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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Research and Teaching: Inquiry in the Community College Biology Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A qualitative analysis of students' reactions and outcomes to a long-term inquiry experience in a freshman biology course shows positive results. Students posed research questions and designed experiments. The analysis shows that students reacted favorabl

Lunsford, Eddie

2002-12-01

2

An NIH- and NSF Funded Program in Biological Research for Community College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a program supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation, selected students in biology courses at Valencia Community College actively pursue the scientific method in a series of laboratory exercises. Results are then published as reports written in the format of a scientific paper. Faculty from the disciplines of biology and English composition

Thomas P. Arnold; Frances A. Frierson; Sebacher Neil Jr

2000-01-01

3

Soil Biological Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Idaho provides this electronic resource on soil communities. With introductory text, illustrations, and references, these pages provide a general overview of soil communities, including Biological Crusts, Fungi, Bacteria, Protozoa, Nematodes, and Arthropods. The site also introduces general readers to Soil Food Webs and Burrowing Mammals, with an emphasis on the western United States. A series of select links to soil-related resources rounds out the site.

2000-01-01

4

Communities Complicate Gene Transplant Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confrontations have arisen between local communities and universities involved in molecular biology research. The situation in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is described in which citizens have opposed work undertaken at Harvard and MIT. (LBH)

Randal, Judith

1976-01-01

5

The role of the individual and the community in the research, development, and use of biologicals with criteria for guidelines: a Memorandum*  

PubMed Central

In view of the widely recognized need to use available vaccines and other biologicals and to develop new ones to control many diseases of world-wide importance, this Memorandum considers the increasingly complex problems that face investigators and public authorities that must review and approve pre-licensing studies and also large-scale regular use. It is stressed that the proper conduct of biologicals research in human beings must be considered from the scientific, sociological, ethical, and legal points of view. The Declaration of Helsinki is regarded of fundamental importance and its applicability to biologicals research is discussed. Recommendations are made for continued international collaboration in this field and “Criteria on the Role of the Individual and the Community in the Research, Development, and Use of Biologicals” are formulated. General criteria and specific criteria related to the design of field trials, human involvement in field trials, and surveillance of safety and effectiveness of biologicals in routine use are discussed.

1976-01-01

6

Encouraging Student Biological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication encourages student involvement in biological research through student research with the cooperation of teachers and scientists. The contents of the book are divided into two sections. The first section introduces students to research investigations and includes: (1) "How the Investigations Are Set Up and the Rationale Behind…

Frame, Kathy, Ed.; Hays, Rachel, Ed.; Mack, Alison, Ed.

7

Community Research Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Techniques of sociological research--defined as the assembly, organization and interpretation of facts that help explain human activity--are described in this guide to community research strategies. In Part I of the booklet some basic aspects of research are examined, illustrating procedures of stating and examining a research problem. The scope…

Danzinger, Carl

8

Systems biology of Microbial Communities  

SciTech Connect

Microbes exist naturally in a wide range of environments, spanning the extremes of high acidity and high temperature to soil and the ocean, in communities where their interactions are significant. We present a practical discussion of three different approaches for modeling microbial communities: rate equations, individual-based modeling, and population dynamics. We illustrate the approaches with detailed examples. Each approach is best fit to different levels of system representation, and they have different needs for detailed biological input. Thus, this set of approaches is able to address the operation and function of microbial communities on a wide range of organizational levels.

Navid, A; Ghim, C; Fenley, A; Yoon, S; Lee, S; Almaas, E

2008-04-11

9

The biology/disease-driven human proteome project (B/D-HPP): enabling protein research for the life sciences community.  

PubMed

The biology and disease oriented branch of the Human Proteome Project (B/D-HPP) was established by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) with the main goal of supporting the broad application of state-of the-art measurements of proteins and proteomes by life scientists studying the molecular mechanisms of biological processes and human disease. This will be accomplished through the generation of research and informational resources that will support the routine and definitive measurement of the process or disease relevant proteins. The B/D-HPP is highly complementary to the C-HPP and will provide datasets and biological characterization useful to the C-HPP teams. In this manuscript we describe the goals, the plans, and the current status of the of the B/D-HPP. PMID:23259511

Aebersold, Ruedi; Bader, Gary D; Edwards, Aled M; van Eyk, Jennifer E; Kussmann, Martin; Qin, Jun; Omenn, Gilbert S

2012-12-21

10

WHITHER BIOLOGICAL DATABASE RESEARCH?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We consider how the landscape of biological databases may evolve in the future, and what research is needed to realize this evolution. We suggest today's dispersal of diverse resources will only increase as the number and size of those resources, driving the need for semantic interoperability even ...

11

Undergraduate Research Communities: A Powerful Approach to Research Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We applied the concept of learning communities, whereby students develop their own ideas in cohort-based settings, to undergraduate research training. This creates powerful research communities where students practice science from observation to experimental design to interpretation of data. We describe a biology program, but the approach suits…

Kight, Scott; Gaynor, John J.; Adams, Sandra D.

2006-01-01

12

Undergraduate Research Communities: A Powerful Approach to Research Training  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We applied the concept of learning communities, whereby students develop their ideas in cohort-based settings, to undergraduate research training. This creates powerful research communities where students practice science from observation to experimental design to interpretation of data. We describe a biology program, but the approach suits many discovery-based disciplines.

Gaynor, John J.; Adams, Sandra D.; Kight, Scott

2006-07-01

13

Biological Markers in Epidemiologic Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies some of the issues relevant to the use of biological markers in epidemiologic research. Foremost among these are clarity of definitions and marker classification. Illustrations of markers in the categories of internal dose, biological effective dose, biological response, disease, and susceptibility are presented with a theoretical model for the interrelationship among these. Issues faced by epidemiologists in

Barbara S. Hulka; Timothy Wilcosky

1988-01-01

14

Community College a Research Puzzle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When President Barack Obama unveiled his plans this summer for a $12 billion federal investment in the nation's community colleges, he said he wanted the initiative to yield an additional 5 million community college graduates by 2020. Research suggests that reaching that goal may be a tall order. Community colleges have abysmal graduation rates:…

Viadero, Debra

2009-01-01

15

Reflections on Community College Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focused researchers have filled the important role of documenting the evolution of community colleges, which have changing missions and diverse programs, designed around their communities. This article reflects on key works of Council for the Study of Community College (CSCC) members in thematic areas of access, student success, faculty…

Floyd, Deborah L.; Antczak, Laura

2010-01-01

16

SNOW Research Community of Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SNOW Research Community of Practice, sponsored by the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, is a collaboration of professionals whose goal is to "provide a one-stop solution to customers' snow science and engineering problems." The 48 members have expertise in a variety of areas, including geophysics, chemistry, biology, physics, and mechanical, geological, electrical, civil, and geological engineering. This website provides contact information for snow experts and describes the tools and facilities that are at their disposal. They also provide a wealth of information on various aspects of snow research, including snow models, snow chemistry, and GIS/Remote sensing of snow. Also described here is research on snow mechanics and engineering, which can be used "to develop instrumentation, physical understanding and models and combined with other physical principals to solve problems in hydrology, transportation, engineering infrastructure, and climate change." In addition, the group provides updates on snow impacts in the news, such as the extensive snowfall in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan that has affected safety, transportation, and flooding in those regions, and a link to a map of U.S. snow coverage from the National Weather Service. This site is also reviewed in the March 11, 2005_NSDL MET Report_.

17

Science & Research (Biologics)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... In this Web section you will find information on some of the research programs conducted by CBER scientists and their published scientific articles. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/scienceresearch

18

Community-based Participatory Research  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research (CBPR), with its emphasis on joining with the community as full and equal partners in all phases of the research process, makes it an appealing model for research with vulnerable populations. However, the CBPR approach is not without special challenges relating to ethical, cultural, and scientific issues. In this article, we describe how we managed the challenges we encountered while conducting a CBPR project with a Native American community. We also suggest criteria that will enable evaluation of the project.

Holkup, Patricia A.; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Salois, Emily Matt; Weinert, Clarann

2009-01-01

19

Community College Biology Lesson Index.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This catalog contains lesson descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: introductory material on experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; reproduction and…

Manteuffel, Mary S., Comp.; Herrick, Kathie, Comp.

20

Community College Biology Lesson Catalogue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This catalog contains descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; bioenergetics - enzymes and cellular metabolism;…

Herrick, Kathie G.

21

Marine Biological and Oceanographical Research in the Red Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes several Research Programs performed in the Red Sea that deal with marine biology and oceanography. Preliminary descriptions are given for the various animal communities that occur on various horizons of the coral reefs, sandy bays and...

L. Fishelson

1968-01-01

22

Developing small worlds of e-science: using quantum mechanics, biological science, and oceanography for education and outreach strategies for engaging research communities within a univeristy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poster will use text, diagrams, screenshots, models, and developing e-science digital collections at Florida State University (FSU) Libraries as an experimental approach in developing a digital preservation management policy strategy that promotes current and future use of FSU Libraries digital assets. Scientific research from quantum mechanics, biological science, and oceanography research disciplines will be used as digital collection development

Smith Plato L. II; Sharon Schwerzel; Tamara Weatherholt

2010-01-01

23

Clinton Community College: Biology Web-Biology 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Biology 101 website was developed by Dr. Michael Gregory for a course at Clinton Community College in Plattsburgh, New York. The site includes Lecture Notes, Review Questions, Assignment Modules, a Laboratory Manual, and a Glossary. Lecture Note topics include: Cells, Energy and Enzymes, Natural Selection, DNA, Genetics, and more. Notably, the Lecture Notes section contains three extensive PowerPoint self-study exercises dealing with Energy, Photosynthesis, and Cellular Respiration. The site's Laboratory Manual features sections about writing lab reports; The Metric System and Measurement; Microscopy; and a Mitosis and Meiosis Drawing Exercise. In addition to this Biology course, Dr. Gregory also makes his Biology 102 and Human Biology courses accessible to the public.

24

[Biological research and security institutes].  

PubMed

The threat of using biological material for ago-bioterrorist ends has risen in recent years, which means that research and diagnostic laboratories, biological agent banks and other institutions authorised to carry out scientific activities have had to implement biosafety and biosecurity measures to counter the threat, while carrying out activities to help prevent and monitor the accidental or intentional introduction of exotic animal diseases. This article briefly sets outthe basic components of biosafety and biosecurity, as well as recommendations on organisational strategies to consider in laboratories that support agro-bioterrorist surveillance and prevention programs. PMID:16796057

Darsie, G; Falczuk, A J; Bergmann, I E

2006-04-01

25

Cancer research meets evolutionary biology  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection provides insights into the etiology and treatment of cancer. On a microscopic scale, neoplastic cells meet the conditions for evolution by Darwinian selection: cell reproduction with heritable variability that affects cell survival and replication. This suggests that, like other areas of biological and biomedical research, Darwinian theory can provide a general framework for understanding many aspects of cancer, including problems of great clinical importance. With the availability of raw molecular data increasing rapidly, this theory may provide guidance in translating data into understanding and progress. Several conceptual and analytical tools from evolutionary biology can be applied to cancer biology. Two clinical problems may benefit most from the application of Darwinian theory: neoplastic progression and acquired therapeutic resistance. The Darwinian theory of cancer has especially profound implications for drug development, both in terms of explaining past difficulties, and pointing the way toward new approaches. Because cancer involves complex evolutionary processes, research should incorporate both tractable (simplified) experimental systems, and also longitudinal observational studies of the evolutionary dynamics of cancer in laboratory animals and in human patients. Cancer biology will require new tools to control the evolution of neoplastic cells.

Pepper, John W; Scott Findlay, C; Kassen, Rees; Spencer, Sabrina L; Maley, Carlo C

2009-01-01

26

Biological defense research program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The proposed action, and subject of this Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), is continuation of the Biological Defense Research Program (BDRP). The BDRP is a research, development, test and evaluation (RDT E) program conducted by the Department of Defense (DoD), with the Department of the Army (DA) serving as the executive agent. This FEIS addresses the ongoing program and provides a basis for evaluating future BDRP activities. The objectives of the BDRP are to develop measures for detection, treatment, protection and decontamination of potential biological warfare threat agents. Development of medical defensive measures, such as prophylactic vaccines and drugs, therapeutic measures, and patient treatment and management protocols are important components of the program. The purpose of the BDRP is to maintain and promote a solid national defense posture with respect to potential biological warfare threats. The BDRP supports RDT E efforts necessary for the maintenance and development of defensive measures and materiel to meet these threats. In addition to promoting the national defense posture, the BDRP benefits the scientific community in general through its research and development efforts, and benefits the global population in the development of diagnostic methods, and vaccine and drug therapies for the treatment of diseases.

Not Available

1989-04-01

27

Structuring Research Opportunities for All Biology Majors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a required research experience program for all biology majors instituted in the biology department of Carroll College. Discusses successes and challenges of coordinating a program that involves 20-40 research projects each year. (Author/NB)|

Lewis, Susan E.; Conley, Lisa K.; Horst, Cynthia J.

2003-01-01

28

Structuring Research Opportunities for All Biology Majors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a required research experience program for all biology majors instituted in the biology department of Carroll College. Discusses successes and challenges of coordinating a program that involves 20-40 research projects each year. (Author/NB)

Lewis, Susan E.; Conley, Lisa K.; Horst, Cynthia J.

2003-01-01

29

Practice of Community Development for Researchers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the practice of community development by extension specialists cooperating in USDA's local decisions project and also discusses the relationships needed between economic researchers and community development professionals. Researcher...

B. McGill J. Kuehn E. Henderson J. Perry J. Summers

1981-01-01

30

Farmworkers and Pesticides: Community-Based Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A workshop brought together scientists, community organization members, and agency representatives to review community-based research on the environmental health risks of pesticide exposure for migrant farmworkers; to share appropriate, successful community-based research methods and models; and to determine future research directions and needs…

Arcury, Thomas A.; Quandt, Sara A.; McCauley, Linda

2000-01-01

31

Community Health Workers Support Community-based Participatory Research Ethics:  

PubMed Central

Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)— specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability—stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR.

Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.

2013-01-01

32

COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH  

PubMed Central

Community engagement strategies and skills can build trust and reduce historical mistrust between researchers, communities and populations being studied, as well as contribute to the quality of study designs, methods and dissemination of findings. This review paper discusses why community engagement is of increasing importance in children’s environmental health research, describes models and the continuum of methods that are used and discusses their challenges and benefits. Two case studies, representing different study designs and using different community engagement models and methods, and lessons learned from these cases are described. Community engagement methods are best understood on a continuum based on the degree to which community members or representatives of community populations are involved in research planning, decision making and dissemination. Methods along this continuum include community consultation, community based participatory research(CBPR) and community consent to research. Community engagement knowledge and skills are especially important in the conduct of children’s environmental health research with its emphasis on reducing environmental risks at the community level; the increasing focus on genetics and gene-environment interactions; and the importance placed on translation of scientific results into behaviors and policies that protect the community. Across study designs, whether qualitative survey research, an observational epidemiology study, or a randomized intervention trial, understanding community interests, norms and values is necessary to describe attitudes and behaviors of specific population groups, build evidence of cause and effect between environmental exposures and health and/or that demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce risks.

Brenner, Barbara L.; Manice, Melissa P.

2010-01-01

33

The Community Readiness Model: Research to Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities are at many different stages of readiness for implementing programs, and this readiness is a major factor in determining whether a local program can be effectively implemented and supported by the community. The Community Readiness Model was developed to meet research needs, (e.g., matching treatment and control communities for an experimental intervention) as well as to provide a practical

Ruth W. Edwards; Pamela Jumper-Thurman; Barbara A. Plested; E. R. Oetting; Louis Swanson

2000-01-01

34

Biology and medical research at the exascale.  

SciTech Connect

Advances in computational hardware and algorithms that have transformed areas of physics and engineering have recently brought similar benefits to biology and biomedical research. Biological sciences are undergoing a revolution. High-performance computing has accelerated the transition from hypothesis-driven to design-driven research at all scales, and computational simulation of biological systems is now driving the direction of biological experimentation and the generation of insights.

Wolf, L.; Pieper, G. W. (CLS-CI); ( MCS)

2010-01-01

35

On measuring community participation in research.  

PubMed

Active participation of community partners in research aspects of community-academic partnered projects is often assumed to have a positive impact on the outcomes of such projects. The value of community engagement in research, however, cannot be empirically determined without good measures of the level of community participation in research activities. Based on our recent evaluation of community-academic partnered projects centered around behavioral health issues, this article uses semistructured interview and survey data to outline two complementary approaches to measuring the level of community participation in research-a "three-model" approach that differentiates between the levels of community participation and a Community Engagement in Research Index (CERI) that offers a multidimensional view of community engagement in the research process. The primary goal of this article is to present and compare these approaches, discuss their strengths and limitations, summarize the lessons learned, and offer directions for future research. We find that whereas the three-model approach is a simple measure of the perception of community participation in research activities, CERI allows for a more nuanced understanding by capturing multiple aspects of such participation. Although additional research is needed to validate these measures, our study makes a significant contribution by illustrating the complexity of measuring community participation in research and the lack of reliability in simple scores offered by the three-model approach. PMID:23041704

Khodyakov, Dmitry; Stockdale, Susan; Jones, Andrea; Mango, Joseph; Jones, Felica; Lizaola, Elizabeth

2012-10-04

36

Creating a New Breed of Biology Education Researchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Society of Microbiology (ASM) has created the Scholars-in-Residence program to introduce biology faculty to the scholarship of teaching and learning -- a broad term describing the professional responsibility of faculty to conduct rigorous evaluations of their own teaching practices and to publicly share their findings to develop a community of practice. The Scholars-in-Residence program trains microbiologists to use educational research to improve their teaching.Building on the success of the Scholars-in-Residence program, the ASM created the Biology Scholars Program, which is open to the larger community of biology educators. The Biology Scholars Program offers three independent virtual residencies that allow faculty to explore biology education in greater depth and to obtain a better understanding of the scholarship of teaching and learning.

Brian Stagg (AIBS;)

2008-05-01

37

FOCUS GROUP RESEARCH IN THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus group research is a qualitative research tool well suited for community colleges. Focus group research appears to be a quick and easy means of staying abreast of the educational needs and expectations of the college community. To be successful and avoid inherent pitfalls, however, focus group research should follow three guidelines: (1) College?wide administrative procedures should be established; (2)

Isa N. Engleberg; Marlene C. Cohen

1989-01-01

38

Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

2013-01-01

39

Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

2013-01-01

40

Community College Class Devoted to Astronomical Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class at a small community college, Central Arizona College, was dedicated to astronomical research. Although hands-on research is usually reserved for professionals or graduate students, and occasionally individual undergraduate seniors, we decided to introduce community college students to science by devoting an entire class to research. Nine students were formed into three closely cooperating teams. The class as a

R. M. Genet; C. L. Genet

2002-01-01

41

Functional Structure of Biological Communities Predicts Ecosystem Multifunctionality  

PubMed Central

The accelerating rate of change in biodiversity patterns, mediated by ever increasing human pressures and global warming, demands a better understanding of the relationship between the structure of biological communities and ecosystem functioning (BEF). Recent investigations suggest that the functional structure of communities, i.e. the composition and diversity of functional traits, is the main driver of ecological processes. However, the predictive power of BEF research is still low, the integration of all components of functional community structure as predictors is still lacking, and the multifunctionality of ecosystems (i.e. rates of multiple processes) must be considered. Here, using a multiple-processes framework from grassland biodiversity experiments, we show that functional identity of species and functional divergence among species, rather than species diversity per se, together promote the level of ecosystem multifunctionality with a predictive power of 80%. Our results suggest that primary productivity and decomposition rates, two key ecosystem processes upon which the global carbon cycle depends, are primarily sustained by specialist species, i.e. those that hold specialized combinations of traits and perform particular functions. Contrary to studies focusing on single ecosystem functions and considering species richness as the sole measure of biodiversity, we found a linear and non-saturating effect of the functional structure of communities on ecosystem multifunctionality. Thus, sustaining multiple ecological processes would require focusing on trait dominance and on the degree of community specialization, even in species-rich assemblages.

Mouillot, David; Villeger, Sebastien; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Mason, Norman W. H.

2011-01-01

42

[Emphasis of biological research for space radiation].  

PubMed

The paper summarized issues, current status and the recent topics in biological research of space radiation. Researches to estimate a risk associated with space radiation exposure during a long-term manned space flight, such as in the International Space Station, is emphasized because of the large uncertainty of biological effects and a complexity of the radiation environment in space. The Issues addressed are; 1) biological effects and end points in low dose radiation, 2) biological effects under low dose rate and long-term radiation exposure, 3) modification of biological responses to radiation under space environments, 4) various aspects of biological end points vs. cellular and molecular mechanisms, 5) estimation of human risk associated with radiation exposure in space flight, 6) regulations for radiation exposure limits for space workers. The paper also summarized and introduced recent progress in space related radiation researches with various biological systems. PMID:11541824

Ohnishi, T; Nagaoka, S

1998-03-01

43

Molecular Marine Biology Research Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This grant provided training in developmental biology of embryos of marine organisms, particularly their defense mechanisms. Students were exposed to the patterns of development of a variety of marine organisms, and then trained in the use of cellular, im...

D. Epel

1997-01-01

44

Advancing Research on the Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Arthur M. Cohen and his colleagues at the Center for the Study of Community Colleges have made significant and broad contributions to the scholarly literature and empirical research about community colleges. Although Cohen's interests are comprehensive and his writings touch on multiple issues associated with community colleges, his empirical…

Bers, Trudy H.

2007-01-01

45

Engaging community to support HIV prevention research  

PubMed Central

Actively engaging communities in effective partnerships is considered critical for ethically robust and locally relevant HIV prevention research. This can be challenging in developing countries that have little prior experience in this area. This paper summarizes processes and lessons learnt while setting up the Community Involvement Plan of National AIDS Research Institute, Pune, India. Formal partnerships were established with voluntary agencies. The focus was on using strategies adapted from participatory learning and action techniques. The community program was implemented through peer educators specifically identified from the communities where partner non-governmental organizations function. At the grass root level, peer educators imparted education to the common people about research studies and helped to implement community based recruitment and retention activities. The focus was on facilitating periodic interaction between the outreach workers of the research team and the peers and modifying the strategies till they were found locally implementable and appropriate. Through adequate time investment, mutually beneficial and respectful partnerships with community based organizations and grass root level workers, the community became actively involved in clinical research. The program helped in developing a sense of partnership among the peers for the research conducted by the research organization, widening the net of community education and identification of research participants. By building trust in the community and implementing research within an ethical framework, culturally sensitive matters were appropriately addressed. The community involvement process is long, laborious and ever-evolving. Effective community engagement requires institutional leadership support, adequate funding and commitment by researchers. It is possible to sustain such a model in a resource limited setting.

Sahay, Seema; Mehendale, Sanjay

2012-01-01

46

Submersibles for marine biological research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submersibles provide a direct means of studying the living ocean resources. Basic submersible types include bathyscaphs, bathyspheres, tethered propelled subs and self-contained subs. Biological scientists require a submersible that is stable, can pinpoint and maintain its position, has variable speed with long endurance and provide excellent viewing and data monitoring systems. Few existing subs meet these needs. Subs can be

W. High

1971-01-01

47

Finding Community: A Guide to Community Research and Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For those concerned with contemporary social problems, whether as students, members of community groups, or individual citizens, this book attempts not only to describe the issues, but also to offer some starting points for local research and action. As an educational tool, it is based on the belief that a good way to learn about a community is…

Jones, W. Ron; And Others

48

Community engagement about genetic variation research.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to describe the methods and effectiveness of the Public Engagement in Genetic Variation and Haplotype Mapping Issues (PEGV) Project, which engaged a community in policy discussion about genetic variation research. The project implemented a 6-stage community engagement model in New Rochelle, New York. First, researchers recruited community partners. Second, the project team created community oversight. Third, focus groups discussed concerns generated by genetic variation research. Fourth, community dialogue sessions addressed focus group findings and developed policy recommendations. Fifth, a conference was held to present these policy recommendations and to provide a forum for HapMap (haplotype mapping) researchers to dialogue directly with residents. Finally, findings were disseminated via presentations and papers to the participants and to the wider community beyond. The project generated a list of proposed guidelines for genetic variation research that addressed the concerns of New Rochelle residents. Project team members expressed satisfaction with the engagement model overall but expressed concerns about how well community groups were utilized and what segment of the community actually engaged in the project. The PEGV Project represents a model for researchers to engage the general public in policy development about genetic research. There are benefits of such a process beyond the desired genetic research. PMID:21815821

Terry, Sharon F; Christensen, Kurt D; Metosky, Susan; Rudofsky, Gayle; Deignan, Kathleen P; Martinez, Hulda; Johnson-Moore, Penelope; Citrin, Toby

2011-08-04

49

Community Engagement about Genetic Variation Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this article is to describe the methods and effectiveness of the Public Engagement in Genetic Variation and Haplotype Mapping Issues (PEGV) Project, which engaged a community in policy discussion about genetic variation research. The project implemented a 6-stage community engagement model in New Rochelle, New York. First, researchers recruited community partners. Second, the project team created community oversight. Third, focus groups discussed concerns generated by genetic variation research. Fourth, community dialogue sessions addressed focus group findings and developed policy recommendations. Fifth, a conference was held to present these policy recommendations and to provide a forum for HapMap (haplotype mapping) researchers to dialogue directly with residents. Finally, findings were disseminated via presentations and papers to the participants and to the wider community beyond. The project generated a list of proposed guidelines for genetic variation research that addressed the concerns of New Rochelle residents. Project team members expressed satisfaction with the engagement model overall but expressed concerns about how well community groups were utilized and what segment of the community actually engaged in the project. The PEGV Project represents a model for researchers to engage the general public in policy development about genetic research. There are benefits of such a process beyond the desired genetic research. (Population Health Management 2012;15:78–89)

Christensen, Kurt D.; Metosky, Susan; Rudofsky, Gayle; Deignan, Kathleen P.; Martinez, Hulda; Johnson-Moore, Penelope; Citrin, Toby

2012-01-01

50

A decade of community action research.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to reflect on the past decade of research and community action on alcohol and especially on some of the presentations given in the three previous international meetings on community action: in Ontario 1989, San Diego 1992, and Greve Florence 1995. The projects reported on are diverse, reflecting the different cultures represented, but there are also common strands. Among these common strands is the growing consensus that at the heart of successful evaluated community action projects is a process of reciprocal and respectful communication: between different community sectors and also between the community and researchers. While there is increased acknowledgment of the knowledge community sectors bring to planning and implementing community action, there is also an increasing focus on the role of the researcher in providing research-based knowledge to facilitate the development of effective community strategies to reduce alcohol-use-related harm. This is in contrast to a research role which emphasizes only outcome evaluation. Another development apparent through the years covered in the international meeting is the use of more naturalistic approaches to evaluation in acknowledgment that experimental design may not be feasible or scientifically appropriate for the evaluation of community action projects. PMID:10677875

Casswell, S

2000-01-01

51

Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness.

G. W. Casarett; L. A. Braby; J. J. Broerse; M. M. Elkind; D. T. Goodhead; N. L. Oleinick

1994-01-01

52

Researchers' perspectives on collective/community co-authorship in community-based participatory indigenous research.  

PubMed

Ethical tensions exist regarding the value and practice of acknowledging Indigenous contributions in community-based participatory research (CBPR). Semistructured phone interviews with researchers documented their perspectives on authorship in the scholarly dissemination of their community-based participatory Indigenous research. Thematic analysis resulted in four key ideas: (1) current practices regarding methods of acknowledging community contributions; (2) requirements for shared authorship with individual versus collective/community partners; (3) benefits to sharing authorship with collective/community partners; and (4) risks to sharing authorship with collective/community partners. Findings suggest an emerging but inconsistent practice. PMID:21133784

Castleden, Heather; Morgan, Vanessa Sloan; Neimanis, Aelita

2010-12-01

53

Rural Oregon community perspectives: introducing community-based participatory research into a community health coalition.  

PubMed

The Community Health Improvement Partnership (CHIP) model has supported community health development in more than 100 communities nationally. In 2011, four rural Oregon CHIPs collaborated with investigators from the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN), a component of the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), to obtain training on research methods, develop and implement pilot research studies on childhood obesity, and explore matches with academic partners. This article summarizes the experiences of the Lincoln County CHIP, established in 2003, as it transitioned from CHIP to Community Health Improvement and Research Partnership (CHIRP). Our story and lessons learned may inform rural community-based health coalitions and academicians who are engaged in or considering Community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Utilizing existing infrastructure and relationships in community and academic settings provides an ideal starting point for rural, bidirectional research partnerships. PMID:24056513

Young-Lorion, Julia; Davis, Melinda M; Kirks, Nancy; Hsu, Anna; Slater, Jana Kay; Rollins, Nancy; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul

2013-01-01

54

Research collaboration in health management research communities  

PubMed Central

Background This study uses scientometrics methodology to reveal the status quo and emerging issues of collaboration in health management. Methods We searched all the articles with the keyword “health management” in the period 1999–2011 in Web of Knowledge, then 3067 articles were found. Methods such as Social network analysis (SNA), co-authorship, co-word analysis were used in this study. Results Analysis of the past 13 years of research in the field of health management indicates that, whether the production of scientific research, or authors, institutions and scientific research collaboration at the national level, collaboration behavior has been growing steadily across all collaboration types. However, the international scientific research cooperation about health management study between countries needs to be further encouraged. 17 researchers can be seen as the academic leaders in this field. 37 research institutions play a vital role in the information dissemination and resources control in health management. The component analysis found that 22 research groups can be regarded as the backbone in this field. The 8 institution groups consisting of 33 institutions form the core of this field. USA, UK and Australia lie in the center by cohesive subgroup analysis; Based on keywords analysis, 44 keywords with high frequency such as care, disease, system and model were involved in the health management field. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although it is growing steadily, collaboration behavior about health management study needs to be enhanced, especially between different institutions or countries/regions, which would promote the progress and internationalization of health management. Besides, researchers should pay attention to the cooperation of representative scholars and institutions, as well as the hot areas of research, because their experience would help us promote the research development of our nation.

2013-01-01

55

The Communication Research Team As Learning Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Colleges and universities have come to recognize that creating smaller learning communities is a useful strategy for engaging undergraduate students. Learning communities can provide students with a sense of identity and with connections to faculty, the institution, and knowledge. Despite their popularity, there is little empirical research that…

Janusik, Laura A.; Wolvin, Andrew D.

2007-01-01

56

Needed Research Concerning the Community College Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a result of compiling a recent comprehensive review of information on community college students, the author of this paper identifies areas where further research is needed. First, community colleges should be acquainted with who is not attending college. Knowledge of the needs and interests of potential students is necessary for program…

Koos, Leonard V.

57

Growing a learning community for research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Th is case study gives an account of work in progress to grow a learning community of graduate research students that explicitly addresses the systemic complexity of a contemporary university, and provides strategies to overcome some limitations of traditional individual supervision, while retaining its main strengths. Faced with the experience of a shift in organisational culture away from a community

Ian Hughes

58

Cancer Research in Your Community  

Cancer.gov

 Information about cancer research going on across the United States and details on the National Cancer Institute’s nationwide efforts to connect researchers, patients, health care providers, and others.

59

Youth Participation in Community Evaluation Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides perspective on the increasing involvement of young people in community evaluation research, identifies participation patterns and evaluation roles of young people, and draws conclusions from empirically based practice. (SLD)|

Ckeckoway, Barry; Richards-Schuster, Katie

2003-01-01

60

Reciprocal excitation between biological and robotic research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While biological principles have inspired researchers in computational and engineering research for a long time, there is still rather limited knowledge flow back from computational to biological domains. This paper presents examples of our work where research on anthropomorphic robots lead us to new insights into explaining biological movement phenomena, starting from behavioral studies up to brain imaging studies. Our research over the past years has focused on principles of trajectory formation with nonlinear dynamical systems, on learning internal models for nonlinear control, and on advanced topics like imitation learning. The formal and empirical analyses of the kinematics and dynamics of movements systems and the tasks that they need to perform lead us to suggest principles of motor control that later on we found surprisingly related to human behavior and even brain activity.

Schaal, Stefan; Sternad, Dagmar; Dean, William; Kotosaka, Shinya; Osu, Rieko; Kawato, Mitsuo

2000-10-01

61

JUSTIFYING COMMUNITY BENEFIT REQUIREMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH.  

PubMed

It is widely agreed that foreign sponsors of research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are morally required to ensure that their research benefits the broader host community. There is no agreement, however, about how much benefit or what type of benefit research sponsors must provide, nor is there agreement about what group of people is entitled to benefit. To settle these questions, it is necessary to examine why research sponsors have an obligation to benefit the broader host community, not only their subjects. Justifying this claim is not straightforward. There are three justifications for an obligation to benefit host communities that each apply to some research, but not to all. Each requires a different amount of benefit, and each requires benefit to be directed toward a different group. If research involves significant net risk to LMIC subjects, research must provide adequate benefit to people in LMICs to avoid an unjustified appeal to subjects' altruism. If research places significant burdens on public resources, research must provide fair compensation to the community whose public resources are burdened. If research is for profit, research sponsors must contribute adequately to the upkeep of public goods from which they benefit in order to avoid the wrong of free-riding, even if their use of these public goods is not burdensome. PMID:23025255

Hughes, Robert C

2012-10-01

62

The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR): a model organism database providing a centralized, curated gateway to Arabidopsis biology, research materials and community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely-studied plant today. The concerted efforts of over 11 000 researchers and 4000 organizations around the world are generating a rich diversity and quantity of information and materials. This information is made available through a comprehensive on-line resource called the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) (http:\\/\\/arabidopsis.org), which is accessible via commonly used web browsers and can

Seung Yon Rhee; William D. Beavis; Tanya Z. Berardini; Guanghong Chen; David A. Dixon; Aisling Doyle; Margarita Garcia-hernandez; Eva Huala; Gabriel Lander; Mary Montoya; Neil Miller; Lukas A. Mueller; Suparna Mundodi; Leonore Reiser; Julie Tacklind; Dan C. Weems; Yihe Wu; Iris Xu; Daniel Yoo; Jungwon Yoon; Peifen Zhang

2003-01-01

63

FDA: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is "to protect and enhance the public health through the regulation of biological and related products including blood, vaccines, allergenics, tissues, and cellular and gene therapies." Their mission is an important one, and consumers and scientists will want to bookmark this page and return to it on a regular basis. On this page, visitors can sign up for their RSS feed and read through some key resources. Users can also browse resources on biologics depending on their needs: consumer, healthcare and industry level information is provided.

64

HIV/AIDS Community-Based Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-based research has evolved in the field of HIV/AIDS health promotion as a distinct expression of participatory action research in adult education. The authors of this chapter reflect on more than a decade of local knowledge construction to organize and improve the practice of HIV/AIDS health promotion in a variety of contexts.

Trussler, Terry; Marchand, Rick

2005-01-01

65

Protecting communities in pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing EELS literature has usefully identified the scope of ethical issues posed by pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic research. The time has come for in-depth examination of particular ethical issues. The involvement of racial and ethnic communities in pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic research is contentious precisely because it touches upon the science and politics of studying racial and ethnic difference. To date,

Charles Weijer; P. B. Miller

2004-01-01

66

Genomics and future biological weapons: the need for preventive action by the biomedical community.  

PubMed

There is an increasing concern within both the scientific and security communities that the ongoing revolution in biology has great potential to be misused in offensive biological weapons programs. In light of the 11 September tragedy, we can no longer afford to be complacent about the possibility of biological terrorism. Here we review the major relevant trends in genomics research and development, and discuss how these capabilities might be misused in the design of new bioweapons. We also discuss how the breakthroughs that have come from the genomics revolution may be used to enhance detection, protection and treatment so that biological warfare agents are never used. PMID:11687792

Fraser, C M; Dando, M R

2001-11-01

67

Community outreach at biomedical research facilities.  

