Sample records for biology research community

  1. Applying the community partnership approach to human biology research.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Julia; Schell, Lawrence M; Cole, Tewentahawih'tha'

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary human biology research employs a unique skillset for biocultural analysis. This skillset is highly appropriate for the study of health disparities because disparities result from the interaction of social and biological factors over one or more generations. Health disparities research almost always involves disadvantaged communities owing to the relationship between social position and health in stratified societies. Successful research with disadvantaged communities involves a specific approach, the community partnership model, which creates a relationship beneficial for researcher and community. Paramount is the need for trust between partners. With trust established, partners share research goals, agree on research methods and produce results of interest and importance to all partners. Results are shared with the community as they are developed; community partners also provide input on analyses and interpretation of findings. This article describes a partnership-based, 20 year relationship between community members of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation and researchers at the University at Albany. As with many communities facing health disparity issues, research with Native Americans and indigenous peoples generally is inherently politicized. For Akwesasne, the contamination of their lands and waters is an environmental justice issue in which the community has faced unequal exposure to, and harm by environmental toxicants. As human biologists engage in more partnership-type research, it is important to understand the long term goals of the community and what is at stake so the research circle can be closed and 'helicopter' style research avoided. PMID:25380288

  2. Research and Teaching: Inquiry in the Community College Biology Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eddie Lunsford

    2002-12-01

    A qualitative analysis of students' reactions and outcomes to a long-term inquiry experience in a freshman biology course shows positive results. Students posed research questions and designed experiments. The analysis shows that students reacted favorabl

  3. WikiPathways: building research communities on biological pathways.

    PubMed

    Kelder, Thomas; van Iersel, Martijn P; Hanspers, Kristina; Kutmon, Martina; Conklin, Bruce R; Evelo, Chris T; Pico, Alexander R

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe the development of WikiPathways (http://www.wikipathways.org), a public wiki for pathway curation, since it was first published in 2008. New features are discussed, as well as developments in the community of contributors. New features include a zoomable pathway viewer, support for pathway ontology annotations, the ability to mark pathways as private for a limited time and the availability of stable hyperlinks to pathways and the elements therein. WikiPathways content is freely available in a variety of formats such as the BioPAX standard, and the content is increasingly adopted by external databases and tools, including Wikipedia. A recent development is the use of WikiPathways as a staging ground for centrally curated databases such as Reactome. WikiPathways is seeing steady growth in the number of users, page views and edits for each pathway. To assess whether the community curation experiment can be considered successful, here we analyze the relation between use and contribution, which gives results in line with other wiki projects. The novel use of pathway pages as supplementary material to publications, as well as the addition of tailored content for research domains, is expected to stimulate growth further. PMID:22096230

  4. Estuarine Science: Biological Communities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site explores the plant and animal communities that exist within an estuary. Specifically, it examines the planktonic, pelagic, benthic and intertidal communities, and focuses on organisms that are characteristic of the community, how scientists investigate these organisms, and why such organisms are important to the biological community of estuaries. Additionally, the site provides specific examples of each community found within the Narragansett Bay.

  5. Soil Biological Communities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Idaho provides this electronic resource on soil communities. With introductory text, illustrations, and references, these pages provide a general overview of soil communities, including Biological Crusts, Fungi, Bacteria, Protozoa, Nematodes, and Arthropods. The site also introduces general readers to Soil Food Webs and Burrowing Mammals, with an emphasis on the western United States. A series of select links to soil-related resources rounds out the site.

  6. From Biological to Program Efficacy: Promoting Dialogue among the Research, Policy, and Program Communities12

    PubMed Central

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2014-01-01

    The biological efficacy of nutritional supplements to complement usual diets in poor populations is well established. This knowledge rests on decades of methodologic research development and, more recently, on codification of methods to compile and interpret results across studies. The challenge now is to develop implementation (delivery) science knowledge and achieve a similar consensus on efficacy criteria for the delivery of these nutrients by public health and other organizations. This requires analysis of the major policy instruments for delivery and well-designed program delivery studies that examine the flow of a nutrient through a program impact pathway. This article discusses the differences between biological and program efficacy, and why elucidating the fidelity of delivery along the program impact pathways is essential for implementing a program efficacy trial and for assessing its internal and external validity. Research on program efficacy is expanding, but there is a lack of adequate frameworks to facilitate the process of harmonizing concepts and vocabulary, which is essential for communication among scientists, policy planners, and program implementers. There is an urgent need to elaborate these frameworks at national and program levels not only for program efficacy studies but also for the broader research agenda to support and improve the science of delivering adequate nutrition to those who need it most. PMID:24425719

  7. Advancing the microbiome research community.

    PubMed

    Huttenhower, Curtis; Knight, Rob; Brown, C Titus; Caporaso, J Gregory; Clemente, Jose C; Gevers, Dirk; Franzosa, Eric A; Kelley, Scott T; Knights, Dan; Ley, Ruth E; Mahurkar, Anup; Ravel, Jacques; White, Owen

    2014-10-01

    The human microbiome has become a recognized factor in promoting and maintaining health. We outline opportunities in interdisciplinary research, analytical rigor, standardization, and policy development for this relatively new and rapidly developing field. Advances in these aspects of the research community may in turn advance our understanding of human microbiome biology. PMID:25303518

  8. Advancing the Microbiome Research Community

    PubMed Central

    Huttenhower, Curtis; Knight, Rob; Brown, C. Titus; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Clemente, Jose C.; Gevers, Dirk; Franzosa, Eric A.; Kelley, Scott T.; Knights, Dan; Ley, Ruth E.; Mahurkar, Anup; Ravel, Jacques; White, Owen

    2014-01-01

    The human microbiome has become a recognized factor in promoting and maintaining health. We outline opportunities in interdisciplinary research, analytical rigor, standardization, and policy development for this relatively new and rapidly developing field. Advances in these aspects of the research community may in turn advance our understanding of human microbiome biology. PMID:25303518

  9. Biology research: Annual report, 1951

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kornberg

    1952-01-01

    This report summarizes biological research at Hanford Works during 1951. The number of salmon spawning in the Columbia River adjacent to Hanford Reservation was not reduced. There were no quantitative or qualitative changes in the populations of aquatic communities. Plants, mollusks, crustaceans, insects, and fish concentrated radioisotopes from the water with algae having the greatest concentrations. Radioactive elements are passed

  10. Systems biology of Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Navid, A; Ghim, C; Fenley, A; Yoon, S; Lee, S; Almaas, E

    2008-04-11

    Microbes exist naturally in a wide range of environments, spanning the extremes of high acidity and high temperature to soil and the ocean, in communities where their interactions are significant. We present a practical discussion of three different approaches for modeling microbial communities: rate equations, individual-based modeling, and population dynamics. We illustrate the approaches with detailed examples. Each approach is best fit to different levels of system representation, and they have different needs for detailed biological input. Thus, this set of approaches is able to address the operation and function of microbial communities on a wide range of organizational levels.

  11. Community University Research Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settee, Priscilla; Thomas-Prokop, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the process of engaging the extended Indigenous community within Saskatoon and the surrounding First Nations communities in what would be a first major research project between Indigenous communities and the University of Saskatchewan. A management committee was established comprised of all the major Saskatoon/Saskatchewan…

  12. Space biology research development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  13. Building a Diverse Biological Community

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Abraham Parker (American Institute of Biological Sciences; )

    2006-01-01

    From the pages of magazine, the online version of our education column in BioScience provides educators with updates in science education, examples of successful initiatives to transform biology teaching, and new ways of improving student understanding. This Eye column highlights efforts by the Ecological Society of America and the American Society for Limnology and Oceanography to increase diversity within the scientific community and provides key strategies implemented by successful programs.

  14. Biology Research Assignment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Lowry (The McCallie School REV)

    1995-06-30

    Students relate a specific aspect of biology to its current impact on the world around us in a 3-5 page research paper on a biology-related topic of their own choosing. Suggested topics and evaluation rubrics are included.

  15. Encouraging Student Biological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Kathy, Ed.; Hays, Rachel, Ed.; Mack, Alison, Ed.

    This publication encourages student involvement in biological research through student research with the cooperation of teachers and scientists. The contents of the book are divided into two sections. The first section introduces students to research investigations and includes: (1) "How the Investigations Are Set Up and the Rationale Behind Their…

  16. Undergraduate Research Communities: A Powerful Approach to Research Training

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John J. Gaynor

    2006-07-01

    We applied the concept of learning communities, whereby students develop their ideas in cohort-based settings, to undergraduate research training. This creates powerful research communities where students practice science from observation to experimental design to interpretation of data. We describe a biology program, but the approach suits many discovery-based disciplines.

  17. WHITHER BIOLOGICAL DATABASE RESEARCH?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We consider how the landscape of biological databases may evolve in the future, and what research is needed to realize this evolution. We suggest today's dispersal of diverse resources will only increase as the number and size of those resources, driving the need for semantic interoperability even ...

  18. PAC research in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chain, C. Y.; Ceolin, M.; Pasquevich, A. F.

    In this paper possible applications of the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in Biology are considered. Previous PAC experiments in biology are globally analyzed. All the work that appears in the literature has been grouped in a few research lines, just to make the analysis and discussion easy. The commonly used radioactive probes are listed and the experimental difficulties are analyzed. We also report applications of 181Hf and 111In isotopes in life sciences other than their use in PAC. The possibility of extending these studies using the PAC technique is discussed.

  19. PAC research in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chain, C. Y.; Ceolin, M.; Pasquevich, A. F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper possible applications of the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in Biology are considered. Previous PAC experiments in biology are globally analyzed. All the work that appears in the literature has been grouped in a few research lines, just to make the analysis and discussion easy. The commonly used radioactive probes are listed and the experimental difficulties are analyzed. We also report applications of 181Hf and 111In isotopes in life sciences other than their use in PAC. The possibility of extending these studies using the PAC technique is discussed.

  20. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow. PMID:24911500

  1. Urban community property management research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Hui-fan; Yang Zhong-xuan

    2010-01-01

    Based on residential property management of many contradictions and disputes, no longer isolated research management and residents, but the problems between the management system for the community, as a system, analyzes the whole community from community levels within the system, the relationship between elements and existing problems of the relationship, and better solution to the community management and property management,

  2. SNOW Research Community of Practice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SNOW Research Community of Practice, sponsored by the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, is a collaboration of professionals whose goal is to "provide a one-stop solution to customers' snow science and engineering problems." The 48 members have expertise in a variety of areas, including geophysics, chemistry, biology, physics, and mechanical, geological, electrical, civil, and geological engineering. This website provides contact information for snow experts and describes the tools and facilities that are at their disposal. They also provide a wealth of information on various aspects of snow research, including snow models, snow chemistry, and GIS/Remote sensing of snow. Also described here is research on snow mechanics and engineering, which can be used "to develop instrumentation, physical understanding and models and combined with other physical principals to solve problems in hydrology, transportation, engineering infrastructure, and climate change." In addition, the group provides updates on snow impacts in the news, such as the extensive snowfall in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan that has affected safety, transportation, and flooding in those regions, and a link to a map of U.S. snow coverage from the National Weather Service. This site is also reviewed in the March 11, 2005_NSDL MET Report_.

  3. Community College Biology Lesson Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manteuffel, Mary S., Comp.; Herrick, Kathie, Comp.

    This catalog contains lesson descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: introductory material on experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; reproduction and…

  4. Community College Biology Lesson Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Kathie G.

    This catalog contains descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; bioenergetics - enzymes and cellular metabolism;…

  5. Synthetic biology for translational research

    PubMed Central

    Burbelo, Peter D; Ching, Kathryn H; Han, Brian L; Klimavicz, Caitlin M; Iadarola, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology involves the engineering of proteins, signaling pathways and even whole organisms using modular designs and formats. A major tool of synthetic biology is artificial gene synthesis, which provides a direct means from a conceptualized DNA sequence to the corresponding physical DNA for the construction of a variety of biological components. To date, synthetic biology has often been used to answer fundamental questions in basic research, but now is poised to greatly enhance translational research. In this review, we discuss several translational applications of synthetic biology including the construction of novel diagnostics and vaccines, development of new synthetic pathways for drug screening and biosynthesis, and the creation of engineered viruses and microbes to fight human disease. Together these and other novel translational applications of artificial gene synthesis and synthetic biology have the opportunity to make major advances for improving human health. PMID:20733948

  6. Synthetic biology for translational research.

    PubMed

    Burbelo, Peter D; Ching, Kathryn H; Han, Brian L; Klimavicz, Caitlin M; Iadarola, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology involves the engineering of proteins, signaling pathways and even whole organisms using modular designs and formats. A major tool of synthetic biology is artificial gene synthesis, which provides a direct means from a conceptualized DNA sequence to the corresponding physical DNA for the construction of a variety of biological components. To date, synthetic biology has often been used to answer fundamental questions in basic research, but now is poised to greatly enhance translational research. In this review, we discuss several translational applications of synthetic biology including the construction of novel diagnostics and vaccines, development of new synthetic pathways for drug screening and biosynthesis, and the creation of engineered viruses and microbes to fight human disease. Together these and other novel translational applications of artificial gene synthesis and synthetic biology have the opportunity to make major advances for improving human health. PMID:20733948

  7. Research Ethics and Indigenous Communities

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Allyson; Belcourt-Dittloff, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Institutional review boards (IRBs) function to regulate research for the protection of human participants. We share lessons learned from the development of an intertribal IRB in the Rocky Mountain/Great Plains Tribal region of the United States. We describe the process through which a consortium of Tribes collaboratively developed an intertribal board to promote community-level protection and participation in the research process. In addition, we examine the challenges of research regulation from a Tribal perspective and explore the future of Tribally regulated research that honors indigenous knowledge and promotes community accountability and transparency. We offer recommendations for researchers, funding agencies, and Tribal communities to consider in the review and regulation of research. PMID:24134372

  8. Research ethics and indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Allyson; Belcourt-Dittloff, Annie; Belcourt, Cheryl; Belcourt, Gordon

    2013-12-01

    Institutional review boards (IRBs) function to regulate research for the protection of human participants. We share lessons learned from the development of an intertribal IRB in the Rocky Mountain/Great Plains Tribal region of the United States. We describe the process through which a consortium of Tribes collaboratively developed an intertribal board to promote community-level protection and participation in the research process. In addition, we examine the challenges of research regulation from a Tribal perspective and explore the future of Tribally regulated research that honors indigenous knowledge and promotes community accountability and transparency. We offer recommendations for researchers, funding agencies, and Tribal communities to consider in the review and regulation of research. PMID:24134372

  9. Biological and Environmental Research

    E-print Network

    , such as energy security, climate change, environmental management, and homeland and national security. Our work, to understand global climate change, and to develop highly effective diagnostic and therapeutic techniques based Information Analysis Center · Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park Our research seeks to understand

  10. Community-Based Research/ Creative Scholarship

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Community-Based Research/ Creative Scholarship Traditional Academic Research/Creative Scholarship What is the purpose of the Research/Creative Scholarship? To provide the community with the tools is the Research/Creative Scholarship intended to serve? The local community and the academic community

  11. Building Community Linkages: Some Thoughts on Community Based Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Juana

    An original goal of Chicano Studies was to promote improvement of social and economic conditions in the community, with Chicana and Chicano scholars at the forefront of community struggles. Within this perspective, research is problem-based and part of the community action process. Chicano community groups want to work with researchers and…

  12. Biological markers in epidemiologic research

    SciTech Connect

    Hulka, B.S.; Wilcosky, T.

    1988-03-01

    This paper identifies some of the issues relevant to the use of biological markers in epidemiologic research. Foremost among these are clarity of definitions and marker classification. Illustrations of markers in the categories of internal dose, biological effective dose, biological response, disease, and susceptibility are presented with a theoretical model for the interrelationship among these. Issues faced by epidemiologists in selecting markers for specific studies concern exposure complexity, marker specificity, marker persistence, time to appearance, and the use of target vs. surrogate biological media. Feasibility issues concern sample collection, transport, storage, and characteristics of the laboratory assay. The rationale for biological markers in epidemiologic research is strong in that markers have the potential for (1.) improving the accuracy of our exposure variables, (2.) permitting the identification of preclinical disease and providing opportunities for prevention, (3.) allowing for more homogeneous and etiologically relevant classifications of disease, and (4.) enhancing our understanding of the biological processes leading to disease occurrence, thereby strengthening the interpretation of epidemiologic data and the theoretical framework from which we formulate research questions.

  13. On Measuring Community Participation in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Stockdale, Susan; Jones, Andrea; Mango, Joseph; Jones, Felica; Lizaola, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Active participation of community partners in research aspects of community-academic partnered projects is often assumed to have a positive impact on the outcomes of such projects. The value of community engagement in research, however, cannot be empirically determined without good measures of the level of community participation in research

  14. Community structure in social and biological networks

    PubMed Central

    Girvan, M.; Newman, M. E. J.

    2002-01-01

    A number of recent studies have focused on the statistical properties of networked systems such as social networks and the Worldwide Web. Researchers have concentrated particularly on a few properties that seem to be common to many networks: the small-world property, power-law degree distributions, and network transitivity. In this article, we highlight another property that is found in many networks, the property of community structure, in which network nodes are joined together in tightly knit groups, between which there are only looser connections. We propose a method for detecting such communities, built around the idea of using centrality indices to find community boundaries. We test our method on computer-generated and real-world graphs whose community structure is already known and find that the method detects this known structure with high sensitivity and reliability. We also apply the method to two networks whose community structure is not well known—a collaboration network and a food web—and find that it detects significant and informative community divisions in both cases. PMID:12060727

  15. Faculty Perspectives on Community-Based Research: \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caitlin Kennedy; Amanda Vogel; Clara Goldberg-Freeman; Nancy Kass; Mark Farfel

    2009-01-01

    Academic faculty members are increasingly following community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles. We conducted qualitative, in-depth interviews with 22 Johns Hopkins faculty members who conduct community-based research to understand their experiences and perspectives. Respondents engaged the community in numerous ways, ranging from working with community advisory boards to hiring community members as project staff to collaborating with community members across all

  16. Biological defense research program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The proposed action, and subject of this Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), is continuation of the Biological Defense Research Program (BDRP). The BDRP is a research, development, test and evaluation (RDT E) program conducted by the Department of Defense (DoD), with the Department of the Army (DA) serving as the executive agent. This FEIS addresses the ongoing program and provides a basis for evaluating future BDRP activities. The objectives of the BDRP are to develop measures for detection, treatment, protection and decontamination of potential biological warfare threat agents. Development of medical defensive measures, such as prophylactic vaccines and drugs, therapeutic measures, and patient treatment and management protocols are important components of the program. The purpose of the BDRP is to maintain and promote a solid national defense posture with respect to potential biological warfare threats. The BDRP supports RDT E efforts necessary for the maintenance and development of defensive measures and materiel to meet these threats. In addition to promoting the national defense posture, the BDRP benefits the scientific community in general through its research and development efforts, and benefits the global population in the development of diagnostic methods, and vaccine and drug therapies for the treatment of diseases.

  17. Japan sets up program for biological research

    SciTech Connect

    Lepkowski, W.

    1988-05-16

    Japanese officials have put final touches on plans for a global biological research program, called the Human Frontier Science Program, that they hope will launch their country into a new era of international science. Japan will establish a nongovernmental secretariat for the program and will manage it through an international governing council. Almost all the funding in the countries involved- Japan, the U.S., Canada, and the European Community countries- will be provided by Japan, at least at first. In its present design, the program consists of two thrusts- one in the neurosciences with emphasis on brain function, the other on the chemistry and molecular biology of gene expression. The program in the first year would consist of 30 to 50 direct research grants to researchers working in teams, 100 to 200 postdoctoral fellowships, and 10 to 20 workshops. Young researchers would be favored for funding. The average annual grant size would total $500,000, and postdoctoral awards would average $50,000.

  18. Synergy between medicinal chemistry and biological research.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Salvador; Coaker, Hannah

    2014-09-01

    Salvador Moncada studied medicine at the University of El Salvador (El Salvador) before coming to the UK in 1971 to work on a PhD with Professor John Vane at the Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons (UK). After a short period of research at the University of Honduras (Honduras), he joined the Wellcome Research Laboratories (UK) where he became Head of the Department of Prostaglandin Research and later, Director of Research. He returned to academic life in 1996 as founder and director of the Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research at University College London (UK). Moncada played a role in the discovery of the mechanism of action of aspirin-like drugs and later led the teams which discover prostacyclin and identified nitric oxide as a biological mediator. In his role as a Director of Research of the Wellcome Laboratories, he oversaw the discovery and development of medicines for epilepsy, migraine, malaria and cancer. Currently, he is working on the regulation of cell proliferation as Director of the Institute of Cancer Sciences at the University of Manchester (UK). Moncada has won numerous awards from the international scientific community and in 2010, he received a knighthood from Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II for his services to science. PMID:25365232

  19. Puerto Rico Sustainable Communities Research Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHCRP) is to inform and empower decision?makers to equitably weigh and integrate human health, socio?economic, environmental, and ecological factors to foster community sustainability. Pue...

  20. Genome Annotation in a Community College Cell Biology Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagley, C. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Biology Department at Salt Lake Community College has used the IMG-ACT toolbox to introduce a genome mapping and annotation exercise into the laboratory portion of its Cell Biology course. This project provides students with an authentic inquiry-based learning experience while introducing them to computational biology and contemporary learning…

  1. Introduced species can disrupt biological communities and alter biodiversity

    E-print Network

    Holt, Robert D.

    they spread extensively in novel habitats. Biological invasions are an increasing problem in this changing and impact of biological invasions by plants and animals. They can facilitate or limit invasions communities and influence ecosystems undergoing biological invasion. A review of plant and animal invasions

  2. Creating a New Breed of Biology Education Researchers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brian Stagg (AIBS; )

    2008-05-01

    The American Society of Microbiology (ASM) has created the Scholars-in-Residence program to introduce biology faculty to the scholarship of teaching and learning -- a broad term describing the professional responsibility of faculty to conduct rigorous evaluations of their own teaching practices and to publicly share their findings to develop a community of practice. The Scholars-in-Residence program trains microbiologists to use educational research to improve their teaching.Building on the success of the Scholars-in-Residence program, the ASM created the Biology Scholars Program, which is open to the larger community of biology educators. The Biology Scholars Program offers three independent virtual residencies that allow faculty to explore biology education in greater depth and to obtain a better understanding of the scholarship of teaching and learning.

  3. Increasing research literacy: the community research fellows training program.

    PubMed

    Coats, Jacquelyn V; Stafford, Jewel D; Sanders Thompson, Vetta; Johnson Javois, Bethany; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-02-01

    The Community Research Fellows Training (CRFT) Program promotes the role of underserved populations in research by enhancing the capacity for community-based participatory research (CBPR). CRFT consists of 12 didactic training sessions and 3 experiential workshops intended to train community members in research methods and evidence-based public health. The training (a) promotes partnerships between community members and academic researchers, (b) enhances community knowledge of public health research, and (c) trains community members to become critical consumers of research. Fifty community members participated in training sessions taught by multidisciplinary faculty. Forty-five (90%) participants completed the program. Findings demonstrate that the training increased awareness of health disparities, research knowledge, and the capacity to use CBPR as a tool to address disparities. PMID:25742661

  4. Global Biology Research Program: Program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Biological processes which play a dominant role in these cycles which transform and transfer much of this material throughout the biosphere are examined. A greater understanding of planetary biological processes as revealed by the interaction of the biota and the environment. The rationale, scope, research strategy, and research priorities of the global biology is presented.

  5. Exploring community structure in biological networks with random graphs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community structure is ubiquitous in biological networks. There has been an increased interest in unraveling the community structure of biological systems as it may provide important insights into a system’s functional components and the impact of local structures on dynamics at a global scale. Choosing an appropriate community detection algorithm to identify the community structure in an empirical network can be difficult, however, as the many algorithms available are based on a variety of cost functions and are difficult to validate. Even when community structure is identified in an empirical system, disentangling the effect of community structure from other network properties such as clustering coefficient and assortativity can be a challenge. Results Here, we develop a generative model to produce undirected, simple, connected graphs with a specified degrees and pattern of communities, while maintaining a graph structure that is as random as possible. Additionally, we demonstrate two important applications of our model: (a) to generate networks that can be used to benchmark existing and new algorithms for detecting communities in biological networks; and (b) to generate null models to serve as random controls when investigating the impact of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and modularity in empirical biological networks. Conclusion Our model allows for the systematic study of the presence of community structure and its impact on network function and dynamics. This process is a crucial step in unraveling the functional consequences of the structural properties of biological systems and uncovering the mechanisms that drive these systems. PMID:24965130

  6. Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox will accommodate use by two crew persons simultaneously and the capability for real time video down-link and data acquisition. In house testbeds and Phase B studies of the centrifuge validated the concepts of vibration isolation and autobalancing systems to meet the ISSA microgravity requirements. The vibration isolation system is effective above the centrifuge rotation frequency while the autobalancing system on the rotor removes vibration at and below the rotation rate. Torque of the Station, induced by spin-up/spindown of the centrifuge, can be minimized by controlling spin-up/spin-down rates. The SSBRP and ISSA will provide the opportunity to perform long-term, repeatable and high quality science. The long duration increments available on the Station will permit multigeneration studies of both plants and animals which have not previously been possible. The u-g habitat racks and the eight habitat centrifuge will accommodate sufficient number of specimens to permit statistically significant sampling of specimens to investigate the time course of adaptation to altered gravity environments. The centrifuge will, for the first time, permit investigators to use gravity itself as a tool to investigate fundamental processes, to investigate the intensity and duration of gravity to maintain normal structure and function, to separate the effects of u-g from other environmental factors and to examine artificial gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physical deconditioning observed during space flight.

  7. Human Health Research Program: Systems biological approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research using systems analytic approaches to integrate biological and toxicological data across scales of biological organization (e.g. molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, full body, population), with the goal of identifying toxicity pathways, biomarkers, and bioindicators for a...

  8. PNNL's Community Science & Technology Seminar Series Biomedical Research

    E-print Network

    PNNL's Community Science & Technology Seminar Series Biomedical Research: The Promise at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Dr. Rodland is currently Science Lead for NIH programs and Deputy was an associate professor in the Department of Cell and Developmental Biology at Oregon Health Sciences University

  9. The Biological Flight Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1991-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is building a research facility, the Biological Flight Research Facility (BFRF), to meet the needs of life scientists to study the long-term effects of variable gravity on living systems. The facility will be housed on Space Station Freedom and is anticipated to operate for the lifetime of the station, approximately 30 years. It will allow plant and animal biologists to study the role of gravity, or its absence, at varying gravity intensities for varying periods of time and with various organisms. The principal difference between current Spacelab missions and those on Space Station Freedom, other than length of mission, will be the capability to perform on-orbit science procedures and the capability to simulate earth gravity. Initially, the facility will house plants and rodents in habitats which can be maintained at microgravity or can be placed on a 2.5-m diam centrifuge. However, the facility is also being designed to accommodate future habitats for small primates, avian, and aquatic specimens. The centrifuge will provide 1 g for controls and will also be able to provide gravity from 0.01 to 2.0 g for threshold gravity studies as well as hypergravity studies. The BFRF will provide the means to conduct basic experiments to gain an understanding of the effects of microgravity on the structure and function of plants and animals, as well as investigate the role of gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physiological changes observed in microgravity.

  10. Biology and medical research at the exascale.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, L.; Pieper, G. W. (CLS-CI); ( MCS)

    2010-01-01

    Advances in computational hardware and algorithms that have transformed areas of physics and engineering have recently brought similar benefits to biology and biomedical research. Biological sciences are undergoing a revolution. High-performance computing has accelerated the transition from hypothesis-driven to design-driven research at all scales, and computational simulation of biological systems is now driving the direction of biological experimentation and the generation of insights.

  11. Advancing Research on the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy H.

    2007-01-01

    Arthur M. Cohen and his colleagues at the Center for the Study of Community Colleges have made significant and broad contributions to the scholarly literature and empirical research about community colleges. Although Cohen's interests are comprehensive and his writings touch on multiple issues associated with community colleges, his empirical work…

  12. COMMUNITY RESOURCE ASSESSMENT: BUILDING COMMUNITY CAPACITY FOR NUTRITION INTERVENTION RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To describe the methodological process used to access the availability and knowledge of nutrition resources in the rural delta communities. Methods: Three rural communities, one each in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, joined in a consortium with Agricultural Research Service (ARS) an...

  13. COMPARISON OF BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of biological communities or assemblages to make richness or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Traditionally, sample size is based on numbers of replicates or area collected or numbers of individuals enum...

  14. Research note: Identifying "at risk" persons in community based research.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J W; Pilotta, J J

    1987-03-01

    Since the passage of the U.S. 1963 Community Mental Health Act, all social planning is supposed to be community based. This means that policy research should be guided by the principle of community sensitivity, and not merely technical or logistical concerns. In this article the general tenets of community based research are outlined and applied to analyzing the currently controversial issue of what it means for a person or community to be clinically 'at risk'. Normally this topic is addressed in a purely technical manner, yet this approach must be altered if need identification is to be consistent with a community's own self-perception, thereby producing valid data. PMID:10281531

  15. The Biological Flight Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) is building a research facility, the Biological Flight Research Facility (BFRF), to meet the needs of life scientists to study the long-term effects of variable gravity on living systems. The facility will be housed on Space Station Freedom and is anticipated to operate for the lifetime of the station, approximately thirty years. It will allow plant and animal biologists to study the role of gravity, or its absence, at varying gravity intensities for varying periods of time and with various organisms. The principal difference between current Spacelab missions and those on Space Station Freedom, other than length of mission, will be the capability to perform on-orbit science procedures and the capability to simulate earth gravity. Initially the facility will house plants and rodents in habitats which can be maintained at microgravity or can be placed on a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge. However, the facility is also being designed to accommodate future habitats for small primates, avian, and aquatic specimens. The centrifuge will provide 1 g for controls and will also be able to provide gravity from 0.01 to 2.0 g for threshold gravity studies as well as hypergravity studies. Included in the facility are a service unit for providing clean chambers for the specimens and a glovebox for manipulating the plant and animal specimens and for performing experimental protocols. The BFRF will provide the means to conduct basic experiments to gain an understanding of the effects of microgravity on the structure and function of plants and animals, as well as investigate the role of gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physiological changes observed in microgravity.

  16. Engaging community to support HIV prevention research

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Seema; Mehendale, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Actively engaging communities in effective partnerships is considered critical for ethically robust and locally relevant HIV prevention research. This can be challenging in developing countries that have little prior experience in this area. This paper summarizes processes and lessons learnt while setting up the Community Involvement Plan of National AIDS Research Institute, Pune, India. Formal partnerships were established with voluntary agencies. The focus was on using strategies adapted from participatory learning and action techniques. The community program was implemented through peer educators specifically identified from the communities where partner non-governmental organizations function. At the grass root level, peer educators imparted education to the common people about research studies and helped to implement community based recruitment and retention activities. The focus was on facilitating periodic interaction between the outreach workers of the research team and the peers and modifying the strategies till they were found locally implementable and appropriate. Through adequate time investment, mutually beneficial and respectful partnerships with community based organizations and grass root level workers, the community became actively involved in clinical research. The program helped in developing a sense of partnership among the peers for the research conducted by the research organization, widening the net of community education and identification of research participants. By building trust in the community and implementing research within an ethical framework, culturally sensitive matters were appropriately addressed. The community involvement process is long, laborious and ever-evolving. Effective community engagement requires institutional leadership support, adequate funding and commitment by researchers. It is possible to sustain such a model in a resource limited setting. PMID:23807866

  17. Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

    2013-01-01

    Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

  18. Research Ethics in Sign Language Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Raychelle; Holmes, Heidi M.; Mertens, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    Codes of ethics exist for most professional associations whose members do research on, for, or with sign language communities. However, these ethical codes are silent regarding the need to frame research ethics from a cultural standpoint, an issue of particular salience for sign language communities. Scholars who write from the perspective of…

  19. Community ecology theory as a framework for biological invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katriona Shea; Peter Chesson

    2002-01-01

    Community ecology theory can be used to understand biological invasions by applying recent niche concepts to alien species and the communities that they invade. These ideas lead to the concept of ‘niche opportunity’, which defines conditions that promote invasions in terms of resources, natural enemies, the physical environment, interactions between these factors, and the manner in which they vary in

  20. Infiltration of a Hawaiian Community by Introduced Biological Control Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Henneman; J. Memmott

    2001-01-01

    To examine the community-wide effects of introduced biocontrol agents on Kauai Island, Hawaii, we constructed quantitative food webs showing interactions among plants, moths, and moth parasitoids in a native forest. Eighty-three percent of parasitoids reared from native moths were biological control agents, 14% were accidental immigrants, and 3% were native species. Although parasitism by biological control agents reached 28% in

  1. The applications of computers in biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Jennifer

    1988-01-01

    Research in many fields could not be done without computers. There is often a great deal of technical data, even in the biological fields, that need to be analyzed. These data, unfortunately, previously absorbed much of every researcher's time. Now, due to the steady increase in computer technology, biological researchers are able to make incredible advances in their work without the added worries of tedious and difficult tasks such as the many mathematical calculations involved in today's research and health care.

  2. Researchers' perspectives on collective/community co-authorship in community-based participatory indigenous research.

    PubMed

    Castleden, Heather; Morgan, Vanessa Sloan; Neimanis, Aelita

    2010-12-01

    Ethical tensions exist regarding the value and practice of acknowledging Indigenous contributions in community-based participatory research (CBPR). Semistructured phone interviews with researchers documented their perspectives on authorship in the scholarly dissemination of their community-based participatory Indigenous research. Thematic analysis resulted in four key ideas: (1) current practices regarding methods of acknowledging community contributions; (2) requirements for shared authorship with individual versus collective/community partners; (3) benefits to sharing authorship with collective/community partners; and (4) risks to sharing authorship with collective/community partners. Findings suggest an emerging but inconsistent practice. PMID:21133784

  3. How-to-Do-It. Community Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stencel, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a project in which students find a living population in their community and either study it in the field or bring it into the laboratory for study. Seven example projects are suggested. (CW)

  4. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of ‘brain-mind and behavior’. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are currently being investigated by the younger generation with great enthusiasm. What we have achieved so far is the foundation work in last 60 years. Our main challenge in development of biological psychiatry research in India remains resources in terms of manpower, funding and dedicated time for research psychiatrists. Developing basic sciences laboratories, discrete research questions, high quality methodology, and logistical support are some of the essentials. In the present time the culture of research has changed. It is specific and evidence-based. We have time-tested examples of International collaborative research. We need to get more resources, develop education, collaboration and effective leadership. In times to come, India will provide international leadership in basic and clinical biological psychiatry. There is hope. PMID:21836666

  5. The 2014 Gordon Research Conference: Physics Research & Education: The Complex Intersection of Biology and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabella, Mel; Lang, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The field of biological physics and the physics education of biology and medically oriented students have experienced tremendous growth in recent years. New findings, applications, and technologies in biological and medical physics are having far reaching consequences that affect and influence the science community, the education of future scientists and health-care workers, and the general population. As a result leaders in Physics Education Research have begun to focus their attention on the specific needs of students in the biological sciences, the different ways physicists and biologists view the nature of science and the interactions of scientists in these disciplines. In this poster we highlight some of these findings and pose questions for discussion. The Complex Intersection of Biology and Physics will be the topic of the next Gordon Research Conference on Physics Research and Education to be held in June 2014. The exact date and location are still to be determined.

  6. Cancer Research in Your Community

    Cancer.gov

    Information about cancer research going on across the United States and details on the National Cancer Institute's nationwide efforts to connect researchers, patients, health care providers, and others.

  7. Systems biology approaches in aging research.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Anuradha; Liebal, Ulf W; Vera, Julio; Baltrusch, Simone; Junghanß, Christian; Tiedge, Markus; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Köhling, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a systemic process which progressively manifests itself at multiple levels of structural and functional organization from molecular reactions and cell-cell interactions in tissues to the physiology of an entire organ. There is ever increasing data on biomedical relevant network interactions for the aging process at different scales of time and space. To connect the aging process at different structural, temporal and spatial scales, extensive systems biological approaches need to be deployed. Systems biological approaches can not only systematically handle the large-scale datasets (like high-throughput data) and the complexity of interactions (feedback loops, cross talk), but also can delve into nonlinear behaviors exhibited by several biological processes which are beyond intuitive reasoning. Several public-funded agencies have identified the synergistic role of systems biology in aging research. Using one of the notable public-funded programs (GERONTOSYS), we discuss how systems biological approaches are helping the scientists to find new frontiers in aging research. We elaborate on some systems biological approaches deployed in one of the projects of the consortium (ROSage). The systems biology field in aging research is at its infancy. It is open to adapt existing systems biological methodologies from other research fields and devise new aging-specific systems biological methodologies. PMID:25341520

  8. Faculty Experiences in a Research Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Courtney M.; Kozlowski, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the experiences of faculty in a research learning community developed to support new faculty in increasing scholarly productivity. A phenomenological, qualitative inquiry was used to portray the lived experiences of faculty within a learning community. Several themes were found including: accountability, belonging,…

  9. Community-based Research as Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Kerry J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses community-based research (CBR) as a pedagogical strategy for courses in social science research to show how service learning enriches discipline-based learning. Explores how CBR engages students with epistemological debates by modeling alternatives to conventional assumptions about why research is conducted, how best to study people, and…

  10. Fundamental Biological Research on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.; Yost, Bruce; Fletcher, L.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental Biology Program of NASA's Life Sciences Division is chartered with enabling and sponsoring research on the International Space Station (ISS) in order to understand the effects of the space flight environment, particularly microgravity, on living systems. To accomplish this goal, NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has been tasked with managing the development of a number of biological habitats, along with their support systems infrastructure. This integrated suite of habitats and support systems is being designed to support research requirements identified by the scientific community. As such, it will support investigations using cells and tissues, avian eggs, insects, plants, aquatic organisms and rodents. Studies following organisms through complete life cycles and over multiple generations will eventually be possible. As an adjunct to the development of these basic habitats, specific analytical and monitoring technologies are being targeted for maturation to complete the research cycle by transferring existing or emerging analytical techniques, sensors, and processes from the laboratory bench to the ISS research platform.

