atomic and molecular structures. Modern facilities offer the possibility to determine complex structures over length scales from ˜0.1 nm to ˜500 nm. They can also provide information on atomic and molecular dynamics, on magnetic interactions and on the location and behaviour of hydrogen in a variety of materials. The OPAL Research Reactor is a 20 megawatt pool type reactor using low enriched uranium fuel, and cooled by water. OPAL is a multipurpose neutron factory with modern facilities for neutron beam research, radioisotope production and irradiation services. The neutron beam facility has been designed to compete with the best beam facilities in the world. After six years in construction, the reactor and neutron beam facilities are now being commissioned, and we will commence scientific experiments later this year. The presentation will include an outline of the strengths of neutron scattering and a description of the OPAL research reactor, with particular emphasis on it's scientific infrastructure. It will also provide an overview of the opportunities for research in materials science and biology that will be possible at OPAL, and mechanisms for accessing the facilities. The discussion will emphasize how researchers from around the world can utilize these exciting new facilities.

Kennedy, S. J.

2008-03-01

440

13Vol. 12(2), 2003 International Research: Biological Studies  

E-print Network

- water seep communities. Recent detailed studies carried out on the Atlanticscale-worm B.aff. seepensis spec- imens of Branchipolynoe aff. seep- ensis were found. Firstly, the length, width and height were

Martin, Daniel

441

Using community-based participatory research to advocate for homeless children.  

PubMed

The social determinants of health represent the societal and economic influences responsible for most health inequities. Advocacy to eliminate health inequities for homeless children oftentimes involves the use of community-based approaches. This article details the Floating Hospital's (TFH) community-based participatory research (CBPR) project that resulted in an advocacy brief. Within the project, the community practice concepts of a strengths perspective, empowerment, capacity building, and advocacy are embedded. The brief enhances TFH's capacity to advocate for the needs of homeless children. This example serves as a guide for social work and public health professionals to use CBPR to address health inequities within their communities. PMID:25317978

Fetherman, Debra L; Burke, Stephen C

2015-01-01

442

Target School Research Project: Change and Learning Community Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the use of organizational learning community principles to effectively manage organizational change. Target is a pseudonym for a small public school in Southern New Jersey that has provided educational services to students with special needs since 1969. In 2004 Target began providing services to a new population of students…

Simmerman, Herbert R., Jr.

2009-01-01

443

Multiple Learning Communities: Students, Teachers, Instructional Designers, and Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fostering a Community of Learners (FCL) exemplifies a class of pedagogical approaches aimed at having students become reasoners and sense-makers in various content domains. While the pedagogical practices among these approaches vary to some degree, they tend to overlap in philosophy and general pedagogical style. Hence issues confronted by those…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

2004-01-01

444

Urban Greenhouse Solar\\/Geothermal Research and Community Outreach Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for developing a self-sustaining urban farm greenhouse project in a cold-weather climate is discussed. A greenhouse heating system solution based on a hybrid geothermal -solar photovoltaic system is proposed. Specific greenhouse heat loss mechanisms are investigated. Implementation of a community outreach website information dissemination plan is outlined. The steady increase in the world population and the problems associated

Matthew S. Sanders; Mark G. Thompson; Yuri Y. Sikorski

2011-01-01

445

Statistical Profiles. Howard Community College. Research Report Number 40.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes 1980-84 data for Howard Community College (HCC) pertaining to student characteristics; credit instruction and degrees; credit-free instruction; HCC employees; and facilities and services. Part 1 provides data on full-time equivalent enrollments and projections; and enrollment by gender, attendance status, credit hours…

Radcliffe, Susan K.; Reed, Cheryl L. B.

446

Collection Policy: Biological Statistics and Computational Biology 1.0 TEACHING, RESEARCH AND EXTENSION PROGRAMS  

E-print Network

definition Biometry is the theory and application of statistics, mathematics, and computing to biological, such as bio-sequences (DNA, RNA, or protein sequences), three- dimensional protein structures, gene expression data, or molecular biological networks (metabolic pathways, protein-protein interaction networks

Angenent, Lars T.

447

'About time!' Insights from Research with Pride: a community-student collaboration.  