PubMed

For biomedical researchers to fulfill their responsibility for protecting the environment, they must do more than meet the scientific challenge of reducing the number and volume of hazardous materials used in their laboratories and the engineering challenge of reducing pollution and shifting to cleaner energy sources. They must also meet the public relations challenge of informing and involving their neighbors in these efforts. The experience of the Office of Community Liaison of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in meeting the latter challenge offers a model and several valuable lessons for other biomedical research facilities to follow. This paper is based on presentations by an expert panel during the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held 1--2 November 1999 at NIH, Bethesda, Maryland. The risks perceived by community members are often quite different from those identified by officials at the biomedical research facility. The best antidote for misconceptions is more and better information. If community organizations are to be informed participants in the decision-making process, they need a simple but robust mechanism for identifying and evaluating the environmental hazards in their community. Local government can and should be an active and fully informed partner in planning and emergency preparedness. In some cases this can reduce the regulatory burden on the biomedical research facility. In other cases it might simplify and expedite the permitting process or help the facility disseminate reliable information to the community. When a particular risk, real or perceived, is of special concern to the community, community members should be involved in the design, implementation, and evaluation of targeted risk assessment activities. Only by doing so will the community have confidence in the results of those activities. NIH has involved community members in joint efforts to deal with topics as varied as recycling and soil testing. These ad hoc efforts are more likely to succeed if community members and groups have also been included in larger and longer term advisory committees. These committees institutionalize the outreach process. This can provide the facility with vocal and influential allies who create an independent line of communication with the larger community. PMID:11124126

Goldman, M; Hedetniemi, J N; Herbert, E R; Sassaman, J S; Walker, B C

2000-12-01

68

Enhancing Biological Understanding through Undergraduate Field Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a PEET (Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy) project designed for undergraduate biology students at Boston University's College of General Studies. Reports that the project used a small group field research setting, facilitating critical thinking skills and group dynamics. Discusses the issue of how to introduce and…

Hammer, Samuel

2001-01-01

69

Building Research Infrastructure in Community Health Centers: A Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) Report.  

PubMed

This article introduces the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN), a practice-based research network of community health centers (CHCs). Established by the Health Resources and Services Administration in 2010, CHARN is a network of 4 community research nodes, each with multiple affiliated CHCs and an academic center. The four nodes (18 individual CHCs and 4 academic partners in 9 states) are supported by a data coordinating center. Here we provide case studies detailing how CHARN is building research infrastructure and capacity in CHCs, with a particular focus on how community practice-academic partnerships were facilitated by the CHARN structure. The examples provided by the CHARN nodes include many of the building blocks of research capacity: communication capacity and "matchmaking" between providers and researchers; technology transfer; research methods tailored to community practice settings; and community institutional review board infrastructure to enable community oversight. We draw lessons learned from these case studies that we hope will serve as examples for other networks, with special relevance for community-based networks seeking to build research infrastructure in primary care settings. PMID:24004710

Likumahuwa, Sonja; Song, Hui; Singal, Robbie; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crane, Heidi; Muench, John; Sim, Shao-Chee; Devoe, Jennifer E

70

Evaluating Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Community-Partnered Science and Community Health  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2007, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) Policy Research Center (PRC) has partnered with the Universities of New Mexico and Washington to study the science of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Our goal is to identify facilitators and barriers to effective community–academic partnerships in American Indian and other communities, which face health disparities. Objectives We have described herein the scientific design of our National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study (2009–2013) and lessons learned by having a strong community partner leading the research efforts. Methods The research team is implementing a mixed-methods study involving a survey of principal investigators (PIs) and partners across the nation and in-depth case studies of CBPR projects. Results We present preliminary findings on methods and measures for community-engaged research and eight lessons learned thus far regarding partnership evaluation, advisory councils, historical trust, research capacity development of community partner, advocacy, honoring each other, messaging, and funding. Conclusions Study methodologies and lessons learned can help community–academic research partnerships translate research in communities.

Hicks, Sarah; Duran, Bonnie; Wallerstein, Nina; Avila, Magdalena; Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie; Magarati, Maya; Mainer, Elana; Martin, Diane; Muhammad, Michael; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Sahota, Puneet; Simonds, Vanessa; Sussman, Andrew; Tafoya, Greg; Hat, Emily White

2013-01-01

71

Using Community-Based Research Projects To Teach Research Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a community-based research project that collaborated with the police department to survey female residents' attitudes toward the role of the police in handling domestic violence cases. Explains that this project provided students with the opportunity to directly experience the research process early in their undergraduate psychology…

Chapdelaine, Andrea; Chapman, Barbara L.

1999-01-01

72

Molecular biology research in neuropsychiatry: India's contribution  

PubMed Central

Neuropsychiatric disorders represent the second largest cause of morbidity worldwide. These disorders have complex etiology and patho-physiology. The major lacunae in the biology of the psychiatric disorders include genomics, biomarkers and drug discovery, for the early detection of the disease, and have great application in the clinical management of disease. Indian psychiatrists and scientists played a significant role in filling the gaps. The present annotation provides in depth information related to research contributions on the molecular biology research in neuropsychiatric disorders in India. There is a great need for further research in this direction as to understand the genetic association of the neuropsychiatric disorders; molecular biology has a tremendous role to play. The alterations in gene expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction and depression. The development of transgenic neuropsychiatric animal models is of great thrust areas. No studies from India in this direction. Biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders are of great help to the clinicians for the early diagnosis of the disorders. The studies related to gene-environment interactions, DNA instability, oxidative stress are less studied in neuropsychiatric disorders and making efforts in this direction will lead to pioneers in these areas of research in India. In conclusion, we provided an insight for future research direction in molecular understanding of neuropsychiatry disorders.

Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Ramesh, B. N.; Vasudevaraju, P.; Rao, K. S. J.

2010-01-01

73

A democratic university–community administrative body dedicated to expanding community-engaged research: The Tufts Community Research Center (TCRC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits and challenges of community-engaged research (CEnR) partnerships are well documented. The barriers to building sustainable university–community partnerships are many, ranging from a lack of institutional support, historical conflicts, differing time scales, and divergent philosophies to lack of infrastructure on both sides. In order to promote CEnR partnerships and provide a forum to address the challenges of community research

Linda Sprague Martinez; Flavia C. Peréa; Alyssa Ursillo; Warren Goldstein-Gelb; Doug Brugge

2012-01-01

74

Youth Participation in Community Evaluation Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Should young people participate in community evaluation research and, if so, what roles should they play? We believe that youth participation is desirable, but that it remains relatively undeveloped as a field of practice or subject of study. For this reason, this paper provides perspective on the increasing involvement by young people, identifies the participation patterns and evaluation roles of

Barry Checkoway; Katie Richards-Schuster

2003-01-01

75

Youth Participation in Community Evaluation Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Should young people participate in community evaluation research and, if so, what roles should they play? We believe that youth participation is desirable, but that it remains relatively undevel- oped as a field of practice or subject of study. For this reason, this paper provides perspective on the increasing involvement by young people, identifies the participation patterns and evaluation

Barry Checkoway; Katie Richards-Schuster

2009-01-01

76

The role of community review in evaluating the risks of human genetic variation research.  

PubMed Central

The practicality and moral value of community review of human genetic research has become a focus of debate. Examples from two Native American communities are used to address four aspects of that debate: (1) the value of community review in larger, geographically dispersed populations; (2) the identification of culturally specific risks; (3) the potential conflict between individual and group assessments of research-related risks; and (4) the confusion of social categories with biological categories. Our experiences working with these two communities suggest that: (1) successful community review may require the involvement of private social units (e.g., families); (2) culturally specific implications of genetic research may be identifiable only by community members and are of valid concern in their moral universes; (3) community concerns can be incorporated into existing review mechanisms without necessarily giving communities the power to veto research proposals; and (4) the conflation of social and biological categories presents recruitment problems for genetic studies. These conclusions argue for the use of community review to identify and minimize research-related risks posed by genetic studies. Community review also can assist in facilitating participant recruitment and retention, as well as in developing partnerships between researchers and communities.

Foster, M W; Sharp, R R; Freeman, W L; Chino, M; Bernsten, D; Carter, T H

1999-01-01

77

Community structure in social and biological networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent studies have focused on the statistical properties of networked systems such as social networks and the Worldwide Web. Researchers have concentrated particularly on a few properties that seem to be common to many networks: the small-world property, power-law degree distributions, and network transitivity. In this article, we highlight another property that is found in many networks,

Michelle Girvan; M. E. J. Newman

2002-01-01

78

Biological Communities at the Florida Escarpment Resemble Hydrothermal Vent Taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dense biological communities of large epifaunal taxa similar to those found along ridge crest vents at the East Pacific Rise were discovered in the abyssal Gulf of Mexico. These assemblages occur on a passive continental margin at the base of the Florida Escarpment, the interface between the relatively impermeable hemipelagic clays of the distal Mississippi Fan and the jointed Cretaceous

C. K. Paull; B. Hecker; R. Commeau; R. P. Freeman-Lynde; C. Neumann; W. P. Corso; S. Golubic; J. E. Hook; E. Sikes; J. Curray

1984-01-01

79

[Cremation--biological source for gender research].  

PubMed

This article presents a project designed for prehistoric gender research. It focuses on the late Bronze Age to early Iron Age urnfield in Cottbus "Alvensleben-Kaserne", Brandenburg. The cremation remains were emptied from the urns layer by layer. This provided excellent conditions for a critical reconstruction of the funeral rituals related to the cremation. Detailed recording of each bone fragment in each layer made possible the discovery of the ritual deposition of burnt bones according to the anatomical order. Cremated bones, a primarily biological source, are also a substantial resource for cultural historical research, e.g., on funeral practices as well as social structures. PMID:15509087

Grosskopf, Birgit; Gramsch, Alexander

2004-09-01

80

Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem.

McCullough, Dr. Dale [University of California, Berkeley; Bartholow, Dr. John [U.S. Department of Fish and Wildlife; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; al., et. [Various Institutes

2009-01-01

81

2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights  

SciTech Connect

LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes; and develop technology and tools which enhance healthcare. We execute our roles through integrated multidisciplinary programs that apply our competencies in: microbial and mammalian genomics--the characterization of DNA, the genes it encodes, their regulation and function and their role in living systems; protein function and biochemistry - the structure, function, and interaction of proteins and other molecules involved in the integrated biochemical function of the processes of life; computational modeling and understanding of biochemical systems--the application of high-speed computing technology to simulate and visualize complex, integrated biological processes; bioinformatics--databasing, networking, and analysis of biological data; and bioinstrumentation--the application of physical and engineering technologies to novel biological and biochemical measurements, laboratory automation, medical device development, and healthcare technologies. We leverage the Laboratory's exceptional capabilities in the physical, computational, chemical, environmental and engineering sciences. We partner with industry and universities to utilize their state-of-the art technology and science and to make our capabilities and discoveries available to the broader research community.

Prange, C

2003-03-01

82

Teacher Research and Other Research Communities: A Case for Desegregation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The overall segregationist milieu of the educational enterprise serves to forestall movement in the search of a comprehensive theory of literacy and literacy instruction. Building such a theory mandates a democratically disposed, pluralistic research community. Sociologically, the theory-to-practice norm sustains an artificial hierarchy within…

O'Flahavan, John F.

83

Detecting and evaluating communities in complex human and biological networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a simple method for detecting the community structure in a network can by utilizing a measure of closeness between nodes. This approach readily leads to a method of coarse graining the network, which allows the detection of the natural hierarchy (or hierarchies) of community structure without appealing to an unknown resolution parameter. The closeness measure can also be used to evaluate the robustness of an individual node's assignment to its community (rather than evaluating only the quality of the global structure). Each of these methods in community detection and evaluation are illustrated using a variety of real world networks of either biological or sociological importance and illustrate the power and flexibility of the approach.

Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

2012-02-01

84

Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983  

SciTech Connect

This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)

Barr, S.H. (ed.)

1984-08-01

85

Race in biological and biomedical research.  

PubMed

The concept of race has had a significant influence on research in human biology since the early 19th century. But race was given its meaning and social impact in the political sphere and subsequently intervened in science as a foreign concept, not grounded in the dominant empiricism of modern biology. The uses of race in science were therefore often disruptive and controversial; at times, science had to be retrofitted to accommodate race, and science in turn was often used to explain and justify race. This relationship was unstable in large part because race was about a phenomenon that could not be observed directly, being based on claims about the structure and function of genomic DNA. Over time, this relationship has been characterized by distinct phases, evolving from the inference of genetic effects based on the observed phenotype to the measurement of base-pair variation in DNA. Despite this fundamental advance in methodology, liabilities imposed by the dual political-empirical origins of race persist. On the one hand, an optimistic prediction can be made that just as geology made it possible to overturn the myth of the recent creation of the earth and evolution told us where the living world came from, molecular genetics will end the use of race in biology. At the same time, because race is fundamentally a political and not a scientific idea, it is possible that only a political intervention will relieve us of the burden of race. PMID:24186487

Cooper, Richard S

2013-11-01

86

Community College Class Devoted to Astronomical Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A class at a small community college, Central Arizona College, was dedicated to astronomical research. Although hands-on research is usually reserved for professionals or graduate students, and occasionally individual undergraduate seniors, we decided to introduce community college students to science by devoting an entire class to research. Nine students were formed into three closely cooperating teams. The class as a whole decided that all three teams would observe Cepheid stars photometrically using a robotic telescope at the Fairborn Observatory. Speaker-phone conference calls were made to Kenneth E. Kissell for help on Cepheid selection, Michael A. Seeds for instructions on the use of the Phoenix-10 robotic telescope, and Douglas S. Hall for assitance in selecting appropriate comparison and check stars. The students obtained critical references on past observations from Konkoly Observatory via airmail. They spent several long night sessions at our apartment compiling the data, making phase calculations, and creating graphs. Finally, the students wrote up their results for publication in a forthcoming special issue of the international journal on stellar photometry, the IAPPP Communication. We concluded that conducting team research is an excellent way to introduce community college students to science, that a class devoted to cooperation as opposed to competition was refreshing, and that group student conference calls with working astronomers were inspiring. A semester, however, is a rather short time to initiate and complete research projects. The students were Sally Baldwin, Cory Bushnell, Bryan Dehart, Pamela Frantz, Carl Fugate, Mike Grill, Jessica Harger, Klay Lapa, and Diane Wiseman. We are pleased to acknowledge the assistance provided by the astronomers mentioned above, James Stuckey (Campus Dean), and our Union Institute and University doctoral committee members Florence Pittman Matusky, Donald S. Hayes, and Karen S. Grove.

Genet, R. M.; Genet, C. L.

2002-05-01

87

Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Featured here is an important resource for obtaining science articles online. Wide-ranging institutional access as well as free services make this resources useful without an individual subscription. In addition, in January 2000, the American Institute of Physics (AIP) and the American Physical Society (APS) launched a new virtual journal. Representing the first entry in a series of journals the Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research will gather "into one spot all the papers on a given topic that appear in a wide range of premier physics-related journals." The articles have been pre-selected by expert editors, so that specialists may turn to this convenient resource to stay on top of cutting-edge research.

2007-07-13

88

Creating community-based participatory research in a diverse community: a case study.  

PubMed

Communities struggle to create research guidelines for ethical collaborative research within their locale. In Lawrence, Massachusetts (USA) a collaborative group of community members and academic researchers, known as the Mayor's Health Task Force Research Initiative Working Group, took on the challenge of creating guidelines for ethical community-based research. This case study of the Task Force's work addresses questions of research ethics in a diverse community where families struggle with few resources and face many health disparities, under the often-intrusive and unhelpful scrutiny of researchers from the many nearby major research universities. Representatives from the city, community organizations, and research universities developed a set of core ethical principles for research partnerships, a list of criteria for agreements between partners, and a model to help guide researchers and community members toward equitable and mutually beneficial research. This model can be generalized to similar other communities. PMID:19385742

Silka, Linda; Cleghorn, G Dean; Grullón, Milagro; Tellez, Trinidad

2008-06-01

89

Engaging the Deaf American Sign Language Community: Lessons From a Community-Based Participatory Research Center  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous publications demonstrate the importance of community-based participatory research (CBPR) in community health research, but few target the Deaf community. The Deaf community is understudied and underrepresented in health research despite suspected health disparities and communication barriers. Objectives The goal of this paper is to share the lessons learned from the implementation of CBPR in an understudied community of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users in the greater Rochester, New York, area. Methods We review the process of CBPR in a Deaf ASL community and identify the lessons learned. Results Key CBPR lessons include the importance of engaging and educating the community about research, ensuring that research benefits the community, using peer-based recruitment strategies, and sustaining community partnerships. These lessons informed subsequent research activities. Conclusions This report focuses on the use of CBPR principles in a Deaf ASL population; lessons learned can be applied to research with other challenging-to-reach populations.

McKee, Michael; Thew, Denise; Starr, Matthew; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Reid, John T.; Graybill, Patrick; Velasquez, Julia; Pearson, Thomas

2013-01-01

90

Disease Maps as Context for Community Mapping: A Methodological Approach for Linking Confidential Health Information with Local Geographical Knowledge for Community Health Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health is increasingly understood as a product of multiple levels of influence, from individual biological and behavioral\\u000a influences to community and societal level contextual influences. In understanding these contextual influences, community\\u000a health researchers have increasingly employed both geographic methodologies, including Geographic Information Systems (GIS),\\u000a and community participatory approaches. However, despite growing interest in the role for community participation and local

Kirsten M. M. BeyerSara; Sara Comstock; Renea Seagren

2010-01-01

91

Community-university collaborations: creating hybrid research and collective identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we explore the politics of community-university collaborative research and activism. We are scholars based in universities as well as members of various ‘communities’—queer, Pasifika and M?ori—hence we regularly venture beyond the formal research spaces of the academy and enter into critical collaborative research with others working in ‘the community’. In what follows we first outline collaborative community-based

Jenny Cave; L Johnston; Carey-Ann Morrison; Yvonne Underhill-Sem

2012-01-01

92

The Healthy African American Families (HAAF) Project: From Community-Based Participatory Research To Community-Partnered Participatory Research  

PubMed Central

During the past two decades, there has been an increased use of community-based participatory research in public health activities, especially as part of efforts to understand health disparities affecting communities of color. This article describes the history and lessons learned of a long-standing community participatory project, Healthy African American Families (HAAF), in Los Angeles, California. HAAF evolved from a partnership formed by a community advisory board, university, and federal health agency to an independent, incorporated community organization that facilitates and brokers research and health promotion activities within its community. HAAF created mechanisms for community education and networks of community relationships and reciprocity through which mutual support, research, and interventions are integrated. These sustained, institutionalized relationships unite resources and both community and scientific expertise in a community-partnered participatory research model to address multiple health problems in the community, including preterm birth, HIV, asthma, depression, and diabetes. The HAAF participatory process builds on existing community resiliency and resources and on centuries of self-help, problem-solving, cooperative action, and community activism within the African American community. HAAF demonstrates how community-partnered participatory research can be a mechanism for directing power, collective action, system change, and social justice in the process of addressing health disparities at the community level.

Ferre, Cynthia D.; Jones, Loretta; Norris, Keith C.; Rowley, Diane L.

2013-01-01

93

The Community as Text: Using the Community for Collaborative Internet Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a year-long community research project used for the last seven years with the author's senior English class, part of the web-based student research collaboration project called "The Kansas Collaborative Research Network" (KanCRN). Describes teaching students how to research their community; four on-line research tutorials; structure of…

Lawrence, Dennis P.

1999-01-01

94

The Brazilian research contribution to knowledge of the plant communities from Antarctic ice free areas.  

PubMed

This work aims to summarize the results of research carried out by Brazilian researchers on the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas during the last twenty five years. Since 1988 field work has been carried out in Elephant Island, King George Island, Nelson Island and Deception Island. During this period six papers were published on the chemistry of lichens, seven papers on plant taxonomy, five papers on plant biology, two studies on UVB photoprotection, three studies about the relationships between plant communities and bird colonies and eleven papers on plant communities from ice free areas. At the present, Brazilian botanists are researching the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas in order to understand their relationships to soil microbial communities, the biodiversity, the distribution of the plants populations and their relationship with birds colonies. In addition to these activities, a group of Brazilian researchers are undertaking studies related to Antarctic plant genetic diversity, plant chemistry and their biotechnological applications. PMID:24068084

Pereira, Antonio B; Putzke, Jair

2013-09-01

95

Global Biology Research Program: Program Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biological processes which play a dominant role in these cycles which transform and transfer much of this material throughout the biosphere are examined. A greater understanding of planetary biological processes as revealed by the interaction of the biota...

1983-01-01

96

Quantification of Open Source Research Publications in Biological Sciences for Biological Weapons Development Utility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is on-going concern, expressed both by the scientific and national security communities, about the publication of scientific information that can be exploited in the development of biological weapons. There is little disagreement that aggressors int...

R. Schwarzhoff

2003-01-01

97

Has Modern Biology Entered the Mouth? The Clinical Impact of Biological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three areas of biological research that are beginning to have an impact on clinical medicine are examined, including molecular biology, cell biology, and biotechnology. It is concluded that oral biologists and educators must work cooperatively to bring rapid biological and biomedical advances into dental training in a meaningful way. (MSE)|

Baum, Bruce J.

1991-01-01

98

Has Modern Biology Entered the Mouth? The Clinical Impact of Biological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three areas of biological research that are beginning to have an impact on clinical medicine are examined, including molecular biology, cell biology, and biotechnology. It is concluded that oral biologists and educators must work cooperatively to bring rapid biological and biomedical advances into dental training in a meaningful way. (MSE)

Baum, Bruce J.

1991-01-01

99

Building Collaborative Communities of Enquiry in Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the concept of community of enquiry through an examination of 3 case studies: (a) a school-based community of enquiry involving pupils, teachers, and researchers; (b) a community of enquiry involving teachers from around 100 different schools in a Scottish local authority, together with policy advisers and researchers; and…

Christie, Donald; Cassidy, Claire; Skinner, Don; Coutts, Norman; Sinclair, Christine; Rimpilainen, Sanna; Wilson, Alastair

2007-01-01

100

Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)|

Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

1996-01-01

101

Export flux and stability as regulators of community composition in pelagic marine biological communities: Implications for regime shifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regime shifts occur when a system transitions from one stable configuration to another. Such abrupt changes in biological communities may reflect small changes in environmental conditions such as temperature, oxygen concentration, or irradiance. Although it seems clear that biological communities are not randomly organized with respect to their functional components, there is disagreement concerning the factors that control that organization.

Edward Laws

2004-01-01

102

Sharing Control: Developing Research Literacy through Community-Based Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article suggests that the methodology of community-based action research provides concrete strategies for fostering effective community problem solving. To argue for a community research pedagogy, the author draws upon past and present scholarship in action research and participatory action research, experiences teaching an undergraduate…

Juergensmeyer, Erik

2011-01-01

103

Integrating Community Engaged Research into Existing School of Education Graduate Research Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the importance of Community Engaged Research, and how it can be embedded into an existing Master of Science in Education degree program at Dominican University of California. Community Engaged Research rejects the traditional research model, opting instead for a dialogic approach to research. Both the community and the…

Peters, Madalienne.; Gauthier, Karey

2009-01-01

104

Research Ethics Education for Community-Engaged Research: A Review and Research Agenda  

PubMed Central

Community engagement is increasingly becoming an integral part of research. “Community-engaged research” (CEnR) introduces new stakeholders as well as unique challenges to the protection of participants and the integrity of the research process. We—a group of representatives of CTSA-funded institutions and others who share expertise in research ethics and CEnR—have identified gaps in the literature regarding (1) ethical issues unique to CEnR; (2) the particular instructional needs of academic investigators, community research partners, and IRB members; and (3) best practices for teaching research ethics. This paper presents what we know, as well as what we still need to learn, in order to develop quality research ethics educational materials tailored to the full range of stakeholder groups in CEnR.

Anderson, Emily E.; Solomon, Stephanie; Heitman, Elizabeth; DuBois, James M.; Fisher, Celia B.; Kost, Rhonda G.; Lawless, Mary Ellen; Ramsey, Cornelia; Jones, Bonnie; Ammerman, Alice; Ross, Lainie Friedman

2012-01-01

105

Community-oriented support and research structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coordinated by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Europe is restructuring and strengthening its high-performance computing infrastructure with the aim to create a model HPC ecosystem. At the tip of the pyramid, up to six centres are envisaged that will operate systems of the highest performance class. The HPC Research Infrastructure (HPC-RI) will comprise European, national and regional centres. Science communities are integral partners, strong links will include Grid and Cloud users. The HPC-RI strives at providing scientists all over Europe, on the one hand, with unlimited and independent access to state-of-the-art computer resources in all performance classes and, on the other hand, with a world-class pan-European competence and support network. While the hardware-oriented buildup of the infrastructure is making progress, high-quality user support and software development in the upcoming era of unprecedented parallelism and exascale on the horizon have become the imminent challenges. This has been clearly recognized by the European Commission, who will issue calls for proposals to fund petascale software development in summer 2009. Although traditional support structures are well established in Europe's major supercomputing centres, it is questionable if these structures are able to meet the challenges of the future: in general, support structures are based on cross-disciplinary computer science and mathematics teams; disciplinary computational science support usually is given in an ad-hoc, project-oriented manner. In this paper, we describe our approach to establish a suitable support structure-Simulation Laboratories (SL). SLs are currently being established at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre of the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany. While SLs are community-oriented, i.e. each SL focusses on a specific community, they are structured in a strictly interdisciplinary manner, comprising mathematicians, computer scientists and technicians along with disciplinary scientists. SLs are led by a disciplinary scientist, and representatives of the respective disciplines give guidance to its operation. This concept is proposed as a model for and might become an integral element of a future pan-European HPC support and software research structure.

Attig, Norbert; Eickermann, Thomas; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas

2009-07-01

106

Community-based knowledge transfer and exchange: Helping community-based organizations link research to action  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Community-based organizations (CBOs) are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts. CBOs increasingly turn to community-based research (CBR) given its participatory focus and emphasis on linking research to action. In order to further facilitate the use of research evidence by CBOs, we

Michael G. Wilson; John N. Lavis; Robb Travers; Sean B. Rourke

2010-01-01

107

Balancing Scientific and Community Interests in Community-Based Participatory Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based participatory research is an approach to studying human populations that emphasizes extensive partnerships between researchers and community members. While there are many advantages of this approach, it also faces a number of conceptual and practical challenges, one of which is managing the conflict that sometimes arises between promoting scientific and community interests. This essay explores the potential conflict between

David B. Resnik; Caitlin E. Kennedy

2010-01-01

108

Participatory development and implementation of a community research workshop: Experiences from a community based participatory research (CBPR) partnership  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While community based participatory research (CBPR) principles stress the importance of "equitable partnerships" and an "empowering and power-sharing process that attends to social inequalities", descriptions of actual projects often cite the challenges confronted in academic–-community partnerships...

109

Disturbance, biological legacies and community development in stream mesocosms.  

PubMed

Disturbances reduce the biota in stream ecosystems, and leave biological legacies, including remnant species, which potentially influence post-disturbance community development but are poorly understood. We investigated whether three remnant species, the snail Radix peregra, the mayfly Serratella ignita and the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex, affected community development in mesocosms that mimicked disturbed habitat patches in streams. Following 21 days of colonisation, we found that the occurrence of legacy effects depended on the identity of the remnant species. Radix had the strongest effect. By bulldozing epilithon, the snails acted as ecological engineers that promoted settlement of filter feeders (Simuliidae) and invertebrate predators (especially Pentaneura and Aphelocheirus) and strongly deterred settlement of non-predatory chironomids (e.g. Heterotrissocladius and Microtendipes). Gammarus increased in density (by 665%) where remnant, probably through rapid reproduction. Baetis and Pentaneura were scarce, and Asellus absent, in remnant Gammarus treatments, as a consequence of interference and/or predation by the amphipods. In contrast, Serratella tolerated the colonisation of immigrant species and did not affect the structure of the developing benthic community. Despite the observed effects on the presence and abundance of benthos, remnant fauna had no significant effect on assemblage taxon richness, or that of any specific trophic group. The contrasting effects of remnant species on immigrant colonisation echoed differences in their life-history traits and foraging behaviours. Our results indicate that biota can generate spatial patchiness of epilithon and benthic invertebrates in stream ecosystems. PMID:16639570

Ledger, Mark E; Harris, Rebecca M L; Milner, Alexander M; Armitage, Patrick D

2006-04-26

110

Misbehaviors of Front-Line Research Personnel and the Integrity of Community-Based Research  

PubMed Central

There has been little empirical research into misconduct and misbehavior among community research workers who recruit and collect data in vulnerable and marginalized health populations and are also members of those same communities. We conducted qualitative interviews with community research workers and traditional research assistants to understand the context and consequences of misbehaviors that pose a threat to research ethics and data integrity. In our sample, more community research workers acknowledged engaging in research wrongdoing than did traditional research assistants. These behaviors were most prevalent among community research workers who were not well-integrated into the research team. We suggest best practices for investigators to promote an environment that supports research integrity in research projects that employ community research workers.

True, Gala; Alexander, Leslie B.; Richman, Kenneth A.

2012-01-01

111

Enacting Decolonized Methodologies: The "Doing" of Research in Educational Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Indigenous scholars have debated the impact that researchers and the act of researching have on Native and Indigenous people and communities. Although literature on this subject has grown, little has been written explicitly laying out "the doing" of research with these communities. The authors seek to articulate their "doing" by drawing upon the…

Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Quigley, Cassie; Yazzie-Mintz, Tarajean

2012-01-01

112

Enacting Decolonized Methodologies: The "Doing" of Research in Educational Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous scholars have debated the impact that researchers and the act of researching have on Native and Indigenous people and communities. Although literature on this subject has grown, little has been written explicitly laying out "the doing" of research with these communities. The authors seek to articulate their "doing" by drawing upon the…

Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Quigley, Cassie; Yazzie-Mintz, Tarajean

2012-01-01

113

Overview of Medical Data Management Solutions for Research Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical imaging research deals with large, heterogeneous and fragmented amounts of medical images. The need for secure, federated and functional medical image databases is very strong within these research communities. This paper provides an overview of the different projects concerned with building medical image databases for medical imaging research. It also discusses the characteristics and requirements of this community and

Sorina Camarasu-Pop; Frederic Cervenansky; Yonny Cardenas; Jean-Yves Nief; Hugues Benoit-Cattin

2010-01-01

114

Synthetic biology: an emerging research field in China.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology is considered as an emerging research field that will bring new opportunities to biotechnology. There is an expectation that synthetic biology will not only enhance knowledge in basic science, but will also have great potential for practical applications. Synthetic biology is still in an early developmental stage in China. We provide here a review of current Chinese research activities in synthetic biology and its different subfields, such as research on genetic circuits, minimal genomes, chemical synthetic biology, protocells and DNA synthesis, using literature reviews and personal communications with Chinese researchers. To meet the increasing demand for a sustainable development, research on genetic circuits to harness biomass is the most pursed research within Chinese researchers. The environmental concerns are driven force of research on the genetic circuits for bioremediation. The research on minimal genomes is carried on identifying the smallest number of genomes needed for engineering minimal cell factories and research on chemical synthetic biology is focused on artificial proteins and expanded genetic code. The research on protocells is more in combination with the research on molecular-scale motors. The research on DNA synthesis and its commercialisation are also reviewed. As for the perspective on potential future Chinese R&D activities, it will be discussed based on the research capacity and governmental policy. PMID:21729747

Pei, Lei; Schmidt, Markus; Wei, Wei

2011-06-25

115

Ethical Issues in Biological Psychiatric Research with Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis article reviews, discusses, and elaborates considerations and recommendations summarized by the biological research working group at the May 1993 NIMH conference on ethical issues in mental health research on children and adolescents.

L. EUGENE ARNOLD; DAVID M. STOFF; EDWIN COOK; DONALD J. COHEN; MARKUS KRUESI; CLINTON WRIGHT; JOCELYN HATTAB; PHILIP GRAHAM; ALAN ZAMETKIN; F. XAVIER CASTELLANOS; WILLIAM McMAHON; JAMES F. LECKMAN

1995-01-01

116

Research on Construction of Virtual Community in Academic Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the research of virtual community service positioning in academic libraries, this paper selected the interest community as main type in construction. In virtual community construction, the key question we must face is the qualitative determination and quantitative calculation of userspsila similarity relationship. The solution to this problem mainly includes two stages: the acquiring of userspsila interest vector and

Qingling Yue; Yi Jiang

2009-01-01

117

Cell Biology: Basic Research and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers the following topics: Nuclear Genes: Regulation and function; Cytoplasm: Organelles and functions; Cell-cell interactions; Cell motility and the cytoskeleton; Mitochondria: Function and biogenesis; General plant cell biology; Chloroplast...

1986-01-01

118

Structures of Biological Minerals in Dental Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Structural features of some calcium phosphates of biological interest are described. Structure of hydroxyapatite (OHAp), considered as the prototype for the inorganic component of bones and teeth is discussed with respect to the kinds and locations of ion...

M. Mathew S. Takagi

2001-01-01

119

Practicing biology: Undergraduate laboratory research, persistence in science, and the impact of self-efficacy beliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As undergraduate laboratory research internships become more popular and universities devote considerable resources towards promoting them, it is important to clarify what students specifically gain through involvement in these experiences and it is important to understand their impact on the science pipeline. By examining recent findings describing the primary benefits of undergraduate research participation, along with self-efficacy theory, this study aims to provide more explanatory power to the anecdotal and descriptive accounts regarding the relationship between undergraduate research experiences and interest in continuing in science. Furthermore, this study characterizes practices that foster students' confidence in doing scientific work with detailed description and analysis of the interactions of researchers in a laboratory. Phase 1 of the study, a survey of undergraduate biology majors (n=71) at a major research university, investigates the relationships among participation in biology laboratory research internships, biology laboratory self-efficacy strength, and interest in persisting in science. Phase 2 of the study, a two-year investigation of a university biology research laboratory, investigates how scientific communities of practice develop self-efficacy beliefs. The findings suggest that participation in lab internships results in increased interest in continuing in life science/biology graduate school and careers. They also suggest that a significant proportion of that interest is related to the students' biology laboratory self-efficacy. The findings of this study point to two primary ways that undergraduate research participation might work to raise self-efficacy strength. First, university research laboratory communities can provide students with a variety of resources that scaffold them into biology laboratory mastery experiences. Second, university research laboratory communities can provide students with coping and mastery Discourse models and mentors, offering them access to and practice with the social norms of an epistemic community. This study begins to integrate what is currently known regarding student motivation through research experience, traditionally studied by program evaluations, with social learning theories. Given the role strong self-efficacy beliefs play in motivating students, understanding the kinds of social interactions that develop science self-efficacy could provide important policy guidelines for primary investigators who work with undergraduates, department chairs, and other promoters of undergraduate research in colleges and universities.

Berkes, Elizabeth

120

Asking, Witnessing, Interpreting, Knowing: Conducting Qualitative Research in Community Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework to describe the process of conducting community-based qualitative research. Qualitative research activities are presented as a series of interrelated acts called asking, witnessing, interpreting, and knowing. Each act in the research process is described in terms of current qualitative research practices, and illustrated with examples from our own research projects on families with schizophrenia and men's

Catherine H. Stein; Eric S. Mankowski

2004-01-01

121

Clinical and translational research and community engagement: Implications for researcher capacity building  

PubMed Central

This research sought to better understand how clinical and translational research is defined and perceived by community service providers. In addition, the research sought to elicit how the perspectives of service providers may hinder or facilitate collaborative research efforts. The study employed a qualitative methodology, focus groups. A non probability sampling strategy was used to recruit participants from three neighborhoods in the Tufts University’s catchment area. Focus group findings add to the nascent body of literature on how community partners view clinical and translational research and researchers. Findings indicate that cultural disconnects, between researchers and community partners exist, as does mistrust, all of which serve as potential barriers to community research partnerships. This article suggests rethinking the business of community engagement in researcher, particularly as it relates to building research capacity to approach, engage and partner with communities.