  11. Developing the Community Empowered Research Training Program: Building Research Capacity for Community-Initiated and Community-Driven Research

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Tseng, Winston; Islam, Nadia; Cook, Won Kim; Ro, Marguerite; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion practice research conducted by or in partnership with community-based organizations (CBOs) serving Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AA and NHPI) can address health disparities. Few CBOs have the tools to integrate or initiate research into their programmatic agenda. The New York University (NYU) Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) and the Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum (APIAHF) created a partnership with the goal to support CBO research infrastructure development by creating the Community Empowered Research Training (CERT) program. Methods A survey was conducted and discussions held with CBO leaders representing AA and NHPI communities to inform the development of the CERT program. Results The majority of participants are engaged in service-related research and reported interest in building their research capacity. CBOs may require help reframing how data can be collected and used to better inform programmatic activities and to address health disparities facing AA and NHPI communities. Conclusions CBOs possess both an interest in and access to local knowledge that can inform health priorities. Findings have been applied to the CERT program to build capacity to support community-initiated/driven research to address health disparities affecting AAs and NHPIs. PMID:22643787

  12. Justifying community benefit requirements in international research.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert C

    2014-10-01

    It is widely agreed that foreign sponsors of research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are morally required to ensure that their research benefits the broader host community. There is no agreement, however, about how much benefit or what type of benefit research sponsors must provide, nor is there agreement about what group of people is entitled to benefit. To settle these questions, it is necessary to examine why research sponsors have an obligation to benefit the broader host community, not only their subjects. Justifying this claim is not straightforward. There are three justifications for an obligation to benefit host communities that each apply to some research, but not to all. Each requires a different amount of benefit, and each requires benefit to be directed toward a different group. If research involves significant net risk to LMIC subjects, research must provide adequate benefit to people in LMICs to avoid an unjustified appeal to subjects' altruism. If research places significant burdens on public resources, research must provide fair compensation to the community whose public resources are burdened. If research is for profit, research sponsors must contribute adequately to the upkeep of public goods from which they benefit in order to avoid the wrong of free-riding, even if their use of these public goods is not burdensome. PMID:23025255

  13. Biology 264 Community Ecology Spring 2013 Gotelli

    E-print Network

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    that is citing other works. Date. Use the year in which the paper was published as the date. Together, the author. For example, we might discuss Jones (1980) or Smith (1975). Again, this is how you will see these papers cited the biology of this organism, do a quick search on the web. "Google image" is a great source for pictures

  14. Biology 264 Community Ecology Spring 2014 Gotelli

    E-print Network

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    that is citing other works. Date. Use the year in which the paper was published as the date. Together, the author. For example, we might discuss Jones (1980) or Smith (1975). Again, this is how you will see these papers cited the biology of this organism, do a quick search on the web. "Google image" is a great source for pictures

  15. Space Station Biological Research Project: Reference Experiment Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine (Editor); Wade, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP), which is the combined efforts of the Centrifuge Facility (CF) and the Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF), is responsible for the development of life sciences hardware to be used on the International Space Station to support cell, developmental, and plant biology research. The SSBRP Reference Experiment Book was developed to use as a tool for guiding this development effort. The reference experiments characterize the research interests of the international scientific community and serve to identify the hardware capabilities and support equipment needed to support such research. The reference experiments also serve as a tool for understanding the operational aspects of conducting research on board the Space Station. This material was generated by the science community by way of their responses to reference experiment solicitation packages sent to them by SSBRP scientists. The solicitation process was executed in two phases. The first phase was completed in February of 1992 and the second phase completed in November of 1995. Representing these phases, the document is subdivided into a Section 1 and a Section 2. The reference experiments contained in this document are only representative microgravity experiments. They are not intended to define actual flight experiments. Ground and flight experiments will be selected through the formal NASA Research Announcement (NRA) and Announcement of Opportunity (AO) experiment solicitation, review, and selection process.

  16. Promoting Coordinated Development of Community-Based Information Standards for Modeling in Biology: The COMBINE Initiative.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Nickerson, David P; Bader, Gary D; Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Demir, Emek; Garny, Alan; Golebiewski, Martin; Myers, Chris J; Schreiber, Falk; Waltemath, Dagmar; Le Novčre, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE) is a consortium of groups involved in the development of open community standards and formats used in computational modeling in biology. COMBINE's aim is to act as a coordinator, facilitator, and resource for different standardization efforts whose domains of use cover related areas of the computational biology space. In this perspective article, we summarize COMBINE, its general organization, and the community standards and other efforts involved in it. Our goals are to help guide readers toward standards that may be suitable for their research activities, as well as to direct interested readers to relevant communities where they can best expect to receive assistance in how to develop interoperable computational models. PMID:25759811

  17. Promoting Coordinated Development of Community-Based Information Standards for Modeling in Biology: The COMBINE Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hucka, Michael; Nickerson, David P.; Bader, Gary D.; Bergmann, Frank T.; Cooper, Jonathan; Demir, Emek; Garny, Alan; Golebiewski, Martin; Myers, Chris J.; Schreiber, Falk; Waltemath, Dagmar; Le Novčre, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE) is a consortium of groups involved in the development of open community standards and formats used in computational modeling in biology. COMBINE’s aim is to act as a coordinator, facilitator, and resource for different standardization efforts whose domains of use cover related areas of the computational biology space. In this perspective article, we summarize COMBINE, its general organization, and the community standards and other efforts involved in it. Our goals are to help guide readers toward standards that may be suitable for their research activities, as well as to direct interested readers to relevant communities where they can best expect to receive assistance in how to develop interoperable computational models.

  18. NASA Space Biology Plant Research for 2010-2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Tomko, D. L.; Porterfield, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) recently published "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era" (http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record id=13048), and NASA completed a Space Biology Science Plan to develop a strategy for implementing its recommendations ( http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/library/esmd documents.html). The most important recommendations of the NRC report on plant biology in space were that NASA should: (1) investigate the roles of microbial-plant systems in long-term bioregenerative life support systems, and (2) establish a robust spaceflight program of research analyzing plant growth and physiological responses to the multiple stimuli encountered in spaceflight environments. These efforts should take advantage of recently emerged analytical technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and apply modern cellular and molecular approaches in the development of a vigorous flight-based and ground-based research program. This talk will describe NASA's strategy and plans for implementing these NRC Plant Space Biology recommendations. New research capabilities for Plant Biology, optimized by providing state-of-the-art automated technology and analytical techniques to maximize scientific return, will be described. Flight experiments will use the most appropriate platform to achieve science results (e.g., ISS, free flyers, sub-orbital flights) and NASA will work closely with its international partners and other U.S. agencies to achieve its objectives. One of NASA's highest priorities in Space Biology is the development research capabilities for use on the International Space Station and other flight platforms for studying multiple generations of large plants. NASA will issue recurring NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) that include a rapid turn-around model to more fully engage the biology community in designing experiments to respond to the NRC recommendations. In doing so, NASA's Space Biology research will optimize ISS research utilization, develop and demonstrate technology and hardware that will enable new science, and contribute to the base of fundamental knowledge that will facilitate development of new tools for human space exploration and Earth applications. By taking these steps, NASA will energize the Space Biology user community and advance our knowledge of the effect of the space flight environment on living systems.

  19. Community-driven computational biology with Debian Linux

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Open Source movement and its technologies are popular in the bioinformatics community because they provide freely available tools and resources for research. In order to feed the steady demand for updates on software and associated data, a service infrastructure is required for sharing and providing these tools to heterogeneous computing environments. Results The Debian Med initiative provides ready and coherent software packages for medical informatics and bioinformatics. These packages can be used together in Taverna workflows via the UseCase plugin to manage execution on local or remote machines. If such packages are available in cloud computing environments, the underlying hardware and the analysis pipelines can be shared along with the software. Conclusions Debian Med closes the gap between developers and users. It provides a simple method for offering new releases of software and data resources, thus provisioning a local infrastructure for computational biology. For geographically distributed teams it can ensure they are working on the same versions of tools, in the same conditions. This contributes to the world-wide networking of researchers. PMID:21210984

  20. Evaluating Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Community-Partnered Science and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Sarah; Duran, Bonnie; Wallerstein, Nina; Avila, Magdalena; Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie; Magarati, Maya; Mainer, Elana; Martin, Diane; Muhammad, Michael; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Sahota, Puneet; Simonds, Vanessa; Sussman, Andrew; Tafoya, Greg; Hat, Emily White

    2013-01-01

    Background Since 2007, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) Policy Research Center (PRC) has partnered with the Universities of New Mexico and Washington to study the science of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Our goal is to identify facilitators and barriers to effective community–academic partnerships in American Indian and other communities, which face health disparities. Objectives We have described herein the scientific design of our National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study (2009–2013) and lessons learned by having a strong community partner leading the research efforts. Methods The research team is implementing a mixed-methods study involving a survey of principal investigators (PIs) and partners across the nation and in-depth case studies of CBPR projects. Results We present preliminary findings on methods and measures for community-engaged research and eight lessons learned thus far regarding partnership evaluation, advisory councils, historical trust, research capacity development of community partner, advocacy, honoring each other, messaging, and funding. Conclusions Study methodologies and lessons learned can help community–academic research partnerships translate research in communities. PMID:22982842

  1. Biological Communities at the Florida Escarpment Resemble Hydrothermal Vent Taxa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Paull; B. Hecker; R. Commeau; R. P. Freeman-Lynde; C. Neumann; W. P. Corso; S. Golubic; J. E. Hook; E. Sikes; J. Curray

    1984-01-01

    Dense biological communities of large epifaunal taxa similar to those found along ridge crest vents at the East Pacific Rise were discovered in the abyssal Gulf of Mexico. These assemblages occur on a passive continental margin at the base of the Florida Escarpment, the interface between the relatively impermeable hemipelagic clays of the distal Mississippi Fan and the jointed Cretaceous

  2. LINKING SERVICE AND NUTRITION RESEARCH: AN APPROACH TO COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN COMMUNITY BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: This paper outlines how community service activities can evolve as a mechanism to identify and initiate community-based participatory research projects in diet/healthy eating. Background: The Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (NIRI) is sponsored by the United States Departm...

  3. Community outreach at biomedical research facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, M; Hedetniemi, J N; Herbert, E R; Sassaman, J S; Walker, B C

    2000-01-01

    For biomedical researchers to fulfill their responsibility for protecting the environment, they must do more than meet the scientific challenge of reducing the number and volume of hazardous materials used in their laboratories and the engineering challenge of reducing pollution and shifting to cleaner energy sources. They must also meet the public relations challenge of informing and involving their neighbors in these efforts. The experience of the Office of Community Liaison of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in meeting the latter challenge offers a model and several valuable lessons for other biomedical research facilities to follow. This paper is based on presentations by an expert panel during the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held 1--2 November 1999 at NIH, Bethesda, Maryland. The risks perceived by community members are often quite different from those identified by officials at the biomedical research facility. The best antidote for misconceptions is more and better information. If community organizations are to be informed participants in the decision-making process, they need a simple but robust mechanism for identifying and evaluating the environmental hazards in their community. Local government can and should be an active and fully informed partner in planning and emergency preparedness. In some cases this can reduce the regulatory burden on the biomedical research facility. In other cases it might simplify and expedite the permitting process or help the facility disseminate reliable information to the community. When a particular risk, real or perceived, is of special concern to the community, community members should be involved in the design, implementation, and evaluation of targeted risk assessment activities. Only by doing so will the community have confidence in the results of those activities. NIH has involved community members in joint efforts to deal with topics as varied as recycling and soil testing. These ad hoc efforts are more likely to succeed if community members and groups have also been included in larger and longer term advisory committees. These committees institutionalize the outreach process. This can provide the facility with vocal and influential allies who create an independent line of communication with the larger community. PMID:11124126

  4. Community outreach at biomedical research facilities.

    PubMed

    Goldman, M; Hedetniemi, J N; Herbert, E R; Sassaman, J S; Walker, B C

    2000-12-01

    For biomedical researchers to fulfill their responsibility for protecting the environment, they must do more than meet the scientific challenge of reducing the number and volume of hazardous materials used in their laboratories and the engineering challenge of reducing pollution and shifting to cleaner energy sources. They must also meet the public relations challenge of informing and involving their neighbors in these efforts. The experience of the Office of Community Liaison of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in meeting the latter challenge offers a model and several valuable lessons for other biomedical research facilities to follow. This paper is based on presentations by an expert panel during the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held 1--2 November 1999 at NIH, Bethesda, Maryland. The risks perceived by community members are often quite different from those identified by officials at the biomedical research facility. The best antidote for misconceptions is more and better information. If community organizations are to be informed participants in the decision-making process, they need a simple but robust mechanism for identifying and evaluating the environmental hazards in their community. Local government can and should be an active and fully informed partner in planning and emergency preparedness. In some cases this can reduce the regulatory burden on the biomedical research facility. In other cases it might simplify and expedite the permitting process or help the facility disseminate reliable information to the community. When a particular risk, real or perceived, is of special concern to the community, community members should be involved in the design, implementation, and evaluation of targeted risk assessment activities. Only by doing so will the community have confidence in the results of those activities. NIH has involved community members in joint efforts to deal with topics as varied as recycling and soil testing. These ad hoc efforts are more likely to succeed if community members and groups have also been included in larger and longer term advisory committees. These committees institutionalize the outreach process. This can provide the facility with vocal and influential allies who create an independent line of communication with the larger community. PMID:11124126

  5. Community structure in social and biological networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Girvan; M. E. J. Newman

    2002-01-01

    A number of recent studies have focused on the statistical properties of networked systems such as social networks and the Worldwide Web. Researchers have concentrated particularly on a few properties that seem to be common to many networks: the small-world property, power-law degree distributions, and network transitivity. In this article, we highlight another property that is found in many networks,

  6. DNASU plasmid and PSI:Biology-Materials repositories: resources to accelerate biological research.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Catherine Y; Park, Jin G; Sharma, Amit; Hunter, Preston; Surapaneni, Padmini; Sedillo, Casey; Field, James; Algar, Rhys; Price, Andrea; Steel, Jason; Throop, Andrea; Fiacco, Michael; LaBaer, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The mission of the DNASU Plasmid Repository is to accelerate research by providing high-quality, annotated plasmid samples and online plasmid resources to the research community through the curated DNASU database, website and repository (http://dnasu.asu.edu or http://dnasu.org). The collection includes plasmids from grant-funded, high-throughput cloning projects performed in our laboratory, plasmids from external researchers, and large collections from consortia such as the ORFeome Collaboration and the NIGMS-funded Protein Structure Initiative: Biology (PSI:Biology). Through DNASU, researchers can search for and access detailed information about each plasmid such as the full length gene insert sequence, vector information, associated publications, and links to external resources that provide additional protein annotations and experimental protocols. Plasmids can be requested directly through the DNASU website. DNASU and the PSI:Biology-Materials Repositories were previously described in the 2010 NAR Database Issue (Cormier, C.Y., Mohr, S.E., Zuo, D., Hu, Y., Rolfs, A., Kramer, J., Taycher, E., Kelley, F., Fiacco, M., Turnbull, G. et al. (2010) Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository: an open shared public resource of structural genomics plasmids for the biological community. Nucleic Acids Res., 38, D743-D749.). In this update we will describe the plasmid collection and highlight the new features in the website redesign, including new browse/search options, plasmid annotations and a dynamic vector mapping feature that was developed in collaboration with LabGenius. Overall, these plasmid resources continue to enable research with the goal of elucidating the role of proteins in both normal biological processes and disease. PMID:24225319

  7. DNASU plasmid and PSI:Biology-Materials repositories: resources to accelerate biological research

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Catherine Y.; Park, Jin G.; Sharma, Amit; Hunter, Preston; Surapaneni, Padmini; Sedillo, Casey; Field, James; Algar, Rhys; Price, Andrea; Steel, Jason; Throop, Andrea; Fiacco, Michael; LaBaer, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The mission of the DNASU Plasmid Repository is to accelerate research by providing high-quality, annotated plasmid samples and online plasmid resources to the research community through the curated DNASU database, website and repository (http://dnasu.asu.edu or http://dnasu.org). The collection includes plasmids from grant-funded, high-throughput cloning projects performed in our laboratory, plasmids from external researchers, and large collections from consortia such as the ORFeome Collaboration and the NIGMS-funded Protein Structure Initiative: Biology (PSI:Biology). Through DNASU, researchers can search for and access detailed information about each plasmid such as the full length gene insert sequence, vector information, associated publications, and links to external resources that provide additional protein annotations and experimental protocols. Plasmids can be requested directly through the DNASU website. DNASU and the PSI:Biology-Materials Repositories were previously described in the 2010 NAR Database Issue (Cormier, C.Y., Mohr, S.E., Zuo, D., Hu, Y., Rolfs, A., Kramer, J., Taycher, E., Kelley, F., Fiacco, M., Turnbull, G. et al. (2010) Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository: an open shared public resource of structural genomics plasmids for the biological community. Nucleic Acids Res., 38, D743–D749.). In this update we will describe the plasmid collection and highlight the new features in the website redesign, including new browse/search options, plasmid annotations and a dynamic vector mapping feature that was developed in collaboration with LabGenius. Overall, these plasmid resources continue to enable research with the goal of elucidating the role of proteins in both normal biological processes and disease. PMID:24225319

  8. Research on orchid biology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Yang, Ya-Ping; Hsu, Yi-Chin; Chuang, Yu-Chen; Shih, Hsing-Hui; Chen, Wen-Huei; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2011-09-01

    Orchidaceae constitute one of the largest families of angiosperms. They are one of the most ecological and evolutionary significant plants and have successfully colonized almost every habitat on earth. Because of the significance of plant biology, market needs and the current level of breeding technologies, basic research into orchid biology and the application of biotechnology in the orchid industry are continually endearing scientists to orchids in Taiwan. In this introductory review, we give an overview of the research activities in orchid biology and biotechnology, including the status of genomics, transformation technology, flowering regulation, molecular regulatory mechanisms of floral development, scent production and color presentation. This information will provide a broad scope for study of orchid biology and serve as a starting point for uncovering the mysteries of orchid evolution. PMID:21791545

  9. Research Experiences in Community College Science Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauregard, A.

    2011-12-01

    The benefits of student access to scientific research opportunities and the use of data in curriculum and student inquiry-driven approaches to teaching as effective tools in science instruction are compelling (i.e., Ledley, et al., 2008; Gawel & Greengrove, 2005; Macdonald, et al., 2005; Harnik & Ross. 2003). Unfortunately, these experiences are traditionally limited at community colleges due to heavy faculty teaching loads, a focus on teaching over research, and scarce departmental funds. Without such hands-on learning activities, instructors may find it difficult to stimulate excitement about science in their students, who are typically non-major and nontraditional. I present two different approaches for effectively incorporating research into the community college setting that each rely on partnerships with other institutions. The first of these is a more traditional approach for providing research experiences to undergraduate students, though such experiences are limited at community colleges, and involves student interns working on a research project under the supervision of a faculty member. Specifically, students participate in a water quality assessment study of two local bayous. Students work on different aspects of the project, including water sample collection, bio-assay incubation experiments, water quality sample analysis, and collection and identification of phytoplankton. Over the past four years, nine community college students, as well as two undergraduate students and four graduate students from the local four-year university have participated in this research project. Aligning student and faculty research provides community college students with the unique opportunity to participate in the process of active science and contribute to "real" scientific research. Because students are working in a local watershed, these field experiences provide a valuable "place-based" educational opportunity. The second approach links cutting-edge oceanographic research with my community college students by partnering with a research oceanographer. Through this partnership, students have had access to an active oceanographic researcher through classroom visits, use of data in curriculum, and research/cruise progress updates. With very little research activity currently going on at the community college, this "window" into scientific research is invaluable. Another important aspect of this project is the development of a summer internship program that has allowed four community college students to work directly with an oceanographer in her lab for ten weeks. This connection of community college students with world-class scientists in the field promotes better understanding of research and potentially may encourage more students to major in the sciences. In either approach, the interaction with scientists at different stages of their careers, from undergraduate and graduate students at universities to post docs and research scientists, also provides community college students with the opportunity to gain insight into possible career pathways. For both majors and non-majors, a key outcome of such experiences will be gaining experience in using inquiry and reasoning through the scientific method and becoming comfortable with data and technology.

  10. FDA: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is "to protect and enhance the public health through the regulation of biological and related products including blood, vaccines, allergenics, tissues, and cellular and gene therapies." Their mission is an important one, and consumers and scientists will want to bookmark this page and return to it on a regular basis. On this page, visitors can sign up for their RSS feed and read through some key resources. Users can also browse resources on biologics depending on their needs: consumer, healthcare and industry level information is provided.

  11. Messages to the Research Community

    Cancer.gov

    March 4, 2015 Dr. Harold Varmus to Step Down as Director of the National Cancer Institute Dr. Harold Varmus has announced that he will step down as Director of the National Cancer Institute at the end of the month. Taking over as Acting Director on April 1, 2015, will be Dr. Douglas Lowy, currently the Institute's Deputy Director and head of the Laboratory of Cellular Oncology at NCI’s Center for Cancer Research.

  12. A democratic university–community administrative body dedicated to expanding community-engaged research: The Tufts Community Research Center (TCRC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Sprague Martinez; Flavia C. Peréa; Alyssa Ursillo; Warren Goldstein-Gelb; Doug Brugge

    2012-01-01

    The benefits and challenges of community-engaged research (CEnR) partnerships are well documented. The barriers to building sustainable university–community partnerships are many, ranging from a lack of institutional support, historical conflicts, differing time scales, and divergent philosophies to lack of infrastructure on both sides. In order to promote CEnR partnerships and provide a forum to address the challenges of community research

  13. Evaluation of a workshop to improve community involvement in community-based participatory research efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Community based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that has gained attention in health and public health research. Community members and researchers partnering in a CBPR project recognized the need for community education about the research process and research eth...

  14. 77 FR 55200 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...Director, Office of Science of the Department of...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Report from the Office...Biological and Environmental Research News from the Biological Systems Science and Climate and...

  15. 78 FR 34088 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...Director, Office of Science of the Department of...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Report from the Office...Biological and Environmental Research News from the Biological Systems Science and Climate and...

  16. The increasing urgency for standards in basic biologic research.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Leonard P; Inglese, James

    2014-08-01

    Research advances build upon the validity and reproducibility of previously published data and findings. Yet irreproducibility in basic biologic and preclinical research is pervasive in both academic and commercial settings. Lack of reproducibility has led to invalidated research breakthroughs, retracted articles, and aborted clinical trials. Concerns and requirements for transparent, reproducible, and translatable research are accelerated by the rapid growth of "post-publication peer review," open access publishing, and data sharing that facilitate the identification of irreproducible data/studies; they are magnified by the explosion of high-throughput technologies, genomics, and other data-intensive disciplines. Collectively, these changes and challenges are decreasing the effectiveness of traditional research quality mechanisms and are contributing to unacceptable-and unsustainable-levels of irreproducibility. The global oncology and basic biologic research communities can no longer tolerate or afford widespread irreproducible research. This article discusses (i) how irreproducibility in preclinical research can ultimately be traced to an absence of a unifying life science standards framework, and (ii) makes an urgent case for the expanded development and use of consensus-based standards to both enhance reproducibility and drive innovations in cancer research. PMID:25035389

  17. Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of ‘governmentality’, and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389

  18. National Center for Deaf Health Research Center for Community Health

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    National Center for Deaf Health Research and Center for Community Health Functional Job Description community-based participatory research. The mission of the Center for Community Health is to join forces with the community to eliminate health inequalities and improve health through research, education, and service

  19. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH WITHIN THE FEDERAL COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the primary ongoing programs for promotion and encouragement of pollution prevention research is a cooperative program between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Federal community at large. EPAżs Waste Reduction Evaluations At Federal Sites (WREAFS) Pro...

  20. NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP)

    Cancer.gov

    The overall goal of NCORP is to bring cancer clinical trials, as well as cancer care delivery research (CCDR), to individuals in their own communities, thereby generating a broadly applicable evidence base that contributes to improved patient outcomes and a reduction in cancer disparities.

  1. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Klebsiella pneumoniae related community-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Klebsiella pneumoniae related community- acquired acute lower, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very-sector hospitals. Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Community-acquired, Pneumonia, Extended-spectrum betalactamases

  2. Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis

    E-print Network

    Adl, Sina

    Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis Instructors: 3 members of the honours committee each year. This class is required of, and restricted to, all Biology and Marine Biology Honours programmes in which Biology or Marine Biology is the major area of study. Students conduct

  3. Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis

    E-print Network

    Adl, Sina

    Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis Instructors: Pat Collins And Marine Biology Honours programmes in which Biology or Marine Biology is the major area of study. Students Cameron Conference in February . Co-op students attend this class by registering for Biology or Marine

  4. Biologically Inspired Micro-Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Waszak, Martin R.

    2003-01-01

    Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed- wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.

  5. NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) in Gravitational Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclntire, Larry V.; Rudolph, Frederick B.

    1996-01-01

    The mission of our NSCORT is to investigate the effects of gravity and other environmental factors on biological function at the cellular and molecular level. The research efforts, training opportunities, and scientific exchange will promote the expansion of a scientific peer group well-educated in space-related biological issues. This will stimulate the interest of the larger scientific community and insure the continuing development of rigorous flight investigations in Gravitational Biology.

  6. MTL ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT 2014 Biological & Medical 121 Biological, Medical Devices

    E-print Network

    Reif, Rafael

    MTL ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT 2014 Biological & Medical 121 Biological, Medical Devices and Systems........................................................................................143 #12;122 Biological & Medical MTL ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT 2014 #12;MTL ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT 2014 Biological & Medical 123 Vital signs such as heart rate, blood pressure, blood ox- ygenation, cardiac output

  7. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, Dr. Dale [University of California, Berkeley; Bartholow, Dr. John [U.S. Department of Fish and Wildlife; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; al., et. [Various Institutes

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem.

  8. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, D.A.; Bartholow, J.M.; Jager, H.I.; Beschta, R.L.; Cheslak, E.F.; Deas, M.L.; Ebersole, J.L.; Foott, J.S.; Johnson, S.L.; Marine, K.R.; Mesa, M.G.; Petersen, J.H.; Souchon, Y.; Tiffan, K.F.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems, in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied, and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem. ?? Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  9. 2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Prange, C

    2003-03-01

    LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes; and develop technology and tools which enhance healthcare. We execute our roles through integrated multidisciplinary programs that apply our competencies in: microbial and mammalian genomics--the characterization of DNA, the genes it encodes, their regulation and function and their role in living systems; protein function and biochemistry - the structure, function, and interaction of proteins and other molecules involved in the integrated biochemical function of the processes of life; computational modeling and understanding of biochemical systems--the application of high-speed computing technology to simulate and visualize complex, integrated biological processes; bioinformatics--databasing, networking, and analysis of biological data; and bioinstrumentation--the application of physical and engineering technologies to novel biological and biochemical measurements, laboratory automation, medical device development, and healthcare technologies. We leverage the Laboratory's exceptional capabilities in the physical, computational, chemical, environmental and engineering sciences. We partner with industry and universities to utilize their state-of-the art technology and science and to make our capabilities and discoveries available to the broader research community.

  10. Identifying Community Needs and Resources in a Native Community: A Research Partnership in the Pacific Northwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Rey; Donovan, Dennis M.; Sigo, Robin L. W.

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous communities have engaged in needs and resources assessments for thousands of years. By blending CBPR/TPR approaches with community-driven assets and needs assessments, academic and community based researchers can work together to better understand and identify community strengths as well as issues of concern in Native communities. This…

  11. ENGAGING THE COMMUNITY IN HEALTH RESEARCH IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Preuss, Charles; Pathak, Yashwant; Kosambiya, J. K.; Kumar, Ambuj

    2013-01-01

    Community-engaged research approaches involve members of the community in various aspects of a research endeavor to improve the health of populations. Engaging the community in research is important in the development, dissemination, and evaluation of new interventions, technologies, and other medical advancements to improve population health globally. A review of published community-engaged research studies conducted in India was performed. Fifteen published studies were identified and reviewed to evaluate the state of community-engaged research in India. The review indicated that community-engaged research in India is limited. Most published community-engaged research focused on health promotion, especially in the prevention or management of HIV/AIDS and other STIs. Community members were involved in a variety of aspects of the research, but there was not one published article indicating that community members had defined the disease of focus. Community-engaged research often led to valuable insights into the views, experiences, and behaviors of community members and also led to increased community participation in health initiatives. It is anticipated that future community-engaged research will lead to improvements in global health through increased empowerment of communities and a better ability to implement new and innovative medical advances, technologies, and interventions. PMID:24353757

  12. Experimental Data from the Proteomics Research Center for Integrative Biology

    DOE Data Explorer

    Smith, Richard D.

    The possible roles and importance of proteomics are rapidly growing across essentially all areas of biological research. The precise and comprehensive measurement of levels of expressed proteins and their modified forms can provide new insights into the molecular nature of cell-signaling pathways and networks, the cell cycle, cellular differentiation, and other processes relevant to understanding human health and the progression of various disease states. The ability to characterize protein complexes complements this capability, allowing hypotheses to be tested and the biological system operation to be defined. The Proteomics Research Center for Integrative Biology is a national user facility established and funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences component of the National Institutes of Health. This Center has been established to serve the biomedical research community by developing and integrating new proteomic technologies for collaborative and service studies, disseminating the new technologies, and training scientists in their use. The Center is housed in DOE’s William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  13. Biological communities at the Florida Escarpment resemble hydrothermal vent taxa

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, C.K.; Hecker, B.; Commeau, R.; Freeman-Lynde, R.P.; Neumann, C.; Corso, W.P.; Golubic, S.; Hook, J.E.; Sikes, E.; Curray, J.

    1984-11-23

    Dense biological communities of large epifaunal taxa similar to those found along ridge crest vents at the East Pacific Rise were discovered in the abyssal Gulf of Mexico. These assemblages occur on a passive continental margin at the base of the Florida Escarpment, the interface between the relatively impermeable hemipelagic clays of the distal Mississippi Fan and the jointed Cretaceous limestone of Florida Platform. The fauna apparently is nourished by sulfide rich hypersaline waters seeping out at near ambient temperatures onto the sea floor. 16 references, 3 figures.

  14. Biological communities at the Florida Escarpment resemble hydrothermal vent taxa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, C.K.; Hecker, Barbara; Commeau, R.; Freeman-Lynde, R. P.; Neumann, C.; Corso, W.P.; Golubic, S.; Hook, J.E.; Sikes, E.; Curray, J.

    1984-01-01

    Dense biological communities of large epifaunal taxa similar to those found along ridge crest vents at the East Pacific Rise were discovered in the abyssal Gulf of Mexico. These assemblages occur on a passive continental margin at the base of the Florida Escarpment, the interface between the relatively impermeable hemipelagic clays of the distal Mississippi Fan and the jointed Cretaceous limestone of the Florida Platform. The fauna apparently is nourished by sulfide rich hypersaline waters seeping out at near ambient temperatures onto the sea floor.

  15. 77 FR 4028 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ...Director, Office of Science, Department of Energy...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics: Report from the Office of Science Report from the Office...Biological and Environmental Research News from the...

  16. 75 FR 53685 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...Director, Office of Science of the Department of...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics: Report from the Office of Science. Report from the Office...Biological and Environmental Research. News from the...

  17. 78 FR 6087 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ...Director, Office of Science of the Department of...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Update from the Office of Science Report from the Office...Biological and Environmental Research News from the...

  18. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

  19. Community Engagement in Research: Frameworks for Education and Peer Review

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Ann-Gel S.

    2010-01-01

    Community engagement in research may enhance a community's ability to address its own health needs and health disparities issues while ensuring that researchers understand community priorities. However, there are researchers with limited understanding of and experience with effective methods of engaging communities. Furthermore, limited guidance is available for peer-review panels on evaluating proposals for research that engages communities. The National Institutes of Health Director's Council of Public Representatives developed a community engagement framework that includes values, strategies to operationalize each value, and potential outcomes of their use, as well as a peer-review framework for evaluating research that engages communities. Use of these frameworks for educating researchers to create and sustain authentic community–academic partnerships will increase accountability and equality between the partners. PMID:20558798

  20. COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN CHILDREN’S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Barbara L.; Manice, Melissa P.

    2010-01-01

    Community engagement strategies and skills can build trust and reduce historical mistrust between researchers, communities and populations being studied, as well as contribute to the quality of study designs, methods and dissemination of findings. This review paper discusses why community engagement is of increasing importance in children’s environmental health research, describes models and the continuum of methods that are used and discusses their challenges and benefits. Two case studies, representing different study designs and using different community engagement models and methods, and lessons learned from these cases are described. Community engagement methods are best understood on a continuum based on the degree to which community members or representatives of community populations are involved in research planning, decision making and dissemination. Methods along this continuum include community consultation, community based participatory research(CBPR) and community consent to research. Community engagement knowledge and skills are especially important in the conduct of children’s environmental health research with its emphasis on reducing environmental risks at the community level; the increasing focus on genetics and gene-environment interactions; and the importance placed on translation of scientific results into behaviors and policies that protect the community. Across study designs, whether qualitative survey research, an observational epidemiology study, or a randomized intervention trial, understanding community interests, norms and values is necessary to describe attitudes and behaviors of specific population groups, build evidence of cause and effect between environmental exposures and health and/or that demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce risks. PMID:21259265

  1. ComPratica: A Virtual Community of Practice for Promoting Biology Teachers' Professional Development in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hani, Charbel N.; Greca, Ileana M.

    2013-08-01

    Teachers' professional development is a key factor in improving science education, but it shows limited impact when only a small number of teachers is reached, or when it focuses on only one aspect of teachers' development, such as learning science content, and is disconnected from teachers' practice. In order to increase the impact of our work on teachers' professional development, we implemented in 2007 ComPratica, an online network intended to establish a virtual community of practice involving biology teachers and biological education researchers. We present here the results of the first 2 years of this project, obtained through an analysis of the number and distribution of actions performed by the participants in the community, the kinds of activities in which they are engaged, and the themes addressed in their messages. From these data, we conclude that ComPratica is effectively functioning as a community of practice and is leading to changes related to both teachers' and researchers' professional development, which seem capable of reducing the research-practice gap in science education.

  2. Maximizing the Impact of Community-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Mary; Penney, Naomi; Cockburn, Bethany

    2011-01-01

    Community-based research (CBR) is an increasingly familiar approach to addressing social challenges. Nonetheless, the role it plays in attaining community impact is unclear and largely unstudied. Here the authors discuss an emerging framework aimed toward fostering community impact through university and community civic engagement. They describe…

  3. Creating Meaningful Partnerships Between Communities and Environmental Health Researchers

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Rachael; Aguilar, Genevieve C.; de Castro, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement is a necessary, although challenging, element of environmental health research in communities. To facilitate the engagement process, direct action community organizing agencies can be useful in bringing together communities and researchers. This article describes the preliminary activities that one direct action community organizing agency used in partnership with researchers to improve community engagement in the first 6 months of an environmental health study conducted in a major U.S. city. Activities included developing communication strategies, creating opportunities for researcher–community interaction, and sustaining project momentum. To conduct environmental research that is both scientifically rigorous and relevant to communities, collaborating partners had to develop professional skills and strategies outside of their areas of expertise. PMID:23875568

  4. Effects of Sand Mining on Physical Processes and Biological Communities Offshore New Jersey, U.S.A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Byrnes; Richard M. Hammer; Tim D. Thibaut; David B. Snyder

    2004-01-01

    BYRNES, M.R.; HAMMER, R.M.; THIBAUT, T.D., and SNYDER, D.B., 2004. Potential effects of sand mining on physical processes and biological communities offshore New Jersey, U.S.A. Journal of Coastal Research, 20(1), 25-43. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. Physical processes and biological data were collected and analyzed for eight sand resource areas on the New Jersey Outer Continental Shelf to address

  5. Biological research on a Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.; Johnson, Catherine C.

    1990-01-01

    A Space Station can provide reliable, long duration access to ug environments for basic and applied biological research. The uniqueness of access to near-weightless environments to probe fundamental questions of significance to gravitational and Space biologists can be exploited from many vantage points. Access to centrifuge facilities that can provide 1 g and hypo-g controls will permit identification of gravity-dependent or primary effects. Understanding secondary effects of the ug environment as well will allow a fuller exploitation of the Space environment.

  6. A Pedagogy of Blending Theory with Community-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Blending activity theory and community-based research educational applications describes the praxis achieved through the initial design, development, implementation, and assessment of one research methods course as a pedagogy to enhance and improve the outcomes of civic and community engagement for the university, its students, and the community.…

  7. Participatory Action Research for Electronic Community Networking Projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Stillman

    2005-01-01

    The paper encourages the adoption of participative action research methodologies for the evaluation of community technology, given the complex and emergent mix of community development and information technology, which these projects represent. Much of the richness of the processes that take place can best be captured through collaborative participative research that is valued by communities, rather than through less engaged

  8. Building Collaborative Communities of Enquiry in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Donald; Cassidy, Claire; Skinner, Don; Coutts, Norman; Sinclair, Christine; Rimpilainen, Sanna; Wilson, Alastair

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the concept of community of enquiry through an examination of 3 case studies: (a) a school-based community of enquiry involving pupils, teachers, and researchers; (b) a community of enquiry involving teachers from around 100 different schools in a Scottish local authority, together with policy advisers and researchers; and…

  9. The community leaders institute: an innovative program to train community leaders in health research.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Lori E; Parr, William; Smith, Teresa; Mitchell, Monica J

    2013-03-01

    An emerging best practice of addressing health and improving health disparities in communities is ensuring that academic health centers (AHCs) are engaged with area schools, primary care practices, and community advocates as equal partners in research, services, and programs. The literature documents the importance of ensuring that academic-community collaboration is based on equity, trust, and respect and that there is capacity (time and resources) and a shared culture (language, skills, and applied knowledge) for accomplishing mutual goals in academic-community research partnerships. It is also essential that an academic-community collaboration result in tangible and measurable goals and outcomes for both the target community and the AHC. Currently, the models for implementing best practices in community health partnerships, especially training programs, are limited.This article summarizes the goals and outcomes for the Community Leaders Institute (CLI), a six-week innovative leadership development training program designed to enhance academic-community research, integrate the interests of community leaders and AHC researchers, and build research capacity and competencies within the community. On the basis of two years of outcome data, the CLI is achieving its intended goals of engaging faculty as trainer-scholars while promoting academic-community partnerships that align with community and AHC priorities. The training and collaborative research paradigm used by the CLI has served to accelerate AHC-community engagement and integration efforts, as CLI graduates are now serving on AHC steering, bioethics, and other committees. PMID:23348087

  10. The Community Leaders Institute: An Innovative Program to Train Community Leaders in Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Lori E.; Parr, William; Smith, Teresa; Mitchell, Monica J.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging best practice of addressing health and improving health disparities in communities is ensuring that academic health centers (AHCs) are engaged with area schools, primary care practices, and community advocates as equal partners in research, services, and programs. The literature documents the importance of ensuring that academic-community collaboration is based on equity, trust, and respect, and that there is capacity (time and resources) and a shared culture (language, skills, and applied knowledge) for accomplishing mutual goals in academic-community research partnerships. It is also essential that an academic-community collaboration results in tangible and measurable goals and outcomes for both the target community and the AHC. Currently, the models for implementing best practices in community health partnerships, especially training programs, are limited. This paper article summarizes the goals and outcomes for the Community Leaders Institute (CLI), a six-week innovative leadership development training program designed to enhance academic-community research, integrate the interests of community leaders and AHC researchers, and build research capacity and competencies within the community. Based on two years of outcome data, the CLI is achieving its intended goals of engaging faculty as trainer-scholars while promoting academic-community partnerships that align with community and AHC priorities. The training and collaborative research paradigm utilized by the CLI has served to accelerate AHC-community engagement and integration efforts, as CLI graduates are now serving on AHC steering, bioethics, and other committees. PMID:23348087

  11. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Address Health Disparities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina B. Wallerstein; Bonnie Duran

    2006-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the past decades as an alternative research paradigm, which integrates education and social action to improve health and reduce health disparities. More than a set of research methods, CBPR is an orientation to research that focuses on relationships between academic and community partners, with principles of colearning, mutual benefit, and long-term commitment and

  12. Race in biological and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard S

    2013-11-01

    The concept of race has had a significant influence on research in human biology since the early 19th century. But race was given its meaning and social impact in the political sphere and subsequently intervened in science as a foreign concept, not grounded in the dominant empiricism of modern biology. The uses of race in science were therefore often disruptive and controversial; at times, science had to be retrofitted to accommodate race, and science in turn was often used to explain and justify race. This relationship was unstable in large part because race was about a phenomenon that could not be observed directly, being based on claims about the structure and function of genomic DNA. Over time, this relationship has been characterized by distinct phases, evolving from the inference of genetic effects based on the observed phenotype to the measurement of base-pair variation in DNA. Despite this fundamental advance in methodology, liabilities imposed by the dual political-empirical origins of race persist. On the one hand, an optimistic prediction can be made that just as geology made it possible to overturn the myth of the recent creation of the earth and evolution told us where the living world came from, molecular genetics will end the use of race in biology. At the same time, because race is fundamentally a political and not a scientific idea, it is possible that only a political intervention will relieve us of the burden of race. PMID:24186487

  13. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1984-08-01

    This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)

  14. Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Featured here is an important subscription-based resource for obtaining science articles online. Wide-ranging institutional access as well as free services make this resources useful without an individual subscription. In addition, in January 2000, the American Institute of Physics (AIP) and the American Physical Society (APS) launched a new virtual journal. Representing the first entry in a series of journals the Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research will gather "into one spot all the papers on a given topic that appear in a wide range of premier physics-related journals." The articles have been pre-selected by expert editors, so that specialists may turn to this convenient resource to stay on top of cutting-edge research. Access to articles will require a regular subscription to the specific journals, though non-subscribers do have the option of purchasing individual articles for immediate online delivery. Browsing the tables of contents and abstracts is free.

