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1

Research in Community-Based Biological Education. 4 Case-Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several case studies of research into the biological needs of communities in developing countries were conducted and two strategies for relating biological education (in both formal and nonformal contexts) to community development were identified. Four of these case studies are presented. They are: (1) "From Biological Knowledge to Community

Atchia, Michael, Ed.

2

WikiPathways: building research communities on biological pathways.  

PubMed

Here, we describe the development of WikiPathways (http://www.wikipathways.org), a public wiki for pathway curation, since it was first published in 2008. New features are discussed, as well as developments in the community of contributors. New features include a zoomable pathway viewer, support for pathway ontology annotations, the ability to mark pathways as private for a limited time and the availability of stable hyperlinks to pathways and the elements therein. WikiPathways content is freely available in a variety of formats such as the BioPAX standard, and the content is increasingly adopted by external databases and tools, including Wikipedia. A recent development is the use of WikiPathways as a staging ground for centrally curated databases such as Reactome. WikiPathways is seeing steady growth in the number of users, page views and edits for each pathway. To assess whether the community curation experiment can be considered successful, here we analyze the relation between use and contribution, which gives results in line with other wiki projects. The novel use of pathway pages as supplementary material to publications, as well as the addition of tailored content for research domains, is expected to stimulate growth further. PMID:22096230

Kelder, Thomas; van Iersel, Martijn P; Hanspers, Kristina; Kutmon, Martina; Conklin, Bruce R; Evelo, Chris T; Pico, Alexander R

2012-01-01

3

Biological Research Collections (BRC)  

NSF Publications Database

... thereafter SUMMARY OF PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General Information Program Title: Biological Research ... in particular, and to biological sciences in general. II. PROGRAM DESCRIPTIONThe Biological ...

4

Biological Research Collections  

NSF Publications Database

... THEREAFTER SUMMARY OF PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General Information Program Title: Biological Research ... in particular, and to biological sciences in general. II. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Biological ...

5

The role of the individual and the community in the research, development, and use of biologicals with criteria for guidelines: a Memorandum*  

PubMed Central

In view of the widely recognized need to use available vaccines and other biologicals and to develop new ones to control many diseases of world-wide importance, this Memorandum considers the increasingly complex problems that face investigators and public authorities that must review and approve pre-licensing studies and also large-scale regular use. It is stressed that the proper conduct of biologicals research in human beings must be considered from the scientific, sociological, ethical, and legal points of view. The Declaration of Helsinki is regarded of fundamental importance and its applicability to biologicals research is discussed. Recommendations are made for continued international collaboration in this field and “Criteria on the Role of the Individual and the Community in the Research, Development, and Use of Biologicals” are formulated. General criteria and specific criteria related to the design of field trials, human involvement in field trials, and surveillance of safety and effectiveness of biologicals in routine use are discussed.

1976-01-01

6

Space biology research development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

Bonting, Sjoerd L.

1993-01-01

7

Community University Research Agreement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the process of engaging the extended Indigenous community within Saskatoon and the surrounding First Nations communities in what would be a first major research project between Indigenous communities and the University of Saskatchewan. A management committee was established comprised of all the major Saskatoon/Saskatchewan…

Settee, Priscilla; Thomas-Prokop, Shelley

2007-01-01

8

Biology Research Assignment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students relate a specific aspect of biology to its current impact on the world around us in a 3-5 page research paper on a biology-related topic of their own choosing. Suggested topics and evaluation rubrics are included.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Michael Lowry N:Lowry;Michael ORG:The McCallie School REV:2005-04-08 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

9

Building a Diverse Biological Community  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the pages of magazine, the online version of our education column in BioScience provides educators with updates in science education, examples of successful initiatives to transform biology teaching, and new ways of improving student understanding. This Eye column highlights efforts by the Ecological Society of America and the American Society for Limnology and Oceanography to increase diversity within the scientific community and provides key strategies implemented by successful programs.

Abraham Parker (American Institute of Biological Sciences;)

2006-01-01

10

PAC research in biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper possible applications of the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in Biology are considered. Previous PAC experiments in biology are globally analyzed. All the work that appears in the literature has been grouped in a few research lines, just to make the analysis and discussion easy. The commonly used radioactive probes are listed and the experimental difficulties are analyzed. We also report applications of 181Hf and 111In isotopes in life sciences other than their use in PAC. The possibility of extending these studies using the PAC technique is discussed.

Chain, C. Y.; Ceolin, M.; Pasquevich, A. F.

2008-01-01

11

PAC research in biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper possible applications of the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in Biology are considered. Previous PAC experiments in biology are globally analyzed. All the work that appears in the literature has been grouped in a few research lines, just to make the analysis and discussion easy. The commonly used radioactive probes are listed and the experimental difficulties are analyzed. We also report applications of 181Hf and 111In isotopes in life sciences other than their use in PAC. The possibility of extending these studies using the PAC technique is discussed.

Chain, C. Y.; Ceolin, M.; Pasquevich, A. F.

12

Undergraduate Research Communities: A Powerful Approach to Research Training  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We applied the concept of learning communities, whereby students develop their ideas in cohort-based settings, to undergraduate research training. This creates powerful research communities where students practice science from observation to experimental design to interpretation of data. We describe a biology program, but the approach suits many discovery-based disciplines.

Gaynor, John J.; Adams, Sandra D.; Kight, Scott

2006-07-01

13

The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.  

PubMed

The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow. PMID:24911500

Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

2014-06-01

14

Community College a Research Puzzle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When President Barack Obama unveiled his plans this summer for a $12 billion federal investment in the nation's community colleges, he said he wanted the initiative to yield an additional 5 million community college graduates by 2020. Research suggests that reaching that goal may be a tall order. Community colleges have abysmal graduation rates:…

Viadero, Debra

2009-01-01

15

SNOW Research Community of Practice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SNOW Research Community of Practice, sponsored by the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, is a collaboration of professionals whose goal is to "provide a one-stop solution to customers' snow science and engineering problems." The 48 members have expertise in a variety of areas, including geophysics, chemistry, biology, physics, and mechanical, geological, electrical, civil, and geological engineering. This website provides contact information for snow experts and describes the tools and facilities that are at their disposal. They also provide a wealth of information on various aspects of snow research, including snow models, snow chemistry, and GIS/Remote sensing of snow. Also described here is research on snow mechanics and engineering, which can be used "to develop instrumentation, physical understanding and models and combined with other physical principals to solve problems in hydrology, transportation, engineering infrastructure, and climate change." In addition, the group provides updates on snow impacts in the news, such as the extensive snowfall in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan that has affected safety, transportation, and flooding in those regions, and a link to a map of U.S. snow coverage from the National Weather Service. This site is also reviewed in the March 11, 2005_NSDL MET Report_.

16

Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents; Medical Chemical/Biological Defense Research, Chemical/Biological Defense Rationale for Rationale for Investment,Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research Program Mission, Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research Program D...

C. D. Linden

2001-01-01

17

Engaging communities in tuberculosis research.  

PubMed

According to a growing consensus among biomedical researchers, community engagement can improve the ethics and outcomes of clinical trials. Although successful efforts to develop community engagement practices in HIV/AIDS research have been reported, little attention has been given to engagement with the community in tuberculosis research. This article aims to draw attention to some existing community engagement initiatives in tuberculosis research and to resources that might help tuberculosis researchers to establish and implement community engagement programmes for their trials. One of these resources-the good participatory practice guidelines for tuberculosis drug trials-offers a conceptual framework and practical guidance for community engagement in tuberculosis research. To build momentum and to improve community engagement, lessons need to be shared, and formal assessment strategies for community engagement initiatives need to be developed. To build successfully on the promising activities described in this personal view, research funders and sponsors should show leadership in allocation of resources for the implementation and assessment of community engagement programmes in tuberculosis trials. PMID:23531390

Boulanger, Renaud F; Seidel, Stephanie; Lessem, Erica; Pyne-Mercier, Lee; Williams, Sharon D; Mingote, Laia Ruiz; Scott, Cherise; Chou, Alicia Y; Lavery, James V

2013-06-01

18

Community College Biology Lesson Index.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog contains lesson descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: introductory material on experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; reproduction and…

Manteuffel, Mary S., Comp.; Herrick, Kathie, Comp.

19

[Biological research and security institutes].  

PubMed

The threat of using biological material for ago-bioterrorist ends has risen in recent years, which means that research and diagnostic laboratories, biological agent banks and other institutions authorised to carry out scientific activities have had to implement biosafety and biosecurity measures to counter the threat, while carrying out activities to help prevent and monitor the accidental or intentional introduction of exotic animal diseases. This article briefly sets outthe basic components of biosafety and biosecurity, as well as recommendations on organisational strategies to consider in laboratories that support agro-bioterrorist surveillance and prevention programs. PMID:16796057

Darsie, G; Falczuk, A J; Bergmann, I E

2006-04-01

20

Improving collaboration between researchers and communities.  

PubMed Central

Active collaboration between communities and researchers is critical to developing appropriate public health research strategies that address community concerns. To capture the perspectives of inner-city Seattle communities about issues in community-researcher partnerships, Seattle Partners for Healthy Communities conducted interviews with community members from the ethnically diverse neighborhoods of Central and Southeast Seattle. The results suggest that effective community-researcher collaborations require a paradigm shift from traditional practices to an approach that involves: acknowledging community contributions, recruiting and training minority people to participate in research teams, improving communication, sharing power, and valuing respect and diversity.

Kone, A; Sullivan, M; Senturia, K D; Chrisman, N J; Ciske, S J; Krieger, J W

2000-01-01

21

Japan sets up program for biological research  

SciTech Connect

Japanese officials have put final touches on plans for a global biological research program, called the Human Frontier Science Program, that they hope will launch their country into a new era of international science. Japan will establish a nongovernmental secretariat for the program and will manage it through an international governing council. Almost all the funding in the countries involved- Japan, the U.S., Canada, and the European Community countries- will be provided by Japan, at least at first. In its present design, the program consists of two thrusts- one in the neurosciences with emphasis on brain function, the other on the chemistry and molecular biology of gene expression. The program in the first year would consist of 30 to 50 direct research grants to researchers working in teams, 100 to 200 postdoctoral fellowships, and 10 to 20 workshops. Young researchers would be favored for funding. The average annual grant size would total $500,000, and postdoctoral awards would average $50,000.

Lepkowski, W.

1988-05-16

22

Practice of Community Development for Researchers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the practice of community development by extension specialists cooperating in USDA's local decisions project and also discusses the relationships needed between economic researchers and community development professionals. Researcher...

B. McGill J. Kuehn E. Henderson J. Perry J. Summers

1981-01-01

23

Space Station Biological Research Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox will accommodate use by two crew persons simultaneously and the capability for real time video down-link and data acquisition. In house testbeds and Phase B studies of the centrifuge validated the concepts of vibration isolation and autobalancing systems to meet the ISSA microgravity requirements. The vibration isolation system is effective above the centrifuge rotation frequency while the autobalancing system on the rotor removes vibration at and below the rotation rate. Torque of the Station, induced by spin-up/spindown of the centrifuge, can be minimized by controlling spin-up/spin-down rates. The SSBRP and ISSA will provide the opportunity to perform long-term, repeatable and high quality science. The long duration increments available on the Station will permit multigeneration studies of both plants and animals which have not previously been possible. The u-g habitat racks and the eight habitat centrifuge will accommodate sufficient number of specimens to permit statistically significant sampling of specimens to investigate the time course of adaptation to altered gravity environments. The centrifuge will, for the first time, permit investigators to use gravity itself as a tool to investigate fundamental processes, to investigate the intensity and duration of gravity to maintain normal structure and function, to separate the effects of u-g from other environmental factors and to examine artificial gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physical deconditioning observed during space flight.

Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

1995-01-01

24

The Biological Flight Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Ames Research Center is building a research facility, the Biological Flight Research Facility (BFRF), to meet the needs of life scientists to study the long-term effects of variable gravity on living systems. The facility will be housed on Space Station Freedom and is anticipated to operate for the lifetime of the station, approximately 30 years. It will allow plant and animal biologists to study the role of gravity, or its absence, at varying gravity intensities for varying periods of time and with various organisms. The principal difference between current Spacelab missions and those on Space Station Freedom, other than length of mission, will be the capability to perform on-orbit science procedures and the capability to simulate earth gravity. Initially, the facility will house plants and rodents in habitats which can be maintained at microgravity or can be placed on a 2.5-m diam centrifuge. However, the facility is also being designed to accommodate future habitats for small primates, avian, and aquatic specimens. The centrifuge will provide 1 g for controls and will also be able to provide gravity from 0.01 to 2.0 g for threshold gravity studies as well as hypergravity studies. The BFRF will provide the means to conduct basic experiments to gain an understanding of the effects of microgravity on the structure and function of plants and animals, as well as investigate the role of gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physiological changes observed in microgravity.

Johnson, Catherine C.

1991-01-01

25

COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH  

PubMed Central

Community engagement strategies and skills can build trust and reduce historical mistrust between researchers, communities and populations being studied, as well as contribute to the quality of study designs, methods and dissemination of findings. This review paper discusses why community engagement is of increasing importance in children’s environmental health research, describes models and the continuum of methods that are used and discusses their challenges and benefits. Two case studies, representing different study designs and using different community engagement models and methods, and lessons learned from these cases are described. Community engagement methods are best understood on a continuum based on the degree to which community members or representatives of community populations are involved in research planning, decision making and dissemination. Methods along this continuum include community consultation, community based participatory research(CBPR) and community consent to research. Community engagement knowledge and skills are especially important in the conduct of children’s environmental health research with its emphasis on reducing environmental risks at the community level; the increasing focus on genetics and gene-environment interactions; and the importance placed on translation of scientific results into behaviors and policies that protect the community. Across study designs, whether qualitative survey research, an observational epidemiology study, or a randomized intervention trial, understanding community interests, norms and values is necessary to describe attitudes and behaviors of specific population groups, build evidence of cause and effect between environmental exposures and health and/or that demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce risks.

Brenner, Barbara L.; Manice, Melissa P.

2010-01-01

26

Global Biology Research Program: Program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biological processes which play a dominant role in these cycles which transform and transfer much of this material throughout the biosphere are examined. A greater understanding of planetary biological processes as revealed by the interaction of the biota and the environment. The rationale, scope, research strategy, and research priorities of the global biology is presented.

1983-01-01

27

Researcher and Researched-Community Perspectives: Toward Bridging the Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of initiating a new community-based research project, the authors wanted to understand the experiences of community members and researchers in community-based research projects and to develop guidelines to improve future projects. They conducted qualitative, key informant interviews with 41 people involved at all levels of community-based research projects in Seattle. Respondents were identified using a snowball sampling

Marianne Sullivan; Ahoua Kone; Kirsten D. Senturia; Noel J. Chrisman; Sandra J. Ciske; James W. Krieger

2001-01-01

28

The Biological Flight Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) is building a research facility, the Biological Flight Research Facility (BFRF), to meet the needs of life scientists to study the long-term effects of variable gravity on living systems. The facility will be housed on Space Station Freedom and is anticipated to operate for the lifetime of the station, approximately thirty years. It will allow plant and animal biologists to study the role of gravity, or its absence, at varying gravity intensities for varying periods of time and with various organisms. The principal difference between current Spacelab missions and those on Space Station Freedom, other than length of mission, will be the capability to perform on-orbit science procedures and the capability to simulate earth gravity. Initially the facility will house plants and rodents in habitats which can be maintained at microgravity or can be placed on a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge. However, the facility is also being designed to accommodate future habitats for small primates, avian, and aquatic specimens. The centrifuge will provide 1 g for controls and will also be able to provide gravity from 0.01 to 2.0 g for threshold gravity studies as well as hypergravity studies. Included in the facility are a service unit for providing clean chambers for the specimens and a glovebox for manipulating the plant and animal specimens and for performing experimental protocols. The BFRF will provide the means to conduct basic experiments to gain an understanding of the effects of microgravity on the structure and function of plants and animals, as well as investigate the role of gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physiological changes observed in microgravity.

Johnson, Catherine C.

1993-01-01

29

On measuring community participation in research.  

PubMed

Active participation of community partners in research aspects of community-academic partnered projects is often assumed to have a positive impact on the outcomes of such projects. The value of community engagement in research, however, cannot be empirically determined without good measures of the level of community participation in research activities. Based on our recent evaluation of community-academic partnered projects centered around behavioral health issues, this article uses semistructured interview and survey data to outline two complementary approaches to measuring the level of community participation in research-a "three-model" approach that differentiates between the levels of community participation and a Community Engagement in Research Index (CERI) that offers a multidimensional view of community engagement in the research process. The primary goal of this article is to present and compare these approaches, discuss their strengths and limitations, summarize the lessons learned, and offer directions for future research. We find that whereas the three-model approach is a simple measure of the perception of community participation in research activities, CERI allows for a more nuanced understanding by capturing multiple aspects of such participation. Although additional research is needed to validate these measures, our study makes a significant contribution by illustrating the complexity of measuring community participation in research and the lack of reliability in simple scores offered by the three-model approach. PMID:23041704

Khodyakov, Dmitry; Stockdale, Susan; Jones, Andrea; Mango, Joseph; Jones, Felica; Lizaola, Elizabeth

2013-06-01

30

Puerto Rico Sustainable Communities Research Project  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHCRP) is to inform and empower decision?makers to equitably weigh and integrate human health, socio?economic, environmental, and ecological factors to foster community sustainability. Pue...

31

Community-Based Health Services Research Curriculum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this initiative was to develop research capacity at the interface between traditional child health cared and community systems. To accomplish this, the authors (1) developed, implemented and evaluated a curriculum in community-based child healt...

C. J. Homer

2001-01-01

32

Genome Annotation in a Community College Cell Biology Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Biology Department at Salt Lake Community College has used the IMG-ACT toolbox to introduce a genome mapping and annotation exercise into the laboratory portion of its Cell Biology course. This project provides students with an authentic inquiry-based learning experience while introducing them to computational biology and contemporary learning…

Beagley, C. Timothy

2013-01-01

33

Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

2013-01-01

34

Exploring community structure in biological networks with random graphs  

PubMed Central

Background Community structure is ubiquitous in biological networks. There has been an increased interest in unraveling the community structure of biological systems as it may provide important insights into a system’s functional components and the impact of local structures on dynamics at a global scale. Choosing an appropriate community detection algorithm to identify the community structure in an empirical network can be difficult, however, as the many algorithms available are based on a variety of cost functions and are difficult to validate. Even when community structure is identified in an empirical system, disentangling the effect of community structure from other network properties such as clustering coefficient and assortativity can be a challenge. Results Here, we develop a generative model to produce undirected, simple, connected graphs with a specified degrees and pattern of communities, while maintaining a graph structure that is as random as possible. Additionally, we demonstrate two important applications of our model: (a) to generate networks that can be used to benchmark existing and new algorithms for detecting communities in biological networks; and (b) to generate null models to serve as random controls when investigating the impact of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and modularity in empirical biological networks. Conclusion Our model allows for the systematic study of the presence of community structure and its impact on network function and dynamics. This process is a crucial step in unraveling the functional consequences of the structural properties of biological systems and uncovering the mechanisms that drive these systems.

2014-01-01

35

Community-University Partnerships in Community-Based Research  

PubMed Central

Problem Community-engaged research (CEnR) is a complex, collaborative process that presents many challenges and requires investment of time and commitment by both community and university research partners. Purpose This paper describes the experience of a group of university and community members developing a set of guidelines for the ethical conduct of CEnR projects. Key Points The paper outlines the process of guideline development and lessons learned from this collaborative effort, which was based upon approaches and methods of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Conclusions The guidelines are included and may serve as a framework to be individualized by other partnerships. Our experience shows that the very process of review, revision, and engagement is extremely helpful in creating a framework that works for the specific communities and for establishing working relationships among the partners so that all stakeholders feel ownership and investment in the framework and the collaborative research efforts.

Sadler, Lois S.; Larson, Jean; Bouregy, Susan; LaPaglia, Donna; Bridger, Laurie; McCaslin, Catherine; Rockwell, Sara

2013-01-01

36

[Emphasis of biological research for space radiation].  

PubMed

The paper summarized issues, current status and the recent topics in biological research of space radiation. Researches to estimate a risk associated with space radiation exposure during a long-term manned space flight, such as in the International Space Station, is emphasized because of the large uncertainty of biological effects and a complexity of the radiation environment in space. The Issues addressed are; 1) biological effects and end points in low dose radiation, 2) biological effects under low dose rate and long-term radiation exposure, 3) modification of biological responses to radiation under space environments, 4) various aspects of biological end points vs. cellular and molecular mechanisms, 5) estimation of human risk associated with radiation exposure in space flight, 6) regulations for radiation exposure limits for space workers. The paper also summarized and introduced recent progress in space related radiation researches with various biological systems. PMID:11541824

Ohnishi, T; Nagaoka, S

1998-03-01

37

The applications of computers in biological research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research in many fields could not be done without computers. There is often a great deal of technical data, even in the biological fields, that need to be analyzed. These data, unfortunately, previously absorbed much of every researcher's time. Now, due to the steady increase in computer technology, biological researchers are able to make incredible advances in their work without the added worries of tedious and difficult tasks such as the many mathematical calculations involved in today's research and health care.

Wei, Jennifer

1988-01-01

38

Molecular Marine Biology Research Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This grant provided training in developmental biology of embryos of marine organisms, particularly their defense mechanisms. Students were exposed to the patterns of development of a variety of marine organisms, and then trained in the use of cellular, im...

D. Epel

1997-01-01

39

Submersibles for Marine Biological Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Submersibles provide a direct means of studying the living ocean resources. Basic submersible types include bathyscaphs, bathyspheres, tethered propelled subs and selfcontained subs. Biological scientists require a submersible that is stable, can pinpoint...

W. L. High

1971-01-01

40

Advancing Research on the Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arthur M. Cohen and his colleagues at the Center for the Study of Community Colleges have made significant and broad contributions to the scholarly literature and empirical research about community colleges. Although Cohen's interests are comprehensive and his writings touch on multiple issues associated with community colleges, his empirical work…

Bers, Trudy H.

2007-01-01

41

Finding Community: A Guide to Community Research and Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For those concerned with contemporary social problems, whether as students, members of community groups, or individual citizens, this book attempts not only to describe the issues, but also to offer some starting points for local research and action. As an educational tool, it is based on the belief that a good way to learn about a community is to…

Jones, W. Ron; And Others

42

COMPARISON OF BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of biological communities or assemblages to make richness or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Traditionally, sample size is based on numbers of replicates or area collected or numbers of individuals enum...

43

Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

2003-01-01

44

Rural Oregon community perspectives: introducing community-based participatory research into a community health coalition.  

PubMed

The Community Health Improvement Partnership (CHIP) model has supported community health development in more than 100 communities nationally. In 2011, four rural Oregon CHIPs collaborated with investigators from the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN), a component of the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), to obtain training on research methods, develop and implement pilot research studies on childhood obesity, and explore matches with academic partners. This article summarizes the experiences of the Lincoln County CHIP, established in 2003, as it transitioned from CHIP to Community Health Improvement and Research Partnership (CHIRP). Our story and lessons learned may inform rural community-based health coalitions and academicians who are engaged in or considering Community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Utilizing existing infrastructure and relationships in community and academic settings provides an ideal starting point for rural, bidirectional research partnerships. PMID:24056513

Young-Lorion, Julia; Davis, Melinda M; Kirks, Nancy; Hsu, Anna; Slater, Jana Kay; Rollins, Nancy; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul

2013-01-01

45

Some values guiding community research and action  

PubMed Central

The dual purposes of applied research—contributing to understanding and improvement—are only partially served by method systems that encourage studying (with increasing precision) a narrow range of questions of modest societal importance. To optimize contributions to challenging societal problems, a field's cherished standards should be adapted to support more adventuresome forms of community research and action. This paper outlines 10 values for community research and action, based on insights from the fields of behavioral and community psychology. These values—reflect the goals and challenges of establishing collaborative relationships with research participants, determining research goals and methods, designing and disseminating interventions, communicating research findings, and advocating for community change. Critical challenges are outlined, and implications for the field and its clients are discussed.

Fawcett, Stephen B.

1991-01-01

46

The 2014 Gordon Research Conference: Physics Research & Education: The Complex Intersection of Biology and Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of biological physics and the physics education of biology and medically oriented students have experienced tremendous growth in recent years. New findings, applications, and technologies in biological and medical physics are having far reaching consequences that affect and influence the science community, the education of future scientists and health-care workers, and the general population. As a result leaders in Physics Education Research have begun to focus their attention on the specific needs of students in the biological sciences, the different ways physicists and biologists view the nature of science and the interactions of scientists in these disciplines. In this poster we highlight some of these findings and pose questions for discussion. The Complex Intersection of Biology and Physics will be the topic of the next Gordon Research Conference on Physics Research and Education to be held in June 2014. The exact date and location are still to be determined.

Sabella, Mel; Lang, Matthew

2013-03-01

47

Fundamental Biological Research on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental Biology Program of NASA's Life Sciences Division is chartered with enabling and sponsoring research on the International Space Station (ISS) in order to understand the effects of the space flight environment, particularly microgravity, on living systems. To accomplish this goal, NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has been tasked with managing the development of a number of biological habitats, along with their support systems infrastructure. This integrated suite of habitats and support systems is being designed to support research requirements identified by the scientific community. As such, it will support investigations using cells and tissues, avian eggs, insects, plants, aquatic organisms and rodents. Studies following organisms through complete life cycles and over multiple generations will eventually be possible. As an adjunct to the development of these basic habitats, specific analytical and monitoring technologies are being targeted for maturation to complete the research cycle by transferring existing or emerging analytical techniques, sensors, and processes from the laboratory bench to the ISS research platform.

Souza, K. A.; Yost, Bruce; Fletcher, L.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

48

Oil, biological communities and contingency planning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 mandates the inclusion of a fish and wildlife response plan in the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and the creation of Area Committees that must develop an Area Contingency Plan (ACP). Area Contingency Plans must include a detailed annex containing a Fish and Wildlife and Sensitive Environments Plan. Tank vessels, offshore facilities, and certain onshore facilities must have response plans consistent with the requirements of the NCP and the ACP. New regulations to supersede the Type A and B procedures of the Natural Resources Damage Assessment Regulations are being developed for oil spills. Currently, four assessment methods have been proposed: (1) Type A, (2) comprehensive (Type B), (3) intermediate (between types A and B), and (4) compensation tables. The Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund is approaching its ceiling of $1 billion, but only $50 million has been appropriated. Effective biological contingency planning requires extensive knowledge of (1) the environmental fate of petroleum, (2) the effects of petroleum on organisms, (3) the existing biological resources, and (4) the establishment of a system of biological priorities. The characteristics and fate of petroleum and the biological effects of petroleum are reviewed. Assessment of biological resources includes plant and animal distributions, important habitat, endangered or threatened species, and economic considerations. The establishment by Area Committees of priorities for environmental protection, injury assessment, and restoration will promote efficient spill response. Three special issues are discussed: (1) improving our ability to restore natural resources, (2) the potential role of biological diversity in spill response planning, and (3) planning for animal rehabilitation.

Albers, P.H.

1995-01-01

49

Space Station Biological Research Project: Reference Experiment Book  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP), which is the combined efforts of the Centrifuge Facility (CF) and the Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF), is responsible for the development of life sciences hardware to be used on the International Space Station to support cell, developmental, and plant biology research. The SSBRP Reference Experiment Book was developed to use as a tool for guiding this development effort. The reference experiments characterize the research interests of the international scientific community and serve to identify the hardware capabilities and support equipment needed to support such research. The reference experiments also serve as a tool for understanding the operational aspects of conducting research on board the Space Station. This material was generated by the science community by way of their responses to reference experiment solicitation packages sent to them by SSBRP scientists. The solicitation process was executed in two phases. The first phase was completed in February of 1992 and the second phase completed in November of 1995. Representing these phases, the document is subdivided into a Section 1 and a Section 2. The reference experiments contained in this document are only representative microgravity experiments. They are not intended to define actual flight experiments. Ground and flight experiments will be selected through the formal NASA Research Announcement (NRA) and Announcement of Opportunity (AO) experiment solicitation, review, and selection process.

Johnson, Catherine (Editor); Wade, Charles (Editor)

1996-01-01

50

Defining the "community" in community consultation for emergency research: findings from the community VOICES study.  

PubMed

This article explores the application of the concept "community consultation" in the context of emergency medical research. Emergency medicine researchers are permitted, by the World Medical Association regulations and in the United States by U.S. Federal Regulations, to conduct emergency medical research on individuals with a life-threatening condition without obtaining their consent or that of their surrogates if certain conditions are met. Among these conditions is the requirement that researchers observe a number of special protections for the participants, including "community consultation and notification" prior to the initiation of such studies. The term "community" is not defined clearly and the process for conducting community consultations is not specified in these regulations. This study explores the feasibility of conducting community consultation in the context of emergency medical research by examining: research participant's definitions of community in New York, the factors that help shape their definitions of community and the people they would authorize to render participation decisions on their behalves. Findings from this study suggest that participants' definitions of community vary as a function of the purpose of the definition and the demographics of the respondents. Most significantly, this study reveals that although respondents can identify potential spokespersons for their communities, these community spokespersons were rarely identified as those who should have decision-making authority in medical emergencies. Finally, this article explores the implications of these findings for the definition of community as it applies to community consultation for emergency medical research. PMID:18237833

Ragin, Deborah Fish; Ricci, Edmund; Rhodes, Rosamond; Holohan, Jennifer; Smirnoff, Margaret; Richardson, Lynne D

2008-03-01

51

Growing a learning community for research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Th is case study gives an account of work in progress to grow a learning community of graduate research students that explicitly addresses the systemic complexity of a contemporary university, and provides strategies to overcome some limitations of traditional individual supervision, while retaining its main strengths. Faced with the experience of a shift in organisational culture away from a community

Ian Hughes

52

Developing the Community Empowered Research Training Program: Building Research Capacity for Community-Initiated and Community-Driven Research  

PubMed Central

Health promotion practice research conducted by or in partnership with community-based organizations (CBOs) serving Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AA and NHPI) can address health disparities. Few CBOs have the tools to integrate or initiate research into their programmatic agenda. The New York University (NYU) Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) and the Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum (APIAHF) created a partnership with the goal to support CBO research infrastructure development by creating the Community Empowered Research Training (CERT) program. Methods A survey was conducted and discussions held with CBO leaders representing AA and NHPI communities to inform the development of the CERT program. Results The majority of participants are engaged in service-related research and reported interest in building their research capacity. CBOs may require help reframing how data can be collected and used to better inform programmatic activities and to address health disparities facing AA and NHPI communities. Conclusions CBOs possess both an interest in and access to local knowledge that can inform health priorities. Findings have been applied to the CERT program to build capacity to support community-initiated/driven research to address health disparities affecting AAs and NHPIs.

Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Tseng, Winston; Islam, Nadia; Cook, Won Kim; Ro, Marguerite; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

2012-01-01

53

Research collaboration in health management research communities  

PubMed Central

Background This study uses scientometrics methodology to reveal the status quo and emerging issues of collaboration in health management. Methods We searched all the articles with the keyword “health management” in the period 1999–2011 in Web of Knowledge, then 3067 articles were found. Methods such as Social network analysis (SNA), co-authorship, co-word analysis were used in this study. Results Analysis of the past 13 years of research in the field of health management indicates that, whether the production of scientific research, or authors, institutions and scientific research collaboration at the national level, collaboration behavior has been growing steadily across all collaboration types. However, the international scientific research cooperation about health management study between countries needs to be further encouraged. 17 researchers can be seen as the academic leaders in this field. 37 research institutions play a vital role in the information dissemination and resources control in health management. The component analysis found that 22 research groups can be regarded as the backbone in this field. The 8 institution groups consisting of 33 institutions form the core of this field. USA, UK and Australia lie in the center by cohesive subgroup analysis; Based on keywords analysis, 44 keywords with high frequency such as care, disease, system and model were involved in the health management field. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although it is growing steadily, collaboration behavior about health management study needs to be enhanced, especially between different institutions or countries/regions, which would promote the progress and internationalization of health management. Besides, researchers should pay attention to the cooperation of representative scholars and institutions, as well as the hot areas of research, because their experience would help us promote the research development of our nation.

2013-01-01

54

Conservation Models and Ecological Concerns of the Community: A Case-Based Biology Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will design a conservation model that will address the ecological concerns of a community. Students will obtain topographical map of an area and related data; research and analyze appropriate data as to deforestation; survey and select area for removal of trees and landscape according to water flow; and build and produce an ecologically balanced model that will address the concerns of the community. This case will involves the use of botany, environmental science, animal biology, ecology, forestry and mathematics.

Fouch, C.; Strong, T.

2007-08-31

55

An Introduction to Community-Based Participatory Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an approach designed to promote community health and well-being through the establishment and maintenance of research partnerships between communities and academic researchers. Rather than the academic researcher assuming what is best for a community, CBPR utilizes community partnerships…

Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Geishecker, Steve; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Gitlin, David J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

2010-01-01

56

Developing the Community Empowered Research Training Program: Building Research Capacity for Community-Initiated and Community-Driven Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health promotion practice research conducted by or in partnership with community-based organizations (CBOs) serving Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AA and NHPI) can address health disparities. Few CBOs have the tools to integrate or initiate research into their programmatic agenda. The New York University (NYU) Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) and the Asian &

Simona Kwon; Catlin Rideout; Winston Tseng; Nadia Islam; Won Kim Cook; Marguerite Ro; Chau Trinh-Shevrin

2012-01-01

57

Community-driven computational biology with Debian Linux  

PubMed Central

Background The Open Source movement and its technologies are popular in the bioinformatics community because they provide freely available tools and resources for research. In order to feed the steady demand for updates on software and associated data, a service infrastructure is required for sharing and providing these tools to heterogeneous computing environments. Results The Debian Med initiative provides ready and coherent software packages for medical informatics and bioinformatics. These packages can be used together in Taverna workflows via the UseCase plugin to manage execution on local or remote machines. If such packages are available in cloud computing environments, the underlying hardware and the analysis pipelines can be shared along with the software. Conclusions Debian Med closes the gap between developers and users. It provides a simple method for offering new releases of software and data resources, thus provisioning a local infrastructure for computational biology. For geographically distributed teams it can ensure they are working on the same versions of tools, in the same conditions. This contributes to the world-wide networking of researchers.

2010-01-01

58

DNASU plasmid and PSI:Biology-Materials repositories: resources to accelerate biological research  

PubMed Central

The mission of the DNASU Plasmid Repository is to accelerate research by providing high-quality, annotated plasmid samples and online plasmid resources to the research community through the curated DNASU database, website and repository (http://dnasu.asu.edu or http://dnasu.org). The collection includes plasmids from grant-funded, high-throughput cloning projects performed in our laboratory, plasmids from external researchers, and large collections from consortia such as the ORFeome Collaboration and the NIGMS-funded Protein Structure Initiative: Biology (PSI:Biology). Through DNASU, researchers can search for and access detailed information about each plasmid such as the full length gene insert sequence, vector information, associated publications, and links to external resources that provide additional protein annotations and experimental protocols. Plasmids can be requested directly through the DNASU website. DNASU and the PSI:Biology-Materials Repositories were previously described in the 2010 NAR Database Issue (Cormier, C.Y., Mohr, S.E., Zuo, D., Hu, Y., Rolfs, A., Kramer, J., Taycher, E., Kelley, F., Fiacco, M., Turnbull, G. et al. (2010) Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository: an open shared public resource of structural genomics plasmids for the biological community. Nucleic Acids Res., 38, D743–D749.). In this update we will describe the plasmid collection and highlight the new features in the website redesign, including new browse/search options, plasmid annotations and a dynamic vector mapping feature that was developed in collaboration with LabGenius. Overall, these plasmid resources continue to enable research with the goal of elucidating the role of proteins in both normal biological processes and disease.

Seiler, Catherine Y.; Park, Jin G.; Sharma, Amit; Hunter, Preston; Surapaneni, Padmini; Sedillo, Casey; Field, James; Algar, Rhys; Price, Andrea; Steel, Jason; Throop, Andrea; Fiacco, Michael; LaBaer, Joshua

2014-01-01

59

The Community College Faculty Member as Researcher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to suggest the kinds of research that would be most suitable for community college faculty members and to illustrate these, where possible, from actual examples of ongoing research efforts, or, alternatively, from hypothetical examples. Some of the benefits and potential benefits in the area of student development,…

Kellams, Samuel E.

60

HIV/AIDS Community-Based Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-based research has evolved in the field of HIV/AIDS health promotion as a distinct expression of participatory action research in adult education. The authors of this chapter reflect on more than a decade of local knowledge construction to organize and improve the practice of HIV/AIDS health promotion in a variety of contexts.

Trussler, Terry; Marchand, Rick

2005-01-01

61

Protecting communities in pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing EELS literature has usefully identified the scope of ethical issues posed by pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic research. The time has come for in-depth examination of particular ethical issues. The involvement of racial and ethnic communities in pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic research is contentious precisely because it touches upon the science and politics of studying racial and ethnic difference. To date,

Charles Weijer; P. B. Miller

2004-01-01

62

Community structure in social and biological networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent studies have focused on the statistical properties of networked systems such as social networks and the Worldwide Web. Researchers have concentrated particularly on a few properties that seem to be common to many networks: the small-world property, power-law degree distributions, and network transitivity. In this article, we highlight another property that is found in many networks,

Michelle Girvan; M. E. J. Newman

2002-01-01

63

Evaluating Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Community-Partnered Science and Community Health  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2007, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) Policy Research Center (PRC) has partnered with the Universities of New Mexico and Washington to study the science of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Our goal is to identify facilitators and barriers to effective community–academic partnerships in American Indian and other communities, which face health disparities. Objectives We have described herein the scientific design of our National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study (2009–2013) and lessons learned by having a strong community partner leading the research efforts. Methods The research team is implementing a mixed-methods study involving a survey of principal investigators (PIs) and partners across the nation and in-depth case studies of CBPR projects. Results We present preliminary findings on methods and measures for community-engaged research and eight lessons learned thus far regarding partnership evaluation, advisory councils, historical trust, research capacity development of community partner, advocacy, honoring each other, messaging, and funding. Conclusions Study methodologies and lessons learned can help community–academic research partnerships translate research in communities.

Hicks, Sarah; Duran, Bonnie; Wallerstein, Nina; Avila, Magdalena; Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie; Magarati, Maya; Mainer, Elana; Martin, Diane; Muhammad, Michael; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Sahota, Puneet; Simonds, Vanessa; Sussman, Andrew; Tafoya, Greg; Hat, Emily White

2013-01-01

64

Messages to the Research Community  

Cancer.gov

May 2013Message to Grantees About NCI Funding and Grant Support for FY2013On May 7, 2013, NCI Director Harold Varmus sent an email to all NCI grantees informing them of reductions to NCI’s budget for fiscal year 2013. The reductions, due in large part to sequestration, are spread across NCI’s portfolio to protect NCI’s ability to issue new and competing research project grants.

65

Horseshoe Crab History, Biology, Research and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), a major Mid-Atlantic resource. Topics covered include: horseshoe crab biology and life cycle, breeding beaches and ecological importance of horseshoe crab eggs for migrating birds. Biomedical and other uses of horseshoe crabs are explained, and impacts of overharvesting on their populations are described. Current research, fishery management, volunteer conservation projects are presented.

66

Building research infrastructure in community health centers: a Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) report.  

PubMed

This article introduces the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN), a practice-based research network of community health centers (CHCs). Established by the Health Resources and Services Administration in 2010, CHARN is a network of 4 community research nodes, each with multiple affiliated CHCs and an academic center. The four nodes (18 individual CHCs and 4 academic partners in 9 states) are supported by a data coordinating center. Here we provide case studies detailing how CHARN is building research infrastructure and capacity in CHCs, with a particular focus on how community practice-academic partnerships were facilitated by the CHARN structure. The examples provided by the CHARN nodes include many of the building blocks of research capacity: communication capacity and "matchmaking" between providers and researchers; technology transfer; research methods tailored to community practice settings; and community institutional review board infrastructure to enable community oversight. We draw lessons learned from these case studies that we hope will serve as examples for other networks, with special relevance for community-based networks seeking to build research infrastructure in primary care settings. PMID:24004710

Likumahuwa, Sonja; Song, Hui; Singal, Robbie; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crane, Heidi; Muench, John; Sim, Shao-Chee; DeVoe, Jennifer E

2013-01-01

67

Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acting as part of the European Commission's INNOVATION Programme, the Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS) provides information on European Union research, development, and innovation activities to help strengthen the competitiveness of European organizations, particularly small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). CORDIS's ten searchable databases covering various news and research publications, EU-funded research programs, and organizational contact and partnership directories are designed to help SMEs find data and funding. An Acronym dictionary of EU research and development terms aids search navigation, and key pages are available in English, French, German, and Italian.

68

Biologically Inspired Micro-Flight Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed- wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.

Raney, David L.; Waszak, Martin R.

2003-01-01

69

Genome annotation in a community college cell biology lab.  

PubMed

The Biology Department at Salt Lake Community College has used the IMG-ACT toolbox to introduce a genome mapping and annotation exercise into the laboratory portion of its Cell Biology course. This project provides students with an authentic inquiry-based learning experience while introducing them to computational biology and contemporary learning skills. Additionally, the project strengthens student understanding of the scientific method and contributes to student learning gains in curricular objectives centered around basic molecular biology, specifically, the Central Dogma. Importantly, inclusion of this project in the laboratory course provides students with a positive learning environment and allows for the use of cooperative learning strategies to increase overall student success. PMID:23382125

Beagley, C Timothy

2013-01-01

70

NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP)  

Cancer.gov

The overall goal of NCORP is to bring cancer clinical trials, as well as cancer care delivery research (CCDR), to individuals in their own communities, thereby generating a broadly applicable evidence base that contributes to improved patient outcomes and a reduction in cancer disparities.

71

POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH WITHIN THE FEDERAL COMMUNITY  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the primary ongoing programs for promotion and encouragement of pollution prevention research is a cooperative program between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Federal community at large. EPA¿s Waste Reduction Evaluations At Federal Sites (WREAFS) Pro...

72

Bioerosion by chemosynthetic biological communities on Holocene submarine slide scars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomorphic, stratigraphic, and faunal observations of submarine slide scars that occur along the flanks of Monterey Canyon in 2.0–2.5 km water depths were made to identify the processes that continue to alter the surface of a submarine landslide scar after the initial slope failure. Deep-sea chemosynthetic biological communities and small caves are common on the sediment-free surfaces of the slide scars,

C. K. Paull; W. Ussler; H. G. Greene; J. Barry; R. Keaten

2005-01-01

73

Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems, in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied, and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem. ?? Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

McCullough, D. A.; Bartholow, J. M.; Jager, H. I.; Beschta, R. L.; Cheslak, E. F.; Deas, M. L.; Ebersole, J. L.; Foott, J. S.; Johnson, S. L.; Marine, K. R.; Mesa, M. G.; Petersen, J. H.; Souchon, Y.; Tiffan, K. F.; Wurtsbaugh, W. A.

2009-01-01

74

2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights  

SciTech Connect

LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes; and develop technology and tools which enhance healthcare. We execute our roles through integrated multidisciplinary programs that apply our competencies in: microbial and mammalian genomics--the characterization of DNA, the genes it encodes, their regulation and function and their role in living systems; protein function and biochemistry - the structure, function, and interaction of proteins and other molecules involved in the integrated biochemical function of the processes of life; computational modeling and understanding of biochemical systems--the application of high-speed computing technology to simulate and visualize complex, integrated biological processes; bioinformatics--databasing, networking, and analysis of biological data; and bioinstrumentation--the application of physical and engineering technologies to novel biological and biochemical measurements, laboratory automation, medical device development, and healthcare technologies. We leverage the Laboratory's exceptional capabilities in the physical, computational, chemical, environmental and engineering sciences. We partner with industry and universities to utilize their state-of-the art technology and science and to make our capabilities and discoveries available to the broader research community.

Prange, C

2003-03-01

75

Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

1994-02-01

76

Increasing the relevance of research to underserved communities: lessons learned from a retreat to engage community health workers with researchers.  

PubMed

This article presents information on a community retreat developed to seek input from community health workers (CHWs) to increase the relevance of our research to underserved communities in Oregon. Retreats facilitating dialogue between researchers and CHWs could yield important insight to enhance the significance of research for communities. PMID:23728049

Angier, Heather; Wiggins, Noelle; Gregg, Jessica; Gold, Rachel; DeVoe, Jennifer

2013-05-01

77

Community psychology at the crossroads: prospects for interdisciplinary research.  

PubMed

Effective engagement in interdisciplinary work is critical if community psychology is to achieve its promise as a field of ecological inquiry and social action. The purpose of this paper and special issue is to help make the benefits of interdisciplinary community research clearer and to identify and begin to address its challenges. Although some areas of psychology (e.g., biological, cognitive and health) have made substantial interdisciplinary strides in recent decades, progress in community psychology (and related areas) is more modest. In this article we explore the prospects for expanding and improving interdisciplinary community research. Challenges include designs, measures, and analytical frameworks that integrate multiple levels of analysis from individuals through families, organizations, and communities to policy jurisdictions, and the complexities involved in simultaneously bringing together multiple disciplinary collaborators and community partners. Challenges to interdisciplinary collaboration common to all disciplines include the disciplinary nature of academic culture and reward structures, limited funding for interdisciplinary work and uncertainties related to professional identity and marketability. Overcoming these challenges requires a synergy among facilitative factors at the levels of the interdisciplinary project team (e.g., the framing question; embedded relationships; leadership), the investigators (e.g., commitment to new learning; time to invest), and the external context (e.g., physical, administrative, economic and intellectual resources and support for interdisciplinary work). We conclude by identifying several exemplars of effective interdisciplinary collaborations and concrete steps our field can take to enhance our development as a vibrant community-based, multilevel discipline increasingly devoted to interdisciplinary inquiry and action. PMID:16927157

Maton, Kenneth I; Perkins, Douglas D; Saegert, Susan

2006-09-01

78

NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) in Gravitational Biology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of our NSCORT is to investigate the effects of gravity and other environmental factors on biological function at the cellular and molecular level. The research efforts, training opportunities, and scientific exchange will promote the expansion of a scientific peer group well-educated in space-related biological issues. This will stimulate the interest of the larger scientific community and insure the continuing development of rigorous flight investigations in Gravitational Biology.

Mclntire, Larry V.; Rudolph, Frederick B.

1996-01-01

79

Experimental Data from the Proteomics Research Center for Integrative Biology  

DOE Data Explorer

The possible roles and importance of proteomics are rapidly growing across essentially all areas of biological research. The precise and comprehensive measurement of levels of expressed proteins and their modified forms can provide new insights into the molecular nature of cell-signaling pathways and networks, the cell cycle, cellular differentiation, and other processes relevant to understanding human health and the progression of various disease states. The ability to characterize protein complexes complements this capability, allowing hypotheses to be tested and the biological system operation to be defined. The Proteomics Research Center for Integrative Biology is a national user facility established and funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences component of the National Institutes of Health. This Center has been established to serve the biomedical research community by developing and integrating new proteomic technologies for collaborative and service studies, disseminating the new technologies, and training scientists in their use. The Center is housed in DOE’s William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Smith, Richard D.

80

Increasing research literacy in minority communities: CARES fellows training program.  

PubMed

The community alliance for Research Empowering Social Change (CARES) is an academic-community research partnership designed to: (1) train community members about evidence based public health, (2) increase community members' scientific literacy, and (3) develop the infrastructure for community-based participatory research so that local stakeholders can examine and address racial/ethnic health disparities in their communities. Nineteen community members enrolled in the CARES training. The training consisted of 11 didactic training sessions and 4 experiential workshops, taught by a multidisciplinary faculty from research institutions. Results suggest that the training increased research literacy, prepared community members for collaborative work with academic researchers, and empowered them to utilize scientific research methods to create social change in their communities. PMID:21133785

Goodman, Melody S; Dias, Janice Johnson; Stafford, Jewel D

2010-12-01

81

Increasing Research Literacy in Minority Communities: CARES Fellows Training Program  

PubMed Central

The community alliance for Research Empowering Social Change (CARES) is an academic-community research partnership designed to: (1) train community members about evidence-based public health, (2) increase community members’ scientific literacy, and (3) develop the infrastructure for community-based participatory research so that local stakeholders can examine and address racial/ethnic health disparities in their communities. Nineteen community members enrolled in the CARES training. The training consisted of 11 didactic training sessions and 4 experiential workshops, taught by a multidisciplinary faculty from research institutions. Results suggest that the training increased research literacy, prepared community members for collaborative work with academic researchers, and empowered them to utilize scientific research methods to create social change in their communities.

Goodman, Melody S.; Dias, Janice Johnson; Stafford, Jewel D.

2011-01-01

82

Biological research on a Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Space Station can provide reliable, long duration access to ug environments for basic and applied biological research. The uniqueness of access to near-weightless environments to probe fundamental questions of significance to gravitational and Space biologists can be exploited from many vantage points. Access to centrifuge facilities that can provide 1 g and hypo-g controls will permit identification of gravity-dependent or primary effects. Understanding secondary effects of the ug environment as well will allow a fuller exploitation of the Space environment.

Krikorian, A. D.; Johnson, Catherine C.

1990-01-01

83

Race in biological and biomedical research.  

PubMed

The concept of race has had a significant influence on research in human biology since the early 19th century. But race was given its meaning and social impact in the political sphere and subsequently intervened in science as a foreign concept, not grounded in the dominant empiricism of modern biology. The uses of race in science were therefore often disruptive and controversial; at times, science had to be retrofitted to accommodate race, and science in turn was often used to explain and justify race. This relationship was unstable in large part because race was about a phenomenon that could not be observed directly, being based on claims about the structure and function of genomic DNA. Over time, this relationship has been characterized by distinct phases, evolving from the inference of genetic effects based on the observed phenotype to the measurement of base-pair variation in DNA. Despite this fundamental advance in methodology, liabilities imposed by the dual political-empirical origins of race persist. On the one hand, an optimistic prediction can be made that just as geology made it possible to overturn the myth of the recent creation of the earth and evolution told us where the living world came from, molecular genetics will end the use of race in biology. At the same time, because race is fundamentally a political and not a scientific idea, it is possible that only a political intervention will relieve us of the burden of race. PMID:24186487

Cooper, Richard S

2013-11-01

84

ENGAGING THE COMMUNITY IN HEALTH RESEARCH IN INDIA  

PubMed Central

Community-engaged research approaches involve members of the community in various aspects of a research endeavor to improve the health of populations. Engaging the community in research is important in the development, dissemination, and evaluation of new interventions, technologies, and other medical advancements to improve population health globally. A review of published community-engaged research studies conducted in India was performed. Fifteen published studies were identified and reviewed to evaluate the state of community-engaged research in India. The review indicated that community-engaged research in India is limited. Most published community-engaged research focused on health promotion, especially in the prevention or management of HIV/AIDS and other STIs. Community members were involved in a variety of aspects of the research, but there was not one published article indicating that community members had defined the disease of focus. Community-engaged research often led to valuable insights into the views, experiences, and behaviors of community members and also led to increased community participation in health initiatives. It is anticipated that future community-engaged research will lead to improvements in global health through increased empowerment of communities and a better ability to implement new and innovative medical advances, technologies, and interventions.

Wells, Kristen J.; Preuss, Charles; Pathak, Yashwant; Kosambiya, J. K.; Kumar, Ambuj

2013-01-01

85

Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Featured here is an important subscription-based resource for obtaining science articles online. Wide-ranging institutional access as well as free services make this resources useful without an individual subscription. In addition, in January 2000, the American Institute of Physics (AIP) and the American Physical Society (APS) launched a new virtual journal. Representing the first entry in a series of journals the Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research will gather "into one spot all the papers on a given topic that appear in a wide range of premier physics-related journals." The articles have been pre-selected by expert editors, so that specialists may turn to this convenient resource to stay on top of cutting-edge research. Access to articles will require a regular subscription to the specific journals, though non-subscribers do have the option of purchasing individual articles for immediate online delivery. Browsing the tables of contents and abstracts is free.

86

Connecting Research to Teaching: Professional Communities: Teachers Supporting Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on importance of strong professional communities for supporting reform. National Center for Research in Mathematical Sciences Education (NCRMSE) found significant correlation between teachers' professional community and reformed mathematics instruction. Urban Mathematics Collaboratives (UMC), Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying…

Adajian, Lisa Byrd

1996-01-01

87

Successful Models of Community-Base Participatory Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the last ten years, traditional population-based biomedical research methods have been Challenged Due to Limited Community Participation. Proponents for change Explain that Community Participation, as an Active Partner in the Research Process, Provides...

A. Dearry F. L. Tyson L. R. O'Fallon

2000-01-01

88

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) with indigenous communities: producing respectful and reciprocal research.  

PubMed

The health disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in Canada continue to grow despite an expanding body of research that attempts to address these inequalities, including increased attention from the field of health geography. Here, we draw upon a case study of our own community-based approach to health research with Anishinabe communities in northern Ontario as a means of advocating the growth of such participatory approaches. Using our own case as an example, we demonstrate how a collaborative approach to respectful and reciprocal research can be achieved, including some of the challenges we faced in adopting this approach. PMID:23651937

Tobias, Joshua K; Richmond, Chantelle A M; Luginaah, Isaac

2013-04-01

89

Identifying Community Needs and Resources in a Native Community: A Research Partnership in the Pacific Northwest  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous communities have engaged in needs and resources assessments for thousands of years. By blending CBPR/TPR approaches with community-driven assets and needs assessments, academic and community based researchers can work together to better understand and identify community strengths as well as issues of concern in Native communities. This…

Thomas, Lisa Rey; Donovan, Dennis M.; Sigo, Robin L. W.

2010-01-01

90

Biological communities at the Florida Escarpment resemble hydrothermal vent taxa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dense biological communities of large epifaunal taxa similar to those found along ridge crest vents at the East Pacific Rise were discovered in the abyssal Gulf of Mexico. These assemblages occur on a passive continental margin at the base of the Florida Escarpment, the interface between the relatively impermeable hemipelagic clays of the distal Mississippi Fan and the jointed Cretaceous limestone of the Florida Platform. The fauna apparently is nourished by sulfide rich hypersaline waters seeping out at near ambient temperatures onto the sea floor.

Paull, C. K.; Hecker, B.; Commeau, R.; Freeman-Lynde, R. P.; Neumann, C.; Corso, W. P.; Golubic, S.; Hook, J. E.; Sikes, E.; Curray, J.

1984-01-01

91

2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference  

SciTech Connect

The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

Michael Sussman

2010-07-23

92

Special issue: three models of community-based participatory research.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative process between community-based organizations and academic investigators. It has the potential to make research more responsive to existing needs and to enhance a community's ability to address important health issues. But CBPR is often unfamiliar territory to academic investigators and community organizations alike. We interviewed CBPR investigators at Penn and community leaders to ascertain best practices in CBPR and to compare academic and community perspectives. A number of models of community-academic partnerships emerged, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The perspectives of the investigators sometimes matched those of the community leaders, but diverged in important ways. PMID:23610796

Weiner, Janet; McDonald, Jasmine A

2013-04-01

93

Instrument Development for Biological Research (IDBR)  

NSF Publications Database

... types, sensors, and related devices for detection or measurement of biological molecules, structures ... that provide new capabilities for detection, measurement, and/or observation of biological phenomena ...

94

Rituals and Research Ethics: Using One Community's Experience to Reconsider the Ways that Communities and Researchers Build Sustainable Partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

As work on community-based participatory research attests, one of the most pressing issues about research is how it can be done so as to bear directly on people's lives. Urgent discussions are now taking place within the research community about questions such as who owns research and how the impact of research can be increased. When researchers discuss these issues,

Linda Silka

95

Community-university collaborations: creating hybrid research and collective identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we explore the politics of community-university collaborative research and activism. We are scholars based in universities as well as members of various ‘communities’—queer, Pasifika and M?ori—hence we regularly venture beyond the formal research spaces of the academy and enter into critical collaborative research with others working in ‘the community’. In what follows we first outline collaborative community-based

Jenny Cave; L Johnston; Carey-Ann Morrison; Yvonne Underhill-Sem

2012-01-01

96

Using community-based participatory research to address health disparities.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the past decades as an alternative research paradigm, which integrates education and social action to improve health and reduce health disparities. More than a set of research methods, CBPR is an orientation to research that focuses on relationships between academic and community partners, with principles of colearning, mutual benefit, and long-term commitment and incorporates community theories, participation, and practices into the research efforts. As CBPR matures, tensions have become recognized that challenge the mutuality of the research relationship, including issues of power, privilege, participation, community consent, racial and/or ethnic discrimination, and the role of research in social change. This article focuses on these challenges as a dynamic and ever-changing context of the researcher-community relationship, provides examples of these paradoxes from work in tribal communities, discusses the evidence that CBPR reduces disparities, and recommends transforming the culture of academia to strengthen collaborative research relationships. PMID:16760238

Wallerstein, Nina B; Duran, Bonnie

2006-07-01

97

Creating Meaningful Partnerships Between Communities and Environmental Health Researchers  

PubMed Central

Community engagement is a necessary, although challenging, element of environmental health research in communities. To facilitate the engagement process, direct action community organizing agencies can be useful in bringing together communities and researchers. This article describes the preliminary activities that one direct action community organizing agency used in partnership with researchers to improve community engagement in the first 6 months of an environmental health study conducted in a major U.S. city. Activities included developing communication strategies, creating opportunities for researcher–community interaction, and sustaining project momentum. To conduct environmental research that is both scientifically rigorous and relevant to communities, collaborating partners had to develop professional skills and strategies outside of their areas of expertise.

De Souza, Rachael; Aguilar, Genevieve C.; de Castro, A. B.

2014-01-01

98

pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Vision and Change" report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area…

Campbell, A. Malcolm; Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

2014-01-01

99

Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow  

MedlinePLUS

... major institutions across the United States and internationally. Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow ... some of NIA’s exciting findings about the basic biology of aging and points to directions for future ...

100

Education Research at the Boundary of Physics and Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Attached are the presentations from the AAPT Summer 2013 Invited Session on Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences (IPLS). For a number of years a growing portion of the physics community has been investing time, energy and expertise into revising the IPLS course. There are a number of resources for physics faculty to draw upon for alternative course paradigms, more detailed evaluations of what is or is not working in their IPLS courses, and models of combining PER and BER (Biology Education Research) efforts to understand effective teaching and learning in the IPLS. These talks provide an overview of some examples of reform in the IPLS and also highlight ongoing transformative efforts. You may access the talks under the "View the primary documents attached to this resource" link.