Martinez, Linda Sprague; Russell, Beverley; Rubin, Carolyn Leung; Leslie, Laurel K.; Brugge, Doug

2012-01-01

122

Clinical and translational research and community engagement: implications for researcher capacity building.  

PubMed

This research sought to better understand how clinical and translational research is defined and perceived by community service providers. In addition, the research sought to elicit how the perspectives of service providers may hinder or facilitate collaborative research efforts. The study employed a qualitative methodology, focus groups. A nonprobability sampling strategy was used to recruit participants from three neighborhoods in the Tufts University's catchment area. Focus group findings add to the nascent body of literature on how community partners view clinical and translational research and researchers. Findings indicate that cultural disconnects, between researchers and community partners exist, as does mistrust, all of which serve as potential barriers to community research partnerships. This paper suggests rethinking the business of community engagement in researcher, particularly as it relates to building research capacity to approach, engage, and partner with communities. PMID:22883610

Martinez, Linda Sprague; Russell, Beverley; Rubin, Carolyn Leung; Leslie, Laurel K; Brugge, Doug

2012-06-28

123

On community leadership: stories about collaboration in action research.  

PubMed

This article provides an account of a 10-year collaborative documentation of community leadership in an African American community on the South side of Chicago. The stories are oriented to several critical incidents in the life course of the collaboration. They are told from the perspectives of one university professor, four graduate students, and one community leader. Together they provide an account of how this research was shaped by the interactions of the research team with members of the community, how research questions emerged, methodologies were developed, ways of gathering data were tried and tested, and interpretations of data unfolded. Special attention is given to the ways in which the process and products of this research contributed to the community's own process of leadership development. The stories also discuss the various roles participants in this collaboration played both in the academic arena and in the community, and how they experienced gender, race, nationality, and social status. PMID:15212179

Kelly, James G; Azelton, L Sean; Lardon, Cecile; Mock, Lynne O; Tandon, S Darius; Thomas, Mamie

2004-06-01

124

Collaborative Community Research Consortium: A Model for HIV Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) at the University of California, San Francisco, set out to develop a model of community collaborative research that would bring the skills of science to the service of HIV prevention and the knowledge of service providers into the domain of research. Essential elements of the model were training for community-based organizations

Katherine Haynes Sanstad; Ron Stall; Ellen Goldstein; Wendy Everett; Ruth Brousseau

1999-01-01

125

Evaluation of a Research Mentorship Program in Community Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the results of a qualitative case study evaluating a research mentorship program in community care settings in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of the program was to build evaluation and research capacity among staff of community care agencies through a mentorship program. Data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured…

Ploeg, Jenny; de Witt, Lorna; Hutchison, Brian; Hayward, Lynda; Grayson, Kim

2008-01-01

126

Environmental Education for Empowerment: Action Research and Community Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book addresses the subject of environmental education in the context of educational and social change. It focuses on the synthesis of action research and community problem solving in the context of education. The result, Action Research and Community Problem Solving (ARCPS), can be defined as a process that enables students and teachers to…

Stapp, William B.; And Others

127

Practicing social justice: Community?based research, education, and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Social Justice Research and Education at Saint Louis University has implemented a model of collaborative research and education among social work practitioners, university faculty and students. The partnerships promote creative practice of social justice in the community.Social workers in community agencies articulate the relevant practice problems for students and faculty; faculty offer methodological and resource assistance to

Mary Beth Gallagher; Cynthia A. Loveland Cook; Susan Tebb

2003-01-01

128

Theoretical Trajectories within Communities of Practice in Higher Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the role of theory in higher education research is problematised using a communities of practice framework. Drawing on a case study derived from the author's own published work and doctoral study, the article concludes that the differential uses of theory within communities of research practice can be fruitfully explored, in…

Tummons, Jonathan

2012-01-01

129

Developing a Community Science Research Agenda for Building Community Capacity for Effective Preventive Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that prevention programming can improve community health when implemented well. There are examples of successful prevention in local communities, however many continue to face significant challenges, demonstrating a gap between science and practice. Common strategies within the United States to address this gap are available (e.g., trainings), but lack outcomes. Building community capacity to implement high quality

Matthew Chinman; Gordon Hannah; Abraham Wandersman; Patricia Ebener; Sarah B. Hunter; Pamela Imm; Jeffrey Sheldon

2005-01-01

130

Structural biology research at the National Synchroton Light Source  

SciTech Connect

The world`s foremost facility for scientific research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation is operated by the national synchrotron Light Source Department. This year alone, a total of 2200 guest researchers performed experiments at the world`s largest source of synchrotron light. Researchers are trying to define the three- dimensional structures of biological macromolecules to create a map of life, a guide for exploring the biological and chemical interactions of the vast variety of molecules found in living organisms. Studies in structural biology may lead to new insights into how biological systems are formed and nourished, how they survive and grow, how they are damaged and die. This document discusses some the the structural biological research done at the National Synchrotron Light Source.

NONE

1996-05-01

131

Community Researchers Conducting Health Disparities Research: Ethical and other insights from fieldwork journaling  

PubMed Central

Lay persons who are trained to conduct research in their own communities form an essential part of many research projects. However, the effects of conducting research in their own communities have not been adequately explored. This paper examines the experiences, perceptions, and challenges faced by a group of community researchers during their involvement in a research project that examined if, and how, the relationships between mothers and their adolescent daughters could be harnessed to develop a daughter-initiated cervical cancer intervention. Seven community researchers interviewed 157 mother-daughter pairs in Cape Town, South Africa. We examine the use of journaling as a tool to document the experiences of community researchers, and we consider how journaling may help the community-based researcher grapple with the research process, and, more broadly, what such journal content illustrates with respect to the nature and challenges of community-engaged health research. An analysis of the content of the journals provides a strong indication of how personal and intimate the research process can be for community researchers by virtue of the background that they bring into the process as well as the additional weight of the research process itself. The complexities of navigating dual and somewhat oppositional roles – the role of impartial scientist or researcher and the role of invested community person - has been both underestimated and insufficiently researched.

Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ahmed, Rashid; Daniels, Doria; Simon, Christian

2011-01-01

132

2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant\\/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on

Michael Sussman

2010-01-01

133

Biological Structures, Interactions, Function and Behavior: Research Opportunities for Physicists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on marine biomolecules at the Marine Natural Products Laboratory (MNPL) and studies on biomedically relevant proteins at the Virtual Laboratory of Biomolecular Structures (VIRLS) of the University of the Philippines Marine Science Institute (UPMSI) are presented. These serve to illustrate some underlying principles of biological structures, interactions, function and behavior, and also to draw out some unresolved questions in biology of possible interest to non-biologists. The Biological Structures course offered at UPMSI, which aims to introduce underlying biological principles to non-biology majors and to promote trans-disciplinary research efforts, is also presented.

Concepcion, Gisela P.

2008-06-01

134

Indigenous Ways of Knowing: Implications for Participatory Research and Community  

PubMed Central

Researchers have a responsibility to cause no harm, but research has been a source of distress for indigenous people because of inappropriate methods and practices. The way researchers acquire knowledge in indigenous communities may be as critical for eliminating health disparities as the actual knowledge that is gained about a particular health problem. Researchers working with indigenous communities must continue to resolve conflict between the values of the academic setting and those of the community. It is important to consider the ways of knowing that exist in indigenous communities when developing research methods. Challenges to research partnerships include how to distribute the benefits of the research findings when academic or external needs contrast with the need to protect indigenous knowledge.

Cochran, Patricia A. L.; Marshall, Catherine A.; Garcia-Downing, Carmen; Kendall, Elizabeth; Cook, Doris; McCubbin, Laurie; Gover, Reva Mariah S.

2008-01-01

135

Diabetes Bingo: Research Prioritization with the Filipino Community  

PubMed Central

This community-based participatory research, conducted in partnership between a European-American academic researcher and a professional group of Filipino nurses, aimed to determine the diabetes research priority for the Filipino community on the island of O‘ahu in Hawai‘i, and to evaluate the multi-voting technique to seek input from the community. The study design was a qualitative, cross-sectional interactive process consisting of an educational presentation followed by data collection from the audience. Ten community presentations about the impact of diabetes on the Filipino community were conducted by a Filipino nurse with participants (N = 265). Following the educational session, the participants selected priorities for research using a multi-vote technique developed as a Diabetes Bingo card. Community voting results identified prevention and a focus on adults as important priorities for research. Based on the results of the multi-voting, the research partners were able to come to consensus on a research priority area of prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults. Multi-voting using a Diabetes Bingo card, preceded by an educational presentation by a Filipino nurse, was a culturally competent community-based participatory research method that gave voice to the participants and direction to the research partners for future projects. The multi-voting technique was readily accepted and enjoyed by participants.

Oculto, Tessie; Ramones, Emilyn; Caagbay, Cedric R

2010-01-01

136

EPA priorities for biologic markers research in environmental health  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology allow for measurement of biologic events or substances that may provide markers of exposure, effect or susceptibility in humans. The application of these new and emerging techniques to environmental health offers the possibility of significantly reducing the uncertainties that traditionally hamper risk assessments. The EPA health research program places a high priority on the validation of appropriate biologic markers and their application to high priority Agency issues. The rationale for EPA's biomarker research program is presented and future research directions are discussed. Exposure biomarkers will receive most of the research emphasis in the near term, particularly body burden indicators of exposures to high priority chemicals, such as benzene, ozone, selected heavy metals, and organophosphate pesticides. Research on effects biomarkers will attempt to validate the relationship between the observed biological effects and adverse health consequences in humans, especially for cancer, pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive/developmental toxicity.

Fowle, J.R.; Sexton, K.

1992-01-01

137

EPA priorities for biologic markers research in environmental health  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology allow for measurement of biologic events or substances that may provide markers of exposure, effect, or susceptibility in humans. The application of these new and emerging techniques to environmental health offers the possibility of significantly reducing the uncertainties that traditionally hamper risk assessments. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health research program emphasizes the validation of appropriate biologic markers and their application to high-priority Agency issues. The rationale for EPA's biomarker research program is presented, and future research directions are discussed. Exposure biomarkers will receive most of the research emphasis in the near term, particularly body burden indicators of exposure to high-priority chemicals, such as benzene, ozone, selected heavy metals, and organophosphate pesticides. Research on effects biomarkers will attempt to validate the relationship between the observed biological effects and adverse health consequences in humans, especially for cancer, pulmonary toxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive/developmental toxicity.

Fowle, J.R. III; Sexton, K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-11-01

138

Community Writing, Participatory Research, and an Anthropological Sensibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participatory research is a radical praxis through which marginalized people acquire research capabilities that they use to transform their own lives. In this article, I examine how parent writers incorporated facets of community writing into their research practice as they developed their practices and identities as researchers. I also consider…

Hurtig, Janise

2008-01-01

139

THE IMPACT OF RESEARCH STRATEGIES ON PLANNING IN COMMUNITY COLLEGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers sometimes find it difficult to gain support, cooperation, and involvement from administrators at both the state?system and local college level when conducting comprehensive system?wide research studies. This paper contrasts three research strategies used over the past 25 years involving cooperation between Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the North Carolina Department of Community Colleges. The three research strategies

Ronald W. Shearon; Irene A. Brownlee

1991-01-01

140

A Tale of Two Cultures: Building Community by Researching Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Upon beginning postgraduate research at the Faculty of Built Environment at UNSW, the authors were surprised to find themselves working in a library-like environment, where a culture of silence prevailed. Assuming initially that this was just how postgraduate research was, they soon learned that the building also housed a second postgraduate lab…

Drane, Jon; Cai, Wenjie; Wechsler, Andrea; Mussi, Eveline; Shi, Ye; Crommelin, Laura

2012-01-01

141

Alaska Native people's perceptions, understandings, and expectations for research involving biological specimens  

PubMed Central

Objectives Members of racially and ethnically diverse groups have been persistently underrepresented in biomedical research in general, possibly due to mistrust with the medical and research community. This article describes the perceptions, understandings, and expectations of Alaska Native people about research involving the collection and storage of biological specimens. Study design Stratified focus groups. Methods Twenty-nine focus groups with Alaska Native people (n = 178) were held in 14 locations using a semi-structured moderator guide. ATLAS.ti was used for thematic analysis through iterative readings and coding. Alaska Native peoples’ perceptions, understandings, and expectations of researcher beneficence, informed consent processes, and provision of research findings were elicited. Results and conclusions Alaska Native people desired extensive disclosure of information beyond that typically provided in consent and results dissemination processes. Information germane to the motivation and intent of researchers and specifics of specimen storage and destruction were specifically requested. A clear and extensive process of informed consent and continued improvements in sharing results may enhance the transparency of research intent, conduct, and use of obtained results among Alaska Native people. Meeting expectations may improve relationships between researchers and the Alaska Native population which could result in increased research participation. Our findings offer a guide for researchers and communities when planning and implementing research with biological specimens.

Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Brown, Jennifer K.; Hoeft, Theresa J.; Dillard, Denise A.

2012-01-01

142

Community-Based Participatory Research With Native American Communities: The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health disparities among Native Americans persist despite efforts to translate evidence-based programs from research to practice. Few evidence-based, theory-driven prevention and management interventions have been successfully translated within Native American communities. The use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) has shown promise in this process. This article provides an overview of the use of CBPR with Native American communities and discusses

Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan

2010-01-01

143

Building community partnerships: case studies of Community Advisory Boards at research sites in Peru, Zimbabwe, and Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Differences in resources, knowledge, and infrastructure between countries initiating and countries hosting HIV prevention research trials frequently yield ethical dilemmas. Community Advisory Boards (CABs) have emerged as one strategy for establishing partnerships between researchers and host communities to promote community consultation in socially sensitive research. Purpose To understand the evolution of CABs and community partnerships at international research sites

Stephen F Morin; Simon Morfit; Andre Maiorana; Pedro Goicochea; John Michael Mutsambid; Jonathan Leserman Robbins; T Anne Richards

144

Building community partnerships: case studies of Community Advisory Boards at research sites in Peru, Zimbabwe, and Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Differences in resources, knowledge, and infrastructure between countries initiating and countries hosting HIV prevention research trials frequently yield ethical dilemmas. Community Advisory Boards (CABs) have emerged as one strategy for establishing partnerships between researchers and host communities to promote community consultation in socially sensitive research.Purpose To understand the evolution of CABs and community partnerships at international research sites conducting

Stephen F Morin; Simon Morfit; Andre Maiorana; Apinun Aramrattana; Pedro Goicochea; John Michael Mutsambi; Jonathan Leserman Robbins; T Anne Richards

2008-01-01

145

Capacity building for health through community based participatory nutrition intervention research in rural communities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

146

Integrating research and education at research-extensive universities with research-intensive communities.  

PubMed

Although the Boyer Commission (1998) lamented the lack of research opportunities for all undergraduates at research-extensive universities, it did not provide a feasible solution consistent with the mandate for faculty to maintain sustainable physiology research programs. The costs associated with one-on-one mentoring, and the lack of a sufficient number of faculty members to give intensive attention to undergraduate researchers, make one-on-one mentoring impractical. We therefore developed and implemented the "research-intensive community" model with the aim of aligning diverse goals of participants while simultaneously optimizing research productivity. The fundamental organizational unit is a team consisting of one graduate student and three undergraduates from different majors, supervised by a faculty member. Undergraduate workshops, Graduate Leadership Forums, and computer-mediated communication provide an infrastructure to optimize programmatic efficiency and sustain a multilevel, interdisciplinary community of scholars dedicated to research. While the model radically increases the number of undergraduates that can be supported by a single faculty member, the inherent resilience and scalability of the resulting complex adaptive system enables a research-intensive community program to evolve and grow. PMID:18539852

Desai, Ketaki V; Gatson, Sarah N; Stiles, Thomas W; Stewart, Randolph H; Laine, Glen A; Quick, Christopher M

2008-06-01

147

Competence Mapping through Analysing Research Papers of a Scientific Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Main goal of a scientific community is the collaborative production of new knowledge through research and scholarship. An\\u000a integrative research approach, fostered by confrontation and collaboration among researchers, is widely recognized as a key\\u000a factor to improve the quality of production of a scientific community. Competence mapping is a valid approach to highlight\\u000a expertise, encourage re-use of knowledge, contributing significantly

Antonio P. Volpentesta; Alberto M. Felicetti

2011-01-01

148

Practicing HIV\\/AIDS community-based research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although community-based research (CBR) is gaining popularity, especially within the field of HIV\\/AIDS research, there is a paucity of practical models or frameworks designed to guide researchers and community members. Within the present paper the author presents a ten-stage model of conducting CBR that emerged from two HIV\\/AIDS CBR studies that were conducted in Alberta, Canada. The main strengths and

G. E. Harris

2006-01-01

149

Xenopus laevis a success story of biological research in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clawed toad Xenopus laevis is a common experimental animal used in many disciplines of life sciences, such as integrative, developmental and molecular biology or experimental medicine. Since 30 years, Xenopus is used in biological research in space. Important milestones were the years 1975, when Xenopus embryos flew for the first time on the Russian space station Salut-4 and 1994,

Eberhard R. Horn

2006-01-01

150

Xenopus laevis – a success story of biological research in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clawed toad Xenopus laevis is a common experimental animal used in many disciplines of life sciences, such as integrative, developmental and molecular biology or experimental medicine. Since 30 years, Xenopus is used in biological research in space. Important milestones were the years 1975, when Xenopus embryos flew for the first time on the Russian space station Salut-4 and 1994,

Eberhard R. Horn

2006-01-01

151

Structural Biology and Molecular Medicine Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investiga...

2008-01-01

152

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research: FY 2005 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the ninth annual report from the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). This report provides highlights from CBER's activities during Fiscal Year (FY) 2005 and addresses current initiatives. The C...

2005-01-01

153

78 FR 63170 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on the Web site: http://science.energy.gov/ber/berac...to the Director, Office of Science of the Department of Energy...and Environmental Research News From the Biological Systems Science and Climate and...

2013-10-23

154

SFLOSCAN: A biologically-inspired data mining framework for community identification in dynamic social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the first biologically inspired framework for indentifying communities in dynamic social networks. Community detection in a social network is a complex problem when interactions among members change over time. Existing community identification algorithms are limited to evaluating a snapshot of a social network at a specific time. Our algorithm evaluates social interactions as they occur

Abdelghani Bellaachia; Anasse Bari

2011-01-01

155

The relationship between learning communities and student interaction and retention in general biology courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between learning communities and student interaction and retention in community college general biology courses was investigated in this study. The purposes of the study were to discover the students' perceptions of factors influencing their desire to study science, and to examine the use of learning communities as a method of enculturation into the field of science. The learning

Karen Marie Wardle

2003-01-01

156

Translational Research in Action: Implementation of the Communities That Care Prevention System in 12 Communities  

PubMed Central

Translational research (Pentz, Jasuja, Rohrbach, Sussman, & Bardo, 2006; Woolf, 2008) is concerned with moving advances in prevention science into everyday practice in communities, yet there are few models for ensuring this transfer of knowledge. Communities That Care (CTC) provides a planned, structured, and data-driven system that trains community prevention coalitions to select evidence-based programs and replicate them with strong implementation fidelity. This paper describes the implementation of the CTC prevention system in 12 communities participating in the Community Youth Development Study. The results indicated that intervention communities enacted, on average, 90% of the core components of the CTC system, and achieved high rates of implementation fidelity when replicating school, afterschool, and parent training programs. These results held over time; communities successfully launched their prevention coalitions and programs and maintained the quality of their prevention services over five years. These results indicate that the CTC system can be used to foster translational research.

Fagan, Abigail A.; Hanson, Koren; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael

2011-01-01

157

Engaging Communities in Education and Research PBRNs, AHEC, and CTSA  

PubMed Central

Background Community engagement has become a prominent element in medical research and is an important component of the Clinical and Translational Science Awards program. Area Health Education Centers engage communities in education and workforce development. Methods Engaging Communities in Education and Research(ECER) is a successful collaboration among the Colorado Area Health Education Center (AHEC), the Colorado Clinical Translational Science Institute (CCTSI), and Shared Network of Collaborative Ambulatory Practices and Partners (SNOCAP)—Colorado’s practice-based research collaborative. The ECER Conference is an annual conference of community members, health care providers, clinical preceptors, AHEC board members, university faculty, primary care investigators, program administrators and community organization leaders. Results 300–440 participants each year representing all regions of Colorado. Several projects from the “new ideas” break out session have been developed and completed. Six-month follow-up provided evidence of numerous new collaborations, campus-community partnerships, and developing research projects. Several new collaborations highlight the long-term nature of building on relationships started at the ECER Conference. Discussion and Conclusion Engaging Communities in Education and Research has been a successful collaboration to develop and support campus-community collaborations in Colorado. While seemingly just a simple 3-day conference, we have found that this event has lead to many important partnerships.

Westfall, John M.; Ingram, Beth; Navarro, Daniel; Magee, Deidre; Niebauer, Linda; Zittleman, Linda; Fernald, Douglas; Pace, Wilson

2012-01-01

158

[Research progresses in synthetic biology of artemisinin].  

PubMed

Abstract: The first-line drug artemisinin is widely used against malaria. Commercially available artemisinin is extracted from plants. However, the lack of sufficient raw material, artemisinin and the cost associated with the drug's manufacture have limited the supply of ACT to most malaria sufferers in the Developing World. As such, it is important to develop a low cost, fine to environment and high-quality method to supply sufficient and reliable quantities of artemisinin in the future. The field of synthetic biology, which utilizes cell factories to manipulate microbial metabolism to enhance the production of artemisinin and its intermediates, has a particularly strong impact by providing new platforms for chemical production. After a brief introduction of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway, the present review focuses on the introduction of artemisinin biosynthetic genes, such as the genes encoding amorpha-4, 11-diene monooxygenase, NADPH: cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, artemisinic aldehyde delta 11(13) reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. The review also addresses general considerations for potential contributions of synthetic biology to artemisinin production, with an emphasis on factors influencing interest compounds production in chassis cells. PMID:23672015

Kong, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Ke-Di; Zhu, Ping

2013-02-01

159

Community Engagement and the Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research  

PubMed Central

The National Institute on Aging created the Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research (RCMARs) to address infrastructure development intended to reduce health disparities among older adults. The overall goals of the RCMARs are to (a) increase the size of the cadre of researchers conducting research on issues related to minority aging; (b) increase the diversity of researchers conducting research on minority aging; (c) create and test reliable measures for use in older diverse populations; and (d) conduct research on recruitment and retention of community-dwelling older adults for research addressing behavioral, social, and medical issues. Along with this latter goal, the RCMARs developed and maintain academic–community partnerships. To accomplish the recruitment and retention goal, the RCMARs established Community Liaison Working Groups using a collaborative approach to scientific inquiry; this special issue will identify research priorities for moving the science of recruitment and retention forward. In addition, sustainable and efficient methods for fostering long-term partnerships will be identified between community and academia. Evidence-based approaches to the recruitment and retention of diverse elders are explored. We expect this supplement to serve as a catalyst for researchers interested in engaging diverse community-dwelling elders in health-related research. In addition, this supplement should serve as a source of the most contemporary evidence-based approaches to the recruitment and retention of diverse older populations for participation in social, behavioral, and clinical research.

Sood, Johanna R.; Stahl, Sidney M.

2011-01-01

160

Issues related to mineralized tissue biology in human evolutionary research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comunication has two primary aims concerned with mineralized tissue biology (e.g. hard tissue biology of bone and tooth)\\u000a research in human evolutionary studies: First, to introduce the literature and the methods (at the time of this symposium)\\u000a so that one has an idea of the nature of this research and where one can go for details of the methodologies,

T. G. Bromage

1991-01-01

161

Balancing Community and University Aims in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Pacific Islander Youth Study  

PubMed Central

Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) holds the promise of improving the planning, conduct, and long-term translation of research findings into community settings. Objectives This 2-year, exploratory study applied CBPR structures and processes to the identification of individual, cultural and community factors associated with obesity among Pacific Islander (PI) youth in Southern California. Methods We describe the CBPR principles and strategies used by a community–university partnership to develop, implement, and report on the findings from assessments of obesity, physical activity, and nutritional intake among PI youth. Results Although CBPR planning processes led to successes in community-based youth recruitment and retention, we learned key lessons regarding implementation of tailored assessment protocols, often involving problems arising from the university side of the CBPR collaborative. Conclusion CBPR has its strengths and limits; more studies are needed that report on processes to increase our understanding of how to balance research rigor with community sustainability.

Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Wiersma, Lenny; Briand, Greta; Faletau, Vaka; Lepule, Jonathan; Nacpil, Lianne; Eichenauer, Jan

2013-01-01

162

University and Community Research Partnerships: A New Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, more and more organizations have become interested in partnerships forged between institutions of higher education and local community-based organizations. Released in late 2003, this 48-page report from the Pew Partnership for Civic Change (spearheaded by Jacqueline Dugery) investigated university-community research partnerships at 19 sites around the United States. Some of these community organizations included groups working in the areas of job training, commercial revitalization, youth mentoring, and job transportation. In order to place these findings in a broader context, the Pew Partnership (in collaboration with the University of Virginia) convened a number of individuals in October 2002 to discuss "the potential for these university-community research partnerships." These remarks are summarized within the body of this paper, along with an explication of a new research model for assessment and evaluation for use by community organizations and local institutions of higher learning developed by the Pew Partnership for Civic Change.

163

Amphipols: Polymeric surfactants for membrane biology research.  

SciTech Connect

Membrane proteins classically are handled in aqueous solutions as complexes with detergents. The dissociating character of detergents, combined with the need to maintain an excess of them, frequently results in more or less rapid inactivation of the protein under study. Over the past few years, we have endeavored to develop a novel family of surfactants, dubbed amphipols (APs). APs are amphiphilic polymers that bind to the transmembrane surface of the protein in a noncovalent but, in the absence of a competing surfactant, quasi-irreversible manner. Membrane proteins complexed by APs are in their native state, stable, and they remain water soluble in the absence of detergent or free APs. An update is presented of the current knowledge about these compounds and their demonstrated or putative uses in membrane biology.

Popot, J.-L.; Berry, E.A.; Charvolin, D.; Creuzenet, C.; Ebel, C.; Engelman, D.M.; Flotenmeyer, M.; Giusti, F.; Gohon, Y.; Hong, Q.; Lakey, J.H.; Leonard, K.; Shuman, H.A.; Timmins, P.; Warschawski, D.E.; Zito, F.; Zoonens, M.; Pucci, B.; Tribet, C.

2003-06-20

164

Rural Community-Academic Partnership Model for Community Engagement and Partnered Research.  

PubMed

Background: A rural community-academic partnership was developed in 1997 between the Eastern Shore Area Health Education Center (ESAHEC) and the University of Maryland School of Medicine's (UMSOM) Office of Policy and Planning (OPP). The model supports partnered research, bidirectional interactions, and community and health professional education. Objectives: The primary aim was to develop a sustainable community-academic partnership that addressed health and social issues on the rural Eastern Shore. Lessons Learned: Mutual respect and trust led to sustained, bidirectional interactions and communication. Community and academic partner empowerment were supported by shared grant funds. Continual refinement of the partnership and programs occurred in response to community input and qualitative and quantitative research. Results: The partnership led to community empowerment, increased willingness to participate in clinical trials and biospecimen donation, leveraged grant funds, partnered research, and policies to support health and social interventions. Conclusions: This partnership model has significant benefits and demonstrates its relevance for addressing complex rural health issues. Innovative aspects of the model include shared university grants, community inclusion on research protocols, bidirectional research planning and research ethics training of partners and communities. The model is replicable in other rural areas of the United States. PMID:24056510

Baquet, Claudia R; Bromwell, Jeanne L; Hall, Margruetta B; Frego, Jacob F

2013-01-01

165

ORD's Sustainable & Healthy Communities (SHC) Nutrient research  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainable and healthy communities project 3.3.1 "Integrated Management of Reactive Nitrogen" aims to comprehensively examine the cascade of environmental economic and human health problems stemming from excess reactive N. Our goals are to improve understanding of the impacts o...

166

Teaching Community-Based Participatory Research Principles to Physicians Enrolled in a Health Services Research Fellowship  

PubMed Central

To improve health and reduce disparities through health services research, investigators are increasingly turning to techniques that actively involve individuals and institutions who would be affected by the research. In one such approach, community-based participatory research (CBPR), community members participate in every aspect of designing and implementing research with the expectation that this process will enhance the translation of research into practice in communities. Because few physician researchers have expertise in such community-based approaches to research, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation leadership expanded the mission of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program (RWJCSP), which historically focused on health services and clinical research, to include training and mentored experiences in community-based health research. The three years of experience (2005-2008) implementing the new community research curricula at the four RWJCSP sites, University of California at Los Angeles, University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, and Yale University in New Haven, form the basis for this paper. The authors describe how, with common goals and objectives, each site has taken different approaches to teaching CBPR based on the unique nature of existing community and academic environments. The authors use illustrative quotes to exemplify three key challenges that training programs face when integrating community-partnered approaches into traditional research training: relationship building; balancing goals of education/scholarship/relationships/product; and sustainability. Finally, the authors offer insights and implications for those who may wish to integrate CBPR training into their research training curricula.

Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Lucas, Georgina I.; Tinney, Barbara; Mangione, Carol; Schuster, Mark A.; Wells, Ken; Wong, Marlene; Schwarz, Donald; Tuton, Lucy W.; Howell, Joel D.; Heisler, Michelle

2013-01-01

167

Improving Educational Aspirations and Outcomes through Community Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines how a community action research approach supported the implementation of an educational support programme for children, parents and local educators. The aim was the creation of a learning community that acknowledged, valued and used the expertise and experience of all involved. The action reflection cycle informed the…

Bleach, Josephine

2013-01-01

168

Developing Effective Social Work University-Community Research Collaborations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many instances, departments of social work in universities and community-based social services agencies have common interests in improving professional practice and advancing knowledge in the profession. Effective university-community research collaborations can help partners achieve these goals jointly, but to be effective these collaborative…

Begun, Audrey L.; Berger, Lisa K.; Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Rose, Susan J.

2010-01-01

169

Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners' readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions…

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia

2012-01-01

170

Developing Effective Social Work University-Community Research Collaborations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In many instances, departments of social work in universities and community-based social services agencies have common interests in improving professional practice and advancing knowledge in the profession. Effective university-community research collaborations can help partners achieve these goals jointly, but to be effective these collaborative…

Begun, Audrey L.; Berger, Lisa K.; Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Rose, Susan J.

2010-01-01

171

Community-based research and leisure scholarship: a discernment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many communities are realizing the importance of becoming more responsive and welcoming in light of the many local and global challenges facing them. Approaches to epistemology that are more participatory in nature may play a role in this social change process. Community-based research (CBR) is known for its ability to be both participatory and action-oriented and represents a paradigm shift

Peggy Hutchison; John Lord

2012-01-01

172

A survey of current research on online communities of practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author surveys current literature on communities of practice and their potential development using networked technology and remote collaboration, specifically with respect to World Wide Web (WWW) communication tools. The vast majority of the current literature in this new research area consists of case studies. Communities of practice have the following components that distinguish them from traditional organizations and learning

Christopher M. Johnson

2001-01-01

173

Successful Strategies for Earth Science Research in Native Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small U.S. Geological Survey pilot project utilizes strategies that are successful at involving the Native community in earth science research. This work has ignited the interest of Native students in interdisciplinary geoscience studies, and gained the recognition of tribal community leaders from the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Canada. This study seeks to examine land use, climatic variability, and

M. H. Redsteer; D. Anderson; N. Ben; R. Bitsuie; A. Blackhorse; G. Breit; A. Clifford; J. Salabye; S. Semken; K. Weaver; N. Yazzie

2004-01-01

174

Aging research in multi-ethinic rural communities: Gaining entrée through community involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

For aging research in rural multi-ethnic communities to be successful, research barriers must be anticipated, understood, and accommodated or reduced. This paper describes 'gaining entrée' into rural multi-ethnic communities in order to conduct effective aging research. The result of carefully 'gaining entrée' is increased communication with and more in-depth understanding of the study participants. An elder-centered conceptual model of rural

Sara A. Quandt; Juliana McDonald; Ronny A. Bell; Thomas A. Arcury

1999-01-01

175

Research-based communities of practice in UK higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is an integral element of the work of higher education institutions, underpinning not only academics' responsibilities in developing intellectual skills and personal reputations, but contributing to the status of an organisation. Whilst formalised approaches are adopted for developing research, there is a growing trend towards informal groupings or communities of practice. This research, based on interviews with members of

Lai Ling Ng; Jon Pemberton

2012-01-01

176

Community College Institutional Research: What, Why, and How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An analysis is provided of institutional research conducted by community colleges in an effort to draw conclusions about appropriate standards for different types of studies. The paper focuses on four categories of research: (1) research conducted to fulfill external reporting requirements and to influence policy at state and federal levels; (2)…

Frydenberg, Jia

177

Conducting Qualitative Research in Community Colleges with Sensitivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|States that community colleges must pay attention to the multiethnic environments in which they exist. Presents an annotated bibliography that offers perspectives on diversity in education and research, which may help practitioners and researchers to understand how to conduct qualitative research sensitive to the cultures of their subjects.…

Peterman, Dana S.

2002-01-01

178

Patenting inventions arising from biological research  

PubMed Central

Patents are the most important way in which researchers can protect the income that might come from ideas or technologies they have developed. This article describes the steps involved and the considerations needed for successful granting of a patent. For instance, inventions must be novel and not obvious, adequately described, and useful, and they should not be disclosed publicly before a patent is applied for.

Latimer, Matthew T

2005-01-01

179

Therapeutic Community. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year, therapeutic communities (TCs) serve tens of thousands of people with varying degrees of drug problems, many of whom also have complex social and psychological problems. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has helpe...

2002-01-01

180

Biological Extreme Events: A Research Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts designed to understand and predict adaptation responses of organisms and populations to global climate change must make a clear distinction between responses to changes in average conditions (e.g., doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration accompanied by an average increase of 1°-3°C in global air temperature by the end of this century) and responses resulting from increased incidence of extreme events [Loehle and LeBlanc, 1996; Easterling et al., 2000; Garrett et al., 2006]. Such distinction is critical because, unlike changes in average conditions, extremes (e.g., megadroughts, fire, flooding, hurricanes, heat waves, and pest outbreaks) are typically short in duration but challenge organisms and populations considerably further beyond their ability to acclimate than those expected from average trends in climate changes. There is growing evidence that climatic extremes have been rising in frequency or magnitude during the last part of the twentieth century and will continue to increase during the remainder of this century [Easterling et al., 2000; Meehl et al., 2000; Parmesan and Yohe, 2003; Barnett et al., 2006]. More important, the frequency of extremes is likely to increase even if the climatic means do not change substantially [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2001, chapter 10]. Therefore, it makes sense to pay special attention to extremes as major agents of biological adaption (genetic change) when considering global climate change.

Gutschick, Vincent P.; BassiriRad, Hormoz

2010-03-01

181

RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRACTICES OF COMMUNITY-COLLEGE PRACTITIONERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process used by community-college leaders in making decisions is very important, given the complexity and significance of their decisions to institutional quality and effectiveness. This article explores the degree to which leaders utilize research in their decision-making, the sources and usefulness of the research, and how the base of information for decision-making could be improved. While community colleges have

Martha Romero; Leslie Purdy; Lisa Rodriquez; Sandra Richards

2005-01-01

182

Using Social Networks to Organize Researcher Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Network is being a popular word in WEB 2.0 era. Various social network websites connect us and our friends together.\\u000a A buzzword which describes the idea is “communicate with anyone anywhere”. By using social network websites like Facebook or blog, we can find out the communities which share the same interests with us. In the academic area, people sharing

Xian-ming Xu; Justin Zhan; Hai-tao Zhu

2008-01-01

183

Community-coordinated Research as HIV/AIDS Prevention Strategy in Northern Canadian Communities  

PubMed Central

The T??ch? Community Services Agency’s (TCSA) Healing Wind Strategy identifies a number of activities and interventions to address the prevention of STI/HIV/AIDS in the T??ch? region of the Northwest Territories of Canada. As a part of this strategy, the TCSA and CIET facilitated research to develop a foundation for interventions targeting sexually transmitted infections. The project recruited and trained community-based researchers who conducted a research survey on sexual health attitudes and behaviours in the four T??ch? communities, covering 65% of the population above 9 years of age. The research process, outcomes, and the strategic plan that arose from the research findings produced a clear framework for interventions that are grounded in the community, but could also influence national and territorial policy. The approach may be relevant in other settings.