  15. Welcome ASCO Community Research Forum members! | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology sponsors a 'Community Research Forum', designed to provide community-based researchers an opportunity to unite and develop solutions to common challenges to conducting research. A hearty group of souls has been working hard over the past year to compile a great list of online resources to facilitate the conduct and management of clinical trials in the community setting. The site is designed for physician investigators and research staff.

  16. 2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Sussman

    2010-07-23

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

  17. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  18. Enabling a next generation of synthetic biology community organization and leadership.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Megan J; Jewett, Michael C

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology seeks to make engineering of complex biological functions more efficient, reliable, and predictable. Advancing the process of engineering biology requires community organization and leadership. As synthetic biology matures into a globally significant enterprise, the community needs to enable a next generation of leaders to organize the field's responsible advancement. We discuss key points raised at a community meeting on these issues at SB6.0--the Sixth International Meeting on Synthetic Biology--and highlight opportunities to carry forward the conversation. PMID:24617412

  19. Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

    1996-01-01

    Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

  20. The role of community health advisors in community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Story, Lachel; Hinton, Agnes; Wyatt, Sharon B

    2010-01-01

    Mistrust and fear of research often exist in minority communities because of assumptions, preconceived ideas, and historical abuse and racism that continue to influence research participation. The research establishment is full of well-meaning 'outsider' investigators who recognize discrimination, health disparities, and insufficient health care providers in minority communities, but struggle in breaking through this history of mistrust. This article provides ethical insights from one such 'insider-outsider', community-based participatory research project implemented via community health advisors in the Mississippi Delta. Both community-based participatory research and community health advisors provide opportunities to address the ethical issues of trust, non-maleficence, and justice in minority communities. Implications for ethics-driven nursing research are discussed. PMID:20089631

  1. Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

    2001-01-01

    Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

  2. A Framework for Building Research Partnerships with First Nations Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2014-01-01

    Solutions to complex health and environmental issues experienced by First Nations communities in Canada require the adoption of collaborative modes of research. The traditional “helicopter” approach to research applied in communities has led to disenchantment on the part of First Nations people and has impeded their willingness to participate in research. University researchers have tended to develop projects without community input and to adopt short term approaches to the entire process, perhaps a reflection of granting and publication cycles and other realities of academia. Researchers often enter communities, collect data without respect for local culture, and then exit, having had little or no community interaction or consideration of how results generated could benefit communities or lead to sustainable solutions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative to the helicopter approach and is promoted here as a method to research that will meet the objectives of both First Nations and research communities. CBPR is a collaborative approach that equitably involves all partners in the research process. Although the benefits of CBPR have been recognized by segments of the University research community, there exists a need for comprehensive changes in approaches to First Nations centered research, and additional guidance to researchers on how to establish respectful and productive partnerships with First Nations communities beyond a single funded research project. This article provides a brief overview of ethical guidelines developed for researchers planning studies involving Aboriginal people as well as the historical context and principles of CBPR. A framework for building research partnerships with First Nations communities that incorporates and builds upon the guidelines and principles of CBPR is then presented. The framework was based on 10 years’ experience working with First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. The framework for research partnership is composed of five phases. They are categorized as the pre-research, community consultation, community entry, research and research dissemination phases. These phases are cyclical, non-linear and interconnected. Elements of, and opportunities for, exploration, discussion, engagement, consultation, relationship building, partnership development, community involvement, and information sharing are key components of the five phases within the framework. The phases and elements within this proposed framework have been utilized to build and implement sustainable collaborative environmental health research projects with Saskatchewan First Nations communities. PMID:24855374

  3. Ethical Issues in Developing Pharmacogenetic Research Partnerships American Indigenous Communities

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Bert B.; Dillard, Denise; Woodahl, Erica L.; Whitener, Ron; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Burke, Wylie

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacogenetic research offers the potential to improve the safety and efficacy of drug prescribing. Assuring that the benefits of this research reach indigenous and other medically underserved people is an important justice concern. First, however, a legacy of mistrust, derived from traditional research practices that disempower communities, must be overcome. Linking pharmacogenetic research to collaborative, power-sharing research partnerships provides a valuable opportunity to develop new and positive precedents for genetic research in indigenous communities. PMID:21326261

  4. Sharing Control: Developing Research Literacy through Community-Based Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juergensmeyer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests that the methodology of community-based action research provides concrete strategies for fostering effective community problem solving. To argue for a community research pedagogy, the author draws upon past and present scholarship in action research and participatory action research, experiences teaching an undergraduate…

  5. Approaches to community nursing research partnerships: a case example.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nancy Lois Ruth; Lesser, Janna; Oscós-Sánchez, Manuel Ángel; Pińeda, Daniel V; Garcia, Gwyn; Mancha, Juan

    2014-04-01

    Every community is unique and has special strengths and health-related needs, such that a community-based participatory research partnership cannot be formed and implemented in a predetermined, step-by-step manner. In this article, we describe how the Community Partnership Model (CPM), designed to allow flexible movement back and forth through all action phases, can be adapted to a variety of communities. Originally developed for nursing practice, the CPM has evolved into approaches for the collaborative initiation and maintenance of community partnerships. The model is informed by the recognition that cultural, social, economic, and knowledge backgrounds may vary greatly between nurse researchers and their community partners. The Familias En Acción violence prevention project exemplifies the use of the CPM in a transcultural partnership formation and implementation process. The collaborative approaches of the model guide community and research partners to interconnect and move flexibly through all partnership phases, thereby facilitating sustainability and community self-advocacy. PMID:24391121

  6. Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow

    MedlinePLUS

    ... major institutions across the United States and internationally. Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow ... some of NIA’s exciting findings about the basic biology of aging and points to directions for future ...

  7. Interdisciplinary Communities and Research Issues in Music Information Retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Futrelle; J. Stephen Downie

    2002-01-01

    Music Information Retrieval (MIR) is an interdisciplinary research area that has grown out of the need to manage burgeoning collections of music in digital form. Its diverse disciplinary communities have yet to articulate a common research agenda or agree on methodological principles and metrics of success. In order for MIR to succeed, researchers need to work with real user communities

  8. NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Gets Underway

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has awarded 53 new 5-year grants to researchers across the country to conduct multi-site cancer clinical trials and cancer care delivery research studies in their communities. The grants are being awarded under the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP)

  9. Community-oriented support and research structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, Norbert; Eickermann, Thomas; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Coordinated by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Europe is restructuring and strengthening its high-performance computing infrastructure with the aim to create a model HPC ecosystem. At the tip of the pyramid, up to six centres are envisaged that will operate systems of the highest performance class. The HPC Research Infrastructure (HPC-RI) will comprise European, national and regional centres. Science communities are integral partners, strong links will include Grid and Cloud users. The HPC-RI strives at providing scientists all over Europe, on the one hand, with unlimited and independent access to state-of-the-art computer resources in all performance classes and, on the other hand, with a world-class pan-European competence and support network. While the hardware-oriented buildup of the infrastructure is making progress, high-quality user support and software development in the upcoming era of unprecedented parallelism and exascale on the horizon have become the imminent challenges. This has been clearly recognized by the European Commission, who will issue calls for proposals to fund petascale software development in summer 2009. Although traditional support structures are well established in Europe's major supercomputing centres, it is questionable if these structures are able to meet the challenges of the future: in general, support structures are based on cross-disciplinary computer science and mathematics teams; disciplinary computational science support usually is given in an ad-hoc, project-oriented manner. In this paper, we describe our approach to establish a suitable support structure-Simulation Laboratories (SL). SLs are currently being established at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre of the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany. While SLs are community-oriented, i.e. each SL focusses on a specific community, they are structured in a strictly interdisciplinary manner, comprising mathematicians, computer scientists and technicians along with disciplinary scientists. SLs are led by a disciplinary scientist, and representatives of the respective disciplines give guidance to its operation. This concept is proposed as a model for and might become an integral element of a future pan-European HPC support and software research structure.

  10. Paul Tabbush Social Research Group Consultation and community

    E-print Network

    Paul Tabbush Social Research Group Consultation and community involvement in forest planning Research in Cranborne Chase and North Dorset #12;Paul Tabbush Social Research Group Forest Research 1: Paul Tabbush Social Research Group Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham Surrey GU10 4LH Tel: 01420

  11. Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon cycling

    E-print Network

    Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon experiments were conducted at sites spanning the steep oxygen, organic matter, and biological community gradients across the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone, in order to quantify the role that fauna play

  12. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K. [ed.] [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  13. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  14. Biology of an Enzyme: A Research-Like Experience for Introductory Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towle, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of laboratory exercises designed to introduce students to a realistic experience in biological research that is feasible with large numbers of beginning biology majors. The exercises center on the study of alkaline phosphatase. (DDR)

  15. Research Ethics Education for Community-Engaged Research: A Review and Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emily E.; Solomon, Stephanie; Heitman, Elizabeth; DuBois, James M.; Fisher, Celia B.; Kost, Rhonda G.; Lawless, Mary Ellen; Ramsey, Cornelia; Jones, Bonnie; Ammerman, Alice; Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2012-01-01

    Community engagement is increasingly becoming an integral part of research. “Community-engaged research” (CEnR) introduces new stakeholders as well as unique challenges to the protection of participants and the integrity of the research process. We—a group of representatives of CTSA-funded institutions and others who share expertise in research ethics and CEnR—have identified gaps in the literature regarding (1) ethical issues unique to CEnR; (2) the particular instructional needs of academic investigators, community research partners, and IRB members; and (3) best practices for teaching research ethics. This paper presents what we know, as well as what we still need to learn, in order to develop quality research ethics educational materials tailored to the full range of stakeholder groups in CEnR. PMID:22565579

  16. Engaging community college students in physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Megan; Napoli, Maria; Lubin, Arica; Kramer, Liu-Yen; Aguirre, Ofelia; Kuhn, Jens-Uwe; Arnold, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    Recruiting talent and fostering innovation in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) disciplines demands that we attract, educate, and retain a larger and more diverse cohort of students. In this regard, Community Colleges (CC), serving a disproportionate number of underrepresented minority, female and nontraditional students, represent a pool of potential talent that, due to a misguided perception of its students as being less capable, often remains untapped. We will present our strategies to attract and support the academic advancement of CC students in the STEM fields through our NSF-sponsored Research Experience for Undergraduates program entitled Internships in Nanosystems Science Engineering and Technology (INSET). For more than a decade, INSET has offered a physics research projects to CC students. The key components of INSET success are: 1) the involvement of CC faculty with a strong interest in promoting student success in all aspects of program planning and execution; 2) the design of activities that provide the level of support that students might need because of lack of confidence and/or unfamiliarity with a university environment; and 3) setting clear goals and high performance expectations.

  17. An Efficient Spectral Algorithm for Network Community Discovery and Its Applications to Biological and Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhua Ruan; Weixiong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Automatic discovery of community structures in complex networks is a fundamental task in many disciplines, includ- ing social science, engineering, and biology. Recently, a quantitative measure called modularity (Q) has been pro- posed to effectively assess the quality of community struc- tures. Several community discovery algorithms have since been developed based on the optimization of Q. However, this optimization problem

  18. Decolonizing Health Research: Community-Based Participatory Research and Postcolonial Feminist Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Francine; Giles, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Within Canada, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become the dominant methodology for scholars who conduct health research with Aboriginal communities. While CBPR has become understood as a methodology that can lead to more equitable relations of power between Aboriginal community members and researchers, it is not a panacea. In…

  19. Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador Guidelines for research involving

    E-print Network

    Brownstone, Rob

    Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador 1 Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador Fern Brunger, PhD on behalf #12;Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador 2 Table

  20. Creating a Knowledge Base of Biological Research Papers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carole D. Hafner; Kenneth Baclawski; Robert P. Futrelle; Natalya Fridman Noy; Shobana Sampath

    1994-01-01

    develop will be applicable to other branches of molecular biology. We are focusing on the Materials and Methods sections of these papers, as being both typical of texts in experimental biology and sufficiently narrow and patterned to be amenable to knowledge engineering techniques. Intelligent text-oriented tools for representing and searching the biological research literature are being developed, which combine object-oriented

  1. Community Music Knowledge Exchange Research in Scottish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Nikki; Loening, Gica

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the usefulness of Knowledge Exchange (KE) funding streams for higher education community music research projects, with a case study of one particular project that took place between February and April 2010. The project was funded via a KE stream, linking University researchers with a well-established community music charity…

  2. The Research and Planning Prospectus for California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RP Group of California Community Colleges, Santa Ana.

    To help researchers and planners, college governing bodies, and state-wide entities gain perspective on myriad events and initiatives impacting California Community Colleges (CCC) and higher education in general, the Research and Planning (RP) Group for California Community Colleges developed this prospectus. The final draft prospectus identifies…

  3. Future Directions in Community Power Research: A Colloquium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirt, Frederick M., Ed.

    This compilation of symposium papers on community power structure research focuses on the theme that community power structure research must shift away from case study methods and move toward aggregate data analysis. Advocating comparative analysis, seven authors present their views under the following topics: (1) Charles R. Adrian, "Several Loose…

  4. Synthetic biology: An emerging research field in China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Lei; Schmidt, Markus; Wei, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology is considered as an emerging research field that will bring new opportunities to biotechnology. There is an expectation that synthetic biology will not only enhance knowledge in basic science, but will also have great potential for practical applications. Synthetic biology is still in an early developmental stage in China. We provide here a review of current Chinese research activities in synthetic biology and its different subfields, such as research on genetic circuits, minimal genomes, chemical synthetic biology, protocells and DNA synthesis, using literature reviews and personal communications with Chinese researchers. To meet the increasing demand for a sustainable development, research on genetic circuits to harness biomass is the most pursed research within Chinese researchers. The environmental concerns are driven force of research on the genetic circuits for bioremediation. The research on minimal genomes is carried on identifying the smallest number of genomes needed for engineering minimal cell factories and research on chemical synthetic biology is focused on artificial proteins and expanded genetic code. The research on protocells is more in combination with the research on molecular-scale motors. The research on DNA synthesis and its commercialisation are also reviewed. As for the perspective on potential future Chinese R&D activities, it will be discussed based on the research capacity and governmental policy. PMID:21729747

  5. Indigenous Ways of Knowing: Implications for Participatory Research and Community

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Patricia A. L.; Marshall, Catherine A.; Garcia-Downing, Carmen; Kendall, Elizabeth; Cook, Doris; McCubbin, Laurie; Gover, Reva Mariah S.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have a responsibility to cause no harm, but research has been a source of distress for indigenous people because of inappropriate methods and practices. The way researchers acquire knowledge in indigenous communities may be as critical for eliminating health disparities as the actual knowledge that is gained about a particular health problem. Researchers working with indigenous communities must continue to resolve conflict between the values of the academic setting and those of the community. It is important to consider the ways of knowing that exist in indigenous communities when developing research methods. Challenges to research partnerships include how to distribute the benefits of the research findings when academic or external needs contrast with the need to protect indigenous knowledge. PMID:18048800

  6. 78 FR 63170 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...Director, Office of Science of the Department...and Environmental Research Program. [[Page...Tentative Agenda Topics Report From the...and Environmental Research News From the Biological Systems Science and Climate and...

  7. 77 FR 28368 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...Director, Office of Science of the Department...and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Update from the...and Environmental Research Update/highlights...Biological Systems Science and Climate and...

  8. Capacity building for health through community based participatory nutrition intervention research in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

  9. Community-Partnered Research Conference Model: The Experience of Community Partners in Care Study

    PubMed Central

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Pulido, Esmeralda; Ramos, Ana; Dixon, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Problem Conducting community-partnered research conferences is a powerful yet underutilized approach to translating research into practice and improving result dissemination and intervention sustainability strategies. Nonetheless, detailed descriptions of conference features and ways to use them in empirical research are rare. Purpose of Article We describe how community-partnered conferences may be integrated into research projects by using an example of Community Partners in Care, a large cluster-randomized controlled trial that uses Community Partnered Participatory Research principles. Key Points Our conceptual model illustrates the role community-partnered research conferences may play in three study phases and describes how different conference features may increase community engagement, build two-way capacity, and ensure equal project ownership. Conclusion(s) As the number of community-partnered studies grows, so too does the need for practical tools to support this work. Community-partnered research conferences may be effectively employed in translational research to increase two-way capacity-building and promote long-term intervention success. PMID:24859106

  10. Capacity building for health through community-based participatory nutrition intervention Research in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

  11. Population Change, Community Viability, and Migration Intentions in Selected Utah Communities. Research Report 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yun; And Others

    The first phase of a longitudinal research project, "Assessing Rural Communities' Viability and Associated Factors Under Conditions of Population Change," was conducted in 1975 in eight Utah communities (Panguitch, Richfield, Salina, Delta, Moab, Duchesne, Roosevelt, and Vernal) to provide useful information for planners, researchers, and…

  12. Creating a knowledge base of biological research papers.

    PubMed

    Hafner, C D; Baclawski, K; Futrelle, R P; Fridman, N; Sampath, S

    1994-01-01

    Intelligent text-oriented tools for representing and searching the biological research literature are being developed, which combine object-oriented databases with artificial intelligence techniques to create a richly structured knowledge based of Materials and Methods sections of biological research papers. A knowledge model of experimental processes, biological and chemical substances, and analytical techniques is described, based on the representation techniques of taxonomic semantic nets and knowledge frames. Two approaches to populating the knowledge base with the contents of biological research papers are described: natural language processing and an interactive knowledge definition tool. PMID:7584384

  13. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application. PMID:21560604

  14. POLICY FOR RESEARCH INVOLVING DRUGS, BIOLOGICS OR DEVICES

    E-print Network

    involves a radioactively labeled drug product o The study involves a cytotoxic drug product o1 POLICY FOR RESEARCH INVOLVING DRUGS, BIOLOGICS OR DEVICES 6/1/2011 Research investigating or evaluating drugs, biologics or devices must be conducted under an IRB approved protocol, under the direction

  15. Conbrio Concept Briefing: A Regional Institute for Research in Biology,

    E-print Network

    Kimbrough, Steven Orla

    way to biology and all of the social science (economics, game theory, sociology, political scienceConbrio Concept Briefing: A Regional Institute for Research in Biology, Social Systems and competitive; very distant horizon; feasibility not established. · Contract research Example: Success in Ohio

  16. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which may help scientists to find an appropriate research site for potential cooperation projects. Currently, the website is becoming revised and updated. Up to now the LRG counts 485 registered members from 54 countries. Registration is possible free of charge via www.lysimeter.at. The LRG wants to attract new members from all over the world, intensify co-operation with other research groups, and enhance and support new and innovative ideas and technologies in lysimeter research.

  17. Nutrition research in rural communities: application of ethical principles.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mieke; Kruger, H Salomé

    2013-10-01

    This narrative review focuses on ethics related to nutrition-specific community-based research, within the framework of science for society, and focusing on the rights and well-being of fieldworkers and research participants. In addition to generally accepted conditions of scientific validity, such as adequate sample size, unbiased measurement outcome and suitable study population, research needs to be appropriate and feasible within the local context. Communities' suspicions about research can be overcome through community participation and clear dialogue. Recruitment of fieldworkers and research participants should be transparent and guided by project-specific selection criteria. Fieldworkers need to be adequately trained, their daily schedules and remuneration must be realistic, and their inputs to the study must be recognized. Fieldworkers may be negatively affected emotionally, financially and physically. Benefits to research participants may include physical and psychological benefits, minimal economic benefit, and health education; while risks may be of a physical, psychological, social, or economic nature. Targeting individuals in high-risk groups may result in social stigmatization. The time burden to the research participant can be minimized by careful attention to study procedures and questionnaire design. Potential benefits to the community, fieldworkers and research participants and anticipated knowledge to be gained should outweigh and justify the potential risks. Researchers should have an exit strategy for study participants. For effective dissemination of results to individual research participants, the host community and nutrition community, the language, format and level of presentation need to be appropriate for the target audience. PMID:22591024

  18. Community Writing, Participatory Research, and an Anthropological Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Janise

    2008-01-01

    Participatory research is a radical praxis through which marginalized people acquire research capabilities that they use to transform their own lives. In this article, I examine how parent writers incorporated facets of community writing into their research practice as they developed their practices and identities as researchers. I also consider…

  19. Balancing Community and University Aims in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Pacific Islander Youth Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Wiersma, Lenny; Briand, Greta; Faletau, Vaka; Lepule, Jonathan; Nacpil, Lianne; Eichenauer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) holds the promise of improving the planning, conduct, and long-term translation of research findings into community settings. Objectives This 2-year, exploratory study applied CBPR structures and processes to the identification of individual, cultural and community factors associated with obesity among Pacific Islander (PI) youth in Southern California. Methods We describe the CBPR principles and strategies used by a community–university partnership to develop, implement, and report on the findings from assessments of obesity, physical activity, and nutritional intake among PI youth. Results Although CBPR planning processes led to successes in community-based youth recruitment and retention, we learned key lessons regarding implementation of tailored assessment protocols, often involving problems arising from the university side of the CBPR collaborative. Conclusion CBPR has its strengths and limits; more studies are needed that report on processes to increase our understanding of how to balance research rigor with community sustainability. PMID:21441665

  20. Entering Research: A Course That Creates Community and Structure for Beginning Undergraduate Researchers in the STEM Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Balster, Nicholas; Pfund, Christine; Rediske, Raelyn

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate research experiences have been shown to enhance the educational experience and retention of college students, especially those from underrepresented populations. However, many challenges still exist relative to building community among students navigating large institutions. We developed a novel course called Entering Research that creates a learning community to support beginning undergraduate researchers and is designed to parallel the Entering Mentoring course for graduate students, postdocs, and faculty serving as mentors of undergraduate researchers. The course serves as a model that can be easily adapted for use across the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines using a readily available facilitator's manual. Course evaluations and rigorous assessment show that the Entering Research course helps students in many ways, including finding a mentor, understanding their place in a research community, and connecting their research to their course work in the biological and physical sciences. Students in the course reported statistically significant gains in their skills, knowledge, and confidence as researchers compared with a control group of students, who also were engaged in undergraduate research but not enrolled in this course. In addition, the faculty and staff members who served as facilitators of the Entering Research course described their experience as rewarding and one they would recommend to their colleagues. PMID:20516356

  1. Capacity building for health through community-based participatory nutrition intervention research in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Downey, Laura H; Castellanos, Diana Cuy; Yadrick, Kathy; Threadgill, Paula; Kennedy, Betty; Strickland, Earline; Prewitt, T Elaine; Bogle, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception, capacity building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative, a tri-state collaboration in the Lower Mississippi Delta to address high rates of chronic disease. Textual analysis of project documents identifies and describes strategies carried out to foster capacity building. Strategies to build community capacity include fostering participation, cultivating leadership opportunities, training community members as co-researchers, securing community resources, and implementing the intervention together. Incorporating capacity-building approaches in health promotion and nutrition-intervention programming in rural communities provides a means to enhance potential for sustainability of health outcomes and developed effectiveness. PMID:20531098

  2. PERSPECTIVE What is microbial community ecology?

    E-print Network

    PERSPECTIVE What is microbial community ecology? Allan Konopka Biological Sciences Division for rigorous progress in the field. Important elements of research in microbial community ecology include by a `microbial community' and identification of important characteristics specific to community ecology. What

  3. Biology in Context: Teachers' Professional Development in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elster, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Biology in Context ("bik") is a project that aims to improve biology teaching in lower secondary schools in Germany. Based on a theoretical framework derived from the National Educational Standards, four competence areas should be fostered in biology education: subject knowledge; inquiry acquisition; subject-related communication; and valuing and…

  4. Structural biology research at the National Synchroton Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The world`s foremost facility for scientific research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation is operated by the national synchrotron Light Source Department. This year alone, a total of 2200 guest researchers performed experiments at the world`s largest source of synchrotron light. Researchers are trying to define the three- dimensional structures of biological macromolecules to create a map of life, a guide for exploring the biological and chemical interactions of the vast variety of molecules found in living organisms. Studies in structural biology may lead to new insights into how biological systems are formed and nourished, how they survive and grow, how they are damaged and die. This document discusses some the the structural biological research done at the National Synchrotron Light Source.

  5. Nitrogen Fixation and Leaching of Biological Soil Crust Communities in Mesic Temperate Soils

    E-print Network

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Microbial Ecology Nitrogen Fixation and Leaching of Biological Soil Crust Communities in Mesic, and fungi. Although crusts are a dominant source of nitrogen (N) in arid ecosystems, this study is among

  6. Program . Research Entrance Paper : Biological Sciences

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, N.

    on the answers sheet attached. #12;BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 1. The post ofice is involved in processing, packaging Curie (B) 6.25 micro Curie (C) 15.5 micro Curie (D) 1.55 rnicro Curie 10. Penicillin inhibits

  7. University and Community Research Partnerships: A New Approach

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Recently, more and more organizations have become interested in partnerships forged between institutions of higher education and local community-based organizations. Released in late 2003, this 48-page report from the Pew Partnership for Civic Change (spearheaded by Jacqueline Dugery) investigated university-community research partnerships at 19 sites around the United States. Some of these community organizations included groups working in the areas of job training, commercial revitalization, youth mentoring, and job transportation. In order to place these findings in a broader context, the Pew Partnership (in collaboration with the University of Virginia) convened a number of individuals in October 2002 to discuss "the potential for these university-community research partnerships." These remarks are summarized within the body of this paper, along with an explication of a new research model for assessment and evaluation for use by community organizations and local institutions of higher learning developed by the Pew Partnership for Civic Change.

  8. A Research-Based Molecular Biology Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charisse Buising

    2001-02-01

    In an apprenticeship-style course that mimics experiences in research laboratories and better reflects trends in educational reform, students perform team projects through collaboration with corporate research institutions. This research-based, student-ce

  9. Guidelines for community based partners for reviewing research grant applications: Lessons from the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR) Community Engagement Research Core (CERC)

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Robert M; Calhoun, Karen; Choate, Celeste B; De Loney, E. Hill; Paberzs, Adam; Sampselle, Carolyn M; Vereen, Donald R; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    One of most important mandates of the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) Clinical and Translational Science Award’s (CTSA) awards is to accelerate the dissemination of scientific discoveries so that the public benefits from health related research. Carrying out that mandate requires equitable and bi-directional research partnerships with those who will use these discoveries to benefit health. The mission of the Michigan Institute for Clinical & Health Research’s (MICHR) Community Engagement & Research Core is to increase community decision-making and action for health promotion, disease prevention, and treatment by involving the community in all phases of clinical research. Some of the community partners serving on MICHR’s Community Engagement Coordinating Council (CECC) have expressed concern about reviewing university/community partner research projects. They found the scientific nature of proposals somewhat challenging. These guidelines are intended to help community partners bring to bear their unique expertise and experience in the evaluation of proposed research studies that include community partners as co-principle investigators. This paper provides an approach for ensuring the community’s voice plays an important role in reviewing pilot project proposals for community-engaged research. PMID:24330687

  10. Emerging Technologies: An Opportunity for Weed Biology Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main objective of the Emerging Technologies Symposium at the 2007 WSSA Annual Meeting was to provide the weed science community with the principles behind emerging technologies and how they can be used to study weed biology. Specifically, aspects and applications related to genomic database deve...

  11. RESEARCH Open Access Community-based health insurance and social

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Community-based health insurance and social capital: a review Hermann Pierre Pythagore Donfouet1* and Pierre-Alexandre Mahieu2 Abstract Community-Based Health Insurance (CBHI to quality health services for low-income rural households who are excluded from formal insurance. CBHI

  12. RESEARCH PAPER Plantpollinator interactions in a Mexican Acacia community

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    RESEARCH PAPER Plant­pollinator interactions in a Mexican Acacia community Nigel E. Raine � Alice transfer (HPT) in a community of four Acacia species in a highly seasonal tropical habitat in Mexico species (Acacia macracantha and Acacia an- gustissima) shared multiple flower visitors, raising

  13. Research on the Impact of HBCUs on African American Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Ralph; Davis, Ronnie

    2008-01-01

    The authors conducted a formal research study to investigate the perceptions of faculty, staff, and community residents regarding town-gown relationships and the sustainability of African American communities as related to educational benefits, home ownership, employment and job training, earning potential, and graduation rates.

  14. Developing Effective Social Work University-Community Research Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begun, Audrey L.; Berger, Lisa K.; Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Rose, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    In many instances, departments of social work in universities and community-based social services agencies have common interests in improving professional practice and advancing knowledge in the profession. Effective university-community research collaborations can help partners achieve these goals jointly, but to be effective these collaborative…

  15. Participatory Research for Chronic Disease Prevention in Inuit Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Kratzmann, Meredith; Reid, Rhonda; Ogina, Julia; Sharma, Sangita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop a community-based chronic disease prevention program for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. Methods: Stakeholders contributed to intervention development through formative research [in-depth interviews (n = 45), dietary recalls (n = 42)], community workshops, group feedback and implementation training. Results: Key cultural themes…

  16. Principles of Best Practice for Community-Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Kerry; Marullo, Sam; Cutforth, Nick; Stoecker, Randy; Donohue, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a community-based research (CBR) model that is genuinely collaborative and driven by community rather than campus interests; that democratizes the creation and dissemination of knowledge; and that seeks to achieve positive social change. Demonstrates how this model translates into principles that underlie the practice of CBR in four…

  17. Research into the treatment of autism using virtual communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingyue Wu; Fuyang Li; Ning Lu

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of autism, research into the treatment of the disease has continued and improved. Currently, the majority of treatments are centered on individual face-to-face therapies. This paper presents and realizes a new and unique perspective for autism treatment — virtual community treatment. Therapeutic use of virtual communities and interactive simulation are better able to help patients to achieve

  18. Curriculum Enquiry about Community Engagement at a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, C. J. G.

    2008-01-01

    The curriculum should be paramount in the academic field since the university uses curricula to put its ideas into effect. The curriculum field and community engagement are both comprehensive at universities but research on curricular community engagement (CCE) is imperative. Curriculum theory was used as a theoretical framework for this article,…

  19. Community Engagement and Boundary-Spanning Roles at Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David J.; Sandmann, Lorilee R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, community engagement has emerged as an important priority among many colleges and universities. This study employs a multi-case study design to examine boundary spanning practices of research universities that have adopted a community engagement agenda. A model is advanced to conceptualize spanning behaviors and to inform…

  20. RESEARCH ARTICLE Local and landscape effects on the butterfly community

    E-print Network

    Debinski, Diane M.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Local and landscape effects on the butterfly community in fragmented Midwest USA matrix, potentially impermeable to dis- persing individuals. We examined butterfly responses to local and configuration of the landscape affects butterfly community within the fragment, 2) determine whether explanatory

  1. EPA priorities for biologic markers research in environmental health

    SciTech Connect

    Fowle, J.R. III; Sexton, K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-11-01

    Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology allow for measurement of biologic events or substances that may provide markers of exposure, effect, or susceptibility in humans. The application of these new and emerging techniques to environmental health offers the possibility of significantly reducing the uncertainties that traditionally hamper risk assessments. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health research program emphasizes the validation of appropriate biologic markers and their application to high-priority Agency issues. The rationale for EPA's biomarker research program is presented, and future research directions are discussed. Exposure biomarkers will receive most of the research emphasis in the near term, particularly body burden indicators of exposure to high-priority chemicals, such as benzene, ozone, selected heavy metals, and organophosphate pesticides. Research on effects biomarkers will attempt to validate the relationship between the observed biological effects and adverse health consequences in humans, especially for cancer, pulmonary toxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive/developmental toxicity.

  2. EPA priorities for biologic markers research in environmental health

    SciTech Connect

    Fowle, J.R.; Sexton, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology allow for measurement of biologic events or substances that may provide markers of exposure, effect or susceptibility in humans. The application of these new and emerging techniques to environmental health offers the possibility of significantly reducing the uncertainties that traditionally hamper risk assessments. The EPA health research program places a high priority on the validation of appropriate biologic markers and their application to high priority Agency issues. The rationale for EPA's biomarker research program is presented and future research directions are discussed. Exposure biomarkers will receive most of the research emphasis in the near term, particularly body burden indicators of exposures to high priority chemicals, such as benzene, ozone, selected heavy metals, and organophosphate pesticides. Research on effects biomarkers will attempt to validate the relationship between the observed biological effects and adverse health consequences in humans, especially for cancer, pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive/developmental toxicity.

  3. Feminist and Community Psychology Ethics in Research with Homeless Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily K. Paradis

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a feminist and community psychology analysis of ethical concerns that can arise throughout the process of doing research with women who are homeless. The unique contexts of the lives of women who are homeless demand that researchers redefine traditional ethical constructs such as consent, privacy, harm, and bias. Research that fails to do this may perpetuate the

  4. Research-based communities of practice in UK higher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lai Ling Ng; Jon Pemberton

    2012-01-01

    Research is an integral element of the work of higher education institutions, underpinning not only academics' responsibilities in developing intellectual skills and personal reputations, but contributing to the status of an organisation. Whilst formalised approaches are adopted for developing research, there is a growing trend towards informal groupings or communities of practice. This research, based on interviews with members of

  5. Building research capacity in south-west Sydney through a Primary and Community Health Research Unit.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Emma L; Comino, Elizabeth J; Reath, Jennifer; Derrett, Alison; Johnson, Maree; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Teng-Liaw, Siaw; Kemp, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The Primary and Community Health Research Unit was established in 2010 in south-west Sydney to build research capacity in primary and community health services and help generate evidence to underpin clinical activities. In 2011, six project teams participated in a 12-month researcher mentoring program, undertaking projects in quality improvement and service evaluation. Project teams were linked with academic mentors and participated in four research skill development workshops covering research design, research ethics, statistical analysis and academic writing. All project teams presented their work at two or more research conferences, and all are preparing manuscripts for publication in peer-reviewed journals. The Primary and Community Health Research Unit's approach to research capacity building in primary and community health services appears to be effective in supporting novice researchers to undertake research in their clinical settings. Sustainability is dependent on securing ongoing funding. Further analysis is needed to identify strengths and weaknesses of this approach. PMID:23050636

  6. Integrating research and education at research-extensive universities with research-intensive communities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketaki V Desai (Texas A& M University Michael E DeBakery Institute)

    2008-03-26

    Although the Boyer Commission (1998) lamented the lack of research opportunities for all undergraduates at research-extensive universities, it did not provide a feasible solution consistent with the mandate for faculty to maintain sustainable physiology research programs. The costs associated with one-on-one mentoring, and the lack of a sufficient number of faculty members to give intensive attention to undergraduate researchers, make one-on-one mentoring impractical. We therefore developed and implemented the "research-intensive community" model with the aim of aligning diverse goals of participants while simultaneously optimizing research productivity. The fundamental organizational unit is a team consisting of one graduate student and three undergraduates from different majors, supervised by a faculty member. Undergraduate workshops, Graduate Leadership Forums, and computer-mediated communication provide an infrastructure to optimize programmatic efficiency and sustain a multilevel, interdisciplinary community of scholars dedicated to research. While the model radically increases the number of undergraduates that can be supported by a single faculty member, the inherent resilience and scalability of the resulting complex adaptive system enables a research-intensive community program to evolve and grow.

  7. Integrating research and education at research-extensive universities with research-intensive communities.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ketaki V; Gatson, Sarah N; Stiles, Thomas W; Stewart, Randolph H; Laine, Glen A; Quick, Christopher M

    2008-06-01

    Although the Boyer Commission (1998) lamented the lack of research opportunities for all undergraduates at research-extensive universities, it did not provide a feasible solution consistent with the mandate for faculty to maintain sustainable physiology research programs. The costs associated with one-on-one mentoring, and the lack of a sufficient number of faculty members to give intensive attention to undergraduate researchers, make one-on-one mentoring impractical. We therefore developed and implemented the "research-intensive community" model with the aim of aligning diverse goals of participants while simultaneously optimizing research productivity. The fundamental organizational unit is a team consisting of one graduate student and three undergraduates from different majors, supervised by a faculty member. Undergraduate workshops, Graduate Leadership Forums, and computer-mediated communication provide an infrastructure to optimize programmatic efficiency and sustain a multilevel, interdisciplinary community of scholars dedicated to research. While the model radically increases the number of undergraduates that can be supported by a single faculty member, the inherent resilience and scalability of the resulting complex adaptive system enables a research-intensive community program to evolve and grow. PMID:18539852

  8. The Undergraduate Perspective on Community-Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peresie, Jennifer; Willis, Jason; Waldref, Vanessa; Stockmann, Deirdra

    2003-01-01

    This article, written by four undergraduates with extensive experience in community-based research (CBR), summarizes each author's project and offers their views on conditions necessary for CBR success and benefits of CBR for students. (Author)

  9. Engaging Communities, Providers, & Patients in Research: Resources from Northwestern's

    E-print Network

    Contractor, Anis

    for reducing smoking but what our community is really concerned with is gun and gang violence. · How do we know-placed- With Not In ­ Top-down or `outside expert' approach · Research That Matters: Goal is to influence change

  10. Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP): Linking Academic & Community Radiation Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP): Linking University & Community Radiation Oncology to Improve Cancer Outcomes Patrick D. Maguire, M.D. New Hanover Radiation Oncology Wilmington, NC CDRP: Partnerships in Radiation Oncology The Problem Clinical

  11. Using Public Policy-Oriented Community-Based Research to Boost Both Community and Political Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, William J.