Burciaga, Juan; Crouch, Catherine H.; Sawtelle, Vashti; Tanner, Kimberly

2013-07-31

101

A Pedagogy of Blending Theory with Community-Based Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blending activity theory and community-based research educational applications describes the praxis achieved through the initial design, development, implementation, and assessment of one research methods course as a pedagogy to enhance and improve the outcomes of civic and community engagement for the university, its students, and the community.…

Brown, Kathleen Taylor

2011-01-01

102

Building Collaborative Communities of Enquiry in Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the concept of community of enquiry through an examination of 3 case studies: (a) a school-based community of enquiry involving pupils, teachers, and researchers; (b) a community of enquiry involving teachers from around 100 different schools in a Scottish local authority, together with policy advisers and researchers; and…

Christie, Donald; Cassidy, Claire; Skinner, Don; Coutts, Norman; Sinclair, Christine; Rimpilainen, Sanna; Wilson, Alastair

2007-01-01

103

Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Address Health Disparities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the past decades as an alternative research paradigm, which integrates education and social action to improve health and reduce health disparities. More than a set of research methods, CBPR is an orientation to research that focuses on relationships between academic and community partners, with principles of colearning, mutual benefit, and long-term commitment and

Nina B. Wallerstein; Bonnie Duran

2006-01-01

104

The Community Leaders Institute: An Innovative Program to Train Community Leaders in Health Research  

PubMed Central

An emerging best practice of addressing health and improving health disparities in communities is ensuring that academic health centers (AHCs) are engaged with area schools, primary care practices, and community advocates as equal partners in research, services, and programs. The literature documents the importance of ensuring that academic-community collaboration is based on equity, trust, and respect, and that there is capacity (time and resources) and a shared culture (language, skills, and applied knowledge) for accomplishing mutual goals in academic-community research partnerships. It is also essential that an academic-community collaboration results in tangible and measurable goals and outcomes for both the target community and the AHC. Currently, the models for implementing best practices in community health partnerships, especially training programs, are limited. This paper article summarizes the goals and outcomes for the Community Leaders Institute (CLI), a six-week innovative leadership development training program designed to enhance academic-community research, integrate the interests of community leaders and AHC researchers, and build research capacity and competencies within the community. Based on two years of outcome data, the CLI is achieving its intended goals of engaging faculty as trainer-scholars while promoting academic-community partnerships that align with community and AHC priorities. The training and collaborative research paradigm utilized by the CLI has served to accelerate AHC-community engagement and integration efforts, as CLI graduates are now serving on AHC steering, bioethics, and other committees.

Crosby, Lori E.; Parr, William; Smith, Teresa; Mitchell, Monica J.

2013-01-01

105

The community leaders institute: an innovative program to train community leaders in health research.  

PubMed

An emerging best practice of addressing health and improving health disparities in communities is ensuring that academic health centers (AHCs) are engaged with area schools, primary care practices, and community advocates as equal partners in research, services, and programs. The literature documents the importance of ensuring that academic-community collaboration is based on equity, trust, and respect and that there is capacity (time and resources) and a shared culture (language, skills, and applied knowledge) for accomplishing mutual goals in academic-community research partnerships. It is also essential that an academic-community collaboration result in tangible and measurable goals and outcomes for both the target community and the AHC. Currently, the models for implementing best practices in community health partnerships, especially training programs, are limited.This article summarizes the goals and outcomes for the Community Leaders Institute (CLI), a six-week innovative leadership development training program designed to enhance academic-community research, integrate the interests of community leaders and AHC researchers, and build research capacity and competencies within the community. On the basis of two years of outcome data, the CLI is achieving its intended goals of engaging faculty as trainer-scholars while promoting academic-community partnerships that align with community and AHC priorities. The training and collaborative research paradigm used by the CLI has served to accelerate AHC-community engagement and integration efforts, as CLI graduates are now serving on AHC steering, bioethics, and other committees. PMID:23348087

Crosby, Lori E; Parr, William; Smith, Teresa; Mitchell, Monica J

2013-03-01

106

Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

1996-01-01

107

Learning from Community: A Participatory Action Research Study of Community Art for Social Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

“What does the implementation of an asset-based community art curriculum in the West End neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio, reveal about participants’ perceptions of community and how does it contribute to social change?” was the major research question investigated in this study. The strong collective identities of oppressed communities served as the basis for development of the research question and the

Karen Elizabeth Hutzel

2005-01-01

108

Relevance of ammonium oxidation within biological soil crust communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thin, vertically structured topsoil communities that become ecologically important in arid regions (biological soil crusts or BSCs) are responsible for much of the nitrogen inputs into pristine arid lands. We studied N2 fixation and ammonium oxidation (AO) at subcentimetre resolution within BSCs from the Colorado Plateau. Pools of dissolved porewater nitrate/ nitrite, ammonium and organic nitrogen in wetted BSCs were high in comparison with those typical of aridosoils. They remained stable during incubations, indicating that input and output processes were of similar magnitude. Areal N2 fixation rates (6.5-48 ??mol C2H2 m-2 h -1) were high, the vertical distribution of N2 fixation peaking close to the surface if populations of heterocystous cyanobacteria were present, but in the subsurface if they were absent. Areal AO rates (19-46 ??mol N m-2 h-1) were commensurate with N2 fixation inputs. When considering oxygen availability, AO activity invariably peaked 2-3 mm deep and was limited by oxygen (not ammonium) supply. Most probable number (MPN)-enumerated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (6.7-7.9 ?? 103 cells g-1 on average) clearly peaked at 2-3 mm depth. Thus, AO (hence nitrification) is a spatially restricted but important process in the nitrogen cycling of BSC, turning much of the biologically fixed nitrogen into oxidized forms, the fate of which remains to be determined.

Johnson, S. L.; Budinoff, C. R.; Belnap, J.; Garcia-Pichel, F.

2005-01-01

109

Avian Community Response to Lowland Tropical Rainforest Isolation: 40 Years of Change at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1960, most of the forest surrounding the La Selva Biological Station, an intensively studied tropical research facility in Costa Rica, has been converted to agricultural uses. We used quantitative censuses and analysis of previously published categorical abundances to assess changes in the bird community, and we evaluated potential causes of species-specific changes by assessing their association with habitat, diet,

BRYAN J. SIGEL; THOMAS W. SHERRY; BRUCE E. YOUNG

2006-01-01

110

A Framework for Building Research Partnerships with First Nations Communities  

PubMed Central

Solutions to complex health and environmental issues experienced by First Nations communities in Canada require the adoption of collaborative modes of research. The traditional “helicopter” approach to research applied in communities has led to disenchantment on the part of First Nations people and has impeded their willingness to participate in research. University researchers have tended to develop projects without community input and to adopt short term approaches to the entire process, perhaps a reflection of granting and publication cycles and other realities of academia. Researchers often enter communities, collect data without respect for local culture, and then exit, having had little or no community interaction or consideration of how results generated could benefit communities or lead to sustainable solutions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative to the helicopter approach and is promoted here as a method to research that will meet the objectives of both First Nations and research communities. CBPR is a collaborative approach that equitably involves all partners in the research process. Although the benefits of CBPR have been recognized by segments of the University research community, there exists a need for comprehensive changes in approaches to First Nations centered research, and additional guidance to researchers on how to establish respectful and productive partnerships with First Nations communities beyond a single funded research project. This article provides a brief overview of ethical guidelines developed for researchers planning studies involving Aboriginal people as well as the historical context and principles of CBPR. A framework for building research partnerships with First Nations communities that incorporates and builds upon the guidelines and principles of CBPR is then presented. The framework was based on 10 years’ experience working with First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. The framework for research partnership is composed of five phases. They are categorized as the pre-research, community consultation, community entry, research and research dissemination phases. These phases are cyclical, non-linear and interconnected. Elements of, and opportunities for, exploration, discussion, engagement, consultation, relationship building, partnership development, community involvement, and information sharing are key components of the five phases within the framework. The phases and elements within this proposed framework have been utilized to build and implement sustainable collaborative environmental health research projects with Saskatchewan First Nations communities.

Bharadwaj, Lalita

2014-01-01

111

A framework for building research partnerships with first nations communities.  

PubMed

Solutions to complex health and environmental issues experienced by First Nations communities in Canada require the adoption of collaborative modes of research. The traditional "helicopter" approach to research applied in communities has led to disenchantment on the part of First Nations people and has impeded their willingness to participate in research. University researchers have tended to develop projects without community input and to adopt short term approaches to the entire process, perhaps a reflection of granting and publication cycles and other realities of academia. Researchers often enter communities, collect data without respect for local culture, and then exit, having had little or no community interaction or consideration of how results generated could benefit communities or lead to sustainable solutions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative to the helicopter approach and is promoted here as a method to research that will meet the objectives of both First Nations and research communities. CBPR is a collaborative approach that equitably involves all partners in the research process. Although the benefits of CBPR have been recognized by segments of the University research community, there exists a need for comprehensive changes in approaches to First Nations centered research, and additional guidance to researchers on how to establish respectful and productive partnerships with First Nations communities beyond a single funded research project. This article provides a brief overview of ethical guidelines developed for researchers planning studies involving Aboriginal people as well as the historical context and principles of CBPR. A framework for building research partnerships with First Nations communities that incorporates and builds upon the guidelines and principles of CBPR is then presented. The framework was based on 10 years' experience working with First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. The framework for research partnership is composed of five phases. They are categorized as the pre-research, community consultation, community entry, research and research dissemination phases. These phases are cyclical, non-linear and interconnected. Elements of, and opportunities for, exploration, discussion, engagement, consultation, relationship building, partnership development, community involvement, and information sharing are key components of the five phases within the framework. The phases and elements within this proposed framework have been utilized to build and implement sustainable collaborative environmental health research projects with Saskatchewan First Nations communities. PMID:24855374

Bharadwaj, Lalita

2014-01-01

112

Community-oriented support and research structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coordinated by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Europe is restructuring and strengthening its high-performance computing infrastructure with the aim to create a model HPC ecosystem. At the tip of the pyramid, up to six centres are envisaged that will operate systems of the highest performance class. The HPC Research Infrastructure (HPC-RI) will comprise European, national and regional centres. Science communities are integral partners, strong links will include Grid and Cloud users. The HPC-RI strives at providing scientists all over Europe, on the one hand, with unlimited and independent access to state-of-the-art computer resources in all performance classes and, on the other hand, with a world-class pan-European competence and support network. While the hardware-oriented buildup of the infrastructure is making progress, high-quality user support and software development in the upcoming era of unprecedented parallelism and exascale on the horizon have become the imminent challenges. This has been clearly recognized by the European Commission, who will issue calls for proposals to fund petascale software development in summer 2009. Although traditional support structures are well established in Europe's major supercomputing centres, it is questionable if these structures are able to meet the challenges of the future: in general, support structures are based on cross-disciplinary computer science and mathematics teams; disciplinary computational science support usually is given in an ad-hoc, project-oriented manner. In this paper, we describe our approach to establish a suitable support structure-Simulation Laboratories (SL). SLs are currently being established at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre of the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany. While SLs are community-oriented, i.e. each SL focusses on a specific community, they are structured in a strictly interdisciplinary manner, comprising mathematicians, computer scientists and technicians along with disciplinary scientists. SLs are led by a disciplinary scientist, and representatives of the respective disciplines give guidance to its operation. This concept is proposed as a model for and might become an integral element of a future pan-European HPC support and software research structure.

Attig, Norbert; Eickermann, Thomas; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas

2009-07-01

113

Sharing Control: Developing Research Literacy through Community-Based Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article suggests that the methodology of community-based action research provides concrete strategies for fostering effective community problem solving. To argue for a community research pedagogy, the author draws upon past and present scholarship in action research and participatory action research, experiences teaching an undergraduate…

Juergensmeyer, Erik

2011-01-01

114

Approaches to community nursing research partnerships: a case example.  

PubMed

Every community is unique and has special strengths and health-related needs, such that a community-based participatory research partnership cannot be formed and implemented in a predetermined, step-by-step manner. In this article, we describe how the Community Partnership Model (CPM), designed to allow flexible movement back and forth through all action phases, can be adapted to a variety of communities. Originally developed for nursing practice, the CPM has evolved into approaches for the collaborative initiation and maintenance of community partnerships. The model is informed by the recognition that cultural, social, economic, and knowledge backgrounds may vary greatly between nurse researchers and their community partners. The Familias En Acción violence prevention project exemplifies the use of the CPM in a transcultural partnership formation and implementation process. The collaborative approaches of the model guide community and research partners to interconnect and move flexibly through all partnership phases, thereby facilitating sustainability and community self-advocacy. PMID:24391121

Anderson, Nancy Lois Ruth; Lesser, Janna; Oscós-Sánchez, Manuel Ángel; Piñeda, Daniel V; Garcia, Gwyn; Mancha, Juan

2014-04-01

115

Incorporating community-based participatory research principles into environmental health research: challenges and lessons learned from a housing pilot study.  

PubMed

In environmental health research, a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach can effectively involve community members, researchers, and representatives from nonprofit, academic, and governmental agencies as equal partners throughout the research process. The authors sought to use CBPR principles in a pilot study; its purpose was to investigate how green construction practices might affect indoor exposures to chemicals and biological agents. Information from this pilot informed the development of a methodology for a nationwide study of low-income urban multifamily housing. The authors describe here 1) the incorporation of CBPR principles into a pilot study comparing green vs. conventionally built urban housing, 2) the resulting implementation and reporting challenges, and 3) lessons learned and implications for increased community participation in environmental health research. PMID:24988659

Ponder-Brookins, Paris; Witt, Joyce; Steward, John; Greenwell, Douglas; Chew, Ginger L; Samuel, Yvette; Kennedy, Chinaro; Brown, Mary Jean

2014-06-01

116

Overview of Medical Data Management Solutions for Research Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical imaging research deals with large, heterogeneous and fragmented amounts of medical images. The need for secure, federated and functional medical image databases is very strong within these research communities. This paper provides an overview of the different projects concerned with building medical image databases for medical imaging research. It also discusses the characteristics and requirements of this community and

Sorina Camarasu-Pop; Frederic Cervenansky; Yonny Cardenas; Jean-Yves Nief; Hugues Benoit-Cattin

2010-01-01

117

Community-Based Research Partnerships: Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of many urban health problems often makes them ill suited to traditional research approaches and interventions. The resultant frustration, together with community calls for genuine partnership in the research process, has highlighted the importance of an alternative paradigm. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is presented as a promising collaborative approach that combines systematic inquiry, participation, and action to address

Meredith Minkler

2005-01-01

118

Community collaboration and climate change research in the Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, particularly projects aiming to contribute to practical adaptation initiatives, requires active involvement and collaboration with community members and local, regional and national organizations that use this research for policy-making. Arctic communities are already experiencing and adapting to environmental and socio-cultural changes, and researchers have a practical and ethical responsibil- ity to engage

Tristan D. Pearce; James D. Ford; Gita J. Laidler; Barry Smit; Frank Duerden; Mishak Allarut; Mark Andrachuk; Steven Baryluk; Andrew Dialla; Pootoogoo Elee; Annie Goose; Theo Ikummaq; Eric Joamie; Fred Kataoyak; Eric Loring; Stephanie Meakin; Scott Nickels; Kip Shappa; Jamal Shirley; Johanna Wandel

2009-01-01

119

Enacting Decolonized Methodologies: The "Doing" of Research in Educational Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous scholars have debated the impact that researchers and the act of researching have on Native and Indigenous people and communities. Although literature on this subject has grown, little has been written explicitly laying out "the doing" of research with these communities. The authors seek to articulate their "doing" by drawing upon the…

Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Quigley, Cassie; Yazzie-Mintz, Tarajean

2012-01-01

120

NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Gets Underway  

Cancer.gov

NCI has awarded 53 new 5-year grants to researchers across the country to conduct multi-site cancer clinical trials and cancer care delivery research studies in their communities. The grants are being awarded under the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP)

121

Interdisciplinary Communities and Research Issues in Music Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music Information Retrieval (MIR) is an interdisciplinary research area that has grown out of the need to manage burgeoning collections of music in digital form. Its diverse disciplinary communities have yet to articulate a common research agenda or agree on methodological principles and metrics of success. In order for MIR to succeed, researchers need to work with real user communities

Joe Futrelle; J. Stephen Downie

2002-01-01

122

Creating a Knowledge Base of Biological Research Papers  

Microsoft Academic Search

develop will be applicable to other branches of molecular biology. We are focusing on the Materials and Methods sections of these papers, as being both typical of texts in experimental biology and sufficiently narrow and patterned to be amenable to knowledge engineering techniques. Intelligent text-oriented tools for representing and searching the biological research literature are being developed, which combine object-oriented

Carole D. Hafner; Kenneth Baclawski; Robert P. Futrelle; Natalya Fridman Noy; Shobana Sampath

1994-01-01

123

Research Ethics Education for Community-Engaged Research: A Review and Research Agenda  

PubMed Central

Community engagement is increasingly becoming an integral part of research. “Community-engaged research” (CEnR) introduces new stakeholders as well as unique challenges to the protection of participants and the integrity of the research process. We—a group of representatives of CTSA-funded institutions and others who share expertise in research ethics and CEnR—have identified gaps in the literature regarding (1) ethical issues unique to CEnR; (2) the particular instructional needs of academic investigators, community research partners, and IRB members; and (3) best practices for teaching research ethics. This paper presents what we know, as well as what we still need to learn, in order to develop quality research ethics educational materials tailored to the full range of stakeholder groups in CEnR.

Anderson, Emily E.; Solomon, Stephanie; Heitman, Elizabeth; DuBois, James M.; Fisher, Celia B.; Kost, Rhonda G.; Lawless, Mary Ellen; Ramsey, Cornelia; Jones, Bonnie; Ammerman, Alice; Ross, Lainie Friedman

2012-01-01

124

How to integrate biological research into society and exclude errors in biomedical publications? Progress in theoretical and systems biology releases pressure on experimental research  

PubMed Central

This brief opinion proposes measures to increase efficiency and exclude errors in biomedical research under the existing dynamic situation. Rapid changes in biology began with the description of the three dimensional structure of DNA 60 years ago; today biology has progressed by interacting with computer science and nanoscience together with the introduction of robotic stations for the acquisition of large-scale arrays of data. These changes have had an increasing influence on the entire research and scientific community. Future advance demands short-term measures to ensure error-proof and efficient development. They can include the fast publishing of negative results, publishing detailed methodical papers and excluding a strict connection between career progression and publication activity, especially for younger researchers. Further development of theoretical and systems biology together with the use of multiple experimental methods for biological experiments could also be helpful in the context of years and decades. With regards to the links between science and society, it is reasonable to compare both these systems, to find and describe specific features for biology and to integrate it into the existing stream of social life and financial fluxes. It will increase the level of scientific research and have mutual positive effects for both biology and society. Several examples are given for further discussion.

Volkov, Vadim

2014-01-01

125

How to integrate biological research into society and exclude errors in biomedical publications? Progress in theoretical and systems biology releases pressure on experimental research.  

PubMed

This brief opinion proposes measures to increase efficiency and exclude errors in biomedical research under the existing dynamic situation. Rapid changes in biology began with the description of the three dimensional structure of DNA 60 years ago; today biology has progressed by interacting with computer science and nanoscience together with the introduction of robotic stations for the acquisition of large-scale arrays of data. These changes have had an increasing influence on the entire research and scientific community. Future advance demands short-term measures to ensure error-proof and efficient development. They can include the fast publishing of negative results, publishing detailed methodical papers and excluding a strict connection between career progression and publication activity, especially for younger researchers. Further development of theoretical and systems biology together with the use of multiple experimental methods for biological experiments could also be helpful in the context of years and decades. With regards to the links between science and society, it is reasonable to compare both these systems, to find and describe specific features for biology and to integrate it into the existing stream of social life and financial fluxes. It will increase the level of scientific research and have mutual positive effects for both biology and society. Several examples are given for further discussion. PMID:24748913

Volkov, Vadim

2014-01-01

126

Synthetic biology: An emerging research field in China  

PubMed Central

Synthetic biology is considered as an emerging research field that will bring new opportunities to biotechnology. There is an expectation that synthetic biology will not only enhance knowledge in basic science, but will also have great potential for practical applications. Synthetic biology is still in an early developmental stage in China. We provide here a review of current Chinese research activities in synthetic biology and its different subfields, such as research on genetic circuits, minimal genomes, chemical synthetic biology, protocells and DNA synthesis, using literature reviews and personal communications with Chinese researchers. To meet the increasing demand for a sustainable development, research on genetic circuits to harness biomass is the most pursed research within Chinese researchers. The environmental concerns are driven force of research on the genetic circuits for bioremediation. The research on minimal genomes is carried on identifying the smallest number of genomes needed for engineering minimal cell factories and research on chemical synthetic biology is focused on artificial proteins and expanded genetic code. The research on protocells is more in combination with the research on molecular-scale motors. The research on DNA synthesis and its commercialisation are also reviewed. As for the perspective on potential future Chinese R&D activities, it will be discussed based on the research capacity and governmental policy.

Pei, Lei; Schmidt, Markus; Wei, Wei

2011-01-01

127

Synthetic biology: an emerging research field in China.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology is considered as an emerging research field that will bring new opportunities to biotechnology. There is an expectation that synthetic biology will not only enhance knowledge in basic science, but will also have great potential for practical applications. Synthetic biology is still in an early developmental stage in China. We provide here a review of current Chinese research activities in synthetic biology and its different subfields, such as research on genetic circuits, minimal genomes, chemical synthetic biology, protocells and DNA synthesis, using literature reviews and personal communications with Chinese researchers. To meet the increasing demand for a sustainable development, research on genetic circuits to harness biomass is the most pursed research within Chinese researchers. The environmental concerns are driven force of research on the genetic circuits for bioremediation. The research on minimal genomes is carried on identifying the smallest number of genomes needed for engineering minimal cell factories and research on chemical synthetic biology is focused on artificial proteins and expanded genetic code. The research on protocells is more in combination with the research on molecular-scale motors. The research on DNA synthesis and its commercialisation are also reviewed. As for the perspective on potential future Chinese R&D activities, it will be discussed based on the research capacity and governmental policy. PMID:21729747

Pei, Lei; Schmidt, Markus; Wei, Wei

2011-01-01

128

Ethical Issues in Biological Psychiatric Research with Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis article reviews, discusses, and elaborates considerations and recommendations summarized by the biological research working group at the May 1993 NIMH conference on ethical issues in mental health research on children and adolescents.

L. EUGENE ARNOLD; DAVID M. STOFF; EDWIN COOK; DONALD J. COHEN; MARKUS KRUESI; CLINTON WRIGHT; JOCELYN HATTAB; PHILIP GRAHAM; ALAN ZAMETKIN; F. XAVIER CASTELLANOS; WILLIAM McMAHON; JAMES F. LECKMAN

1995-01-01

129

Probing Cancer Pathways: How Chemical Biology Can Inform Oncology Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this webinar panelists provide an overview of how chemical biology can impact cancer research and describe their own research using small molecules to elucidate signaling pathways and characterize their component proteins.

n/a n/a (AAAS;)

2011-05-03

130

New Directions for Learning Community Assessment and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the 12th Annual National Learning Communities Conference in November 2007, Juan Carlos Huerta, Gale Stuart, Lauren Chism, and Michele Hansen participated in a panel discussion about new directions in learning communities assessment and research. The intent of the panel discussion was to hear from those involved in learning community assessment,…

Huerta, Juan Carlos

2008-01-01

131

Identifying Community Needs and Resources in a Native Community: A Research Partnership in the Pacific Northwest  

PubMed Central

Indigenous communities have engaged in needs and resources assessments for thousands of years. By blending CBPR/TPR approaches with community-driven assets and needs assessments, academic and community based researchers can work together to better understand and identify community strengths as well as issues of concern in Native communities. This best practice approach can set research agendas that are relevant to Native communities and result in interventions and health promotion programs that are respectful of Tribal sovereignty and that incorporate unique traditions and strengths of Native communities. A successful research partnership to develop and implement a needs and resources assessment using CBPR/TPR approaches is presented using a case study that can be used as a model for other research partnerships.

Donovan, Dennis M.; Sigo, Robin L. W.

2012-01-01

132

Cell Biology: Basic Research and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers the following topics: Nuclear Genes: Regulation and function; Cytoplasm: Organelles and functions; Cell-cell interactions; Cell motility and the cytoskeleton; Mitochondria: Function and biogenesis; General plant cell biology; Chloroplast...

1986-01-01

133

A Research-Based Molecular Biology Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an apprenticeship-style course that mimics experiences in research laboratories and better reflects trends in educational reform, students perform team projects through collaboration with corporate research institutions. This research-based, student-ce

Buising, Charisse; Henderson, Larhee

2001-02-01

134

Postdoctoral Research Fellowships in Biological Informatics  

NSF Publications Database

Application Preparation Instructions: Applicants must submit applications for fellowships and proposals for research starter grants via FastLane. If, in the program staff's judgment, the submitted research is substantially identical to the research in another application to NSF, including research proposals, the fellowship application will be returned without review. Proposals from former Fellows for research starter grants are submitted through the sponsored research office at the ...

135

The relationship between learning communities and student interaction and retention in general biology courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between learning communities and student interaction and retention in community college general biology courses was investigated in this study. The purposes of the study were to discover the students' perceptions of factors influencing their desire to study science, and to examine the use of learning communities as a method of enculturation into the field of science. The learning

Karen Marie Wardle

2003-01-01

136

Virtual community influence consumer purchase decision research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of virtual community has become more important to consumers purchase decision. But which factors of virtual community are very important?¤ In our study, we therefore use SEM to test three factors, such as information, member and platform. We found that professional or experiential information??ease use system are significant correlation with the purchase decisions. Keywords-purchase decision;virtual community;SEM

Hongxin Li; Xueyan Yang

2011-01-01

137

Implementing Community-Based Participatory Research with Two Ethnic Minority Communities in Kansas City, Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been shown to improve aspects of health promotion initiatives. This case study examines the effects of a CBPR intervention on intermediate outcomes (changes in the community) related to preventing health disparities and chronic disease. We describe how the Kansas City-Chronic Disease Coalition used CBPR methods to help bring about community changes to reduce risk for

Jerry Schultz; Vicki Collie-Akers; Cesareo Fernandez; Stephen Fawcett; Marianne Ronan

2009-01-01

138

Data Management for Community Research Projects: A JGOFS Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the mid 1980s, much of the marine science research effort in the United Kingdom has been focused into large scale collaborative projects involving public sector laboratories and university departments, termed Community Research Projects. Two of thes...

R. K. Lowry

1992-01-01

139

Balancing Scientific and Community Interests in Community-Based Participatory Research  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research is an approach to studying human populations that emphasizes extensive partnerships between researchers and community members. While there are many advantages of this approach, it also faces a number of conceptual and practical challenges, one of which is managing the conflict that sometimes arises between promoting scientific and community interests. This essay explores the potential conflict between scientific and community interests in several different stages of community-based participatory research, including research design, data interpretation, and publication, and makes some suggestions for practice and policy. To manage potential conflicts between scientific and community interests, investigators and community partners should enter into written agreements at the beginning of the study. In some cases, it may be necessary for a third party, such as a review committee from a supporting institution, the community, or a funding agency, to help investigators and community partners resolve disagreements. It may also be useful, in some situations, to publish a dissenting opinion when investigators and community partners cannot agree on how to interpret findings resulting from a study. These strategies may help address some of the challenges of implementing community-based participatory research.

Resnik, David B.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.

2011-01-01

140

Evaluation of a Research Mentorship Program in Community Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the results of a qualitative case study evaluating a research mentorship program in community care settings in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of the program was to build evaluation and research capacity among staff of community care agencies through a mentorship program. Data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured…

Ploeg, Jenny; de Witt, Lorna; Hutchison, Brian; Hayward, Lynda; Grayson, Kim

2008-01-01

141

Future Directions in Community Power Research: A Colloquium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of symposium papers on community power structure research focuses on the theme that community power structure research must shift away from case study methods and move toward aggregate data analysis. Advocating comparative analysis, seven authors present their views under the following topics: (1) Charles R. Adrian, "Several Loose…

Wirt, Frederick M., Ed.

142

DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY-BASED PARTNERSHIPS IN MINORITY AGING RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research (RCMAR) initiative was established in 1997 and currently includes six centers across the United States. The model of community engagement developed by all the RCMARs is Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR). This supplement explores the diverse methods of partnership building in each RCMAR and highlights some of the successes and challenges encountered in

Olveen Carrasquillo; Letha A. Chadiha

2007-01-01

143

Theoretical Trajectories within Communities of Practice in Higher Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the role of theory in higher education research is problematised using a communities of practice framework. Drawing on a case study derived from the author's own published work and doctoral study, the article concludes that the differential uses of theory within communities of research practice can be fruitfully explored, in part,…

Tummons, Jonathan

2012-01-01

144

Community engagement in Prevention Research: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Prevention Research Centers' National Community Committee.  

PubMed

The Prevention Research Centers (PRC) Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supports prevention research using community-based participatory research (CBPR) and other community engagement approaches. This paper describes the development of the PRC's National Community Committee (NCC), how the committee strengthened the national program's commitment to CBPR, the impact the committee's activities have had on national initiatives, and the lessons learned from supporting a national community approach in a prevention research program. Community representatives from each PRC's community committee were invited to share and exchange resources, knowledge, and skills to guide the national program. As a result, the NCC was developed. By embracing diversity, building capacity among members, and offering co-learning opportunities, the NCC helped to strengthen the practice of CBPR. The committee's activities helped to ensure community participation at the program's national level and led to involvement in other prevention research initiatives external to the PRC program. Program and committee leaders maintained a shared vision and increased community members' skills. The PRC NCC has taken the concept of community partnership to a national level and has changed the way some community members understand their role in research. PMID:20208303

White-Cooper, Sharrice; Lewis, E Yvonne; Greene-Moton, Ella; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Gray, Barbara

2009-01-01

145

Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which may help scientists to find an appropriate research site for potential cooperation projects. Currently, the website is becoming revised and updated. Up to now the LRG counts 485 registered members from 54 countries. Registration is possible free of charge via www.lysimeter.at. The LRG wants to attract new members from all over the world, intensify co-operation with other research groups, and enhance and support new and innovative ideas and technologies in lysimeter research.

Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

2014-05-01

146

Structural biology research at the National Synchroton Light Source  

SciTech Connect

The world`s foremost facility for scientific research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation is operated by the national synchrotron Light Source Department. This year alone, a total of 2200 guest researchers performed experiments at the world`s largest source of synchrotron light. Researchers are trying to define the three- dimensional structures of biological macromolecules to create a map of life, a guide for exploring the biological and chemical interactions of the vast variety of molecules found in living organisms. Studies in structural biology may lead to new insights into how biological systems are formed and nourished, how they survive and grow, how they are damaged and die. This document discusses some the the structural biological research done at the National Synchrotron Light Source.

NONE

1996-05-01

147

Microfluidic tools for cell biological research  

PubMed Central

Summary Microfluidic technology is creating powerful tools for cell biologists to control the complete cellular microenvironment, leading to new questions and new discoveries. We review here the basic concepts and methodologies in designing microfluidic devices, and their diverse cell biological applications.

Velve-Casquillas, Guilhem; Le Berre, Mael; Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.

2010-01-01

148

Community Researchers Conducting Health Disparities Research: Ethical and other insights from fieldwork journaling  

PubMed Central

Lay persons who are trained to conduct research in their own communities form an essential part of many research projects. However, the effects of conducting research in their own communities have not been adequately explored. This paper examines the experiences, perceptions, and challenges faced by a group of community researchers during their involvement in a research project that examined if, and how, the relationships between mothers and their adolescent daughters could be harnessed to develop a daughter-initiated cervical cancer intervention. Seven community researchers interviewed 157 mother-daughter pairs in Cape Town, South Africa. We examine the use of journaling as a tool to document the experiences of community researchers, and we consider how journaling may help the community-based researcher grapple with the research process, and, more broadly, what such journal content illustrates with respect to the nature and challenges of community-engaged health research. An analysis of the content of the journals provides a strong indication of how personal and intimate the research process can be for community researchers by virtue of the background that they bring into the process as well as the additional weight of the research process itself. The complexities of navigating dual and somewhat oppositional roles – the role of impartial scientist or researcher and the role of invested community person - has been both underestimated and insufficiently researched.

Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ahmed, Rashid; Daniels, Doria; Simon, Christian

2011-01-01

149

Balancing Community and University Aims in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Pacific Islander Youth Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) holds the promise of improving the planning, conduct, and long-term translation of research findings into community settings.Objectives: This 2-year, exploratory study applied CBPR structures and processes to the identification of individual, cultural and community factors associated with obesity among Pacific Islander (PI) youth in Southern California.Methods: We describe the CBPR principles and strategies used by

Jonathan Lepule; Greta Briand; Jan Eichenauer; Vaka Faletau; Lianne Nacpil; Lenny Wiersma; Sora Park Tanjasiri

2011-01-01

150

Balancing Community and University Aims in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Pacific Islander Youth Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) holds the promise of improving the planning, conduct, and long-term translation of research findings into community settings. Objectives: This 2-year, exploratory study applied CBPR structures and processes to the identification of individual, cultural and community factors associated with obesity among Pacific Islander (PI) youth in Southern California. Methods: We describe the CBPR principles and strategies

Jonathan Lepule; Greta Briand; Jan Eichenauer; Vaka Faletau; Lianne Nacpil; Lenny Wiersma; Sora Park Tanjasiri

2011-01-01

151

Community-Based Participatory Research With Native American Communities: The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health disparities among Native Americans persist despite efforts to translate evidence-based programs from research to practice. Few evidence-based, theory-driven prevention and management interventions have been successfully translated within Native American communities. The use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) has shown promise in this process. This article provides an overview of the use of CBPR with Native American communities and discusses

Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan

2010-01-01

152

Community-Partnered Research Conference Model: The Experience of Community Partners in Care Study  

PubMed Central

The Problem Conducting community-partnered research conferences is a powerful yet underutilized approach to translating research into practice and improving result dissemination and intervention sustainability strategies. Nonetheless, detailed descriptions of conference features and ways to use them in empirical research are rare. Purpose of Article We describe how community-partnered conferences may be integrated into research projects by using an example of Community Partners in Care, a large cluster-randomized controlled trial that uses Community Partnered Participatory Research principles. Key Points Our conceptual model illustrates the role community-partnered research conferences may play in three study phases and describes how different conference features may increase community engagement, build two-way capacity, and ensure equal project ownership. Conclusion(s) As the number of community-partnered studies grows, so too does the need for practical tools to support this work. Community-partnered research conferences may be effectively employed in translational research to increase two-way capacity-building and promote long-term intervention success.

Khodyakov, Dmitry; Pulido, Esmeralda; Ramos, Ana; Dixon, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

153

Community-partnered research conference model: the experience of community partners in care study.  

PubMed

The Problem: Conducting community-partnered research conferences is a powerful yet underutilized approach to translating research into practice and improving result dissemination and intervention sustainability strategies. Nonetheless, detailed descriptions of conference features and ways to use them in empirical research are rare.Purpose: We describe how community-partnered conferences may be integrated into research projects by using an example of Community Partners in Care (CPIC), a large, cluster-randomized, controlled, trial (RCT) that uses community-partnered participatory research (CPPR) principles.Key Points: Our conceptual model illustrates the role community-partnered research conferences may play in three study phases and describes how different conference features may increase community engagement, build two-way capacity, and ensure equal project ownership.Conclusions: As the number of community-partnered studies grows, so too does the need for practical tools to support this work. Community-partnered research conferences may be effectively employed in translational research to increase two-way capacity building and promote long-term intervention success. PMID:24859106

Khodyakov, Dmitry; Pulido, Esmeralda; Ramos, Ana; Dixon, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

154

EPA priorities for biologic markers research in environmental health  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology allow for measurement of biologic events or substances that may provide markers of exposure, effect, or susceptibility in humans. The application of these new and emerging techniques to environmental health offers the possibility of significantly reducing the uncertainties that traditionally hamper risk assessments. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health research program emphasizes the validation of appropriate biologic markers and their application to high-priority Agency issues. The rationale for EPA's biomarker research program is presented, and future research directions are discussed. Exposure biomarkers will receive most of the research emphasis in the near term, particularly body burden indicators of exposure to high-priority chemicals, such as benzene, ozone, selected heavy metals, and organophosphate pesticides. Research on effects biomarkers will attempt to validate the relationship between the observed biological effects and adverse health consequences in humans, especially for cancer, pulmonary toxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive/developmental toxicity.

Fowle, J.R. III; Sexton, K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-11-01

155

Nutrition research in rural communities: application of ethical principles.  

PubMed

This narrative review focuses on ethics related to nutrition-specific community-based research, within the framework of science for society, and focusing on the rights and well-being of fieldworkers and research participants. In addition to generally accepted conditions of scientific validity, such as adequate sample size, unbiased measurement outcome and suitable study population, research needs to be appropriate and feasible within the local context. Communities' suspicions about research can be overcome through community participation and clear dialogue. Recruitment of fieldworkers and research participants should be transparent and guided by project-specific selection criteria. Fieldworkers need to be adequately trained, their daily schedules and remuneration must be realistic, and their inputs to the study must be recognized. Fieldworkers may be negatively affected emotionally, financially and physically. Benefits to research participants may include physical and psychological benefits, minimal economic benefit, and health education; while risks may be of a physical, psychological, social, or economic nature. Targeting individuals in high-risk groups may result in social stigmatization. The time burden to the research participant can be minimized by careful attention to study procedures and questionnaire design. Potential benefits to the community, fieldworkers and research participants and anticipated knowledge to be gained should outweigh and justify the potential risks. Researchers should have an exit strategy for study participants. For effective dissemination of results to individual research participants, the host community and nutrition community, the language, format and level of presentation need to be appropriate for the target audience. PMID:22591024

Faber, Mieke; Kruger, H Salomé

2013-10-01

156

Refining the research infrastructure at community health centers.  

PubMed

Background: Community health centers (CHC) often partner with academics to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR). Because of their research expertise, academic partners are usually the principal investigators (PIs); however, moving the home base of research to the community can prove beneficial to the CHC and its community.Objectives: The purpose of this paper was to discuss the lessons learned after conducting a CBPR project and to share identified solutions.Methods: A longitudinal perinatal risk reduction intervention study was conducted with primiparous Native Hawaiian women receiving prenatal care at a CHC. The intervention incorporated home visiting, social support, and lactation management.Results: Primary lessons learned from this participatory process can be grouped into infrastructure, human resources, and recruitment.Conclusions: Sharing lessons learned can serve to expand a CHC's involvement in research, and provide a venue for discovering innovative and viable community and practice based approaches to solving health disparity challenges. PMID:24859103

Oneha, Mary Frances; Dodgson, Joan E

2014-01-01

157

Alaska Native people's perceptions, understandings, and expectations for research involving biological specimens  

PubMed Central

Objectives Members of racially and ethnically diverse groups have been persistently underrepresented in biomedical research in general, possibly due to mistrust with the medical and research community. This article describes the perceptions, understandings, and expectations of Alaska Native people about research involving the collection and storage of biological specimens. Study design Stratified focus groups. Methods Twenty-nine focus groups with Alaska Native people (n = 178) were held in 14 locations using a semi-structured moderator guide. ATLAS.ti was used for thematic analysis through iterative readings and coding. Alaska Native peoples’ perceptions, understandings, and expectations of researcher beneficence, informed consent processes, and provision of research findings were elicited. Results and conclusions Alaska Native people desired extensive disclosure of information beyond that typically provided in consent and results dissemination processes. Information germane to the motivation and intent of researchers and specifics of specimen storage and destruction were specifically requested. A clear and extensive process of informed consent and continued improvements in sharing results may enhance the transparency of research intent, conduct, and use of obtained results among Alaska Native people. Meeting expectations may improve relationships between researchers and the Alaska Native population which could result in increased research participation. Our findings offer a guide for researchers and communities when planning and implementing research with biological specimens.

Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Brown, Jennifer K.; Hoeft, Theresa J.; Dillard, Denise A.

2012-01-01

158

Biology in Context: Teachers' Professional Development in Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biology in Context ("bik") is a project that aims to improve biology teaching in lower secondary schools in Germany. Based on a theoretical framework derived from the National Educational Standards, four competence areas should be fostered in biology education: subject knowledge; inquiry acquisition; subject-related communication; and valuing and…

Elster, Doris

2009-01-01

159

Electrical and chemical sensors for biological cell research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical and chemical microsensors for biological cell research allow for the continuous study of biological systems under normal physiological conditions. Two sensor technologies which take most advantage of microfabrication technology are discussed. One is being developed for monitoring the environment of cancer cells during radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia treatment. Of current interest is the measurement of temperature and interstitial free

D. J. Edell; V. M. McNeil; M. G. Curley; J. H. Wolfe

1986-01-01

160

Low Charge-State AMS for Biological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

University collaborations and internal research programs that trace isotopically labeled compounds in natural biological systems have grown significantly in the past few years. New research in molecular nutrition, protein sequencing, immunoassays, and toxicology now require hundreds to thousands of sample analyses per project. The goal of this effort was to strengthen this Laboratory and University health related research by the

J S Vogel; T Ognibene; M Roberts; T Brown; A Clifford; D Espinosa; Y Lin

2001-01-01

161

Engaging Communities in Education and Research PBRNs, AHEC, and CTSA  

PubMed Central

Background Community engagement has become a prominent element in medical research and is an important component of the Clinical and Translational Science Awards program. Area Health Education Centers engage communities in education and workforce development. Methods Engaging Communities in Education and Research(ECER) is a successful collaboration among the Colorado Area Health Education Center (AHEC), the Colorado Clinical Translational Science Institute (CCTSI), and Shared Network of Collaborative Ambulatory Practices and Partners (SNOCAP)—Colorado’s practice-based research collaborative. The ECER Conference is an annual conference of community members, health care providers, clinical preceptors, AHEC board members, university faculty, primary care investigators, program administrators and community organization leaders. Results 300–440 participants each year representing all regions of Colorado. Several projects from the “new ideas” break out session have been developed and completed. Six-month follow-up provided evidence of numerous new collaborations, campus-community partnerships, and developing research projects. Several new collaborations highlight the long-term nature of building on relationships started at the ECER Conference. Discussion and Conclusion Engaging Communities in Education and Research has been a successful collaboration to develop and support campus-community collaborations in Colorado. While seemingly just a simple 3-day conference, we have found that this event has lead to many important partnerships.

Westfall, John M.; Ingram, Beth; Navarro, Daniel; Magee, Deidre; Niebauer, Linda; Zittleman, Linda; Fernald, Douglas; Pace, Wilson

2012-01-01

162

Stem cell research: biology, ethics, and policy.  

PubMed

Human stem cell research may have many promising benefits, including giving us the ability to regenerate human tissue and organs, understand the process of early human development, and provide better models to test new drugs. However, it is very controversial and in many cases presently illegal because stem cells may be derived from human embryos or from a cloning process. This paper outlines the various techniques which may be used for deriving stem cells, the ethical problems such research presents, and suggestions for creating policy for human stem cells research. PMID:11936141

Micielli, R

2000-01-01

163

Community-Based Participatory Research in Practice-Based Research Networks  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE We wanted to describe community-based participatory research in practice-based research networks in the United States. METHODS We surveyed all identified practice-based research networks (PBRNs) in the United States to find out whether they had a mechanism for obtaining feedback or involvement from the community of patients served by PBRN physicians. We asked open-ended questions on how they involve community members and whether they had plans for future involvement of community members and/or patients. RESULTS We received 46 completed questionnaires (71% response rate). Twenty-four reported that they have some mechanism to involve community members and/or patients in their research. No PBRN reported full participatory methods; however, several PBRNs reported active involvement by community members to generate research ideas, review research protocols, interpret results, and disseminate findings. CONCLUSION While perhaps not meeting the classical definition of CBPR, some PBRNs are involving community members and patients in their research. There is a wide spectrum of involvement by community members in PBRN research. Many PBRNs reported plans to involve community members in their research. We believe that community involvement will enhance PBRN research.

Westfall, John M.; VanVorst, Rebecca F.; Main, Deborah S.; Herbert, Carol

2006-01-01

164

Capacity building for health through community-based participatory nutrition intervention research in rural communities.  

PubMed

Since its inception, capacity building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative, a tri-state collaboration in the Lower Mississippi Delta to address high rates of chronic disease. Textual analysis of project documents identifies and describes strategies carried out to foster capacity building. Strategies to build community capacity include fostering participation, cultivating leadership opportunities, training community members as co-researchers, securing community resources, and implementing the intervention together. Incorporating capacity-building approaches in health promotion and nutrition-intervention programming in rural communities provides a means to enhance potential for sustainability of health outcomes and developed effectiveness. PMID:20531098

Downey, Laura H; Castellanos, Diana Cuy; Yadrick, Kathy; Threadgill, Paula; Kennedy, Betty; Strickland, Earline; Prewitt, T Elaine; Bogle, Margaret

2010-01-01

165

Structural Biology and Molecular Medicine Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investiga...

2008-01-01

166

International Research: Its Role in Environmental Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes an international research laboratory to investigate environmental factors in human health. By international cooperation unnecessary duplication and waste of resources can be avoided and long-term studies can examine various world-wide environments. (JM)

Higginson, John

1970-01-01

167

Entering research: A course that creates community and structure for beginning undergraduate researchers in the STEM disciplines.  

PubMed

Undergraduate research experiences have been shown to enhance the educational experience and retention of college students, especially those from underrepresented populations. However, many challenges still exist relative to building community among students navigating large institutions. We developed a novel course called Entering Research that creates a learning community to support beginning undergraduate researchers and is designed to parallel the Entering Mentoring course for graduate students, postdocs, and faculty serving as mentors of undergraduate researchers. The course serves as a model that can be easily adapted for use across the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines using a readily available facilitator's manual. Course evaluations and rigorous assessment show that the Entering Research course helps students in many ways, including finding a mentor, understanding their place in a research community, and connecting their research to their course work in the biological and physical sciences. Students in the course reported statistically significant gains in their skills, knowledge, and confidence as researchers compared with a control group of students, who also were engaged in undergraduate research but not enrolled in this course. In addition, the faculty and staff members who served as facilitators of the Entering Research course described their experience as rewarding and one they would recommend to their colleagues. PMID:20516356

Balster, Nicholas; Pfund, Christine; Rediske, Raelyn; Branchaw, Janet

2010-01-01

168

Entering Research: A Course That Creates Community and Structure for Beginning Undergraduate Researchers in the STEM Disciplines  

PubMed Central

Undergraduate research experiences have been shown to enhance the educational experience and retention of college students, especially those from underrepresented populations. However, many challenges still exist relative to building community among students navigating large institutions. We developed a novel course called Entering Research that creates a learning community to support beginning undergraduate researchers and is designed to parallel the Entering Mentoring course for graduate students, postdocs, and faculty serving as mentors of undergraduate researchers. The course serves as a model that can be easily adapted for use across the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines using a readily available facilitator's manual. Course evaluations and rigorous assessment show that the Entering Research course helps students in many ways, including finding a mentor, understanding their place in a research community, and connecting their research to their course work in the biological and physical sciences. Students in the course reported statistically significant gains in their skills, knowledge, and confidence as researchers compared with a control group of students, who also were engaged in undergraduate research but not enrolled in this course. In addition, the faculty and staff members who served as facilitators of the Entering Research course described their experience as rewarding and one they would recommend to their colleagues.

Balster, Nicholas; Pfund, Christine; Rediske, Raelyn

2010-01-01

169

Integrating research and education at research-extensive universities with research-intensive communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the Boyer Commission (1998) lamented the lack of research opportunities for all undergraduates at research-extensive universities, it did not provide a feasible solution consistent with the mandate for faculty to maintain sustainable physiology research programs. The costs associated with one-on-one mentoring, and the lack of a sufficient number of faculty members to give intensive attention to undergraduate researchers, make one-on-one mentoring impractical. We therefore developed and implemented the "research-intensive community" model with the aim of aligning diverse goals of participants while simultaneously optimizing research productivity. The fundamental organizational unit is a team consisting of one graduate student and three undergraduates from different majors, supervised by a faculty member. Undergraduate workshops, Graduate Leadership Forums, and computer-mediated communication provide an infrastructure to optimize programmatic efficiency and sustain a multilevel, interdisciplinary community of scholars dedicated to research. While the model radically increases the number of undergraduates that can be supported by a single faculty member, the inherent resilience and scalability of the resulting complex adaptive system enables a research-intensive community program to evolve and grow.

Ketaki V Desai (Texas A&M University Michael E DeBakery Institute); Sarah N Gatson (Texas A&M University Sociology); Thomas W Stiles (Texas A&M University Teaching, Learning, and Culture); Randolph H Stewart (Texas A&M University Michael E. DeBakery Institute); PhD Glen A. Laine (Texas A&M Univ Col Vet Med); Christopher M Quick (Texas A&M University Michael E. DeBakey Institute)

2008-03-26

170

University and Community Research Partnerships: A New Approach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, more and more organizations have become interested in partnerships forged between institutions of higher education and local community-based organizations. Released in late 2003, this 48-page report from the Pew Partnership for Civic Change (spearheaded by Jacqueline Dugery) investigated university-community research partnerships at 19 sites around the United States. Some of these community organizations included groups working in the areas of job training, commercial revitalization, youth mentoring, and job transportation. In order to place these findings in a broader context, the Pew Partnership (in collaboration with the University of Virginia) convened a number of individuals in October 2002 to discuss "the potential for these university-community research partnerships." These remarks are summarized within the body of this paper, along with an explication of a new research model for assessment and evaluation for use by community organizations and local institutions of higher learning developed by the Pew Partnership for Civic Change.

171

Biological research on fire in the West  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildland fires are a natural feature of many ecosystems, including grasslands, forests, and shrublands. How-ever, years of fire exclusion have led to accumulations of dead fuels and increases in the density of fire-intolerant species. In most western states, recent fires burning in these altered ecosystems have caused significant damage and huge economic losses to homes, busi-nesses, and communities. They also have dis-turbed forests and rangelands as well as their associated watersheds, plants, and animals. Every western state is concerned about dam-age from such catastrophic fires, and there is strong interest from all sectors in prevent-ing and reducing the resulting damage in the future. There is also interest in the use of fire as a management tool for reducing hazards and restoring damaged ecosystems and for returning fire to its natural role in wilderness ecosystems.

U.S. Geological Survey

2005-01-01

172

Rural community-academic partnership model for community engagement and partnered research | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Numerous studies were undertaken by the partnership including surveys of attitudes and barriers to clinical trial participation, access to trials, biobanking issues, and patient navigation performed by community health workers for cancer screening. The partnership conducted formative research in the rural communities on the topic of biospecimen donation. Findings indicated that informed consent preferences and privacy concerns were significant factors related to distrust of researchers who do research with biospecimens, especially when the specimens are stored for future use in genetics studies.

173

Profiling the EG Research Community and Its Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic Government Research (EGR) has progressed beyond its stages of infancy and has unfolded into a respected domain of multi- and cross-disciplinary study. A sizable and dedicated community of researchers has formed. So far, however, few, if any, accounts exist which sufficiently analyze the profile of the electronic government research community. The contribution of this paper is to describe this profile and give a detailed account of the core researcher community, name the most prolific researchers, determine their disciplinary backgrounds, and identify their preferred standards of inquiry. The study also identifies and quantifies the preferred publishing outlets in EGR, distinguishing between core journals and core conferences, on the one hand, and non-core sites, on the other hand. This study advances the understanding of the emerging structure and profile of the academic domain of EGR and helps researchers identify adequate publishing outlets for their domain-related research.

Scholl, Hans J. (Jochen)

174

Developing Effective Social Work University-Community Research Collaborations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many instances, departments of social work in universities and community-based social services agencies have common interests in improving professional practice and advancing knowledge in the profession. Effective university-community research collaborations can help partners achieve these goals jointly, but to be effective these collaborative…

Begun, Audrey L.; Berger, Lisa K.; Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Rose, Susan J.

2010-01-01

175

Participatory Research for Chronic Disease Prevention in Inuit Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To develop a community-based chronic disease prevention program for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. Methods: Stakeholders contributed to intervention development through formative research [in-depth interviews (n = 45), dietary recalls (n = 42)], community workshops, group feedback and implementation training. Results: Key cultural themes…

Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Kratzmann, Meredith; Reid, Rhonda; Ogina, Julia; Sharma, Sangita

2010-01-01

176

Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners' readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions…

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia

2012-01-01

177

Improving Educational Aspirations and Outcomes through Community Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how a community action research approach supported the implementation of an educational support programme for children, parents and local educators. The aim was the creation of a learning community that acknowledged, valued and used the expertise and experience of all involved. The action reflection cycle informed the…

Bleach, Josephine

2013-01-01

178

The Systems Biology Research Tool: evolvable open-source software  

PubMed Central

Background Research in the field of systems biology requires software for a variety of purposes. Software must be used to store, retrieve, analyze, and sometimes even to collect the data obtained from system-level (often high-throughput) experiments. Software must also be used to implement mathematical models and algorithms required for simulation and theoretical predictions on the system-level. Results We introduce a free, easy-to-use, open-source, integrated software platform called the Systems Biology Research Tool (SBRT) to facilitate the computational aspects of systems biology. The SBRT currently performs 35 methods for analyzing stoichiometric networks and 16 methods from fields such as graph theory, geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. New computational techniques can be added to the SBRT via process plug-ins, providing a high degree of evolvability and a unifying framework for software development in systems biology. Conclusion The Systems Biology Research Tool represents a technological advance for systems biology. This software can be used to make sophisticated computational techniques accessible to everyone (including those with no programming ability), to facilitate cooperation among researchers, and to expedite progress in the field of systems biology.

Wright, Jeremiah; Wagner, Andreas

2008-01-01

179

Building research capacity in south-west Sydney through a Primary and Community Health Research Unit.  

PubMed

The Primary and Community Health Research Unit was established in 2010 in south-west Sydney to build research capacity in primary and community health services and help generate evidence to underpin clinical activities. In 2011, six project teams participated in a 12-month researcher mentoring program, undertaking projects in quality improvement and service evaluation. Project teams were linked with academic mentors and participated in four research skill development workshops covering research design, research ethics, statistical analysis and academic writing. All project teams presented their work at two or more research conferences, and all are preparing manuscripts for publication in peer-reviewed journals. The Primary and Community Health Research Unit's approach to research capacity building in primary and community health services appears to be effective in supporting novice researchers to undertake research in their clinical settings. Sustainability is dependent on securing ongoing funding. Further analysis is needed to identify strengths and weaknesses of this approach. PMID:23050636

Friesen, Emma L; Comino, Elizabeth J; Reath, Jennifer; Derrett, Alison; Johnson, Maree; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Teng-Liaw, Siaw; Kemp, Lynn

2014-01-01

180

Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Ameliorate Cancer Disparities  

PubMed Central

Although much attention has been paid to health disparities in the past decades, interventions to ameliorate disparities have been largely unsuccessful. One reason is that the interventions have not been culturally tailored to the disparity populations whose problems they are meant to address. Community-engaged research has been successful in improving the outcomes of racial and ethnic minority groups and thus has great potential for decreasing between-group health disparities. In this article, the authors argue that a type of community-engaged research, community-based participatory research (CBPR), is particularly useful for social workers doing health disparities research because of its flexibility and degree of community engagement. After providing an overview of community research, the authors define the parameters of CBPR, using their own work in African American and white disparities in breast cancer mortality as an example of its application. Next, they outline the inherent challenges of CBPR to academic and community partnerships. The authors end with suggestions for developing and maintaining successful community and academic partnerships.

Gehlert, Sarah; Coleman, Robert

2010-01-01

181

Community College Institutional Research: What, Why, and How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis is provided of institutional research conducted by community colleges in an effort to draw conclusions about appropriate standards for different types of studies. The paper focuses on four categories of research: (1) research conducted to fulfill external reporting requirements and to influence policy at state and federal levels; (2)…

Frydenberg, Jia

182

Cooperation in Research in the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work studies the legal instruments for cooperative research granted to Euratom under the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, and the conditions whereby concrete use was made of these instruments. This assessment of Euratom's eff...

P. Marka

1977-01-01

183

Community Capacity Building and Sustainability: Outcomes of Community-Based Participatory Research  

PubMed Central

Background For communities, the value of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is often manifested in the outcomes of increased capacity and sustainable adoption of evidence-based practices for social change. Educational opportunities that promote discourse between community and academic partners can help to advance CBPR and better define these outcomes. Objectives This paper describes a community–academic conference to develop shared definitions of community capacity building and sustainability related to CBPR and to identify obstacles and facilitators to both. Methods “Taking It to the Curbside: Engaging Communities to Create Sustainable Change for Health” was planned by five Clinical Translational Science Institutes and four community organizations. After a keynote presentation, breakout groups of community and academic members met to define community capacity building and sustainability, and to identify facilitators and barriers to achieving both. Groups were facilitated by researcher–community partner teams and conversations were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis for thematic content was conducted by a subset of the planning committee. Results Important findings included learning that (1) the concepts of capacity and sustainability were considered interconnected; (2) partnership was perceived as both a facilitator and an outcome of CBPR; (3) sustainability was linked to “transfer of knowledge” from one generation to another within a community; and (4) capacity and sustainability were enhanced when goals were shared and health outcomes were achieved. Conclusions Community capacity building and sustainability are key outcomes of CBPR for communities. Co-learning opportunities that engage and mutually educate both community members and academics can be useful strategies for identifying meaningful strategies to achieve these outcomes.

Hacker, Karen; Tendulkar, Shalini A.; Rideout, Catlin; Bhuiya, Nazmim; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Savage, Clara P.; Grullon, Milagro; Strelnick, Hal; Leung, Carolyn; DiGirolamo, Ann

2013-01-01

184

Spatial succession modeling of biological communities: a multi-model approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong spatial correlation may exist in the spatial succession of biological communities, and the spatial succession can be\\u000a mathematically described. It was confirmed by our study on spatial succession of both plant and arthropod communities along\\u000a a linear transect of natural grassland. Both auto-correlation and cross-correlation analyses revealed that the succession\\u000a of plant and arthropod communities exhibited a significant spatial

WenJun Zhang; Wu Wei

2009-01-01

185

A Small Grants Program to Involve Communities in Research  

PubMed Central

A key tenet of community-based participatory research is that communities be involved in all facets of research, from defining the problem to identifying solutions, to assisting in the research, and to participating in the publication of results. In this study, we instituted a small grants program for community participation. A Request for Applications (RFA) was developed and circulated widely throughout the Valley. The RFA sought proposals to address health disparities in cancer education, prevention, and treatment among Hispanics living in the Valley. Funds available were $2,500.00–3,500.00 for 1 year’s worth of work. To help evaluate the progress of the RFA community projects according to the perspectives of the Community Advisory Board (CAB), an open-ended, semi-structured interview was created and administered by a former staff member to CAB members. In 4 years, ten small grants proposed by community members were funded. Funds allocated totaled approximately $25,000. Interviews with CAB members indicated that the RFA program was perceived positively, but there were concerns about sustainability. Our community grants program resulted in the implementation of several novel cancer prevention programs conducted by a variety of community organizations in the Lower Yakima Valley.

Thompson, Beti; Ondelacy, Stephanie; Godina, Ruby; Coronado, Gloria D.

2010-01-01

186

A small grants program to involve communities in research.  