Edwards, Karen; Mitchell, Steve; Gibson, Nancy L; Martin, Jim; Zoe-Martin, Cecilia

2010-01-01

184

Bridging Emotion Research: From Biology to Social Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion research demonstrates that problems of theoretical interest or practical significance are not divided neatly along disciplinary boundaries. Researchers acknowledge both organic and social underpinnings of emotion, but the intersections between biological and structural processes can be difficult to negotiate. In this article, the authors…

Rogers, Kimberly B.; Kavanagh, Liam

2010-01-01

185

Sources of Inequities in Rural America: Implications for Rural Community Development and Research. Community Development Research Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a series prepared to acquaint small community officials with information on the latest community related research findings at the University of California at Davis, this monograph explicates the way in which tax structure, rural development assumptions, and even rural development policies and subsidies contribute to the inequities…

Fujimoto, Isao; Zone, Martin

186

VIMS Molluscan Ecology Oyster Reef Community Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Molluscan Ecology research program at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS). Research projects investigate cephalopods, coastal habitats, hard clams, oysters, and rapa whelks. Background information is given regarding the history of the research, including management efforts and associated publications. Maps of restoration areas are available in addition to information about molluscan educational materials (including instructional publications and cds). Fees apply for cds.

2011-10-04

187

UCSD-Scripps Institution of Oceanography: Marine Biology Research Division  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 1,000 staff members, an annual budget of nearly $150 million, and its own fleet of ships capable of global travel, Scripps Institution of Oceanography is one of the most significant homes of scientific inquiry in the world. As part of its many diverse efforts, Scripps operates the Marine Biology Research Division which is presented at this website. The site, while simply designed and easy to navigate, is a great resource for students and researchers interested in learning more about the research activities at Scripps. Those interested in a certain type of research can narrow down the division into its specific labs, such as Cell and Developmental Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Microbiology, and Physiology. Visitors to the site can also access the many sub-laboratories, each focusing on specific subjects, such as Sea Turtles, Bioluminescence, Coral Reef ecology, and tons more. This site is also reviewed in the July 9, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

188

Literacy in Indigenous Communities. Research Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this research synthesis, notions of literacy from a variety of inclusive rather than exclusive perspectives are presented. Notions of national literacies, mother-tongue literacies, multiple literacies, and bi-literacies are explored. Information and research pertaining to threatened languages, language shift, and language loss is presented,…

van Broekhuizen, L. David

189

Using Public Policy-Oriented Community-Based Research to Boost Both Community and Political Engagement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Leadership in Public Affairs program at the College of New Jersey has begun to implement a developmental model designed to increase the community and political engagement of students. The primary tool to achieve these ends is public policy-oriented, community-based research (CBR). To date, two courses and a student fellowship based on…

Ball, William J.

190

A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

2008-01-01

191

Biology in Context: Teachers' Professional Development in Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Biology in Context ("bik") is a project that aims to improve biology teaching in lower secondary schools in Germany. Based on a theoretical framework derived from the National Educational Standards, four competence areas should be fostered in biology education: subject knowledge; inquiry acquisition; subject-related communication; and valuing and…

Elster, Doris

2009-01-01

192

Biology in Context: Teachers' Professional Development in Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biology in Context ("bik") is a project that aims to improve biology teaching in lower secondary schools in Germany. Based on a theoretical framework derived from the National Educational Standards, four competence areas should be fostered in biology education: subject knowledge; inquiry acquisition; subject-related communication; and valuing and…

Elster, Doris

2009-01-01

193

Establishing a School-based Research Community (SRC) for Astronomy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A School-based Research Community brings students into explicit collaboration with education and public outreach (E/PO) activities of scientific organizations and thus unites educational and research components of the scientific community. This poster presents an account of the nature of an SRC, and of the conditions required for planting one. An overview is given of elements required to nurture and protect such a community, and in that context the role of wiki use in such a course will be highlighted. Finally, the kind of fruit to be expected from such a community will be presented, with examples provided from an SCR established at Saint Joseph's High School in South Bend, Indiana (now in its third year.) The advantages of situating astronomy research in the context of an interdisciplinary SCR will also be sketched.

Loughran, Thomas

2007-12-01

194

Critical Contexts for Biomedical Research in a Native American Community: Health Care, History, and Community Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Native Americans have been underrepresented in previous studies of biomedical research participants. This paper reports a qualitative interview study of Native Americans' perspectives on biomedical research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 53 members of a Southwest tribal community. Many interviewees viewed biomedical research studies as…

Sahota, Puneet Chawla

2012-01-01

195

Scholarly communities, e-research literacy and the academic librarian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to explore the way in which the internet and e-research are changing the nature of scholarly communities and the relationship between researchers and libraries; and to suggest how librarians can become more engaged with the e-research process. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey and focus groups investigating internet use by academic staff and research students at Curtin

Paul Genoni; Helen Merrick; Michele A. Willson

2006-01-01

196

ESTUARY PROCESS RESEARCH PROJECT LINKING HYDRODYNAMICS, SEDIMENTS AND BIOLOGY (ESTPROC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a major research project on estuarine processes within the DEFRA\\/EA R&D framework of Fluvial, Estuarine and Coastal Processes. The EstProc project brings together a multi- disciplinary team to undertake innovative research on estuarine hydrodynamics, sediments and biology and their interactions. The 3 year research project is being undertaken by a project team comprising 11 partners drawn from

RICHARD WHITEHOUSE

197

BioMart Central Portal: an open database network for the biological community  

PubMed Central

BioMart Central Portal is a first of its kind, community-driven effort to provide unified access to dozens of biological databases spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. Anybody can contribute an independently maintained resource to the Central Portal, allowing it to be exposed to and shared with the research community, and linking it with the other resources in the portal. Users can take advantage of the common interface to quickly utilize different sources without learning a new system for each. The system also simplifies cross-database searches that might otherwise require several complicated steps. Several integrated tools streamline common tasks, such as converting between ID formats and retrieving sequences. The combination of a wide variety of databases, an easy-to-use interface, robust programmatic access and the array of tools make Central Portal a one-stop shop for biological data querying. Here, we describe the structure of Central Portal and show example queries to demonstrate its capabilities. Database URL: http://central.biomart.org.

Guberman, Jonathan M.; Ai, J.; Arnaiz, O.; Baran, Joachim; Blake, Andrew; Baldock, Richard; Chelala, Claude; Croft, David; Cros, Anthony; Cutts, Rosalind J.; Di Genova, A.; Forbes, Simon; Fujisawa, T.; Gadaleta, E.; Goodstein, D. M.; Gundem, Gunes; Haggarty, Bernard; Haider, Syed; Hall, Matthew; Harris, Todd; Haw, Robin; Hu, S.; Hubbard, Simon; Hsu, Jack; Iyer, Vivek; Jones, Philip; Katayama, Toshiaki; Kinsella, R.; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Liang, Yong; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Luo, J.; Lush, Michael; Mason, Jeremy; Moreews, Francois; Ndegwa, Nelson; Oakley, Darren; Perez-Llamas, Christian; Primig, Michael; Rivkin, Elena; Rosanoff, S.; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Skarnes, B.; Smedley, Damian; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Stevenson, Peter; Stone, Kevin; Teague, J.; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jianxin; Whitty, Brett; Wong, D. T.; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Yao, L.; Youens-Clark, Ken; Yung, Christina; Zhang, Junjun; Kasprzyk, Arek

2011-01-01

198

Genetic fingerprinting: Advancing the frontiers of crop biology research  

Microsoft Academic Search

enetic fingerprinting is one of the DNA-based techniques that have permeated a wide gamut of biological research, beginning with forensic biology and medicine and now ex- tending to agriculture. The advent of polymerase chain re - action (PCR) ushered a revolutionary approach in producing genetic fingerprints, supplanting hybridization-based techniques. PCR-based methods can be accomplished using either arbitrary markers of un-

Gabriel Romero; Cheryl Adeva; Zosimo Battad

2009-01-01

199

Project Enlists Community Physicians in Cancer Research  

Cancer.gov

To enable more patients and physicians to participate in clinical studies that advance cancer care, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is conducting a pilot project, the Expanded Participation Project (EPP), to speed cancer research by broadening access to clinical trials

200

Bringing the physical sciences into your cell biology research.  

PubMed

Historically, much of biology was studied by physicists and mathematicians. With the advent of modern molecular biology, a wave of researchers became trained in a new scientific discipline filled with the language of genes, mutants, and the central dogma. These new molecular approaches have provided volumes of information on biomolecules and molecular pathways from the cellular to the organismal level. The challenge now is to determine how this seemingly endless list of components works together to promote the healthy function of complex living systems. This effort requires an interdisciplinary approach by investigators from both the biological and the physical sciences. PMID:23112230

Robinson, Douglas N; Iglesias, Pablo A

2012-11-01

201

Social Biology of Microbial Communities: Workshop Summary. Held on March 6-7, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On March 6 and 7, 2012, the Institute of Medicines (IOMs) Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop to explore the emerging science of the social biology of microbial communities. Workshop presentations and discussions embraced a wide spectrum o...

2012-01-01

202

Using community-based participatory research as a guiding framework for health disparities research centers.  

PubMed

There has been growing interest in conducting community-based health research using a participatory approach that involves the active collaboration of academic and community partners to address community-level health concerns. Project EXPORT (Excellence in Partnerships, Outreach, Research, and Training) is a National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) initiative focused on understanding and eliminating health disparities for racial and ethnic minorities and medically underserved populations in the United States. The New York University (NYU) Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) is 1 of 76 Project EXPORT sites. This paper describes how CSAAH developed partnerships with varied Asian American community stakeholders as a first step in establishing itself as a Project EXPORT center that uses community-based participatory research (CBPR) as its orienting framework. Three guiding principles were followed to develop community-academic partnerships: (1) creating and sustaining multiple partnerships; (2) promoting equity in partnerships; and (3) commitment to action and research. We discuss strategies and action steps taken to put each principle into practice, as well as the successes and challenges we faced in doing so. Developing community-academic partnerships has been essential in our ability to conduct health disparities research in Asian American communities. Approaches and lessons learned from our experience can be applied to other communities conducing health disparities research. PMID:19081761

Chau, Trinh-Shevrin; Islam, Nadia; Tandon, Darius; Ho-Asjoe, Henrietta; Rey, Mariano

2007-01-01

203

Research on Schools, Neighborhoods and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Research on Schools, Neighborhoods, and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility" focuses on research and theoretical developments related to the role of geography in education, human development, and health. William F. Tate IV, the Edward Mallinckrodt Distinguished University Professor in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis…

Tate, William F., IV, Ed.

2012-01-01

204

Research on Race and Ethnic Relations among Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considerable research has been conducted in the past two decades on race and ethnic relations among community college students. The atheoretical underpinnings of this research have led to vague and conflicting findings regarding such concepts as campus climate, discrimination, and the benefits of campus diversity. This article briefly reviews…

Maxwell, William; Shammas, Diane

2007-01-01

205

Building Communities: Teachers Researching Literacy Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the light of wide recognition that the traffic between home and school is traditionally one-way, this article reports on a deliberately counter-cultural project that involved teachers in researching children's everyday literacy practices and "funds of knowledge" (Gonzalez, Moll, & Amanti, 2005) over a year. Eighteen primary teachers from 10…

Cremin, Teresa; Mottram, Marilyn; Collins, Fiona; Powell, Sacha; Drury, Rose

2012-01-01

206

Learning Research and Community Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case presents a situation in which a reformist superintendent attempts to achieve a systemwide, yet simple change in the school time schedule to incorporate well-established neurocognitive sleep research to enhance student learning. The public discussion of the reform proposal brought forth a very negative, single issue group who took over…

Allison, Bradford; Schumacher, Gary

2011-01-01

207

Building Communities: Teachers Researching Literacy Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the light of wide recognition that the traffic between home and school is traditionally one-way, this article reports on a deliberately counter-cultural project that involved teachers in researching children's everyday literacy practices and "funds of knowledge" (Gonzalez, Moll, & Amanti, 2005) over a year. Eighteen primary teachers from 10…

Cremin, Teresa; Mottram, Marilyn; Collins, Fiona; Powell, Sacha; Drury, Rose

2012-01-01

208

External Community Review Committee: A New Strategy for Engaging Community Stakeholders in Research Funding Decisions  

PubMed Central

Background Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice.

Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

2013-01-01

209

External community review committee: a new strategy for engaging community stakeholders in research funding decisions.  

PubMed

Background: Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives: We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods: Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals-such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results: This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions: The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice. PMID:24056512

Smith, Maureen A; Kaufman, Nancy J; Dearlove, Andrea J

2013-01-01

210

"Doing Research Was Inspiring": Building a Research Community with Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on a mixed-methods study related to K-12 teachers' understandings of what research is, and what enables or inhibits teacher use of research in the classroom towards informing their instructional practices. In a collaboration exemplifying school board and university partnerships, we examined the nature of associations between…

Martinovic, Dragana; Wiebe, Natasha; Ratkovic, Snezana; Willard-Holt, Colleen; Spencer, Terry; Cantalini-Williams, Maria

2012-01-01

211

"Communities" in Community Engagement: Lessons Learned from Autism Research in South Africa and South Korea  

PubMed Central

Scientific Abstract Little research has been conducted on behavioral characteristics of children with ASD from diverse cultures within the US or from countries outside of the US or Europe, with little reliable information yet reported from developing countries. We describe the process used to engage diverse communities in ASD research in two community-based research projects—an epidemiological investigation of 7–12 year olds in South Korea and the Early Autism Project, an ASD detection program for 18–36 month old Zulu-speaking children in South Africa. Despite the differences in wealth between these communities, ASD is under-diagnosed in both settings, generally not reported in clinical or educational records. Moreover, in both countries there is low availability of services. In both cases, local knowledge helped researchers to address both ethnographic as well as practical problems. Researchers identified the ways in which these communities generate and negotiate the cultural meanings of developmental disorders. Researchers incorporated that knowledge as they engaged communities in a research protocol, adapted and translated screening and diagnostic tools, and developed methods for screening, evaluating, and diagnosing children with ASD.

Grinker, Roy Richard; Chambers, Nola; Njongwe, Nono; Lagman, Adrienne E.; Guthrie, Whitney; Stronach, Sheri; Richard, Bonnie O.; Kauchali, Shuaib; Killian, Beverley; Chhagan, Meera; Yucel, Fikri; Kudumu, Mwenda; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Grether, Judith; Wetherby, Amy M.

2012-01-01

212

"Communities" in community engagement: lessons learned from autism research in South Korea and South Africa.  

PubMed

Little research has been conducted on behavioral characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from diverse cultures within the US, or from countries outside of the US or Europe, with little reliable information yet reported from developing countries. We describe the process used to engage diverse communities in ASD research in two community-based research projects-an epidemiologic investigation of 7- to 12-year olds in South Korea and the Early Autism Project, an ASD detection program for 18- to 36-month-old Zulu-speaking children in South Africa. Despite the differences in wealth between these communities, ASD is underdiagnosed in both settings, and generally not reported in clinical or educational records. Moreover, in both countries, there is low availability of services. In both cases, local knowledge helped researchers to address both ethnographic as well as practical problems. Researchers identified the ways in which these communities generate and negotiate the cultural meanings of developmental disorders. Researchers incorporated that knowledge, as they engaged communities in a research protocol, adapted and translated screening and diagnostic tools, and developed methods for screening, evaluating, and diagnosing children with ASD. PMID:22566396

Grinker, Roy Richard; Chambers, Nola; Njongwe, Nono; Lagman, Adrienne E; Guthrie, Whitney; Stronach, Sheri; Richard, Bonnie O; Kauchali, Shuaib; Killian, Beverley; Chhagan, Meera; Yucel, Fikri; Kudumu, Mwenda; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Grether, Judith; Wetherby, Amy M

2012-05-04

213

Research participant recruitment in Hispanic communities: lessons learned.  

PubMed

Hidden/special populations such as new immigrants are hard-to-reach due to issues such as stigma, discrimination, fear of immigration authorities, and cultural norms. Such factors can affect the recruitment of participants for behavioral research, especially research which addresses stigmatizing conditions such as HIV/AIDS. This research involved a qualitative approach and methods. The study identified contextual factors as well as attitudes, experiences and beliefs affecting HIV risk among recent Hispanic immigrants in New York. During the course of this research, challenges to participant recruitment were identified which were related to the environments, characteristics of the populations, and the sensitive nature of the topic to be studied. Strategies including exploratory fieldwork and sensitivity to participants' fear of "the system" were effective in recruiting individuals from this population. The authors discuss the strategies which facilitated recruitment of research subjects from these new Hispanic immigrant communities and the importance of behavioral research among these vulnerable communities. PMID:19779819

Shedlin, Michele G; Decena, Carlos U; Mangadu, Thenral; Martinez, Angela

2011-04-01

214

TWiCE Undergraduate Experience in Research and Community Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TWiCE, The Women in Computer Engineering, is a project that has proved effective in the retention of women in an undergraduate computer science engineering program. Members of TWiCE apply their developing knowledge to community service and serve as role models for their communities. Research suggests that female students "are likely to report choosing a major that will make it possible for them to 'help people.'âÂÂ

Cohoon, J. M.; Bair, Bettina

2012-03-22

215

Participatory research supporting community-based fishery management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a project to engage researchers and fishers together in adapting social science approaches to the purposes and the constraints of community-based fisher organizations. The work was carried out in the Scotia–Fundy Region of Atlantic Canada (the Bay of Fundy and Scotian Shelf). Its rationale reflects arguments that (1) effective community-based management requires that managers are able

Melanie Wiber; Fikret Berkes; Anthony Charles; John Kearney

2004-01-01

216

Analysis of Bacterial Communities Associated with Insect Biological Control Agents using Molecular Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of the diversity of bacterial communities associated with field- collected specimens of two insect biological control agents of spotted knapweed, Agapeta zoegana and Cyphocleonus achates, were made using molecular methods. The objective was to assess the bacterial communities of each insect to evaluate the potential compati- bility of plant pathogenic fungi as a supplement to insect diets for mass

B. A. FREDERICK; A. J. CAESAR

217

Promotion of a community culture in nursing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on local practice-based research and development. It uses examples from both nursing practice and education to explore some factors that prevent, promote and influence the establishment of a research culture in clinical nursing. The article presents potential approaches for successful practitioner-led and clinical\\/academic research initiatives, explored through practice development and communities of practice. It also highlights the

Nicola Andrew; Dorothy Ferguson; Claire McGuinness

2008-01-01

218

openBIS: a flexible framework for managing and analyzing complex data in biology research  

PubMed Central

Background Modern data generation techniques used in distributed systems biology research projects often create datasets of enormous size and diversity. We argue that in order to overcome the challenge of managing those large quantitative datasets and maximise the biological information extracted from them, a sound information system is required. Ease of integration with data analysis pipelines and other computational tools is a key requirement for it. Results We have developed openBIS, an open source software framework for constructing user-friendly, scalable and powerful information systems for data and metadata acquired in biological experiments. openBIS enables users to collect, integrate, share, publish data and to connect to data processing pipelines. This framework can be extended and has been customized for different data types acquired by a range of technologies. Conclusions openBIS is currently being used by several SystemsX.ch and EU projects applying mass spectrometric measurements of metabolites and proteins, High Content Screening, or Next Generation Sequencing technologies. The attributes that make it interesting to a large research community involved in systems biology projects include versatility, simplicity in deployment, scalability to very large data, flexibility to handle any biological data type and extensibility to the needs of any research domain.

2011-01-01

219

The Biology of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study in Community Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a project for the Biology of HIV/AIDS course for undergraduate biology majors. This project challenged science students to engage the community on two different levels. They first had to interact directly and personally with HIV/AIDS activists. The proposal then encouraged them to think about and describe ways of engaging a…

Caccavo, Frank, Jr.

2008-01-01

220

The Biology of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study in Community Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a project for the Biology of HIV/AIDS course for undergraduate biology majors. This project challenged science students to engage the community on two different levels. They first had to interact directly and personally with HIV/AIDS activists. The proposal then encouraged them to think about and describe ways of engaging a…

Caccavo, Frank, Jr.

2008-01-01

221

Genomics and future biological weapons: the need for preventive action by the biomedical community  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing concern within both the scientific and security communities that the ongoing revolution in biology has great potential to be misused in offensive biological weapons programs. In light of the 11 September tragedy, we can no longer afford to be complacent about the possibility of bio- logical terrorism. Here we review the major relevant trends in genomics

Malcolm R. Dando; Claire M. Fraser

2001-01-01

222

USGS Alaska Science Center, Biological Science Office: Research Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the research programs of the USGS Alaska Science Center - Biological Science Office (ASC-BSO). The programs are divided into several categories including Ecosystems & Habitats, Mammals, Technical Programs, Fish and Fisheries, and Birds. Links connect to research information about numerous program subcategories like Coastal and Marine, Sea Otters, Loons, Fisheries Projects, and more. The site also links to background information about the ASC-BSO, job listings, staff contact information, and the Alaska Science Center Publications Database.

2006-01-11

223

USGS Alaska Science Center, Biological Science Office: Research Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the research programs of the USGS Alaska Science Center - Biological Science Office (ASC-BSO). The programs are divided into several categories including Ecosystems & Habitats, Mammals, Technical Programs, Fish and Fisheries, and Birds. Links connect to research information about numerous program subcategories like Coastal and Marine, Sea Otters, Loons, Fisheries Projects, and more. The site also links to background information about the ASC-BSO, job listings, staff contact information, and the Alaska Science Center Publications Database.

224

Ethics of Health Research in Communities: Perspectives From the Southwestern United States  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The increasing attention paid to community-based research highlights the question of whether human research protections focused on the individual are adequate to safeguard communities. We conducted a study to explore how community members perceive low-risk health research, the adequacy of human research protection processes, and the ethical conduct of community-based research. METHODS Eighteen focus groups were conducted among rural and urban Hispanic and Native American communities in New Mexico using a semistructured guide. Group transcriptions were analyzed using iterative readings and coding, with review of the analytic summary by group members. RESULTS Although participants recognized the value of health research, many also identified several adverse effects of research in their communities, including social (community and individual labeling, stigmatization, and discrimination) and economic (community job losses, increased insurance rates, and loss of community income). A lack of community beneficence was emphasized by participants who spoke of researchers who fail to communicate results adequately or assist with follow-through. Many group members did not believe current human research and data privacy processes were adequate to protect or assist communities. CONCLUSIONS Ethical review of community-based health research should apply the Belmont principles to communities. Researchers should adopt additional approaches to community-based research by engaging communities as active partners throughout the research process, focusing on community priorities, and taking extra precautions to assure individual and community privacy. Plans for meaningful dissemination of results to communities should be part of the research design.

Williams, Robert L.; Willging, Cathleen E.; Quintero, Gilbert; Kalishman, Summers; Sussman, Andrew L.; Freeman, William L.

2010-01-01

225

Consulting the community: public expectations and attitudes about genetics research.  

PubMed

Genomic discoveries and technologies promise numerous opportunities for improving health. Key to these potential health improvements, however, are health-care consumers' understanding and acceptance of these new developments. We identified community groups and invited them to a public information-consultation session in order to explore public awareness, perception and expectations about genetics and genomics research. One hundred and four members of seven community groups in Newfoundland, Canada took part in the community sessions. Content analysis of participant comments revealed they were largely hopeful about genetics research in its capacity to improve health; however, they did not accept such research uncritically. Complex issues arose during the community consultations, including the place of genetics in primary care, the value of genetics for personal health, and concerns about access to and uses of genetic information. Participants unequivocally endorsed the value of public engagement with these issues. The rapid pace of discoveries in genomics research offers exciting opportunities to improve population health. However, public support will be crucial to realize health improvements. Our findings suggest that regular, transparent dialog between researchers and the public could allow a greater understanding of the research process, as well as assist in the design of efficient and effective genetic health services, informed by the public that will use them.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 17 April 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.64. PMID:23591403

Etchegary, Holly; Green, Jane; Dicks, Elizabeth; Pullman, Daryl; Street, Catherine; Parfrey, Patrick

2013-04-17

226

Challenges and opportunities for the biomedical research community.  

PubMed

The biomedical research community of the new millennium has at its disposal the resources and knowledge to bring about major changes in human health. Technological advances on a scale never before seen mean that we can consider a level of medical investigation and intervention unimaginable only 20 years ago. But with this power comes a tremendous responsibility to think carefully about how those resources should best be used. For reasons of economy, biomedical research is likely to remain focussed on the needs of rich countries. This need not, however, mean that poorer countries cannot in the future receive a greater benefit from the current community of biomedical researchers. And given the nature of disease and its disrespect for national boundaries, a more global approach to biomedical research should be attractive to rich and poor countries alike. Achieving this change, no matter how modest in scale, will require a concerted effort at all levels within the biomedical research community. Indeed, the community is at a stage when it must pay closer attention to the sensitivities and concerns of its patient population. Only then will the tremendous potential of biomedical research be embraced and supported by our societies. PMID:10744475

Ivinson, A J

2000-01-01

227

Biomedical Research Experiences for Biology Majors at a Small College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A program-level assessment of the biology curriculum at a small liberal arts college validates a previous study demonstrating success in achieving learning outcomes related to content knowledge and communication skills. Furthermore, research opportunities have been provided to complement pedagogical strategies and give students a more complete…

Stover, Shawn K.; Mabry, Michelle L.

2010-01-01

228

Glimpses of Biological Research and Education in Cuba.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses Cuban medical facilities, biological research (focusing on sugarcane tissue culture, interferon, hybrid cattle, tropical fruits, and yeast biosynthetic pathways), science education programs at all levels, and institutions of higher education. Also examines such concerns as the Cuban literacy rate and efforts to improve the environment.…

Margulis, Lynn; Kunz, Thomas H.

1984-01-01

229

Virology. Volume 5: Advances in Cell Biology through Virus Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume 5, Advances in Cell Biology through Virus Research, is the fifth in a series of six volumes of a report developed by a Task Force on Virology initiated and sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases for the purposes of a...

1979-01-01

230

Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research.  

PubMed

In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts. PMID:21439242

Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

2011-04-01

231

2010 Tetrapyrroles, Chemistry & Biology of Gordon Research Conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles Gordon Conference is to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines that otherwise would not interact. By bringing biologists, chemists, engineers and clinicians with a common interest in tetrapyrroles the conference provides a forum for cross-disciplinary ideas and collaboration. The perspective provided by biologists, chemists, and clinicians working in fields such as

Angela Wilks

2010-01-01

232

Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

2008-03-21

233

National Community Impact Assessment (CIA) Research Design Team Recommendations for Development of the Strategic Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Introduction; Chronology of Key Community Impact Assessment (CIA) and related activities; Community Impact Assessment Research Design Team Goals; National Community Impact Assessment Recommendations and Appendix A: CIA Research Design T...

1999-01-01

234

Exploring invisible scientific communities: Studying networking relations within an educational research community. A Finnish case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focused on making invisiblecolleges of educational science in Finlandvisible through analysing networking relationsbetween scientific research communities. Thestudy aims at developing methods to analyse theintensity and focus of social collaborationbetween educational research groups in order tounderstand internal relations of scientificdiscipline and support scientific evaluationwith information about participation andinformal communication beyond quantity ofpublished products. Informal and formalnetworking connections of

Palonen Tuire; Lehtinen Erno

2001-01-01

235

Phylogeny, phylogeography, phylobetadiversity and the molecular analysis of biological communities  

PubMed Central

There has been much recent interest and progress in the characterization of community structure and community assembly processes through the application of phylogenetic methods. To date most focus has been on groups of taxa for which some relevant detail of their ecology is known, for which community composition is reasonably easily quantified and where the temporal scale is such that speciation is not likely to feature. Here, we explore how we might apply a molecular genetic approach to investigate community structure and assembly at broad taxonomic and geographical scales, where we have little knowledge of species ecology, where community composition is not easily quantified, and where speciation is likely to be of some importance. We explore these ideas using the class Collembola as a focal group. Gathering molecular evidence for cryptic diversity suggests that the ubiquity of many species of Collembola across the landscape may belie greater community complexity than would otherwise be assumed. However, this morphologically cryptic species-level diversity poses a challenge for attempts to characterize diversity both within and among local species assemblages. Recent developments in high throughput parallel sequencing technology, combined with mtDNA barcoding, provide an advance that can bring together the fields of phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis to bear on this problem. Such an approach could be standardized for analyses at any geographical scale for a range of taxonomic groups to quantify the formation and composition of species assemblages.

Emerson, Brent C.; Cicconardi, Francesco; Fanciulli, Pietro P.; Shaw, Peter J. A.

2011-01-01

236

Navigating social class roles in community research.  

PubMed

This paper describes the first author's attempt to collect data in a homeless shelter without attending to her role in the social class hierarchy of the organization. The author's egalitarian approach towards the homeless clients, and her lack of involvement in "staff-only" activities, transgress the social class norms within the organizational structure. While the author is successful in gaining the trust of the homeless clients, her approach alienates shelter staff, especially those in the higher echelons of the social hierarchy. The concepts of classism, world views, and Social Identity Theory, are utilized to discuss the dilemma faced by researchers who want to challenge, or work outside, a setting's status quo. PMID:16645901

Shpungin, Elaine; Lyubansky, Mikhail

2006-06-01

237

Promoting environmental justice through community-based participatory research: the role of community and partnership capacity.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The authors focus on community and partnership capacity within and across sites, using as a theoretical framework Goodman and his colleagues' dimensions of community capacity, as these were tailored to environmental health by Freudenberg, and as further modified to include partnership capacity within a systems perspective. The four CBPR partnerships examined were situated in NewYork, California, Oklahoma, and North Carolina and were part of a larger national study. Case study contexts and characteristics, policy-related outcomes, and findings related to community and partnership capacity are presented, with implications drawn for other CBPR partnerships with a policy focus. PMID:16861594

Minkler, Meredith; Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana

2006-07-21

238

Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the ...  

Treesearch

It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, ... of aspen conservation and management techniques such as fencing, conifer removal, ... Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for ...

239

Participatory Action Research: Integrating Community Occupational Therapy Practice and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…

Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry

2002-01-01

240

CNA2 - Communications and Community; Neighborhoods and Networks; Action and Analysis: Concepts and Methods for Community Technology Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine the challenges and opportunities of employing ICT in a community building\\/development\\u000a context through a critical reflection of the experiences of the Community Network Analysis (CNA) and ICT research project\\u000a in the Poets Corner community of Brighton and Hove, UK. Grounded in community networking, community development and community\\u000a learning theories, the CNA project

Peter Day; Clair Farenden

2007-01-01

241

Evidence of community structure in biomedical research grant collaborations.  

PubMed

Recent studies have clearly demonstrated a shift towards collaborative research and team science approaches across a spectrum of disciplines. Such collaborative efforts have also been acknowledged and nurtured by popular extramurally funded programs including the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) conferred by the National Institutes of Health. Since its inception, the number of CTSA awardees has steadily increased to 60 institutes across 30 states. One of the objectives of CTSA is to accelerate translation of research from bench to bedside to community and train a new genre of researchers under the translational research umbrella. Feasibility of such a translation implicitly demands multi-disciplinary collaboration and mentoring. Networks have proven to be convenient abstractions for studying research collaborations. The present study is a part of the CTSA baseline study and investigates existence of possible community-structure in Biomedical Research Grant Collaboration (BRGC) networks across data sets retrieved from the internally developed grants management system, the Automated Research Information Administrator (ARIA) at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS). Fastgreedy and link-community community-structure detection algorithms were used to investigate the presence of non-overlapping and overlapping community-structure and their variation across years 2006 and 2009. A surrogate testing approach in conjunction with appropriate discriminant statistics, namely: the modularity index and the maximum partition density is proposed to investigate whether the community-structure of the BRGC networks were different from those generated by certain types of random graphs. Non-overlapping as well as overlapping community-structure detection algorithms indicated the presence of community-structure in the BRGC network. Subsequent, surrogate testing revealed that random graph models considered in the present study may not necessarily be appropriate generative mechanisms of the community-structure in the BRGC networks. The discrepancy in the community-structure between the BRGC networks and the random graph surrogates was especially pronounced at 2009 as opposed to 2006 indicating a possible shift towards team-science and formation of non-trivial modular patterns with time. The results also clearly demonstrate presence of inter-departmental and multi-disciplinary collaborations in BRGC networks. While the results are presented on BRGC networks as a part of the CTSA baseline study at UAMS, the proposed methodologies are as such generic with potential to be extended across other CTSA organizations. Understanding the presence of community-structure can supplement more traditional network analysis as they're useful in identifying research teams and their inter-connections as opposed to the role of individual nodes in the network. Such an understanding can be a critical step prior to devising meaningful interventions for promoting team-science, multi-disciplinary collaborations, cross-fertilization of ideas across research teams and identifying suitable mentors. Understanding the temporal evolution of these communities may also be useful in CTSA evaluation. PMID:22981843

Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Kalinka, Alex T; Hogan, William R

2012-09-07

242

Community-based knowledge transfer and exchange: Helping community-based organizations link research to action  

PubMed Central

Background Community-based organizations (CBOs) are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts. CBOs increasingly turn to community-based research (CBR) given its participatory focus and emphasis on linking research to action. In order to further facilitate the use of research evidence by CBOs, we have developed a strategy for community-based knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) that helps CBOs more effectively link research evidence to action. We developed the strategy by: outlining the primary characteristics of CBOs and why they are important stakeholders in health systems; describing the concepts and methods for CBR and for KTE; comparing the efforts of CBR to link research evidence to action to those discussed in the KTE literature; and using the comparison to develop a framework for community-based KTE that builds on both the strengths of CBR and existing KTE frameworks. Discussion We find that CBR is particularly effective at fostering a climate for using research evidence and producing research evidence relevant to CBOs through community participation. However, CBOs are not always as engaged in activities to link research evidence to action on a larger scale or to evaluate these efforts. Therefore, our strategy for community-based KTE focuses on: an expanded model of 'linkage and exchange' (i.e., producers and users of researchers engaging in a process of asking and answering questions together); a greater emphasis on both producing and disseminating systematic reviews that address topics of interest to CBOs; developing a large-scale evidence service consisting of both 'push' efforts and efforts to facilitate 'pull' that highlight actionable messages from community relevant systematic reviews in a user-friendly way; and rigorous evaluations of efforts for linking research evidence to action. Summary Through this type of strategy, use of research evidence for CBO advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts can be better facilitated and continually refined through ongoing evaluations of its impact.

2010-01-01

243

Disease maps as context for community mapping: a methodological approach for linking confidential health information with local geographical knowledge for community health research.  