    The Leadership in Public Affairs program at the College of New Jersey has begun to implement a developmental model designed to increase the community and political engagement of students. The primary tool to achieve these ends is public policy-oriented, community-based research (CBR). To date, two courses and a student fellowship based on…

  12. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  13. Addressing the Vision Challenges of Residents at a Retirement Community: Collaborative Research with a Community Partner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Petrovich

    2008-01-01

    Staff members at a community retirement village were concerned about the demise of a support group for residents with vision loss, and requested help developing effective services for residents with vision challenges. This study explored past barriers to support group participation, as they were perceived by residents, family members, and employees. The community partner worked collaboratively with the researcher in

  14. Social Change, the Future of the Community College, and the Future of Community College Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Bernard H.

    Focusing on the social forces acting upon community colleges, this paper reviews possible modes of response by the colleges, focusing specifically on the role of institutional research. The first section presents an overview of the social forces affecting community colleges, discussing the 16% increase in two-year college enrollments in the…

  15. The Biology of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study in Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccavo, Frank, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a project for the Biology of HIV/AIDS course for undergraduate biology majors. This project challenged science students to engage the community on two different levels. They first had to interact directly and personally with HIV/AIDS activists. The proposal then encouraged them to think about and describe ways of engaging a…

  16. Critical Contexts for Biomedical Research in a Native American Community: Health Care, History, and Community Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahota, Puneet Chawla

    2012-01-01

    Native Americans have been underrepresented in previous studies of biomedical research participants. This paper reports a qualitative interview study of Native Americans' perspectives on biomedical research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 53 members of a Southwest tribal community. Many interviewees viewed biomedical research studies as a…

  17. Sources of Inequities in Rural America: Implications for Rural Community Development and Research. Community Development Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Isao; Zone, Martin

    As part of a series prepared to acquaint small community officials with information on the latest community related research findings at the University of California at Davis, this monograph explicates the way in which tax structure, rural development assumptions, and even rural development policies and subsidies contribute to the inequities found…

  18. Community data portraiture : perceiving events, people, & ideas within a research community

    E-print Network

    Fritz, Doug, III

    2010-01-01

    As a research community grows, it is becoming increasingly difficult to understand its dynamics, its history, and the varying perspectives with which that history is interpreted and remembered. This thesis focuses on three ...

  19. Microfluidic tools for cell biological research

    PubMed Central

    Velve-Casquillas, Guilhem; Le Berre, Maël; Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Microfluidic technology is creating powerful tools for cell biologists to control the complete cellular microenvironment, leading to new questions and new discoveries. We review here the basic concepts and methodologies in designing microfluidic devices, and their diverse cell biological applications. PMID:21152269

  20. 76 FR 31319 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ...david.thomassen@science.doe.gov or phone...http://www.science.doe.gov/ober...Director, Office of Science, on the many complex...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topic: Discussion...

  1. Communities of the Biological Crossroads: An Extraordinary Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Provides rich description of the biological diversity found in a 30-mile section of Nebraska known as the "biological crossroads." Argues that the seven major associations of the Niobrara River valley provide a great classroom. Includes a complete listing of plant species. (DDR)

  2. Partnerships for health in the African American community: moving toward community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Parrill, Rachel; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2011-01-01

    Health disparities related to ethnicity are attributed to the complex interaction of social and physical environments, which influence minority health. The prevalence of health problems such as cardiovascular disease, strokes, diabetes, and maternal and child health outcomes exist among African Americans contributing to health disparities. Extensive support systems within the African American community, however, serve to resist disparities in healthcare and improve the health and well-being of community members. This article is an analytical review of current research addressing key factors of the home, the church, the community, and the healthcare system for creating partnerships to enhance community- based research in the African American community. The results of this literature review provide culturally appropriate approaches to eliminating health disparities by building upon the strengths and resources within the African American community. Best practices involve recognizing the pastor as the entry into the community, utilizing a Community-Based Participatory Research process, and establishing trust through open communication and relationship building. PMID:22288213

  3. The Dilemma of Dual Use Biological Research: Polish Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Czarkowski

    2010-01-01

    Biological research with legitimate scientific purpose that may be misused to pose a biological threat to public health and\\/or\\u000a national security is termed dual use. In Poland there are adequate conditions for conducting experiments that could be qualified\\u000a as dual use research, and therefore, a risk of attack on Poland or other countries exists. Optimal solutions for limiting\\u000a such threats

  4. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE - AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE RESEARCH ON PEST BIOLOGY: WEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 125 permanent full-time scientists conduct research within ARS on issues related to weeds. The research emphasis of most of these scientists involves ecology and management or biological control of weeds. Many scientists perform research on weed biology as components of their primary projects o...

  5. 360 Degrees of Human Subjects Protections in Community Engaged Research

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of the new National Institutes of Health Roadmap in 2003, there has been a growing emphasis on translational research. Translational research challenges current human subjects protections guidelines that were written in the 1970s and were focused on the protection of the individual participant in a clinical drug trial. Community engagement requires a critical examination of the range of risks that may arise when communities are both participants and partners in research in order to promote appropriate and effective protection of human subjects as individuals and members of communities. Given that the principal investigator has ultimate responsibility for ensuring the ethical integrity of the research, researchers should be aware of the human subjects protections delineated in the federal regulations that must be fulfilled and the other entities that can help ensure human subjects protections. PMID:20720214

  6. Establishing a School-based Research Community (SRC) for Astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughran, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    A School-based Research Community brings students into explicit collaboration with education and public outreach (E/PO) activities of scientific organizations and thus unites educational and research components of the scientific community. This poster presents an account of the nature of an SRC, and of the conditions required for planting one. An overview is given of elements required to nurture and protect such a community, and in that context the role of wiki use in such a course will be highlighted. Finally, the kind of fruit to be expected from such a community will be presented, with examples provided from an SCR established at Saint Joseph's High School in South Bend, Indiana (now in its third year.) The advantages of situating astronomy research in the context of an interdisciplinary SCR will also be sketched.

  7. Community engagement in biomedical research in an African setting: the Kintampo Health Research Centre experience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community engagement (CE) is becoming relevant in health research activities; however, models for CE in health research are limited in developing countries. The Kintampo Health Research Centre (KHRC) conducts research to influence health policy locally and also internationally. Since its establishment in 1994 with the mandate of conducting relevant public health studies in the middle part of Ghana, KHRC has embarked on a series of clinical and operational studies involving community members. In these studies, community members have been engaged through community durbars before, during and also after all study implementations. Lessons learnt from these activities suggested the need to embark on further CE processes that could serve as a model for emerging research institutions based in African communities. Methods Interactive community durbars, workshops, in-depth discussions, focus group discussions and radio interactions were used as the main methods in the CE process. Results Community members outlined areas of research that they perceived as being of interest to them. Though community members expressed continual interest in our traditional areas of research in communicable, maternal, neonatal and child health, they were interested in new areas such as non- communicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. Misconceptions about KHRC and its research activities were identified and clarified. This research provided KHRC the opportunity to improve communication guidelines with the community and these are being used in engaging the community at various stages of our research, thus improving on the design and implementation of research. Conclusion KHRC has developed a culturally appropriate CE model based on mutual understanding with community members. The experience obtained in the CE process has contributed to building CE capacity in KHRC. Other health research institutions in developing countries could consider the experiences gained. PMID:24090148

  8. 75 FR 6401 - Medical Devices Regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research; Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...No. FDA-2009-M-0513] Medical Devices Regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research; Availability of Summaries...for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). This list is intended...for Biologics Evaluation and Research (HFM-17), Food and...

  9. ReseaRch at the University of Maryland Bioinformatics: Computational Analysis of Biological Information

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    ReseaRch at the University of Maryland Bioinformatics: Computational Analysis of Biological Information Bioinformatics--the use of advanced computational techniques for biological research's Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (CBCB) is at the forefront of bioinformatics research

  10. VIMS Molluscan Ecology Oyster Reef Community Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site describes the Molluscan Ecology research program at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS). Research projects investigate cephalopods, coastal habitats, hard clams, oysters, and rapa whelks. Background information is given regarding the history of the research, including management efforts and associated publications. Maps of restoration areas are available in addition to information about molluscan educational materials (including instructional publications and cds). Fees apply for cds.

  11. External Community Review Committee: A New Strategy for Engaging Community Stakeholders in Research Funding Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice. PMID:24056512

  12. Phylogeny, phylogeography, phylobetadiversity and the molecular analysis of biological communities

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Brent C.; Cicconardi, Francesco; Fanciulli, Pietro P.; Shaw, Peter J. A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been much recent interest and progress in the characterization of community structure and community assembly processes through the application of phylogenetic methods. To date most focus has been on groups of taxa for which some relevant detail of their ecology is known, for which community composition is reasonably easily quantified and where the temporal scale is such that speciation is not likely to feature. Here, we explore how we might apply a molecular genetic approach to investigate community structure and assembly at broad taxonomic and geographical scales, where we have little knowledge of species ecology, where community composition is not easily quantified, and where speciation is likely to be of some importance. We explore these ideas using the class Collembola as a focal group. Gathering molecular evidence for cryptic diversity suggests that the ubiquity of many species of Collembola across the landscape may belie greater community complexity than would otherwise be assumed. However, this morphologically cryptic species-level diversity poses a challenge for attempts to characterize diversity both within and among local species assemblages. Recent developments in high throughput parallel sequencing technology, combined with mtDNA barcoding, provide an advance that can bring together the fields of phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis to bear on this problem. Such an approach could be standardized for analyses at any geographical scale for a range of taxonomic groups to quantify the formation and composition of species assemblages. PMID:21768154

  13. Research at the Interface of Chemistry and Biology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    First, chemist Matthew Shair at Harvard University presents his lab's research in "the development of biomimetic target-oriented and diversity-oriented synthesis of complex molecules and the use of these approaches to discover new molecules for studying cell biology" (1). The descriptions are equipped with figures and images to help users understand the complex research. The second website features Professor Sir Jack Baldwin group's research in bio-organic and synthetic organic chemistry at the University of Oxford (2). Users can download many of the group's publications related to its research activities in penicillin, biomimetics, parallel, and total synthesis. Next, the University of Nottingham displays its investigations "to define the chemical interactions that determine the specificity and control of biological processes" (3). Visitors can discover the individual projects and publications of the fourteen main researchers involved with the group. The fourth website addresses the research of Bruce Donald's lab at Dartmouth in the use of Physical Geometric Algorithms (PGA) to better understand computational molecular biology (4). Researchers can find information on the group's software, funding, research, and downloads to many of the group's publications. Next, visitors can discover the University of Southampton chemistry Professor Mark Bradley's use of combinatorial chemistry to synthesize many compounds efficiently (5). The website features concise summaries, lists of publications, and information on the collaborators involved with the group's numerous research projects. At the sixth website, New York University discusses the ever-expanding range of topics available to scientists utilizing biomolecular tools, including the exploration of new chemical strategies for the control of gene expression and the creation of new approaches for combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput screening (6). Users can learn about the division's emphasis on experimental and computational approaches in dealing with research problems and also its involvement in training students in biological phenomena from a physical organic perspective. The seventh website describes the courses, student projects, and grants of the interdisciplinary Chemistry-Biology Interface (CBI) Training Program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (7). This site offers a great example of educational opportunities available for students to learn how to merge chemical and biological research. Lastly, the University of Delaware features its multidisciplinary graduate program where students perform research in biochemistry, biochemical engineering, bioorganic chemistry, molecular biology, cell biology, virology, bioanalytical chemistry, structural biology, bioinorganic chemistry, materials science, and plant biochemistry (8). Users can find links to the group pages of the 34 researchers involved in the program.

  14. STEMdex: A Searchable Database of Education Research for Our Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkworth, Carolyn; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Bartolone, L.; Llamas, J.; Crane, M.; Martin, A.; Wenger, M.; Squires, G. K.; Hurt, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    STEMdex is a new resource for the astronomy Education and Outreach community, designed to improve our community’s knowledge of the published literature pertinent to our work. While we all understand that it is important to base our practice on sound research, there are currently 801 peer-reviewed education journals in existence, and members of our community are hard pressed to cover all the published literature. STEMdex consolidates the research relevant to EPO work into a single searchable database, with summaries written by astronomy educators and posted for the entire community to use. The database will ultimately include research across the spectrum of astronomy education, including formal and informal education, outreach, grades K-16, pedagogy, evaluation and many other topics. The site is currently under development, but we have had significant interest from the community, and have a team of 19 EPO professionals and community volunteers from 14 different institutions signed up to contribute to the project. The STEMdex site can be found at stemdex.ipac.caltech.edu.

  15. Community IRBS & Research Review Boards: Shaping the Future of Community-Engaged Research

    E-print Network

    Biederman, Irving

    . Albert Einstein College of Medicine, The Bronx Health Link and Community-Campus Partnerships for Health, 2012. Copyright © 2012, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, The Bronx Health Link and Community's mission is to promote Health Equity and Social Justice by: · Connecting community residents to health

  16. Participatory Action Research Involving Families from Underserved Communities and Researchers: Respecting Cultural and Linguistic Diversity

    E-print Network

    Markey, Ursula; Santelli, Betsy; Turnbull, Ann P.

    1998-01-01

    Research 20 Participatory Action Research Involving Families from Underserved Communities and Researchers: Respecting Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Ursula Markey, M.A., Pyramid Parent Training Project Betsy Santelli, M.A., and Ann P.... Turnbull, Ed.D., The University of Kansas Participatory Action Research (PAR)—a method of conducting research that involves researchers and the constituencies of the research as equal partners in all phases of the research—requires an understanding...

  17. Research Needs and Practices of Community-College Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Martha; Purdy, Leslie; Rodriquez, Lisa; Richards, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    The process used by community-college leaders in making decisions is very important, given the complexity and significance of their decisions to institutional quality and effectiveness. This article explores the degree to which leaders utilize research in their decision-making, the sources and usefulness of the research, and how the base of…

  18. Research on Schools, Neighborhoods and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, William F., IV, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Research on Schools, Neighborhoods, and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility" focuses on research and theoretical developments related to the role of geography in education, human development, and health. William F. Tate IV, the Edward Mallinckrodt Distinguished University Professor in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis and…

  19. Community-Based Research Assessments: Some Principles and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marullo, Sam; Cooke, Deanna; Willis, Jason; Rollins, Alexandra; Burke, Jacqueline; Bonilla, Paul; Waldref, Vanessa

    2003-01-01

    Examines benefits and challenges of undertaking assessments in community-based research (CBR). Such assessments are compared and contrasted to more traditional research processes. Further, the challenges of integrating CBR assessments into an ongoing social change initiative are analyzed. Five principles to guide CBR assessments are articulated. A…

  20. Rural Communities and Rural Social Issues: Priorities for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Alan; Duff, John; Saggers, Sherry; Baines, Patricia

    This report recommends priorities for research into rural communities and rural social issues in Australia, based on an extensive literature review, surveys of policymaking agencies and researchers, and discussion at a national workshop in May 1999. Chapters 1-2 outline the study's background, purpose, and methodology; discuss issues in the…

  1. Research Summary Consultation and community involvement in forest planning

    E-print Network

    Research Summary Consultation and community involvement in forest planning: research in Cranborne of the Forestry Commission's `Long-Term Forest Plan' process. It also builds on various investigations into stakeholder analysis and the use of participatory tools in relation to Forest Design Plans (FDPs). The NFNF

  2. Ethical Issues Affecting Human Participants in Community College Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtz, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demand of constituents to conduct analyses in order to help inform the decision-making process has led to the need for Institutional Research (IR) guidelines for community college educators. One method of maintaining the quality of research conducted by IR staff is to include professional development about ethics. This article…

  3. Challenges of Introducing Participant Observation to Community Health Research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Participant observation elicits unique observation data from both an insider's and an outsider's perspectives. Despite the growing tendency to adopt participant observation strategies in health care research regarding health-related beliefs and types of behavior, the use of participant observation in current research is mostly limited to structured clinical settings rather than community settings. In this paper, we describe how we use participant observation in a community health research study with Chinese-born immigrant women. We document discrepancies between these women's beliefs and types of behavior regarding health and health promotion. We further discuss the ethnical, time, and setting challenges in community health research using participant observation. Possible solutions are also discussed. PMID:24527223

  4. Plant seeds in biological research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. T.

    1982-01-01

    Data of 15 years of space flight and laboratory tests of plant seeds of 20 species, mainly on the combined and separate effects of launch vibration, ionizing radiation and weightlessness, are surveyed. It is concluded that plants do not show a pronounced response to space flight factors. Conditions of return to Earth, the number of heavy cosmic ray particles striking biological targets and effects of change in magnetic an electromagnetic fields have been little studied, and that more study of growing plants in space is needed.

  5. Mutualistic Interactions and Community Structure in Biological Metacommunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rikvold, Per Arne; Filotas, Elise; Grant, Martin; Parrott, Lael

    2011-03-01

    The role of space in determining species coexistence and community structure is well established. However, previous studies mainly focus on simple competition and predation systems, and the role of mutualistic interspecies interactions is not well understood. Here we use a spatially explicit metacommunity model, in which new species enter by a mutation process, to study the effect of fitness-dependent dispersal on the structure of communities with interactions comprising mutualism, competition, and exploitation [1]. We find that the diversity and interaction network undergo a nonequilibrium phase transition with increasing dispersal rate. Low dispersion rate favors spontaneous emergence of many dissimilar, strongly mutualistic and species-poor local communities. Due to the local dissimilarities, the global/ diversity is high. High dispersion rate promotes local biodiversity and supports similar, species-rich local communities with a wide range of interactions. The strong similarity between neighboring local communities leads to reduced global diversity. [4pt] [1]. E. Filotas, M. Grant, L. Parrott, P.A. Rikvold, J. Theor. Biol. 266, 419 (2010); Ecol. Modell. 221, 885 (2010).

  6. The perspectives of nonscience-major students on success in community college biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim-Rajab, Oriana Sharon

    With more than 36% of nonscience-major community college students unable to successfully complete their general life science courses, graduation and transfer rates to four-year universities are negatively affected. Many students also miss important opportunities to gain some level of science proficiency. In an effort to address the problem of poor science achievement, this research project determined which factors were most significantly related to student success in a community college biology course. It also aimed to understand the student perspectives on which modifications to the course would best help them in the pursuit of success. Drawing heavily on the educational psychology schools of thought on motivation and self-efficacy of science learning, this study surveyed and interviewed students on their perceptions of which factors were related to success in biology and the changes they believed were needed in the course structure to improve success. The data revealed that the primary factors related to student success are the students' study skills and their perceived levels of self-efficacy. The findings also uncovered the critical nature of the professor's role in influencing the success of the students. After assessing the needs of the community college population, meaningful and appropriate curriculum and pedagogical reforms could be created to improve student learning outcomes. This study offered recommendations for reforms that can be used by science practitioners to provide a more nurturing and inspiring environment for all students. These suggestions revolved around the role of the instructor in influencing the self-efficacy and study skills of students. Providing more opportunities for students to interact in class, testing more frequently, establishing peer assistance programs, managing better the course material, and making themselves more available to students were at the forefront of the list. Examples of the potential benefits of increasing community college science success rates include improvement of student transfer rates and better preparation for employment. Because of the increasing importance of science in this modern age, improving science success rates can also have long-lasting positive effects on students' abilities to make decisions about their health, the economy, and to be productive citizens within our science-oriented society.

  7. Hydrogeomorphology explains acidification-driven variation in aquatic biological communities in the Neversink Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harpold, Adrian A.; Burns, Douglas A.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2013-01-01

    Describing the distribution of aquatic habitats and the health of biological communities can be costly and time-consuming; therefore, simple, inexpensive methods to scale observations of aquatic biota to watersheds that lack data would be useful. In this study, we explored the potential of a simple “hydrogeomorphic” model to predict the effects of acid deposition on macroinvertebrate, fish, and diatom communities in 28 sub-watersheds of the 176-km2 Neversink River basin in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The empirical model was originally developed to predict stream-water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) using the watershed slope and drainage density. Because ANC is known to be strongly related to aquatic biological communities in the Neversink, we speculated that the model might correlate well with biotic indicators of ANC response. The hydrogeomorphic model was strongly correlated to several measures of macroinvertebrate and fish community richness and density, but less strongly correlated to diatom acid tolerance. The model was also strongly correlated to biological communities in 18 sub-watersheds independent of the model development, with the linear correlation capturing the strongly acidic nature of small upland watersheds (2). Overall, we demonstrated the applicability of geospatial data sets and a simple hydrogeomorphic model for estimating aquatic biological communities in areas with stream-water acidification, allowing estimates where no direct field observations are available. Similar modeling approaches have the potential to complement or refine expensive and time-consuming measurements of aquatic biota populations and to aid in regional assessments of aquatic health.

  8. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) as a model system in community, landscape and ecosystem ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Eldridge, David; Belnap, Jayne; Castillo-Monroy, Andrea; Escolar, Cristina; Soliveres, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Model systems have had a profound influence on the development of ecological theory and general principles. Compared to alternatives, the most effective models share some combination of the following characteristics: simpler, smaller, faster, general, idiosyncratic or manipulable. We argue that biological soil crusts (biocrusts) have unique combinations of these features that should be more widely exploited in community, landscape and ecosystem ecology. In community ecology, biocrusts are elucidating the importance of biodiversity and spatial pattern for maintaining ecosystem multifunctionality due to their manipulability in experiments. Due to idiosyncrasies in their modes of facilitation and competition, biocrusts have led to new models on the interplay between environmental stress and biotic interactions and on the maintenance of biodiversity by competitive processes. Biocrusts are perhaps one of the best examples of micro-landscapes—real landscapes that are small in size. Although they exhibit varying patch heterogeneity, aggregation, connectivity and fragmentation, like macro-landscapes, they are also compatible with well-replicated experiments (unlike macro-landscapes). In ecosystem ecology, a number of studies are imposing small-scale, low cost manipulations of global change or state factors in biocrust micro-landscapes. The versatility of biocrusts to inform such disparate lines of inquiry suggests that they are an especially useful model system that can enable researchers to see ecological principles more clearly and quickly.

  9. Using Community-Based Participatory Research as a Guiding Framework for Health Disparities Research Centers

    PubMed Central

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia; Tandon, S. Darius; Abesamis, Noilyn; Hoe-Asjoe, Heniretta; Rey, Mariano

    2008-01-01

    There has been growing interest in conducting community-based health research using a participatory approach that involves the active collaboration of academic and community partners to address community-level health concerns. Project EXPORT (Excellence in Partnerships, Outreach, Research, and Training) is a National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) initiative focused on understanding and eliminating health disparities for racial and ethnic minorities and medically underserved populations in the United States. The New York University (NYU) Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) is 1 of 76 Project EXPORT sites. This paper describes how CSAAH developed partnerships with varied Asian American community stakeholders as a first step in establishing itself as a Project EXPORT center that uses community-based participatory research (CBPR) as its orienting framework. Three guiding principles were followed to develop community–academic partnerships: (1) creating and sustaining multiple partnerships; (2) promoting equity in partnerships; and (3) commitment to action and research. We discuss strategies and action steps taken to put each principle into practice, as well as the successes and challenges we faced in doing so. Developing community–academic partnerships has been essential in our ability to conduct health disparities research in Asian American communities. Approaches and lessons learned from our experience can be applied to other communities conducing health disparities research. PMID:19081761

  10. Doing community-driven research: a description of Seattle Partners for Healthy Communities.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, A; Senturia, K

    2001-09-01

    Seattle Partners, an Urban Research Center (URC) funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is a partnership of community agency representatives, community activists, public health professionals, academics, and health care providers whose mission is to improve the health of urban Seattle, Washington, communities by conducting community-based participatory research. This article describes the development and characteristics of Seattle Partners. Using primarily qualitative methods, including periodic in-depth interviews, evaluators identified the components necessary for Seattle Partners to maintain a collaborative and establish a research center driven by community interests. Seattle Partners is run by an unrestricted and inclusive board that has spent 5 years developing both an operating structure and various research interventions. Operating under Community Collaboration Principles, the board identified social determinants of health as the priority area in which to work. Collaboration, "small and concrete" accomplishments, skilled individuals, and funder support directly influence the success of the center. Decision making, project selection, and board composition have all been challenges to work through. Learning how to do and sustain the work are lessons being learned as Seattle Partners matures. PMID:11564854

  11. Promoting Environmental Justice through Community-Based Participatory Research: The Role of Community and Partnership Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkler, Meredith; Vasquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The…

  12. Biological research on fire in the West

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    Wildland fires are a natural feature of many ecosystems, including grasslands, forests, and shrublands. How-ever, years of fire exclusion have led to accumulations of dead fuels and increases in the density of fire-intolerant species. In most western states, recent fires burning in these altered ecosystems have caused significant damage and huge economic losses to homes, busi-nesses, and communities. They also have dis-turbed forests and rangelands as well as their associated watersheds, plants, and animals. Every western state is concerned about dam-age from such catastrophic fires, and there is strong interest from all sectors in prevent-ing and reducing the resulting damage in the future. There is also interest in the use of fire as a management tool for reducing hazards and restoring damaged ecosystems and for returning fire to its natural role in wilderness ecosystems.

  13. TWiCE Undergraduate Experience in Research and Community Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bair, Bettina

    TWiCE, The Women in Computer Engineering, is a project that has proved effective in the retention of women in an undergraduate computer science engineering program. Members of TWiCE apply their developing knowledge to community service and serve as role models for their communities. Research suggests that female students "are likely to report choosing a major that will make it possible for them to 'help people.'â?ť

  14. Subject Didactic Studies of Research Training in Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lybeck, Leif

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and design of a 3-year study of research training and supervision in biology and physics are discussed. Scientific problems arising from work on the thesis will be a focus for the postgraduate students and their supervisors. Attention will be focused on supervisors' and students' conceptions of science, subject range, research,…

  15. LYMPHATIC RESEARCH AND BIOLOGY Volume 5, Number 3, 2007

    E-print Network

    Fahmy, Tarek

    enhance our understanding of the structure and function of the lymphatic system. Re- cent applications the Lymphatic Research Foundation (RHM). #12;INTRODUCTION VISUALIZATION OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM playsLYMPHATIC RESEARCH AND BIOLOGY Volume 5, Number 3, 2007 © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. DOI: 10.1089/lrb

  16. Zoo Biology 27:470487 (2008) RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Timberlake, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Zoo Biology 27:470­487 (2008) RESEARCH ARTICLE Mutual Benefits of Research Collaborations Between Zoos and Academic Institutions Eduardo J. Fernandez,Ă and William TimberlakeĂ Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana Zoos focus on welfare, conservation

  17. Drug Discovery and Development from Marine Biology-Based Research

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Drug Discovery and Development from Marine Biology- Based Research Oceanyx Pharmaceuticals-product research. Founded in 2011 by Professor Hendrik Luesch and Dr. Pravin Chaturvedi, Oceanyx is acquiring for the treatment of cancer. In preclinical studies, largazole and apratoxin have shown excellent activity in colon

  18. Research Focus Biological pest control in beetle agriculture

    E-print Network

    Research Focus Biological pest control in beetle agriculture Duur K. Aanen1 , Bernard Slippers2 and Research Center, 6703BD, Wageningen, The Netherlands 2 Department of Genetics, Forestry and Agricultural destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has con- sequently been studied extensively

  19. The Reproductive Biology Research Foundation treatment approach to sexual inadequacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sallie S. Schumacher

    1971-01-01

    Basic therapeutic procedures for treatment of sexual dysfunction at the Reproductive Biology Research Foundation in St. Louis evolved from 15 years of laboratory research and clinical experience. Early laboratory investigation was established to obtain a body of reliable information concerning the anatomy and physiology of effective sexual response. Five years later, the treatment program for sexual inadequacy was initiated, based

  20. Bridging Emotion Research: From Biology to Social Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kimberly B.; Kavanagh, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Emotion research demonstrates that problems of theoretical interest or practical significance are not divided neatly along disciplinary boundaries. Researchers acknowledge both organic and social underpinnings of emotion, but the intersections between biological and structural processes can be difficult to negotiate. In this article, the authors…

  1. UCSD-Scripps Institution of Oceanography: Marine Biology Research Division

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With over 1,000 staff members, an annual budget of nearly $150 million, and its own fleet of ships capable of global travel, Scripps Institution of Oceanography is one of the most significant homes of scientific inquiry in the world. As part of its many diverse efforts, Scripps operates the Marine Biology Research Division which is presented at this website. The site, while simply designed and easy to navigate, is a great resource for students and researchers interested in learning more about the research activities at Scripps. Those interested in a certain type of research can narrow down the division into its specific labs, such as Cell and Developmental Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Microbiology, and Physiology. Visitors to the site can also access the many sub-laboratories, each focusing on specific subjects, such as Sea Turtles, Bioluminescence, Coral Reef ecology, and tons more. This site is also reviewed in the July 9, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

  2. Amphipols: Polymeric surfactants for membrane biology research.

    SciTech Connect

    Popot, J.-L.; Berry, E.A.; Charvolin, D.; Creuzenet, C.; Ebel, C.; Engelman, D.M.; Flotenmeyer, M.; Giusti, F.; Gohon, Y.; Hong, Q.; Lakey, J.H.; Leonard, K.; Shuman, H.A.; Timmins, P.; Warschawski, D.E.; Zito, F.; Zoonens, M.; Pucci, B.; Tribet, C.

    2003-06-20

    Membrane proteins classically are handled in aqueous solutions as complexes with detergents. The dissociating character of detergents, combined with the need to maintain an excess of them, frequently results in more or less rapid inactivation of the protein under study. Over the past few years, we have endeavored to develop a novel family of surfactants, dubbed amphipols (APs). APs are amphiphilic polymers that bind to the transmembrane surface of the protein in a noncovalent but, in the absence of a competing surfactant, quasi-irreversible manner. Membrane proteins complexed by APs are in their native state, stable, and they remain water soluble in the absence of detergent or free APs. An update is presented of the current knowledge about these compounds and their demonstrated or putative uses in membrane biology.

  3. Developing a Bidirectional Academic–Community Partnership with an Appalachian-American Community for Environmental Health Research and Risk Communication

    PubMed Central

    Beidler, Caroline; Wittberg, Richard; Meloncon, Lisa; Parin, Megan; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Succop, Paul; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Marietta, Ohio, is an Appalachian-American community whose residents have long struggled with understanding their exposure to airborne manganese (Mn). Although community engagement in research is strongly endorsed by the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in particular, little has been documented demonstrating how an academic–community partnership that implements the community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles can be created and mobilized for research. Objectives: We created a bidirectional, academic–community partnership with an Appalachian-American community to a) identify the community’s thoughts and perceptions about local air quality, its effect on health, and the perception of risk communication sources and b) jointly develop and conduct environmental health research. Methods: We formed a community advisory board (CAB), jointly conducted pilot research studies, and used the results to develop a community-driven research agenda. Results: Persons in the community were “very concerned” to “concerned” about local air quality (91%) and perceived the air quality to have a direct impact on their health and on their children’s health (93% and 94%, respectively). The CAB identified the primary research question: “Does Mn affect the cognition and behavior of children?” Although the community members perceived research scientists as the most trusted and knowledgeable regarding risks from industrial emissions, they received very little risk information from research scientists. Conclusions: Engaging a community in environmental health research from its onset enhanced the quality and relevance of the research investigation. The CBPR principles were a useful framework in building a strong academic–community partnership. Because of the current disconnect between communities and research scientists, academic researchers should consider working collaboratively with community-based risk communication sources. PMID:21680278

  4. Vision and Change in the Biology Community: Snapshots of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasaly, Helen L.; Feser, Jason; Lettrich, Matthew D.; Correa, Kevin; Denniston, Katherine J.

    2014-01-01

    When the authors were first invited to write these columns, the editors felt it would be an interesting way to give the readers of "CBE - Life Sciences Education" an agency's-eye view of its concerns, workings, and accomplishments. This column is written with that charge in mind. It is intended to inform the community about outreach…

  5. Biological invasions and deletions: community change in south Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Forys; Craig R. Allen

    1999-01-01

    This study used the endangered and exotic fauna of south Florida, USA, to test three non-exclusive hypotheses about community change. Over one third of the vertebrate fauna of south Florida is either endangered or exotic. We assumed that in the future, many of the currently endangered species will become extinct, while established exotics become more widespread and abundant. Using species'

  6. Open Air Laboratories (OPAL): a community-driven research programme.

    PubMed

    Davies, L; Bell, J N B; Bone, J; Head, M; Hill, L; Howard, C; Hobbs, S J; Jones, D T; Power, S A; Rose, N; Ryder, C; Seed, L; Stevens, G; Toumi, R; Voulvoulis, N; White, P C L

    2011-01-01

    OPAL is an English national programme that takes scientists into the community to investigate environmental issues. Biological monitoring plays a pivotal role covering topics of: i) soil and earthworms; ii) air, lichens and tar spot on sycamore; iii) water and aquatic invertebrates; iv) biodiversity and hedgerows; v) climate, clouds and thermal comfort. Each survey has been developed by an inter-disciplinary team and tested by voluntary, statutory and community sectors. Data are submitted via the web and instantly mapped. Preliminary results are presented, together with a discussion on data quality and uncertainty. Communities also investigate local pollution issues, ranging from nitrogen deposition on heathlands to traffic emissions on roadside vegetation. Over 200,000 people have participated so far, including over 1000 schools and 1000 voluntary groups. Benefits include a substantial, growing database on biodiversity and habitat condition, much from previously unsampled sites particularly in urban areas, and a more engaged public. PMID:21458125

  7. The evolving field of imaging mass spectrometry and its impact on future biological research

    PubMed Central

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2012-01-01

    Within the past decade, imaging mass spectrometry has been increasingly recognized as an indispensable technique for studying biological systems. Its rapid evolution has resulted in an impressive array of instrument variations and sample applications, yet the tools and data are largely confined to specialists. It is therefore important that at this junction the IMS community begin to establish IMS as a permanent fixture in life sciences research thereby making the technology and/or the data approachable by non-mass spectrometrists, leading to further integration into biological and clinical research. In this perspective article, we provide insight into the evolution and current state of imaging mass spectrometry and propose some of the directions that IMS could develop in order to stay on course to become one of the most promising new tools in life science research. PMID:21322093

  8. LABORATORY MANUAL of DROSOPHILA Evolutionary Biology Research

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    variation. This research is uni- fied by the use of Drosophila as model organism and the by the use: Introduction 4 Welcoming Statement 4 §2: Guide to the Flies 6 Life Cycle of Drosophila melanogaster 5 General Stock Maintenance 6 Description of Drosophila melanogaster Stocks 14 Specific Stock Maintenance

  9. Department of Biological Sciences 2005 Funded Research

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    /1/2005-8/31/2005 (log date 12/21/2004). Total, $18,150. Does Seven-in-absentia Regulate Cotton Fiber Development. USDA Center for Science and Industry (IICSI), Baghdad. #12;Creation and Field Testing of Transgenic Cotton-14-06. Texas Tech University International Cotton Research Center. $104,000. CREST Center for Excellence

  10. The Blue Highway Engaging Community in Research

    E-print Network

    Carmichael, Owen

    10 points by adding another medicine? ­ What are the additional risks? ­ Patients want to know improbable that an academic researcher can ask a clinical question that matters to a patient." #12;What for improving the health of an individual patient. · The magnitude and nature of the work required to translate

  11. Developing a Community of Research Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Rowena

    2012-01-01

    Writing journal articles is essential for academics and professionals to develop their ideas, make an impact in their fields and progress in their careers. Research assessment makes successful performance in this form of writing even more important. This article describes a course on writing journal articles and draws on interviews with…

  12. Building Communities: Teachers Researching Literacy Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremin, Teresa; Mottram, Marilyn; Collins, Fiona; Powell, Sacha; Drury, Rose

    2012-01-01

    In the light of wide recognition that the traffic between home and school is traditionally one-way, this article reports on a deliberately counter-cultural project that involved teachers in researching children's everyday literacy practices and "funds of knowledge" (Gonzalez, Moll, & Amanti, 2005) over a year. Eighteen primary teachers from 10…

  13. Consulting the community: public expectations and attitudes about genetics research

    PubMed Central

    Etchegary, Holly; Green, Jane; Dicks, Elizabeth; Pullman, Daryl; Street, Catherine; Parfrey, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Genomic discoveries and technologies promise numerous opportunities for improving health. Key to these potential health improvements, however, are health-care consumers' understanding and acceptance of these new developments. We identified community groups and invited them to a public information-consultation session in order to explore public awareness, perception and expectations about genetics and genomics research. One hundred and four members of seven community groups in Newfoundland, Canada took part in the community sessions. Content analysis of participant comments revealed they were largely hopeful about genetics research in its capacity to improve health; however, they did not accept such research uncritically. Complex issues arose during the community consultations, including the place of genetics in primary care, the value of genetics for personal health, and concerns about access to and uses of genetic information. Participants unequivocally endorsed the value of public engagement with these issues. The rapid pace of discoveries in genomics research offers exciting opportunities to improve population health. However, public support will be crucial to realize health improvements. Our findings suggest that regular, transparent dialog between researchers and the public could allow a greater understanding of the research process, as well as assist in the design of efficient and effective genetic health services, informed by the public that will use them. PMID:23591403

  14. Increasing Health Research Literacy through Outreach and Networking: Why Translational Research Should Matter to Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer-White, Molly; Choate, Celeste; Markel, Dorene S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasingly clinical and health research awareness is a priority for health and medical research communities. Translational research, including the prevention and treatment of conditions, relies upon proper funding as well as public participation in research studies. This requires executing more effective communication strategies to…

  15. An investigation into the non-shrimp biological communities of a shrimp culture pond

    E-print Network

    Pressly, Bennie Lee

    1983-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE NOh-SHRIMP BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES OF A SHRIMP CULTURE POND A Thesis by BENNIE LEE PRESSLY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major Subject: Oceanography AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE NON-SHRIMP BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES OF A SHRIMP CULTURE POND A Thesis by BENNIE LEE PRESSLY Approved as to style and content by: Rezne 1. Darnell (Chai an f Committee) Willis E...