PubMed

A key tenet of community-based participatory research is that communities be involved in all facets of research, from defining the problem to identifying solutions, to assisting in the research, and to participating in the publication of results. In this study, we instituted a small grants program for community participation. A Request for Applications (RFA) was developed and circulated widely throughout the Valley. The RFA sought proposals to address health disparities in cancer education, prevention, and treatment among Hispanics living in the Valley. Funds available were $2,500.00-3,500.00 for 1 year's worth of work. To help evaluate the progress of the RFA community projects according to the perspectives of the Community Advisory Board (CAB), an open-ended, semi-structured interview was created and administered by a former staff member to CAB members. In 4 years, ten small grants proposed by community members were funded. Funds allocated totaled approximately $25,000. Interviews with CAB members indicated that the RFA program was perceived positively, but there were concerns about sustainability. Our community grants program resulted in the implementation of several novel cancer prevention programs conducted by a variety of community organizations in the Lower Yakima Valley. PMID:20146091

Thompson, Beti; Ondelacy, Stephanie; Godina, Ruby; Coronado, Gloria D

2010-06-01

187

A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

2008-01-01

188

Research Students and Community Development: The Challenges of Integrating Academic Expectations with Community Needs and Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While universities can play a major role in advancing research-based community development, academic discourses of rigor, quality and ethics often conflict with the participatory and collaborative approaches required by community development principles. While experienced academics often have difficulty negotiating these issues, they present…

Darcy, Michael; Nicholls, Ruth; Roffey, Christopher; Rogers, Dallas

2008-01-01

189

Translational Research in Action: Implementation of the Communities that Care Prevention System in 12 Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translational research (Pentz, Jasuja, Rohrbach, Sussman, & Bardo, 2006; Woolf, 2008) is concerned with moving advances in prevention science into everyday practice in communities, yet there are few models for ensuring this transfer of knowledge. Communities That Care (CTC) provides a planned, structured, and data-driven system that trains…

Fagan, Abigail A.; Hanson, Koren; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael W.

2009-01-01

190

Social Change, the Future of the Community College, and the Future of Community College Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the social forces acting upon community colleges, this paper reviews possible modes of response by the colleges, focusing specifically on the role of institutional research. The first section presents an overview of the social forces affecting community colleges, discussing the 16% increase in two-year college enrollments in the…

Levin, Bernard H.

191

The Biology of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study in Community Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a project for the Biology of HIV/AIDS course for undergraduate biology majors. This project challenged science students to engage the community on two different levels. They first had to interact directly and personally with HIV/AIDS activists. The proposal then encouraged them to think about and describe ways of engaging a…

Caccavo, Frank, Jr.

2008-01-01

192

Ancillary Care in Community-Based Public Health Intervention Research  

PubMed Central

Community-based public health intervention research in developing countries typically takes place not in clinics but in people's homes and other living spaces. Research subjects and their communities may lack adequate nutrition, clean water, sanitation, and basic preventive and therapeutic services. Researchers often encounter unmet health needs in their interactions with individual subjects and need ethical guidelines to help them decide how to respond. To what extent do researchers have an ethical obligation to provide ancillary care—health care beyond what is necessary to ensure scientific validity and subjects' safety? We discuss a case example from Nepal and propose a simple 2-step sequence of questions to aid decision making.

Taylor, Holly A.; Mullany, Luke C.

2010-01-01

193

Finding middle ground: negotiating university and tribal community interests in community-based participatory research.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been hailed as an alternative approach to one-sided research endeavors that have traditionally been conducted on communities as opposed to with them. Although CBPR engenders numerous relationship strengths, through its emphasis on co-sharing, mutual benefit, and community capacity building, it is often challenging as well. In this article, we describe some of the challenges of implementing CBPR in a research project designed to prevent cardiovascular disease among an indigenous community in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and how we addressed them. Specifically, we highlight the process of collaboratively constructing a Research Protocol/Data Sharing Agreement and qualitative interview guide that addressed the concerns of both university and tribal community constituents. Establishing these two items was a process of negotiation that required: (i) balancing of individual, occupational, research, and community interests; (ii) definition of terminology (e.g., ownership of data); and (iii) extensive consideration of how to best protect research participants. Finding middle ground in CBPR requires research partners to examine and articulate their own assumptions and expectations, and nurture a relationship based on compromise to effectively meet the needs of each group. PMID:22530859

Mohammed, Selina A; Walters, Karina L; Lamarr, June; Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Fryberg, Sheryl

2012-06-01

194

Phylogeny, phylogeography, phylobetadiversity and the molecular analysis of biological communities  

PubMed Central

There has been much recent interest and progress in the characterization of community structure and community assembly processes through the application of phylogenetic methods. To date most focus has been on groups of taxa for which some relevant detail of their ecology is known, for which community composition is reasonably easily quantified and where the temporal scale is such that speciation is not likely to feature. Here, we explore how we might apply a molecular genetic approach to investigate community structure and assembly at broad taxonomic and geographical scales, where we have little knowledge of species ecology, where community composition is not easily quantified, and where speciation is likely to be of some importance. We explore these ideas using the class Collembola as a focal group. Gathering molecular evidence for cryptic diversity suggests that the ubiquity of many species of Collembola across the landscape may belie greater community complexity than would otherwise be assumed. However, this morphologically cryptic species-level diversity poses a challenge for attempts to characterize diversity both within and among local species assemblages. Recent developments in high throughput parallel sequencing technology, combined with mtDNA barcoding, provide an advance that can bring together the fields of phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis to bear on this problem. Such an approach could be standardized for analyses at any geographical scale for a range of taxonomic groups to quantify the formation and composition of species assemblages.

Emerson, Brent C.; Cicconardi, Francesco; Fanciulli, Pietro P.; Shaw, Peter J. A.

2011-01-01

195

VIMS Molluscan Ecology Oyster Reef Community Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Molluscan Ecology research program at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS). Research projects investigate cephalopods, coastal habitats, hard clams, oysters, and rapa whelks. Background information is given regarding the history of the research, including management efforts and associated publications. Maps of restoration areas are available in addition to information about molluscan educational materials (including instructional publications and cds). Fees apply for cds.

2011-10-04

196

UCSD-Scripps Institution of Oceanography: Marine Biology Research Division  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 1,000 staff members, an annual budget of nearly $150 million, and its own fleet of ships capable of global travel, Scripps Institution of Oceanography is one of the most significant homes of scientific inquiry in the world. As part of its many diverse efforts, Scripps operates the Marine Biology Research Division which is presented at this website. The site, while simply designed and easy to navigate, is a great resource for students and researchers interested in learning more about the research activities at Scripps. Those interested in a certain type of research can narrow down the division into its specific labs, such as Cell and Developmental Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Microbiology, and Physiology. Visitors to the site can also access the many sub-laboratories, each focusing on specific subjects, such as Sea Turtles, Bioluminescence, Coral Reef ecology, and tons more. This site is also reviewed in the July 9, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

197

Community engagement in biomedical research in an African setting: the Kintampo Health Research Centre experience  

PubMed Central

Background Community engagement (CE) is becoming relevant in health research activities; however, models for CE in health research are limited in developing countries. The Kintampo Health Research Centre (KHRC) conducts research to influence health policy locally and also internationally. Since its establishment in 1994 with the mandate of conducting relevant public health studies in the middle part of Ghana, KHRC has embarked on a series of clinical and operational studies involving community members. In these studies, community members have been engaged through community durbars before, during and also after all study implementations. Lessons learnt from these activities suggested the need to embark on further CE processes that could serve as a model for emerging research institutions based in African communities. Methods Interactive community durbars, workshops, in-depth discussions, focus group discussions and radio interactions were used as the main methods in the CE process. Results Community members outlined areas of research that they perceived as being of interest to them. Though community members expressed continual interest in our traditional areas of research in communicable, maternal, neonatal and child health, they were interested in new areas such as non- communicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. Misconceptions about KHRC and its research activities were identified and clarified. This research provided KHRC the opportunity to improve communication guidelines with the community and these are being used in engaging the community at various stages of our research, thus improving on the design and implementation of research. Conclusion KHRC has developed a culturally appropriate CE model based on mutual understanding with community members. The experience obtained in the CE process has contributed to building CE capacity in KHRC. Other health research institutions in developing countries could consider the experiences gained.

2013-01-01

198

Establishing a School-based Research Community (SRC) for Astronomy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A School-based Research Community brings students into explicit collaboration with education and public outreach (E/PO) activities of scientific organizations and thus unites educational and research components of the scientific community. This poster presents an account of the nature of an SRC, and of the conditions required for planting one. An overview is given of elements required to nurture and protect such a community, and in that context the role of wiki use in such a course will be highlighted. Finally, the kind of fruit to be expected from such a community will be presented, with examples provided from an SCR established at Saint Joseph's High School in South Bend, Indiana (now in its third year.) The advantages of situating astronomy research in the context of an interdisciplinary SCR will also be sketched.

Loughran, Thomas

2007-12-01

199

Mutualistic Interactions and Community Structure in Biological Metacommunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of space in determining species coexistence and community structure is well established. However, previous studies mainly focus on simple competition and predation systems, and the role of mutualistic interspecies interactions is not well understood. Here we use a spatially explicit metacommunity model, in which new species enter by a mutation process, to study the effect of fitness-dependent dispersal on the structure of communities with interactions comprising mutualism, competition, and exploitation [1]. We find that the diversity and interaction network undergo a nonequilibrium phase transition with increasing dispersal rate. Low dispersion rate favors spontaneous emergence of many dissimilar, strongly mutualistic and species-poor local communities. Due to the local dissimilarities, the global/ diversity is high. High dispersion rate promotes local biodiversity and supports similar, species-rich local communities with a wide range of interactions. The strong similarity between neighboring local communities leads to reduced global diversity. [4pt] [1]. E. Filotas, M. Grant, L. Parrott, P.A. Rikvold, J. Theor. Biol. 266, 419 (2010); Ecol. Modell. 221, 885 (2010).

Rikvold, Per Arne; Filotas, Elise; Grant, Martin; Parrott, Lael

2011-03-01

200

Conceptual Biology Research Supporting Platform: Current Design and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual biology utilizes a vast amount of published biomedical data to enhance and speed up biomedical research. Current\\u000a computational study on conceptual biology focuses on hypothesis generation from biomedical literature. Most of the algorithms\\u000a for hypothesis generation are dedicated to produce one type of hypothesis called pairwise relation by interacting with certain\\u000a search engines such as PubMed. In order to

Ying Xie; Jayasimha Katukuri; Vijay V. Raghavan; Tony Presti

2008-01-01

201

Community Efforts Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individual, departmental and community efforts have all played a major role in developing a thriving research effort addressing thinking and learning in the geosciences. Community efforts have been effective in elevating the importance of the field, defining a research agenda, fostering collaborations with cognitive science and education communities, building capacity within the geosciences, and developing reviewer awareness of the importance and opportunities within geoscience education research. Important community efforts include a call for geoscience education research in the 1997 NSF report Geoscience Education: A Recommended Strategy and in the subsequent 2000 NSF report ‘Bridges: Connecting Research and Education in the Earth System Sciences’. A research agenda and supporting recommendations for collaboration and capacity building were jointly developed by geoscience educators, cognitive scientists and education researchers at the 2002 NSF/Johnson Foundation funded workshop Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences. This research agenda emphasized studies of geoscience expertise, learning pathways (and their challenges) that are critical to the development of that expertise, and materials and environments that support this learning, with a focus on learning in the field and from large data sets, complex systems and deep time, spatial skills, and the synthesis of understanding from multiple sources of incomplete data. Collaboration and capacity building have been further supported by the NAGT sponsored professional development program “On the Cutting Edge” with workshops bringing together cognitive scientists, educators and geoscientists on topics including developing on-line learning resources, teaching with visualizations, the role of the affective domain in geoscience learning, teaching metacognition, and teaching with data. 40 successful educational research proposals are attributed to participation in On the Cutting Edge. An NSF funded synthesis of research on learning in the geosciences is currently expanding the interdisciplinary base for research on geoscience teaching and learning through the collaborative development of papers addressing spatial thinking, geologic time, complex systems, and learning in the field. Participants in this project include anthropologists and philosophers in addition to geologists, oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, education researches and psychologists. The project is currently seeking commentators to respond to an initial set of papers and has initiated the Earth and Mind blog as a mechanism for increased discussion and community interaction. This project builds on the GSA special volume ‘Earth and Mind’ which included writing by geoscience researchers, psychologists and education researchers addressing how we teach and learn about the Earth. These community efforts are an essential aspect of scientific research supporting discussion and synthesis of results and generation of new questions. The breadth of participants in this community indicates the importance of the work within and beyond the geosciences and is an indicator of its robustness.

Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Kastens, K. A.

2009-12-01

202

Community-based Inquiry Improves Critical Thinking in General Education Biology  

PubMed Central

National stakeholders are becoming increasingly concerned about the inability of college graduates to think critically. Research shows that, while both faculty and students deem critical thinking essential, only a small fraction of graduates can demonstrate the thinking skills necessary for academic and professional success. Many faculty are considering nontraditional teaching methods that incorporate undergraduate research because they more closely align with the process of doing investigative science. This study compared a research-focused teaching method called community-based inquiry (CBI) with traditional lecture/laboratory in general education biology to discover which method would elicit greater gains in critical thinking. Results showed significant critical-thinking gains in the CBI group but decreases in a traditional group and a mixed CBI/traditional group. Prior critical-thinking skill, instructor, and ethnicity also significantly influenced critical-thinking gains, with nearly all ethnicities in the CBI group outperforming peers in both the mixed and traditional groups. Females, who showed decreased critical thinking in traditional courses relative to males, outperformed their male counterparts in CBI courses. Through the results of this study, it is hoped that faculty who value both research and critical thinking will consider using the CBI method.

Faiola, Celia L.; Johnson, James E.; Kurtz, Martha J.

2008-01-01

203

STEMdex: A Searchable Database of Education Research for Our Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

STEMdex is a new resource for the astronomy Education and Outreach community, designed to improve our community’s knowledge of the published literature pertinent to our work. While we all understand that it is important to base our practice on sound research, there are currently 801 peer-reviewed education journals in existence, and members of our community are hard pressed to cover all the published literature. STEMdex consolidates the research relevant to EPO work into a single searchable database, with summaries written by astronomy educators and posted for the entire community to use. The database will ultimately include research across the spectrum of astronomy education, including formal and informal education, outreach, grades K-16, pedagogy, evaluation and many other topics. The site is currently under development, but we have had significant interest from the community, and have a team of 19 EPO professionals and community volunteers from 14 different institutions signed up to contribute to the project. The STEMdex site can be found at stemdex.ipac.caltech.edu.

Brinkworth, Carolyn; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Bartolone, L.; Llamas, J.; Crane, M.; Martin, A.; Wenger, M.; Squires, G. K.; Hurt, R. L.

2014-01-01

204

Bringing the physical sciences into your cell biology research.  

PubMed

Historically, much of biology was studied by physicists and mathematicians. With the advent of modern molecular biology, a wave of researchers became trained in a new scientific discipline filled with the language of genes, mutants, and the central dogma. These new molecular approaches have provided volumes of information on biomolecules and molecular pathways from the cellular to the organismal level. The challenge now is to determine how this seemingly endless list of components works together to promote the healthy function of complex living systems. This effort requires an interdisciplinary approach by investigators from both the biological and the physical sciences. PMID:23112230

Robinson, Douglas N; Iglesias, Pablo A

2012-11-01

205

Bringing the physical sciences into your cell biology research  

PubMed Central

Historically, much of biology was studied by physicists and mathematicians. With the advent of modern molecular biology, a wave of researchers became trained in a new scientific discipline filled with the language of genes, mutants, and the central dogma. These new molecular approaches have provided volumes of information on biomolecules and molecular pathways from the cellular to the organismal level. The challenge now is to determine how this seemingly endless list of components works together to promote the healthy function of complex living systems. This effort requires an interdisciplinary approach by investigators from both the biological and the physical sciences.

Robinson, Douglas N.; Iglesias, Pablo A.

2012-01-01

206

Project Enlists Community Physicians in Cancer Research  

Cancer.gov

To enable more patients and physicians to participate in clinical studies that advance cancer care, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is conducting a pilot project, the Expanded Participation Project (EPP), to speed cancer research by broadening access to clinical trials

207

External Community Review Committee: A New Strategy for Engaging Community Stakeholders in Research Funding Decisions  

PubMed Central

Background Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice.

Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

2013-01-01

208

Research on Schools, Neighborhoods and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Research on Schools, Neighborhoods, and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility" focuses on research and theoretical developments related to the role of geography in education, human development, and health. William F. Tate IV, the Edward Mallinckrodt Distinguished University Professor in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis and…

Tate, William F., IV, Ed.

2012-01-01

209

Rural Communities and Rural Social Issues: Priorities for Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report recommends priorities for research into rural communities and rural social issues in Australia, based on an extensive literature review, surveys of policymaking agencies and researchers, and discussion at a national workshop in May 1999. Chapters 1-2 outline the study's background, purpose, and methodology; discuss issues in the…

Black, Alan; Duff, John; Saggers, Sherry; Baines, Patricia

210

Ethical Issues Affecting Human Participants in Community College Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing demand of constituents to conduct analyses in order to help inform the decision-making process has led to the need for Institutional Research (IR) guidelines for community college educators. One method of maintaining the quality of research conducted by IR staff is to include professional development about ethics. This article…

Wurtz, Keith

2011-01-01

211

Community College Students and Applied Research. Professional File. Number 30  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student participation in applied research as a form of experiential learning in community colleges is relatively new. Ontario Colleges today participate at different levels with different numbers of projects and faculty involved. A few colleges in Ontario are more established in doing applied research including having basic infrastructure for…

Zuniga, Sabrina Faust

2009-01-01

212

"Communities" in community engagement: lessons learned from autism research in South Korea and South Africa.  

PubMed

Little research has been conducted on behavioral characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from diverse cultures within the US, or from countries outside of the US or Europe, with little reliable information yet reported from developing countries. We describe the process used to engage diverse communities in ASD research in two community-based research projects-an epidemiologic investigation of 7- to 12-year olds in South Korea and the Early Autism Project, an ASD detection program for 18- to 36-month-old Zulu-speaking children in South Africa. Despite the differences in wealth between these communities, ASD is underdiagnosed in both settings, and generally not reported in clinical or educational records. Moreover, in both countries, there is low availability of services. In both cases, local knowledge helped researchers to address both ethnographic as well as practical problems. Researchers identified the ways in which these communities generate and negotiate the cultural meanings of developmental disorders. Researchers incorporated that knowledge, as they engaged communities in a research protocol, adapted and translated screening and diagnostic tools, and developed methods for screening, evaluating, and diagnosing children with ASD. PMID:22566396

Grinker, Roy Richard; Chambers, Nola; Njongwe, Nono; Lagman, Adrienne E; Guthrie, Whitney; Stronach, Sheri; Richard, Bonnie O; Kauchali, Shuaib; Killian, Beverley; Chhagan, Meera; Yucel, Fikri; Kudumu, Mwenda; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Grether, Judith; Wetherby, Amy M

2012-06-01

213

"Communities" in Community Engagement: Lessons Learned from Autism Research in South Africa and South Korea  

PubMed Central

Scientific Abstract Little research has been conducted on behavioral characteristics of children with ASD from diverse cultures within the US or from countries outside of the US or Europe, with little reliable information yet reported from developing countries. We describe the process used to engage diverse communities in ASD research in two community-based research projects—an epidemiological investigation of 7–12 year olds in South Korea and the Early Autism Project, an ASD detection program for 18–36 month old Zulu-speaking children in South Africa. Despite the differences in wealth between these communities, ASD is under-diagnosed in both settings, generally not reported in clinical or educational records. Moreover, in both countries there is low availability of services. In both cases, local knowledge helped researchers to address both ethnographic as well as practical problems. Researchers identified the ways in which these communities generate and negotiate the cultural meanings of developmental disorders. Researchers incorporated that knowledge as they engaged communities in a research protocol, adapted and translated screening and diagnostic tools, and developed methods for screening, evaluating, and diagnosing children with ASD.

Grinker, Roy Richard; Chambers, Nola; Njongwe, Nono; Lagman, Adrienne E.; Guthrie, Whitney; Stronach, Sheri; Richard, Bonnie O.; Kauchali, Shuaib; Killian, Beverley; Chhagan, Meera; Yucel, Fikri; Kudumu, Mwenda; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Grether, Judith; Wetherby, Amy M.

2012-01-01

214

European Community research on environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.  

PubMed Central

Within the 12 Member States of the European Community (EC), environmental policy is now formulated primarily at Community level. As a result, the EC has important regulatory responsibilities for the protection of workers, consumers, and the general public from risks that may arise from environmental chemicals, foremost among them potential carcinogens and mutagens. An important part of EC environmental research and development is intended to provide a scientific basis for these regulations as well as increasing understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in environmental carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. This paper contains a brief introduction to EC environment policy and research, followed by an overview of EC chemicals control activities that are of particular relevance to the research and development program. Community-level research on environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis is then reviewed in some detail, including the achievements of recent projects, the scientific content of the current program, and perspectives for the future.

Sors, A I

1993-01-01

215

Challenges of Introducing Participant Observation to Community Health Research  

PubMed Central

Participant observation elicits unique observation data from both an insider's and an outsider's perspectives. Despite the growing tendency to adopt participant observation strategies in health care research regarding health-related beliefs and types of behavior, the use of participant observation in current research is mostly limited to structured clinical settings rather than community settings. In this paper, we describe how we use participant observation in a community health research study with Chinese-born immigrant women. We document discrepancies between these women's beliefs and types of behavior regarding health and health promotion. We further discuss the ethnical, time, and setting challenges in community health research using participant observation. Possible solutions are also discussed.

2014-01-01

216

Vision and Change in the Biology Community: Snapshots of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the authors were first invited to write these columns, the editors felt it would be an interesting way to give the readers of "CBE - Life Sciences Education" an agency's-eye view of its concerns, workings, and accomplishments. This column is written with that charge in mind. It is intended to inform the community about outreach…

Vasaly, Helen L.; Feser, Jason; Lettrich, Matthew D.; Correa, Kevin; Denniston, Katherine J.

2014-01-01

217

Older People as Researchers: Benefits to Research and the Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The gerontology certificate program at the University of Massachusetts-Boston uses an action research model in two formats: (1) older adult students learn social research methods and conduct studies among their peers; and (2) certified graduates serve as interns, conducting research on older adult issues and needs. (SK)

Bass, Scott A.; Caro, Francis G.

1995-01-01

218

The evolving field of imaging mass spectrometry and its impact on future biological research  

PubMed Central

Within the past decade, imaging mass spectrometry has been increasingly recognized as an indispensable technique for studying biological systems. Its rapid evolution has resulted in an impressive array of instrument variations and sample applications, yet the tools and data are largely confined to specialists. It is therefore important that at this junction the IMS community begin to establish IMS as a permanent fixture in life sciences research thereby making the technology and/or the data approachable by non-mass spectrometrists, leading to further integration into biological and clinical research. In this perspective article, we provide insight into the evolution and current state of imaging mass spectrometry and propose some of the directions that IMS could develop in order to stay on course to become one of the most promising new tools in life science research.

Watrous, Jeramie D.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

2012-01-01

219

Building Communities: Teachers Researching Literacy Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the light of wide recognition that the traffic between home and school is traditionally one-way, this article reports on a deliberately counter-cultural project that involved teachers in researching children's everyday literacy practices and "funds of knowledge" (Gonzalez, Moll, & Amanti, 2005) over a year. Eighteen primary teachers from 10…

Cremin, Teresa; Mottram, Marilyn; Collins, Fiona; Powell, Sacha; Drury, Rose

2012-01-01

220

Nicotine Anonymous: Community Resource and Research Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are now over 450 active Nicotine Anonymous meetings (groups) in the United States. The origins and current status of Nicotine Anonymous are described, and some comparisons are drawn with Alcoholics Anonymous. Several research issues are identified including determination of what kinds of smokers are attracted to,stick with, and benefit from Nicotine Anonymous; describing patterns of utilization; and the degree

Edward Lichtenstein

1999-01-01

221

Developing a Community of Research Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Writing journal articles is essential for academics and professionals to develop their ideas, make an impact in their fields and progress in their careers. Research assessment makes successful performance in this form of writing even more important. This article describes a course on writing journal articles and draws on interviews with…

Murray, Rowena

2012-01-01

222

Hydrogeomorphology explains acidification-driven variation in aquatic biological communities in the Neversink Basin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Describing the distribution of aquatic habitats and the health of biological communities can be costly and time-consuming; therefore, simple, inexpensive methods to scale observations of aquatic biota to watersheds that lack data would be useful. In this study, we explored the potential of a simple “hydrogeomorphic” model to predict the effects of acid deposition on macroinvertebrate, fish, and diatom communities in 28 sub-watersheds of the 176-km2 Neversink River basin in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The empirical model was originally developed to predict stream-water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) using the watershed slope and drainage density. Because ANC is known to be strongly related to aquatic biological communities in the Neversink, we speculated that the model might correlate well with biotic indicators of ANC response. The hydrogeomorphic model was strongly correlated to several measures of macroinvertebrate and fish community richness and density, but less strongly correlated to diatom acid tolerance. The model was also strongly correlated to biological communities in 18 sub-watersheds independent of the model development, with the linear correlation capturing the strongly acidic nature of small upland watersheds (2). Overall, we demonstrated the applicability of geospatial data sets and a simple hydrogeomorphic model for estimating aquatic biological communities in areas with stream-water acidification, allowing estimates where no direct field observations are available. Similar modeling approaches have the potential to complement or refine expensive and time-consuming measurements of aquatic biota populations and to aid in regional assessments of aquatic health.

Harpold, Adrian A.; Burns, Douglas A.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

2013-01-01

223

Participatory research supporting community-based fishery management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a project to engage researchers and fishers together in adapting social science approaches to the purposes and the constraints of community-based fisher organizations. The work was carried out in the Scotia–Fundy Region of Atlantic Canada (the Bay of Fundy and Scotian Shelf). Its rationale reflects arguments that (1) effective community-based management requires that managers are able

Melanie Wiber; Fikret Berkes; Anthony Charles; John Kearney

2004-01-01

224

openBIS: a flexible framework for managing and analyzing complex data in biology research  

PubMed Central

Background Modern data generation techniques used in distributed systems biology research projects often create datasets of enormous size and diversity. We argue that in order to overcome the challenge of managing those large quantitative datasets and maximise the biological information extracted from them, a sound information system is required. Ease of integration with data analysis pipelines and other computational tools is a key requirement for it. Results We have developed openBIS, an open source software framework for constructing user-friendly, scalable and powerful information systems for data and metadata acquired in biological experiments. openBIS enables users to collect, integrate, share, publish data and to connect to data processing pipelines. This framework can be extended and has been customized for different data types acquired by a range of technologies. Conclusions openBIS is currently being used by several SystemsX.ch and EU projects applying mass spectrometric measurements of metabolites and proteins, High Content Screening, or Next Generation Sequencing technologies. The attributes that make it interesting to a large research community involved in systems biology projects include versatility, simplicity in deployment, scalability to very large data, flexibility to handle any biological data type and extensibility to the needs of any research domain.

2011-01-01

225

Assessing soil biological characteristics: a comparison of bulk soil community DNA, PLFA-, and Biolog™analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil microbiological analyses may serve as a means for assessing soil characteristics. Standard microbiological culture-techniques, however, leave over 90% of the microorganisms in the environment unaccounted for. Several more recently developed analytical techniques such as DNA, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and community level substrate utilization (CLSU) fingerprints allow for more detailed analyses of soil microbial communities. We applied analyses of

F. Widmer; A. Fließbach; E. Laczkó; J. Schulze-Aurich; J. Zeyer

2001-01-01

226

Single-site Community Consultation for Emergency Research in a Community Hospital Setting.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate community member feedback from community consultation and public disclosure activities performed for a clinical investigation involving a device designed to treat traumatic brain injury in prehospital contexts. The clinical investigation of that device was to be performed under the federal regulations providing an exception from prospective informed consent requirements in emergency settings. Secondarily, we sought to assess the community consultation process by measuring the levels of outreach provided by the different communication methods used in these activities, with special attention to the effectiveness of social media for community outreach. Methods and setting. The medical device investigation consists of a single-site pilot study based at a 345-bed community hospital in east central Illinois, which also serves as the area's only level I trauma center. Investigators, in collaboration with the local institutional review board, fulfilled community consultation and public disclosure requirements through four public town hall meetings, seven targeted focus groups, targeted mailings to 884 community leaders and researchers, a press conference and press release, internal and external websites, and multiple postings to the hospital's Facebook and Twitter accounts. Community members provided feedback by completing paper or electronic comment cards. Results. A total of 428 community members attended the four town hall meetings and seven focus group sessions. Attendance at each meeting ranged from 4 to 20 attendees for the town hall meetings and 8 to 140 attendees for the focus groups. The investigation's external website received 626 unique visitors and the intranet website received 528 unique visits. Social media postings on Facebook and Twitter received six comments and eight "likes" to indicate that an individual read the posting. In total, attendees completed 175 comment cards to provide their feedback. Community member attitudes regarding the research were very positive, with 173 (98.8%) comment card respondents viewing the research as beneficial and 162 (92.6%) indicating that they would allow themselves or their family members to participate in the research. Conclusions. The internal and external websites provided the most effective means for sharing research-related information to community members. While cost-effective, social media outreach was very limited and did not foster communication with community members. PMID:24669874

Galbraith, Kyle L; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Little, Charletta

2014-01-01

227

Human subjects protections in community-engaged research: a research ethics framework.  