PubMed

Health is increasingly understood as a product of multiple levels of influence, from individual biological and behavioral influences to community and societal level contextual influences. In understanding these contextual influences, community health researchers have increasingly employed both geographic methodologies, including Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and community participatory approaches. However, despite growing interest in the role for community participation and local knowledge in community health investigations, and the use of geographical methods and datasets in characterizing community environments, there exist few examples of research projects that incorporate both geographical and participatory approaches in addressing health questions. This is likely due in part to concerns and restrictions regarding community access to confidential health data. In order to overcome this barrier, we present a method for linking confidential, geocoded health information with community-generated experiential geographical information in a GIS environment. We use sophisticated disease mapping methodologies to create continuously defined maps of colorectal cancer in Iowa, then incorporate these layers in an open source GIS application as the context for a participatory community mapping exercise with participants from a rural Iowa town. Our method allows participants to interact directly with health information at a fine geographical scale, facilitating hypothesis generation regarding contextual influences on health, while simultaneously protecting data confidentiality. Participants are able to use their local, geographical knowledge to generate hypotheses about factors influencing colorectal cancer risk in the community and opportunities for risk reduction. This work opens the door for future efforts to integrate empirical epidemiological data with community generated experiential information to inform community health research and practice. PMID:20352481

Beyer, Kirsten M M; Comstock, Sara; Seagren, Renea

2010-12-01

244

A qualitative study using traditional community assemblies to investigate community perspectives on informed consent and research participation in western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background International collaborators face challenges in the design and implementation of ethical biomedical research. Evaluating community understanding of research and processes like informed consent may enable researchers to better protect research participants in a particular setting; however, there exist few studies examining community perspectives in health research, particularly in resource-limited settings, or strategies for engaging the community in research processes. Our goal was to inform ethical research practice in a biomedical research setting in western Kenya and similar resource-limited settings. Methods We sought to use mabaraza, traditional East African community assemblies, in a qualitative study to understand community perspectives on biomedical research and informed consent within a collaborative, multinational research network in western Kenya. Analyses included manual, progressive coding of transcripts from mabaraza to identify emerging central concepts. Results Our findings from two mabaraza with 108 community members revealed that, while participants understood some principles of biomedical research, they emphasized perceived benefits from participation in research over potential risks. Many community members equated health research with HIV testing or care, which may be explained in part by the setting of this particular study. In addition to valuing informed consent as understanding and accepting a role in research activities, participants endorsed an increased role for the community in making decisions about research participation, especially in the case of children, through a process of community consent. Conclusions Our study suggests that international biomedical research must account for community understanding of research and informed consent, particularly when involving children. Moreover, traditional community forums, such as mabaraza in East Africa, can be used effectively to gather these data and may serve as a forum to further engage communities in community consent and other aspects of research.

2012-01-01

245

Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The many advanced technology requirements dictated by the demanding low-Earth orbit research environment can only be satisfied through the adaptation of innovative methods and technologies. The fundamental physics research program in microgravity sponsors research that explores the physics governing matter, space, and time and that seeks to discover and understand the organizing principles of nature, including the emergence of complex structures. The fundamental physics research program currently supports research in four areas: gravitational and relativistic physics, laser cooling and atomic physics, low temperature and condensed matter physics, and biological physics. The microgravity fundamental physics is one of the science disciplines within the new NASA Office of Biological and Physical Sciences Research, where quantum technology plays a major role. Quantum technology, based on controlled manipulation of fundamentally quantum processes of atoms, molecules, or soft matter, enables novel and significantly extended capabilities. This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics research program, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum fluid based sensor and modeling technology.

Kierk, I.

246

The Role of Institutional Research in the Comprehensive Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay builds on and extends scholarly discussion of the role and functions of Institutional Research (IR), especially with regard to the community college. As institutional "conscience," the primary value of IR is assisting in the identification of organizational weaknesses and challenges and helping to convert weaknesses into strengths and…

Walleri, R. Dan

2003-01-01

247

Research Area Overview: Social Capital in Online Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online communities are connecting hordes of individuals and generat- ing rich social network data. The social capital that resides within these networks is largely unknown. Our work focuses on modeling the social capital existing within these networks. The area spans multiple disci- plines including sociology, political science, and computer science. This research area overview covers the most pertinent topics related

Matthew Smith; Christophe Giraud-Carrier

248

Research and Policy: Can Online Learning Communities Foster Professional Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This column posits enhancing professional development through uses of digital tools to create professional learning communities (PLCs) designed to support collective inquiry and action research leading to schoolwide improvement. These digital tools include a social networking/discussion forum for teacher collaboration; teachers' individual…

Beach, Richard

2012-01-01

249

The Community College Baccalaureate Movement: Cutting-Edge Dissertation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review of dissertations, the researcher presents summaries of 10 of the most recent and cutting-edge dissertations focusing on the ever-growing and complex field of the community college baccalaureate movement. These studies focus on the gamut of specific legislation, case studies of particular programs and schools, financing of such…

Hrabak, Michael R.

2009-01-01

250

Architect for Research on Gender and Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A quick search in the "Community College Journal of Research and Practice" for Barbara Townsend's name produces 62 entries. A handful of those entries are the articles that Barbara has authored, but many more are articles that cite her work. Another search on the Web of Science database that tracks citations in a specific set of peer-reviewed…

Lester, Jaime

2009-01-01

251

Architect for Research on Gender and Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quick search in the "Community College Journal of Research and Practice" for Barbara Townsend's name produces 62 entries. A handful of those entries are the articles that Barbara has authored, but many more are articles that cite her work. Another search on the Web of Science database that tracks citations in a specific set of peer-reviewed…

Lester, Jaime

2009-01-01

252

Successful Strategies for Earth Science Research in Native Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small U.S. Geological Survey pilot project utilizes strategies that are successful at involving the Native community in earth science research. This work has ignited the interest of Native students in interdisciplinary geoscience studies, and gained the recognition of tribal community leaders from the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Canada. This study seeks to examine land use, climatic variability, and their related impacts on land-surface conditions in the ecologically sensitive Tsezhin Bii' region of the Navajo Nation. Work conducted by predominantly Native American researchers, includes studies of bedrock geology, surficial processes, soil and water quality, and plant ecology, as well as the history of human habitation. Community involvement that began during the proposal process, has helped to guide research, and has provided tribal members with information that they can use for land use planning and natural resource management. Work by Navajo tribal members who have become involved in research as it has progressed, includes K-12 science curriculum development, community outreach and education on environmental and geologic hazards, drought mitigation, grazing management, and impacts of climate change and land use on medicinal plants.

Redsteer, M. H.; Anderson, D.; Ben, N.; Bitsuie, R.; Blackhorse, A.; Breit, G.; Clifford, A.; Salabye, J.; Semken, S.; Weaver, K.; Yazzie, N.

2004-12-01

253

Drugs at Home in Qazvin, Iran: Community Based Participatory Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over-prescriptions, self-medication, consumption of expired drugs, and their storage in unsuitable conditions all result in health hazards and a loss of scarce resources. To assess the quantity and the quality of the drugs stored in the household, we conducted a Community Based Participatory research through the health needs assessment project in Qazvin city's Minoodar region during 2006. Volunteers from the

Saeed Asefzadeh; Marjan Nassiri-Asl

254

The perspectives of nonscience-major students on success in community college biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With more than 36% of nonscience-major community college students unable to successfully complete their general life science courses, graduation and transfer rates to four-year universities are negatively affected. Many students also miss important opportunities to gain some level of science proficiency. In an effort to address the problem of poor science achievement, this research project determined which factors were most significantly related to student success in a community college biology course. It also aimed to understand the student perspectives on which modifications to the course would best help them in the pursuit of success. Drawing heavily on the educational psychology schools of thought on motivation and self-efficacy of science learning, this study surveyed and interviewed students on their perceptions of which factors were related to success in biology and the changes they believed were needed in the course structure to improve success. The data revealed that the primary factors related to student success are the students' study skills and their perceived levels of self-efficacy. The findings also uncovered the critical nature of the professor's role in influencing the success of the students. After assessing the needs of the community college population, meaningful and appropriate curriculum and pedagogical reforms could be created to improve student learning outcomes. This study offered recommendations for reforms that can be used by science practitioners to provide a more nurturing and inspiring environment for all students. These suggestions revolved around the role of the instructor in influencing the self-efficacy and study skills of students. Providing more opportunities for students to interact in class, testing more frequently, establishing peer assistance programs, managing better the course material, and making themselves more available to students were at the forefront of the list. Examples of the potential benefits of increasing community college science success rates include improvement of student transfer rates and better preparation for employment. Because of the increasing importance of science in this modern age, improving science success rates can also have long-lasting positive effects on students' abilities to make decisions about their health, the economy, and to be productive citizens within our science-oriented society.

Kim-Rajab, Oriana Sharon

255

Building Capacity for Community-Based Participatory Research for Health Disparities in Canada: The Case of “Partnerships in Community Health Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enthusiasm for community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasing among health researchers and practitioners in addressing health disparities. Although there are many benefits of CBPR, such as its ability to democratize knowledge and link research to community action and social change, there are also perils that researchers can encounter that can threaten the integrity of the research and undermine relationships. Despite

Jeffrey R. Masuda; Genevieve Creighton; Sean Nixon; James Frankish

2011-01-01

256

Partnership readiness for community-based participatory research  

PubMed Central

The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners’ readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions and key indicators necessary for academic and community partnership readiness to conduct CBPR. Key informant interviews and focus groups (n = 36 participants) were conducted with academic and community participants who had experiences with CBPR partnerships. A ‘framework analysis' approach was used to analyze the data and generate a new model, CBPR Partnership Readiness Model. Antecedents of CBPR partnership readiness are a catalyst and mutual interest. The major dimensions of the CBPR Partnership Readiness Model are (i) goodness of fit, (ii) capacity, and (iii) operations. Preferred outcomes are sustainable partnership and product, mutual growth, policy and social and health impact on the community. CBPR partnership readiness is an iterative and dynamic process, partnership and issue specific, influenced by a range of environmental and contextual factors, amenable to change and essential for sustainability and promotion of health and social change in the community.

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia

2012-01-01

257

Assessing soil biological characteristics: a comparison of bulk soil community DNA, PLFA-, and Biolog™analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil microbiological analyses may serve as a means for assessing soil characteristics. Standard microbiological culture-techniques, however, leave over 90% of the microorganisms in the environment unaccounted for. Several more recently developed analytical techniques such as DNA, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and community level substrate utilization (CLSU) fingerprints allow for more detailed analyses of soil microbial communities. We applied analyses of

F. Widmer; A. Fließbach; E. Laczkó; J. Schulze-Aurich; J. Zeyer

2001-01-01

258

Interdisciplinary, Translational, and Community-Based Participatory Research  

PubMed Central

Preventing cancer, downstaging disease at diagnosis, and reducing mortality require that relevant research findings be translated across scientific disciplines and into clinical and public health practice. Interdisciplinary research focuses on using the languages of different scientific disciplines to share techniques and philosophical perspectives to enhance discovery and development of innovations; (i.e., from the “left end” of the research continuum). Community-based participatory research (CBPR), whose relevance often is relegated to the “right end” (i.e., delivery and dissemination) of the research continuum, represents an important means for understanding how many cancers are caused as well as for ensuring that basic science research findings affect cancer outcomes in materially important ways. Effective interdisciplinary research and CBPR both require an ability to communicate effectively across groups that often start out neither understanding each other’s worldviews nor even speaking the same language. Both demand an ability and willingness to treat individuals from other communities with respect and understanding. We describe the similarities between CBPR and both translational and interdisciplinary research, and then illustrate our points using squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus as an example of how to deepen understanding and increase relevance by applying techniques of CBPR and interdisciplinary engagement.

Hebert, James R.; Brandt, Heather M.; Armstead, Cheryl A.; Adams, Swann A.; Steck, Susan E.

2009-01-01

259

Scientists' judgements of the prospects for biological nitrogen fixation research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary More than 100 scientists responded to a mail survey concerning prospects for 33 technological developments related to biological nigrogen fixation. Respondents anticipated that most of the hypothesized developments in the legume\\/Rhizobium and rice\\/Azolla areas would occur in the next 10 years, while generally developments in nitrogen-fixing cereals and other research would occur later. An additional 28 technological advances were

Robert H. Randolph; Charles F. Keown; Philip Giovannini

1988-01-01

260

Community science, philosophy of science, and the practice of research.  

PubMed

Embedded in community science are implicit theories on the nature of reality (ontology), the justification of knowledge claims (epistemology), and how knowledge is constructed (methodology). These implicit theories influence the conceptualization and practice of research, and open up or constrain its possibilities. The purpose of this paper is to make some of these theories explicit, trace their intellectual history, and propose a shift in the way research in the social and behavioral sciences, and community science in particular, is conceptualized and practiced. After describing the influence and decline of logical empiricism, the underlying philosophical framework for science for the past century, I summarize contemporary views in the philosophy of science that are alternatives to logical empiricism. These include contextualism, normative naturalism, and scientific realism, and propose that a modified version of contextualism, known as perspectivism, affords the philosophical framework for an emerging community science. I then discuss the implications of perspectivism for community science in the form of four propositions to guide the practice of research. PMID:15909796

Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

2005-06-01

261

Energy Efficient Community Development in California: Chula Vista Research Project  

SciTech Connect

In 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy joined the California Energy Commission in funding a project to begin to examine the technical, economic and institutional (policy and regulatory) aspects of energy-efficient community development. That research project was known as the Chula Vista Research Project for the host California community that co-sponsored the initiative. The researches proved that the strategic integration of the selected and economically viable buildings energy efficiency (EE) measures, photovoltaics (PV), distributed generation (DG), and district cooling can produce significant reductions in aggregate energy consumption, peak demand and emissions, compared to the developer/builder's proposed baseline approach. However, the central power plant emission reductions achieved through use of the EE-DG option would increase local air emissions. The electric and natural gas utility infrastructure impacts associated with the use of the EE and EE-PV options were deemed relatively insignificant while use of the EE-DG option would result in a significant reduction of necessary electric distribution facilities to serve a large-scale development project. The results of the Chula Vista project are detailed in three separate documents: (1) Energy-Efficient Community Development in California; Chula Vista Research Project report contains a detailed description of the research effort and findings. This includes the methodologies, and tools used and the analysis of the efficiency, economic and emissions impacts of alternative energy technology and community design options for two development sites. Research topics covered included: (a) Energy supply, demand, and control technologies and related strategies for structures; (b) Application of locally available renewable energy resources including solar thermal and PV technology and on-site power generation with heat recovery; (c) Integration of local energy resources into district energy systems and existing energy utility networks; (d) Alternative land-use design and development options and their impact on energy efficiency and urban runoff, emissions and the heat island effect; and (e) Alternative transportation and mobility options and their impact on local emissions. (2) Creating Energy-Efficient Communities in California: A Reference Guide to Barriers, Solutions and Resources report provides the results of an effort to identify the most innovative existing and emerging public policy, incentive and market mechanisms that encourage investment in advanced energy technologies and enabling community design options in the State of California and the nation. The report evaluates each of these mechanisms in light of the preceding research and concludes with a set of recommended mechanisms designed for consideration by relevant California State agencies, development and finance industry associations, and municipal governments. (3) Creating Energy-Efficient Communities in California: A Technical Reference Guide to Building and Site Design report contains a set of selected commercially viable energy technology and community design options for high-efficiency, low-impact community development in California. It includes a summary of the research findings referenced above and recommendations for energy technology applications and energy-efficient development strategies for residential, commercial and institutional structures and supporting municipal infrastructure for planned communities. The document also identifies design options, technology applications and development strategies that are applicable to urban infill projects.

Gas Technology Institute

2009-03-31

262

Building communities of practice: the research nurse round table.  

PubMed

This paper shares the experience of establishing a research nurse forum aimed at knowledge sharing, problem solving, and community building from the perspective of a group of clinical research nurses at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), a tertiary care center in Boston, -Massachusetts. We report on a sequence of developmental steps taken to create this forum as an example of best practice for research nurses. Logistical considerations, mission and goals, as well as outcomes and implications for practice are described, with the intent that others interested in building similar forums can replicate aspects of this model within their own practice settings. PMID:23067357

Larkin, Mary E; Griffith, Catherine A; Pitler, Linda; Donahue, Lauren; Sbrolla, Amy

2012-07-19

263

The development of the bronx community research review board: a pilot feasibility project for a model of community consultation.  

PubMed

Background: The Bronx Community Research Review Board (BxCRRB) is a community-academic partnership (CAP) between the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and The Bronx Health Link (BHL). Rather than asking clinical investigators to create their own individual process de novo, we have developed an innovative, structural approach to achieve community consultation in research planning, implementation, and dissemination that involves and educates the public about research. Objectives: To collaboratively develop (1) an independent research review board of volunteer community residents and repre sentatives that tests a model of community consultation, dialogue, and "community-informed consent" by reviewing community-based research proposals; and (2) to increased understanding of and participation in clinical research in the Bronx. Methods: (1) Recruiting members from the Health and Human Services committees of community boards, focus groups, and community health events; (2) interviewing and selecting members based on community involvement, experiences, availability, and demographics of the Bronx; (3) training members in bioethics and research methods; and (4) facilitating meetings and discussions between clinical researchers and the BxCRRB for research review and consultation. Results: There is substantial interest among Bronx residents in participating in the BxCRRB. The BxCRRB provided feedback to researchers to ensure the protection of participants' rights, to improve research design by promoting increased accountability to the community, and expanded its scope to include earlier stages of the research process. Conclusion: The BxCRRB is a viable model for community consultation in research, but more time for implementation and evolution is needed to improve its review practices and ensure community input at all stages of the research process. PMID:24056516

Martin Del Campo, Francisco; Casado, Joann; Spencer, Paulette; Strelnick, Hal

2013-01-01

264

Community based intervention on adolescent risk taking: using research for community action  

PubMed Central

Design—Case study, based on a community action model and formative evaluation. This involved: a community profile on adolescent risk taking behaviour; interviews with service providers; dissemination of research findings to local policy makers; development and implementation of a community action plan to address adolescent risk taking; and assessment of its impact. Setting—A rural town with a population of 10 195 situated in the North Island of New Zealand. Subjects—School aged adolescents and the safety policies and practices of community organisations involved with adolescents. Results—Risk taking behaviours identified by the community profile included: drink-driving, substance abuse, carrying of weapons with intent to harm, and suicidal ideation. Community members identified that risk taking behaviour associated with alcohol in relation to: (1) violence (self directed and assault) and (2) road related injuries should be the focus of their activities. The strategies identified focused on advocacy, education, legal/regulatory change, and environmental modification. Evaluation conducted six months after intervention identified increased community awareness of the adverse effects of adolescent risk taking and some changes in policies and practice related to adolescent safety. Conclusions—Providing a community with local information that has high relevance for its members may act as a stimulus for the development of injury prevention initiatives. While this case study illustrated that a comprehensive approach focusing on adolescent risk taking behaviour, rather than on isolated injury problems, may be an appropriate way to highlight escalating adolescent injury rates, it also demonstrates the limitations of a short time frame for a community development project.

Coggan, C.; Disley, B.; Patterson, P.

1998-01-01

265

Peer research assistantships and the ethics of reciprocity in community-based research.  

PubMed

A major component of community-based research (CBR) in the field of HIV is the Meaningful Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS (MIPA) through hiring, training, and supporting peer research assistants (PRAs). CBR researchers and PRAs have begun to dialogue about the successes and challenges associated with peer research assistantships as they attempt to address the range of ethical issues that impact the PRAs' experience at different stages throughout the research process. I discuss some of the ethical tensions related to the PRA/researcher relationship, the relationship of the PRA to the research itself, and suggestions for how to move forward in addressing these tensions. PMID:23651938

Greene, Saara

2013-04-01

266

Estimating size and composition of biological communities by modeling the occurrence of species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We develop a model that uses repeated observations of a biological community to estimate the number and composition of species in the community. Estimators of community-level attributes are constructed from model-based estimators of occurrence of individual species that incorporate imperfect detection of individuals. Data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey are analyzed to illustrate the variety of ecologically important quantities that are easily constructed and estimated using our model-based estimators of species occurrence. In particular, we compute site-specific estimates of species richness that honor classical notions of species-area relationships. We suggest extensions of our model to estimate maps of occurrence of individual species and to compute inferences related to the temporal and spatial dynamics of biological communities.

Dorazio, R. M.; Royle, J. A.

2005-01-01

267

University--Government--International Donor Community Cooperation in Research, Teaching and Community Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|World geo-economics of the last two decades have seriously impacted on governments' capability to finance university teaching, research and community engagement, especially in the developing world. Over the same period however, the demands and expectations exerted on universities by government and society have increased phenomenally. To meet…

Mwaniki, M.

2010-01-01

268

Community research in other contexts: learning from sustainability science.  

PubMed

In health research, community based participatory research (CBPR) has seen remarkable growth as an approach that overcomes many of the ethical concerns raised by traditional approaches. A community of CBPR scholars is now sharing ideas and devising new approaches to collaborative research. Yet, this is occurring in isolation from similar efforts using different nomenclature and occurring outside of health research areas. There is much to be gained by bringing these parallel discussions together. In sustainability science, for example, scholars are struggling with the question of how stakeholders and scientists can coproduce knowledge that offers useful solutions to complex and urgent environmental problems. Like CBPR in health, sustainability science is denigrated for perceived lack of rigor because of its applied problem focus and lack of positivist approach. Approaches to knowledge creation in sustainability science involve "new" ideas such as wicked problems and agent-based modeling, which would be equally applicable to CBPR. Interestingly, sustainability research is motivated less by recognition of the corrosive effects of the inequality of power than from frustration at how limited the impact of research has been, a perspective that might be useful in CBPR, particularly in conjunction with the use of some borrowed tools of sustainability science such as wicked problem analysis and agent-based modeling. Importantly, the example of sustainability science has the potential to keep CBPR from entering into a new orthodoxy of how research should be done. PMID:21133782

Silka, Linda

2010-12-01

269

The Challenges of Agenda Conflict in Higher-Education-Community Research Partnerships: Views from the Community Side  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to both the proliferation of higher-education-community partnerships and the paucity of studies that report the perspective of the community partners in such relationships, we interviewed community leaders to learn about their motivations for and experiences of participating in higher-education-community research partnerships. The article reports community leaders' assessments of the benefits and challenges of engaging in such partnerships, shares their

Barbara Ferman; T. L. Hill

2004-01-01

270

Biology, chance, or history? The predictable reassembly of temperate grassland communities.  

PubMed

Many studies have examined invasion resistance in plant communities, but few have explored the mechanisms of invasion and how subsequent community reassembly affects community functioning. Using natural dispersal and deliberate seed addition into grassland communities with different compositional and richness histories, we show that invaders establish in a nonrandom manner due to negative effects of resident functional groups on invading species from the same functional group. Invaders hence complement communities with originally low richness levels. Consequently, communities converge toward similar levels of species richness, high functional richness, and evenness, but not always maximum productivity. Invasion processes are faster but qualitatively similar when the effect of chance, in the form of dispersal stochasticity, is reduced by seed addition. Thus, dispersal limitation may influence community assembly, but it does not override functionally predictable assembly mechanisms. Some of the most productive communities prior to invasion are unstable in the face of invasion, leading to decreased productivity following invasion. We suggest that invasion into such communities occurs possibly because a pathogen-free niche is available rather than a resource niche. Thus, pathogens in addition to resource niches may be important biological drivers of community assembly. PMID:20392006

Petermann, Jana S; Fergus, Alexander J F; Roscher, Christiane; Turnbull, Lindsay A; Weigelt, Alexandra; Schmid, Bernhard

2010-02-01

271

Community equipoise and the architecture of clinical research.  

PubMed

We have argued for a revision of Freedman's concept of clinical equipoise to a broader sense of community that includes physicians and patients. Community equipoise is an essential condition for physicians and patients to answer these questions: Should there be a trial? If so, what kind? We have argued that community equipoise exists because of changes in the knowledge gap between physicians and patients and in the moral justification of medical decision-making. Finally, we have briefly examined the social aspect of medical knowledge to argue that it necessarily includes patients and their values. In effect, community equipoise is not so much an effort to change things, as to explain the way they are. We suggest that patients can participate at a number of points in the process of drug study design and approval: (1) study design with attention to criteria for eligibility, endpoints, and choice of methodology, (2) research review and approval with attention to enhancing community participation in IRB activities, and (3) interim evaluation of ongoing studies with attention to including patient and clinician values in the decisionmaking. Clinical trials are a tool. Like a gun or a bomb or the very drugs they test, they are powerful tools to achieve their ends. The issue is how to properly use such tools as randomization, placebo controls, endpoints, and eligibility. To the extent that community equipoise exists prior to a trial, it means that clinical researchers and patients have collectively addressed the risk and benefit trade-offs that govern the decision to start and to end a clinical trial. In this way, trials can be both valid and valued. PMID:9292216

Karlawish, J H; Lantos, J

1997-01-01

272

A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm  

PubMed Central

The twentieth century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and waterborne illnesses are frequent, multidrug-resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the twenty-first century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program, we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.

Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. Lynn; McDermott, Jason G.; Proll, Sean C.; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

2011-01-01

273

A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm  

SciTech Connect

The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.

Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

2011-02-01

274

Visual Methodologies in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health: Using Photography, Video, and New Media to Engage Communities in Research and Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The challenges facing public health today are too vast, complex, and urgent to be met by public health professionals alone. To improve the health and wellbeing of diverse communities around the globe, public health leaders are developing tools that engage communities in research and action, most particularly community-based participatory research

Catalani, Caricia Eleanora Celebes

2009-01-01

275

Reconciling content literacy with adolescent literacy: Expanding literacy opportunities in a community?focused biology class  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study examines how adolescents’ fluidity in engaging multiple literacies and varied texts can be used to enhance learning of school subjects. Eighteen high?school students were enrolled in a six?week summer biology course that blended classroom instruction with visits to biology?related workplaces. Working without a textbook, students were free to select any text sources needed to complete their community?focused

Edward H. Behrman

2003-01-01

276

Researching Religious Education Pedagogy through an Action Research Community of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Warwick REDCo community of practice was a group of religious education researchers operating in several contexts: English secondary schools and universities, English and European collaborations on religious education. The group undertook action research, seeking to illustrate and critically assess the interpretive approach to religious…

O'Grady, Kevin

2010-01-01

277

Researching Religious Education Pedagogy through an Action Research Community of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Warwick REDCo community of practice was a group of religious education researchers operating in several contexts: English secondary schools and universities, English and European collaborations on religious education. The group undertook action research, seeking to illustrate and critically assess the interpretive approach to religious…

O'Grady, Kevin

2010-01-01

278

Synthetic biology  

PubMed Central

The field of synthetic biology has made rapid progress in a number of areas including method development, novel applications and community building. In seeking to make biology “engineerable,” synthetic biology is increasing the accessibility of biological research to researchers of all experience levels and backgrounds. One of the underlying strengths of synthetic biology is that it may establish the framework for a rigorous bottom-up approach to studying biology starting at the DNA level. Building upon the existing framework established largely by the Registry of Standard Biological Parts, careful consideration of future goals may lead to integrated multi- scale approaches to biology. Here we describe some of the current challenges that need to be addressed or considered in detail to continue the development of synthetic biology. Specifically, discussion on the areas of elucidating biological principles, computational methods and experimental construction methodologies are presented.

Bower, Adam G; McClintock, Maria K

2010-01-01

279

Cyberlearning at Community Colleges: 21st Century Biology Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Cyberlearning at Community Colleges (C3) project is to help "faculty leverage digital library resources, network computing and communications technologies, and E-science data and tools to engage in cyberlearning strategies." C3's funding comes from the National Science Foundation and their work will be of interest to wide range of educators. Visitors can sign up to be a part of this program, and they can also create their own profile to network with other members. The Blogs area is worth a look, as it contains practical information about upcoming conferences and events. It also includes relevant Featured Resources, including the Gapminder video series, which provides a statistical window into global development. Visitors can peek into the Forum area to participate in online discussions about teaching with data, preferred instructional styles, and offering students relevant content in the classroom.

2012-03-23

280

The Building of a Responsible Research Community: The Role of Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper looks into the importance of a responsible research community and how ethics can contribute towards the building of such a community. The paper starts off by outlining the many challenges facing a responsible research community. These challenges range from doing research, transferring the research results, commercialising the…

Lategan, Laetus O. K.

2012-01-01

281

Community-based research in AIDS-service organizations: what helps and what doesn't?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Community-based research (CBR) approaches have become commonplace in many North American HIV communities. In many large urban centers, AIDS-service organizations (ASOs) have become active research hubs, advocating for research dollars in community settings. While ASOs have historically integrated local knowledge into their prevention, care and advocacy initiatives, many are now initiating or collaborating in research which addresses emerging issues

Sarah Flicker; Michael Wilson; Robb Travers; Tarik Bereket; Colleen McKaye; Anna van der Meulen; Adrian Gutaf; Shelley Cleverlyg; Sean B. Rourkeh

2009-01-01

282

PIXEL: Japanese InSAR community for crustal deformation research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In anticipation of the launch of ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite) by JAXA (Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency), and in order to expand and bolster the InSAR community for crustal deformation research in Japan, a couple of scientists established a consortium, PIXEL, in November 2005 in a completely bottom-up fashion. PIXEL stands for Palsar Interferometry Consortium to Study our Evolving Land.

M. Furuya; M. Shimada; T. Ozawa; Y. Fukushima; Y. Aoki; Y. Miyagi; S. Kitagawa

2007-01-01

283

Collaborative e-science architecture for Reaction Kinetics research community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel collaborative e-science architecture (CeSA) to address two challenging issues in e-science that arise from the management of heterogeneous distributed environments: (i) how to provide individual scientists an integrated environment to collaborate with each other in distributed, loosely coupled research communities where each member might be using a disparate range of tools; and (ii) how to

Tran Vu Pham; L. M. S. Lau; P. M. Dew; M. J. Pilling

2005-01-01

284

Electrical and chemical sensors for biological cell research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical and chemical microsensors for biological cell research allow for the continuous study of biological systems under normal physiological conditions. Two sensor technologies which take most advantage of microfabrication technology are discussed. One is being developed for monitoring the environment of cancer cells during radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia treatment. Of current interest is the measurement of temperature and interstitial free oxygen concentration distributions in cancer tissues prior to and during various treatments. The second technology discussed is being developed for monitoring the extracellular ionic currents from electrogenic cells in culture. The ability to build integrated circuits over large areas of a silicon wafer which can impedance transform the signals and multiplex a large array of contacts is being used.

Edell, D. J.; McNeil, V. M.; Curley, M. G.; Wolfe, J. H.

285

Application of cell traction force microscopy for cell biology research.  

PubMed

When a cell migrates, it generates traction forces on the underlying substrate. The cell traction force (CTF) is not only essential for cell migration, but it is also used by cells to control their shape and maintain cellular homeostasis. As such, quantification of CTFs aids in better understanding of many fundamental biological processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing of tissues and organs. A new technology called cell traction force microscopy (CTFM) has been developed to determine CTFs in a quantitative fashion. The advantage of this technology is that it directly measures the "cause" (i.e., CTFs) of cell movement instead of the "effect" (i.e., cell movement itself), which is measured by various conventional methods. This chapter provides detailed information of materials and methods that are needed in order to perform typical CTFM experiments. Several examples are also given to illustrate various applications of CTFM in cell biology research. PMID:19768438

Wang, James H-C; Li, Bin

2009-01-01

286

Satellite Data for Ocean Biology, Biogeochemistry,and Climate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how the effects of increasingatmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrationsand higher surface temperaturescascade through the ocean's physical andbiogeochemical systems is a major theme ofNASA's Ocean Biology and BiogeochemistryProgram, and this requires decadal timeseries of accurate global satellite measurementsof key marine biological properties,such as phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentration.Such time series have been a primaryNASA objective since the mid-1980swhen the results from the Coastal ZoneColor Scanner (CZCS), a proof-of-conceptprogram (sparse global coverage with a limitedpost-launch validation program), demonstratedthat space-based retrievals ofocean water-leaving radiances (Lw's) andchlorophyll a concentrations were sufficientlyaccurate for quantitative research.

McClain, Charles; Hooker, Stanford; Feldman, Gene; Bontempi, Paula

2006-08-01

287

MCF: A tool to find multi-scale community profiles in biological networks.  

PubMed

Recent developments of complex graph clustering methods have implicated the practical applications with biological networks in different settings. Multi-scale Community Finder (MCF) is a tool to profile network communities (i.e., clusters of nodes) with the control of community sizes. The controlling parameter is referred to as the scale of the network community profile. MCF is able to find communities in all major types of networks including directed, signed, bipartite, and multi-slice networks. The fast computation promotes the practicability of the tool for large-scaled analysis (e.g., protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression networks). MCF is distributed as an open-source C++ package for academic use with both command line and user interface options, and can be downloaded at http://bsdxd.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/MCF. Detailed user manual and sample data sets are also available at the project website. PMID:24075082

Gao, Shang; Chen, Alan; Rahmani, Ali; Jarada, Tamer; Alhajj, Reda; Demetrick, Doug; Zeng, Jia

2013-08-19

288

Xenopus laevis a success story of biological research in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clawed toad Xenopus laevis is a common experimental animal used in many disciplines of life sciences, such as integrative, developmental and molecular biology or experimental medicine. Since 30 years, Xenopus is used in biological research in space. Important milestones were the years 1975, when Xenopus embryos flew for the first time on the Russian space station Salut-4 and 1994, when Xenopus eggs were successfully fertilized for the first time in space during the Japanese Spacelab mission STS-47 and developed in microgravity to vital tadpoles. Most Xenopus studies were related to embryogenesis and development. Observations during and after altered gravity revealed changes such as the thickening of the blastocoel roof, the dorsalization of the tail, and modifications of vestibular reflexes, fictive and freely swimming. Many changes were reversible even during microgravity exposure. Studies about the vestibuloocular reflex or synapse formation revealed an age-related sensitivity to altered gravity. Xenopus offers useful tools for studies about microgravity effects on living systems. Its oocyte is a suitable model to study ion channel function in space; the dorsalization model can be used to analyse growth factor sensibilities. Hardware for life support of adults, tadpoles and embryos (cf. SUPPLY unit in combination with miniaquaria) as well as for controlled experiments in space are prerequisites for an extension of research with Xenopus. The application aspect is based on the fact that fundamental research per se brings benefit to man.

Horn, Eberhard R.

2006-01-01

289

COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH: BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES IN THE HOLLANDALE FIT FOR LIFE STEPS PROGRAM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hollandale Fit for Life Steps, a 6-month community intervention involving volunteer “coaches” leading fellow community members in walking groups, utilizes the community-based participatory research model (CBPR). CBPR may improve community interventions by empowering community members to be active pa...

290

Transdisciplinary Research and Evaluation for Community Health Initiatives  

PubMed Central

Transdisciplinary research and evaluation projects provide valuable opportunities to collaborate on interventions to improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities. Given team members’ diverse backgrounds and roles or responsibilities in such projects, members’ perspectives are significant in strengthening a project’s infrastructure and improving its organizational functioning. This article presents an evaluation mechanism that allows team members to express the successes and challenges incurred throughout their involvement in a multisite transdisciplinary research project. Furthermore, their feedback is used to promote future sustainability and growth. Guided by a framework known as organizational development, the evaluative process was conducted by a neutral entity, the Quality Assurance Team. A mixed-methods approach was utilized to garner feedback and clarify how the research project goals could be achieved more effectively and efficiently. The multiple benefits gained by those involved in this evaluation and implications for utilizing transdisciplinary research and evaluation teams for health initiatives are detailed.

Harper, Gary W.; Neubauer, Leah C.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Francisco, Vincent T.