  16. An open investigation of the reproducibility of cancer biology research.

    PubMed

    Errington, Timothy M; Iorns, Elizabeth; Gunn, William; Tan, Fraser Elisabeth; Lomax, Joelle; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    It is widely believed that research that builds upon previously published findings has reproduced the original work. However, it is rare for researchers to perform or publish direct replications of existing results. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is an open investigation of reproducibility in preclinical cancer biology research. We have identified 50 high impact cancer biology articles published in the period 2010-2012, and plan to replicate a subset of experimental results from each article. A Registered Report detailing the proposed experimental designs and protocols for each subset of experiments will be peer reviewed and published prior to data collection. The results of these experiments will then be published in a Replication Study. The resulting open methodology and dataset will provide evidence about the reproducibility of high-impact results, and an opportunity to identify predictors of reproducibility. PMID:25490932

  17. Community health workers support community-based participatory research ethics: lessons learned along the research-to-practice-to-community continuum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Selina A; Blumenthal, Daniel S

    2012-11-01

    Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)--specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability--stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502

  18. Community Agency Survey Formative Research Results From the TAAG Study

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Ruth P.; Moody, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    School and community agency collaboration can potentially increase physical activity opportunities for youth. Few studies have examined the role of community agencies in promoting physical activity, much less in collaboration with schools. This article describes formative research data collection from community agencies to inform the development of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) intervention to provide out-of-school physical activity programs for girls. The community agency survey is designed to assess agency capacity to provide physical activity programs for girls, including resources, programs, and partnerships. Most agency respondents (n = 138) report operations during after-school hours, adequate facilities, and program options for girls, although most are sport oriented. Agency resources and programming vary considerably across the six TAAG field sites. Many agencies report partnerships, some involving schools, although not necessarily related to physical activity. Implications for the TAAG intervention are presented. PMID:16397156

  19. Evidence of Community Structure in Biomedical Research Grant Collaborations

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Kalinka, Alex T; Hogan, William R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have clearly demonstrated a shift towards collaborative research and team science approaches across a spectrum of disciplines. Such collaborative efforts have also been acknowledged and nurtured by popular extramurally funded programs including the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) conferred by the National Institutes of Health. Since its inception, the number of CTSA awardees has steadily increased to 60 institutes across 30 states. One of the objectives of CTSA is to accelerate translation of research from bench to bedside to community and train a new genre of researchers under the translational research umbrella. Feasibility of such a translation implicitly demands multi-disciplinary collaboration and mentoring. Networks have proven to be convenient abstractions for studying research collaborations. The present study is a part of the CTSA baseline study and investigates existence of possible community-structure in Biomedical Research Grant Collaboration (BRGC) networks across data sets retrieved from the internally developed grants management system, the Automated Research Information Administrator (ARIA) at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS). Fastgreedy and link-community community-structure detection algorithms were used to investigate the presence of non-overlapping and overlapping community-structure and their variation across years 2006 and 2009. A surrogate testing approach in conjunction with appropriate discriminant statistics, namely: the Modularity Index and the Maximum Partition Density is proposed to investigate whether the community-structure of the BRGC networks were different from those generated by certain types of random graphs. Non-overlapping as well as overlapping community-structure detection algorithms indicated the presence of community-structure in the BRGC network. Subsequent, surrogate testing revealed that random graph models considered in the present study may not necessarily be appropriate generative mechanisms of the community-structure in the BRGC networks. The discrepancy in the community-structure between the BRGC networks and the random graph surrogates was especially pronounced at 2009 as opposed to 2006 indicating a possible shift towards team-science and formation of non-trivial modular patterns with time. The results also clearly demonstrate presence of inter-departmental and multi-disciplinary collaborations in BRGC networks. While the results are presented on BRGC networks as a part of the CTSA baseline study at UAMS, the proposed methodologies are as such generic with potential to be extended across other CTSA organizations. Understanding the presence of community-structure can supplement more traditional network analysis as they're useful in identifying research teams and their inter-connections as opposed to the role of individual nodes in the network. Such an understanding can be a critical step prior to devising meaningful interventions for promoting team-science, multi-disciplinary collaborations, cross-fertilization of ideas across research teams and identifying suitable mentors. Understanding the temporal evolution of these communities may also be useful in CTSA evaluation. PMID:22981843

  20. Aging, Community and Health Research Unit Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Community-Based Care of Older Adults with

    E-print Network

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Aging, Community and Health Research Unit Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Community-Based Care of Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions Introduction The Aging, Community and Health Research Unit, co-led by Drs. Maureen Markle-Reid and Jenny Ploeg, will focus on promoting optimal aging at home for older

  1. Industrial methodology for process verification in research (IMPROVER): toward systems biology verification

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Pablo; Hoeng, Julia; Rice, J. Jeremy; Norel, Raquel; Sprengel, Jörg; Stolle, Katrin; Bonk, Thomas; Corthesy, Stephanie; Royyuru, Ajay; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Analyses and algorithmic predictions based on high-throughput data are essential for the success of systems biology in academic and industrial settings. Organizations, such as companies and academic consortia, conduct large multi-year scientific studies that entail the collection and analysis of thousands of individual experiments, often over many physical sites and with internal and outsourced components. To extract maximum value, the interested parties need to verify the accuracy and reproducibility of data and methods before the initiation of such large multi-year studies. However, systematic and well-established verification procedures do not exist for automated collection and analysis workflows in systems biology which could lead to inaccurate conclusions. Results: We present here, a review of the current state of systems biology verification and a detailed methodology to address its shortcomings. This methodology named ‘Industrial Methodology for Process Verification in Research’ or IMPROVER, consists on evaluating a research program by dividing a workflow into smaller building blocks that are individually verified. The verification of each building block can be done internally by members of the research program or externally by ‘crowd-sourcing’ to an interested community. www.sbvimprover.com Implementation: This methodology could become the preferred choice to verify systems biology research workflows that are becoming increasingly complex and sophisticated in industrial and academic settings. Contact: gustavo@us.ibm.com PMID:22423044

  2. Teaching community-based participatory research principles to physicians enrolled in a health services research fellowship.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Lucas, Georgina I; Tinney, Barbara; Mangione, Carol; Schuster, Mark A; Wells, Ken; Wong, Marleen; Schwarz, Donald; Tuton, Lucy W; Howell, Joel D; Heisler, Michelle

    2009-04-01

    To improve health and reduce inequities through health services research, investigators are increasingly actively involving individuals and institutions who would be affected by the research. In one such approach, community-based participatory research (CBPR), community members participate in every aspect of designing and implementing research with the expectation that this process will enhance the translation of research into practice in communities. Because few physician researchers have expertise in such community-based approaches to research, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation leadership expanded the mission of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program (RWJCSP), which historically focused on health services and clinical research, to include training and mentored experiences in CBPR.The authors discuss the three years of experience (2005-2008) implementing the new community research curricula at the four RWJCSP sites: University of California, Los Angeles; University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia; University of Michigan in Ann Arbor; and Yale University in New Haven. Three common goals and objectives are identified across sites: teaching the principles of CBPR, providing opportunities for conducting CBPR, and making an impact on the health of the communities served. Each site's different approaches to teaching CBPR based on the nature of the existing community and academic environments are described. The authors use illustrative quotes to exemplify three key challenges that training programs face when integrating community-partnered approaches into traditional research training: relationship building, balancing goals of education/scholarship/relationships/product, and sustainability. Finally, the authors offer insights and implications for those who may wish to integrate CBPR training into their research training curricula. PMID:19318782

  3. Reflections and perspectives of African-American community leaders regarding genetics and genomics research: sentiment and wisdom of Sankofa.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Sandra Millon; Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; Townsend, Leolia; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2013-07-01

    Advances in genetic and genomic research are shifting the typical disease timeline. For those afflicted by disease and for population groups known to experience excess disease-related morbidity and mortality, the ability to use genetics and genomics to predict an individuals' predisposition for developing a disease and/or to anticipate an individual's response to treatments holds tremendous promise. Over the past two decades several public and private institutions within the United States have been established for the purpose of collecting and storing biological specimens for the purpose of conducting genetic/genomic research. Multiple reports indicate that the involvement of racial/ethnic minority participants in these bio-repositories is limited. Little is known about the willingness of African-Americans, one of the largest and most vulnerable racial/ethnic population groups, to participate in genetic research, genomic research, and to contribute biological specimens to bio-repositories. An exploratory study was undertaken using principles of community engagement and community-based participatory research to examine the perspectives of leaders within the African-American community about participation in genetics research, genomics research, and bio-banking. Semi-structured focus groups with twenty-one African-American community leaders were the primary means of gathering the study data. Reflections and commentary of the community leaders were interspersed with sentiments of "Sankofa." The emergent themes, health-related disparities, historical injustices in medical research, the promise of genetic and genomic research, and genetics/genomic research engagement, implicated the importance of conducting genetics/genomics research in the context of the community interdependent with efforts to address determinants of health and health disparities. PMID:24218869

  4. Therapeutic research in low-income countries: studying trial communities.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2014-11-01

    Social scientists undertaking studies of transnational medical research in developing countries focus on 'trial communities': networks of funders, institutions, researchers, clinical staff, fieldworkers and study participants. They relate these to the political economy that brings powerful research resources to poor settings. Whereas bioethicists tend to consider universal ethical requirements, social scientists examine how ethics are practiced in given situations in the light of the concerns and interests held by different parties involved in medical research. In conditions of poverty, high morbidity and weak public health services, research subjects are heavily induced by the prospect of high quality medical care and other benefits that researchers seem to offer. Studies of medical research undertaken by well-established internationally funded institutions in Africa show that parents are keen to have their children 'join' projects at these organisations. They assess benefits and risks less in terms of specific research projects and more in terms of their overall trust in the care these institutions are known to have provided previously for others in the community. Bioethics should widen its scope beyond concern with protecting individual subjects from the risks of specific research projects. It should recognise that clinical and research functions are indistinguishable for many participants, who want information on results of clinical investigations and sustained support for improving the health of their children. PMID:24748638

  5. MCF: a tool to find multi-scale community profiles in biological networks.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shang; Chen, Alan; Rahmani, Ali; Jarada, Tamer; Alhajj, Reda; Demetrick, Doug; Zeng, Jia

    2013-12-01

    Recent developments of complex graph clustering methods have implicated the practical applications with biological networks in different settings. Multi-scale Community Finder (MCF) is a tool to profile network communities (i.e., clusters of nodes) with the control of community sizes. The controlling parameter is referred to as the scale of the network community profile. MCF is able to find communities in all major types of networks including directed, signed, bipartite, and multi-slice networks. The fast computation promotes the practicability of the tool for large-scaled analysis (e.g., protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression networks). MCF is distributed as an open-source C++ package for academic use with both command line and user interface options, and can be downloaded at http://bsdxd.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/MCF. Detailed user manual and sample data sets are also available at the project website. PMID:24075082

  6. Community-Based Participatory Research with Hispanic/Latino Leaders and Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendola, Mary Grace

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are being studied for healthcare disparities research utilizing community-based participatory research (CBPR). CBPR's active participation of community members and researchers suggests improvement in community health. Yet there are no known studies that inductively investigated the lived experience of H/L community leaders…

  7. Discovering Research Communities by Clustering Bibliographical Data Fabrice Muhlenbach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    network and how a graph-based clustering method can extract research communities from the DBLP database bibliographical databases ­e.g., the DBLP (Digital Bibliography & Library Project) Computer Science Bibliography1. Keywords-bibliographical data; graph-based clustering; com- munity mining. I. INTRODUCTION A social network

  8. Thinking Like Researchers: An ESL Project that Investigates Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherron, Paul; Randolph, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on task-based and intercultural teaching approaches, this article presents an ESL classroom project at two different university settings in which students investigate aspects of their local communities through the use of ethnographic and observational research techniques. For related reasons, the instructors at each university developed…

  9. Successful Strategies for Earth Science Research in Native Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redsteer, M. H.; Anderson, D.; Ben, N.; Bitsuie, R.; Blackhorse, A.; Breit, G.; Clifford, A.; Salabye, J.; Semken, S.; Weaver, K.; Yazzie, N.

    2004-12-01

    A small U.S. Geological Survey pilot project utilizes strategies that are successful at involving the Native community in earth science research. This work has ignited the interest of Native students in interdisciplinary geoscience studies, and gained the recognition of tribal community leaders from the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Canada. This study seeks to examine land use, climatic variability, and their related impacts on land-surface conditions in the ecologically sensitive Tsezhin Bii' region of the Navajo Nation. Work conducted by predominantly Native American researchers, includes studies of bedrock geology, surficial processes, soil and water quality, and plant ecology, as well as the history of human habitation. Community involvement that began during the proposal process, has helped to guide research, and has provided tribal members with information that they can use for land use planning and natural resource management. Work by Navajo tribal members who have become involved in research as it has progressed, includes K-12 science curriculum development, community outreach and education on environmental and geologic hazards, drought mitigation, grazing management, and impacts of climate change and land use on medicinal plants.

  10. Electronically Distributed Work Communities: Implications for Research on Telework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Bradford W.; Grantham, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the concept of telework, or telecommuting, and its influence on the electronic community and organizational structures. The electronically distributed organization is discussed, and implications for research on telework are suggested in the areas of privacy regulation, self-efficacy, temporal aspects of employee behavior, communication…

  11. The Community College Baccalaureate Movement: Cutting-Edge Dissertation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrabak, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    In this review of dissertations, the researcher presents summaries of 10 of the most recent and cutting-edge dissertations focusing on the ever-growing and complex field of the community college baccalaureate movement. These studies focus on the gamut of specific legislation, case studies of particular programs and schools, financing of such…

  12. Community Based Rehabilitation: Information Accumulation & Exchange. South Asian Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    This paper reviews research and evaluates information gathered on disabilities and service development in South Asia, especially India and Pakistan. The concept of "community-based rehabilitation" (CBR), which stresses the need for rehabilitation efforts rooted in the context of local cultural concepts, is discussed. The paper emphasizes the…

  13. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Severe community-acquired Enterobacter

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Severe community-acquired Enterobacter pneumonia: a plea for greater Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution awareness of the concept of health-care-associated pneumonia Alexandre Boyer1,2,3* , Brice Amadeo2

  14. Architect for Research on Gender and Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    A quick search in the "Community College Journal of Research and Practice" for Barbara Townsend's name produces 62 entries. A handful of those entries are the articles that Barbara has authored, but many more are articles that cite her work. Another search on the Web of Science database that tracks citations in a specific set of peer-reviewed…

  15. Using Participatory Action Research to Address Community Health Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Brydon-Miller

    2003-01-01

    Summary What do students at a prestigious dance school, the people of Yellow Creek, Kentucky and women in rural Zimbabwe have in common? They have all taken an active role in research projects aimed at addressing specific health concerns facing their communities. In the case of the dance students, the health issue was body weight and shape preoccupation, a problem

  16. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Ameliorate Cancer Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlert, Sarah; Coleman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Although much attention has been paid to health disparities in the past decades, interventions to ameliorate disparities have been largely unsuccessful. One reason is that the interventions have not been culturally tailored to the disparity populations whose problems they are meant to address. Community-engaged research has been successful in…

  17. High School Community Service: A Review of Research and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Dan; Hedin, Diane

    This paper is a status report on efforts to make community service a part of the educational experience of high school students. It reviews the current educational debate, describes policies and practices including specific programs, summarizes research findings on the impact of service, and suggests some critical issues that confront educational…

  18. Collaborative research with the Cariboo-Chilcotin First Nations communities

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    values and geothermal resource development ­ Objectives: · Understand Aboriginal values around resource development · Increase local knowledge of geothermal resources · Build research capacity within communities and methods · Lessons so far · Conclusion #12;Study introduction · Assessing the compatibility of Aboriginal

  19. The Challenges of Agenda Conflict in Higher-Education-Community Research Partnerships: Views from the Community Side

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Ferman; T. L. Hill

    2004-01-01

    Responding to both the proliferation of higher-education-community partnerships and the paucity of studies that report the perspective of the community partners in such relationships, we interviewed community leaders to learn about their motivations for and experiences of participating in higher-education-community research partnerships. The article reports community leaders' assessments of the benefits and challenges of engaging in such partnerships, shares their

  20. Community-based Participatory Research: Policy Recommendations for Promoting a Partnership Approach in Health Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Barbara A.; Schulz, Amy J.; Parker, Edith A.; Becker, Adam B.

    2001-01-01

    Presents key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), discussing the rationale for its use; providing policy recommendations at the organizational, community, and national levels aimed at advancing the application of CBPR; and emphasizing the establishment of policies to enhance equity that would both increase the engagement of…

  1. Two Year Community: Exploring Student Engagement in an Introductory Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysne, Steven J.; Miller, Brant G.; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Successfully engaging students with a community college's introductory biology curriculum is a challenging endeavor. Students have numerous distractions competing with faculty for their attention. Traditional presentation of information may leave students longing for something more engaging to do, and the place where most college-level…

  2. Hands-on versus Remediation: Alternative Strategies for a Community College Biology Preparatory Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol A.; Sarinsky, Gary B.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the success of two approaches to biology courses for underprepared community college students, one involving a hands-on approach emphasizing practice in basic scientific skills and the other involving a remediation-based approach focusing on basic vocabulary, reading, library, and math skills. Suggests that the hands-on approach provided…

  3. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for the analysis of microbial community in biological activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Zheng; Naiyun Gao; Yang Deng

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to isolate DNA from biological activated carbon (BAC) samples used in water treatment plants, owing to the scarcity of microorganisms in BAC samples. The aim of this study was to identify DNA extraction methods suitable for a long-term, comprehensive ecological analysis of BAC microbial communities. To identify a procedure that can produce high molecular weight DNA, maximizes

  4. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for the analysis of microbial community in biological activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Zheng; Naiyun Gao; Yang Deng

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to isolate DNA from biological activated carbon (BAC) samples used in water treatment plants, owing to the scarcity of microorganisms in BAC samples. The aim of this study was to identify DNA extraction methods suitable for a long-term, comprehensive ecological analysis of BAC microbial communities. To identify a procedure that can produce high molecular weight DNA, maximizes

  5. Biological Field Stations: Research Legacies and Sites for Serendipity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William Michener (University of New Mexico; Department of Biology and LTER Network Office)

    2009-04-01

    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only framework for documenting and understanding the nature and pace of ecosystem, regional, and global changes in environmental conditions; ecological processes; and biodiversity. Because of these legacies and because they serve as gathering places for a rich diversity of highly creative and motivated scientists, students, and citizens, biological field stations are frequently where serendipitous scientific discoveries take place. The inclusion of biological field stations in environmental observatories and research networks ensures that these places will continue to foster future serendipitous scientific discoveries.

  6. Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J. Darby; Deborah A. Neher; Jayne Belnap

    2007-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are key mediators of carbon and nitrogen inputs for arid land soils and often represent a dominant portion of the soil surface cover in arid lands. Free-living soil nematode communities reflect their environment and have been used as biological indicators of soil condition. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nematode communities are successionally more mature

  7. Developing Rehabilitation Researchers in the American Indian Community: A Technical Report of Consumer-Researcher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine A.; Gotto, George S., IV

    This report describes a 3-year research project that developed a community-based consumer-researcher training model and subsequently trained an American Indian consumer-researcher team in Eagle Butte, South Dakota. For this project, consumers were defined as American Indians with disabilities, their families, and rehabilitation service providers.…

  8. NON Community Networks Program Centers (CNPC) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Projects

    Cancer.gov

    Strengthen the use of evidence-based education, outreach, and dissemination using the Community Guide, as well as partnership and capacity building, to improve knowledge, behavior, attitude, and beliefs with focus on the early detection of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers, clinical trial and biospecimen research.

  9. University--Government--International Donor Community Cooperation in Research, Teaching and Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaniki, M.

    2010-01-01

    World geo-economics of the last two decades have seriously impacted on governments' capability to finance university teaching, research and community engagement, especially in the developing world. Over the same period however, the demands and expectations exerted on universities by government and society have increased phenomenally. To meet these…

  10. Cyberlearning at Community Colleges: 21st Century Biology Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-23

    The goal of the Cyberlearning at Community Colleges (C3) project is to help "faculty leverage digital library resources, network computing and communications technologies, and E-science data and tools to engage in cyberlearning strategies." C3's funding comes from the National Science Foundation and their work will be of interest to wide range of educators. Visitors can sign up to be a part of this program, and they can also create their own profile to network with other members. The Blogs area is worth a look, as it contains practical information about upcoming conferences and events. It also includes relevant Featured Resources, including the Gapminder video series, which provides a statistical window into global development. Visitors can peek into the Forum area to participate in online discussions about teaching with data, preferred instructional styles, and offering students relevant content in the classroom.

  11. USGS Alaska Science Center, Biological Science Office: Research Programs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website provides information about the research programs of the USGS Alaska Science Center - Biological Science Office (ASC-BSO). The programs are divided into several categories including Ecosystems & Habitats, Mammals, Technical Programs, Fish and Fisheries, and Birds. Links connect to research information about numerous program subcategories like Coastal and Marine, Sea Otters, Loons, Fisheries Projects, and more. The site also links to background information about the ASC-BSO, job listings, staff contact information, and the Alaska Science Center Publications Database.

  12. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2008-03-21

    Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Biological and Environmental Engineering Soil & Water Research Group

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    for generating maps of soil topographic index (STI) from TI maps and soil data. The procedure for generating a topographic index (TI) map from DEM is described in "Creating TI map". #12;Biological and Environmental Engineering Soil & Water Research Group ·STI grids are soil topographic index grids, derived from digital

  14. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Controversies in modern evolutionary biology

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Controversies in modern evolutionary biology: the imperative for error controversial studies. It has been suggested that part of the conflict may be due to errors in the initial, which has been the subject of controversy recently. Using the human genome as a reference, we

  15. Systems Biology and Bioinformatics in Aging Research: A Workshop Report

    E-print Network

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    interventions that counter aging and prevent or counteract aging-related diseases. The specific topicsSystems Biology and Bioinformatics in Aging Research: A Workshop Report Georg Fuellen,1 Jo,13 and Julio Vera10 Abstract In an ``aging society,'' health span extension is most important

  16. Weed Biology and Management 5, 6976 (2005) RESEARCH PAPER

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Weed Biology and Management 5, 69­76 (2005) RESEARCH PAPER Weed composition and cover after three, could lead to increased weed problems for agricultural production. This experiment was conducted to assess weed pressure and species composition on plots receiving various inorganic and organic soil

  17. Researchers discover biological diversity in triple-negative breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Triple-negative breast cancers are more biologically diverse than previously believed and classification should be expanded to reflect this heterogeneity, according to a study from the University of North Carolina led by researchers at the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, along with scientists from the Vall d’Hebron Institute of Oncology in Barcelona, Spain.

  18. Participatory Action Research: Integrating Community Occupational Therapy Practice and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…

  19. Energy Efficient Community Development in California: Chula Vista Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gas Technology Institute

    2009-03-31

    In 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy joined the California Energy Commission in funding a project to begin to examine the technical, economic and institutional (policy and regulatory) aspects of energy-efficient community development. That research project was known as the Chula Vista Research Project for the host California community that co-sponsored the initiative. The researches proved that the strategic integration of the selected and economically viable buildings energy efficiency (EE) measures, photovoltaics (PV), distributed generation (DG), and district cooling can produce significant reductions in aggregate energy consumption, peak demand and emissions, compared to the developer/builder's proposed baseline approach. However, the central power plant emission reductions achieved through use of the EE-DG option would increase local air emissions. The electric and natural gas utility infrastructure impacts associated with the use of the EE and EE-PV options were deemed relatively insignificant while use of the EE-DG option would result in a significant reduction of necessary electric distribution facilities to serve a large-scale development project. The results of the Chula Vista project are detailed in three separate documents: (1) Energy-Efficient Community Development in California; Chula Vista Research Project report contains a detailed description of the research effort and findings. This includes the methodologies, and tools used and the analysis of the efficiency, economic and emissions impacts of alternative energy technology and community design options for two development sites. Research topics covered included: (a) Energy supply, demand, and control technologies and related strategies for structures; (b) Application of locally available renewable energy resources including solar thermal and PV technology and on-site power generation with heat recovery; (c) Integration of local energy resources into district energy systems and existing energy utility networks; (d) Alternative land-use design and development options and their impact on energy efficiency and urban runoff, emissions and the heat island effect; and (e) Alternative transportation and mobility options and their impact on local emissions. (2) Creating Energy-Efficient Communities in California: A Reference Guide to Barriers, Solutions and Resources report provides the results of an effort to identify the most innovative existing and emerging public policy, incentive and market mechanisms that encourage investment in advanced energy technologies and enabling community design options in the State of California and the nation. The report evaluates each of these mechanisms in light of the preceding research and concludes with a set of recommended mechanisms designed for consideration by relevant California State agencies, development and finance industry associations, and municipal governments. (3) Creating Energy-Efficient Communities in California: A Technical Reference Guide to Building and Site Design report contains a set of selected commercially viable energy technology and community design options for high-efficiency, low-impact community development in California. It includes a summary of the research findings referenced above and recommendations for energy technology applications and energy-efficient development strategies for residential, commercial and institutional structures and supporting municipal infrastructure for planned communities. The document also identifies design options, technology applications and development strategies that are applicable to urban infill projects.

  20. Listening to community health workers: how ethnographic research can inform positive relationships among community health workers, health institutions, and communities.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth; Closser, Svea; Kalofonos, Ippolytos

    2014-05-01

    Many actors in global health are concerned with improving community health worker (CHW) policy and practice to achieve universal health care. Ethnographic research can play an important role in providing information critical to the formation of effective CHW programs, by elucidating the life histories that shape CHWs' desires for alleviation of their own and others' economic and health challenges, and by addressing the working relationships that exist among CHWs, intended beneficiaries, and health officials. We briefly discuss ethnographic research with 3 groups of CHWs: volunteers involved in HIV/AIDS care and treatment support in Ethiopia and Mozambique and Lady Health Workers in Pakistan. We call for a broader application of ethnographic research to inform working relationships among CHWs, communities, and health institutions. PMID:24625167

  1. Biological Communities and Geomorphology of Patch Reefs in Biscayne National Park, Florida, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Brock, John C.; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Hickey, T. Don; Bonito, Victor; Bracone, Jeremy E.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystem management benefits from continual, quantitative assessment of the resources being managed, plus assessment of factors that affect distribution patterns of organisms in the ecosystem. In this study, we investigated the relationships among physical, benthic, and fish variables in effort to help explain the distribution patterns of ecologically and economically important species on twelve patch reefs within Biscayne National Park (BNP), Florida, U.S.A. We visited 196 randomly-located sampling stations across twelve shallow (< 10m) patch reefs, using SCUBA to conduct our surveys. We measured physical variables (e.g., substratum type), estimated the percent cover of benthic community members (e.g., coral, algae), and counted and estimated mean size for each fish species observed. We also used high-density bathymetric data collected remotely via airborne laser surveying (Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL)) to calculate rugosity (bumpiness) of the reef habitat. Here we present our findings visually by graphing our quantitative community and physical structure data simultaneously in a GIS map format. You will see that biological organisms arrange themselves on each patch reef in a non-random manner. For example, many species of fish prefer to locate themselves in areas of the reef where the rugosity index is high. Rugose parts of the reef provide them with good hiding places from predators. These maps (and the data used to create them) are permanent records of the status of reef resources found on these twelve patch reefs in BNP as of September, 2003. The survey data found in the shapefile located on this CD product includes benthic percent cover data for algae, coral, encrusting invertebrates, and substratum type, in addition to gorgonian abundance and volume, total fish abundance and species richness, and specific counts for Acanthurids (surgeonfish), Scarids (parrotfish), Lutjanids (snappers), Haemulids (grunts), Serranids (groupers), and Pomacentrids (damselfish).

  2. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    PubMed Central

    Hatay, M; Haas, AF; Robinett, NL; Barott, K; Vermeij, MJA; Marhaver, KL; Meirelles, P; Thompson, F; Rohwer, F

    2013-01-01

    Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR) system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic) contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community. PMID:23882444

  3. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Ak; Hatay, M; Haas, Af; Robinett, Nl; Barott, K; Vermeij, Mja; Marhaver, Kl; Meirelles, P; Thompson, F; Rohwer, F

    2013-01-01

    Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR) system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic) contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community. PMID:23882444

  4. Visual Methodologies in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health: Using Photography, Video, and New Media to Engage Communities in Research and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalani, Caricia Eleanora Celebes

    2009-01-01

    The challenges facing public health today are too vast, complex, and urgent to be met by public health professionals alone. To improve the health and wellbeing of diverse communities around the globe, public health leaders are developing tools that engage communities in research and action, most particularly community-based participatory research

  5. Molecular biology research in neuropsychiatry: India’s contribution

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Ramesh, B. N.; Vasudevaraju, P.; Rao, K. S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders represent the second largest cause of morbidity worldwide. These disorders have complex etiology and patho-physiology. The major lacunae in the biology of the psychiatric disorders include genomics, biomarkers and drug discovery, for the early detection of the disease, and have great application in the clinical management of disease. Indian psychiatrists and scientists played a significant role in filling the gaps. The present annotation provides in depth information related to research contributions on the molecular biology research in neuropsychiatric disorders in India. There is a great need for further research in this direction as to understand the genetic association of the neuropsychiatric disorders; molecular biology has a tremendous role to play. The alterations in gene expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction and depression. The development of transgenic neuropsychiatric animal models is of great thrust areas. No studies from India in this direction. Biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders are of great help to the clinicians for the early diagnosis of the disorders. The studies related to gene-environment interactions, DNA instability, oxidative stress are less studied in neuropsychiatric disorders and making efforts in this direction will lead to pioneers in these areas of research in India. In conclusion, we provided an insight for future research direction in molecular understanding of neuropsychiatry disorders. PMID:21836667

  6. Community research in other contexts: learning from sustainability science.

    PubMed

    Silka, Linda

    2010-12-01

    In health research, community based participatory research (CBPR) has seen remarkable growth as an approach that overcomes many of the ethical concerns raised by traditional approaches. A community of CBPR scholars is now sharing ideas and devising new approaches to collaborative research. Yet, this is occurring in isolation from similar efforts using different nomenclature and occurring outside of health research areas. There is much to be gained by bringing these parallel discussions together. In sustainability science, for example, scholars are struggling with the question of how stakeholders and scientists can coproduce knowledge that offers useful solutions to complex and urgent environmental problems. Like CBPR in health, sustainability science is denigrated for perceived lack of rigor because of its applied problem focus and lack of positivist approach. Approaches to knowledge creation in sustainability science involve "new" ideas such as wicked problems and agent-based modeling, which would be equally applicable to CBPR. Interestingly, sustainability research is motivated less by recognition of the corrosive effects of the inequality of power than from frustration at how limited the impact of research has been, a perspective that might be useful in CBPR, particularly in conjunction with the use of some borrowed tools of sustainability science such as wicked problem analysis and agent-based modeling. Importantly, the example of sustainability science has the potential to keep CBPR from entering into a new orthodoxy of how research should be done. PMID:21133782

  7. Community-based research in AIDS-service organizations: what helps and what doesn't?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Flicker; Michael Wilson; Robb Travers; Tarik Bereket; Colleen McKaye; Anna van der Meulen; Adrian Gutaf; Shelley Cleverlyg; Sean B. Rourkeh

    2009-01-01

    Background. Community-based research (CBR) approaches have become commonplace in many North American HIV communities. In many large urban centers, AIDS-service organizations (ASOs) have become active research hubs, advocating for research dollars in community settings. While ASOs have historically integrated local knowledge into their prevention, care and advocacy initiatives, many are now initiating or collaborating in research which addresses emerging issues

  8. The solar system: Importance of research to the biological sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Harold P.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to describe the scope of scientific areas that comprise the current field of exobiology in the United States. From investigations of astrophysical phenomena that deal with the birth of stars and planetary systems to questions of molecular biology involving phylogenetic relationships among organisms, from attempts to simulate the synthesis of biological precursor molecules in the chemistry laboratory to making measurements of the organic constituents of Titan's atmosphere, these researches all converge toward a common objective--answering the question of how life came about in the universe.

  9. LifeSat - A satellite for space biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.

    1990-01-01

    The LifeSat Program addresses the need for continuing access by biological scientists to space experimentation by accommodating a wide range of experiments involving animals and plants for durations up to 60 days in an unmanned satellite. The program will encourage interdisciplinary and international cooperation at both the agency and scientist levels, and will provide a recoverable, reusable facility for low-cost missions addressing key scientific issues that can only be answered by space experimentation. It will provide opportunities for research in gravitational biology and on the effects of cosmic radiation on life systems. The scientific aspects of LifeSat are addressed here.

  10. The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    The life sciences research facilities for the Space Station are being designed to accommodate both animal and plant specimens for long durations studies. This will enable research on how living systems adapt to microgravity, how gravity has shaped and affected life on earth, and further the understanding of basic biological phenomena. This would include multigeneration experiments on the effects of microgravity on the reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging of organisms. To achieve these research goals, a modular habitat system and on-board variable gravity centrifuges, capable of holding various animal, plant, cells and tissues, is proposed for the science laboratory.

  11. Governing through community-based research: lessons from the Canadian HIV research sector.

    PubMed

    Guta, Adrian; Strike, Carol; Flicker, Sarah; J Murray, Stuart; Upshur, Ross; Myers, Ted

    2014-12-01

    The "general public" and specific "communities" are increasingly being integrated into scientific decision-making. This shift emphasizes "scientific citizenship" and collaboration between interdisciplinary scientists, lay people, and multi-sector stakeholders (universities, healthcare, and government). The objective of this paper is to problematize these developments through a theoretically informed reading of empirical data that describes the consequences of bringing together actors in the Canadian HIV community-based research (CBR) movement. Drawing on Foucauldian "governmentality" the complex inner workings of the impetus to conduct collaborative research are explored. The analysis offered surfaces the ways in which a formalized approach to CBR, as promoted through state funding mechanisms, determines the structure and limits of engagement while simultaneously reinforcing the need for finer grained knowledge about marginalized communities. Here, discourses about risk merge with notions of "scientific citizenship" to implicate both researchers and communities in a process of governance. PMID:25074512

  12. Biological support media influence the bacterial biofouling community in reverse osmosis water reclamation demonstration plants.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Isabel; Mas, Jordi; Taberna, Elisenda; Sanz, Joan; Sánchez, Olga

    2015-02-01

    The diversity of the bacterial community developed in different stages of two reverse osmosis (RO) water reclamation demonstration plants designed in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Tarragona (Spain) was characterized by applying 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The plants were fed by secondary treated effluent to a conventional pretreatment train prior to the two-pass RO system. Plants differed in the material used in the filtration process, which was sand in one demonstration plant and Scandinavian schists in the second plant. The results showed the presence of a highly diverse and complex community in the biofilms, mainly composed of members of the Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in all stages, with the presence of some typical wastewater bacteria, suggesting a feed water origin. Community similarities analyses revealed that samples clustered according to filter type, highlighting the critical influence of the biological supporting medium in biofilm community structure. PMID:25706000

  13. BIOPACK: the ground controlled late access biological research facility.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Jack J W A

    2004-03-01

    Future Space Shuttle flights shall be characterized by activities necessary to further build the International Space Station, ISS. During these missions limited resources are available to conduct biological experiments in space. The Shuttles' Middeck is a very suitable place to conduct science during the ISS assembly missions or dedicated science missions. The BIOPACK, which flew its first mission during the STS-107, provides a versatile Middeck Locker based research tool for gravitational biology studies. The core facility occupies the space of only two Middeck Lockers. Experiment temperatures are controlled for bacteria, plant, invertebrate and mammalian cultures. Gravity levels and profiles can be set ranging from 0 to 2.0 x g on three independent centrifuges. This provides the experimenter with a 1.0 x g on-board reference and intermediate hypogravity and hypergravity data points to investigate e.g. threshold levels in biological responses. Temperature sensitive items can be stored in the facilities' -10 degrees C and +4 degrees C stowage areas. During STS-107 the facility also included a small glovebox (GBX) and passive temperature controlled units (PTCU). The GBX provides the experimenter with two extra levels of containment for safe sample handling. This biological research facility is a late access (L-10 hrs) laboratory, which, when reaching orbit, could automatically be starting up reducing important experiment lag-time and valuable crew time. The system is completely telecommanded when needed. During flight system parameters like temperatures, centrifuge speeds, experiment commanding or sensor readouts can be monitored and changed when needed. Although ISS provides a wide range of research facilities there is still need for an STS-based late access facility such as the BIOPACK providing experimenters with a very versatile research cabinet for biological experiments under microgravity and in-flight control conditions. PMID:16145804

  14. COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES DVELOPMENT PROGRAM The Montana Healthcare Research and Education Foundation has contracted with the Montana Office of

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES DVELOPMENT PROGRAM The Montana Healthcare Research and Education communities face a larger number and greater array of issues than usually acknowledged, (e) adequate dollars - Community engagement - Community health goals - Strengthened healthcare services - Community investment

  15. pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students

    PubMed Central

    Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Vision and Change report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area of science. We developed a laboratory module called pClone that empowers students to use advances in molecular cloning methods to discover new promoters for use by synthetic biologists. Our educational goals are consistent with Vision and Change and emphasize core concepts and competencies. pClone is a family of three plasmids that students use to clone a new transcriptional promoter or mutate a canonical promoter and measure promoter activity in Escherichia coli. We also developed the Registry of Functional Promoters, an open-access database of student promoter research results. Using pre- and posttests, we measured significant learning gains among students using pClone in introductory biology and genetics classes. Student posttest scores were significantly better than scores of students who did not use pClone. pClone is an easy and affordable mechanism for large-enrollment labs to meet the high standards of Vision and Change.

  16. Universities and Community-Based Research in Developing Countries: Community Voice and Educational Provision in Rural Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamando, Amina; Doyle, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of recent research on the community engagement role of universities has been in developed countries, generally in towns and cities and usually conducted from the perspective of universities rather than the communities with which they engage. The purpose of this article is to investigate the community engagement role of universities…

  17. Scientific principles of education research: Experimental Biology 2007

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences)

    2007-08-01

    IN 2002, the Committee on Scientific Principles of Education Research of the National Research Council (NRC) revisited long-standing ideas about the nature of science, so as to place them in the context of modern education research. Their report, Scientific Research in Education (3), investigated "scientifically based" education research to be used for improving education policy and practice. The report showed that while researchers may disagree about philosophical or methodological approaches to education research, they readily agree about the definition and pursuit of good quality education research (3). Research designs were categorized as quantitative versus qualitative, depending on the type of data collected. There were also categorizations of experimental versus observational, depending on the study design and the investigators' ability to draw conclusions about cause and effect. This featured topic sponsored by the American Physiological Society Teaching Section was designed to host Drs. Margaret Eisenhart and Robert DeHaan, members of the NRC committees and experts in the field of educational research. Their talks were complemented by selected educational research abstracts submitted to the Experimental Biology meeting in Washington, DC, in 2007.

  18. Invited review article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy. PMID:25362364

  19. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    SciTech Connect

    De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: winnok.devos@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  20. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  1. Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1985-08-01

    The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group.