PubMed

In the 30 years since the Belmont Report, the role of the community in research has evolved and has taken on greater moral significance. Today, more and more translational research is being performed with the active engagement of individuals and communities rather than merely upon them. This engagement requires a critical examination of the range of risks that may arise when communities become partners in research. In attempting to provide such an examination, one must distinguish between established communities (groups that have their own organizational structure and leadership and exist regardless of the research) and unstructured groups (groups that may exist because of a shared trait but do not have defined leadership or internal cohesiveness). In order to participate in research as a community, unstructured groups must develop structure either by external means (by partnering with a Community-Based Organization) or by internal means (by empowering the group to organize and establish structure and leadership). When groups participate in research, one must consider risks to well-being due to process and outcomes. These risks may occur to the individual qua individual, but there are also risks that occur to the individual qua member of a group and also risks that occur to the group qua group. There are also risks to agency, both to the individual and the group. A 3-by-3 grid including 3 categories of risks (risks to well-being secondary to process, risks to well-being secondary to outcome and risks to agency) must be evaluated against the 3 distinct agents: individuals as individual participants, individuals as members of a group (both as participants and as nonparticipants) and to communities as a whole. This new framework for exploring the risks in community-engaged research can help academic researchers and community partners ensure the mutual respect that community-engaged research requires. PMID:20235860

Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R; Gehlert, Sarah

2010-03-01

228

"Doing Research Was Inspiring": Building a Research Community with Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a mixed-methods study related to K-12 teachers' understandings of what research is, and what enables or inhibits teacher use of research in the classroom towards informing their instructional practices. In a collaboration exemplifying school board and university partnerships, we examined the nature of associations between…

Martinovic, Dragana; Wiebe, Natasha; Ratkovic, Snezana; Willard-Holt, Colleen; Spencer, Terry; Cantalini-Williams, Maria

2012-01-01

229

Biological Field Stations: Research Legacies and Sites for Serendipity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only framework for documenting and understanding the nature and pace of ecosystem, regional, and global changes in environmental conditions; ecological processes; and biodiversity. Because of these legacies and because they serve as gathering places for a rich diversity of highly creative and motivated scientists, students, and citizens, biological field stations are frequently where serendipitous scientific discoveries take place. The inclusion of biological field stations in environmental observatories and research networks ensures that these places will continue to foster future serendipitous scientific discoveries.

William Michener (University of New Mexico;Department of Biology and LTER Network Office)

2009-04-01

230

Promoting environmental justice through community-based participatory research: the role of community and partnership capacity.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The authors focus on community and partnership capacity within and across sites, using as a theoretical framework Goodman and his colleagues' dimensions of community capacity, as these were tailored to environmental health by Freudenberg, and as further modified to include partnership capacity within a systems perspective. The four CBPR partnerships examined were situated in NewYork, California, Oklahoma, and North Carolina and were part of a larger national study. Case study contexts and characteristics, policy-related outcomes, and findings related to community and partnership capacity are presented, with implications drawn for other CBPR partnerships with a policy focus. PMID:16861594

Minkler, Meredith; Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana

2008-02-01

231

USGS Alaska Science Center, Biological Science Office: Research Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the research programs of the USGS Alaska Science Center - Biological Science Office (ASC-BSO). The programs are divided into several categories including Ecosystems & Habitats, Mammals, Technical Programs, Fish and Fisheries, and Birds. Links connect to research information about numerous program subcategories like Coastal and Marine, Sea Otters, Loons, Fisheries Projects, and more. The site also links to background information about the ASC-BSO, job listings, staff contact information, and the Alaska Science Center Publications Database.

232

Industrial methodology for process verification in research (IMPROVER): toward systems biology verification  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Analyses and algorithmic predictions based on high-throughput data are essential for the success of systems biology in academic and industrial settings. Organizations, such as companies and academic consortia, conduct large multi-year scientific studies that entail the collection and analysis of thousands of individual experiments, often over many physical sites and with internal and outsourced components. To extract maximum value, the interested parties need to verify the accuracy and reproducibility of data and methods before the initiation of such large multi-year studies. However, systematic and well-established verification procedures do not exist for automated collection and analysis workflows in systems biology which could lead to inaccurate conclusions. Results: We present here, a review of the current state of systems biology verification and a detailed methodology to address its shortcomings. This methodology named ‘Industrial Methodology for Process Verification in Research’ or IMPROVER, consists on evaluating a research program by dividing a workflow into smaller building blocks that are individually verified. The verification of each building block can be done internally by members of the research program or externally by ‘crowd-sourcing’ to an interested community. www.sbvimprover.com Implementation: This methodology could become the preferred choice to verify systems biology research workflows that are becoming increasingly complex and sophisticated in industrial and academic settings. Contact: gustavo@us.ibm.com

Meyer, Pablo; Hoeng, Julia; Rice, J. Jeremy; Norel, Raquel; Sprengel, Jorg; Stolle, Katrin; Bonk, Thomas; Corthesy, Stephanie; Royyuru, Ajay; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

2012-01-01

233

Virology. Volume 5: Advances in Cell Biology through Virus Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume 5, Advances in Cell Biology through Virus Research, is the fifth in a series of six volumes of a report developed by a Task Force on Virology initiated and sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases for the purposes of a...

1979-01-01

234

The impact of structural biology on alkaloid biosynthesis research.  

PubMed

In the recent past, macromolecular crystallography has gone through substantial methodological and technological development. The purpose of this review is to provide a general overview of structural biology and its impact on enzyme structure/function analysis and illustrate how it is modifying the focus of research relevant to alkaloid biosynthesis. PMID:22907740

Panjikar, Santosh; Stoeckigt, Joachim; O'Connor, Sarah; Warzecha, Heribert

2012-10-01

235

Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research  

PubMed Central

In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipaa, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

2011-01-01

236

Ethical Challenges for the “Outside” Researcher in Community-Based Participatory Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) shares many of the core values of health education and related fields, the outside researcher embracing this approach to inquiry frequently is confronted with thorny ethical challenges. Following a brief review of the conceptual and historical roots of CBPR, Kelly’s ecological principles for community-based research and Jones’s three-tiered framework for understanding racism are introduced as

Meredith Minkler

2004-01-01

237

Community-based knowledge transfer and exchange: Helping community-based organizations link research to action  

PubMed Central

Background Community-based organizations (CBOs) are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts. CBOs increasingly turn to community-based research (CBR) given its participatory focus and emphasis on linking research to action. In order to further facilitate the use of research evidence by CBOs, we have developed a strategy for community-based knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) that helps CBOs more effectively link research evidence to action. We developed the strategy by: outlining the primary characteristics of CBOs and why they are important stakeholders in health systems; describing the concepts and methods for CBR and for KTE; comparing the efforts of CBR to link research evidence to action to those discussed in the KTE literature; and using the comparison to develop a framework for community-based KTE that builds on both the strengths of CBR and existing KTE frameworks. Discussion We find that CBR is particularly effective at fostering a climate for using research evidence and producing research evidence relevant to CBOs through community participation. However, CBOs are not always as engaged in activities to link research evidence to action on a larger scale or to evaluate these efforts. Therefore, our strategy for community-based KTE focuses on: an expanded model of 'linkage and exchange' (i.e., producers and users of researchers engaging in a process of asking and answering questions together); a greater emphasis on both producing and disseminating systematic reviews that address topics of interest to CBOs; developing a large-scale evidence service consisting of both 'push' efforts and efforts to facilitate 'pull' that highlight actionable messages from community relevant systematic reviews in a user-friendly way; and rigorous evaluations of efforts for linking research evidence to action. Summary Through this type of strategy, use of research evidence for CBO advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts can be better facilitated and continually refined through ongoing evaluations of its impact.

2010-01-01

238

The biological effects of pollutants: Results and lessons learned from recent research  

SciTech Connect

There are currently two major problems in the research and development of biological effect techniques for use in marine systems: (1) the need for proper integration between response measurements at the cellular, organismal, population and community levels, in order to ensure predictability across hierarchical levels of complexity; and (2) the need for practical evaluation and inter-calibration of effects measurements in real field situations. The results of various field studies in Europe, including a practical workshop coordinated by the IOC Group of Experts on the Effects of Pollution, will be reviewed briefly and certain lessons learned will be discussed. Recent research aimed at exploring causal links between various components of the stress response in bivalve molluscs will be discussed to demonstrate the extent to which current studies are addressing the problem of integration within whole organisms and communities of species.

Bayne, B.L. (Plymouth Marine Lab. (England))

1988-09-01

239

A Bridge Between Communities: Video-making using principles of community-based participatory research.  

PubMed

Health educators can play a critical role in bringing together the partners and resources to successfully make videos using principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). This article is a "how-to" guide for making videos using community-based participatory research principles. The authors describe video-making and CBPR, then outline six steps on how to make a video using principles of CBPR: (a) engaging stakeholders, (b) soliciting funding and informed consent, (c) creation of shared ownership, (d) building cross-cultural collaborations, (e) writing the script together, and (f) pulling it all together: editing and music selection. Still photographs and key themes from the video A Bridge Between Communities are presented as a running case study to illustrate these steps. The article concludes with implications for health promotion research and practice. PMID:15358912

Chávez, Vivian; Israel, Barbara; Allen, Alex J; DeCarlo, Maggie Floyd; Lichtenstein, Richard; Schulz, Amy; Bayer, Irene S; McGranaghan, Robert

2004-10-01

240

Evidence of community structure in biomedical research grant collaborations.  

PubMed

Recent studies have clearly demonstrated a shift towards collaborative research and team science approaches across a spectrum of disciplines. Such collaborative efforts have also been acknowledged and nurtured by popular extramurally funded programs including the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) conferred by the National Institutes of Health. Since its inception, the number of CTSA awardees has steadily increased to 60 institutes across 30 states. One of the objectives of CTSA is to accelerate translation of research from bench to bedside to community and train a new genre of researchers under the translational research umbrella. Feasibility of such a translation implicitly demands multi-disciplinary collaboration and mentoring. Networks have proven to be convenient abstractions for studying research collaborations. The present study is a part of the CTSA baseline study and investigates existence of possible community-structure in Biomedical Research Grant Collaboration (BRGC) networks across data sets retrieved from the internally developed grants management system, the Automated Research Information Administrator (ARIA) at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS). Fastgreedy and link-community community-structure detection algorithms were used to investigate the presence of non-overlapping and overlapping community-structure and their variation across years 2006 and 2009. A surrogate testing approach in conjunction with appropriate discriminant statistics, namely: the modularity index and the maximum partition density is proposed to investigate whether the community-structure of the BRGC networks were different from those generated by certain types of random graphs. Non-overlapping as well as overlapping community-structure detection algorithms indicated the presence of community-structure in the BRGC network. Subsequent, surrogate testing revealed that random graph models considered in the present study may not necessarily be appropriate generative mechanisms of the community-structure in the BRGC networks. The discrepancy in the community-structure between the BRGC networks and the random graph surrogates was especially pronounced at 2009 as opposed to 2006 indicating a possible shift towards team-science and formation of non-trivial modular patterns with time. The results also clearly demonstrate presence of inter-departmental and multi-disciplinary collaborations in BRGC networks. While the results are presented on BRGC networks as a part of the CTSA baseline study at UAMS, the proposed methodologies are as such generic with potential to be extended across other CTSA organizations. Understanding the presence of community-structure can supplement more traditional network analysis as they're useful in identifying research teams and their inter-connections as opposed to the role of individual nodes in the network. Such an understanding can be a critical step prior to devising meaningful interventions for promoting team-science, multi-disciplinary collaborations, cross-fertilization of ideas across research teams and identifying suitable mentors. Understanding the temporal evolution of these communities may also be useful in CTSA evaluation. PMID:22981843

Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Kalinka, Alex T; Hogan, William R

2013-02-01

241

Community health workers support community-based participatory research ethics: lessons learned along the research-to-practice-to-community continuum.  

PubMed

Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)--specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability--stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502

Smith, Selina A; Blumenthal, Daniel S

2012-11-01

242

Researching and Respecting the Intricacies of Isolated Communities  

PubMed Central

Purpose Conducting research in a rural area can be challenging for nurses for a variety of different reasons. The task at hand can be especially difficult when it involves discussing a sensitive topic, such as Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. This study was conducted to describe parental perceptions of the HPV vaccine in rural areas, while simultaneously describing a method for engaging in successful nursing research in rural areas. Methods A team of nurse researchers completed a planned process to first understand rural culture in southeastern Georgia, and then more specifically, the families living in these three separate counties. This process initially involved developing a connection and working relationship with key community leaders, such as school principals. Following this, researchers worked on establishing rapport and trust with local parents and research participants themselves. Qualitative methods were then used to collect focus group and interview data on parental views of HPV, HPV vaccination, and HPV-related cancers. Findings Results indicated that parents had little knowledge of the HPV vaccine in rural Georgia, including misconceptions that the vaccine is for females only. In addition, many parents continually voiced the concern that the HPV vaccine would promote promiscuity in their children. Conclusions Providing consistent, timely, and open communication with the community members was crucial throughout the entire research process. This focused approach with respect to total community, culture, and religious value is essential in conducting research. Future studies conducted in rural areas should focus on specific intervention points that improve Parental HPV knowledge.

Blumling, Amy A.; Thomas, Tami L.; Stephens, Dionne P.

2014-01-01

243

LifeSat - A satellite for space biological research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LifeSat Program addresses the need for continuing access by biological scientists to space experimentation by accommodating a wide range of experiments involving animals and plants for durations up to 60 days in an unmanned satellite. The program will encourage interdisciplinary and international cooperation at both the agency and scientist levels, and will provide a recoverable, reusable facility for low-cost missions addressing key scientific issues that can only be answered by space experimentation. It will provide opportunities for research in gravitational biology and on the effects of cosmic radiation on life systems. The scientific aspects of LifeSat are addressed here.

Halstead, Thora W.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.

1990-01-01

244

The solar system: Importance of research to the biological sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt is made to describe the scope of scientific areas that comprise the current field of exobiology in the United States. From investigations of astrophysical phenomena that deal with the birth of stars and planetary systems to questions of molecular biology involving phylogenetic relationships among organisms, from attempts to simulate the synthesis of biological precursor molecules in the chemistry laboratory to making measurements of the organic constituents of Titan's atmosphere, these researches all converge toward a common objective--answering the question of how life came about in the universe.

Klein, Harold P.

1992-01-01

245

The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The life sciences research facilities for the Space Station are being designed to accommodate both animal and plant specimens for long durations studies. This will enable research on how living systems adapt to microgravity, how gravity has shaped and affected life on earth, and further the understanding of basic biological phenomena. This would include multigeneration experiments on the effects of microgravity on the reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging of organisms. To achieve these research goals, a modular habitat system and on-board variable gravity centrifuges, capable of holding various animal, plant, cells and tissues, is proposed for the science laboratory.

Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

1987-01-01

246

Cyberlearning at Community Colleges: 21st Century Biology Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Cyberlearning at Community Colleges (C3) project is to help "faculty leverage digital library resources, network computing and communications technologies, and E-science data and tools to engage in cyberlearning strategies." C3's funding comes from the National Science Foundation and their work will be of interest to wide range of educators. Visitors can sign up to be a part of this program, and they can also create their own profile to network with other members. The Blogs area is worth a look, as it contains practical information about upcoming conferences and events. It also includes relevant Featured Resources, including the Gapminder video series, which provides a statistical window into global development. Visitors can peek into the Forum area to participate in online discussions about teaching with data, preferred instructional styles, and offering students relevant content in the classroom.

2012-03-23

247

Participatory Action Research: Integrating Community Occupational Therapy Practice and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…

Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry

2002-01-01

248

University-Community Model for Connecting Research, Practice and Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Child, Youth, and Family Consortium at the University of Minnesota was convened to help policymakers develop relevant public policy that is well-grounded in research and theory. The Consortium has the mission of bringing together varied competencies of the University and vital resources of Minnesota's communities to enhance the ability of…

Susman-Stillman, Amy; Schirvar, Wendi

249

Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Ameliorate Cancer Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although much attention has been paid to health disparities in the past decades, interventions to ameliorate disparities have been largely unsuccessful. One reason is that the interventions have not been culturally tailored to the disparity populations whose problems they are meant to address. Community-engaged research has been successful in…

Gehlert, Sarah; Coleman, Robert

2010-01-01

250

Toward Community Research and Coalitional Literacy Practices for Educational Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-based research can provide an avenue for understanding the complexities of students' and families' lives and working together for educational justice through what we refer to as coalitional literacy practices. In this article, we share a critical incident about a student's absence from school as an illustrative case of the…

Campano, Gerald; Ghiso, María Paula; Yee, Mary; Pantoja, Alicia

2013-01-01

251

The Role of Institutional Research in the Comprehensive Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay builds on and extends scholarly discussion of the role and functions of Institutional Research (IR), especially with regard to the community college. As institutional "conscience," the primary value of IR is assisting in the identification of organizational weaknesses and challenges and helping to convert weaknesses into strengths and…

Walleri, R. Dan

2003-01-01

252

User-Centric Research Challenges in Community Information Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Cimple, a joint project between Wisconsin and Yahoo! Rese arch, we are building systems that man- age information for online communities. In this paper we dis cuss the fundamental roles users play in such systems, then the difficult user-centric research chal lenges raised by these roles, with respect to contributing to the system, accessing and using it, and leve

Anhai Doan; Philip Bohannon; Raghu Ramakrishnan; Xiaoyong Chai; Pedro Derose; Byron J. Gao; Warren Shen

2007-01-01

253

Successful Strategies for Earth Science Research in Native Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small U.S. Geological Survey pilot project utilizes strategies that are successful at involving the Native community in earth science research. This work has ignited the interest of Native students in interdisciplinary geoscience studies, and gained the recognition of tribal community leaders from the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Canada. This study seeks to examine land use, climatic variability, and their related impacts on land-surface conditions in the ecologically sensitive Tsezhin Bii' region of the Navajo Nation. Work conducted by predominantly Native American researchers, includes studies of bedrock geology, surficial processes, soil and water quality, and plant ecology, as well as the history of human habitation. Community involvement that began during the proposal process, has helped to guide research, and has provided tribal members with information that they can use for land use planning and natural resource management. Work by Navajo tribal members who have become involved in research as it has progressed, includes K-12 science curriculum development, community outreach and education on environmental and geologic hazards, drought mitigation, grazing management, and impacts of climate change and land use on medicinal plants.

Redsteer, M. H.; Anderson, D.; Ben, N.; Bitsuie, R.; Blackhorse, A.; Breit, G.; Clifford, A.; Salabye, J.; Semken, S.; Weaver, K.; Yazzie, N.

2004-12-01

254

Research and Policy: Can Online Learning Communities Foster Professional Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column posits enhancing professional development through uses of digital tools to create professional learning communities (PLCs) designed to support collective inquiry and action research leading to schoolwide improvement. These digital tools include a social networking/discussion forum for teacher collaboration; teachers' individual…

Beach, Richard

2012-01-01

255

pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students  

PubMed Central

The Vision and Change report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area of science. We developed a laboratory module called pClone that empowers students to use advances in molecular cloning methods to discover new promoters for use by synthetic biologists. Our educational goals are consistent with Vision and Change and emphasize core concepts and competencies. pClone is a family of three plasmids that students use to clone a new transcriptional promoter or mutate a canonical promoter and measure promoter activity in Escherichia coli. We also developed the Registry of Functional Promoters, an open-access database of student promoter research results. Using pre- and posttests, we measured significant learning gains among students using pClone in introductory biology and genetics classes. Student posttest scores were significantly better than scores of students who did not use pClone. pClone is an easy and affordable mechanism for large-enrollment labs to meet the high standards of Vision and Change.

Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

2014-01-01

256

Community-based Participatory Research: Policy Recommendations for Promoting a Partnership Approach in Health Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), discussing the rationale for its use; providing policy recommendations at the organizational, community, and national levels aimed at advancing the application of CBPR; and emphasizing the establishment of policies to enhance equity that would both increase the engagement of…

Israel, Barbara A.; Schulz, Amy J.; Parker, Edith A.; Becker, Adam B.

2001-01-01

257

Scientific principles of education research: Experimental Biology 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IN 2002, the Committee on Scientific Principles of Education Research of the National Research Council (NRC) revisited long-standing ideas about the nature of science, so as to place them in the context of modern education research. Their report, Scientific Research in Education (3), investigated "scientifically based" education research to be used for improving education policy and practice. The report showed that while researchers may disagree about philosophical or methodological approaches to education research, they readily agree about the definition and pursuit of good quality education research (3). Research designs were categorized as quantitative versus qualitative, depending on the type of data collected. There were also categorizations of experimental versus observational, depending on the study design and the investigators' ability to draw conclusions about cause and effect. This featured topic sponsored by the American Physiological Society Teaching Section was designed to host Drs. Margaret Eisenhart and Robert DeHaan, members of the NRC committees and experts in the field of educational research. Their talks were complemented by selected educational research abstracts submitted to the Experimental Biology meeting in Washington, DC, in 2007.

PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences); Margaret Eisenhart (University of Colorado); Mr. David W. Rodenbaugh (Wayne State University Department of Physiology)

2007-08-01

258

Building Capacity for Community-Based Participatory Research for Health Disparities in Canada: The Case of “Partnerships in Community Health Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enthusiasm for community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasing among health researchers and practitioners in addressing health disparities. Although there are many benefits of CBPR, such as its ability to democratize knowledge and link research to community action and social change, there are also perils that researchers can encounter that can threaten the integrity of the research and undermine relationships. Despite

Jeffrey R. Masuda; Genevieve Creighton; Sean Nixon; James Frankish

2011-01-01

259

Partnership readiness for community-based participatory research  

PubMed Central

The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners’ readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions and key indicators necessary for academic and community partnership readiness to conduct CBPR. Key informant interviews and focus groups (n = 36 participants) were conducted with academic and community participants who had experiences with CBPR partnerships. A ‘framework analysis' approach was used to analyze the data and generate a new model, CBPR Partnership Readiness Model. Antecedents of CBPR partnership readiness are a catalyst and mutual interest. The major dimensions of the CBPR Partnership Readiness Model are (i) goodness of fit, (ii) capacity, and (iii) operations. Preferred outcomes are sustainable partnership and product, mutual growth, policy and social and health impact on the community. CBPR partnership readiness is an iterative and dynamic process, partnership and issue specific, influenced by a range of environmental and contextual factors, amenable to change and essential for sustainability and promotion of health and social change in the community.

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia

2012-01-01

260

The Colorado Plateau: cultural, biological, and physical research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stretching from the four corners of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah, the Colorado Plateau is a natural laboratory for a wide range of studies. This volume presents 23 original articles drawn from more than 100 research projects presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. This scientific gathering revolved around research, inventory, and monitoring of lands in the region. The book's contents cover management techniques for cultural, biological, and physical resources, representing collaborative efforts among federal, university, and private sector scientists and land managers. Chapters on cultural concerns cover benchmarks of modern southwestern anthropological knowledge, models of past human activity and impact of modern visitation at newly established national monuments, challenges in implementing the 1964 Wilderness Act, and opportunities for increased federal research on Native American lands. The section on biological resources comprises sixteen chapters, with coverage that ranges from mammalian biogeography to responses of elk at the urban-wildland interface. Additional biological studies include the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation; research on bald eagles at Grand Canyon and tracking wild turkeys using radio collars; and management of palentological resources. Two final chapters on physical resources consider a proposed rerouting of the Rio de Flag River in urban Flagstaff, Arizona, and an examination of past climate patterns over the Plateau, using stream flow records and tree ring data. In light of similarities in habitat and climate across the Colorado Plateau, techniques useful to particular management units have been found to be applicable in many locations. This volume highlights an abundance of research that will prove useful for all of those working in the region, as well as for others seeking comparative studies that integrate research into land management actions.

Edited by van Riper, Charles, III; Cole, Kenneth L.

2004-01-01

261

Two Year Community: Exploring Student Engagement in an Introductory Biology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successfully engaging students with a community college's introductory biology curriculum is a challenging endeavor. Students have numerous distractions competing with faculty for their attention. Traditional presentation of information may leave students longing for something more engaging to do, and the place where most college-level…

Lysne, Steven J.; Miller, Brant G.; Eitel, Karla Bradley

2013-01-01

262

Community-Based Participatory Research: Assessing the Evidence. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment Number 99.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that combines methods of inquiry with community capacity-building strategies to bridge the gap between knowledge produced through research and what is practiced in commu...

M. Viswanathan A. Ammerman E. Eng G. Gartlehner K. N. Lohr D. Griffith

2004-01-01

263

Facilities for Biological Research Aboard the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A centrifuge designed as part of an integrated biological facility for installation onboard the International Space Station is presented. The requirements for the 2.5 m diameter centrifuge, which is designed for the support of biological experiments are discussed. The scientific objectives of the facility are to: provide a means of conducting fundamental studies in which gravitational acceleration is a controllable variable; provide a 1g control; determine the threshold acceleration for physiological response, and determine the value of centrifugation as a potential countermeasure for the biomedical problems associated with space flight. The implementation of the facility is reported on, and the following aspects of the facility are described: the host resources systems supply requirements such as power and data control; the habitat holding rack; the life sciences glove box; the centrifuge; the different habitats for cell culture, aquatic studies, plant research and insect research; the egg incubator, and the laboratory support equipment.

Souza, Kenneth A.; Yost, Bruce D.; Berry, William E.; Johnson, Catherine C.

1996-01-01

264

Research Applications of Proteolytic Enzymes in Molecular Biology  

PubMed Central

Proteolytic enzymes (also termed peptidases, proteases and proteinases) are capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds in proteins. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have great medical and pharmaceutical importance due to their key role in biological processes and in the life-cycle of many pathogens. Proteases are extensively applied enzymes in several sectors of industry and biotechnology, furthermore, numerous research applications require their use, including production of Klenow fragments, peptide synthesis, digestion of unwanted proteins during nucleic acid purification, cell culturing and tissue dissociation, preparation of recombinant antibody fragments for research, diagnostics and therapy, exploration of the structure-function relationships by structural studies, removal of affinity tags from fusion proteins in recombinant protein techniques, peptide sequencing and proteolytic digestion of proteins in proteomics. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular biological aspects of proteolytic enzymes and summarize their applications in the life sciences.

Motyan, Janos Andras; Toth, Ferenc; Tozser, Jozsef

2013-01-01

265

Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985  

SciTech Connect

The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group.

Barr, S.H. (ed.)

1985-08-01

266

Experience Developing a Community Pharmacy Practice-based Research Network  

PubMed Central

In 2010, the Purdue University College of Pharmacy established the Medication Safety Research Network of Indiana (Rx-SafeNet), the first practice-based research network (PBRN) in Indiana comprised solely of community pharmacies. In the development of Rx-SafeNet and through our early project experiences, we identified several “lessons learned.” We share our story and what we learned in an effort to further advance the work of the greater PBRN community. We have formed the infrastructure for Rx-SafeNet, including an Executive Committee, Advisory Board, member pharmacies/site coordinators, and Project Review Team. To date, 22 community pharmacies have joined and we have recently completed data collection for the network's first project. Lessons learned during the development of Rx-SafeNet may benefit PBRNs nationally. Although community pharmacy PBRNs are not yet commonplace in the U.S., we believe their development and subsequent research efforts serve as an important avenue for investigating medication use issues.

Snyder, Margie E.; Frail, Caitlin K.; Seel, Lindsey V.; Hultgren, Kyle E.

2014-01-01

267

Energy Efficient Community Development in California: Chula Vista Research Project  

SciTech Connect

In 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy joined the California Energy Commission in funding a project to begin to examine the technical, economic and institutional (policy and regulatory) aspects of energy-efficient community development. That research project was known as the Chula Vista Research Project for the host California community that co-sponsored the initiative. The researches proved that the strategic integration of the selected and economically viable buildings energy efficiency (EE) measures, photovoltaics (PV), distributed generation (DG), and district cooling can produce significant reductions in aggregate energy consumption, peak demand and emissions, compared to the developer/builder's proposed baseline approach. However, the central power plant emission reductions achieved through use of the EE-DG option would increase local air emissions. The electric and natural gas utility infrastructure impacts associated with the use of the EE and EE-PV options were deemed relatively insignificant while use of the EE-DG option would result in a significant reduction of necessary electric distribution facilities to serve a large-scale development project. The results of the Chula Vista project are detailed in three separate documents: (1) Energy-Efficient Community Development in California; Chula Vista Research Project report contains a detailed description of the research effort and findings. This includes the methodologies, and tools used and the analysis of the efficiency, economic and emissions impacts of alternative energy technology and community design options for two development sites. Research topics covered included: (a) Energy supply, demand, and control technologies and related strategies for structures; (b) Application of locally available renewable energy resources including solar thermal and PV technology and on-site power generation with heat recovery; (c) Integration of local energy resources into district energy systems and existing energy utility networks; (d) Alternative land-use design and development options and their impact on energy efficiency and urban runoff, emissions and the heat island effect; and (e) Alternative transportation and mobility options and their impact on local emissions. (2) Creating Energy-Efficient Communities in California: A Reference Guide to Barriers, Solutions and Resources report provides the results of an effort to identify the most innovative existing and emerging public policy, incentive and market mechanisms that encourage investment in advanced energy technologies and enabling community design options in the State of California and the nation. The report evaluates each of these mechanisms in light of the preceding research and concludes with a set of recommended mechanisms designed for consideration by relevant California State agencies, development and finance industry associations, and municipal governments. (3) Creating Energy-Efficient Communities in California: A Technical Reference Guide to Building and Site Design report contains a set of selected commercially viable energy technology and community design options for high-efficiency, low-impact community development in California. It includes a summary of the research findings referenced above and recommendations for energy technology applications and energy-efficient development strategies for residential, commercial and institutional structures and supporting municipal infrastructure for planned communities. The document also identifies design options, technology applications and development strategies that are applicable to urban infill projects.