2010-01-01

291

Overcoming Barriers to Effective Community-Based Participatory Research in US Medical Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research to improve the health of communities benefits from the involvement of community members. Accordingly, major federal and foundation funding agencies are soliciting health promotion\\/disease prevention programme proposals that require active community participation. However, creating such partner- ships is difficult. Communities often perceive conventional research as paternalistic, irrelevant to their needs, manipulative, secretive and invasive of privacy. Many institutions and

SYED M. AHMED; Barbra Beck; CHERYL A. MAURANA; Gail Newton

2004-01-01

292

Self-optimization, community stability, and fluctuations in two individual-based models of biological coevolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare and contrast the long-time dynamical properties of two individual-based models of biological coevolution. Selection occurs via multispecies, stochastic population dynamics with reproduction probabilities that depend nonlinearly on the population densities of all species resident in the community. New species are introduced through mutation. Both models are amenable to exact linear stability analysis, and we compare the analytic results

Per Arne Rikvold

2005-01-01

293

The Learning Processes of Two High-School Biology Students when Reading Primary Literature. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Biology education, like education in any other discipline, strives to make students familiar with the knowledge, activities, and ways of thinking of the community of biologists. We produced a curriculum in developmental biology based on learning through primary literature, in an attempt to develop biological literacy among highschool students.…

Brill, Gilat; Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat

2004-01-01

294

Connecting Communities to Health Research: Development of the Project CONNECT Minority Research Registry  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prevention and treatment standards are based on evidence obtained in behavioral and clinical research. However, racial and ethnic minorities remain relatively absent from the science that develops these standards. While investigators have successfully recruited participants for individual studies using tailored recruitment methods, these strategies require considerable time and resources. Research registries, typically developed around a disease or condition, serve as a promising model for a targeted recruitment method to increase minority participation in health research. This study assessed the tailored recruitment methods used to populate a health research registry targeting African-American community members. Methods We describe six recruitment methods applied between September 2004 and October 2008 to recruit members into a health research registry. Recruitment included direct (existing studies, public databases, community outreach) and indirect methods (radio, internet, and email) targeting the general population, local universities, and African American communities. We conducted retrospective analysis of the recruitment by method using descriptive statistics, frequencies, and chi-square statistics. Results During the recruitment period, 608 individuals enrolled in the research registry. The majority of enrollees were African American, female, and in good health. Direct and indirect methods were identified as successful strategies for subgroups. Findings suggest significant associations between recruitment methods and age, presence of existing health condition, prior research participation, and motivation to join the registry. Conclusions A health research registry can be a successful tool to increase minority awareness of research opportunities. Multi-pronged recruitment approaches are needed to reach diverse subpopulations.

Green, Melissa A.; Kim, Mimi M.; Barber, Sharrelle; Odulana, Abedowale A.; Godley, Paul A.; Howard, Daniel L.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle M.

2013-01-01

295

Promotores as Researchers: Expanding the Promotor Role in Community-Based Research  

PubMed Central

The community health worker, known as promotor in the Hispanic community, is an accepted member of the public health team whose core role is that of bridging target communities with health services. However, the promotor’s role in research has not been considered a core function of their work. This article will present the promotor in the additional role of researcher, as conceived by the Migrant Clinicians Network for the Hombres Unidos Contra La Violencia Familiar (Men United Against Family Violence) sexual violence/intimate partner violence project. The Hombres Unidos project used promotores as survey facilitators, gathering male Hispanic farmworkers’ perspectives on the sensitive topic of sexual violence and intimate partner violence. This article demonstrates that when trained, the promotores’ linguistic and cultural competence make them a valuable addition to the research team, especially when collecting sensitive information.

Nelson, Atiba; Lewy, Robin; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Ricardo, Francine; Kugel, Candace

2011-01-01

296

Promotores as researchers: expanding the promotor role in community-based research.  

PubMed

The community health worker, known as promotor in the Hispanic community, is an accepted member of the public health team whose core role is that of bridging target communities with health services. However, the promotor's role in research has not been considered a core function of their work. This article will present the promotor in the additional role of researcher, as conceived by the Migrant Clinicians Network for the Hombres Unidos Contra La Violencia Familiar (Men United Against Family Violence) sexual violence/intimate partner violence project. The Hombres Unidos project used promotores as survey facilitators, gathering male Hispanic farmworkers' perspectives on the sensitive topic of sexual violence and intimate partner violence. This article demonstrates that when trained, the promotores' linguistic and cultural competence make them a valuable addition to the research team, especially when collecting sensitive information. PMID:21427265

Nelson, Atiba; Lewy, Robin; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Ricardo, Francine; Kugel, Candace

2011-03-22

297

Community Involvement in the Conduct of a Health Education Intervention and Research Project: Community Action Against Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for more guidance on how to implement community-based participatory research, particularly on the roles of community members, throughout the process. This article focuses on how a Steering Committee, composed of representatives from community-based organizations, a local health department, an integrated health care system, and academia from the University of Michigan, participated in the design and implementation

Katherine K. Edgren; Edith A. Parker; Barbara A. Israel; Toby C. Lewis; Maria A. Salinas; Thomas G. Robins; Yolanda R. Hill

2005-01-01

298

Student Performance in Lower Division Collegiate General Biology Programs in Selected Community Colleges and Four-Year Institutions in Oregon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community college students achieved higher scores on biology knowledge tests than did university students, but were equivalent on tests of biological comprehension, application and analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Students attending universities had higher mean critical thinking scores than those at community colleges. (AL)

Tolman, Richard

1971-01-01

299

Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological soil crusts are key mediators of carbon and nitrogen inputs for arid land soils and often represent a dominant portion of the soil surface cover in arid lands. Free-living soil nematode communities reflect their environment and have been used as biological indicators of soil condition. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nematode communities are successionally more mature

Brian J. Darby; Deborah A. Neher; Jayne Belnap

2007-01-01

300

BCTR: Biological and Chemical Technologies Research 1994 annual summary report  

SciTech Connect

The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1994 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). Although the OIT was reorganized in 1991 and AICD no longer exists, this document reports on efforts conducted under the former structure. The annual summary report for 1994 (ASR 94) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1994; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

Petersen, G.

1995-02-01

301

CAPACITY BUILDING OF COMMUNITIES AND ACADEMIA IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI DELTA NUTRITION INTERVENTION RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NIRI)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purpose: The purpose is to outline the process by which community based participatory research (CBPR) builds capacity of rural communities and academicians to promote full participation of all partners in research interventions and activities. Background: While full participation of community memb...

302

Community cyberinfrastructure for Advanced Microbial Ecology Research and Analysis: the CAMERA resource  

PubMed Central

The Community Cyberinfrastructure for Advanced Microbial Ecology Research and Analysis (CAMERA, http://camera.calit2.net/) is a database and associated computational infrastructure that provides a single system for depositing, locating, analyzing, visualizing and sharing data about microbial biology through an advanced web-based analysis portal. CAMERA collects and links metadata relevant to environmental metagenome data sets with annotation in a semantically-aware environment allowing users to write expressive semantic queries against the database. To meet the needs of the research community, users are able to query metadata categories such as habitat, sample type, time, location and other environmental physicochemical parameters. CAMERA is compliant with the standards promulgated by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC), and sustains a role within the GSC in extending standards for content and format of the metagenomic data and metadata and its submission to the CAMERA repository. To ensure wide, ready access to data and annotation, CAMERA also provides data submission tools to allow researchers to share and forward data to other metagenomics sites and community data archives such as GenBank. It has multiple interfaces for easy submission of large or complex data sets, and supports pre-registration of samples for sequencing. CAMERA integrates a growing list of tools and viewers for querying, analyzing, annotating and comparing metagenome and genome data.

Sun, Shulei; Chen, Jing; Li, Weizhong; Altintas, Ilkay; Lin, Abel; Peltier, Steve; Stocks, Karen; Allen, Eric E.; Ellisman, Mark; Grethe, Jeffrey; Wooley, John

2011-01-01

303

Community-Based Participatory Research Contributions to Intervention Research: The Intersection of Science and Practice to Improve Health Equity  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the last decades as a transformative research paradigm that bridges the gap between science and practice through community engagement and social action to increase health equity. CBPR expands the potential for the translational sciences to develop, implement, and disseminate effective interventions across diverse communities through strategies to redress power imbalances; facilitate mutual benefit among community and academic partners; and promote reciprocal knowledge translation, incorporating community theories into the research. We identify the barriers and challenges within the intervention and implementation sciences, discuss how CBPR can address these challenges, provide an illustrative research example, and discuss next steps to advance the translational science of CBPR.

Duran, Bonnie

2010-01-01

304

2010 Tetrapyrroles, Chemistry & Biology of Gordon Research Conference  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles Gordon Conference is to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines that otherwise would not interact. By bringing biologists, chemists, engineers and clinicians with a common interest in tetrapyrroles the conference provides a forum for cross-disciplinary ideas and collaboration. The perspective provided by biologists, chemists, and clinicians working in fields such as newly discovered defects in human porphyrin metabolism, the myriad of strategies for light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms, novel tetrapyrroles that serve as auxiliary chromophores or enzyme cofactors, synthetic strategies in the design of novel tetrapyrrole scaffolds, and tetrapyrrole based cell signaling and regulatory systems, makes this conference unique in the field. Over the years the growing evidence for the role of tetrapyrroles and their reactive intermediates in cell signaling and regulation has been of increasing importance at this conference. The 2010 conference on Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles will focus on many of these new frontiers as outlined in the preliminary program listed. Speakers will emphasize unpublished results and new findings in the field. The oral sessions will be followed by the highly interactive afternoon poster sessions. The poster sessions provide all conferees with the opportunity to present their latest research and to exchange ideas in a more informal setting. As in the past, this opportunity will continue during the nightly social gathering that takes place in the poster hall following the evening lectures. All conferees are encouraged to submit and present posters. At the conference the best poster in the areas of biology, chemistry and medicine will be selected by a panel of previous conference chairs.

Angela Wilks

2010-07-30

305

Use of CAM in local African-American communities: community-partnered research.  

PubMed Central

Although previous national surveys have shown an increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the U.S. population, racial and ethnic minority populations were under-represented in these surveys. As a result, a profile of the CAM user as white, female, affluent, middle-aged and well educated has emerged. Representing the mainstream population, these previous studies did not take into account the racial and ethnic minority populations who may have their own healing traditions and who may hold different beliefs, use different terminology, and have unique patterns of CAM use. In partnership with community-based organizations and community residents, a culturally sensitive survey instrument and protocols were designed and tested to gather data on lower income, urban African-Americans' use of, attitudes toward, and understanding of CAM. The major findings of this pilot research are 1.) Community-partnered research can help researchers gain access to sensitive data and design culturally appropriate studies; 2.) CAM terminology varies by cultural group; 3.) Certain forms of CAM (folk or family practices) are commonly found in African-American populations; and 4.) Factors that affect CAM use--including age, lack of access to conventional medicine, cultural heritage, and dissatisfaction with conventional medicine.

Barnett, Marina C.; Cotroneo, Margaret; Purnell, Joseph; Martin, Danielle; Mackenzie, Elizabeth; Fishman, Alfred

2003-01-01

306

Personalizing nutrigenomics research through community based participatory research and omics technologies.  

PubMed

Personal and public health information are often obtained from studies of large population groups. Risk factors for nutrients, toxins, genetic variation, and more recently, nutrient-gene interactions are statistical estimates of the percentage reduction in disease in the population if the risk were to be avoided or the gene variant were not present. Because individuals differ in genetic makeup, lifestyle, and dietary patterns than those individuals in the study population, these risk factors are valuable guidelines, but may not apply to individuals. Intervention studies are likewise limited by small sample sizes, short time frames to assess physiological changes, and variable experimental designs that often preclude comparative or consensus analyses. A fundamental challenge for nutrigenomics will be to develop a means to sort individuals into metabolic groups, and eventually, develop risk factors for individuals. To reach the goal of personalizing medicine and nutrition, new experimental strategies are needed for human study designs. A promising approach for more complete analyses of the interaction of genetic makeups and environment relies on community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodologies. CBPR's central focus is developing a partnership among researchers and individuals in a community that allows for more in depth lifestyle analyses but also translational research that simultaneously helps improve the health of individuals and communities. The USDA-ARS Delta Nutrition Intervention Research program exemplifies CBPR providing a foundation for expanded personalized nutrition and medicine research for communities and individuals. PMID:19040372

McCabe-Sellers, Beverly; Lovera, Dalia; Nuss, Henry; Wise, Carolyn; Ning, Baitang; Teitel, Candee; Clark, Beatrice Shelby; Toennessen, Terri; Green, Bridgett; Bogle, Margaret L; Kaput, Jim

2008-12-01

307

Interfacing mathematics and biology: a discussion on training, research, collaboration, and funding.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the discussion at a workshop on "Working at the Interface of Mathematics and Biology" at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. The goal of this workshop was to foster an ongoing discussion by the community on how to effectively train students from the biological, physical, engineering, and mathematical sciences to work at the intersection of these fields. One major point of discussion centered on how to be a successful interdisciplinary researcher in terms of where to publish, how to successfully write grants, and how to navigate evaluations for tenure and promotion. An emphasis was placed on the importance of developing strong multidisciplinary collaborations and clearly defining one's career trajectory to the home discipline. Another focus of the discussion was on the training of students and postdoctoral fellows in interdisciplinary work and helping these junior researchers to launch their careers. The group emphasized the need for the development of publicly available resources for biologists to learn basic tools for mathematical modeling and for mathematicians and engineers to see how their fields may be applied to current topics in the life sciences. PMID:22730496

Miller, Laura A; Alben, Silas

2012-06-22

308

The sociologist and the community developer: Autonomy and role conflict in qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociologists are being called upon to evaluate community development efforts in the United States at an increasing rate. These sociologists, as independent researchers, are working side by side with professional community development consultants. Based on an ongoing community development research project, which rests largely upon qualitative techniques, the roles of consultant and researcher are delineated. Methodological advantages and disadvantages of

Stephen Clark King

1981-01-01

309

The West End Revitalization Association's Community-Owned and Managed Research Model: Development, Implementation, and Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Principal investigators (PIs) of community- based projects are predominantly university faculty who partner with community-based organizations (CBOs) to find a place to conduct research in communities that will cooperate with their research objectives. University-managed research models (UMRMs) are not always beneficial for CBOs because the university usually manages the study, collects and owns the data, and leverages control at

Christopher D. Heaney; Omega R. Wilson

2007-01-01

310

Culturally Sensitive Community Engaged Research With African American Young Women: Lessons Learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of culturally sensitive research approaches is of paramount importance in conducting community-engaged research with African American communities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and use of culturally and community sensitive research methods in a study to understand social messages about pregnancy and childbearing among low-income urban African American adolescent girls. Key elements of this

Molly Secor-Turner; Renee Sieving; Ann Garwick; Richard Spratt; Naomi Duke

2010-01-01

311

Using Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) to Target Health Disparities in Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an action research approach that emphasizes collaborative partnerships between community members, community organizations, health care providers, and researchers to generate knowledge and solve local problems. Although relatively new to the field of family social science, family and health…

Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Doherty, William J.

2009-01-01

312

A Funding Initiative for Community-Based Participatory Research: Lessons from the Harvard Catalyst Seed Grants  

PubMed Central

Background The National Institutes of Health–funded Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) have increasingly focused on community-engaged research and funded investigators for community-based participatory research (CBPR). However, because CBPR is a collaborative process focused on community-identified research topics, the Harvard CTSA and its Community Advisory Board (CERAB) funded community partners through a CBPR initiative. Objectives We describe lessons learned from this seed grants initiative designed to stimulate community–academic CBPR partnerships. Methods The CBPR program of the Harvard CTSA and the CERAB developed this initiative and each round incorporated participant and advisory feedback toward program improvement. Lessons Learned Although this initiative facilitated relevant and innovative research, challenges included variable community research readiness, insufficient project time, and difficulties identifying investigators for new partnerships. Conclusion Seed grants can foster innovative CBPR projects. Similar initiatives should consider preliminary assessments of community research readiness as well as strategies for meaningful academic researcher engagement.

Tendulkar, Shalini A.; Chu, Jocelyn; Opp, Jennifer; Geller, Alan; DiGirolamo, Ann; Gandelman, Ediss; Grullon, Milagro; Patil, Pratima; King, Stacey; Hacker, Karen

2013-01-01

313

The Oregon migrant farmworker community: an evolving model for participatory research.  

PubMed Central

Migrant farmworker communities present distinct challenges that require new approaches for community participation in research. In the State of Oregon an agency that advocates for the migrant farmworker community has collaborated successfully with university researchers to implement a research program directed to reducing pesticide exposures among the children of migrant farmworkers. The research process has included both qualitative research methods with members of the community and quantitative approaches to measure pesticide dust residues in homes, biomarkers of pesticide exposure, and effects on health. A committee of university and community stakeholders advises the research. Evaluative processes have been initiated to assess the effectiveness of the participatory model used in this project. The components of the preliminary process evaluation and results are presented. Evaluative data show that researchers and community members differ on perceptions of community involvement and the extent to which communication problems have been resolved between the two groups. Suggestions for improved community involvement and communication are given.

McCauley, L A; Beltran, M; Phillips, J; Lasarev, M; Sticker, D

2001-01-01

314

Cambridge Healthtech Institute's Fourth Annual In silico Biology Conference "Modeling Systems Biology for Research and Target Prioritization"  

SciTech Connect

In silico biology, the computer aided analysis of biological systems, is a relatively young research area. It first has been coined in the late 1990's and emerged from Theoretical and Computational Biology. As in other fields before, biology experiences an increased use of systems mathematics and computer simulation. With the human genome sequence available, with an exponentially growing number of completely sequenced genomes from various model organisms and with expression and proteomic data at hand, the research paradigm is shifted towards systems analysis and simulation. Computer aided modeling of complex biomolecules and assemblies are already routinely performed. Nowadays, theoretical description and computer simulation of cellular components in larger intra- and inter-cellular networks is of growing importance. Together with classic biological and clinical experiments as well as data from functional genomics, in silico biology will take the leading role in the analysis of biological systems.

Forst, C. (Christian)

2002-01-01

315

RhesusBase: a knowledgebase for the monkey research community  

PubMed Central

Although the rhesus macaque is a unique model for the translational study of human diseases, currently its use in biomedical research is still in its infant stage due to error-prone gene structures and limited annotations. Here, we present RhesusBase for the monkey research community (http://www.rhesusbase.org). We performed strand-specific RNA-Seq studies in 10 macaque tissues and generated 1.2 billion 90-bp paired-end reads, covering >97.4% of the putative exon in macaque transcripts annotated by Ensembl. We found that at least 28.7% of the macaque transcripts were previously mis-annotated, mainly due to incorrect exon–intron boundaries, incomplete untranslated regions (UTRs) and missed exons. Compared with the previous gene models, the revised transcripts show clearer sequence motifs near splicing junctions and the end of UTRs, as well as cleaner patterns of exon–intron distribution for expression tags and cross-species conservation scores. Strikingly, 1292 exon–intron boundary revisions between coding exons corrected the previously mis-annotated open reading frames. The revised gene models were experimentally verified in randomly selected cases. We further integrated functional genomics annotations from >60 categories of public and in-house resources and developed an online accessible database. User-friendly interfaces were developed to update, retrieve, visualize and download the RhesusBase meta-data, providing a ‘one-stop’ resource for the monkey research community.

Zhang, Shi-Jian; Liu, Chu-Jun; Shi, Mingming; Kong, Lei; Chen, Jia-Yu; Zhou, Wei-Zhen; Zhu, Xiaotong; Yu, Peng; Wang, Jue; Yang, Xinzhuang; Hou, Ning; Ye, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Rongli; Xiao, Ruiping; Zhang, Xiuqin; Li, Chuan-Yun

2013-01-01

316

Using Census Data to Classify Community College Students by Socioeconomic Status and Community Characteristics. CCRC Research Tools. Number 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and state higher education agencies too often lack accurate information about the socioeconomic status (SES) of their students. This paper describes the methodology that Community College Research Center (CCRC) researchers used to estimate the SES of individual students in the Washington State community and technical college system using…

Crosta, Peter M.; Leinbach, Timothy; Jenkins, Davis

2006-01-01

317

Meeting the research infrastructure needs of micropolitan and rural communities.  

PubMed

In the 1800s, this country chose to establish land-grant colleges to see that the working class could attain higher education, and that the research needs of the agricultural and manufacturing segments of this country could be met. It seems contrary to our origins to see so little support at present for research infrastructure going to the very communities that need such research to sustain their populations, grow their economies, to attract physicians, to provide adequate health care, and to educate, retain, and employ their youth. Cities are viewed as sources for high-paying jobs, yet many of these same jobs could be translated to rural and micropolitan areas, provided that the resources are established to support it. One of the fastest growing economic periods in this country's history was during World War II, when even the smallest and most remote towns contributed substantially to the innovations, manufacture, and production of goods benefiting our nation as a whole. Rural areas have always lagged somewhat behind metropolitan areas in acquisition of new technology. Rural electricity and rural phone access are examples from the past. Testing our universities' abilities to grow distributive research networks beyond their campuses will create a competitive edge regionally, against global workplace, educational, and research competition, and will lay the groundwork for efficiency in research and for new innovation. PMID:19552350

Strasburger, Janette F

2009-05-01

318

Community-Based Research and American Indians with Disabilities: Learning Together Methods that Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers working with the American Indian Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Arizona have found that culture is important in social research, especially with indigenous people. Community-based participatory research is one approach that has yielded outcomes valuable to researchers and community members. However, ethical concerns…

Marshall, Catherine A.; Johnson, Sharon R.; Kendall, Elizabeth; Busby, Howard; Schacht, Robert; Hill, Calvin

319

Expanding the obesity research paradigm to reach African American communities.  

PubMed

Obesity is more prevalent among African Americans and other racial and ethnic minority populations than among whites. The behaviors that determine weight status are embedded in the core social and cultural processes and environments of day-to-day life in these populations. Therefore, identifying effective, sustainable solutions to obesity requires an ecological model that is inclusive of relevant contextual variables. Race and ethnicity are potent stratification variables in U.S. society and strongly influence life contexts, including many aspects that relate to eating and physical activity behaviors. This article describes a synthesis initiated by the African American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN) to build and broaden the obesity research paradigm. The focus is on African Americans, but the expanded paradigm has broader implications and may apply to other populations of color. The synthesis involves both community and researcher perspectives, drawing on and integrating insights from an expanded set of knowledge domains to promote a deeper understanding of relevant contexts. To augment the traditional, biomedical focus on energy balance, the expanded paradigm includes insights from family sociology, literature, philosophy, transcultural psychology, marketing, economics, and studies of the built environment. We also emphasize the need for more attention to tensions that may affect African American or other researchers who identify or are identified as members of the communities they study. This expanded paradigm, for which development is ongoing, poses new challenges for researchers who focus on obesity and obesity-related health disparities but also promises discovery of new directions that can lead to new solutions. PMID:17875256

Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Gary, Tiffany L; Prewitt, T Elaine; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Banks-Wallace, Joanne; Beech, Bettina M; Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Karanja, Njeri; Lancaster, Kristie J; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D

2007-09-15

320

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) in South Africa: Engaging multiple constituents to shape the research question  

PubMed Central

Community engagement is an on-going, arduous, and necessary process for developing effective health promotion programs. The challenges are amplified when the particular health issue or research question is not prominent in the consciousness of the targeted community. In this paper, we explore the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model as a means to negotiate a mutual agenda between communities and researchers. The paper is focused on the (perceived) need for cervical cancer screening in an under-resourced community in Cape Town, South Africa. Cervical cancer is a significant health problem in this community and elsewhere in South Africa. Unlike HIV-AIDS, however, many Black South Africans have not been educated about cervical cancer and the importance of obtaining screening. Many may not consider screening a priority in their lives. Our research included extensive consultations and informal interviews with diverse community and regional stakeholders. Following these, we conducted 27 focus groups and 106 demographic surveys with randomly selected youth, parents, local health care personnel, educators and school staff. Focus group data were summarized and analyzed cross-sectionally. Community stakeholders were involved throughout this research. Our consultations, interviews, and focus group data were key in identifying the concerns and priorities of the community. By engaging community stakeholders, we developed a research framework that incorporated the community’s concerns and priorities, and stressed the intersecting roles of poverty, violence, and other cultural forces in shaping community members’ health and wellbeing. Community members helped to refocus our research from cervical cancer to ‘cervical health,’ a concept that acknowledged the impact on women’s bodies and lives of HIV-AIDS and STDs, sexual violence, poverty, and multiple social problems. We conclude that the research agenda and questions in community-based health research should not be considered immutable. They need to be open to negotiation, creativity, and constant reinvention.

Mosavel, Maghboeba; Simon, Christian; van Stade, Debbie; Buchbinder, Mara

2011-01-01

321

C4 rice - an ideal arena for systems biology research.  

PubMed

Engineering the C4 photosynthetic pathway into C3 crops has the potential to dramatically increase the yields of major C3 crops. The genetic control of features involved in C4 photosynthesis are still far from being understood; which partially explains why we have gained little success in C4 engineering thus far. Next generation sequencing techniques and other high throughput technologies are offering an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate the developmental and evolutionary processes of C4 photosynthesis. Two contrasting hypotheses about the evolution of C4 photosynthesis exist, i.e. the master switch hypothesis and the incremental gain hypothesis. These two hypotheses demand two different research strategies to proceed in parallel to maximize the success of C4 engineering. In either case, systems biology research will play pivotal roles in identifying key regulatory elements controlling development of C4 features, identifying essential biochemical and anatomical features required to achieve high photosynthetic efficiency, elucidating genetic mechanisms underlining C4 differentiation and ultimately identifying viable routes to engineer C4 rice. As a highly interdisciplinary project, the C4 rice project will have far-reaching impacts on both basic and applied research related to agriculture in the 21st century. PMID:20666931

Zhu, Xin-Guang; Shan, Lanlan; Wang, Yu; Quick, William Paul

2010-08-01

322

Link Discovery in Graphs Derived from Biological Databases (Research Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public biological databases contain vast amounts of rich data that can also be used to create and evaluate new biological hypothesis. We propose a method for link discovery in biological databases, i.e., for prediction and evaluation of implicit or previously unknown connections between biological entities and concepts. In our framework, information extracted from available databases is represented as a graph,

Petteri Sevon; Lauri Eronen; Petteri Hintsanen; Kimmo Kulovesi; Hannu Toivonen

323

Towards BioDBcore: a community-defined information specification for biological databases  

PubMed Central

The present article proposes the adoption of a community-defined, uniform, generic description of the core attributes of biological databases, BioDBCore. The goals of these attributes are to provide a general overview of the database landscape, to encourage consistency and interoperability between resources; and to promote the use of semantic and syntactic standards. BioDBCore will make it easier for users to evaluate the scope and relevance of available resources. This new resource will increase the collective impact of the information present in biological databases.

Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Field, Dawn; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Taylor, Chris; Attwood, Teresa K.; Bateman, Alex; Blake, Judith A.; Bult, Carol J.; Cherry, J. Michael; Chisholm, Rex L.; Cochrane, Guy; Cook, Charles E.; Eppig, Janan T.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Gentleman, Robert; Goble, Carole A.; Gojobori, Takashi; Hancock, John M.; Howe, Douglas G.; Imanishi, Tadashi; Kelso, Janet; Landsman, David; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Karsch Mizrachi, Ilene; Orchard, Sandra; Ouellette, B.F. Francis; Ranganathan, Shoba; Richardson, Lorna; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Schofield, Paul N.; Smedley, Damian; Southan, Christopher; Tan, Tin W.; Tatusova, Tatiana; Whetzel, Patricia L.; White, Owen; Yamasaki, Chisato

2011-01-01

324

Entering Research: A course that creates community and structure for beginning undergraduate researchers in the STEM disciplines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The benefits of undergraduate research are well documented such that these experiences have been incorporated into many school curricula. However, students still face many challenges (e.g. community establishment, identifying a mentor) when beginning research or are insufficiently supported to be successful in them. To help students overcome these challenges, we developed a novel course, called Entering Research, which helps undergraduates navigate the research experience and provides a supportive community of peers and experienced researchers as course facilitators. Following a teaching as research model, we studied the impact of this course over the three years it has been offered (2006-09). To date, 83 students who completed the course were given a pre and post assessment of learning gains (77% response). These students were also asked to answer a series of questions related to confidence, skills, and knowledge at course end, which we also compared to a group of similar students (n=92) who did not take the course, but were engaged in undergraduate research (63% response). Overall, we found that students value the Entering Research course, as they rated all of the topics covered in the seminar as helpful to their learning. Learning about research ethics and developing a research proposal were rated as most helpful, while web-based discussions and visiting peer laboratories were ranked lowest among the 20 survey questions. Relative to the post assessments, when aggregated by category, confidence, skill, and knowledge all significantly increased: knowledge at 22%, followed by skills (13%), and confidence (10%). All but two areas of confidence were self-rated as significant gains (p<0.01). All but two skills showed significant increases (p<0.01). And all five knowledge questions increased significantly (p<0.01). To test if these gains were related to the course, we compared these results to control group assessments. Students in the Entering Research course were significantly more confident in their ability to identify scientific misconduct (p<0.01), as well as in their ability to make connections between their research experience and their biology or physical sciences coursework (p<0.01). The Entering Research students self-reported greater skill in developing a research project, conducting a research project, and analyzing data (p<0.05). There were similar significant gains in knowledge. Importantly, almost a third of the students enrolled in Entering Research indicate that they would not have pursued independent research without the support of the course. This course was equally rewarding to faculty facilitators who were also assessed as part of this three-year study. The results of this study demonstrate the value in a course that supports beginning undergraduate research. We hypothesize that the implementation of similar courses at other institutions will increase the attraction of science to diverse students, and provide a mechanism for creating community and connections that transcended individual research projects.

Balster, N.

2009-12-01

325

Building Interdisciplinary\\/Intersectoral Research Partnerships for Community-Based Mental Health Research with Older Minority Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based research often brings investigators from different disciplinary backgrounds together with community representatives to conduct research on topics of mutual concern. This paper describes a case example that illustrates an interdisciplinary\\/intersectoral study of depression and barriers to mental health care among older adults and illustrate the factors central to implementing a successful research partnership. It will address the following conditions

Jean J. Schensul; Julie Robison; Carmen Reyes; Kim Radda; Sonia Gaztambide; William Disch

2006-01-01

326

STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)  

SciTech Connect

The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages. The development of publicly accessible, web-based servers, including the HOTPATCH server, the ProKnow Server and the SAVEs server. All of these are accessible from the home page of the Institute. Advancing the science of bioenergy, in the laboratories of the Principal Investigators of the Institute, including the laboratories of Shimon Weiss, James Liao, James Bowie, Todd Yeates, Rob Gunsalus.

Eisenberg, David S.

2008-07-15

327

Creating Community-Academic Partnerships for Cancer Disparities Research and Health Promotion  

PubMed Central

To effectively attenuate cancer disparities in multiethnic, medically underserved populations, interventions must be developed collaboratively through solid community–academic partnerships and driven by community-based participatory research (CBPR). The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) has been created to identify and implement interventions to address local cancer disparities in partnership with community-based nonprofit organizations, faith-based groups, community health centers, local media, and adult literacy and education organizations. TBCCN activities and research efforts are geared toward addressing critical information and access issues related to cancer control and prevention in diverse communities in the Tampa Bay area. Such efforts include cross-cultural health promotion, screening, and awareness activities in addition to applied research projects that are rooted in communities and guided by CBPR methods. This article describes these activities as examples of partnership building to positively affect cancer disparities, promote community health, and set the stage for community-based research partnerships.

Meade, Cathy D.; Menard, Janelle M.; Luque, John S.; Martinez-Tyson, Dinorah; Gwede, Clement K.

2010-01-01

328

Creating community-academic partnerships for cancer disparities research and health promotion.  

PubMed

To effectively attenuate cancer disparities in multiethnic, medically underserved populations, interventions must be developed collaboratively through solid community-academic partnerships and driven by community-based participatory research (CBPR). The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) has been created to identify and implement interventions to address local cancer disparities in partnership with community-based nonprofit organizations, faith-based groups, community health centers, local media, and adult literacy and education organizations. TBCCN activities and research efforts are geared toward addressing critical information and access issues related to cancer control and prevention in diverse communities in the Tampa Bay area. Such efforts include cross-cultural health promotion, screening, and awareness activities in addition to applied research projects that are rooted in communities and guided by CBPR methods. This article describes these activities as examples of partnership building to positively affect cancer disparities, promote community health, and set the stage for community-based research partnerships. PMID:19822724

Meade, Cathy D; Menard, Janelle M; Luque, John S; Martinez-Tyson, Dinorah; Gwede, Clement K

2009-10-12

329

The Micronutrient Genomics Project: a community-driven knowledge base for micronutrient research.  

PubMed

Micronutrients influence multiple metabolic pathways including oxidative and inflammatory processes. Optimum micronutrient supply is important for the maintenance of homeostasis in metabolism and, ultimately, for maintaining good health. With advances in systems biology and genomics technologies, it is becoming feasible to assess the activity of single and multiple micronutrients in their complete biological context. Existing research collects fragments of information, which are not stored systematically and are thus not optimally disseminated. The Micronutrient Genomics Project (MGP) was established as a community-driven project to facilitate the development of systematic capture, storage, management, analyses, and dissemination of data and knowledge generated by biological studies focused on micronutrient-genome interactions. Specifically, the MGP creates a public portal and open-source bioinformatics toolbox for all "omics" information and evaluation of micronutrient and health studies. The core of the project focuses on access to, and visualization of, genetic/genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic information related to micronutrients. For each micronutrient, an expert group is or will be established combining the various relevant areas (including genetics, nutrition, biochemistry, and epidemiology). Each expert group will (1) collect all available knowledge, (2) collaborate with bioinformatics teams towards constructing the pathways and biological networks, and (3) publish their findings on a regular basis. The project is coordinated in a transparent manner, regular meetings are organized and dissemination is arranged through tools, a toolbox web portal, a communications website and dedicated publications. PMID:21189865

van Ommen, Ben; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Hesketh, John; Kaput, Jim; Fenech, Michael; Evelo, Chris T; McArdle, Harry J; Bouwman, Jildau; Lietz, Georg; Mathers, John C; Fairweather-Tait, Sue; van Kranen, Henk; Elliott, Ruan; Wopereis, Suzan; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Méplan, Catherine; Perozzi, Giuditta; Allen, Lindsay; Rivero, Damariz

2010-10-30

330

Interdisciplinary, translational, and community-based participatory research: finding a common language to improve cancer research.  