  2. Community cyberinfrastructure for Advanced Microbial Ecology Research and Analysis: the CAMERA resource.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shulei; Chen, Jing; Li, Weizhong; Altintas, Ilkay; Lin, Abel; Peltier, Steve; Stocks, Karen; Allen, Eric E; Ellisman, Mark; Grethe, Jeffrey; Wooley, John

    2011-01-01

    The Community Cyberinfrastructure for Advanced Microbial Ecology Research and Analysis (CAMERA, http://camera.calit2.net/) is a database and associated computational infrastructure that provides a single system for depositing, locating, analyzing, visualizing and sharing data about microbial biology through an advanced web-based analysis portal. CAMERA collects and links metadata relevant to environmental metagenome data sets with annotation in a semantically-aware environment allowing users to write expressive semantic queries against the database. To meet the needs of the research community, users are able to query metadata categories such as habitat, sample type, time, location and other environmental physicochemical parameters. CAMERA is compliant with the standards promulgated by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC), and sustains a role within the GSC in extending standards for content and format of the metagenomic data and metadata and its submission to the CAMERA repository. To ensure wide, ready access to data and annotation, CAMERA also provides data submission tools to allow researchers to share and forward data to other metagenomics sites and community data archives such as GenBank. It has multiple interfaces for easy submission of large or complex data sets, and supports pre-registration of samples for sequencing. CAMERA integrates a growing list of tools and viewers for querying, analyzing, annotating and comparing metagenome and genome data. PMID:21045053

  3. Transcriptome analysis and kidney research: toward systems biology.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mingyu; Cowley, Allen W; Hessner, Martin J; Lazar, Jozef; Basile, David P; Pietrusz, Jennifer L

    2005-06-01

    An enormous amount of data has been generated in kidney research using transcriptome analysis techniques. In this review article, we first describe briefly the principles and major characteristics of several of these techniques. We then summarize the progress in kidney research that has been made by using transcriptome analysis, emphasizing the experience gained and the lessons learned. Several technical issues regarding DNA microarray are highlighted because of the rapidly increased use of this technology. It appears clear from this brief survey that transcriptome analysis is an effective and important tool for question-driven exploratory science. To further enhance the power of this and other high throughput, as well as conventional approaches, in future studies of the kidney, we propose a multidimensional systems biology paradigm that integrates investigation at multiple levels of biologic regulation toward the goal of achieving a global understanding of physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:15882254

  4. Research Applications of Proteolytic Enzymes in Molecular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Mótyán, János András; Tóth, Ferenc; T?zsér, József

    2013-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes (also termed peptidases, proteases and proteinases) are capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds in proteins. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have great medical and pharmaceutical importance due to their key role in biological processes and in the life-cycle of many pathogens. Proteases are extensively applied enzymes in several sectors of industry and biotechnology, furthermore, numerous research applications require their use, including production of Klenow fragments, peptide synthesis, digestion of unwanted proteins during nucleic acid purification, cell culturing and tissue dissociation, preparation of recombinant antibody fragments for research, diagnostics and therapy, exploration of the structure-function relationships by structural studies, removal of affinity tags from fusion proteins in recombinant protein techniques, peptide sequencing and proteolytic digestion of proteins in proteomics. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular biological aspects of proteolytic enzymes and summarize their applications in the life sciences. PMID:24970197

  5. Facilities for Biological Research Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, Kenneth A.; Yost, Bruce D.; Berry, William E.; Johnson, Catherine C.

    1996-01-01

    A centrifuge designed as part of an integrated biological facility for installation onboard the International Space Station is presented. The requirements for the 2.5 m diameter centrifuge, which is designed for the support of biological experiments are discussed. The scientific objectives of the facility are to: provide a means of conducting fundamental studies in which gravitational acceleration is a controllable variable; provide a 1g control; determine the threshold acceleration for physiological response, and determine the value of centrifugation as a potential countermeasure for the biomedical problems associated with space flight. The implementation of the facility is reported on, and the following aspects of the facility are described: the host resources systems supply requirements such as power and data control; the habitat holding rack; the life sciences glove box; the centrifuge; the different habitats for cell culture, aquatic studies, plant research and insect research; the egg incubator, and the laboratory support equipment.

  6. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Basner, Mathias; Brink, Mark; Bristow, Abigail; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Finegold, Lawrence; Hong, Jiyoung; Janssen, Sabine A; Klaeboe, Ronny; Leroux, Tony; Liebl, Andreas; Matsui, Toshihito; Schwela, Dieter; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health. PMID:25774609

  7. Frequently Asked Questions about Community-Engaged Research Why community-engaged research?

    E-print Network

    Biederman, Irving

    . 2006. www.cbprcurriculum.info Family Health International. Research Ethics Training Curriculum? An Evidence-Based Definition for Participatory Public Health. American Journal of Public Health. 2001; 91 approaches, while appropriate for many research questions, have failed to solve complex health disparities

  8. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy. PMID:22395365

  9. Finding solutions to challenges faced in community-based participatory research between academic and community organizations.

    PubMed

    Shoultz, Jan; Oneha, Mary Frances; Magnussen, Lois; Hla, Mya Moe; Brees-Saunders, Zavi; Cruz, Marissa Dela; Douglas, Margaret

    2006-03-01

    Partnerships between communities and academic institutions have been vital in addressing complex health and psychosocial issues faced by culturally diverse and hard-to-reach populations. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been suggested as a strategy to develop trust and build on the strengths of partners from various settings to address significant health issues, particularly those persistent health issues that reveal disparities among minority populations. There have been many challenges to developing these partnerships in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to discuss approaches and solutions used by this research team in response to the challenges they have faced in using CBPR. The team uses CBPR to understand and support the process of disclosure of intimate partner violence (IPV) within the context of the community health centers that provide services for multicultural and multi-lingual populations. While CBPR provides a route to develop trust and build on the strengths of partners from various settings, there are multiple challenges that arise when partnering organizations present with different infrastructures, missions, resources and populations served. Examples of common challenges and solutions from the literature and from the team's experience will be discussed. Implications for partners, partnerships, practice and research will be explored. PMID:16608716

  10. Use of CAM in local African-American communities: community-partnered research.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Marina C.; Cotroneo, Margaret; Purnell, Joseph; Martin, Danielle; Mackenzie, Elizabeth; Fishman, Alfred

    2003-01-01

    Although previous national surveys have shown an increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the U.S. population, racial and ethnic minority populations were under-represented in these surveys. As a result, a profile of the CAM user as white, female, affluent, middle-aged and well educated has emerged. Representing the mainstream population, these previous studies did not take into account the racial and ethnic minority populations who may have their own healing traditions and who may hold different beliefs, use different terminology, and have unique patterns of CAM use. In partnership with community-based organizations and community residents, a culturally sensitive survey instrument and protocols were designed and tested to gather data on lower income, urban African-Americans' use of, attitudes toward, and understanding of CAM. The major findings of this pilot research are 1.) Community-partnered research can help researchers gain access to sensitive data and design culturally appropriate studies; 2.) CAM terminology varies by cultural group; 3.) Certain forms of CAM (folk or family practices) are commonly found in African-American populations; and 4.) Factors that affect CAM use--including age, lack of access to conventional medicine, cultural heritage, and dissatisfaction with conventional medicine. PMID:14620706

  11. Biological and chemical technologies research. FY 1995 annual summary report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1996-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1995 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1995 (ASR 95) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1995; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents; and awards arising from work supported by the BCTR.

  12. Opportunities and Pitfalls of Community-Based Research: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanyi, Michael; Cockburn, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Based on a recent community-based research project with injured workers, identifies challenges faced when academics engage in community-based research based at a university, including dealing with the constraints and requirements of academic research funding, bridging the goals of academics and community members, and functioning within the…

  13. Culturally Sensitive Community Engaged Research With African American Young Women: Lessons Learned

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molly Secor-Turner; Renee Sieving; Ann Garwick; Richard Spratt; Naomi Duke

    2010-01-01

    The use of culturally sensitive research approaches is of paramount importance in conducting community-engaged research with African American communities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and use of culturally and community sensitive research methods in a study to understand social messages about pregnancy and childbearing among low-income urban African American adolescent girls. Key elements of this

  14. REVIEW OF COMMUNITY-BASED RESEARCH: Assessing Partnership Approaches to Improve Public Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara A. Israel; Amy J. Schulz; Edith A. Parker; Adam B. Becker

    1998-01-01

    Community-based research in public health focuses on social, structural, and physical environmental inequities through active involvement of community mem- bers, organizational representatives, and researchers in all aspects of the research process. Partners contribute their expertise to enhance understanding of a given phenomenon and to integrate the knowledge gained with action to benefit the community involved. This review provides a synthesis

  15. Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell

    E-print Network

    Saunders, Mark

    Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell Based Therapies to treat Retinal Diseases, Endogenous Regeneration of the human Retina Stem is to investigate the application of MĂĽller stem cells in cell replacement therapies for glaucomatous degeneration

  16. Environmental Research Translation: enhancing interactions with communities at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Artiola, Janick F; Maier, Raina M; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2014-11-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  17. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  18. Improving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health: National Organizations Leading Community Research Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Chung, Corina; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. Objectives To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Methods Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations Results Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Conclusions Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research. PMID:22643786

  19. LAURA HILL, PH.D. Lecturer and Research Associate, University of Vermont (UVM) Plant Biology Department

    E-print Network

    Molofsky, Jane

    1 LAURA HILL, PH.D. Lecturer and Research Associate, University of Vermont (UVM) Plant Biology -- present Full-time Lecturer and Research Associate in Plant Biology, UVM 2009 Adjunct faculty, Lecturer, Principles of Biology, Plant Biology Department, UVM 2004, 2007, 2008 Graduate Teaching Fellow (GTF

  20. CAPACITY BUILDING OF COMMUNITIES AND ACADEMIA IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI DELTA NUTRITION INTERVENTION RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NIRI)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: The purpose is to outline the process by which community based participatory research (CBPR) builds capacity of rural communities and academicians to promote full participation of all partners in research interventions and activities. Background: While full participation of community memb...

  1. Connecting Communities to Health Research: Development of the Project CONNECT Minority Research Registry

    PubMed Central

    Green, Melissa A.; Kim, Mimi M.; Barber, Sharrelle; Odulana, Abedowale A.; Godley, Paul A.; Howard, Daniel L.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prevention and treatment standards are based on evidence obtained in behavioral and clinical research. However, racial and ethnic minorities remain relatively absent from the science that develops these standards. While investigators have successfully recruited participants for individual studies using tailored recruitment methods, these strategies require considerable time and resources. Research registries, typically developed around a disease or condition, serve as a promising model for a targeted recruitment method to increase minority participation in health research. This study assessed the tailored recruitment methods used to populate a health research registry targeting African-American community members. Methods We describe six recruitment methods applied between September 2004 and October 2008 to recruit members into a health research registry. Recruitment included direct (existing studies, public databases, community outreach) and indirect methods (radio, internet, and email) targeting the general population, local universities, and African American communities. We conducted retrospective analysis of the recruitment by method using descriptive statistics, frequencies, and chi-square statistics. Results During the recruitment period, 608 individuals enrolled in the research registry. The majority of enrollees were African American, female, and in good health. Direct and indirect methods were identified as successful strategies for subgroups. Findings suggest significant associations between recruitment methods and age, presence of existing health condition, prior research participation, and motivation to join the registry. Conclusions A health research registry can be a successful tool to increase minority awareness of research opportunities. Multi-pronged recruitment approaches are needed to reach diverse subpopulations. PMID:23340183

  2. Promotores as Researchers: Expanding the Promotor Role in Community-Based Research

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Atiba; Lewy, Robin; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Ricardo, Francine; Kugel, Candace

    2011-01-01

    The community health worker, known as promotor in the Hispanic community, is an accepted member of the public health team whose core role is that of bridging target communities with health services. However, the promotor’s role in research has not been considered a core function of their work. This article will present the promotor in the additional role of researcher, as conceived by the Migrant Clinicians Network for the Hombres Unidos Contra La Violencia Familiar (Men United Against Family Violence) sexual violence/intimate partner violence project. The Hombres Unidos project used promotores as survey facilitators, gathering male Hispanic farmworkers’ perspectives on the sensitive topic of sexual violence and intimate partner violence. This article demonstrates that when trained, the promotores’ linguistic and cultural competence make them a valuable addition to the research team, especially when collecting sensitive information. PMID:21427265

  3. Research Opportunities in Subtidal Marine Biology and Ecology in the Gagnon Lab

    E-print Network

    Oyet, Alwell

    Research Opportunities in Subtidal Marine Biology and Ecology in the Gagnon Lab Opportunities are available for motivated undergraduate and graduate students to conduct research in marine biology, oceanography, phycology, physiology, remote sensing, GIS technology, and modeling, our group currently

  4. History of Physics Education Research as a Model for Geoscience Education Research Community Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    Discipline-based Education Research (DBER) is a research field richly combining a deep understanding of how to teach a particular discipline with an evolving understanding how people learn that discipline. At its center, DBER has an overarching goal of improving the teaching and learning of a discipline by focusing on understanding the underlying mental mechanisms learners use as they develop expertise. Geoscience Education Research, or GER, is a young but rapidly advancing field which is poised to make important contributions to the teaching and learning of earth and space science. Nascent geoscience education researchers could accelerate their community's progress by learning some of the lessons from the more mature field of Physics Education Research, PER. For the past three decades, the PER community has been on the cutting edge of DBER. PER started purely as an effort among traditionally trained physicists to overcome students' tenaciously held misconceptions about force, motion, and electricity. Over the years, PER has wrestled with the extent to which they included the faculty from the College of Education, the value placed on interpretive and qualitative research methods, the most appropriate involvement of professional societies, the nature of its PhD programs in the College of Science, and how to best disseminate the results of PER to the wider physics teaching community. Decades later, as a more fully mature field, PER still struggles with some of these aspects, but has learned important lessons in how its community progresses and evolves to be successful, valuable, and pertinent.

  5. Community-Based Participatory Research: Its Role in Future Cancer Research and Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, Vanessa W.; Duran, Bonnie; Villegas, Malia

    2013-01-01

    The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009–2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impact participatory approaches can have in reducing cancer disparities. Several projects highlight the success of participatory approaches to cancer prevention and intervention in addressing many of the challenges of traditional practice and research. Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research. PMID:23680507

  6. Impact of Substratum Surface on Microbial Community Structure and Treatment Performance in Biological Aerated Filters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Lavane; Pagaling, Eulyn; Zuo, Yi Y.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of substratum surface property change on biofilm community structure was investigated using laboratory biological aerated filter (BAF) reactors and molecular microbial community analysis. Two substratum surfaces that differed in surface properties were created via surface coating and used to develop biofilms in test (modified surface) and control (original surface) BAF reactors. Microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the surface property change consistently resulted in distinct profiles of microbial populations during replicate reactor start-ups. Pyrosequencing of the bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons surveyed more than 90% of the microbial diversity in the microbial communities and identified 72 unique bacterial species within 19 bacterial orders. Among the 19 orders of bacteria detected, Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales of the Betaproteobacteria class were numerically dominant and accounted for 90.5 to 97.4% of the sequence reads, and their relative abundances in the test and control BAF reactors were different in consistent patterns during the two reactor start-ups. Three of the five dominant bacterial species also showed consistent relative abundance changes between the test and control BAF reactors. The different biofilm microbial communities led to different treatment efficiencies, with consistently higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the test reactor than in the control reactor. Further understanding of how surface properties affect biofilm microbial communities and functional performance would enable the rational design of new generations of substrata for the improvement of biofilm-based biological treatment processes. PMID:24141134

  7. Strengthening community involvement in grant review: insights from the Community-University Research Partnership (CURES) pilot review process.

    PubMed

    Paberzs, Adam; Piechowski, Patricia; Warrick, Debra; Grawi, Carolyn; Choate, Celeste; Sneed, Glenda; Carr, Diane; Lota, Kanchan; Key, Kent; Alexander, Valerie; Ghosh, Pratik; Sampselle, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    In 2007, the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR) at the University of Michigan received a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Within MICHR, the Community Engagement (CE) program supports partnership efforts between researchers, practitioners, and community-based organizations in specific focal communities throughout Michigan. A key component of the CE program is the Community Engagement Coordinating Council, a group that provides input and guidance on program priorities, strategic planning, and reviews pilot funding proposals for community-academic partnerships. This paper will describe a unique MICHR pilot funding mechanism for Community-University Research Partnerships (CURES) with an emphasis on the ways that community partners are involved in the review process, as well as the benefits, challenges, and insights gained over 5 years of pilot review. There is a growing need for community involvement and expertise in review of funding proposals for community-engaged research at both institutional and federal levels. The CURES pilot review process is one example of an institutional effort to engage community partners in university funding decisions and has demonstrated clear benefit toward accomplishing the aims of the CTSA. PMID:24456508

  8. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  9. Configuration of biological wastewater treatment line and influent composition as the main factors driving bacterial community structure of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Jaranowska, Paulina; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    The structure of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment facilities is a resultant of environmental conditions created by the operational parameters of the purification process. In the research, activated sludge from nine Polish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was investigated at a molecular level to determine the impact of the complexity of biological treatment line and the influent composition on the species structure and the diversity of bacterial consortia. The community fingerprints and technological data were subjected to the canonical correspondence and correlation analyses. The number of separated biological processes realized in the treatment line and the presence of industrial wastewater in the influent were the key factors determining the species structure of total and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in biomass. The N2O-reducers community composition depended significantly on the design of the facility; the highest species richness of denitrifiers was noted in the WWTPs with separated denitrification tanks. The contribution of industrial streams to the inflow affected the diversity of total and denitrifying bacterial consortia and diminished the diversity of ammonia oxidizers. The obtained data are valuable for engineers since they revealed the main factors, including the design of wastewater treatment plant, influencing the microbial groups critical for the stability of purification processes. PMID:23397107

  10. Biologically Weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy: an EMRP Joint Research Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabus, Hans; Palmans, Hugo; Hilgers, Gerhard; Sharpe, Peter; Pinto, Massimo; Villagrasa, Carmen; Nettelbeck, Heidi; Moro, Davide; Pola, Andrea; Pszona, Stanislaw; Teles, Pedro

    2014-08-01

    Funded within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) [1], the joint research project "Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy" (BioQuaRT) [2] aims to develop measurement and simulation techniques for determining the physical properties of ionising particle tracks on different length scales (about 2 nm to 10 ?m), and to investigate the correlation of these track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation at the cellular level. Work package 1 develops micro-calorimeter prototypes for the direct measurement of lineal energy and will characterise their response for different ion beams by experiment and modelling. Work package 2 develops techniques to measure particle track structure on different length scales in the nanometre range as well as a measurement device integrating a silicon microdosimeter and a nanodosimeter. Work package 3 investigates the indirect effects of radiation based on probes for quantifying particular radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Work package 4 focuses on the biological aspects of radiation damage and will produce data on initial DNA damage and late effects for radiotherapy beams of different qualities. Work package 5 provides evaluated data sets of DNA cross-sections and develops a multi-scale model to address microscopic and nanometric track structure properties. The project consortium includes three linked researchers holding so-called Researcher Excellence Grants, who carry out ancillary investigations such as developing and benchmarking a new biophysical model for induction of early radiation damage and developing methods for the translation of quantities derived from particle track structure to clinical applications in ion beam therapy.

  11. Characterizing User Communities of Large Multi-Disciplinary Research Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale multi-user research facilities are a critical component of the federal science and engineering research enterprise. Developing infrastructure for multidisciplinary research requires large investments over long periods of time and typically involves partnerships across many institutions. Consequently, multiple policy questions surround federal investments in large research facilities including what is the best way to maximize scientific productivity? How should investments in infrastructure be balanced with support for individual or small group research? For many facilities, the answers to these questions become focused on the activities of the users: the individuals who are interacting with the facility for furthering scientific research and/or education. This independent study provides the first known analysis of facility utilization. Four facilities supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) are used as case studies to create a conceptual framework for characterizing facility utilization, to examine changes in facility use over time, and to define how lessons learned can be applied to facility management and planning. Results show that there is a broad spectrum of users who interact with each facility in different ways and that for some facilities, unanticipated users are driving new areas of research. This work also shows that cyberinfrastructure-enabled facilities are experiencing rapid increases in data use and in some cases, the next generation of facility users appears to be developing new skills for working in an increasingly data-intensive research environment. Characterizing and quantifying large facility use will likely become increasingly important as the federal government continues to focus on developing metrics and evaluation tools for its investments in science and engineering research. This work establishes a foundation for assessing facility utilization and shows that this area is ripe for future work that may include portfolio-wide analyses, network or community mapping, and applications to other research investments.

  12. Electrical and chemical sensors for biological cell research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edell, D. J.; McNeil, V. M.; Curley, M. G.; Wolfe, J. H.

    Electrical and chemical microsensors for biological cell research allow for the continuous study of biological systems under normal physiological conditions. Two sensor technologies which take most advantage of microfabrication technology are discussed. One is being developed for monitoring the environment of cancer cells during radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia treatment. Of current interest is the measurement of temperature and interstitial free oxygen concentration distributions in cancer tissues prior to and during various treatments. The second technology discussed is being developed for monitoring the extracellular ionic currents from electrogenic cells in culture. The ability to build integrated circuits over large areas of a silicon wafer which can impedance transform the signals and multiplex a large array of contacts is being used.

  13. RhesusBase: a knowledgebase for the monkey research community.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Jian; Liu, Chu-Jun; Shi, Mingming; Kong, Lei; Chen, Jia-Yu; Zhou, Wei-Zhen; Zhu, Xiaotong; Yu, Peng; Wang, Jue; Yang, Xinzhuang; Hou, Ning; Ye, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Rongli; Xiao, Ruiping; Zhang, Xiuqin; Li, Chuan-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Although the rhesus macaque is a unique model for the translational study of human diseases, currently its use in biomedical research is still in its infant stage due to error-prone gene structures and limited annotations. Here, we present RhesusBase for the monkey research community (http://www.rhesusbase.org). We performed strand-specific RNA-Seq studies in 10 macaque tissues and generated 1.2 billion 90-bp paired-end reads, covering >97.4% of the putative exon in macaque transcripts annotated by Ensembl. We found that at least 28.7% of the macaque transcripts were previously mis-annotated, mainly due to incorrect exon-intron boundaries, incomplete untranslated regions (UTRs) and missed exons. Compared with the previous gene models, the revised transcripts show clearer sequence motifs near splicing junctions and the end of UTRs, as well as cleaner patterns of exon-intron distribution for expression tags and cross-species conservation scores. Strikingly, 1292 exon-intron boundary revisions between coding exons corrected the previously mis-annotated open reading frames. The revised gene models were experimentally verified in randomly selected cases. We further integrated functional genomics annotations from >60 categories of public and in-house resources and developed an online accessible database. User-friendly interfaces were developed to update, retrieve, visualize and download the RhesusBase meta-data, providing a 'one-stop' resource for the monkey research community. PMID:22965133

  14. Developing Meaningful and Manageable Research Opportunities for Community College Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boryta, M. D.; Walker, B.; Cano, E.; Chi, B.; De Martinez, L.; Diaz, M.; Eckert, S.; Hoffman, A.; Lee, T.

    2012-12-01

    Independent research experience opportunities are bountiful for juniors and seniors at 4-year institutions, but far fewer opportunities exist for community college geoscience students. At Mt. San Antonio College (a community college in Los Angeles County), we sometimes offer an independent study course to 1 or 2 exceptional students. In the Spring 2012 semester our goal, for a few qualified students, was to extend their understanding (beyond what they had learned in Physical Geology) of some of the techniques, tools, and ways of thinking used by professional geoscientists, in an effort to better prepare them to transfer to 4-year institutions as geoscience majors. However, when 7 students became excited to participate, we quickly expanded the goals to include giving students the responsibility of defining the project's scope and procedures, introducing them to collaborative and ongoing research, and growing the scope of the project over several semesters. The project involved a preliminary assessment of a tributary in the San Juan Creek watershed in Orange County; techniques included stream and beach profiling, bedrock geology mapping, and sediment sampling and analysis. In addition to presenting preliminary results, we will report on lessons learned about necessary course elements, the importance of establishing academic and personal conduct expectations for students, and methods of assessing student work in a lower-division research experience. We will also discuss several barriers that were encountered during the first semester of the project, including involving faculty, students, and resources as well as strategies that we are currently employing to address these challenges.

  15. Community-driven development for computational biology at Sprints, Hackathons and Codefests

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computational biology comprises a wide range of technologies and approaches. Multiple technologies can be combined to create more powerful workflows if the individuals contributing the data or providing tools for its interpretation can find mutual understanding and consensus. Much conversation and joint investigation are required in order to identify and implement the best approaches. Traditionally, scientific conferences feature talks presenting novel technologies or insights, followed up by informal discussions during coffee breaks. In multi-institution collaborations, in order to reach agreement on implementation details or to transfer deeper insights in a technology and practical skills, a representative of one group typically visits the other. However, this does not scale well when the number of technologies or research groups is large. Conferences have responded to this issue by introducing Birds-of-a-Feather (BoF) sessions, which offer an opportunity for individuals with common interests to intensify their interaction. However, parallel BoF sessions often make it hard for participants to join multiple BoFs and find common ground between the different technologies, and BoFs are generally too short to allow time for participants to program together. Results This report summarises our experience with computational biology Codefests, Hackathons and Sprints, which are interactive developer meetings. They are structured to reduce the limitations of traditional scientific meetings described above by strengthening the interaction among peers and letting the participants determine the schedule and topics. These meetings are commonly run as loosely scheduled "unconferences" (self-organized identification of participants and topics for meetings) over at least two days, with early introductory talks to welcome and organize contributors, followed by intensive collaborative coding sessions. We summarise some prominent achievements of those meetings and describe differences in how these are organised, how their audience is addressed, and their outreach to their respective communities. Conclusions Hackathons, Codefests and Sprints share a stimulating atmosphere that encourages participants to jointly brainstorm and tackle problems of shared interest in a self-driven proactive environment, as well as providing an opportunity for new participants to get involved in collaborative projects. PMID:25472764

  16. Personalizing nutrigenomics research through community based participatory research and omics technologies.

    PubMed

    McCabe-Sellers, Beverly; Lovera, Dalia; Nuss, Henry; Wise, Carolyn; Ning, Baitang; Teitel, Candee; Clark, Beatrice Shelby; Toennessen, Terri; Green, Bridgett; Bogle, Margaret L; Kaput, Jim

    2008-12-01

    Personal and public health information are often obtained from studies of large population groups. Risk factors for nutrients, toxins, genetic variation, and more recently, nutrient-gene interactions are statistical estimates of the percentage reduction in disease in the population if the risk were to be avoided or the gene variant were not present. Because individuals differ in genetic makeup, lifestyle, and dietary patterns than those individuals in the study population, these risk factors are valuable guidelines, but may not apply to individuals. Intervention studies are likewise limited by small sample sizes, short time frames to assess physiological changes, and variable experimental designs that often preclude comparative or consensus analyses. A fundamental challenge for nutrigenomics will be to develop a means to sort individuals into metabolic groups, and eventually, develop risk factors for individuals. To reach the goal of personalizing medicine and nutrition, new experimental strategies are needed for human study designs. A promising approach for more complete analyses of the interaction of genetic makeups and environment relies on community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodologies. CBPR's central focus is developing a partnership among researchers and individuals in a community that allows for more in depth lifestyle analyses but also translational research that simultaneously helps improve the health of individuals and communities. The USDA-ARS Delta Nutrition Intervention Research program exemplifies CBPR providing a foundation for expanded personalized nutrition and medicine research for communities and individuals. PMID:19040372

  17. Data management for community research projects: A JGOFS case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Roy K.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid 1980s, much of the marine science research effort in the United Kingdom has been focused into large scale collaborative projects involving public sector laboratories and university departments, termed Community Research Projects. Two of these, the Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) and the North Sea Project incorporated large scale data collection to underpin multidisciplinary modeling efforts. The challenge of providing project data sets to support the science was met by a small team within the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) operating as a topical data center. The role of the data center was to both work up the data from the ship's sensors and to combine these data with sample measurements into online databases. The working up of the data was achieved by a unique symbiosis between data center staff and project scientists. The project management, programming and data processing skills of the data center were combined with the oceanographic experience of the project communities to develop a system which has produced quality controlled, calibrated data sets from 49 research cruises in 3.5 years of operation. The data center resources required to achieve this were modest and far outweighed by the time liberated in the scientific community by the removal of the data processing burden. Two online project databases have been assembled containing a very high proportion of the data collected. As these are under the control of BODC their long term availability as part of the UK national data archive is assured. The success of the topical data center model for UK Community Research Project data management has been founded upon the strong working relationships forged between the data center and project scientists. These can only be established by frequent personal contact and hence the relatively small size of the UK has been a critical factor. However, projects covering a larger, even international scale could be successfully supported by a network of topical data centers managing online databases which are interconnected by object oriented distributed data management systems over wide area networks.

  18. PATHOLOGICAL INTERNET COMMUNITIES: A NEW DIRECTION FOR SEXUAL DEVIANCE RESEARCH IN A POST MODERN ERA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Durkin; Craig J. Forsyth; James F. Quinn

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the Internet and related technologies on the nature of deviant behavior, deviant communities, and the future of deviance research. The idea that pathological communities, once largely suppressed by time, space, and societal restraints, can now create and use virtual communities is focal. Those new communities may expand their numbers and\\/or pathology, while reinforcing their

  19. Visualising community: using participant-driven photo-elicitation for research and application

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    participation; sustainability; community Introduction No matter how familiar the object or situation may be communities impacted by tourism, resorts, summer communities, recreation and retirement migrants. AmenityVisualising community: using participant-driven photo-elicitation for research and application Paul

  20. An eQTL biological data visualization challenge and approaches from the visualization community.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Christopher W; Cheong, Soo Yeon; Hou, Liping; Paquette, Jesse; Lum, Pek Yee; Jäger, Günter; Battke, Florian; Vehlow, Corinna; Heinrich, Julian; Nieselt, Kay; Sakai, Ryo; Aerts, Jan; Ray, William C

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the IEEE VisWeek conferences inaugurated a symposium on Biological Data Visualization. Like other domain-oriented Vis symposia, this symposium's purpose was to explore the unique characteristics and requirements of visualization within the domain, and to enhance both the Visualization and Bio/Life-Sciences communities by pushing Biological data sets and domain understanding into the Visualization community, and well-informed Visualization solutions back to the Biological community. Amongst several other activities, the BioVis symposium created a data analysis and visualization contest. Unlike many contests in other venues, where the purpose is primarily to allow entrants to demonstrate tour-de-force programming skills on sample problems with known solutions, the BioVis contest was intended to whet the participants' appetites for a tremendously challenging biological domain, and simultaneously produce viable tools for a biological grand challenge domain with no extant solutions. For this purpose expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) data analysis was selected. In the BioVis 2011 contest, we provided contestants with a synthetic eQTL data set containing real biological variation, as well as a spiked-in gene expression interaction network influenced by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA variation and a hypothetical disease model. Contestants were asked to elucidate the pattern of SNPs and interactions that predicted an individual's disease state. 9 teams competed in the contest using a mixture of methods, some analytical and others through visual exploratory methods. Independent panels of visualization and biological experts judged entries. Awards were given for each panel's favorite entry, and an overall best entry agreed upon by both panels. Three special mention awards were given for particularly innovative and useful aspects of those entries. And further recognition was given to entries that correctly answered a bonus question about how a proposed "gene therapy" change to a SNP might change an individual's disease status, which served as a calibration for each approaches' applicability to a typical domain question. In the future, BioVis will continue the data analysis and visualization contest, maintaining the philosophy of providing new challenging questions in open-ended and dramatically underserved Bio/Life Sciences domains. PMID:22607587

  1. Global Biology: An Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Program at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, James G.; Colin, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    NASA has initiated new effort in Global Biology, the primary focus of which is to understand biogeochemical cycles. As part of this effort, an interdisciplinary team of scientists has formed at Ames Research Center to investigate the cycling of sulfur in the marine coastal zone and to study the cycling of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Both studies will use remotely sensed data, coupled with ground-based research, to identify and measure the transfer of major and minor biologically produced gases between these ecosystems and global reservoirs.

  2. Global biology - An interdisciplinary scientific research program at NASA, Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.; Colin, L.

    1983-01-01

    NASA has initiated new effort in Global Biology, the primary focus of which is to understand biogeochemical cycles. As part of this effort, an interdisciplinary team of scientists has formed at Ames Research Center to investigate the cycling of sulfur in the marine coastal zone and to study the cycling of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Both studies will use remotely sensed data, coupled with ground-based research, to identify and measure the transfer of major and minor biologically produced gases between these ecosystems and global reservoirs.

  3. Formative Research on Perceptions of Biobanking: What Community Members Think

    PubMed Central

    Luque, John S.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Montel-Ishino, Francisco A.; Arevalo, Mariana; Bynum, Shalanda A.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Wells, Kristen J.; Gwede, Clement K.; Meade, Cathy D.

    2013-01-01

    Preparing healthy community members with timely communications prior to engaging them in a request to donate biospecimens promises to improve the experience of biobanking participation. To this end, a qualitative study was conducted to assess community member knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and informational needs about cancer-related biospecimen collection in a large metropolitan area in southwest Florida. The study utilized purposive sampling techniques to recruit a total of 95 participants to participate in 12 focus groups, segmented by race/ethnicity and language preference (mixed race, African American only, and Spanish speaking) and age (18–29, 30–54, and 55 and older). Focus group interviews were analyzed using content analysis to identify emergent themes. Overall, participants in the 30 years and older groups were favorable toward participating in biobanking if their concerns were addressed, such as confidentiality and consent issues, in contrast to participants aged 18–29 who were more skeptical. For all participants, the desire to participate in research that seeks new cancer treatments outweighed mistrust. Moreover, many cited the potential scientific benefit for future generations as a primary motivator. Finally, in some groups a therapeutic misconception was expressed, where participants expressed a willingness to forego confidentiality of their health status in exchange for therapeutic benefit. This study contributes to the literature on community perceptions of the benefits and barriers of biobanking and adds to the development of meaningful education communication priming tools to advance understandings about biobanking. PMID:21927867

  4. Cambridge Healthtech Institute's Fourth Annual In silico Biology Conference "Modeling Systems Biology for Research and Target Prioritization"

    SciTech Connect

    Forst, C. (Christian)

    2002-01-01

    In silico biology, the computer aided analysis of biological systems, is a relatively young research area. It first has been coined in the late 1990's and emerged from Theoretical and Computational Biology. As in other fields before, biology experiences an increased use of systems mathematics and computer simulation. With the human genome sequence available, with an exponentially growing number of completely sequenced genomes from various model organisms and with expression and proteomic data at hand, the research paradigm is shifted towards systems analysis and simulation. Computer aided modeling of complex biomolecules and assemblies are already routinely performed. Nowadays, theoretical description and computer simulation of cellular components in larger intra- and inter-cellular networks is of growing importance. Together with classic biological and clinical experiments as well as data from functional genomics, in silico biology will take the leading role in the analysis of biological systems.

  5. Low Charge-State AMS for Biological Research

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J S; Ognibene, T; Roberts, M; Brown, T; Clifford, A; Espinosa, D; Lin, Y

    2001-03-01

    University collaborations and internal research programs that trace isotopically labeled compounds in natural biological systems have grown significantly in the past few years. New research in molecular nutrition, protein sequencing, immunoassays, and toxicology now require hundreds to thousands of sample analyses per project. The goal of this effort was to strengthen this Laboratory and University health related research by the expansion of AMS access. This was achieved by our design and implementation of an AMS spectrometer that analyzes isotopic ions at lower energies in a more compact spectrometer without sacrificing precision or throughput. The decrease in ion energies is accompanied by a significant reduction in size and cost of the spectrometer. Our successful reduction in spectrometer cost, operation, and space will make this technology more appealing to research institutions, including industrial research centers. While others have also developed smaller spectrometers, these are limited in precision and throughput by the much lower intensities of ion beams that can be transmitted through them without differential loss of isotope species. The primary challenge in this project was mating the LLNL-designed high intensity negative ion source (Roberts, et al. 1994; Southon & Roberts, 2000) to available accelerator components and then showing that the precision and throughput would remain high enough to serve the research that needs large numbers of AMS analyses. The project also required reduction in operating complexity so that scientists and students would not require technical specialists to make their measurements. This report describes the experiments done to assure the needed spectrometer performance.

  6. Can communities and academia work together on public health research? Evaluation results from a community-based participatory research partnershipin detroit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula M. Lantz; Edna Viruell-Fuentes; Barbara A. Israel; Donald Softley; Ricardo Guzman

    2001-01-01

    This article reports the results of a formative evaluation of the first 4 years of the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research\\u000a Center (URC), a community-based participatory research partnership that was founded in 1995 with core funding from the Centers\\u000a for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Several organizations are members of this partnership, including a university, six\\u000a community-based organizations, a city health

  7. Quantifying biological integrity of California sage scrub communities using plant life-form cover.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Y.; Stow, D. A.; Franklin, J. (Environmental Science Division); (San Diego State University, Department of Geography); (Arizona State University, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning)

    2010-01-01

    The California sage scrub (CSS) community type in California's Mediterranean-type ecosystems supports a large number of rare, threatened, and endangered species, and is critically degraded and endangered. Monitoring ecological variables that provide information about community integrity is vital to conserving these biologically diverse communities. Fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground should fill information gaps between generalized vegetation type maps and detailed field-based plot measurements of species composition and provide an effective means for quantifying CSS community integrity. Remote sensing is the only tool available for estimating spatially comprehensive fractional cover over large extent, and fractional cover of plant life-form types is one of the measures of vegetation state that is most amenable to remote sensing. The use of remote sensing does not eliminate the need for either field surveying or vegetation type mapping; rather it will likely require a combination of approaches to reliably estimate life-form cover and to provide comprehensive information for communities. According to our review and synthesis, life-form fractional cover has strong potential for providing ecologically meaningful intermediate-scale information, which is unattainable from vegetation type maps and species-level field measurements. Thus, we strongly recommend incorporating fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herb, and bare ground in CSS community monitoring methods. Estimating life-form cover at a 25 m x 25 m spatial scale using remote sensing would be an appropriate approach for initial implementation. Investigation of remote sensing techniques and an appropriate spatial scale; collaboration of resource managers, biologists, and remote sensing specialists, and refinement of protocols are essential for integrating life-form fractional cover mapping into strategies for sustainable long-term CSS community management.