Gas Technology Institute

2009-03-31

268

Ethical community-engaged research: a literature review.  

PubMed

Health research has relied on ethical principles, such as those of the Belmont Report, to protect the rights and well-being of research participants. Community-based participatory research (CBPR), however, must also consider the rights and well-being of communities. This requires additional ethical considerations that have been extensively discussed but not synthesized in the CBPR literature. We conducted a comprehensive thematic literature review and summarized empirically grounded discussions of ethics in CBPR, with a focus on the value of the Belmont principles in CBPR, additional essential components of ethical CBPR, the ethical challenges CBPR practitioners face, and strategies to ensure that CBPR meets ethical standards. Our study provides a foundation for developing a working definition and a conceptual model of ethical CBPR. PMID:24134352

Mikesell, Lisa; Bromley, Elizabeth; Khodyakov, Dmitry

2013-12-01

269

Case Study in Designing a Research Fundamentals Curriculum for Community Health Workers: A University - Community Clinic Collaborative  

PubMed Central

Introduction Community health workers are increasingly incorporated into research teams. Training them in research methodology and ethics, while relating these themes to a community’s characteristics, may help to better integrate these health promotion personnel into research teams. Approach and Strategies This pilot project involved the design and implementation of an interactive training course on research fundamentals for community health workers from clinics in a rural, predominately Latino setting. Curriculum development was guided by collaborative activities arising from a university - clinic partnership, a community member focus group, and the advice of community-based researchers. The resulting curriculum was interactive and stimulated dialogue between trainees and academic researchers. Discussion and Conclusions Collaboration between researchers and health agency professionals proved to be a practical method to develop curriculum for clinic staff. An interactive curriculum allowed trainees to incorporate community-specific themes into the discussion. This interaction educated course instructors from academia about the community as much as it educated course participants about research. The bidirectional engagement that occurs during the development and teaching of this course can potentially lead to research partnerships between community agencies and academia, better-informed members of the public, and research protocols that accommodate community characteristics.

Dumbauld, Jill; Kalichman, Michael; Bell, Yvonne; Dagnino, Cynthia; Taras, Howard

2014-01-01

270

Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological soil crusts are key mediators of carbon and nitrogen inputs for arid land soils and often represent a dominant portion of the soil surface cover in arid lands. Free-living soil nematode communities reflect their environment and have been used as biological indicators of soil condition. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nematode communities are successionally more mature

Brian J. Darby; Deborah A. Neher; Jayne Belnap

2007-01-01

271

Hydrogeomorphology explains acidification-driven variation in aquatic biological communities in the Neversink Basin, USA.  

PubMed

Describing the distribution of aquatic habitats and the health of biological communities can be costly and time-consuming; therefore, simple, inexpensive methods to scale observations of aquatic biota to watersheds that lack data would be useful. In this study, we explored the potential of a simple "hydrogeomorphic" model to predict the effects of acid deposition on macroinvertebrate, fish, and diatom communities in 28 sub-watersheds of the 176-km2 Neversink River basin in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The empirical model was originally developed to predict stream-water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) using the watershed slope and drainage density. Because ANC is known to be strongly related to aquatic biological communities in the Neversink, we speculated that the model might correlate well with biotic indicators of ANC response. The hydrogeomorphic model was strongly correlated to several measures of macroinvertebrate and fish community richness and density, but less strongly correlated to diatom acid tolerance. The model was also strongly correlated to biological communities in 18 sub-watersheds independent of the model development, with the linear correlation capturing the strongly acidic nature of small upland watersheds (< 1 km2). Overall, we demonstrated the applicability of geospatial data sets and a simple hydrogeomorphic model for estimating aquatic biological communities in areas with stream-water acidification, allowing estimates where no direct field observations are available. Similar modeling approaches have the potential to complement or refine expensive and time-consuming measurements of aquatic biota populations and to aid in regional assessments of aquatic health. PMID:23865230

Harpold, Adrian A; Burns, Douglas A; Walter, M T; Steenhuis, Tammo S

2013-06-01

272

Biological and chemical technologies research. FY 1995 annual summary report  

SciTech Connect

The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1995 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1995 (ASR 95) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1995; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents; and awards arising from work supported by the BCTR.

NONE

1996-03-01

273

Space Station Freedom: a unique laboratory for gravitational biology research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advent of Space Station Freedom (SSF) will provide a permanent laboratory in space with unparalleled opportunities to perform biological research. As with any spacecraft there will also be limitations. It is our intent to describe this space laboratory and present a picture of how scientists will conduct research in this unique environment we call space. SSF is an international venture which will continue to serve as a model for other peaceful international efforts. It is hoped that as the human race moves out from this planet back to the moon and then on to Mars that SSF can serve as a successful example of how things can and should be done.

Phillips, R. W.; Cowing, K. L.

1993-01-01

274

Biological Communities and Geomorphology of Patch Reefs in Biscayne National Park, Florida, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coral reef ecosystem management benefits from continual, quantitative assessment of the resources being managed, plus assessment of factors that affect distribution patterns of organisms in the ecosystem. In this study, we investigated the relationships among physical, benthic, and fish variables in effort to help explain the distribution patterns of ecologically and economically important species on twelve patch reefs within Biscayne National Park (BNP), Florida, U.S.A. We visited 196 randomly-located sampling stations across twelve shallow (< 10m) patch reefs, using SCUBA to conduct our surveys. We measured physical variables (e.g., substratum type), estimated the percent cover of benthic community members (e.g., coral, algae), and counted and estimated mean size for each fish species observed. We also used high-density bathymetric data collected remotely via airborne laser surveying (Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL)) to calculate rugosity (bumpiness) of the reef habitat. Here we present our findings visually by graphing our quantitative community and physical structure data simultaneously in a GIS map format. You will see that biological organisms arrange themselves on each patch reef in a non-random manner. For example, many species of fish prefer to locate themselves in areas of the reef where the rugosity index is high. Rugose parts of the reef provide them with good hiding places from predators. These maps (and the data used to create them) are permanent records of the status of reef resources found on these twelve patch reefs in BNP as of September, 2003. The survey data found in the shapefile located on this CD product includes benthic percent cover data for algae, coral, encrusting invertebrates, and substratum type, in addition to gorgonian abundance and volume, total fish abundance and species richness, and specific counts for Acanthurids (surgeonfish), Scarids (parrotfish), Lutjanids (snappers), Haemulids (grunts), Serranids (groupers), and Pomacentrids (damselfish).

Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Brock, John C.; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Hickey, T. Don; Bonito, Victor; Bracone, Jeremy E.; Wright, C. Wayne

2008-01-01

275

Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates.  

PubMed

Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR) system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic) contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community. PMID:23882444

Gregg, Ak; Hatay, M; Haas, Af; Robinett, Nl; Barott, K; Vermeij, Mja; Marhaver, Kl; Meirelles, P; Thompson, F; Rohwer, F

2013-01-01

276

Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

1982-06-01

277

Community research in other contexts: learning from sustainability science.  

PubMed

In health research, community based participatory research (CBPR) has seen remarkable growth as an approach that overcomes many of the ethical concerns raised by traditional approaches. A community of CBPR scholars is now sharing ideas and devising new approaches to collaborative research. Yet, this is occurring in isolation from similar efforts using different nomenclature and occurring outside of health research areas. There is much to be gained by bringing these parallel discussions together. In sustainability science, for example, scholars are struggling with the question of how stakeholders and scientists can coproduce knowledge that offers useful solutions to complex and urgent environmental problems. Like CBPR in health, sustainability science is denigrated for perceived lack of rigor because of its applied problem focus and lack of positivist approach. Approaches to knowledge creation in sustainability science involve "new" ideas such as wicked problems and agent-based modeling, which would be equally applicable to CBPR. Interestingly, sustainability research is motivated less by recognition of the corrosive effects of the inequality of power than from frustration at how limited the impact of research has been, a perspective that might be useful in CBPR, particularly in conjunction with the use of some borrowed tools of sustainability science such as wicked problem analysis and agent-based modeling. Importantly, the example of sustainability science has the potential to keep CBPR from entering into a new orthodoxy of how research should be done. PMID:21133782

Silka, Linda

2010-12-01

278

Visual Methodologies in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health: Using Photography, Video, and New Media to Engage Communities in Research and Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenges facing public health today are too vast, complex, and urgent to be met by public health professionals alone. To improve the health and wellbeing of diverse communities around the globe, public health leaders are developing tools that engage communities in research and action, most particularly community-based participatory research

Catalani, Caricia Eleanora Celebes

2009-01-01

279

Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

1983-05-01

280

Modifying Photovoice for community-based participatory Indigenous research.  

PubMed

Scientific research occurs within a set of socio-political conditions, and in Canada research involving Indigenous communities has a historical association with colonialism. Consequently, Indigenous peoples have been justifiably sceptical and reluctant to become the subjects of academic research. Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is an attempt to develop culturally relevant research models that address issues of injustice, inequality, and exploitation. The work reported here evaluates the use of Photovoice, a CBPR method that uses participant-employed photography and dialogue to create social change, which was employed in a research partnership with a First Nation in Western Canada. Content analysis of semi-structured interviews (n=45) evaluated participants' perspectives of the Photovoice process as part of a larger study on health and environment issues. The analysis revealed that Photovoice effectively balanced power, created a sense of ownership, fostered trust, built capacity, and responded to cultural preferences. The authors discuss the necessity of modifying Photovoice, by building in an iterative process, as being key to the methodological success of the project. PMID:18191883

Castleden, Heather; Garvin, Theresa

2008-03-01

281

A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm  

SciTech Connect

The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.

Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

2011-02-01

282

Life lines: An art history of biological research around 1800.  

PubMed

Around 1800, the scientific "illustrator" emerged as a new artistic profession in Europe. Artists were increasingly sought after in order to picture anatomical dissections and microscopic observations and to translate drawings into artworks for books and journals. By training and technical expertise, they introduced a particular kind of knowledge into scientific perception that also shaped the common image of nature. Illustrations of scientific publications, often undervalued as a biased interpretation of facts and subordinate to logic and description, thus convey an 'art history' of science in its own right, relevant both for the understanding of biological thought around 1800 as well as for the development of the arts and their historiography. The article is based on an analysis of botanical treatises produced for the Göttingen Society of Sciences in 1803, during an early phase of microscopic cell research, in order to determine the constitutive role of artistic knowledge and the media employed for the visualization and conceptualization of biological issues. PMID:22035709

Bruhn, Matthias

2011-12-01

283

Community College Student Participation in Undergraduate Research: An Explanatory Case Study for Faculty and Research Mentors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study adapted the current model of science undergraduate research experiences (URE's) and applied this novel modification to include community college students. Numerous researchers have examined the efficacy of URE's in improving undergraduate retention and graduation rates, as well as matriculation rates for graduate programs. However, none…

Peterson, Dana L.

2009-01-01

284

Researching Religious Education Pedagogy through an Action Research Community of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Warwick REDCo community of practice was a group of religious education researchers operating in several contexts: English secondary schools and universities, English and European collaborations on religious education. The group undertook action research, seeking to illustrate and critically assess the interpretive approach to religious…

O'Grady, Kevin

2010-01-01

285

A Funding Initiative for Community-Based Participatory Research: Lessons from the Harvard Catalyst Seed Grants  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Background: The National Institutes of Health-funded Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) have increasingly focused on community-engaged research and funded investigators for community-based participatory research (CBPR). However, because CBPR is a collaborative process focused on community-identified research topics, the Harvard CTSA and its Community Advisory Board (CERAB) funded community partners through a CBPR initiative.Objectives: We describe lessons learned from this

Karen Hacker; Ann DiGirolamo; Shalini A. Tendulkar; Ediss Gandelman; Jocelyn Chu; Stacey King; Jennifer Opp; Pratima Patil; Alan Geller; Milagro Grullon

2011-01-01

286

A Funding Initiative for Community-Based Participatory Research: Lessons from the Harvard Catalyst Seed Grants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The National Institutes of Health-funded Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) have increasingly focused on community-engaged research and funded investigators for community-based participatory research (CBPR). However, because CBPR is a collaborative process focused on community-identified research topics, the Harvard CTSA and its Community Advisory Board (CERAB) funded community partners through a CBPR initiative. Objectives: We describe lessons learned from

Karen Hacker; Ann DiGirolamo; Shalini A. Tendulkar; Ediss Gandelman; Jocelyn Chu; Stacey King; Jennifer Opp; Pratima Patil; Alan Geller; Milagro Grullon

2011-01-01

287

The Learning Processes of Two High-School Biology Students when Reading Primary Literature. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biology education, like education in any other discipline, strives to make students familiar with the knowledge, activities, and ways of thinking of the community of biologists. We produced a curriculum in developmental biology based on learning through primary literature, in an attempt to develop biological literacy among highschool students.…

Brill, Gilat; Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat

2004-01-01

288

Clinical research with community-based older women.  

PubMed

Subjects for research with community-based elderly women are best obtained by first establishing rapport with the manager of the retirement home or apartment complex for the elderly. The site for group research should be comfortable, private, and free of distractions; it should also be centrally located and easily accessible for subjects with impaired mobility. Verbal instructions and printed questionnaires must be appropriate for the elderly subject's hearing, visual acuity, and reading level. It is important to ensure that subjects are using functional hearing aids and glasses, to allow extra time to repeat or explain questions, and to plan sessions that are not lengthy or tiring. PMID:1602110

Preski, S; Burnside, I

1992-06-01

289

Gang Suppression and Intervention: Community Models. Research Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Introduction; General community design; Community mobilization; Police; Prosecution; Courts; Probation; Corrections; Parole; Schools; Youth employment; Community-based youth agency and Grassroots organization.

A. Alexander C. Kane I. Spergel K. Ehrensaft R. Chance R. Laseter S. Oh T. Regulus

1994-01-01

290

Rural Community Members' Perceptions of Harm from Medical Mistakes: A High Plains Research Network (HPRN) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to learn about community members' definitions and types of harm from medical mistakes. Methods: Mixed methods study using community-based participatory research (CBPR). The High Plains Research Network (HPRN) with its Community Advisory Council (CAC) designed and distributed an anonymous survey through local community newspapers. Survey included open-ended questions on patients' experiences with medical

Rebecca F. Van Vorst; Rodrigo Araya-Guerra; Douglas Fernald; Nancy Elder; Christine Duclos; John M. Westfall

2007-01-01

291

Faculty perspectives on community-based research: "I see this still as a journey"  

PubMed Central

Academic faculty members are increasingly following community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles. We conducted qualitative, in-depth interviews with 22 Johns Hopkins faculty members who conduct community-based research to understand their experiences and perspectives. Respondents engaged the community in numerous ways, ranging from working with community advisory boards to hiring community members as project staff to collaborating with community members across all phases of research. Challenges included defining “community,” ensuring adequate community representation, sharing power with community partners, overcoming an institutional history of strained community-academic relationships, and working within existing academic incentive structures. Despite these challenges, respondents generally felt their experiences conducting research with community participation were positive and successful. Policy changes at funding and academic institutions and an emphasis on the similarities between CBPR and ethical principles could improve support for CBPR approaches.

Kennedy, Caitlin; Vogel, Amanda; Goldberg-Freeman, Clara; Kass, Nancy; Farfel, Mark

2011-01-01

292

Xenopus laevis a success story of biological research in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clawed toad Xenopus laevis is a common experimental animal used in many disciplines of life sciences, such as integrative, developmental and molecular biology or experimental medicine. Since 30 years, Xenopus is used in biological research in space. Important milestones were the years 1975, when Xenopus embryos flew for the first time on the Russian space station Salut-4 and 1994, when Xenopus eggs were successfully fertilized for the first time in space during the Japanese Spacelab mission STS-47 and developed in microgravity to vital tadpoles. Most Xenopus studies were related to embryogenesis and development. Observations during and after altered gravity revealed changes such as the thickening of the blastocoel roof, the dorsalization of the tail, and modifications of vestibular reflexes, fictive and freely swimming. Many changes were reversible even during microgravity exposure. Studies about the vestibuloocular reflex or synapse formation revealed an age-related sensitivity to altered gravity. Xenopus offers useful tools for studies about microgravity effects on living systems. Its oocyte is a suitable model to study ion channel function in space; the dorsalization model can be used to analyse growth factor sensibilities. Hardware for life support of adults, tadpoles and embryos (cf. SUPPLY unit in combination with miniaquaria) as well as for controlled experiments in space are prerequisites for an extension of research with Xenopus. The application aspect is based on the fact that fundamental research per se brings benefit to man.

Horn, Eberhard R.

2006-01-01

293

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) in South Africa: Engaging multiple constituents to shape the research question  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community engagement is an on-going, arduous, and necessary process for developing effective health promotion programs. The challenges are amplified when the particular health issue or research question is not prominent in the consciousness of the targeted community. In this paper, we explore the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model as a means to negotiate a mutual agenda between communities and researchers.The

Maghboeba Mosavel; Christian Simon; Debbie van Stade; Mara Buchbinder

2005-01-01

294

Use of CAM in local African-American communities: community-partnered research.  

PubMed Central

Although previous national surveys have shown an increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the U.S. population, racial and ethnic minority populations were under-represented in these surveys. As a result, a profile of the CAM user as white, female, affluent, middle-aged and well educated has emerged. Representing the mainstream population, these previous studies did not take into account the racial and ethnic minority populations who may have their own healing traditions and who may hold different beliefs, use different terminology, and have unique patterns of CAM use. In partnership with community-based organizations and community residents, a culturally sensitive survey instrument and protocols were designed and tested to gather data on lower income, urban African-Americans' use of, attitudes toward, and understanding of CAM. The major findings of this pilot research are 1.) Community-partnered research can help researchers gain access to sensitive data and design culturally appropriate studies; 2.) CAM terminology varies by cultural group; 3.) Certain forms of CAM (folk or family practices) are commonly found in African-American populations; and 4.) Factors that affect CAM use--including age, lack of access to conventional medicine, cultural heritage, and dissatisfaction with conventional medicine.

Barnett, Marina C.; Cotroneo, Margaret; Purnell, Joseph; Martin, Danielle; Mackenzie, Elizabeth; Fishman, Alfred

2003-01-01

295

Connecting Communities to Health Research: Development of the Project CONNECT Minority Research Registry  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prevention and treatment standards are based on evidence obtained in behavioral and clinical research. However, racial and ethnic minorities remain relatively absent from the science that develops these standards. While investigators have successfully recruited participants for individual studies using tailored recruitment methods, these strategies require considerable time and resources. Research registries, typically developed around a disease or condition, serve as a promising model for a targeted recruitment method to increase minority participation in health research. This study assessed the tailored recruitment methods used to populate a health research registry targeting African-American community members. Methods We describe six recruitment methods applied between September 2004 and October 2008 to recruit members into a health research registry. Recruitment included direct (existing studies, public databases, community outreach) and indirect methods (radio, internet, and email) targeting the general population, local universities, and African American communities. We conducted retrospective analysis of the recruitment by method using descriptive statistics, frequencies, and chi-square statistics. Results During the recruitment period, 608 individuals enrolled in the research registry. The majority of enrollees were African American, female, and in good health. Direct and indirect methods were identified as successful strategies for subgroups. Findings suggest significant associations between recruitment methods and age, presence of existing health condition, prior research participation, and motivation to join the registry. Conclusions A health research registry can be a successful tool to increase minority awareness of research opportunities. Multi-pronged recruitment approaches are needed to reach diverse subpopulations.

Green, Melissa A.; Kim, Mimi M.; Barber, Sharrelle; Odulana, Abedowale A.; Godley, Paul A.; Howard, Daniel L.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle M.

2013-01-01

296

History of Physics Education Research as a Model for Geoscience Education Research Community Progress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discipline-based Education Research (DBER) is a research field richly combining a deep understanding of how to teach a particular discipline with an evolving understanding how people learn that discipline. At its center, DBER has an overarching goal of improving the teaching and learning of a discipline by focusing on understanding the underlying mental mechanisms learners use as they develop expertise. Geoscience Education Research, or GER, is a young but rapidly advancing field which is poised to make important contributions to the teaching and learning of earth and space science. Nascent geoscience education researchers could accelerate their community's progress by learning some of the lessons from the more mature field of Physics Education Research, PER. For the past three decades, the PER community has been on the cutting edge of DBER. PER started purely as an effort among traditionally trained physicists to overcome students' tenaciously held misconceptions about force, motion, and electricity. Over the years, PER has wrestled with the extent to which they included the faculty from the College of Education, the value placed on interpretive and qualitative research methods, the most appropriate involvement of professional societies, the nature of its PhD programs in the College of Science, and how to best disseminate the results of PER to the wider physics teaching community. Decades later, as a more fully mature field, PER still struggles with some of these aspects, but has learned important lessons in how its community progresses and evolves to be successful, valuable, and pertinent.

Slater, T. F.

2011-12-01

297

BCTR: Biological and Chemical Technologies Research 1994 annual summary report  

SciTech Connect

The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1994 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). Although the OIT was reorganized in 1991 and AICD no longer exists, this document reports on efforts conducted under the former structure. The annual summary report for 1994 (ASR 94) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1994; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

Petersen, G.

1995-02-01

298

The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of space biology research to be conducted aboard the Space Station in 1990s include long-term studies of reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging in both animals and plants. They also include studies of the mechanisms by which gravitational stimuli are sensed, processed, and transmitted to a responsive site, and of the effect of microgravity on each component. The Space Station configuration will include a life sciences research facility, where experiment cyles will be on a 90-day basis (since the Space Station missions planned for the 1990s call for 90-day intervals). A modular approach is taken to accomodate animal habitats, plant growth chambers, and other specimen holding facilities; the modular habitats would be transportable between the launch systems, habitat racks, a workbench, and a variable-gravity centrifuge (included for providing artificial gravity and accurately controlled acceleration levels aboard Space Station).

Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

1987-01-01

299

Interfacing mathematics and biology: a discussion on training, research, collaboration, and funding.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the discussion at a workshop on "Working at the Interface of Mathematics and Biology" at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. The goal of this workshop was to foster an ongoing discussion by the community on how to effectively train students from the biological, physical, engineering, and mathematical sciences to work at the intersection of these fields. One major point of discussion centered on how to be a successful interdisciplinary researcher in terms of where to publish, how to successfully write grants, and how to navigate evaluations for tenure and promotion. An emphasis was placed on the importance of developing strong multidisciplinary collaborations and clearly defining one's career trajectory to the home discipline. Another focus of the discussion was on the training of students and postdoctoral fellows in interdisciplinary work and helping these junior researchers to launch their careers. The group emphasized the need for the development of publicly available resources for biologists to learn basic tools for mathematical modeling and for mathematicians and engineers to see how their fields may be applied to current topics in the life sciences. PMID:22730496

Miller, Laura A; Alben, Silas

2012-11-01

300

Cambridge Healthtech Institute's Fourth Annual In silico Biology Conference "Modeling Systems Biology for Research and Target Prioritization"  

SciTech Connect

In silico biology, the computer aided analysis of biological systems, is a relatively young research area. It first has been coined in the late 1990's and emerged from Theoretical and Computational Biology. As in other fields before, biology experiences an increased use of systems mathematics and computer simulation. With the human genome sequence available, with an exponentially growing number of completely sequenced genomes from various model organisms and with expression and proteomic data at hand, the research paradigm is shifted towards systems analysis and simulation. Computer aided modeling of complex biomolecules and assemblies are already routinely performed. Nowadays, theoretical description and computer simulation of cellular components in larger intra- and inter-cellular networks is of growing importance. Together with classic biological and clinical experiments as well as data from functional genomics, in silico biology will take the leading role in the analysis of biological systems.

Forst, C. (Christian)

2002-01-01

301

A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology  

PubMed Central

Genomic data now allow the large-scale manual or semi-automated reconstruction of metabolic networks. A network reconstruction represents a highly curated organism-specific knowledge base. A few genome-scale network reconstructions have appeared for metabolism in the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These alternative network reconstructions differ in scope and content, and further have used different terminologies to describe the same chemical entities, thus making comparisons between them difficult. The formulation of a ‘community consensus’ network that collects and formalizes the ‘community knowledge’ of yeast metabolism is thus highly desirable. We describe how we have produced a consensus metabolic network reconstruction for S. cerevisiae. Special emphasis is laid on referencing molecules to persistent databases or using database-independent forms such as SMILES or InChI strings, since this permits their chemical structure to be represented unambiguously and in a manner that permits automated reasoning. The reconstruction is readily available via a publicly accessible database and in the Systems Biology Markup Language, and we describe the manner in which it can be maintained as a community resource. It should serve as a common denominator for system biology studies of yeast. Similar strategies will be of benefit to communities studying genome-scale metabolic networks of other organisms.

Herrgard, Markus J.; Swainston, Neil; Dobson, Paul; Dunn, Warwick B.; Arga, K. Yalcin; Arvas, Mikko; Bluthgen, Nils; Borger, Simon; Costenoble, Roeland; Heinemann, Matthias; Hucka, Michael; Le Novere, Nicolas; Li, Peter; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Mo, Monica L.; Oliveira, Ana Paula; Petranovic, Dina; Pettifer, Stephen; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Smallbone, Kieran; Spasic, Irena; Weichart, Dieter; Brent, Roger; Broomhead, David S.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; K?rdar, Betul; Penttila, Merja; Klipp, Edda; Palsson, Bernhard ?.; Sauer, Uwe; Oliver, Stephen G.; Mendes, Pedro; Nielsen, Jens; Kell, Douglas B.

2014-01-01

302

REVIEW OF COMMUNITY-BASED RESEARCH: Assessing Partnership Approaches to Improve Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based research in public health focuses on social, structural, and physical environmental inequities through active involvement of community mem- bers, organizational representatives, and researchers in all aspects of the research process. Partners contribute their expertise to enhance understanding of a given phenomenon and to integrate the knowledge gained with action to benefit the community involved. This review provides a synthesis

Barbara A. Israel; Amy J. Schulz; Edith A. Parker; Adam B. Becker

1998-01-01

303

Using the Critical Incident Technique in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Successful community-based participatory research involves the community partner in every step of the research process. The primary study for this paper took place in rural, Northern California. Collaborative partners included an academic researcher and two community based resource centers that provide supportive services to people diagnosed with cancer. Objectives: This paper describes our use of the Critical Incident Technique

Jeffrey Belkora; Lauren Stupar; Sara ODonnell

2011-01-01

304

Against the Odds: A Discussion of the Problems and Solutions of Researching at a Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most community college faculty are not engaged in research, community college settings can provide research opportunities for those faculty members determined to overcome the considerable obstacles. At Whatcom Community College, in Washington, for example, constraints facing faculty seeking to conduct research include limited access to…

Hagan, Martha

305

Using Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) to Target Health Disparities in Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an action research approach that emphasizes collaborative partnerships between community members, community organizations, health care providers, and researchers to generate knowledge and solve local problems. Although relatively new to the field of family social science, family and health…

Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Doherty, William J.

2009-01-01

306

Qualitative approach to the research into the parameters of human security in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a qualitative methodological model applied in the human security research in local communities as a part of a wider community-based participatory research (CBPR). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper synthesizes methodological experience from four empirical researches where a qualitative model of studying the security indicators in the local communities of Serbia has

Sladjana Djuric

2009-01-01

307

The Oregon migrant farmworker community: an evolving model for participatory research.  

PubMed Central

Migrant farmworker communities present distinct challenges that require new approaches for community participation in research. In the State of Oregon an agency that advocates for the migrant farmworker community has collaborated successfully with university researchers to implement a research program directed to reducing pesticide exposures among the children of migrant farmworkers. The research process has included both qualitative research methods with members of the community and quantitative approaches to measure pesticide dust residues in homes, biomarkers of pesticide exposure, and effects on health. A committee of university and community stakeholders advises the research. Evaluative processes have been initiated to assess the effectiveness of the participatory model used in this project. The components of the preliminary process evaluation and results are presented. Evaluative data show that researchers and community members differ on perceptions of community involvement and the extent to which communication problems have been resolved between the two groups. Suggestions for improved community involvement and communication are given.

McCauley, L A; Beltran, M; Phillips, J; Lasarev, M; Sticker, D

2001-01-01

308

A Funding Initiative for Community-Based Participatory Research: Lessons from the Harvard Catalyst Seed Grants  

PubMed Central

Background The National Institutes of Health–funded Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) have increasingly focused on community-engaged research and funded investigators for community-based participatory research (CBPR). However, because CBPR is a collaborative process focused on community-identified research topics, the Harvard CTSA and its Community Advisory Board (CERAB) funded community partners through a CBPR initiative. Objectives We describe lessons learned from this seed grants initiative designed to stimulate community–academic CBPR partnerships. Methods The CBPR program of the Harvard CTSA and the CERAB developed this initiative and each round incorporated participant and advisory feedback toward program improvement. Lessons Learned Although this initiative facilitated relevant and innovative research, challenges included variable community research readiness, insufficient project time, and difficulties identifying investigators for new partnerships. Conclusion Seed grants can foster innovative CBPR projects. Similar initiatives should consider preliminary assessments of community research readiness as well as strategies for meaningful academic researcher engagement.