PubMed

Preventing cancer, downstaging disease at diagnosis, and reducing mortality require that relevant research findings be translated across scientific disciplines and into clinical and public health practice. Interdisciplinary research focuses on using the languages of different scientific disciplines to share techniques and philosophical perspectives to enhance discovery and development of innovations; (i.e., from the "left end" of the research continuum). Community-based participatory research (CBPR), whose relevance often is relegated to the "right end" (i.e., delivery and dissemination) of the research continuum, represents an important means for understanding how many cancers are caused as well as for ensuring that basic science research findings affect cancer outcomes in materially important ways. Effective interdisciplinary research and CBPR both require an ability to communicate effectively across groups that often start out neither understanding each other's worldviews nor even speaking the same language. Both demand an ability and willingness to treat individuals from other communities with respect and understanding. We describe the similarities between CBPR and both translational and interdisciplinary research, and then illustrate our points using squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus as an example of how to deepen understanding and increase relevance by applying techniques of CBPR and interdisciplinary engagement. PMID:19336548

Hebert, James R; Brandt, Heather M; Armstead, Cheryl A; Adams, Swann A; Steck, Susan E

2009-03-31

331

Research for Value and Responsibility System of Computer Network Benefit Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper used research method to make computer network benefit community personified. Responsibilities and management ways of composition in the community were studied. Nature, manpower and public foundational resources and its assigning management mechanism dependent by the community were studied. The results indicate interior of community has primitive instinct power to pursue maximization of social value and economic benefit. Exterior

2010-01-01

332

Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject…

Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

2012-01-01

333

Microbial Community Structure of Biological Contact Oxidation Process Used in Landscape River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban landscape water pollution is widely and serious at present. Biological contact oxidation process was applied to purify the landscape river in this paper. In order to ulteriorly analysis the growth of biomembrane and mechanism of water purification process, 16S rDNA and amoA gene based amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were used to study the microbial community structure

Shuying He; Jixiang Li; Yatong Xu

2009-01-01

334

Self-optimization, community stability, and fluctuations in two individual-based models of biological coevolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare and contrast the long-time dynamical properties of two individual-based models of biological coevolution. Selection\\u000a occurs via multispecies, stochastic population dynamics with reproduction probabilities that depend nonlinearly on the population\\u000a densities of all species resident in the community. New species are introduced through mutation. Both models are amenable\\u000a to exact linear stability analysis, and we compare the analytic results

Per Arne Rikvold

2007-01-01

335

Macroinvertebrate community structure and biological traits related to flow permanence in a Mediterranean river network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mediterranean climate areas, the great seasonal variability in temperature and rainfall is considered to be an evolutionary\\u000a pressure that constrains plant and animal communities and their biological traits. Droughts alter habitat availability (changes\\u000a of flow alter riffle-pool sequences), although habitat characteristics may also exacerbate drought to some extent. Using a\\u000a simple quantitative index based on the proportion of conglomerate

Núria Bonada; Maria Rieradevall; Narcís Prat

2007-01-01

336

The Metropolitan Studies Institute at USC Upstate: Translational Research that Drives Community Decision-Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Metropolitan Studies Institute (MSI) at the University of South Carolina Upstate (USC Upstate) demonstrates a robust and unique record of community impact through community indicators research and other translational research. The MSI's work drives programmatic priorities and funding decisions, generates revenue, and increases the community's…

Brady, Kathleen

2012-01-01

337

We Regret to Inform You...Research Grants and the Community College Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the funding patterns of two research grants programs. Explores reasons that proportionately few awards go to community college professors--research is not encouraged at two-year colleges; applicants without doctoral degrees receive few awards; community colleges have inadequate representation on review panels; and community college faculty…

Bauman, M. Garrett

1982-01-01

338

Methods for open innovation on a genome-design platform associating scientific, commercial, and educational communities in synthetic biology.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology requires both engineering efficiency and compliance with safety guidelines and ethics. Focusing on the rational construction of biological systems based on engineering principles, synthetic biology depends on a genome-design platform to explore the combinations of multiple biological components or BIO bricks for quickly producing innovative devices. This chapter explains the differences among various platform models and details a methodology for promoting open innovation within the scope of the statutory exemption of patent laws. The detailed platform adopts a centralized evaluation model (CEM), computer-aided design (CAD) bricks, and a freemium model. It is also important for the platform to support the legal aspects of copyrights as well as patent and safety guidelines because intellectual work including DNA sequences designed rationally by human intelligence is basically copyrightable. An informational platform with high traceability, transparency, auditability, and security is required for copyright proof, safety compliance, and incentive management for open innovation in synthetic biology. GenoCon, which we have organized and explained here, is a competition-styled, open-innovation method involving worldwide participants from scientific, commercial, and educational communities that aims to improve the designs of genomic sequences that confer a desired function on an organism. Using only a Web browser, a participating contributor proposes a design expressed with CAD bricks that generate a relevant DNA sequence, which is then experimentally and intensively evaluated by the GenoCon organizers. The CAD bricks that comprise programs and databases as a Semantic Web are developed, executed, shared, reused, and well stocked on the secure Semantic Web platform called the Scientists' Networking System or SciNetS/SciNeS, based on which a CEM research center for synthetic biology and open innovation should be established. PMID:21601679

Toyoda, Tetsuro

2011-01-01

339

Collaborative Classroom Management. Video to Accompany "A Biological Brain in a Cultural Classroom: Applying Biological Research to Classroom Management." [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 43-minute VHS videotape is designed to be used in course and workshop settings with "A Biological Brain in a Cultural Classroom: Applying Biological Research to Classroom Management." The videotape's principal values are as an introduction to the issues explored in the book and as a catalyst for group discussions and activities related to…

2001

340

Getting started in CBPR: lessons in building community partnerships for new researchers.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods to address issues of health disparities. Although the success of CBPR is dependent upon the formation of community-researcher partnerships, new researchers as well as seasoned investigators who are transitioning to CBPR often lack the skills needed to develop and maintain these partnerships. The purpose of the article is to discuss the competencies needed by new researchers to form successful CBPR partnerships. The author presents a series of strategic steps that are useful in establishing academic-community partnerships and in initiating, maintaining and sustaining CBPR projects. These steps include suggestions regarding community engagement, selection of community advisory board members, outreach, the community's role in problem identification, selection of research methodologies, considerations related to the community setting, need for flexibility and patience, 'insider vs. outsider' conflicts, commitment and training issues, timing concerns for tenure-track faculty and the process of community empowerment. Community-based participatory research is both rewarding and time consuming, for both the researcher and members of the community. Given its promise to address health disparities, it is imperative that researchers acquire the skills needed to develop and cultivate durable community-researcher partnerships. PMID:21059145

D'Alonzo, Karen Therese

2010-12-01

341

Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Biological Sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume presents results for 616 programs in six disciplines in the biological sciences: biochemistry, botany, cellular/molecular biology, microbiology, physiology and zoology. The assessment focuses on programs awarding research doctorates and their ...

1982-01-01

342

Research of evaluation index system of community commerce building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of community commerce building is fundamental to work out the strategy for the development of community commerce, guiding the business community to make healthy and coordinated development. This paper firstly introduces the significance and principles for establishing evaluation index system. According to the evaluation norms of the national model of community commerce, this paper further establishes evaluation index system

Zhang Bo; Kou Ying-jiao

2009-01-01

343

2009 MICROBIAL POPULATION BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCES JULY 19-24,2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2009 Gordon Conference on Microbial Population Biology will cover a diverse range of cutting edge issues in the microbial sciences and beyond. Firmly founded in evolutionary biology and with a strongly integrative approach, past Conferences have covered a range of topics from the dynamics and genetics of adaptation to the evolution of mutation rate, community ecology, evolutionary genomics, altruism,

ANTHONY DEAN

2009-01-01

344

Teaching Molecular Biological Techniques in a Research Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Molecular biological methods, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis, are now commonly taught to students in introductory biology courses at the college and even high school levels. This often includes hands-on experience with one or more molecular techniques as part of a general biology laboratory. To assure that…

Stiller, John W.; Coggins, T. Chad

2006-01-01

345

Biological water quality assessment of running waters based on macroinvertebrate communities: history and present status in Europe.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the history and development of biological water quality assessment using macroinvertebrates in Europe, and critically evaluates each of the principal approaches used. As the biotic approach incorporates the most highly regarded features of the saprobic and diversity approaches, it has received the most attention in recent years. Most modern biotic index and score systems have evolved from the Trent Biotic Index, through a series of refinements and adaptations (i.e. the Extended Biotic Index, Chandler's Score, Indice Biotique) into the two modern systems. These methods are the Biological Monitoring Working Party System, used mainly in Great Britain, and the Belgian Biotic Index Method. The results of these techniques are now influencing policy decisions concerning surface water management in Europe, where macroinvertebrate community assessment are being used as a planning tool for managing water uses, for ambient monitoring, and for evaluating the effectiveness of pollution control measures. New research directions aimed at improving the performance of bioassessment techniques are being explored. These include defining reference communities based on stream typology which can then be used to set water quality objectives, and applying these methods to the assessment of toxic pollution. PMID:15092393

Metcalfe, J L

1989-01-01

346

Modeling the Principles of Community-Based Participatory Research in a Community Health Assessment Conducted by a Health Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss strategies used and lessons learned by a health foundation during development of a community health assessment model incorporating community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches. The assessment model comprises three models incorporating increasing amounts of CPBR principles. Model A combines local-area analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information (key informants, focus groups), and asset mapping. Model B, a community-based participatory

Karen Jaynes Williams; Patricia Gail Bray; Carrie K. Shapiro-Mendoza; Ilana Reisz; Jane Peranteau

2009-01-01

347

Getting started in CBPR- Lessons in building community partnerships for new researchers  

PubMed Central

Background There is a growing interest in community based participatory research (CBPR) methods to address issues of health disparities. Although the success of CBPR is dependent upon the formation of community-researcher partnerships, new researchers as well as seasoned investigators who are transitioning to CBPR often lack the skills needed to develop and maintain these partnerships. Objectives The purpose of the article is to discuss the competencies needed by new researchers to form successful CBPR partnerships. Methods and Lessons learned The author presents a series of strategic steps that are useful in establishing academic-community partnerships and in initiating, maintaining and sustaining CBPR projects. These steps include suggestions regarding community engagement, selection of Community Advisory Board members, outreach, the community’s role in problem identification, selection of research methodologies, considerations related to the community setting, need for flexibility and patience, “insider vs. outsider” conflicts, commitment and training issues, timing concerns for tenure-track faculty and the process of community empowerment. Conclusions CBPR is both rewarding and time consuming, for both the researcher and members of the community. Given its promise to address health disparities, it is imperative that researchers acquire the skills needed to develop and cultivate durable community-researcher partnerships.

D'Alonzo, Karen T.

2011-01-01

348

Training partnership dyads for community-based participatory research: strategies and lessons learned from the Community Engaged Scholars Program.  

PubMed

This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus-community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution's Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-P provides simultaneous training to CBPR teams, with each team consisting of at least one community partner and one academic partner. Program elements include 12 months of monthly interactive group sessions, mentorship with apprenticeship opportunities, and funding for a CBPR pilot project. A modified RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation plan. Lessons learned include challenges of group instruction with varying levels of readiness among the CBPR partners, navigating the institutional review board process with community co-investigators, and finding appropriate academic investigators to match community research interests. Future directions are recommended for this promising and unique dyadic training of academic and community partners. PMID:23091303

Andrews, Jeannette O; Cox, Melissa J; Newman, Susan D; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E; Slaughter, Sabra

2012-10-22

349

Toward a culturally anchored ecological framework of research in ethnic-cultural communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed a research framework (the “cube” model) in which community psychologists working in ethnic-cultural communities can make appropriate decisions on conceptual and methodological issues from a culturally anchored, ecological-contextualist perspective. The intent of the model is to articulate ethnic-cultural heterogeneity in community research by elucidating three metamethodological issues: (a) definition of an ethnic-cultural community, (b) applicability of cross-cultural theories and

Toshiaki Sasao; Stanley Sue

1993-01-01

350

Self-optimization, community stability, and fluctuations in two individual-based models of biological coevolution.  

PubMed

We compare and contrast the long-time dynamical properties of two individual-based models of biological coevolution. Selection occurs via multispecies, stochastic population dynamics with reproduction probabilities that depend nonlinearly on the population densities of all species resident in the community. New species are introduced through mutation. Both models are amenable to exact linear stability analysis, and we compare the analytic results with large-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, obtaining the population size as a function of an average interspecies interaction strength. Over time, the models self-optimize through mutation and selection to approximately maximize a community potential function, subject only to constraints internal to the particular model. If the interspecies interactions are randomly distributed on an interval including positive values, the system evolves toward self-sustaining, mutualistic communities. In contrast, for the predator-prey case the matrix of interactions is antisymmetric, and a nonzero population size must be sustained by an external resource. Time series of the diversity and population size for both models show approximate 1/f noise and power-law distributions for the lifetimes of communities and species. For the mutualistic model, these two lifetime distributions have the same exponent, while their exponents are different for the predator-prey model. The difference is probably due to greater resilience toward mass extinctions in the food-web like communities produced by the predator-prey model. PMID:17534620

Rikvold, Per Arne

2007-05-30

351

Modeling the Principles of Community-Based Participatory Research in a Community Health Assessment Conducted by a Health Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss strategies used and lessons learned by a health foundation during development of a community health assessment model incorporat- ing community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches. The assessment model comprises three models incorporating increasing amounts of CPBR principles. Model A combines local-area analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information (key infor- mants, focus groups), and asset mapping. Model B, a

Jane Peranteau

2007-01-01

352

Importance of Undergraduate Research for Minority Persistence and Achievement in Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the association between undergraduate research participation and college success in the biological sciences. We find that undergraduate research participation is significantly associated with earning a baccalaureate degree and with persistence and outstanding performance among biology majors for all racial\\/ethnic groups at a large research university.

Amy E. L. Barlow Melanie T. Jones; Merna Villarejo

2010-01-01

353

Importance of Undergraduate Research for Minority Persistence and Achievement in Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This study examines the association between undergraduate research participation and college success in the biological sciences. We find that undergraduate research participation is significantly associated with earning a baccalaureate degree and with persistence and outstanding performance among biology majors for all racial\\/ethnic groups at a large research university.

Melanie T. Jones; Amy E. L. Barlow; Merna Villarejo

2010-01-01

354

Preparing the "New" Biologist of the Future: Student Research at the Interface of Mathematics and Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We describe a unique Research Experience for Undergraduates and Research Experience for Veterinary students summer program at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis on the campus of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The program focused on interdisciplinary research at the interface of biology and mathematics.…

Duncan, Sarah I.; Bishop, Pamela; Lenhart, Suzanne

2010-01-01

355

An eQTL biological data visualization challenge and approaches from the visualization community.  

PubMed

In 2011, the IEEE VisWeek conferences inaugurated a symposium on Biological Data Visualization. Like other domain-oriented Vis symposia, this symposium's purpose was to explore the unique characteristics and requirements of visualization within the domain, and to enhance both the Visualization and Bio/Life-Sciences communities by pushing Biological data sets and domain understanding into the Visualization community, and well-informed Visualization solutions back to the Biological community. Amongst several other activities, the BioVis symposium created a data analysis and visualization contest. Unlike many contests in other venues, where the purpose is primarily to allow entrants to demonstrate tour-de-force programming skills on sample problems with known solutions, the BioVis contest was intended to whet the participants' appetites for a tremendously challenging biological domain, and simultaneously produce viable tools for a biological grand challenge domain with no extant solutions. For this purpose expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) data analysis was selected. In the BioVis 2011 contest, we provided contestants with a synthetic eQTL data set containing real biological variation, as well as a spiked-in gene expression interaction network influenced by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA variation and a hypothetical disease model. Contestants were asked to elucidate the pattern of SNPs and interactions that predicted an individual's disease state. 9 teams competed in the contest using a mixture of methods, some analytical and others through visual exploratory methods. Independent panels of visualization and biological experts judged entries. Awards were given for each panel's favorite entry, and an overall best entry agreed upon by both panels. Three special mention awards were given for particularly innovative and useful aspects of those entries. And further recognition was given to entries that correctly answered a bonus question about how a proposed "gene therapy" change to a SNP might change an individual's disease status, which served as a calibration for each approaches' applicability to a typical domain question. In the future, BioVis will continue the data analysis and visualization contest, maintaining the philosophy of providing new challenging questions in open-ended and dramatically underserved Bio/Life Sciences domains. PMID:22607587

Bartlett, Christopher W; Cheong, Soo Yeon; Hou, Liping; Paquette, Jesse; Lum, Pek Yee; Jäger, Günter; Battke, Florian; Vehlow, Corinna; Heinrich, Julian; Nieselt, Kay; Sakai, Ryo; Aerts, Jan; Ray, William C

2012-05-18

356

Preventing biological weapon development through the governance of life science research.  

PubMed

The dual-use dilemma in the life sciences-that illicit applications draw on the same science and technology base as legitimate applications-makes it inherently difficult to control one without inhibiting the other. Since before the September 11 attacks, the science and security communities in the United States have struggled to develop governance processes that can simultaneously minimize the risk of misuse of the life sciences, promote their beneficial applications, and protect the public trust. What has become clear over that time is that while procedural steps can be specified for assessing and managing dual-use risks in the review of research proposals, oversight of ongoing research, and communication of research results, the actions or decisions to be taken at each of these steps to mitigate dual-use risk defy codification. Yet the stakes are too high to do nothing, or to be seen as doing nothing. The U.S. government should therefore adopt an oversight framework largely along the lines recommended by the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity almost 5 years ago-one that builds on existing processes, can gain buy-in from the scientific community, and can be implemented at modest cost (both direct and opportunity), while providing assurance that a considered and independent examination of dual-use risks is being applied. Without extraordinary visibility into the actions of those who would misuse biology, it may be impossible to know how well such an oversight system will actually succeed at mitigating misuse. But maintaining the public trust will require a system to be established in which reasonably foreseeable dual-use consequences of life science research are anticipated, evaluated, and addressed. PMID:22455676

Epstein, Gerald L

2012-03-01

357

Gross's anatomy: textual politics in science/biology education research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In approaching how the grotesque is—or should be—situated within contemporary science (biology) education practices, Weinstein and Broda undertake a passionate reclaim of an education that is at the same time scientific, critical, and liberatory. However legitimate, their work offers more than they probably could have anticipated: It exemplifies how the textual structure of a research article can be such as to "tip-off" readers about how it is supposed to be understood. In this way, what one learns from reading the manuscript is grounded on the way the authors examine the data presented. That is, the findings are not intrinsic to the materials collected, but constructed within the analyses that precede/follow the account of each one of the four "specimens" reported. Therefore, the present commentary seeks to re-consider the original study from an alternative perspective, one that challenges its seemingly objective (re)construction of facts by placing emphasis on how the text contains instructions for its own interpretation and validation. Ultimately, the purpose here is to describe and discuss the interpretive and validation work that is done by this discursive mechanism of self-appraisal rather than discredit the two authors' initiative.

Reis, Giuliano

2009-12-01

358

Building and Maintaining Trust in a Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership  

PubMed Central

Although intervention research is vital to eliminating health disparities, many groups with health disparities have had negative research experiences, leading to an understandable distrust of researchers and the research process. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches seek to reverse this pattern by building trust between community members and researchers. We highlight strategies for building and maintaining trust from an American Indian CBPR project and focus on 2 levels of trust building and maintaining: (1) between university and community partners and (2) between the initial project team and the larger community. This article was cowritten by community and academic partners; by offering the voices of community partners, it provides a novel and distinctive contribution to the CBPR literature.

Christopher, Suzanne; Watts, Vanessa; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun; Young, Sara

2008-01-01

359

Completing the Circle: A Model for Effective Community Review of Environmental Health Research  

PubMed Central

While it is well understood that multiple and cumulative environmental stressors negatively impact health at the community level, existing ethical research review procedures are designed to protect individual research participants but not communities. Increasing concerns regarding the ethical conduct of research in general and environmental and genetic research in particular underscore the need to expand the scope of current human participant research regulations and ethical guidelines to include protections for communities. In an effort to address this issue, West Harlem Environmental Action (WE ACT), a nonprofit, community-based environmental justice organization in New York City that has been involved in community–academic partnerships for the past decade, used qualitative interview data to develop a pilot model for community review of environmental health science research.

Shepard, Peggy Morrow; Corbin-Mark, Cecil D.

2009-01-01

360

Models of Community Care for Severe Mental Illness: A Review of Research on Case Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe different models of community care for persons with severe mental illness and review the research literature on case management, including the results of 75 studies. Most research has been conducted on the assertive community treatment (ACT) or intensive case management (ICM) models. Controlled research on ACT and ICM indicates that these models reduce time in the hospital and

Kim T. Mueser; Gary R. Bond; Robert E. Drake; Sandra G. Resnick

1998-01-01

361

y Models of Community Care for Severe Mental Illness: A Review of Research on Case Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe different models of community care for persons with severe mental illness and review the research literature on case management, including the results of 75 studies. Most research has been con- ducted on the assertive community treatment (ACT) or intensive case management (ICM) models. Controlled research on ACT and ICM indicates that these models reduce time in the hospital

Kim T. Mueser; Qary R. Bond; Robert E. Drake; Sandra Q. Resnick

362

Developing a Successful High School Science Research Program via Teacher Training, Student Internships, and Community Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the Science Research Program is to allow students to perform authentic scientific research in disciplines of their choosing over a period of 3 years. The success of the program has allowed for expansion including community involvement, student mentorship, and a series of professional development programs. Through state and national competition and community symposia, student research is evaluated,

J. M. Danch; F. Darytichen

2004-01-01

363

Academic-community collaboration, gender research, and development: pitfalls and possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaboration has become a watchword for development practitioners and theorists. Yet collaboration or partnerships between academics and community-based researchers and activists have often proved difficult. This is particularly true for partnerships with smaller, grassroots community researchers, who are generally less resourced than their academic partners. This paper focuses on such partnerships in gender research, with the aim of reflecting on

Barbara Cottrell; Jane L. Parpart

2006-01-01

364

Breeding biology of an afrotropical forest understory bird community in northeastern Tanzania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many aspects of the breeding biology of Afrotropical forest birds are poorly known. Here we provide a description based on the monitoring of 1461 active nests over eight breeding seasons about one or more aspects of the breeding biology for 28 coexisting understory bird species on the Amani Plateau in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Mean nest height and mean distance of nest from forest edge varied widely among species with most species constructing nests across a broad vertical and forest edge to interior gradient. However, there were important exceptions with all sunbird species and several dove and waxbill species constructing nests in close proximity to the forest edge. For 17 common species for which we recorded two or more active nests, mean clutch size across species was 1.9 eggs per clutch, the lowest site-specific mean clutch size yet reported for a tropical forest bird community. For nine bird species, a subset of the 17 common species, length of breeding season, defined as the difference between the earliest and latest recorded incubation onset date, ranged from 88–139 days. Most of these nine species displayed a unimodal distribution in incubation onset dates across a breeding season which extended from the end of August through middle January. In summary, a wide variation exists in most aspects of the breeding biology within an understory forest bird community in the East Usambara Mountains.

Mkongewa, Victor J.; Newmark, William D.; Stanley, Thomas R.

2013-01-01

365

BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES IN RHIZOSPHERES OF TRANSGENIC CORN STUDIED BY DENATURING GRADIENT GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (DGGE) AND BIOLOG METABOLIC FINGERPRINTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizosphere microbial communities of two transgenic corn (Zea mays) varieties (Bt and Roundup Ready) were analyzed and compared to communities of non-transgenic isolines in greenhouse and field studies. Two complementary methods (BIOLOG metabolic fingerprinting and DGGE) were used. In the greenhouse...

366

Enhanced Learning through Electronic Communities: A Research Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report, in support of the project "Enhanced Learning through Electronic Communities," investigated successful practices of electronic communities. A literature review was conducted and a survey was sent to 15 system operators of networks that had a community-based focus with ancillary educational components and networks that focused…

Burgstahler, Sheryl; Swift, Catherine

367

The research of city community safety management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of society, more and more emphasis put on community safety, Community Safety Manager plays an important positive role in maintaining social safety and stability and the promotion of social harmony. Therefore, How to implement the innovative model of community management system, strengthening grass-roots development and democratic self-government building and improve the city economic, political and cultural development

Lizhen Liu; Maohong Zhang; Lei Chen; Chao Du

2010-01-01

368

State of laboratory manual instruction in California community college introductory (non-majors) biology laboratory instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

College students must complete a life science course prior to graduation for a bachelor's degree. Generally, the course has lecture and laboratory components. It is in the laboratory where there are exceptional opportunities for exploration, challenge and application of the material learned. Optimally, this would utilize the best of inquiry based approaches. Most community colleges are using a home-grown or self written laboratory manual for the direction of work in the laboratory period. Little was known about the motivation, development and adaptation of use. It was also not known about the future of the laboratory manuals in light of the recent learning reform in California Community Colleges, Student Learning Outcomes. Extensive interviews were conducted with laboratory manual authors to determine the motivation, process of development, who was involved and learning framework used in the creation of the manuals. It was further asked of manual authors their ideas about the future of the manual, the development of staff and faculty and finally, the role Student Learning Outcomes would play in the manual. Science faculty currently teaching the non-majors biology laboratories for at least two semesters were surveyed on-line about actual practice of the manual, assessment, manual flexibility, faculty training and incorporation of Student Learning Outcomes. Finally, an evaluation of the laboratory manual was done using an established Laboratory Task Analysis Instrument. Laboratory manuals were evaluated on a variety of categories to determine the level of inquiry instruction done by students in the laboratory section. The results were that the development of homegrown laboratory manuals was done by community colleges in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties in an effort to minimize the cost of the manual to the students, to utilize all the exercises in a particular lab and to effectively utilize the materials already owned by the department. Further, schools wanted to utilize the current faculty research expertise and knowledge. Unfortunately, laboratory manual authors had no real learning framework in the development of the manual. Based on the LAI, most manuals focused on the lowest levels of inquiry based instruction. Most manuals focused exercises on cell and molecular topics. The manuals had little student exploration, creation or design in the laboratory exercise and no option for repeating the exercise. There was a clear desire of faculty and authors to improve the laboratory experience and manual. Authors and faculty wished to include more inquiry and utilize the best of Student Learning Outcome (SLO) methodologies. Authors and the laboratory manuals have a major disconnect in that authors have clear desires inquiry based learning for the manual but do not effectively implement the inquiry based learning for various reasons. The manuals themselves, laboratory manuals themselves are not robust inquiry based learning models to maximize student learning. Authors and faculty are disconnected in that authors know what they want their manuals to do...but do not effectively communicate that to faculty. Finally, schools are in a "wait and see" approach as to when to integrate the latest learning theory mandated by the Chancellors Office -- Student Learning Outcomes.

Priest, Michelle

369

Effects of Environmental Variation and Nonpoint Source (NPS) Nutrient Pollution on Aquatic Plant Communities in Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (WBNERR), AL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate non-point source nutrient pollution and its influences on submerged aquatic plant community\\u000a structure and biological invasion in the Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (WBNERR). A monthly vegetation survey\\u000a was conducted to document plant abundance and changes in community structure; physicochemical data and water samples were\\u000a collected on a bi-monthly basis to monitor environmental

Molly M. Miller; Scott W. Phipps; Clinton S. Major; Kelly M. Major

370

Systems biology: melting the boundaries in drug discovery research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmaceutical industry has gradually evolved from a purely chemistry-based paradigm to an information-based paradigm. With the completion of the Human Genome Project, drug discovery knowledge is increasingly being viewed as part of Systems Biology. Systems biology does not focus on individual information bits one at a time, but considers the behavior and relationships of all units of information, in

Minna Allarakhia; Anthony Wensley

2005-01-01

371

Gordon Research Conference on Molecular Membrane Biology (1995).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gordon Conference on 'Molecular Membrane Biology' was held July 9 to 15, 1995 in Andover, New Hampshire at Proctor Academy. One hundred and thirty six scientists attended, including the major figures in the cell biology and biophysics of protein local...

1995-01-01

372

2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights  

Microsoft Academic Search

LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes;

2003-01-01

373

Research on Bacteria in the Mainstream of Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stresses the importance of investigating bacterial mechanisms to discover clues for a greater understanding of cells. Cites examples of study areas of biological significance which may reveal information about the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and lead to a comprehensive theory of cell biology. (RT)|

Magasanik, Boris

1988-01-01

374

Management of Biological Materials in Wastewater from Research & Development Facilities  

SciTech Connect

PNNL has developed and instituted a systematic approach to managing work with biological material that begins in the project planning phase and carries through implementation to waste disposal. This paper describes two major processes used at PNNL to analyze and mitigate the hazards associated with working with biological materials and evaluate them for disposal to the sewer, ground, or surface water in a manner that protects human health and the environment. The first of these processes is the Biological Work Permit which is used to identify requirements for handling, storing, and working with biological materials and the second is the Sewer Approval process which is used to evaluate discharges of wastewaters containing biological materials to assure they meet industrial wastewater permits and other environmental regulations and requirements.

Raney, Elizabeth A.; Moon, Thomas W.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2011-04-01

375

Biological research on drug abuse and addiction in Hispanics: Current status and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impressive progress has been made in the understanding of biological contributions to drug abuse and addiction. An area that has only recently begun to receive attention is potential ethnic and racial differences in biological systems that contribute to, or protect from, problem drug use. This article reviews recent research on drug abuse and addiction in Hispanics in which biological questions

Keith A. Trujillo; Edward Castañeda; Diana Martínez; Gerardo González

2006-01-01

376

Opportunities for Materials Science and Biological Research at the OPAL Research Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Neutron scattering techniques have evolved over more than 1/2 century into a powerful set of tools for determination of atomic and molecular structures. Modern facilities offer the possibility to determine complex structures over length scales from {approx}0.1 nm to {approx}500 nm. They can also provide information on atomic and molecular dynamics, on magnetic interactions and on the location and behaviour of hydrogen in a variety of materials. The OPAL Research Reactor is a 20 megawatt pool type reactor using low enriched uranium fuel, and cooled by water. OPAL is a multipurpose neutron factory with modern facilities for neutron beam research, radioisotope production and irradiation services. The neutron beam facility has been designed to compete with the best beam facilities in the world. After six years in construction, the reactor and neutron beam facilities are now being commissioned, and we will commence scientific experiments later this year. The presentation will include an outline of the strengths of neutron scattering and a description of the OPAL research reactor, with particular emphasis on it's scientific infrastructure. It will also provide an overview of the opportunities for research in materials science and biology that will be possible at OPAL, and mechanisms for accessing the facilities. The discussion will emphasize how researchers from around the world can utilize these exciting new facilities.

Kennedy, S. J. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai NSW 2234 (Australia)

2008-03-17

377

Community-based research as a tool for empowerment: the Haida Gwaii Diabetes Project example.  

PubMed

The evolution of the Haida Gwaii Diabetes Project exemplifies how community-based family practice research can be a tool for empowerment for both the community of research participants and the community based members of the research team. The aims of the project are to develop a better understanding of Haida beliefs about diabetes; to develop culturally sensitive approaches to prevention and management; and to attempt to apply this understanding to the development of a model for preventive health for native people in the province of British Columbia. A participatory research paradigm, coupled with explicit working principles by which the research team agreed to operate, addressed the concerns that the Aboriginal community had about the risks of research. A true working partnership has developed among all members of the research team, and with the Haida community. PMID:8753639

Herbert, C P

378

COMMUNITY-RESEARCH COLLABORATION BETWEEN RESEARCHERS AND ACUPUNCTURISTS :I NTEGRATING A PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH APPROACH IN A STATEWIDE SURVEY OF LICENSED ACUPUNCTURISTS IN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Licensed Acupuncture Collaborative Study, a job analysis of licensed acupuncturists in California, provides a model for building community-research partnerships between university researchers and communities of non-physician clinicians. The study design used a project-management approach based on the core principles of community-based participatory research: 1) mobilizing shared expertise and resources to address issues of concern; 2) sharing power in the

Tony Kuo; Rebekah Christensen; Lillian Gelberg; Lisa Rubenstein; Adam Burke

2006-01-01

379

Health, education and community: Assets and needs of a small urban community in north east Tamaulipas, Mexico: A community based participatory research assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the health, education, social assets, needs, attitudes, and behaviors of residents of Ferrocarril #4, a small urban community in Tamaulipas, Mexico. A collaborative Participatory Action Research approach was used to emphasize community involvement. Using Triangulation to ensure validity, qualitative methods included key informant in depth interviews, participant observation and participatory discussion groups with women and men. A

Chriseda K Colucci-Reuben

2007-01-01

380

Student Perceptions of Community-Based Research Partners and the Politics of Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on quantitative survey data and qualitative data from journal entries by students in a seminar focused on community-based research, undergraduate student perceptions of community partners are explored in the context of debates about the politics of knowledge. Student perceptions that frame community partners as the recipients of academic…

Kane, Emily W.

2012-01-01

381

WHO DECIDES? - DETERMINING THE WOMEN'S HEALTH RESEARCH AGENDA FOR ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER COMMUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reflects on the issue of who determines the women's health research agenda and is based on my experiences while working as a female general practitioner in remote communities with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The higher birth rates in these communities mask subfertility or infertility. In many of these communities there are high rates of sexually transmitted

Beres Joyner

382

Celebrating the Past, Creating the Future: 50 Years of Community College Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Council for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC) celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2008. This article summarizes the establishment of the Council and sets it in the context of the development of the community college movement. Highlights of research conducted by CSCC members to address contemporary issues facing community colleges are described. A summary of insights offered by members

Deborah L. Floyd; Alicia Haley; Pamela L. Eddy; Laura Antczak

2009-01-01

383

Celebrating the Past, Creating the Future: 50 Years of Community College Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Council for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC) celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2008. This article summarizes the establishment of the Council and sets it in the context of the development of the community college movement. Highlights of research conducted by CSCC members to address contemporary issues facing community colleges are…

Floyd, Deborah L.; Haley, Alicia; Eddy, Pamela L.; Antczak, Laura

2009-01-01

384

Community-University Research Partnerships for Workers' and Environmental Health in Campinas Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three partnerships between the University of Campinas, community, and public health care services are discussed in this article. A theoretical framework underpins the critical reviews of their accomplishments following criteria proposed by scholars of community-university partnerships and community-based participatory research. The article…

Monteiro, Maria Ines; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Filho, Heleno Rodrigues Correa

2011-01-01

385

Changing the Face of Research: Tribal Colleges Address Community Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article focuses on public health research projects which are being conducted at two Indian colleges; Candeska Cikana Community College in Fort Trotten, North Dakota and Turtle Mountain Community College in Belcourt, North Dakota. Candeska Community College was given a 6 year grant funded by the National Institutes of Diabetes, Digestive and…

Bird, Dorreen Yellow

2007-01-01

386

Changing the Face of Research: Tribal Colleges Address Community Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article focuses on public health research projects which are being conducted at two Indian colleges; Candeska Cikana Community College in Fort Trotten, North Dakota and Turtle Mountain Community College in Belcourt, North Dakota. Candeska Community College was given a 6 year grant funded by the National Institutes of Diabetes, Digestive and…

Bird, Dorreen Yellow

2007-01-01

387

AFRICAN AMERICANS IN COMMUNITY COLLEGES: A REVIEW OF RESEARCH REPORTED IN THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND PRACTICE : 1990-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of a review of research published in the Community College Journal of Research and Practice from 1990-2000 regarding the African-American experience in community colleges. The authors found three major themes related to articles published over the 10-year period: (a) environmental factors related to student success, (b) the need for faculty diversity, and (c) race and

Chance W. Lewis; Valerie Middleton

2003-01-01

388

Council on Undergraduate Research: A Resource (and a Community) for Science Educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) is a professional organization dedicated to strengthening science and undergraduate science education. Central to the activities and programs sponsored by CUR is the recognition that the investigative process, especially undergraduate student research, plays a key role in an undergraduate science education. Publications, conferences, and other activities of CUR have facilitated the establishment and maintenance of a network of undergraduate teacher-researchers. For many members, myself included, the most important aspect of CUR is this sense of community provided by the opportunities to meet and work with colleagues who hold shared values and common expectations for science education. First established by a small group of prominent chemistry faculty in 1978, the Council on Undergraduate Research is now a rapidly growing multidisciplinary organization serving over 3,500 members in seven scientific and mathematical divisions, including biology, chemistry, geology, physics/astronomy, mathematics, and psychology (Fig. 1.). Chemists continue to play an important role in CUR; the Division of Chemistry, with more than 1,200 members, is the largest division.

Halstead, Judith A.

1997-02-01

389

Using community-based participatory research in parish nursing: a win-win situation!  

PubMed

Parish nurses contribute to community health through the expertise and programming they provide to and through faith communities. Application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles helps develop, implement, and evaluate effective community interventions. University graduate students partnered with a Hospital Parish Nurse Program (HPNP) in an urban community to provide assessment data in a CBPR project that led the HPNP to focus resources and interventions on high obesity rates. The HPNP utilized data to write grant proposals to expand community services to impact obesity. PMID:23082616

Maitlen, Lynn A; Bockstahler, Amie M; Belcher, Anne E

390

Silicon's organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve*  

PubMed Central

Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon’s biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon’s erosion of soil particles. A study on the organic pool and biological cycle of silicon (Si) of the moso bamboo community was conducted in Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve, China. The results showed that: (1) the standing crop of the moso bamboo community was 13355.4 g/m2, of which 53.61%, 45.82% and 0.56% are represented by the aboveground and belowground parts of moso bamboos, and the understory plants, respectively; (2) the annual net primary production of the community was 2887.1 g/(m2·a), among which the aboveground part, belowground part, litterfalls, and other fractions, accounted for 55.86%, 35.30%, 4.50% and 4.34%, respectively; (3) silicon concentration in stem, branch, leaf, base of stem, root, whip of bamboos, and other plants was 0.15%, 0.79%, 3.10%, 4.40%, 7.32%, 1.52% and 1.01%, respectively; (4) the total Si accumulated in the standing crop of moso bamboo community was 448.91 g/m2, with 99.83% of Si of the total community stored in moso bamboo populations; (5) within moso bamboo community, the annual uptake, retention, and return of Si were 95.75, 68.43, 27.32 g/(m2·a), respectively; (6) the turnover time of Si, which is the time an average atom of Si remains in the soil before it is recycled into the trees or shrubs, was 16.4 years; (7) the enrichment ratio of Si in the moso bamboo community, which is the ratio of the mean concentration of nutrients in the net primary production to the mean concentration of nutrients in the biomass of a community, was 0.64; and lastly, (8) moso bamboo plants stored about 1.26×1010 kg of silicon in the organic pool made up by the moso bamboo forests in the subtropical area of China.