  8. Community psychology concepts and research base: Promise and product

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McClure Lawrence; Belton Elain; D'Ascoli Camille; Sullivan Bernard; Allen Sheila; Connor Patricia; Stone Patricia; McClure Ginger

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between recent conceptual models and published efforts in community psychology is examined and contrasted with the same relationship in community mental health and applied social psychology. A content analysis of a sample of 176 articles published in the American Journal of Community Psychology, the Journal of Community Psychology, the Community Mental Health Journal, and the Journal of Applied

  9. Insider participatory action research in disadvantaged post-industrial areasThe experiences of community members as they become Community Based Action Researchers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhonda Braithwaite; Sarah Cockwill; Martin O’Neill; Deanne Rebane

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the authentic experience of those who live in a community categorized as disadvantaged as they enter into a radical action research process that entails them adopting a changed role while remaining community members and how they manage the tensions involved in this process. It explores, in their own words, the experience of these researchers as they encounter

  10. Community Music: History and Current Practice, Its Constructions of "Community", Digital Turns and Future Soundings, an Arts and Humanities Research Council Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, George; Higham, Ben

    2012-01-01

    The United Kingdom has been a pivotal national player within the development of community music practice. There are elements of cultural and debatably pedagogic innovations in community music. These have to date only partly been articulated and historicized within academic research. This report, funded by the UK's Arts and Humanities Research

  11. Nurse Education and Communities of Practice. Researching Professional Education Research Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkitt, Ian; Husband, Charles; Mackenzie, Jennifer; Torn, Alison

    The processes whereby nurses develop the skills and knowledge required to deliver individualized and holistic care were examined in a 2-year study of nurses in a range of clinical settings and a university department of nursing in England. Members of two research teams of qualified nurses joined various communities of nursing practice as…

  12. Learning-style preferences of Latino\\/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen D. Sarantopoulos

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino\\/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the

  13. INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VENT FLUID CHEMISTRY, TEMPERATURE, SEISMIC ACTIVITY, AND BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AT A MUSSEL-DOMINATED,

    E-print Network

    Waldhauser, Felix

    COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AT A MUSSEL-DOMINATED, DEEP-SEA HYDROTHERMAL VENT ALONG THE EAST PACIFIC RISE RICHARD A hydrothermal vents between 9°45# and 9°52#N along the crest of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Dramatic changes controlling biological community structure in these hydrothermal ecosystems. KEY WORDS: hydrothermal vents

  14. The Metropolitan Studies Institute at USC Upstate: Translational Research that Drives Community Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The Metropolitan Studies Institute (MSI) at the University of South Carolina Upstate (USC Upstate) demonstrates a robust and unique record of community impact through community indicators research and other translational research. The MSI's work drives programmatic priorities and funding decisions, generates revenue, and increases the community's…

  15. Community-Engaged Scholarship: Critical Junctures in Research, Practice, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenger, Lisa; Hawkins, Linda; Seifer, Sarena D.

    2012-01-01

    Community-engaged scholarship and community-academic partnerships are gaining momentum in higher education institutions. Federal research funding agencies in Canada have moved aggressively toward increasing support for community-engaged research and knowledge mobilization efforts. Yet there is a well-articulated disjuncture between calls for…

  16. Healthy Foods, Healthy Lives Institute Community-University Partnership Research Grants Awarded Fall 2012

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    health maintenance programs. "Fresh Start Garden Project: A Community-Based Participatory Research Garden (FSG) program is a community-led garden and cooking program for preschool-ages childrenHealthy Foods, Healthy Lives Institute Community-University Partnership Research Grants Awarded

  17. A Brief History of and Future Considerations for Research in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jamie D.; Keemer, Kelly

    Historical views about individuals and communities shape the ways that researchers interact with people and their communities. The European settlers thought of Native Americans as savages in need of socialization. Accordingly, the first researchers had little concern for the needs of Native people and their communities and sought to impose Western…

  18. Understanding Fibromyalgia: Lessons from the Broader Pain Research Community

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromaylgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition marked by centrally-mediated augmentation of pain and sensory processes. Skepticism has marked the history of this condition, but more recent study has identified neurobiological underpinnings supporting many of the symptoms associated with this condition. Early research in FM had unprecedented latitude within the Rheumatology community to borrow heavily from theory and methods being applied in chronic pain research more generally. These insights facilitated rapid advances in FM research; not the least of which was the abandonment of a peripheral focus in favor of studying central mechanisms associated with central augmentation. Currently, rapid paced discovery is taking place in FM genetics, patient assessment, new therapeutic targets, and novel methods of treatment delivery. Such insights are not likely to be limited in application just to FM; but could have relevance to the broader field of pain research as well. Perspective This manuscript reviews the history of FM and its diagnosis, evidence supporting central augmentation of pain in FM, potential mechanisms of central augmentation, current approaches to integrated care of FM, and areas of active collaboration between FM research and other chronic pain conditions. PMID:19638325

  19. Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E., E-mail: roy_kwiatkowski@hc-sc.gc.c

    2011-07-15

    The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

  20. After epidemiological research: what next? Community action for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, J G

    1994-01-01

    The underlying purpose of all epidemiological research is ultimately to use inferences in order to prevent disease and promote health and well-being. Effective skills in translating results into appropriate policy, programs, and interventions are inherently tricky, and often politically controversial. Generally they are not taught to epidemiologists formally, even though they are a traditionally part of public health practice. To move from findings to policy change requires that the informed and committed epidemiologist should known how to: (1) organize affected parties to negotiate successfully with government and industry; (2) activate populations at risk to protect their health (3) communicate responsibly with lay persons about their health risks so as to encourage effective activism; (4) collaborate with other professionals to achieve disease prevention and health promotion goals. The paper presents and discusses four case studies to illustrate these strategies: (1) the grass-roots social action that was the response of the community to the environmental contamination at Love Canal, New York; (2) mobilization of recognized leaders within the gay community to disseminate HIV risk reduction techniques; (3) collaboration with an existing voluntary organization interested in community empowerment through health promotion in a Chicago slum by using existing hospital, emergency room admissions, and local motor vehicle accident data; (4) a self-help group, MADD (mothers against drunk driving) which fought to change public policy to limit and decrease drunk driving. In addition, the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration and responsible communication with the public is emphasized. Factors that limit the ability of the epidemiologist to move into public health action are discussed, including who owns the research findings, what is the degree of scientific uncertainty, and the cost-benefit balance of taking affirmative public action. Putting epidemiological knowledge to good use should be an integral part of an epidemiologist's repertoire. PMID:7708945

  1. Towards a lightweight generic computational grid framework for biological research

    PubMed Central

    Halling-Brown, Mark D; Moss, David S; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2008-01-01

    Background An increasing number of scientific research projects require access to large-scale computational resources. This is particularly true in the biological field, whether to facilitate the analysis of large high-throughput data sets, or to perform large numbers of complex simulations – a characteristic of the emerging field of systems biology. Results In this paper we present a lightweight generic framework for combining disparate computational resources at multiple sites (ranging from local computers and clusters to established national Grid services). A detailed guide describing how to set up the framework is available from the following URL: . Conclusion This approach is particularly (but not exclusively) appropriate for large-scale biology projects with multiple collaborators working at different national or international sites. The framework is relatively easy to set up, hides the complexity of Grid middleware from the user, and provides access to resources through a single, uniform interface. It has been developed as part of the European ImmunoGrid project. PMID:18831735

  2. [Metabolic properties of the microbial community in the biofilters using biolog microplates].

    PubMed

    Xi, Jin-Ying; Hu, Hong-Ying; Jiang, Jian; Qian, Yi

    2005-07-01

    It is very important to know the structure and metabolic function of the microbial community in a bioreactor in order to improve its performance. In this study, two biofilters, packed with wood chips and granular activated carbons respectively, were operated for 160 days to treat toluene gas. The metabolic profiles of the microbial communities in the biofilters were monitored using Biolog microplates periodically during the experiments. The metabolic activities of the microorganisms in both biofilters were observed to decrease during long-term operation. According to the results of principle components analysis, the metabolic profiles of the microbial communities did not change much in the former period of the operation, but they changed in the inlet layers on day 103 and changed throughout the filter beds on day 160. The variation of the metabolic profiles in both biofilters showed little difference, which suggested that the packing media had little effect on them during long-term operation. Among the 95 carbon sources in Biolog microplate, carboxylic acids and amino acids were much easier to be utilized by the microorganisms in the biofilters than the other carbon PMID:16212190

  3. Breeding biology of an afrotropical forest understory bird community in northeastern Tanzania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mkongewa, Victor J.; Newmark, William D.; Stanley, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of the breeding biology of Afrotropical forest birds are poorly known. Here we provide a description based on the monitoring of 1461 active nests over eight breeding seasons about one or more aspects of the breeding biology for 28 coexisting understory bird species on the Amani Plateau in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Mean nest height and mean distance of nest from forest edge varied widely among species with most species constructing nests across a broad vertical and forest edge to interior gradient. However, there were important exceptions with all sunbird species and several dove and waxbill species constructing nests in close proximity to the forest edge. For 17 common species for which we recorded two or more active nests, mean clutch size across species was 1.9 eggs per clutch, the lowest site-specific mean clutch size yet reported for a tropical forest bird community. For nine bird species, a subset of the 17 common species, length of breeding season, defined as the difference between the earliest and latest recorded incubation onset date, ranged from 88–139 days. Most of these nine species displayed a unimodal distribution in incubation onset dates across a breeding season which extended from the end of August through middle January. In summary, a wide variation exists in most aspects of the breeding biology within an understory forest bird community in the East Usambara Mountains.

  4. BCTR: Biological and Chemical Technologies Research 1994 annual summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.

    1995-02-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1994 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). Although the OIT was reorganized in 1991 and AICD no longer exists, this document reports on efforts conducted under the former structure. The annual summary report for 1994 (ASR 94) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1994; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  5. The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of space biology research to be conducted aboard the Space Station in 1990s include long-term studies of reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging in both animals and plants. They also include studies of the mechanisms by which gravitational stimuli are sensed, processed, and transmitted to a responsive site, and of the effect of microgravity on each component. The Space Station configuration will include a life sciences research facility, where experiment cyles will be on a 90-day basis (since the Space Station missions planned for the 1990s call for 90-day intervals). A modular approach is taken to accomodate animal habitats, plant growth chambers, and other specimen holding facilities; the modular habitats would be transportable between the launch systems, habitat racks, a workbench, and a variable-gravity centrifuge (included for providing artificial gravity and accurately controlled acceleration levels aboard Space Station).

  6. State of laboratory manual instruction in California community college introductory (non-majors) biology laboratory instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, Michelle

    College students must complete a life science course prior to graduation for a bachelor's degree. Generally, the course has lecture and laboratory components. It is in the laboratory where there are exceptional opportunities for exploration, challenge and application of the material learned. Optimally, this would utilize the best of inquiry based approaches. Most community colleges are using a home-grown or self written laboratory manual for the direction of work in the laboratory period. Little was known about the motivation, development and adaptation of use. It was also not known about the future of the laboratory manuals in light of the recent learning reform in California Community Colleges, Student Learning Outcomes. Extensive interviews were conducted with laboratory manual authors to determine the motivation, process of development, who was involved and learning framework used in the creation of the manuals. It was further asked of manual authors their ideas about the future of the manual, the development of staff and faculty and finally, the role Student Learning Outcomes would play in the manual. Science faculty currently teaching the non-majors biology laboratories for at least two semesters were surveyed on-line about actual practice of the manual, assessment, manual flexibility, faculty training and incorporation of Student Learning Outcomes. Finally, an evaluation of the laboratory manual was done using an established Laboratory Task Analysis Instrument. Laboratory manuals were evaluated on a variety of categories to determine the level of inquiry instruction done by students in the laboratory section. The results were that the development of homegrown laboratory manuals was done by community colleges in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties in an effort to minimize the cost of the manual to the students, to utilize all the exercises in a particular lab and to effectively utilize the materials already owned by the department. Further, schools wanted to utilize the current faculty research expertise and knowledge. Unfortunately, laboratory manual authors had no real learning framework in the development of the manual. Based on the LAI, most manuals focused on the lowest levels of inquiry based instruction. Most manuals focused exercises on cell and molecular topics. The manuals had little student exploration, creation or design in the laboratory exercise and no option for repeating the exercise. There was a clear desire of faculty and authors to improve the laboratory experience and manual. Authors and faculty wished to include more inquiry and utilize the best of Student Learning Outcome (SLO) methodologies. Authors and the laboratory manuals have a major disconnect in that authors have clear desires inquiry based learning for the manual but do not effectively implement the inquiry based learning for various reasons. The manuals themselves, laboratory manuals themselves are not robust inquiry based learning models to maximize student learning. Authors and faculty are disconnected in that authors know what they want their manuals to do...but do not effectively communicate that to faculty. Finally, schools are in a "wait and see" approach as to when to integrate the latest learning theory mandated by the Chancellors Office -- Student Learning Outcomes.

  7. Views on Researcher-Community Engagement in Autism Research in the United Kingdom: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    There has been a substantial increase in research activity on autism during the past decade. Research into effective ways of responding to the immediate needs of autistic people is, however, less advanced, as are efforts at translating basic science research into service provision. Involving community members in research is one potential way of reducing this gap. This study therefore investigated the views of community involvement in autism research both from the perspectives of autism researchers and of community members, including autistic adults, family members and practitioners. Results from a large-scale questionnaire study (n?=?1,516) showed that researchers perceive themselves to be engaged with the autism community but that community members, most notably autistic people and their families, did not share this view. Focus groups/interviews with 72 participants further identified the potential benefits and remaining challenges to involvement in research, especially regarding the distinct perspectives of different stakeholders. Researchers were skeptical about the possibilities of dramatically increasing community engagement, while community members themselves spoke about the challenges to fully understanding and influencing the research process. We suggest that the lack of a shared approach to community engagement in UK autism research represents a key roadblock to translational endeavors. PMID:25303222

  8. 2010 Tetrapyrroles, Chemistry & Biology of Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Angela Wilks

    2010-07-30

    The objective of the Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles Gordon Conference is to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines that otherwise would not interact. By bringing biologists, chemists, engineers and clinicians with a common interest in tetrapyrroles the conference provides a forum for cross-disciplinary ideas and collaboration. The perspective provided by biologists, chemists, and clinicians working in fields such as newly discovered defects in human porphyrin metabolism, the myriad of strategies for light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms, novel tetrapyrroles that serve as auxiliary chromophores or enzyme cofactors, synthetic strategies in the design of novel tetrapyrrole scaffolds, and tetrapyrrole based cell signaling and regulatory systems, makes this conference unique in the field. Over the years the growing evidence for the role of tetrapyrroles and their reactive intermediates in cell signaling and regulation has been of increasing importance at this conference. The 2010 conference on Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles will focus on many of these new frontiers as outlined in the preliminary program listed. Speakers will emphasize unpublished results and new findings in the field. The oral sessions will be followed by the highly interactive afternoon poster sessions. The poster sessions provide all conferees with the opportunity to present their latest research and to exchange ideas in a more informal setting. As in the past, this opportunity will continue during the nightly social gathering that takes place in the poster hall following the evening lectures. All conferees are encouraged to submit and present posters. At the conference the best poster in the areas of biology, chemistry and medicine will be selected by a panel of previous conference chairs.

  9. Systems biology driven software design for the research enterprise

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, John; Cavnor, Christopher; Killcoyne, Sarah; Shmulevich, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    Background In systems biology, and many other areas of research, there is a need for the interoperability of tools and data sources that were not originally designed to be integrated. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of systems biology, and its association with high throughput experimental platforms, there is an additional need to continually integrate new technologies. As scientists work in isolated groups, integration with other groups is rarely a consideration when building the required software tools. Results We illustrate an approach, through the discussion of a purpose built software architecture, which allows disparate groups to reuse tools and access data sources in a common manner. The architecture allows for: the rapid development of distributed applications; interoperability, so it can be used by a wide variety of developers and computational biologists; development using standard tools, so that it is easy to maintain and does not require a large development effort; extensibility, so that new technologies and data types can be incorporated; and non intrusive development, insofar as researchers need not to adhere to a pre-existing object model. Conclusion By using a relatively simple integration strategy, based upon a common identity system and dynamically discovered interoperable services, a light-weight software architecture can become the focal point through which scientists can both get access to and analyse the plethora of experimentally derived data. PMID:18578887

  10. Grantee Spotlight: Katherine Briant, MPH, CHES - Bridging Community Cancer Education Efforts with Health Disparities Research

    Cancer.gov

    Every day brings new opportunities to support community outreach and research as Katherine Briant, M.P.H., C.H.E.S. endeavors to improve the health of disparity communities in the state of Washington.

  11. Reducing diabetes health disparities through community-based participatory action research: the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition.

    PubMed Central

    Giachello, Aida L.; Arrom, Jose O.; Davis, Margaret; Sayad, Judith V.; Ramirez, Dinah; Nandi, Chandana; Ramos, Catalina

    2003-01-01

    To address disproportionately high rates of diabetes morbidity and mortality in some of Chicago's medically underserved minority neighborhoods, a group of community residents, medical and social service providers, and a local university founded the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention REACH 2010 Initiative. A community-based participatory action research model guided coalition activities from conceptualization through implementation. Capacity building activities included training on: diabetes, coalition building, research methods, and action planning. Other activities sought to increase coalition members' understanding of the social causes and potential solutions for health disparities related to diabetes. Trained coalition members conducted epidemiologic analyses, focus groups, a telephone survey, and a community inventory. All coalition members participated in decisions. The participatory process led to increased awareness of the complexities of diabetes in the community and to a state of readiness for social action. Data documented disparities in diabetes. The participatory action research approach (a) encouraged key stakeholders outside of the health care sector to participate (e.g., business sector, church groups); (b) permitted an examination of the sociopolitical context affecting the health of the community; (c) provided an opportunity to focus on preventing the onset of diabetes and its complications; (d) increased understanding of the importance of community research in catalyzing social action aimed at community and systems change and change among change agents. PMID:12815078

  12. Using biological control research in the classroom to promote scientific inquiry and literacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many scientists who research biological control also teach at universities or more informally through cooperative outreach. The purpose of this paper is to review biological control activities for the classroom in four refereed journals, The American Biology Teacher, Journal of Biological Education...

  13. Low-gravity Orbiting Research Laboratory Environment Potential Impact on Space Biology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol

    2006-01-01

    One of the major objectives of any orbital space research platform is to provide a quiescent low gravity, preferably a zero gravity environment, to perform fundamental as well as applied research. However, small disturbances exist onboard any low earth orbital research platform. The impact of these disturbances must be taken into account by space research scientists during their research planning, design and data analysis in order to avoid confounding factors in their science results. The reduced gravity environment of an orbiting research platform in low earth orbit is a complex phenomenon. Many factors, among others, such as experiment operations, equipment operation, life support systems and crew activity (if it is a crewed platform), aerodynamic drag, gravity gradient, rotational effects as well as the vehicle structural resonance frequencies (structural modes) contribute to form the overall reduced gravity environment in which space research is performed. The contribution of these small disturbances or accelerations is precisely why the environment is NOT a zero gravity environment, but a reduced acceleration environment. This paper does not discuss other factors such as radiation, electromagnetic interference, thermal and pressure gradient changes, acoustic and CO2 build-up to name a few that affect the space research environment as well, but it focuses solely on the magnitude of the acceleration level found on orbiting research laboratory used by research scientists to conduct space research. For ease of analysis this paper divides the frequency spectrum relevant to most of the space research disciplines into three regimes: a) quasi-steady, b) vibratory and c) transient. The International Space Station is used as an example to illustrate the point. The paper discusses the impact of these three regimes on space biology research and results from space flown experiments are used to illustrate the potential negative impact of these disturbances (accelerations) on space biology research.

  14. Getting started in CBPR- Lessons in building community partnerships for new researchers

    PubMed Central

    D’Alonzo, Karen T.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in community based participatory research (CBPR) methods to address issues of health disparities. Although the success of CBPR is dependent upon the formation of community-researcher partnerships, new researchers as well as seasoned investigators who are transitioning to CBPR often lack the skills needed to develop and maintain these partnerships. Objectives The purpose of the article is to discuss the competencies needed by new researchers to form successful CBPR partnerships. Methods and Lessons learned The author presents a series of strategic steps that are useful in establishing academic-community partnerships and in initiating, maintaining and sustaining CBPR projects. These steps include suggestions regarding community engagement, selection of Community Advisory Board members, outreach, the community’s role in problem identification, selection of research methodologies, considerations related to the community setting, need for flexibility and patience, “insider vs. outsider” conflicts, commitment and training issues, timing concerns for tenure-track faculty and the process of community empowerment. Conclusions CBPR is both rewarding and time consuming, for both the researcher and members of the community. Given its promise to address health disparities, it is imperative that researchers acquire the skills needed to develop and cultivate durable community-researcher partnerships. PMID:21059145

  15. Genetic research participation in a young adult community sample.

    PubMed

    Storr, Carla L; Or, Flora; Eaton, William W; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    Opposed to large nationally sponsored health initiatives or biobanks, little is known about gathering genetic samples from young adults participating in academic community-based epidemiologic studies of mental health and substance use, especially samples with a large number of minority participants. This study describes our experience of establishing a genetic arm within a longitudinal study of a cohort of young adults (mean age 29, 75 % African American, 58 % female). In total, 75 % of those interviewed in the most recent wave donated a DNA sample (31.6 % blood and 68.4 % saliva) and over 90 % provided consent for storage and sharing. Current smokers were more likely to donate a sample than nonsmokers (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)?=?1.59, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.14, 2.22). The odds of obtaining a saliva sample were increased for those who were former cannabis smokers and who drank more regularly, but decreased among participants with less education and a history with drug use. Fewer minorities (aOR?=?0.37, 95 % CI?=?0.18, 0.75; p?=?0.006) and cannabis users (aOR?=?0.46, 95 % CI?=?0.27, 0.77) consented to sharing their sample with other investigators. Findings also illustrate there are many study parameters that are important in planning biologic collection efforts. Building strong rapport and trust with subjects, minimizing the burden involved by the respondent to obtain a biological sample, offering a choice to provide blood or saliva, and offering an incentive will increase the likelihood of obtaining a sample and, importantly, increase the opportunity to store and share the sample for the future. PMID:24948529

  16. Perceptions of community-based participatory research in the delta nutrition intervention research initiative:an academic perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic-community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been employed to develop susta...

  17. Research partnerships with local communities: two case studies from Papua New Guinea and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almany, G. R.; Hamilton, R. J.; Williamson, D. H.; Evans, R. D.; Jones, G. P.; Matawai, M.; Potuku, T.; Rhodes, K. L.; Russ, G. R.; Sawynok, B.

    2010-09-01

    Partnerships between scientists and local communities can increase research capacity and data delivery while improving management effectiveness through enhanced community participation. To encourage such collaboration, this study demonstrates how these partnerships can be formed, drawing on two case studies in coral reef ecosystems in very different social settings (Papua New Guinea and Australia). In each case, steps towards successfully engaging communities in research were similar. These included: (1) early engagement by collaborating organizations to build trust, (2) ensuring scientific questions have direct relevance to the community, (3) providing appropriate incentives for participation, and (4) clear and open communication. Community participants engaged in a variety of research activities, including locating and capturing fishes, collecting and recording data (weight, length and sex), applying external tags, and removing otoliths (ear bones) for ageing and elemental analysis. Research partnerships with communities enhanced research capacity, reduced costs and, perhaps more importantly, improved the likelihood of long-term community support for marine protected areas (MPAs).

  18. Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

  19. Silicon’s organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen-ji; Lin, Peng; He, Jian-yuan; Yang, Zhi-wei; Lin, Yi-ming

    2006-01-01

    Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon’s biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon’s erosion of soil particles. A study on the organic pool and biological cycle of silicon (Si) of the moso bamboo community was conducted in Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve, China. The results showed that: (1) the standing crop of the moso bamboo community was 13355.4 g/m2, of which 53.61%, 45.82% and 0.56% are represented by the aboveground and belowground parts of moso bamboos, and the understory plants, respectively; (2) the annual net primary production of the community was 2887.1 g/(m2·a), among which the aboveground part, belowground part, litterfalls, and other fractions, accounted for 55.86%, 35.30%, 4.50% and 4.34%, respectively; (3) silicon concentration in stem, branch, leaf, base of stem, root, whip of bamboos, and other plants was 0.15%, 0.79%, 3.10%, 4.40%, 7.32%, 1.52% and 1.01%, respectively; (4) the total Si accumulated in the standing crop of moso bamboo community was 448.91 g/m2, with 99.83% of Si of the total community stored in moso bamboo populations; (5) within moso bamboo community, the annual uptake, retention, and return of Si were 95.75, 68.43, 27.32 g/(m2·a), respectively; (6) the turnover time of Si, which is the time an average atom of Si remains in the soil before it is recycled into the trees or shrubs, was 16.4 years; (7) the enrichment ratio of Si in the moso bamboo community, which is the ratio of the mean concentration of nutrients in the net primary production to the mean concentration of nutrients in the biomass of a community, was 0.64; and lastly, (8) moso bamboo plants stored about 1.26×1010 kg of silicon in the organic pool made up by the moso bamboo forests in the subtropical area of China. PMID:17048297

  20. Research Coordination Network: Geothermal Biology and Geochemistry in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inskeep, W. P.; Young, M. J.; Jay, Z.

    2006-12-01

    The number and diversity of geothermal features in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) represent a fascinating array of high temperature geochemical environments that host a corresponding number of unique and potentially novel organisms in all of the three recognized domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. The geothermal features of YNP have long been the subject of scientific inquiry, especially in the fields of microbiology, geochemistry, geothermal hydrology, microbial ecology, and population biology. However, there are no organized forums for scientists working in YNP geothermal areas to present research results, exchange ideas, discuss research priorities, and enhance synergism among research groups. The primary goal of the YNP Research Coordination Network (GEOTHERM) is to develop a more unified effort among scientists and resource agencies to characterize, describe, understand and inventory the diverse biota associated with geothermal habitats in YNP. The YNP RCN commenced in January 2005 as a collaborative effort among numerous university scientists, governmental agencies and private industry. The YNP RCN hosted a workshop in February 2006 to discuss research results and to form three working groups focused on (i) web-site and digital library content, (ii) metagenomics of thermophilic microbial communities and (iii) development of geochemical methods appropriate for geomicrobiological studies. The working groups represent one strategy for enhancing communication, collaboration and most importantly, productivity among the RCN participants. If you have an interest in the geomicrobiology of geothermal systems, please feel welcome to join and or participate in the YNP RCN.

  1. Community Member and Faith Leader Perspectives on the Process of Building Trusting Relationships Between Communities and Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Vaughan, Elaine; Pham, Jennifer; Tran, Tuyet; Jones, Marissa; Baker, Dean; Swanson, James M.; Olshansky, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    In the first phase of this research, we conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed seven focus groups with more than 50 English- or Spanish-speaking women of childbearing age. Qualitative analysis revealed the following themes: 1) expectation that participation would involve relationships based on trust that is built over time and impacted by cultural factors; 2) perceived characteristics of research staff that would help facilitate the development of trusting relationships; 3) perceptions about the location of the visits that may affect trust; 4) perceptions of a research study and trust for the institution conducting the study may affect trust; 5) connecting the study to larger communities, including faith communities, could affect trust and willingness to participate. In the second phase of this research, we conducted, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed interviews with leaders from diverse faith communities to explore the potential for research partnerships between researchers and faith communities. In addition to confirming themes identified in focus groups, faith leaders described an openness to research partnerships between the university and faith communities and considerations for the formation of these partnerships. Faith leaders noted the importance of finding common ground with researchers, establishing and maintaining trusting relationships, and committing to open, bidirectional communication. PMID:24405695

  2. Collaborative Classroom Management. Video to Accompany "A Biological Brain in a Cultural Classroom: Applying Biological Research to Classroom Management." [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This 43-minute VHS videotape is designed to be used in course and workshop settings with "A Biological Brain in a Cultural Classroom: Applying Biological Research to Classroom Management." The videotape's principal values are as an introduction to the issues explored in the book and as a catalyst for group discussions and activities related to…

  3. Building and maintaining trust in a community-based participatory research partnership.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Suzanne; Watts, Vanessa; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun; Young, Sara

    2008-08-01

    Although intervention research is vital to eliminating health disparities, many groups with health disparities have had negative research experiences, leading to an understandable distrust of researchers and the research process. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches seek to reverse this pattern by building trust between community members and researchers. We highlight strategies for building and maintaining trust from an American Indian CBPR project and focus on 2 levels of trust building and maintaining: (1) between university and community partners and (2) between the initial project team and the larger community. This article was cowritten by community and academic partners; by offering the voices of community partners, it provides a novel and distinctive contribution to the CBPR literature. PMID:18556605

  4. y Models of Community Care for Severe Mental Illness: A Review of Research on Case Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim T. Mueser; Qary R. Bond; Robert E. Drake; Sandra Q. Resnick

    We describe different models of community care for persons with severe mental illness and review the research literature on case management, including the results of 75 studies. Most research has been con- ducted on the assertive community treatment (ACT) or intensive case management (ICM) models. Controlled research on ACT and ICM indicates that these models reduce time in the hospital

  5. Models of Community Care for Severe Mental Illness: A Review of Research on Case Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim T. Mueser; Gary R. Bond; Robert E. Drake; Sandra G. Resnick

    1998-01-01

    We describe different models of community care for persons with severe mental illness and review the research literature on case management, including the results of 75 studies. Most research has been conducted on the assertive community treatment (ACT) or intensive case management (ICM) models. Controlled research on ACT and ICM indicates that these models reduce time in the hospital and

  6. Developing a Successful High School Science Research Program via Teacher Training, Student Internships, and Community Support

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Danch; F. Darytichen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the Science Research Program is to allow students to perform authentic scientific research in disciplines of their choosing over a period of 3 years. The success of the program has allowed for expansion including community involvement, student mentorship, and a series of professional development programs. Through state and national competition and community symposia, student research is evaluated,

  7. Universities, Civil Society and the Global Agenda of Community-Engaged Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a key point of tension in contemporary discussions of community-university research engagement. Two perspectives are discussed. The first suggests that changes in the nature and structure of research have helped create democratic research spaces and opportunities within the university for communities. In this emerging…

  8. Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife Biology, Ecology, and Management

    E-print Network

    Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife Biology, Ecology, and Management of Western Hemlock Dwarf Mistletoe in Coastal British.W. Negrave. 2007. Biology, Ecology, and Management of Western Hemlock Dwarf Mistletoe in Coastal British

  9. Primary and complex stressors in polluted mediterranean rivers: Pesticide effects on biological communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricart, Marta; Guasch, Helena; Barceló, Damiŕ; Brix, Rikke; Conceiçăo, Maria H.; Geiszinger, Anita; José López de Alda, Maria; López-Doval, Julio C.; Muńoz, Isabel; Postigo, Cristina; Romaní, Anna M.; Villagrasa, Marta; Sabater, Sergi

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWe examined the presence of pesticides in the Llobregat river basin (Barcelona, Spain) and their effects on benthic biological communities (invertebrates and diatoms). The Llobregat river is one of Barcelona's major drinking water resources. It has been highly polluted by industrial, agricultural, and urban wastewaters, and—as a typical Mediterranean river—is regularly subjected to periodic floods and droughts. Water scarcity periods result in reduced water flow and dilution capacity, increasing the potential environmental risk of pollutants. Seven sites were selected, where we analysed the occurrence of 22 pesticides (belonging to the classes of triazines, organophosphates, phenylureas, anilides, chloroacetanilides, acidic herbicides and thiocarbamates) in the water and sediment, and the benthic community structure. Biofilm samples were taken to measure several metrics related to both the algal and bacterial components of fluvial biofilms. Multivariate analyses revealed a potential relationship between triazine-type herbicides and the distribution of the diatom community, although no evidence of disruption in the invertebrate community distribution was found. Biofilm metrics were used as response variables rather than abundances of individual species to identify possible cause-effect relationships between pesticide pollution and biotic responses. Certain effects of organophosphates and phenylureas in both structural and functional aspects of the biofilm community were suggested, but the sensitivity of each metric to particular stressors must be assessed before we can confidently assign causality. Complemented with laboratory experiments, which are needed to confirm causality, this approach could be successfully incorporated into environmental risk assessments to better summarise biotic integrity and improve the ecological management.

  10. Community Based Research Network: Opportunities for Coordination of Care, Public Health Surveillance, and Farmworker Research

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Sharon P.; Heyer, Nicholas; Shipp, Eva M.; Ryder, E. Roberta; Hendrikson, Edward; Socias, Christina M; del Junco, Deborah J.; Valerio, Melissa; Partida, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The lack of aggregated longitudinal health data on farmworkers has severely limited opportunities to conduct research to improve their health status. To correct this problem, we have created the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain a national Research Data Repository of migrant and seasonal farmworker patients and other community members receiving medical care from Community and Migrant Health Centers (C/MHCs). Project specific research databases can be easily extracted from this repository. Methods: The Community Based Research Network (CBRN) has securely imported and merged electronic health records (EHRs) data from five geographically dispersed C/MHCs. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our data aggregation methodologies, we also conducted a small pilot study using clinical, laboratory and demographic data from the CBRN Data Repository from two initial C/MHCs to evaluate HbA1c management. Results: Overall, there were 67,878 total patients (2,858 farmworkers) that were seen by two C/MHCs from January to August 2013. A total of 94,189 encounters were captured and all could be linked to a unique patient. HbA1c values decreased as the number of tests or intensity of testing increased. Conclusion: This project will inform the foundation for an expanding collection of C/MHC data for use by clinicians for medical care coordination, by clinics to assess quality of care, by public health agencies for surveillance, and by researchers under Institutional Review Board (IRB) oversight to advance understanding of the needs and capacity of the migrant and seasonal farmworker population and the health centers that serve them. Approved researchers can request data that constitute a Limited Data Set from the CBRN Data Repository to establish a specific research database for their project. PMID:25379130

  11. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0%) and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%), community programs (61.4%) and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%). Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0%) and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%), community programs (33.8%) and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%). Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated. PMID:22233608

  12. Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenberger, Andrew G. [JLAB; Kross, Brian J. [JLAB; Lee, Seung Joo [JLAB; McKisson, John E. [JLAB; Xi, Wenze [JLAB; Zorn, Carl J. [JLAB; Howell, Calvin [DUKE; Crowell, A.S. [DUKE; Reid, C.D. [DUKE; Smith, Mark [MARYLAND U.

    2013-08-01

    The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: {sup 11}C has been utilized as a {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the {sup 11}CO{sub 2} radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using {sup 11}CO{sub 2}. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

  13. Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenberger, A. G.; Kross, B.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J.; McKisson, J. E.; Xi, W.; Zorn, C.; Howell, C. R.; Crowell, A. S.; Reid, C. D.; Smith, M.

    2013-08-01

    The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: 11C has been utilized as a 11CO2 tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the 11CO2 radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using 11CO2. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for 11CO2 tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

  14. Beyond the Medical Model: Interdisciplinary Programs of Community-Engaged Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Lois S.; Newlin, Kelley H; Johnson-Spruill, Ida; Jenkins, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This report describes four diverse programs of community-engaged research, all of which demonstrated positive health outcomes. Three of the programs were focused on communities of people with diabetes, and one program targeted at-risk young families raising infants and young children. Brief descriptions of each research study and outcomes are presented as well as a discussion of the processes and lessons that were learned from each model of successful interdisciplinary community-university health research partnerships. PMID:21884518

  15. Learning-style preferences of Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantopoulos, Helen D.

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the learning-style preferences and the demographic variables of age, gender, number of prior science courses, second language learner status, and earlier exposure to scientific information. Methodology. The study design was descriptive and ex post facto. The sample consisted of a total of 332 Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in General Biology 3. Major findings. The study revealed that Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in introductory biology at a large urban community college scored higher for the learning preference element of structure. Students twenty-five years and older scored higher for the learning preference elements of light, design, persistence, responsibility, and morning time (p <= 0.05). Females scored higher in the preference elements of (a) light, (b) temperature (warmth), (c) authority and (d) auditory (p <= 0.05). Significant differences were found for the elements of sound, warmth, motivation, several ways, and intake between the students with no prior science coursework and those who completed more than one (p <= 0.05). No significant learning-style preferences were found between second English language learners and those who learned English as their primary language (p <= 0.05). Students who frequently read science articles scored higher for the elements of motivation, persistence, responsibility, and tactile (p <= 0.05). Conclusions and recommendations. The conclusions were that Latino/Hispanic students need detailed guidance and clearly stated course objectives. The recommendations were: (1) College professors, counselors, and administrators must become aware of the Dunn learning-style model and instruments and on recent learning-style research articles on ethnically diverse groups of adult learners; and (2) Instructors should plan their instruction to incorporate the learning-style preferences of their students.

  16. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, David S.

    2008-07-15

    The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages. The development of publicly accessible, web-based servers, including the HOTPATCH server, the ProKnow Server and the SAVEs server. All of these are accessible from the home page of the Institute. Advancing the science of bioenergy, in the laboratories of the Principal Investigators of the Institute, including the laboratories of Shimon Weiss, James Liao, James Bowie, Todd Yeates, Rob Gunsalus.

  17. COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES DVELOPMENT LIGHT PROGRAM The Montana Healthcare Research and Education Foundation has contracted with the Montana

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES DVELOPMENT LIGHT PROGRAM The Montana Healthcare Research and Education of the community, (d) most communities face a larger number and greater array of issues than usually acknowledged CHSD data Community engagement Community health goals Strengthened healthcare services Community

  18. A Comparative Study of the Bacterial Community in Denitrifying and Traditional Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Processes

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiao-Mei; Shao, Ming-Fei; Li, Chao-Lin; Li, Ji; Gao, Xin-lei; Sun, Fei-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Denitrifying phosphorus removal is an attractive wastewater treatment process due to its reduced carbon source demand and sludge minimization potential. Two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated in alternating anaerobic-anoxic (A-A) or anaerobic-oxic (A-O) conditions to achieve denitrifying enhanced biological phosphate removal (EBPR) and traditional EBPR. No significant differences were observed in phosphorus removal efficiencies between A-A SBR and A-O SBR, with phosphorus removal rates being 87.9% and 89.0% respectively. The community structures in denitrifying and traditional EBPR processes were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing of the PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes from each sludge. The results obtained showed that the bacterial community was more diverse in A-O sludge than in A-A sludge. Taxonomy and ?-diversity analyses indicated that a significant shift occurred in the dominant microbial community in A-A sludge compared with the seed sludge during the whole acclimation phase, while a slight fluctuation was observed in the abundance of the major taxonomies in A-O sludge. One Dechloromonas-related OTU outside the 4 known Candidatus “Accumulibacter” clades was detected as the main OTU in A-A sludge at the stationary operation, while Candidatus “Accumulibacter” dominated in A-O sludge. PMID:24964811

  19. Pharmacogenetic research in partnership with American Indian and Alaska Native communities

    PubMed Central

    Woodahl, Erica L; Lesko, Lawrence J; Hopkins, Scarlett; Robinson, Renee F; Thummel, Kenneth E; Burke, Wylie

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics is a subset of personalized medicine that applies knowledge about genetic variation in gene–drug pairs to help guide optimal dosing. There is a lack of data, however, about pharmacogenetic variation in underserved populations. One strategy for increasing participation of underserved populations in pharmacogenetic research is to include communities in the research process. We have established academic–community partnerships with American Indian and Alaska Native people living in Alaska and Montana to study pharmacogenetics. Key features of the partnership include community oversight of the project, research objectives that address community health priorities, and bidirectional learning that builds capacity in both the community and the research team. Engaging the community as coresearchers can help build trust to advance pharmacogenetic research objectives. PMID:25141898

  20. Microgravity research in plant biological systems: Realizing the potential of molecular biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1993-01-01

    The sole all-pervasive feature of the environment that has helped shape, through evolution, all life on Earth is gravity. The near weightlessness of the Space Station Freedom space environment allows gravitational effects to be essentially uncoupled, thus providing an unprecedented opportunity to manipulate, systematically dissect, study, and exploit the role of gravity in the growth and development of all life forms. New and exciting opportunities are now available to utilize molecular biological and biochemical approaches to study the effects of microgravity on living organisms. By careful experimentation, we can determine how gravity perception occurs, how the resulting signals are produced and transduced, and how or if tissue-specific differences in gene expression occur. Microgravity research can provide unique new approaches to further our basic understanding of development and metabolic processes of cells and organisms, and to further the application of this new knowledge for the betterment of humankind.