PubMed

Research with Pride (RwP) was a community-student collaborative initiative to promote and build capacity for community-based research exploring health and wellness in lesbian, bisexual, trans and queer (LGBTQ) communities. The event took place at University of Toronto's Dalla Lana School of Public Health (DLSPH) in September 2009, and engaged over 100 students, community members and academic researchers in a full day of discussion, learning and networking. RwP was initiated by a group of graduate students in Health Promotion who identified a gap in resources addressing LGBTQ health, facilitating their further learning and work in this area. By engaging in a partnership with a community service organization serving LGBTQ communities in downtown Toronto, RwP emerges as a key example of the role of community-student partnerships in the pursuit of LGBTQ health promotion. This paper will describe the nature of this partnership, outline its strengths and challenges and emphasize the integral role of community-student partnerships in health promotion initiatives. PMID:21880613

Abelsohn, Kira A; Ferne, Jessica M; Scanlon, Kyle A; Giambrone, Broden L; Bomze, Sivan B

2012-09-01

448

Unconventional natural gas development and public health: toward a community-informed research agenda.  

PubMed

Abstract Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production in recent years. However, the rapid expansion of UNGD has also raised concerns about its potential impacts on public health. Academics and government agencies are developing research programs to explore these concerns. Community involvement in activities such as planning, conducting, and communicating research is widely recognized as having an important role in promoting environmental health. Historically, however, communities most often engage in research after environmental health concerns have emerged. This community information needs assessment took a prospective approach to integrating community leaders' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns into the research agenda prior to initiation of local UNGD. We interviewed community leaders about their views on environmental health information needs in three states (New York, North Carolina, and Ohio) prior to widespread UNGD. Interviewees emphasized the cumulative, long-term, and indirect determinants of health, as opposed to specific disease outcomes. Responses focused not only on information needs, but also on communication and transparency with respect to research processes and funding. Interviewees also prioritized investigation of policy approaches to effectively protect human health over the long term. Although universities were most often cited as a credible source of information, interviewees emphasized the need for multiple strategies for disseminating information. By including community leaders' concerns, insights, and questions from the outset, the research agenda on UNGD is more likely to effectively inform decision making that ultimately protects public health. PMID:25204212

Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Elam, Sarah; Gray, Kathleen M; Haynes, Erin; Hughes, Megan Hoert

2014-01-01

449

[Reproductive health among migrant women in Geneva: what are the challenges for Community-based participatory research].  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) focuses on inequalities in health by involving community members and researchers in all parts of the research process. The project COMIRES (COmmunity Migrant RESearch), based in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University Hospitals of Geneva, engages academic researchers and migrant communities in Geneva in a co-learning process to understand barriers to reproductive health services and evaluate the role of the community. The article illustrates the methodological approach, but also advantages and challenges of CBPR. PMID:25518208

Schmidt N C; Fargnoli V

2014-10-22

450

Research support for effective state and community tobacco control programme response to electronic nicotine delivery systems  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify unmet research needs of state and community tobacco control practitioners pertaining to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes) that would inform policy and practice efforts at the state and community levels, and to describe ENDS-related research and dissemination activities of the National Cancer Institute-funded State and Community Tobacco Control Research Initiative. Methods To determine specific research gaps relevant to state and community tobacco control practice, we analysed survey data collected from tobacco control programmes (TCPs) in all 50 US states and the District of Columbia (N=51). Survey items covered a range of ENDS issues: direct harm to users, harm of secondhand vapour, cessation, flavours, constituents and youth access. Results There is no ENDS topic on which a majority of state TCP managers feel very informed. They feel least informed about harms of secondhand vapour while also reporting that this information is among the most important for their programme. A majority (N=31) of respondents indicated needs for research on the implications of ENDS products for existing policies. Conclusions TCP managers report that ENDS research is highly important for practice and need research-based information to inform decision making around the inclusion of ENDS in existing tobacco control policies. For optimal relevance to state and community TCPs, research on ENDS should prioritise study of the health effects of ENDS use and secondhand exposure to ENDS vapour in the context of existing tobacco control policies. PMID:24935899

Schmitt, Carol L; Lee, Youn Ok; Curry, Laurel E; Farrelly, Matthew C; Rogers, Todd

2014-01-01