Li, Zhen-ji; Lin, Peng; He, Jian-yuan; Yang, Zhi-wei; Lin, Yi-ming

2006-01-01

391

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FY2007 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CBER works at the cutting edge of public health and science, regulating complex biological products that are essential to medicine and public health in the 21st Century. These products, which include vaccines, allergenics, blood and blood products, and ce...

2008-01-01

392

Research and Teaching: An Experimental Project Approach to Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the study described in this article, the author examined the educational benefits of an experimental project approach to students taking the last course of the introductory sequence, Biology 103. Educational benefits were defined in terms of analytical

Petersen, Chris E.

2000-11-01

393

Calibrated Peer Review for Computer-Assisted Learning of Biological Research Competencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recently, both science and technology faculty have been recognizing biological research competencies that are valued but rarely assessed. Some of these valued learning outcomes include scientific methods and thinking, critical assessment of primary papers, quantitative reasoning, communication, and putting biological research into a historical…

Clase, Kari L.; Gundlach, Ellen; Pelaez, Nancy J.

2010-01-01

394

Nucleic Acids Research annual Database Issue and the NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection in 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current issue of Nucleic Acids Research includes descriptions of 179 databases, of which 95 are new. These databases (along with several molecular biology databases described in other journals) have been included in the Nucleic Acids Research online Molecular Biology Database Collection, bringing the total number of databases in the collection to 1170. In this introductory com- ment, we briefly

Michael Y. Galperin; Guy Cochrane

2009-01-01

395

Research Programs Constituting U.S. Participation in the International Biological Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The United States contribution to the International Biological Program, which aims to understand more clearly the interrelationships within ecosystems, is centered on multidisciplinary research programs investigating the biological basis of ecological productivity and human welfare. Integrated research programs have been established for the…

National Academy of Sciences--National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Biology and Agriculture.

396

Strategies for setting a national research agenda that is responsive to community needs.  

PubMed Central

Setting a national environmental health research agenda requires broad public input, including that from leading scientists, health care professionals, and communities. Contributions from these diverse constituencies are essential to formulating a research and education strategy that both advances our understanding of the causes and mechanisms of environmentally related diseases and translates such findings into effective prevention and clinical applications to protect those most affected by adverse environmental exposures. Given the increasing number of individual researchers working with communities to address environmental health needs during the past decade, it is also essential for research institutions to foster relationships with communities to understand and respond to their unique public health needs, as well as to communicate research advances in a manner that is both understandable and culturally appropriate. To achieve broad public input and to foster community-university partnerships, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) supports various workshops, roundtables, and advisory groups. In particular, the NIEHS finds Town Meetings to be a successful model for bringing academic researchers together with community residents, state and local departments of health, and community-based organizations to foster greater awareness of community needs, public health needs, and environmental health science research. Since 1998, the NIEHS has supported 16 Town Meetings across the country. In this article we highlight the major outcomes of these meetings to demonstrate the effectiveness of this mechanism for enhancing cooperation among researchers, community residents, and public health officials with the goal of improving public health and setting a national research agenda.

O'Fallon, Liam R; Wolfle, Geraldine M; Brown, David; Dearry, Allen; Olden, Kenneth

2003-01-01

397

Research directions in designing intercultural interactions in collaborative virtual communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As applications and environments supporting collaborative virtual communities (CVEs) become increasingly available, opportunities to work, learn, play, and share experiences trans-culturally are not only more appealing, but also more feasible. Distributed cross-cultural and cross-organizational interactions are here, now. The emergence of such synchronous, post-geographical, virtual communities raises particular issues around fostering the intercultural 'chemistry' of online interactions and online community

Elaine M. Raybourn; Andrew McGrath; Alan Munro; William A. Stubblefield

2000-01-01

398

Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach

Laurie A Lindamer; Barry Lebowitz; Richard L Hough; Piedad Garcia; Alfredo Aguirre; Maureen C Halpain; Colin Depp; Dilip V Jeste

2009-01-01

399

Can communities and academia work together on public health research? Evaluation results from a community-based participatory research partnership in Detroit.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of a formative evaluation of the first 4 years of the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center (URC), a community-based participatory research partnership that was founded in 1995 with core funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Several organizations are members of this partnership, including a university, six community-based organizations, a city health department, a health care system, and CDC. The Detroit URC is a strong partnership that has accomplished many of its goals, including the receipt of over $11 million in funding for 12 community-based participatory research projects during its initial 4 years. Detroit URC Board members identified a number of facilitating factors for their growth and achievements, such as (1) developing a sound infrastructure and set of processes for making decisions and working together, (2) building trust among partners, (3) garnering committed and active leadership from community partners, and (4) receiving support from CDC. Board members also identified a number of ongoing challenges, including organizational constraints, time pressures, and balancing community interests in interventions and academic research needs. Overall, the Detroit URC represents a partnership approach to identifying community health concerns and implementing potential solutions. PMID:11564852

Lantz, P M; Viruell-Fuentes, E; Israel, B A; Softley, D; Guzman, R

2001-09-01

400

Engaging Students in Authentic Microbiology Research in an Introductory Biology Laboratory Course is Correlated with Gains in Student Understanding of the Nature of Authentic Research and Critical Thinking†  

PubMed Central

Recent recommendations for biology education highlight the role of authentic research experiences early in undergraduate education as a means of increasing the number and quality of biology majors. These experiences will inform students on the nature of science, increase their confidence in doing science, as well as foster critical thinking skills, an area that has been lacking despite it being one of the desired outcomes at undergraduate institutions and with future employers. With these things in mind, we have developed an introductory biology laboratory course where students design and execute an authentic microbiology research project. Students in this course are assimilated into the community of researchers by engaging in scholarly activities such as participating in inquiry, reading scientific literature, and communicating findings in written and oral formats. After three iterations of a semester-long laboratory course, we found that students who took the course showed a significant increase in their understanding of the nature of authentic research and their level of critical thinking skills.

Gasper, Brittany J.; Gardner, Stephanie M.

2013-01-01

401

Reconceiving with action research: working within and across communities of practice in a university\\/community college collaborative venture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three teacher educators worked at a US community college with two adult education staff on a grant-supported project bridging high school dropouts from adult education to employment. The teacher educators’ apparently simple task of facilitating grant participants’ engagement with action research became confusingly challenging. The consultants engaged in ‘second-order’ action research to frame their process of reflective practice, thus deepening

Ann Taylor; Laurel D. Puchner; Margaret B. Powell; Valorie Harris; Rick Marshall

2012-01-01

402

Challenges in conducting community-driven research created by differing ways of talking and thinking about science: a researcher's perspective.  

PubMed

Increasingly, health scientists are becoming aware that research collaborations that include community partnerships can be an effective way to broaden the scope and enhance the impact of research aimed at improving public health. Such collaborations extend the reach of academic scientists by integrating a variety of perspectives and thus strengthening the applicability of the research. Communication challenges can arise, however, when attempting to address specific research questions in these collaborations. In particular, inconsistencies can exist between scientists and community members in the use and interpretation of words and other language features, particularly when conducting research with a biomedical component. Additional challenges arise from differing perceptions of the investigative process. There may be divergent perceptions about how research questions should and can be answered, and in expectations about requirements of research institutions and research timelines. From these differences, misunderstandings can occur about how the results will ultimately impact the community. These communication issues are particularly challenging when scientists and community members are from different ethnic and linguistic backgrounds that may widen the gap between ways of talking and thinking about science, further complicating the interactions and exchanges that are essential for effective joint research efforts. Community-driven research that aims to describe the burden of disease associated with Helicobacter pylori infection is currently underway in northern Aboriginal communities located in the Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada, with the goal of identifying effective public health strategies for reducing health risks from this infection. This research links community representatives, faculty from various disciplines at the University of Alberta, as well as territorial health care practitioners and officials. This highly collaborative work will be used to illustrate, from a researcher's perspective, some of the challenges of conducting public health research in teams comprising members with varying backgrounds. The consequences of these challenges will be outlined, and potential solutions will be offered. PMID:23986884

Colquhoun, Amy; Geary, Janis; Goodman, Karen J

2013-08-05

403

Challenges in conducting community-driven research created by differing ways of talking and thinking about science: a researcher's perspective  

PubMed Central

Increasingly, health scientists are becoming aware that research collaborations that include community partnerships can be an effective way to broaden the scope and enhance the impact of research aimed at improving public health. Such collaborations extend the reach of academic scientists by integrating a variety of perspectives and thus strengthening the applicability of the research. Communication challenges can arise, however, when attempting to address specific research questions in these collaborations. In particular, inconsistencies can exist between scientists and community members in the use and interpretation of words and other language features, particularly when conducting research with a biomedical component. Additional challenges arise from differing perceptions of the investigative process. There may be divergent perceptions about how research questions should and can be answered, and in expectations about requirements of research institutions and research timelines. From these differences, misunderstandings can occur about how the results will ultimately impact the community. These communication issues are particularly challenging when scientists and community members are from different ethnic and linguistic backgrounds that may widen the gap between ways of talking and thinking about science, further complicating the interactions and exchanges that are essential for effective joint research efforts. Community-driven research that aims to describe the burden of disease associated with Helicobacter pylori infection is currently underway in northern Aboriginal communities located in the Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada, with the goal of identifying effective public health strategies for reducing health risks from this infection. This research links community representatives, faculty from various disciplines at the University of Alberta, as well as territorial health care practitioners and officials. This highly collaborative work will be used to illustrate, from a researcher's perspective, some of the challenges of conducting public health research in teams comprising members with varying backgrounds. The consequences of these challenges will be outlined, and potential solutions will be offered.

Colquhoun, Amy; Geary, Janis; Goodman, Karen J.

2013-01-01

404

Report of the Research Secretariat on Social Services and Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Research Secretariat on Social Services and Community Development was one of the five Hispanic research task forces funded by the Ford Foundation to determine Hispanic research priorities. Its three major purposes were the following: (1) to develop an Hispanic research and policy agenda which recommends research activities and prioritizes…

National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

405

Using Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) To Target Health Disparities in Families  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an action research approach that emphasizes collaborative partnerships between community members, community organizations, health care providers, and researchers to generate knowledge and solve local problems. Although relatively new to the field of family social science, family and health researchers have been using CBPR for over a decade. This paper will introduce CBPR methods, illustrate the usefulness of CBPR methods in families and health research, describe two CBPR projects related to diabetes, and conclude with lessons learned and strengths and weaknesses of CBPR.

Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Doherty, William J.

2010-01-01

406

Building Partnerships in Community-Based Participatory Research: Budgetary and Other Cost Considerations.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077

Hoeft, Theresa J; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B; James, Rosalina D; Boyer, Bert B

2013-04-30

407

Working with Concepts: The Role of Community in International Collaborative Biomedical Research  

PubMed Central

The importance of communities in strengthening the ethics of international collaborative research is increasingly highlighted, but there has been much debate about the meaning of the term ‘community’ and its specific normative contribution. We argue that ‘community’ is a contingent concept that plays an important normative role in research through the existence of morally significant interplay between notions of community and individuality. We draw on experience of community engagement in rural Kenya to illustrate two aspects of this interplay: (i) that taking individual informed consent seriously involves understanding and addressing the influence of communities in which individuals’ lives are embedded; (ii) that individual participation can generate risks and benefits for communities as part of the wider implications of research. We further argue that the contingent nature of a community means that defining boundaries is generally a normative process itself, with ethical implications. Community engagement supports the enactment of normative roles; building mutual understanding and trust between researchers and community members have been important goals in Kilifi, requiring a broad range of approaches. Ethical dilemmas are continuously generated as part of these engagement activities, including the risks of perverse outcomes related to existing social relations in communities and conditions of ‘half knowing’ intrinsic to processes of developing new understandings.

Marsh, V. M.; Kamuya, D. K.; Parker, M. J.; Molyneux, C. S.

2011-01-01

408

Community-based participatory research increases cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese-Americans.  

PubMed

Using community-based participatory research methods, a community-research coalition in Santa Clara County, California (SCC) conducted a quasi-experimental, controlled trial to increase Pap test receipt and to build community capacity among Vietnamese-American women. From 1999 to 2004, the Coalition planned and implemented an Action Plan with six components: multimedia campaign, lay health worker outreach, Vietnamese Pap clinic with patient navigation, registry and reminder system, continuing medical education for Vietnamese physicians, and restoring a Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program site. Components were evaluated individually. Community-wide, cross-sectional telephone surveys of Vietnamese women in SCC (intervention community) and Harris County, Texas (comparison community) measured overall project impact. Receipt and currency of Pap tests increased significantly in the intervention compared with the comparison community. Community involvement, system changes, community and research capacity building, dissemination of results, and program sustainability were also demonstrated. Community-based participatory research is feasible and effective in Vietnamese-American communities. PMID:16809874

Nguyen, Tung T; McPhee, Stephen J; Bui-Tong, Ngoc; Luong, Thien-Nhien; Ha-Iaconis, Tuyet; Nguyen, Thoa; Wong, Ching; Lai, Ky Q; Lam, Hy

2006-05-01

409

Effects of fertilization on bacterial community structure and function in a black soil of Dehui region estimated by Biolog and PCR-DGGE methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil microbial community structure and function are commonly used as indicators for soil quality and fertility. In this paper, the bacterial community structure and function in a black soil of Dehui region influenced by fertilization were investigated by Biolog and PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) methods. Biolog examination showed that substrate richness and catabolic diversities of bacterial communities

Wang Guanghua; Liu Junjie; Qi Xiaoning; Jin Jian; Wang Yang; Liu Xiaobing

2008-01-01

410

Modeling the principles of community-based participatory research in a community health assessment conducted by a health foundation.  

PubMed

The authors discuss strategies used and lessons learned by a health foundation during development of a community health assessment model incorporating community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches. The assessment model comprises three models incorporating increasing amounts of CPBR principles. Model A combines local-area analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information (key informants, focus groups), and asset mapping. Model B, a community-based participatory model, emphasizes participatory rural appraisal approaches and quantitative assessment using rapid epidemiological assessment. Model C, a modified version of Model B, is financially more sustainable for our needs than Model B. The authors (a) describe origins of these models and illustrate practical applications and (b) explore the lessons learned in their transition from a traditional, nonparticipatory, quantitative approach to participatory approaches to community-health assessment. It is hoped that this article will contribute to the growing body of knowledge of practical aspects of incorporating CBPR approaches into community health assessments. PMID:17652187

Williams, Karen Jaynes; Gail Bray, Patricia; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Reisz, Ilana; Peranteau, Jane

2007-07-24

411

Conducting Research with Tribal Communities: Sovereignty, Ethics, and Data-Sharing Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: When conducting research with American Indian tribes, informed consent beyond conventional institutional review board (IRB) review is needed because of the potential for adverse consequences at a community or governmental level that are unrecognized by academic researchers. Objectives: In this article, we review sovereignty, research ethics, and data-sharing considerations when doing community-based participatory health-related or natural-resource-related research with American

Anna Harding; Barbara Harper; Dave Stone; Catherine O'Neill; Patricia Berger; Stuart Harris; Jamie Donatuto

2012-01-01

412

Network perspective of science and technology policy research community in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a way of mapping Sci-Tech policy research community by quantitatively analyzing Sci-Tech policy research projects funded by Taiwan government in recent thirty years. Taiwans Sci-Tech policy rsearch networks composed by research community and knowledge distribution are quantitatively investigated by the use of network theory and Taiwans Sci-Tech policy research map is created to obtain the purpose of

Hsin-Ning Su; Pei-Chun Lee

2010-01-01

413

Notes From the Field: Service Learning and the Development of Multidisciplinary Community-Based Research Initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent literature suggests that community-based research (CbR) is a model of service learning that can advance student learning, as well as support the research interests of community organizations. For the pedagogy to be successful, however, faculty must overcome a number of challenges. This article discusses these challenges and illustrates how multidisciplinary, multiyear CbR initiatives are important vehicles for furthering university–community

Howard Rosing; Nila Ginger Hofman

2010-01-01

414

Promoting Environmental Health Policy Through Community Based Participatory Research: A Case Study from Harlem, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community–academic partnerships have demonstrated potential for studying and improving community and environmental health,\\u000a but only recently have their policy impacts been systematically studied. This case study highlights the evolution, research,\\u000a and policy processes and outcomes of a community based participatory research (CBPR) partnership that has had multilevel impacts\\u000a on health policy concerning diesel bus emissions and related environmental justice issues.

Meredith Minkler; Victoria Breckwich Vásquez; Peggy Shepard

2006-01-01

415

Beyond the Frontstage: Trust, Access, and the Relational Context in Research with Refugee Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of trust and the concept of access as they affect the relational context in which community research, and research with refugee communities in particular, is conducted. Sociologist Irving Goffman's metaphor of frontstage and backstage behavior is used to illustrate the complexity and importance of developing of relations of trust, and thereby gaining “backstage” access, in

Kenneth E. Miller

2004-01-01

416

Moving Research into Community Settings in the CSAT Methamphetamine Treatment Project: The Coordinating Center Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CSAT Methamphetamine Treatment Project (MTP) has been established to conduct a ground-breaking exercise in bringing research into a closer relationship with community-based treatment service organizations. In this article, some of the opportunities and challenges faced by the MTP coordinating center as it has attempted to bring research into community treatment organizations are described. Initially, there has been an active,

Richard A. Rawson; Michael J. McCann; Alice Huber; Patricia Marinelli-Casey; Lorie Williams

2000-01-01

417

Status of Institutional Research in the Public Community Colleges of Illinois: 1976. Volume II, Number 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illinois public community colleges were surveyed in November 1976 to determine the current level of community college institutional research activity and to identify changes in the institutional research function over the previous three years. Results of the study showed: (1) statewide, 22 full-time and 13 part-time professionals and 20 full-time…

Lach, Ivan J.; And Others

418

Community College Journal for Research and Planning; Volume 4, Numbers 1-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed as a forum for the exchange of information among members of the National Council for Research and Planning, these two journal issues offer 10 articles concerning community college research and planning. The first issue presents: (1) "Just Testing," by Arthur M. Cohen; (2) "Enrollment Patterns of Adult Learning in a Community College," by…

Carter, Edith H., Ed.

1985-01-01

419

Culture and Community in Research with American Indian and Alaska Native Infants, Toddlers, and Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this brief essay the authors reflect on the value of community participation and cultural adaptation in their evolving research on American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) infant and toddler development. They describe three concerns identified by their AI/AN community partners in adapting established research methodologies to work in AI/AN…

Spicer, Paul; Sarche, Michelle

2007-01-01

420

Troubling ruling discourses of health: Using institutional ethnography in community-based research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T This article responds to a recent call for detailed analyses of research processes that link the intellectual resources of the academy with communities and popular movements. Our discussion focuses on our experiences with the Making Care Visible (MCV) Project, a community- based, qualitative research initiative conducted in Toronto, Canada, that explored the

Eric Mykhalovskiy; LIZA MC COY

2002-01-01

421

Virtual Communities of Practice: Bridging Research and Practice Using Web 2.0  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A significant dilemma for the health and human service professions continues to be the question of how best to bridge the divide between academic research and practice. Communities of practice have traditionally been a vehicle for collaborative research and for information exchange (Moore, 2008). Through collaboration, communities of practice…

Lewis, Laura A.; Koston, Zoe; Quartley, Marjorie; Adsit, Jason

2011-01-01

422

Perspectives of Community Partners and Researchers About Factors Impacting Coalition Functioning Over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored organizational and contextual factors impacting coalition functioning across 15 community–researcher coalitions that were formed to lower rates of HIV among youth. Mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative) longitudinal data were collected from both community partners and researchers across three time points, and were analyzed to assess factors associated with initial coalition development and functioning. Specific facilitators of coalition functioning

Mimi Doll; Gary W. Harper; Grisel M. Robles-Schrader; Jason Johnson; Audrey K. Bangi; Sunaina Velagaleti

2012-01-01

423

Addressing Perinatal Disparities Using Community-Based Participatory Research: Data into Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers that are focused on developing…

Masho, Saba; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara; Singleton, Rose; Bradford, Judith; Chapman, Derek; Svikis, Dace

2011-01-01

424

Community participation in research and development: A case study from Pangnirtung, Northwest Territories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories and models of community participation have received considerable attention from academics in the social sciences, and from practitioners in developing countries. This thesis examines the participatory paradigm as it is manifested in two realms: economic development and applied anthropological research. Primary data are drawn from field-research in the Inuit community of Pangnirtung, Northwest Territories.^ This thesis is unique in

Gwen Dianne Reimer

1994-01-01

425

Learning-style preferences of Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the learning-style preferences and the demographic variables of age, gender, number of prior science courses, second language learner status, and earlier exposure to scientific information. Methodology. The study design was descriptive and ex post facto. The sample consisted of a total of 332 Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in General Biology 3. Major findings. The study revealed that Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in introductory biology at a large urban community college scored higher for the learning preference element of structure. Students twenty-five years and older scored higher for the learning preference elements of light, design, persistence, responsibility, and morning time (p <= 0.05). Females scored higher in the preference elements of (a) light, (b) temperature (warmth), (c) authority and (d) auditory (p <= 0.05). Significant differences were found for the elements of sound, warmth, motivation, several ways, and intake between the students with no prior science coursework and those who completed more than one (p <= 0.05). No significant learning-style preferences were found between second English language learners and those who learned English as their primary language (p <= 0.05). Students who frequently read science articles scored higher for the elements of motivation, persistence, responsibility, and tactile (p <= 0.05). Conclusions and recommendations. The conclusions were that Latino/Hispanic students need detailed guidance and clearly stated course objectives. The recommendations were: (1) College professors, counselors, and administrators must become aware of the Dunn learning-style model and instruments and on recent learning-style research articles on ethnically diverse groups of adult learners; and (2) Instructors should plan their instruction to incorporate the learning-style preferences of their students.

Sarantopoulos, Helen D.

426

For Community College Administrators, Staff and Faculty Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lists a number of popular and useful master sites that librarians use when searching for community college resources and performing "comparisons shopping" on search engines. Subject directories tend to provide lists of community colleges by state and the four to six national organizations. (VWC)|

Todaro, Julie Beth

2000-01-01

427

Hot Programs at Community Colleges. AACC Research Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) periodically conducts a survey of community colleges to identify "hot" programs, defined as programs from which students are hired immediately upon graduation. Survey findings include the following: (1) reported starting salaries for hot program graduates increased by 21% between 1997 and 2000;…

Nock, Maryam M.; Shults, Christopher

428

Community Transition Teams: A Research and Development Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a pilot program of the New South Wales (Australia) Department of Education to develop community transition teams as part of an effort to provide transition education to people with disabilities. The project is based on a model developed in Oregon and stresses assisting each community to work cooperatively to assess local…

Riches, Vivienne C.; Parmenter, Trevor R.

429

The Alpha Project, a model system for systems biology research  

PubMed Central

One goal of systems biology is to understand how genome-encoded parts interact to produce quantitative phenotypes. The Alpha Project is a medium-scale, interdisciplinary systems biology effort that aims to achieve this goal by understanding fundamental quantitative behaviors of a prototypic signal transduction pathway, the yeast pheromone response system from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Alpha Project distinguishes itself from many other systems biology projects by studying a tightly-bounded and well-characterized system that is easily modified by genetic means, and by focusing on deep understanding of a discrete number of important and accessible quantitative behaviors. During the project, we have developed tools to measure the appropriate data and develop models at appropriate levels of detail for studying a number of these quantitative behaviors. We also have developed transportable experimental tools and conceptual frameworks for understanding other signaling systems. In particular, we have begun to interpret system behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms through the lens of information transmission, a principal function of signaling systems. The Alpha Project demonstrates that interdisciplinary studies that identify key quantitative behaviors and measure important quantities, in the context of well-articulated abstractions of system function and appropriate analytical frameworks, can lead to deeper biological understanding. Our experience may provide a productive template for system biology investigations of other cellular systems.

Yu, Richard C.; Resnekov, Orna; Abola, A. Pia; Andrews, Steve S.; Benjamin, Kirsten R.; Bruck, Jehoshua; Burbulis, Ian; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro; Endy, Drew; Gordon, Andrew; Holl, Mark; Lok, Larry; Pesce, Gustavo; Serra, Eduard; Smith, Richard D.; Thomson, Ty M.; Tsong, Annie E.; Brent, Roger

2009-01-01

430

Bacterial Community and "Candidatus Accumulibacter" Population Dynamics in Laboratory-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Reactors ? †  

PubMed Central

“Candidatus Accumulibacter” and total bacterial community dynamics were studied in two lab-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) reactors by using a community fingerprint technique, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). We first evaluated the quantitative capability of ARISA compared to quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). ARISA and qPCR provided comparable relative quantification of the two dominant “Ca. Accumulibacter” clades (IA and IIA) detected in our reactors. The quantification of total “Ca. Accumulibacter” 16S rRNA genes relative to that from the total bacterial community was highly correlated, with ARISA systematically underestimating “Ca. Accumulibacter” abundance, probably due to the different normalization techniques applied. During 6 months of normal (undisturbed) operation, the distribution of the two clades within the total “Ca. Accumulibacter” population was quite stable in one reactor while comparatively dynamic in the other reactor. However, the variance in the clade distribution did not appear to affect reactor performance. Instead, good EBPR activity was positively associated with the abundance of total “Ca. Accumulibacter.” Therefore, we concluded that the different clades in the system provided functional redundancy. We disturbed the reactor operation by adding nitrate together with acetate feeding in the anaerobic phase to reach initial reactor concentrations of 10 mg/liter NO3-N for 35 days. The reactor performance deteriorated with a concomitant decrease in the total “Ca. Accumulibacter” population, suggesting that a population shift was the cause of performance upset after a long exposure to nitrate in the anaerobic phase.

He, Shaomei; Bishop, Forrest I.; McMahon, Katherine D.

2010-01-01

431

Bacterial community and "Candidatus Accumulibacter" population dynamics in laboratory-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal reactors.  

PubMed

"Candidatus Accumulibacter" and total bacterial community dynamics were studied in two lab-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) reactors by using a community fingerprint technique, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). We first evaluated the quantitative capability of ARISA compared to quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). ARISA and qPCR provided comparable relative quantification of the two dominant "Ca. Accumulibacter" clades (IA and IIA) detected in our reactors. The quantification of total "Ca. Accumulibacter" 16S rRNA genes relative to that from the total bacterial community was highly correlated, with ARISA systematically underestimating "Ca. Accumulibacter" abundance, probably due to the different normalization techniques applied. During 6 months of normal (undisturbed) operation, the distribution of the two clades within the total "Ca. Accumulibacter" population was quite stable in one reactor while comparatively dynamic in the other reactor. However, the variance in the clade distribution did not appear to affect reactor performance. Instead, good EBPR activity was positively associated with the abundance of total "Ca. Accumulibacter." Therefore, we concluded that the different clades in the system provided functional redundancy. We disturbed the reactor operation by adding nitrate together with acetate feeding in the anaerobic phase to reach initial reactor concentrations of 10 mg/liter NO(3)-N for 35 days. The reactor performance deteriorated with a concomitant decrease in the total "Ca. Accumulibacter" population, suggesting that a population shift was the cause of performance upset after a long exposure to nitrate in the anaerobic phase. PMID:20601516

He, Shaomei; Bishop, Forrest I; McMahon, Katherine D

2010-07-02

432

Adapting to context in community-based participatory research: "participatory starting points" in a Chinese immigrant worker community.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasingly being used to better understand and improve the health of diverse communities. A key strength of this research orientation is its adaptability to community contexts and characteristics. To date, however, few studies explicitly discuss adaptations made to CBPR principles and processes in response to community context and partners' needs. Using data from our CBPR study, the San Francisco Chinatown Restaurant Worker Health and Safety Project, and drawing from literature on immigrant political incorporation, we examine the links between the contexts of the Chinese immigrant worker community, adaptations made by our collaborative, and study outcomes. In particular, we explore the concepts of contexts of reception and participatory starting points, which may be especially relevant for partnerships with immigrant communities whose members have historically had lower rates of civic and political participation in the US. We discuss contextual findings such as worker partner accounts of language barriers, economic and social marginalization, and civic skills and participation, as well as subsequent adaptations made by the partnership. We also describe the relative effectiveness of these adaptations in yielding equitable participation and building partners' capacity. We conclude by sharing lessons learned and their implications for CBPR and partnerships with immigrant communities more broadly. PMID:23370942

Chang, Charlotte; Salvatore, Alicia L; Lee, Pam Tau; Liu, Shaw San; Tom, Alex T; Morales, Alvaro; Baker, Robin; Minkler, Meredith

2013-06-01

433

Community-based participatory research as a tool to advance environmental health sciences.  

PubMed Central

The past two decades have witnessed a rapid proliferation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects. CBPR methodology presents an alternative to traditional population-based biomedical research practices by encouraging active and equal partnerships between community members and academic investigators. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the premier biomedical research facility for environmental health, is a leader in promoting the use of CBPR in instances where community-university partnerships serve to advance our understanding of environmentally related disease. In this article, the authors highlight six key principles of CBPR and describe how these principles are met within specific NIEHS-supported research investigations. These projects demonstrate that community-based participatory research can be an effective tool to enhance our knowledge of the causes and mechanisms of disorders having an environmental etiology, reduce adverse health outcomes through innovative intervention strategies and policy change, and address the environmental health concerns of community residents.

O'Fallon, Liam R; Dearry, Allen

2002-01-01

434

EPA AND THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY - PARTNERS IN RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes EPA's anticipatory research program for establishing institutional research centers. The center concept is intended to obtain the assistance of the best available researchers to establish a focal point of continuing research in specific areas fundamental to e...

435

Community college biology majors: The dynamics of the successful community college transfer program. A comparative analysis of the program determinants which lead to high transfer success in community college biology transfer programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Community Colleges in California have long been asked to fulfill a number of the state's different needs in higher education including the first two years of preparation for students who plan to transfer to universities and receive their baccalaureate. Transfer rates published since the 60's suggest that community colleges in the state have largely been failures at transferring students. Current data, however, show that biology majors programs at area colleges surrounding UCLA, the primary goal of biology majors, varied widely in their transfer success. This study compared two biology majors programs with high transfer success (HTS) with two programs with low transfer success (LTS). Qualitative methods were used in the analysis to establish common themes which existed at both the HTS and LTS programs. Methodology involved: site descriptions, participant-observation, document analysis, questionnaires, and interviews of faculty, staff, and students involved with the majors program. It was concluded that the HTS institutions shared many characteristics in common. Since California abolished district boundaries, eliminated guaranteed enrollment for colleges and created a free-flow situation, colleges have competed for students. In this study, students free-flowed from colleges in higher SES communities from inner city colleges in lower SES communities. Both HTS programs were at colleges in higher SES communities. They were responsive to the articulation demands of UCLA, had firm chemistry prerequisites, and were taught as two sequential courses. Programs had one faculty member who was clearly the head of the program and had been instrumental in the evolution of the program. HTS programs had high academic rigor and included a lab portion which was instrumental in bringing the students together with each other and with the faculty. Student collaboration involved academics, transfer information, and career information and lead to transfer momentum for the class. Faculty mentoring activities with students contributed to transfer success. The sum total of all the components in the program which enhanced transfer success was called the program effect. LTS programs could be located in high or low SES neighborhoods. They had a program head but were less responsive to UCLA's articulation demands. Courses were not taught sequentially and chemistry was not a prerequisite. Academic rigor was judged to be significantly lower than in the HTS programs and labs involved far less student personal discovery. Students did not collaborate in lab and there was no visible transfer momentum. Faculty did not act as mentors for students. In their other characteristics, LTS programs tended to be dissimilar.

Harlan, Ronald Keith

1997-09-01

436

Dear Colleague Letter: Biology - Research Opportunity Award (ROA): Supplement Opportunity  

NSF Publications Database

... SUBJECT: Research Opportunity Award (ROA): Supplement Opportunity Dear Colleague: The purpose of ... faculty and NSF-funded researchers. An ROA supplement can be requested on a current award or when ...

437

Undergraduate research in geochemistry at a larger university: developing a community of undergraduate and graduate researchers.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faculty at state research universities can find the paired requirements of establishing research programs and developing a "pipeline" of graduate students to be the most challenging aspects of their jobs, especially with shrinking pools of graduate applicants. These problems may be more acute for laboratory-based geochemists, as few graduate candidates possess the requisite quantitative and chemical backgrounds. The need to "get my research going" at the University of South Florida led me to work primarily with undergraduates, as a) they were available and interested, b) they required no more laboratory training than M.S. students; and c) small-dollar funds were available to support them, both in-house and via NSF REU Supplements. Some senior colleagues argued that this approach would hinder my developing a graduate program as is necessary for tenure. This contention turned out to be untrue. My success in undergraduate research draws funding (in NSF REU Site and disciplinary research grants), has attracted outside MS and Ph.D. candidates, and has retained quality in-house students seeking MS degrees. Students working with me join a laboratory community in which undergraduate and graduate researchers are on equal footing in terms of access to instrumentation and other facilities. I work with all my students, irrespective of rank, as members of a cooperative research group. I encourage and expect that technical instruction I provide to any individual will be passed on to their colleagues, which helps develop a "lab culture" of best practices, and ingrains new knowledge and skills through the act of teaching them to others. Maintaining this research environment requires active recruitment of capable graduate AND undergraduate students, regular monitoring of laboratory practices, and ready availability for consultation and mentoring. One must be cognizant of the differing time commitment issues of undergraduates and graduates, and set research goals appropriately. Undergraduate research projects in which 3-4 students work together to collect necessary data can get around the class vs. research scheduling issues they face as they can share the laboratory workload through the week. Group projects can thus collect larger bodies of data, allowing students to address more substantive problems.

Ryan, J. G.

2003-12-01

438

Junior and Community College Research, Texas, 1980-81. The 1981 Research Report to the Texas Association of Junior and Community College Instructional Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports and abstracts are presented for research conducted during 1981 on community college education in Texas. Four institutional research reports are provided first: an evaluation of the effectiveness of the developmental studies program at North Harris County College; a study of retention patterns at Amarillo College by Stanley Adelman and Kay…

Texas Association of Junior and Community Coll. Instructional Administrators.

439

A Taxonomy of Biologically Inspired Research in Computer Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural world is enormous, dynamic, incredibly diverse, and highly complex. Despite the inherent challenges of surviving in such a world, biological organisms evolve, self-organize, self-repair, navigate, and ourish. Generally, they do so with only local knowledge and without any centralized control. Our computer networks are increasingly facing similar challenges as they grow larger in size, but are yet to

Michael Meisel; Vasileios Pappas; Lixia Zhang

440

Research in Thermal Biology: Burning Questions for Coldwater Stream Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems, in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied, and the growing

Dale A. McCullough; John M. Bartholow; Henriëtte I. Jager; Robert L. Beschta; Edward F. Cheslak; Michael L. Deas; Joseph L. Ebersole; J. Scott Foott; Sherri L. Johnson; Keith R. Marine; Matthew G. Mesa; James H. Petersen; Yves Souchon; Kenneth F. Tiffan; Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

2009-01-01

441

Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO emissions are being pursued, and among