  1. Cell Science and Cell Biology Research at MSFC: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The common theme of these research programs is that they investigate regulation of gene expression in cells, and ultimately gene expression is controlled by the macromolecular interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA. The NASA Critical Path Roadmap identifies Muscle Alterations and Atrophy and Radiation Effects as Very Serious Risks and Severe Risks, respectively, in long term space flights. The specific problem addressed by Dr. Young's research ("Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Muscle Cell Signaling") is that skeletal muscle loss in space cannot be prevented by vigorous exercise. Aerobic skeletal muscles (i.e., red muscles) undergo the most extensive atrophy during long-term space flight. Of the many different potential avenues for preventing muscle atrophy, Dr. Young has chosen to study the beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) pathway. The reason for this choice is that a family of compounds called betaAR agonists will preferentially cause an increase in muscle mass of aerobic muscles (i.e., red muscle) in animals, potentially providing a specific pharmacological solution to muscle loss in microgravity. In addition, muscle atrophy is a widespread medical problem in neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injury, lack of exercise, aging, and any disease requiring prolonged bedridden status. Skeletal muscle cells in cell culture are utilized as a model system to study this problem. Dr. Richmond's research ("Radiation & Cancer Biology of Mammary Cells in Culture") is directed toward developing a laboratory model for use in risk assessment of cancer caused by space radiation. This research is unique because a human model will be developed utilizing human mammary cells that are highly susceptible to tumor development. This approach is preferential over using animal cells because of problems in comparing radiation-induced cancers between humans and animals.

  2. Changing the Face of Research: Tribal Colleges Address Community Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Dorreen Yellow

    2007-01-01

    The article focuses on public health research projects which are being conducted at two Indian colleges; Candeska Cikana Community College in Fort Trotten, North Dakota and Turtle Mountain Community College in Belcourt, North Dakota. Candeska Community College was given a 6 year grant funded by the National Institutes of Diabetes, Digestive and…

  3. Celebrating the Past, Creating the Future: 50 Years of Community College Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Floyd; Alicia Haley; Pamela L. Eddy; Laura Antczak

    2009-01-01

    The Council for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC) celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2008. This article summarizes the establishment of the Council and sets it in the context of the development of the community college movement. Highlights of research conducted by CSCC members to address contemporary issues facing community colleges are described. A summary of insights offered by members

  4. Work Characteristics and Pesticide Exposures among Migrant Agricultural Families: A Community-Based Research Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda A. McCauley; Michael R. Lasarev; Gregory Higgins; Joan Rothlein; Juan Muniz; Caren Ebbert; Jacki Phillips

    2001-01-01

    There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farm- worker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in

  5. Student Perceptions of Community-Based Research Partners and the Politics of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Emily W.

    2012-01-01

    Based on quantitative survey data and qualitative data from journal entries by students in a seminar focused on community-based research, undergraduate student perceptions of community partners are explored in the context of debates about the politics of knowledge. Student perceptions that frame community partners as the recipients of academic…

  6. Community-University Research Partnerships for Workers' and Environmental Health in Campinas Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Maria Ines; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Filho, Heleno Rodrigues Correa

    2011-01-01

    Three partnerships between the University of Campinas, community, and public health care services are discussed in this article. A theoretical framework underpins the critical reviews of their accomplishments following criteria proposed by scholars of community-university partnerships and community-based participatory research. The article…

  7. Extending the Concept and Practice of Classroom Based Research to California Community Colleges. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacramento City Coll., CA. Learning Resources Div.

    With support from the California Community College Fund for Instructional Improvement, 14 classroom-based research studies were conducted in fall 1991 at American River College (ARC), Consumnes River College (CRC), Sacramento City College (SCC), San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC), Solano Community College (SoCC), and Yuba Community College (YCC).…

  8. Preparing the "New" Biologist of the Future: Student Research at the Interface of Mathematics and Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Sarah I.; Bishop, Pamela; Lenhart, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    We describe a unique Research Experience for Undergraduates and Research Experience for Veterinary students summer program at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis on the campus of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The program focused on interdisciplinary research at the interface of biology and mathematics.…

  9. Research Leadership for the Community-Engaged University: Key Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Angie; Church, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In Great Britain, attempts to broaden university-community engagement have taken significant steps in recent years. A wide variety of community-engagement structures and activities are now emerging. This paper uses one innovative example--University of Brighton's Community-University Partnership Program--to describe the opportunities and probe the…

  10. COMMUNITY READINESS FOR NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTION RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To present findings from an assessing of community readiness for nutrition and physical activities in three rural Delta communities. Methods: The Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Survey, an instrument that translates qualitative interviews into six dimensions of readiness, was adapted for ...

  11. Community-driven research on environmental sources of H. pylori infection in arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Emily V; Yasui, Yutaka; Hanington, Patrick; Goodman, Karen J

    2014-01-01

    The role of environmental reservoirs in H. pylori transmission remains uncertain due to technical difficulties in detecting living organisms in sources outside the stomach. Residents of some Canadian Arctic communities worry that contamination of the natural environment is responsible for the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in the region. This analysis aims to estimate associations between exposure to potential environmental sources of biological contamination and prevalence of H. pylori infection in Arctic Canada. Using data from 3 community-driven H. pylori projects in the Northwest and Yukon Territories, we estimated effects of environmental exposures on H. pylori prevalence, using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from multilevel logistic regression models to adjust for household and community effects. Investigated exposures include: untreated drinking water; livestock; dogs; cats; mice or mouse droppings in the home; cleaning fish or game. Our analysis did not identify environmental exposures associated clearly with increased H. pylori prevalence, except any exposure to mice or mouse droppings (OR = 4.6, CI = 1.2-18), reported by 11% of participants. Our multilevel models showed H. pylori clustering within households, but environmental exposures accounted for little of this clustering; instead, much of it was accounted for by household composition (especially: having infected household members; number of children). Like the scientific literature on this topic, our results do not clearly implicate or rule out environmental reservoirs of H. pylori; thus, the topic remains a priority for future research. Meanwhile, H. pylori prevention research should seek strategies for reducing direct transmission from person to person. PMID:25483330

  12. A Network Assessment of Community-Based Participatory Research: Linking Communities and Universities to Reduce Cancer Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Palmer, Paula; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether a community-based initiative designed to reduce cancer disparities among Pacific Islanders in Southern California increased communications between community-based organizations and university researchers. Methods. We conducted network analysis among 11 community-based organizations (CBOs) and 5 universities by interviewing 91 and 56 members of these organizations, respectively, at 2 points in time. We estimated random effects probit regression and stochastic actor-oriented network dynamic models. Results. We found that, during the 2-year study period, CBOs increased their connectedness with one another (b= 0.44; P < .05) and to the universities (b = 0.46; P < .05), but that university researchers did not increase their connectedness to each other or to CBOs. Conclusions. Cancer awareness, cancer education, and access to cancer services are low among Pacific Island groups, and this study provides an initial attempt to reduce these disparities. Community-based initiatives can strengthen a CBO network, creating the potential for increased community-informed cancer research and improved community access to cancer research resources. PMID:20466964

  13. Research Lasers and Air Traffic Safety: Issues, Concerns and Responsibilities of the Research Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessler, Phillip J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The subject of outdoor use of lasers relative to air traffic has become a diverse and dynamic topic. During the past several decades, the use of lasers in outdoor research activities have increased significantly. Increases in the outdoor use of lasers and increases in air traffic densities have changed the levels of risk involved. To date there have been no documented incidents of air traffic interference from research lasers; however, incidents involving display lasers have shown a marked increase. As a result of the national response to these incidents, new concerns over lasers have arisen. Through the efforts of the SAE G-10T Laser Safety Hazards Subcommittee and the ANSI Z136.6 development committee, potential detrimental effects to air traffic beyond the traditional eye damage concerns have been identified. An increased emphasis from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Center for Devices and Radiological Hazards (CDRH), and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) along with increased concern by the public have resulted in focused scrutiny of potential hazards presented by lasers. The research community needs to rethink the traditional methods of risk evaluation and application of protective measures. The best current approach to assure adequate protection of air traffic is the application of viable hazard and risk analysis and the use of validated protective measures. Standards making efforts and regulatory development must be supported by the research community to assure that reasonable measures are developed. Without input, standards and regulations can be developed that are not compatible with the needs of the research community. Finally, support is needed for the continued development and validation of protective measures.

  14. Trait-Based Representation of Biological Nitrification: Model Development, Testing, and Predicted Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Tang, Jinyun; Riley, William J.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2012-01-01

    Trait-based microbial models show clear promise as tools to represent the diversity and activity of microorganisms across ecosystem gradients. These models parameterize specific traits that determine the relative fitness of an “organism” in a given environment, and represent the complexity of biological systems across temporal and spatial scales. In this study we introduce a microbial community trait-based modeling framework (MicroTrait) focused on nitrification (MicroTrait-N) that represents the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) using traits related to enzyme kinetics and physiological properties. We used this model to predict nitrifier diversity, ammonia (NH3) oxidation rates, and nitrous oxide (N2O) production across pH, temperature, and substrate gradients. Predicted nitrifier diversity was predominantly determined by temperature and substrate availability, the latter was strongly influenced by pH. The model predicted that transient N2O production rates are maximized by a decoupling of the AOB and NOB communities, resulting in an accumulation and detoxification of nitrite to N2O by AOB. However, cumulative N2O production (over 6?month simulations) is maximized in a system where the relationship between AOB and NOB is maintained. When the reactions uncouple, the AOB become unstable and biomass declines rapidly, resulting in decreased NH3 oxidation and N2O production. We evaluated this model against site level chemical datasets from the interior of Alaska and accurately simulated NH3 oxidation rates and the relative ratio of AOA:AOB biomass. The predicted community structure and activity indicate (a) parameterization of a small number of traits may be sufficient to broadly characterize nitrifying community structure and (b) changing decadal trends in climate and edaphic conditions could impact nitrification rates in ways that are not captured by extant biogeochemical models. PMID:23087681

  15. Strategies for setting a national research agenda that is responsive to community needs.

    PubMed Central

    O'Fallon, Liam R; Wolfle, Geraldine M; Brown, David; Dearry, Allen; Olden, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Setting a national environmental health research agenda requires broad public input, including that from leading scientists, health care professionals, and communities. Contributions from these diverse constituencies are essential to formulating a research and education strategy that both advances our understanding of the causes and mechanisms of environmentally related diseases and translates such findings into effective prevention and clinical applications to protect those most affected by adverse environmental exposures. Given the increasing number of individual researchers working with communities to address environmental health needs during the past decade, it is also essential for research institutions to foster relationships with communities to understand and respond to their unique public health needs, as well as to communicate research advances in a manner that is both understandable and culturally appropriate. To achieve broad public input and to foster community-university partnerships, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) supports various workshops, roundtables, and advisory groups. In particular, the NIEHS finds Town Meetings to be a successful model for bringing academic researchers together with community residents, state and local departments of health, and community-based organizations to foster greater awareness of community needs, public health needs, and environmental health science research. Since 1998, the NIEHS has supported 16 Town Meetings across the country. In this article we highlight the major outcomes of these meetings to demonstrate the effectiveness of this mechanism for enhancing cooperation among researchers, community residents, and public health officials with the goal of improving public health and setting a national research agenda. PMID:14644657

  16. Community-based research as a mechanism to reduce environmental health disparities in american Indian and alaska native communities.

    PubMed

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K; Doyle, John T; Eggers, Margaret J; Ford, Tim E; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees-tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators-have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019

  17. A First Attempt to Bring Computational Biology into Advanced High School Biology Classrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Renick Gallagher; William Coon; Kristin Donley; Abby Scott; Debra S. Goldberg

    2011-01-01

    Computer science has become ubiquitous in many areas of biological research, yet most high school and even college students are unaware of this. As a result, many college biology majors graduate without adequate computational skills for contemporary fields of biology. The absence of a computational element in secondary school biology classrooms is of growing concern to the computational biology community

  18. Perceptions of community-based participatory research in the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative: an academic perspective.

    PubMed

    Downey, Laura Hall; Castellanos, Diana Cuy; Yadrick, Kathy; Avis-Williams, Amanda; Graham-Kresge, Susan; Bogle, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic-community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been used to develop sustainable nutrition intervention strategies. Focus groups were conducted with 22 faculty and staff members from the academic partners on the project to document their perceptions of community-based participatory processes in a federally funded, multi-academic-community partnership spanning a decade. Focus groups were conducted to glean insights or lessons from the experiences of academic personnel. Focus groups were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Two researchers analyzed each transcript independently and reached consensus on the consistent themes. Participants candidly shared their experiences of working with community members to devise research plans, implement programs, and evaluate outcomes. The majority of faculty and staff members were attracted to this project by an excitement for conducting a more egalitarian and potentially more successful type of research. Yet each academic partner voiced that there was an underlying disconnect between community practices and research procedures during the project. Additional barriers to collaboration and action, located in communities and academic institutions, were described. Academic partners stressed the importance of open and ongoing communication, collective decision-making strategies, and techniques that support power sharing between all parties involved in the project. Findings from this research can inform academic-community partnerships and hopefully improve the community-based participatory research process implemented by academic institutions and communities. PMID:20530639

  19. Teaching Molecular Biological Techniques in a Research Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, John W.; Coggins, T. Chad

    2006-01-01

    Molecular biological methods, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis, are now commonly taught to students in introductory biology courses at the college and even high school levels. This often includes hands-on experience with one or more molecular techniques as part of a general biology laboratory. To assure that most…

  20. Using Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) To Target Health Disparities in Families

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Doherty, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an action research approach that emphasizes collaborative partnerships between community members, community organizations, health care providers, and researchers to generate knowledge and solve local problems. Although relatively new to the field of family social science, family and health researchers have been using CBPR for over a decade. This paper will introduce CBPR methods, illustrate the usefulness of CBPR methods in families and health research, describe two CBPR projects related to diabetes, and conclude with lessons learned and strengths and weaknesses of CBPR. PMID:20625444

  1. Working with Concepts: The Role of Community in International Collaborative Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, V. M.; Kamuya, D. K.; Parker, M. J.; Molyneux, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of communities in strengthening the ethics of international collaborative research is increasingly highlighted, but there has been much debate about the meaning of the term ‘community’ and its specific normative contribution. We argue that ‘community’ is a contingent concept that plays an important normative role in research through the existence of morally significant interplay between notions of community and individuality. We draw on experience of community engagement in rural Kenya to illustrate two aspects of this interplay: (i) that taking individual informed consent seriously involves understanding and addressing the influence of communities in which individuals’ lives are embedded; (ii) that individual participation can generate risks and benefits for communities as part of the wider implications of research. We further argue that the contingent nature of a community means that defining boundaries is generally a normative process itself, with ethical implications. Community engagement supports the enactment of normative roles; building mutual understanding and trust between researchers and community members have been important goals in Kilifi, requiring a broad range of approaches. Ethical dilemmas are continuously generated as part of these engagement activities, including the risks of perverse outcomes related to existing social relations in communities and conditions of ‘half knowing’ intrinsic to processes of developing new understandings. PMID:21416064

  2. Making health data maps: a case study of a community/university research collaboration.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, David L; Mason, Robin; Robertson, Ann; Frank, John; Glazier, Richard; Purdon, Lorraine; Amrhein, Carl G; Chaudhuri, Nita; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Gozdyra, Peter; Hulchanski, David; Moldofsky, Byron; Thompson, Maureen; Wright, Robert

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents the main findings from a collaborative community/university research project in Canada. The goal of the project was to improve access to community health information, and in so doing, enhance our knowledge of the development of community health information resources and community/university collaboration. The project built on a rich history of community/university collaboration in Southeast Toronto (SETO), and employed an interdisciplinary applied research and action design. Specific project objectives were to: (1) develop via active community/university collaboration a geographic information system (GIS) for ready access to routinely collected health data, and to study logistical, conceptual and technical problems encountered during system development; and (2) to document and analyze issues that can emerge in the process of community/university research collaboration. System development involved iteration through community user assessment of need, development or refinement of the GIS, and assessment of the GIS by community users. Collaborative process assessment entailed analysis of archival material, interviews with investigators and participant observation. Over the course of the project, a system was successfully developed, and favorably assessed by users. System development problems fell into four main areas: maintaining user involvement in system development, understanding and integrating data, bringing disparate data sources together, and making use of assembled data. Major themes emerging from the community/university collaborative research process included separate community and university cultures, time as an important issue for all involved, and the impact of uncertainty and ambiguity on the collaborative process. PMID:12365530

  3. Building partnerships in community-based participatory research: Budgetary and other cost considerations

    PubMed Central

    Hoeft, Theresa J.; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B.; James, Rosalina D.; Boyer, Bert B.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners’ time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077

  4. Report of the Research Secretariat on Social Services and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    The Research Secretariat on Social Services and Community Development was one of the five Hispanic research task forces funded by the Ford Foundation to determine Hispanic research priorities. Its three major purposes were the following: (1) to develop an Hispanic research and policy agenda which recommends research activities and prioritizes…

  5. The voice of theThe voice of the research communityresearch community

    E-print Network

    Harnad, Stevan

    Automatique, France), France) Medical Research Council (UK)Medical Research Council (UK) British Heart FoundationBritish Heart Foundation Association of Medical Research CharitiesAssociation of Medical Research Charities (UKThe voice of theThe voice of the research communityresearch community February 2007February 2007

  6. Adapting to context in community-based participatory research: "participatory starting points" in a Chinese immigrant worker community.

    PubMed

    Chang, Charlotte; Salvatore, Alicia L; Lee, Pam Tau; Liu, Shaw San; Tom, Alex T; Morales, Alvaro; Baker, Robin; Minkler, Meredith

    2013-06-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasingly being used to better understand and improve the health of diverse communities. A key strength of this research orientation is its adaptability to community contexts and characteristics. To date, however, few studies explicitly discuss adaptations made to CBPR principles and processes in response to community context and partners' needs. Using data from our CBPR study, the San Francisco Chinatown Restaurant Worker Health and Safety Project, and drawing from literature on immigrant political incorporation, we examine the links between the contexts of the Chinese immigrant worker community, adaptations made by our collaborative, and study outcomes. In particular, we explore the concepts of contexts of reception and participatory starting points, which may be especially relevant for partnerships with immigrant communities whose members have historically had lower rates of civic and political participation in the US. We discuss contextual findings such as worker partner accounts of language barriers, economic and social marginalization, and civic skills and participation, as well as subsequent adaptations made by the partnership. We also describe the relative effectiveness of these adaptations in yielding equitable participation and building partners' capacity. We conclude by sharing lessons learned and their implications for CBPR and partnerships with immigrant communities more broadly. PMID:23370942

  7. A research associate level Developmental Biology/Cell Biology/Biochemistry Experimentalist to develop quantitative

    E-print Network

    Menczer, Filippo

    to develop quantitative experiments on development and developmental defects induced by toxicological-cell simulations of environmental perturbations of early development integrating reaction-kinetic models cell or developmental biology, pharmacology, toxicology, cell biology, or biochemistry and experience

  8. Original research article Spatiotemporal complexity of biological invasion in a space-and time-discrete

    E-print Network

    Original research article Spatiotemporal complexity of biological invasion in a space- and time Biological invasions have been attracting considerable atten- tion over the last few decades as they have for theoretical and practical ecology. In a somewhat more general context, biological invasion is a factor related

  9. Predictors of Community and Life Satisfaction in Rural Mississippi. Research Bulletin Number 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Woong K.; Ritter, Gerald

    Researchers used data from a 1981 questionnaire survey of 248 heads of household in 3 Mississippi counties to examine efficient predictors of community and life satisfaction in rural Mississippi. Analyzing the impact of 43 variables on 25 questionnaire items concerning community satisfaction, researchers found 13 significant predictors of…

  10. Directory of Minority Housing and Community Development Researchers: A First Step Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Karim, Brian Z.; West, Emory J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development of a directory of minority researchers in the field of housing and community development. Summarizes data from the directory and calls for increased communication among minority urban researchers in order to develop neighborhood level self-help strategies for improving housing conditions in minority communities. (GC)

  11. Culture and Community in Research with American Indian and Alaska Native Infants, Toddlers, and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Paul; Sarche, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    In this brief essay the authors reflect on the value of community participation and cultural adaptation in their evolving research on American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) infant and toddler development. They describe three concerns identified by their AI/AN community partners in adapting established research methodologies to work in AI/AN…

  12. Managing the Challenges of Teaching Community-Based Research Courses: Insights from Two Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, Vicki B.; Cutforth, Nick

    2006-01-01

    In community-based research (CBR), faculty, students, and community partners collaborate on research projects. This emerging pedagogy presents numerous challenges to instructors teaching CBR courses, including: finding a disciplinary connection, building CBR into the curriculum, ensuring student readiness, and structuring the CBR experience…

  13. Institutionalizing Community-Based Learning and Research: The Case for External Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrader, Elizabeth; Saunders, Mary Anne; Marullo, Sam; Benatti, Sylvia; Weigert, Kathleen Maas

    2008-01-01

    Conversations continue as to whether and how community-based learning and research (CBLR) can be most effectively integrated into the mission and practice of institutions of higher education (IHEs). In 2005, eight District of Columbia- (DC-) area universities affiliated with the Community Research and Learning (CoRAL) Network engaged in a planning…

  14. Community members' engagement with and involvement in genomic research: lessons to learn from the field.

    PubMed

    Folayan, Morenike O; Oyedeji, Kolawole S; Fatusi, Olawunmi A

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we describe the potential role laypersons on ethics committees can play in ensuring community concerns are addressed in the design and implementation of genomic research. We draw inferences from the outcome of an empirical study of the impact of training of laypersons to address community engagement issues in ethics review of research protocol. While this paper does not advocate a particular solution, it describes the importance of community engagement in genomic research, the current limitations there are in engaging communities in the design of these research projects and how communities can be indirectly engaged in the design and implementation of genomic research through the engagement of laypersons on ethics committees. However, to ensure that these laypersons can play this role, their capacity needs to be built to play this role appropriately. There is evidence to show that where resources are invested in building the capacity of laypersons to play their role as community 'watchdogs' in research, they play this role aptly. Community engagement is important in genomic research as genomic researchers will increasingly require community perspectives in critical ethics decision making. PMID:23594220

  15. Animal research practices and doctoral student identity development in a scientific community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karri Holley

    2009-01-01

    This article examines doctoral student identity development in regard to engagement with research practices. Using animal research as a contextual lens, it considers how students develop an identity congruent to their perception of the community which facilitates their social and cognitive activities. The shared, interpretive understanding among members of a community legitimizes group activities. Students demonstrate conflicting responses to the

  16. How to facilitate (or discourage) community-based research: recommendations based on a Canadian survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Savan; Sarah Flicker; Brian Kolenda; Matto Mildenberger

    2009-01-01

    Community-Based Research (CBR) is gaining recognition as a strategy for bridging the gaps between theory and practice and between universities and neighbouring communities. How effective is CBR and what factors have promoted and hindered its proliferation as a tool for research and capacity building? A web-based survey was conducted to investigate barriers and facilitators for CBR. CBR is hindered by

  17. Participatory Action Research with "Minority Communities" and the Complexities of Emancipatory Tensions: Intersectionality and Cultural Affinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallah, Momodou

    2014-01-01

    Conducting research with communities constructed as the "other" from a purely positivist paradigm can often be replete with colossal flaws with enormous potential to oppress the researched--especially minority communities in this case. This article presents an analysis of the cultural and experiential affinity experiences of the author…

  18. Systems Biology Toolbox for MATLAB: a computational platform for research in systems biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henning Schmidt; Mats Jirstrand

    2006-01-01

    Summary: We present a Systems Biology Toolbox for the widely used general purpose mathematical software MATLAB. The toolbox offers systems biologists an open and extensible environment, in which to explore ideas, prototype and share new algorithms, and build applica- tions for the analysis and simulation of biological and biochemical sys- tems.Additionallyitiswellsuitedforeducationalpurposes.Thetoolbox supports the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) by providing

  19. A bioinformatics/computational biology postdoctoral research position available to analyze biological networks in plants

    E-print Network

    Lu, Jiaheng

    biological networks in plants A bioinformatics postdoctoral position is available immediately in the laboratory of Dr. Sue Rhee at the Carnegie Institution, Department of Plant Biology (Stanford, CA), to analyze biological networks of a model plant organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Our group, in collaboration

  20. Learning How Scientists Work: Experiential Research Projects to Promote Cell Biology Learning and Scientific Process Skills

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses. PMID:12669101

  1. Integrating Research and Education at Research-Extensive Universities with Research-Intensive Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Ketaki V.; Gatson, Sarah N.; Stiles, Thomas W.; Stewart, Randolph H.; Laine, Glen A.; Quick, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Although the Boyer Commission (1998) lamented the lack of research opportunities for all undergraduates at research-extensive universities, it did not provide a feasible solution consistent with the mandate for faculty to maintain sustainable physiology research programs. The costs associated with one-on-one mentoring, and the lack of a sufficient…

  2. Edge effects in the primate community of the biological dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Bryan B; Jack, Katharine M; Spironello, Wilson R

    2014-11-01

    While much is known about abiotic and vegetative edge effects in tropical forests, considerably less is known about the impact of forest edges on large mammals. In this study, we examine edge effects in a primate community to determine: 1) the distance from the edge over which edge effects in primate density are detectable, 2) whether individual species exhibit edge effects in their density, and 3) whether biological characteristics can be used to predict primate presence in edge habitats. Given their importance to many primate species, we also examine the influence of the number of large trees. We found edge penetration distances of 150 m for the five species that experienced edge effects, suggesting that primates respond to edge-related changes in the plant community that are known to be strongest over the first 150 m. Four species had higher edge densities: Alouatta macconnelli (folivore-frugivore), Chiropotes chiropotes (frugivorous seed predator), Saguinus midas (frugivore-faunivore), and Sapajus apella apella (frugivore-faunivore); one species' density was lower: Ateles paniscus (frugivore); and the final species, Pithecia chrysocephala (frugivorous seed predator), did not show an edge-related pattern. The lone significant relationship between the biological characteristics examined (body weight, diet, group size, and home range size) and primate presence in edge habitats was a negative relationship with the amount of fruit consumed. Though we did not examine primate responses to edges that border a denuded matrix, we have shown that edges influence primate distribution even following decades of secondary forest regeneration at habitat edges. PMID:25130367

  3. Research to Reality: Moving Evidence Into Practice Through an Online Community of Practice

    PubMed Central

    La Porta, Madeline; Gallagher, Alissa; Vinson, Cynthia; Bernal, Sarah Bruce

    2014-01-01

    How can a community of practice help further the practical application of cancer control research? In 2011, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) launched an online community of practice, Research to Reality (R2R). R2R aims to infuse evidence-based strategies into communities by engaging researchers and practitioners in a joint approach to research dissemination. To measure community growth and engagement, NCI measures data across 3 program domains: content, interaction, and activity. NCI uses Web analytics, usability testing, and content analyses to manage and evaluate R2R. As of December 2013, R2R had more than 1,700 registered members. More than 500 researchers and practitioners register for the monthly cyber-seminars, and 40% return each month. R2R hosts more than 15,500 page views and 5,000 site visits in an average month. This article describes the process of convening this online community and quantifies our experiences to date. PMID:24809364

  4. Challenges in conducting community-driven research created by differing ways of talking and thinking about science: a researcher's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Colquhoun, Amy; Geary, Janis; Goodman, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, health scientists are becoming aware that research collaborations that include community partnerships can be an effective way to broaden the scope and enhance the impact of research aimed at improving public health. Such collaborations extend the reach of academic scientists by integrating a variety of perspectives and thus strengthening the applicability of the research. Communication challenges can arise, however, when attempting to address specific research questions in these collaborations. In particular, inconsistencies can exist between scientists and community members in the use and interpretation of words and other language features, particularly when conducting research with a biomedical component. Additional challenges arise from differing perceptions of the investigative process. There may be divergent perceptions about how research questions should and can be answered, and in expectations about requirements of research institutions and research timelines. From these differences, misunderstandings can occur about how the results will ultimately impact the community. These communication issues are particularly challenging when scientists and community members are from different ethnic and linguistic backgrounds that may widen the gap between ways of talking and thinking about science, further complicating the interactions and exchanges that are essential for effective joint research efforts. Community-driven research that aims to describe the burden of disease associated with Helicobacter pylori infection is currently underway in northern Aboriginal communities located in the Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada, with the goal of identifying effective public health strategies for reducing health risks from this infection. This research links community representatives, faculty from various disciplines at the University of Alberta, as well as territorial health care practitioners and officials. This highly collaborative work will be used to illustrate, from a researcher's perspective, some of the challenges of conducting public health research in teams comprising members with varying backgrounds. The consequences of these challenges will be outlined, and potential solutions will be offered. PMID:23986884

  5. GUI to Facilitate Research on Biological Damage from Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Frances A.; Ponomarev, Artem Lvovich

    2010-01-01

    A graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer program has been developed to facilitate research on the damage caused by highly energetic particles and photons impinging on living organisms. The program brings together, into one computational workspace, computer codes that have been developed over the years, plus codes that will be developed during the foreseeable future, to address diverse aspects of radiation damage. These include codes that implement radiation-track models, codes for biophysical models of breakage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by radiation, pattern-recognition programs for extracting quantitative information from biological assays, and image-processing programs that aid visualization of DNA breaks. The radiation-track models are based on transport models of interactions of radiation with matter and solution of the Boltzmann transport equation by use of both theoretical and numerical models. The biophysical models of breakage of DNA by radiation include biopolymer coarse-grained and atomistic models of DNA, stochastic- process models of deposition of energy, and Markov-based probabilistic models of placement of double-strand breaks in DNA. The program is designed for use in the NT, 95, 98, 2000, ME, and XP variants of the Windows operating system.

  6. Building the "Popper Machine": A Necessary Research Goal for Systems Biology

    E-print Network

    Rogers, Simon

    and long-term research goals. An implementation based on Karl Popper's "theory of scientific discoveryBuilding the "Popper Machine": A Necessary Research Goal for Systems Biology Rainer Breitling Plant

  7. NASA Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    The Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century provided a unique opportunity to train individuals to conduct biological research in hypo- and hyper-gravity, and to conduct ground-based research. This grant was developed to maximize the potential for Space Biology as an emerging discipline and to train a cadre of space biologists. The field of gravitational and space biology is rapidly growing at the future of the field is reflected in the quality and education of its personnel. Our chief objective was to train and develop these scientists rapidly and in a cost effective model.

  8. Translating cancer prevention and control research into the community setting: workforce implications.

    PubMed

    Harrop, J Phil; Nelson, David E; Kuratani, Darrah Goo; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Paskett, Electra D

    2012-05-01

    A gap exists between cancer prevention research and its translation into community practice. Two strategies to reduce this gap are community-based participatory research (CBPR) and dissemination research. CBPR offers an avenue to engage academic and community partners, thereby providing mechanisms for joint learning and application of knowledge. Dissemination research examines the movement of evidence-based public health and clinical innovations to practice settings. While applying these approaches may reduce the gap between research and practice, the cancer prevention workforce may be inadequate in size, insufficiently trained, lack resources and incentives, or face structural barriers to effectively participate in CBPR and disseminate evidence-based research findings into practice. Information on translating cancer prevention information to communities and workforce implications was obtained from a panel of experts and through a review of the literature on CBPR and dissemination research. The expert panel and literature review identified major barriers to successfully conducting CBPR and dissemination research in community settings. Barriers included inadequate policies; insufficient networking and communication infrastructures; unsupportive research cultures, climates, and mindsets; inadequate researcher and practitioner education; and limited CBPR and dissemination research with adequate study designs. No specific estimates of the cancer prevention workforce were found; however, indirect evidence for a shortfall were identified. We recommend expanding CBPR training for academic and community partners; increasing funding for dissemination research and practice; supporting proven partnerships; and providing strategic coordination for government agencies, research institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to foster better dissemination of information and integration of community-based cancer prevention and control programs and practices. Specific challenges and needs that must be addressed to improve the translation of cancer prevention research into community settings were identified. PMID:22362356

  9. Brown Superfund Basic research Program: a multistakeholder partnership addresses real-world problems in contaminated communities.

    PubMed

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-07-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well-integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

  10. From subject to participant: ethics and the evolving role of community in health research.

    PubMed

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Mikesell, Lisa; Jones, Felica; Khodyakov, Dmitry

    2015-05-01

    Belmont Report principles focus on the well-being of the research subject, yet community-engaged investigators often eschew the role of subject for that of participant. We conducted semistructured interviews with 29 community and academic investigators working on 10 community-engaged studies. Interviews elicited perspectives on ethical priorities and ethical challenges. Interviewees drew on the Belmont Report to describe 4 key principles of ethical community-engaged research (embodying ethical action, respecting participants, generalizing beneficence, and negotiating justice). However, novel aspects of the participant role were the source of most ethical challenges. We theorize that the shift in ethical focus from subject to participant will pose new ethical dilemmas for community-engaged investigators and for other constituents interested in increasing community involvement in health research. PMID:25790380

  11. Participatory action research (PAR): an approach for improving black women's health in rural and remote communities.

    PubMed

    Etowa, Josephine B; Bernard, Wanda Thomas; Oyinsan, Bunmi; Clow, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Women are among the most disadvantaged members of any community, and they tend to be at greatest risk of illness. Black women are particularly vulnerable and more prone than White women to illnesses associated with social and economic deprivation, including heart disease and diabetes. They utilize preventive health services less often, and when they fall ill, the health of their families and communities typically suffers as well. This article discusses the process of doing innovative participatory action research (PAR) in southwest Nova Scotia Black communities. The effort resulted in the generation of a database, community action, and interdisciplinary analysis of the intersecting inequities that compromise the health and health care of African Canadian women, their families, and their communities. This particular research effort serves as a case study for explicating the key tenets of PAR and the barriers to and contradictions in implementing PAR in a community-academic collaborative research project. PMID:17911575

  12. Research in community psychology: An analysis of work published in the first six years of the American Journal of Community Psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond W. Novaco; John Monahan

    1980-01-01

    The conceptual and procedural structure of community psychology research investigations were examined in a content analysis of articles published in the American Journal of Community Psychology from 1973 to 1978. It was questioned whether research in community psychology actually reflected proclaimed disciplinary perspectives. The analysis of empirical articles in 26 journal issues revealed major shortcomings in their theoretical foundation, methodological

  13. Engaging Students in Authentic Microbiology Research in an Introductory Biology Laboratory Course is Correlated with Gains in Student Understanding of the Nature of Authentic Research and Critical Thinking†

    PubMed Central

    Gasper, Brittany J.; Gardner, Stephanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent recommendations for biology education highlight the role of authentic research experiences early in undergraduate education as a means of increasing the number and quality of biology majors. These experiences will inform students on the nature of science, increase their confidence in doing science, as well as foster critical thinking skills, an area that has been lacking despite it being one of the desired outcomes at undergraduate institutions and with future employers. With these things in mind, we have developed an introductory biology laboratory course where students design and execute an authentic microbiology research project. Students in this course are assimilated into the community of researchers by engaging in scholarly activities such as participating in inquiry, reading scientific literature, and communicating findings in written and oral formats. After three iterations of a semester-long laboratory course, we found that students who took the course showed a significant increase in their understanding of the nature of authentic research and their level of critical thinking skills. PMID:23858351

  14. Engaging Students in Authentic Microbiology Research in an Introductory Biology Laboratory Course is Correlated with Gains in Student Understanding of the Nature of Authentic Research and Critical Thinking.

    PubMed

    Gasper, Brittany J; Gardner, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    Recent recommendations for biology education highlight the role of authentic research experiences early in undergraduate education as a means of increasing the number and quality of biology majors. These experiences will inform students on the nature of science, increase their confidence in doing science, as well as foster critical thinking skills, an area that has been lacking despite it being one of the desired outcomes at undergraduate institutions and with future employers. With these things in mind, we have developed an introductory biology laboratory course where students design and execute an authentic microbiology research project. Students in this course are assimilated into the community of researchers by engaging in scholarly activities such as participating in inquiry, reading scientific literature, and communicating findings in written and oral formats. After three iterations of a semester-long laboratory course, we found that students who took the course showed a significant increase in their understanding of the nature of authentic research and their level of critical thinking skills. PMID:23858351

  15. The Community-First Land-Centred Theoretical Framework: Bringing a "Good Mind" to Indigenous Education Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styres, Sandra D.; Zinga, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an emergent research theoretical framework, the community-first Land-centred research framework. Carefully examining the literature within Indigenous educational research, we noted the limited approaches for engaging in culturally aligned and relevant research within Indigenous communities. The community-first Land-centred…

  16. Building Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships with a Somali Refugee Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Crista E. Johnson; Sagal A. Ali; Michčle P.-L. Shipp

    2009-01-01

    Results: The process of establishing a partnership with a Somali community is described wherein the challenges, successes, and lessons learned in the process of conducting CBPR are examined. Challenges obtaining informed consent, language barriers, and reliance on FGC self-report were surmounted through mobilization of community social networks, trust-building, and the use of a video-elicitation device. The community partnership collaborated around

  17. Student Community within the School Context: A Research Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterman, Karen F.

    Ways in which a sense of community can be fostered within a school are examined in this literature review. The text opens with an overview of the conceptual framework and rationale for community, focusing on the collegiality among students rather than among adults or between adults and students. The sources used for the review were identified by…

  18. Hot Programs at Community Colleges. AACC Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Maryam M.; Shults, Christopher

    The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) periodically conducts a survey of community colleges to identify "hot" programs, defined as programs from which students are hired immediately upon graduation. Survey findings include the following: (1) reported starting salaries for hot program graduates increased by 21% between 1997 and 2000;…

  19. Improving Numeracy Outcomes for Children through Community Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Virtue, according to Aristotle, is doing the right things at the right time with the right people for the right end and in the right way. This concept is central to the work of the Early Learning Initiative, an Irish community-based educational initiative. This paper describes how a community of parents, early childhood care and education…

  20. The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) in Gravitational Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Guikema, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Life Sciences Division of NASA has initiated a NASA Specialized Centers of Research and Training (NSCORT) program. Three Centers were designated in late 1990, as the culmination of an in-depth peer review analysis of proposals from universities across the nation and around the world. Kansas State University was selected as the NSCORT in Gravitational Biology. This Center is headquartered in the KSU Division of Biology and has a research, training, and outreach function that focuses on cellular and developmental biology.