Tendulkar, Shalini A.; Chu, Jocelyn; Opp, Jennifer; Geller, Alan; DiGirolamo, Ann; Gandelman, Ediss; Grullon, Milagro; Patil, Pratima; King, Stacey; Hacker, Karen

2013-01-01

309

Using Census Data to Classify Community College Students by Socioeconomic Status and Community Characteristics. CCRC Research Tools. Number 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and state higher education agencies too often lack accurate information about the socioeconomic status (SES) of their students. This paper describes the methodology that Community College Research Center (CCRC) researchers used to estimate the SES of individual students in the Washington State community and technical college system using…

Crosta, Peter M.; Leinbach, Timothy; Jenkins, Davis

2006-01-01

310

Impact of Substratum Surface on Microbial Community Structure and Treatment Performance in Biological Aerated Filters  

PubMed Central

The impact of substratum surface property change on biofilm community structure was investigated using laboratory biological aerated filter (BAF) reactors and molecular microbial community analysis. Two substratum surfaces that differed in surface properties were created via surface coating and used to develop biofilms in test (modified surface) and control (original surface) BAF reactors. Microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the surface property change consistently resulted in distinct profiles of microbial populations during replicate reactor start-ups. Pyrosequencing of the bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons surveyed more than 90% of the microbial diversity in the microbial communities and identified 72 unique bacterial species within 19 bacterial orders. Among the 19 orders of bacteria detected, Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales of the Betaproteobacteria class were numerically dominant and accounted for 90.5 to 97.4% of the sequence reads, and their relative abundances in the test and control BAF reactors were different in consistent patterns during the two reactor start-ups. Three of the five dominant bacterial species also showed consistent relative abundance changes between the test and control BAF reactors. The different biofilm microbial communities led to different treatment efficiencies, with consistently higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the test reactor than in the control reactor. Further understanding of how surface properties affect biofilm microbial communities and functional performance would enable the rational design of new generations of substrata for the improvement of biofilm-based biological treatment processes.

Kim, Lavane; Pagaling, Eulyn; Zuo, Yi Y.

2014-01-01

311

Using Focus Groups in Community-Based Participatory Research: Challenges and Resolutions  

PubMed Central

A community-based participatory approach requires that community members be involved in all phases of the research process. We describe three focus group studies with American Indians in Kansas and Missouri, using a newly developed method of conducting and analyzing focus groups with community input (72 focus groups, 519 participants). We conducted two needs assessment studies focused on barriers to breast and colorectal cancer screening and one study focused on Internet use for gathering health information. Community members and researchers collaborated to develop guides for the focus group moderators. Community organizations and our community advisory board conducted recruitment, and we trained and employed community members as moderators, assistant moderators, and analysts. Our community partners also helped with dissemination of research findings to their constituents. The methodologic approach and data from these three studies will allow us to more appropriately address health disparities in the American Indian community, with full community support for our research.

Daley, Christine Makosky; James, Aimee S.; Ulrey, Ezekiel; Joseph, Stephanie; Talawyma, Angelia; Choi, Won S.; Greiner, K. Allen; Coe, M. Kathryn

2010-01-01

312

Personalizing nutrigenomics research through community based participatory research and omics technologies.  

PubMed

Personal and public health information are often obtained from studies of large population groups. Risk factors for nutrients, toxins, genetic variation, and more recently, nutrient-gene interactions are statistical estimates of the percentage reduction in disease in the population if the risk were to be avoided or the gene variant were not present. Because individuals differ in genetic makeup, lifestyle, and dietary patterns than those individuals in the study population, these risk factors are valuable guidelines, but may not apply to individuals. Intervention studies are likewise limited by small sample sizes, short time frames to assess physiological changes, and variable experimental designs that often preclude comparative or consensus analyses. A fundamental challenge for nutrigenomics will be to develop a means to sort individuals into metabolic groups, and eventually, develop risk factors for individuals. To reach the goal of personalizing medicine and nutrition, new experimental strategies are needed for human study designs. A promising approach for more complete analyses of the interaction of genetic makeups and environment relies on community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodologies. CBPR's central focus is developing a partnership among researchers and individuals in a community that allows for more in depth lifestyle analyses but also translational research that simultaneously helps improve the health of individuals and communities. The USDA-ARS Delta Nutrition Intervention Research program exemplifies CBPR providing a foundation for expanded personalized nutrition and medicine research for communities and individuals. PMID:19040372

McCabe-Sellers, Beverly; Lovera, Dalia; Nuss, Henry; Wise, Carolyn; Ning, Baitang; Teitel, Candee; Clark, Beatrice Shelby; Toennessen, Terri; Green, Bridgett; Bogle, Margaret L; Kaput, Jim

2008-12-01

313

Characterizing User Communities of Large Multi-Disciplinary Research Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale multi-user research facilities are a critical component of the federal science and engineering research enterprise. Developing infrastructure for multidisciplinary research requires large investments over long periods of time and typically involves partnerships across many institutions. Consequently, multiple policy questions surround federal investments in large research facilities including what is the best way to maximize scientific productivity? How should investments in infrastructure be balanced with support for individual or small group research? For many facilities, the answers to these questions become focused on the activities of the users: the individuals who are interacting with the facility for furthering scientific research and/or education. This independent study provides the first known analysis of facility utilization. Four facilities supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) are used as case studies to create a conceptual framework for characterizing facility utilization, to examine changes in facility use over time, and to define how lessons learned can be applied to facility management and planning. Results show that there is a broad spectrum of users who interact with each facility in different ways and that for some facilities, unanticipated users are driving new areas of research. This work also shows that cyberinfrastructure-enabled facilities are experiencing rapid increases in data use and in some cases, the next generation of facility users appears to be developing new skills for working in an increasingly data-intensive research environment. Characterizing and quantifying large facility use will likely become increasingly important as the federal government continues to focus on developing metrics and evaluation tools for its investments in science and engineering research. This work establishes a foundation for assessing facility utilization and shows that this area is ripe for future work that may include portfolio-wide analyses, network or community mapping, and applications to other research investments.

Ludwig, K. A.

2012-12-01

314

RhesusBase: a knowledgebase for the monkey research community.  

PubMed

Although the rhesus macaque is a unique model for the translational study of human diseases, currently its use in biomedical research is still in its infant stage due to error-prone gene structures and limited annotations. Here, we present RhesusBase for the monkey research community (http://www.rhesusbase.org). We performed strand-specific RNA-Seq studies in 10 macaque tissues and generated 1.2 billion 90-bp paired-end reads, covering >97.4% of the putative exon in macaque transcripts annotated by Ensembl. We found that at least 28.7% of the macaque transcripts were previously mis-annotated, mainly due to incorrect exon-intron boundaries, incomplete untranslated regions (UTRs) and missed exons. Compared with the previous gene models, the revised transcripts show clearer sequence motifs near splicing junctions and the end of UTRs, as well as cleaner patterns of exon-intron distribution for expression tags and cross-species conservation scores. Strikingly, 1292 exon-intron boundary revisions between coding exons corrected the previously mis-annotated open reading frames. The revised gene models were experimentally verified in randomly selected cases. We further integrated functional genomics annotations from >60 categories of public and in-house resources and developed an online accessible database. User-friendly interfaces were developed to update, retrieve, visualize and download the RhesusBase meta-data, providing a 'one-stop' resource for the monkey research community. PMID:22965133

Zhang, Shi-Jian; Liu, Chu-Jun; Shi, Mingming; Kong, Lei; Chen, Jia-Yu; Zhou, Wei-Zhen; Zhu, Xiaotong; Yu, Peng; Wang, Jue; Yang, Xinzhuang; Hou, Ning; Ye, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Rongli; Xiao, Ruiping; Zhang, Xiuqin; Li, Chuan-Yun

2013-01-01

315

Developing Meaningful and Manageable Research Opportunities for Community College Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Independent research experience opportunities are bountiful for juniors and seniors at 4-year institutions, but far fewer opportunities exist for community college geoscience students. At Mt. San Antonio College (a community college in Los Angeles County), we sometimes offer an independent study course to 1 or 2 exceptional students. In the Spring 2012 semester our goal, for a few qualified students, was to extend their understanding (beyond what they had learned in Physical Geology) of some of the techniques, tools, and ways of thinking used by professional geoscientists, in an effort to better prepare them to transfer to 4-year institutions as geoscience majors. However, when 7 students became excited to participate, we quickly expanded the goals to include giving students the responsibility of defining the project's scope and procedures, introducing them to collaborative and ongoing research, and growing the scope of the project over several semesters. The project involved a preliminary assessment of a tributary in the San Juan Creek watershed in Orange County; techniques included stream and beach profiling, bedrock geology mapping, and sediment sampling and analysis. In addition to presenting preliminary results, we will report on lessons learned about necessary course elements, the importance of establishing academic and personal conduct expectations for students, and methods of assessing student work in a lower-division research experience. We will also discuss several barriers that were encountered during the first semester of the project, including involving faculty, students, and resources as well as strategies that we are currently employing to address these challenges.

Boryta, M. D.; Walker, B.; Cano, E.; Chi, B.; De Martinez, L.; Diaz, M.; Eckert, S.; Hoffman, A.; Lee, T.

2012-12-01

316

RhesusBase: a knowledgebase for the monkey research community  

PubMed Central

Although the rhesus macaque is a unique model for the translational study of human diseases, currently its use in biomedical research is still in its infant stage due to error-prone gene structures and limited annotations. Here, we present RhesusBase for the monkey research community (http://www.rhesusbase.org). We performed strand-specific RNA-Seq studies in 10 macaque tissues and generated 1.2 billion 90-bp paired-end reads, covering >97.4% of the putative exon in macaque transcripts annotated by Ensembl. We found that at least 28.7% of the macaque transcripts were previously mis-annotated, mainly due to incorrect exon–intron boundaries, incomplete untranslated regions (UTRs) and missed exons. Compared with the previous gene models, the revised transcripts show clearer sequence motifs near splicing junctions and the end of UTRs, as well as cleaner patterns of exon–intron distribution for expression tags and cross-species conservation scores. Strikingly, 1292 exon–intron boundary revisions between coding exons corrected the previously mis-annotated open reading frames. The revised gene models were experimentally verified in randomly selected cases. We further integrated functional genomics annotations from >60 categories of public and in-house resources and developed an online accessible database. User-friendly interfaces were developed to update, retrieve, visualize and download the RhesusBase meta-data, providing a ‘one-stop’ resource for the monkey research community.

Zhang, Shi-Jian; Liu, Chu-Jun; Shi, Mingming; Kong, Lei; Chen, Jia-Yu; Zhou, Wei-Zhen; Zhu, Xiaotong; Yu, Peng; Wang, Jue; Yang, Xinzhuang; Hou, Ning; Ye, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Rongli; Xiao, Ruiping; Zhang, Xiuqin; Li, Chuan-Yun

2013-01-01

317

Current challenges and approaches for the synergistic use of systems biology data in the scientific community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today’s rapid development and broad application of high-throughput analytical technologies are transforming biological research\\u000a and provide an amount of data and analytical opportunities to understand the fundamentals of biological processes undreamt\\u000a of in past years. To fully exploit the potential of the large amount of data, scientists must be able to understand and interpret\\u000a the information in an integrative manner.

Christian H. Ahrens; Ulrich Wagner; Hubert K. Rehrauer; Can Türker; Ralph Schlapbach

318

Low-gravity Orbiting Research Laboratory Environment Potential Impact on Space Biology Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major objectives of any orbital space research platform is to provide a quiescent low gravity, preferably a zero gravity environment, to perform fundamental as well as applied research. However, small disturbances exist onboard any low earth orbital research platform. The impact of these disturbances must be taken into account by space research scientists during their research planning, design and data analysis in order to avoid confounding factors in their science results. The reduced gravity environment of an orbiting research platform in low earth orbit is a complex phenomenon. Many factors, among others, such as experiment operations, equipment operation, life support systems and crew activity (if it is a crewed platform), aerodynamic drag, gravity gradient, rotational effects as well as the vehicle structural resonance frequencies (structural modes) contribute to form the overall reduced gravity environment in which space research is performed. The contribution of these small disturbances or accelerations is precisely why the environment is NOT a zero gravity environment, but a reduced acceleration environment. This paper does not discuss other factors such as radiation, electromagnetic interference, thermal and pressure gradient changes, acoustic and CO2 build-up to name a few that affect the space research environment as well, but it focuses solely on the magnitude of the acceleration level found on orbiting research laboratory used by research scientists to conduct space research. For ease of analysis this paper divides the frequency spectrum relevant to most of the space research disciplines into three regimes: a) quasi-steady, b) vibratory and c) transient. The International Space Station is used as an example to illustrate the point. The paper discusses the impact of these three regimes on space biology research and results from space flown experiments are used to illustrate the potential negative impact of these disturbances (accelerations) on space biology research.

Jules, Kenol

2006-01-01

319

Data management for community research projects: A JGOFS case study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the mid 1980s, much of the marine science research effort in the United Kingdom has been focused into large scale collaborative projects involving public sector laboratories and university departments, termed Community Research Projects. Two of these, the Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) and the North Sea Project incorporated large scale data collection to underpin multidisciplinary modeling efforts. The challenge of providing project data sets to support the science was met by a small team within the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) operating as a topical data center. The role of the data center was to both work up the data from the ship's sensors and to combine these data with sample measurements into online databases. The working up of the data was achieved by a unique symbiosis between data center staff and project scientists. The project management, programming and data processing skills of the data center were combined with the oceanographic experience of the project communities to develop a system which has produced quality controlled, calibrated data sets from 49 research cruises in 3.5 years of operation. The data center resources required to achieve this were modest and far outweighed by the time liberated in the scientific community by the removal of the data processing burden. Two online project databases have been assembled containing a very high proportion of the data collected. As these are under the control of BODC their long term availability as part of the UK national data archive is assured. The success of the topical data center model for UK Community Research Project data management has been founded upon the strong working relationships forged between the data center and project scientists. These can only be established by frequent personal contact and hence the relatively small size of the UK has been a critical factor. However, projects covering a larger, even international scale could be successfully supported by a network of topical data centers managing online databases which are interconnected by object oriented distributed data management systems over wide area networks.

Lowry, Roy K.

1992-01-01

320

Meeting the research infrastructure needs of micropolitan and rural communities.  

PubMed

In the 1800s, this country chose to establish land-grant colleges to see that the working class could attain higher education, and that the research needs of the agricultural and manufacturing segments of this country could be met. It seems contrary to our origins to see so little support at present for research infrastructure going to the very communities that need such research to sustain their populations, grow their economies, to attract physicians, to provide adequate health care, and to educate, retain, and employ their youth. Cities are viewed as sources for high-paying jobs, yet many of these same jobs could be translated to rural and micropolitan areas, provided that the resources are established to support it. One of the fastest growing economic periods in this country's history was during World War II, when even the smallest and most remote towns contributed substantially to the innovations, manufacture, and production of goods benefiting our nation as a whole. Rural areas have always lagged somewhat behind metropolitan areas in acquisition of new technology. Rural electricity and rural phone access are examples from the past. Testing our universities' abilities to grow distributive research networks beyond their campuses will create a competitive edge regionally, against global workplace, educational, and research competition, and will lay the groundwork for efficiency in research and for new innovation. PMID:19552350

Strasburger, Janette F

2009-05-01

321

Strengthening community involvement in grant review: insights from the Community-University Research Partnership (CURES) pilot review process.  

PubMed

In 2007, the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR) at the University of Michigan received a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Within MICHR, the Community Engagement (CE) program supports partnership efforts between researchers, practitioners, and community-based organizations in specific focal communities throughout Michigan. A key component of the CE program is the Community Engagement Coordinating Council, a group that provides input and guidance on program priorities, strategic planning, and reviews pilot funding proposals for community-academic partnerships. This paper will describe a unique MICHR pilot funding mechanism for Community-University Research Partnerships (CURES) with an emphasis on the ways that community partners are involved in the review process, as well as the benefits, challenges, and insights gained over 5 years of pilot review. There is a growing need for community involvement and expertise in review of funding proposals for community-engaged research at both institutional and federal levels. The CURES pilot review process is one example of an institutional effort to engage community partners in university funding decisions and has demonstrated clear benefit toward accomplishing the aims of the CTSA. PMID:24456508

Paberzs, Adam; Piechowski, Patricia; Warrick, Debra; Grawi, Carolyn; Choate, Celeste; Sneed, Glenda; Carr, Diane; Lota, Kanchan; Key, Kent; Alexander, Valerie; Ghosh, Pratik; Sampselle, Carolyn

2014-04-01

322

Self-optimization, community stability, and fluctuations in two individual-based models of biological coevolution.  

PubMed

We compare and contrast the long-time dynamical properties of two individual-based models of biological coevolution. Selection occurs via multispecies, stochastic population dynamics with reproduction probabilities that depend nonlinearly on the population densities of all species resident in the community. New species are introduced through mutation. Both models are amenable to exact linear stability analysis, and we compare the analytic results with large-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, obtaining the population size as a function of an average interspecies interaction strength. Over time, the models self-optimize through mutation and selection to approximately maximize a community potential function, subject only to constraints internal to the particular model. If the interspecies interactions are randomly distributed on an interval including positive values, the system evolves toward self-sustaining, mutualistic communities. In contrast, for the predator-prey case the matrix of interactions is antisymmetric, and a nonzero population size must be sustained by an external resource. Time series of the diversity and population size for both models show approximate 1/f noise and power-law distributions for the lifetimes of communities and species. For the mutualistic model, these two lifetime distributions have the same exponent, while their exponents are different for the predator-prey model. The difference is probably due to greater resilience toward mass extinctions in the food-web like communities produced by the predator-prey model. PMID:17534620

Rikvold, Per Arne

2007-11-01

323

[Our considerations about research on regularities of acupoint combination based on bipartite network community structure partition].  

PubMed

Acupoint compatibility is not only a foundation for formulating acupoint recipes in clinical practice, but also a core of meridian and acupoint theory. Many studies have revealed that the application of multiple-acupoints combination in the treatment of different clinical conditions or illnesses may lead to three outcomes, i.e., synergistic effect, antagonistic effect and no effect. Therefore, the application of multiple acupoints combination is definitely not a simple result of 1 + 1 = 2, or 2 - 1 = 1 in the management of many clinical disorders, and rather, the reasonable combination of multiple acupoints is a non-liner, dynamic and complicated issue. It has been well documented that the complex biological network consists of modules/communities, a set of nodes that are more densely inter-connected among themselves than with the rest of the network, which can be detected by community detection according to their modularity. After analyzing the current status and development trends of acupoint comparability researches in both China and other countries of the world, the authors of the present paper put forward some ideas and methods for the research of correlation, composing characteristics and dynamically evolutionary regularities of acupoint combination from the macroscopic and local aspects, dynamic and static angles on the basis of the theory of community structure theory of complex networks. PMID:24818500

Ren, Yu-Lan; Sun, Tian-Xiao; Gao, Yan; Zheng, Jiao-Ling; Shu, Hong-Ping; Liang, Fan-Rong

2014-04-01

324

Quantifying biological integrity of California sage scrub communities using plant life-form cover.  

SciTech Connect

The California sage scrub (CSS) community type in California's Mediterranean-type ecosystems supports a large number of rare, threatened, and endangered species, and is critically degraded and endangered. Monitoring ecological variables that provide information about community integrity is vital to conserving these biologically diverse communities. Fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground should fill information gaps between generalized vegetation type maps and detailed field-based plot measurements of species composition and provide an effective means for quantifying CSS community integrity. Remote sensing is the only tool available for estimating spatially comprehensive fractional cover over large extent, and fractional cover of plant life-form types is one of the measures of vegetation state that is most amenable to remote sensing. The use of remote sensing does not eliminate the need for either field surveying or vegetation type mapping; rather it will likely require a combination of approaches to reliably estimate life-form cover and to provide comprehensive information for communities. According to our review and synthesis, life-form fractional cover has strong potential for providing ecologically meaningful intermediate-scale information, which is unattainable from vegetation type maps and species-level field measurements. Thus, we strongly recommend incorporating fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herb, and bare ground in CSS community monitoring methods. Estimating life-form cover at a 25 m x 25 m spatial scale using remote sensing would be an appropriate approach for initial implementation. Investigation of remote sensing techniques and an appropriate spatial scale; collaboration of resource managers, biologists, and remote sensing specialists, and refinement of protocols are essential for integrating life-form fractional cover mapping into strategies for sustainable long-term CSS community management.

Hamada, Y.; Stow, D. A.; Franklin, J. (Environmental Science Division); (San Diego State University, Department of Geography); (Arizona State University, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning)

2010-01-01

325

Early career academic researchers and community-based participatory research: wrestling match or dancing partners?  

PubMed

Early career faculty members at academic medical centers face unique obstacles when engaging in community-based participatory research (CBPR). Challenges and opportunities for solutions pertaining to mentorship, time demands, unfamiliarity of colleagues with CBPR approaches, ethical review regulations, funding, and publication and promotion are discussed. PMID:24330696

Lowry, Kelly Walker; Ford-Paz, Rebecca

2013-12-01

326

Partnering to Collect Health Services and Public Health Data in Hard-to-Reach Communities: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach for Collecting Community Health Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches are increasingly used in behavioral studies but also may allow public health and health services researchers to study determinants of health in hard-to-reach communities for whom existing data are missing. Objectives: We describe our experience with a CBPR project in diverse communities of limited English proficient minorities. Methods: The process included relationship building, recognition

Giang Nguyen; Leah Hsu; Kao N. Kue; Thoai Nguyen; Elaine J. Yuen

2010-01-01

327

Partnering to Collect Health Services and Public Health Data in Hard-to-Reach Communities: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach for Collecting Community Health Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches are increasingly used in behavioral studies but also may allow public health and health services researchers to study determinants of health in hard-to-reach communities for whom existing data are missing. Objectives: We describe our experience with a CBPR project in diverse communities of limited English proficient minorities. Methods: The process included relationship building, recognition

MPH Giang Nguyen; MPH Leah Hsu

2010-01-01

328

Accelerating cancer systems biology research through Semantic Web technology.  

PubMed

Cancer systems biology is an interdisciplinary, rapidly expanding research field in which collaborations are a critical means to advance the field. Yet the prevalent database technologies often isolate data rather than making it easily accessible. The Semantic Web has the potential to help facilitate web-based collaborative cancer research by presenting data in a manner that is self-descriptive, human and machine readable, and easily sharable. We have created a semantically linked online Digital Model Repository (DMR) for storing, managing, executing, annotating, and sharing computational cancer models. Within the DMR, distributed, multidisciplinary, and inter-organizational teams can collaborate on projects, without forfeiting intellectual property. This is achieved by the introduction of a new stakeholder to the collaboration workflow, the institutional licensing officer, part of the Technology Transfer Office. Furthermore, the DMR has achieved silver level compatibility with the National Cancer Institute's caBIG, so users can interact with the DMR not only through a web browser but also through a semantically annotated and secure web service. We also discuss the technology behind the DMR leveraging the Semantic Web, ontologies, and grid computing to provide secure inter-institutional collaboration on cancer modeling projects, online grid-based execution of shared models, and the collaboration workflow protecting researchers' intellectual property. PMID:23188758

Wang, Zhihui; Sagotsky, Jonathan; Taylor, Thomas; Shironoshita, Patrick; Deisboeck, Thomas S

2013-01-01

329

Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: 11C has been utilized as a 11CO2 tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the 11CO2 radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using 11CO2. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for 11CO2 tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

Weisenberger, A. G.; Kross, B.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J.; McKisson, J. E.; Xi, W.; Zorn, C.; Howell, C. R.; Crowell, A. S.; Reid, C. D.; Smith, M.

2013-08-01

330

Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research  

SciTech Connect

The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: {sup 11}C has been utilized as a {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the {sup 11}CO{sub 2} radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using {sup 11}CO{sub 2}. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

Weisenberger, Andrew G. [JLAB; Kross, Brian J. [JLAB; Lee, Seung Joo [JLAB; McKisson, John E. [JLAB; Xi, Wenze [JLAB; Zorn, Carl J. [JLAB; Howell, Calvin [DUKE; Crowell, A.S. [DUKE; Reid, C.D. [DUKE; Smith, Mark [MARYLAND U.

2013-08-01

331

Understanding Fibromyalgia: Lessons from the Broader Pain Research Community  

PubMed Central

Fibromaylgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition marked by centrally-mediated augmentation of pain and sensory processes. Skepticism has marked the history of this condition, but more recent study has identified neurobiological underpinnings supporting many of the symptoms associated with this condition. Early research in FM had unprecedented latitude within the Rheumatology community to borrow heavily from theory and methods being applied in chronic pain research more generally. These insights facilitated rapid advances in FM research; not the least of which was the abandonment of a peripheral focus in favor of studying central mechanisms associated with central augmentation. Currently, rapid paced discovery is taking place in FM genetics, patient assessment, new therapeutic targets, and novel methods of treatment delivery. Such insights are not likely to be limited in application just to FM; but could have relevance to the broader field of pain research as well. Perspective This manuscript reviews the history of FM and its diagnosis, evidence supporting central augmentation of pain in FM, potential mechanisms of central augmentation, current approaches to integrated care of FM, and areas of active collaboration between FM research and other chronic pain conditions.

Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

2009-01-01

332

Community Development and Research. Aboriginal Peoples Collection = Developpement Communautaire et Recherches. Collection sur les Autochtones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides Canadian Aboriginal communities with information and resources for carrying out participatory action research and applying the results to community development. Presented in English and French, the report is based on a literature review and a 2-day focus group involving 14 community development experts, Aboriginal community

Ministry of the Solicitor General, Ottawa (Ontario).

333

PATHOLOGICAL INTERNET COMMUNITIES: A NEW DIRECTION FOR SEXUAL DEVIANCE RESEARCH IN A POST MODERN ERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the impact of the Internet and related technologies on the nature of deviant behavior, deviant communities, and the future of deviance research. The idea that pathological communities, once largely suppressed by time, space, and societal restraints, can now create and use virtual communities is focal. Those new communities may expand their numbers and\\/or pathology, while reinforcing their

Keith Durkin; Craig J. Forsyth; James F. Quinn

2006-01-01

334

Fostering community-based wildlife health monitoring and research in the Canadian North.  

PubMed

Many northern Canadians have continued a subsistence lifestyle of wildlife harvesting and, therefore, value sustainable wildlife populations. At a regional wildlife workshop in the Sahtu Settlement Area, Northwest Territories in 2002, elders and community leaders raised concerns regarding wildlife health, food safety, and the effects of climate change on wildlife. They requested that efforts be put toward training youth in science and increasing involvement of hunters and youth in wildlife research. In response, we initiated a long-term, integrated approach to foster community-based wildlife health monitoring and research. Annual trips were made to all schools in the Sahtu from 2003 to 2009 to provide hands-on learning for 250-460 students on a range of wildlife topics. In addition, interviews were conducted with 31 hunters and elders to document their local ecological knowledge of wildlife health and local hunters were trained as monitors to collect tissue samples and measurements to assess body condition and monitor health of harvested caribou (n = 69) and moose (n = 19). In 2007 the program was extended to include participation in the annual caribou hunt held by one community. Each year since 2005, a graduate student and/or a postdoctoral trainee in the veterinary or biological sciences has participated in the program. The program has evolved during the last 6 years in response to community and school input, results of empirical research, hunter feedback, local knowledge, and logistical constraints. The continuity of the program is attributed to the energetic collaboration among diverse partners and a unified approach that responds to identified needs. PMID:19953294

Brook, Ryan K; Kutz, Susan J; Veitch, Alasdair M; Popko, Richard A; Elkin, Brett T; Guthrie, Glen

2009-06-01

335

Can communities and academia work together on public health research? Evaluation results from a community-based participatory research partnershipin detroit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of a formative evaluation of the first 4 years of the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research\\u000a Center (URC), a community-based participatory research partnership that was founded in 1995 with core funding from the Centers\\u000a for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Several organizations are members of this partnership, including a university, six\\u000a community-based organizations, a city health

Paula M. Lantz; Edna Viruell-Fuentes; Barbara A. Israel; Donald Softley; Ricardo Guzman

2001-01-01

336

Content and context of a research registry for community-based research.  

PubMed

There is a dearth of evidence relative to the identification and the variability between the prevalence of chronic conditions in the greater geographic community and the prevalence of these chronic conditions reported through community-based primary care practices. Described is the content and context of a research registry and the variation in panels given the means of recruitment. Patients complete a medical form that includes their self-reported demographics, current and past medical conditions, current medications, family history of selected medical conditions, and a release for full access to their medical records. Two panels were examined, those patients served by community-based primary care practices and assessment of those citizens living in the greater underserved population. These results suggest that the recorded frequency of conditions is similar to those found in the most frequent diagnostic clusters reported in literature for primary care visits. Despite the equity of the demographic and geographical area for recruitment, the identified chronic conditions of those recruited from medical practices differed significantly than the participants from community venues. These findings are provocative in that they have an impact on the understanding of the content and context of a primary care community-based research registry, but also the possible variations in panels given the means of recruitment into a registry. These data are relevant not only as a measure of prevalence of conditions seen in primary care, but perhaps more importantly as a measure of the prevention of chronic diseases that disproportionately affect the underserved. PMID:18369713

Janosky, Janine E; Laird, Susan B; Sun, Qing

2008-08-01

337

STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)  

SciTech Connect

The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages. The development of publicly accessible, web-based servers, including the HOTPATCH server, the ProKnow Server and the SAVEs server. All of these are accessible from the home page of the Institute. Advancing the science of bioenergy, in the laboratories of the Principal Investigators of the Institute, including the laboratories of Shimon Weiss, James Liao, James Bowie, Todd Yeates, Rob Gunsalus.

Eisenberg, David S.

2008-07-15

338

Breeding biology of an afrotropical forest understory bird community in northeastern Tanzania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many aspects of the breeding biology of Afrotropical forest birds are poorly known. Here we provide a description based on the monitoring of 1461 active nests over eight breeding seasons about one or more aspects of the breeding biology for 28 coexisting understory bird species on the Amani Plateau in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Mean nest height and mean distance of nest from forest edge varied widely among species with most species constructing nests across a broad vertical and forest edge to interior gradient. However, there were important exceptions with all sunbird species and several dove and waxbill species constructing nests in close proximity to the forest edge. For 17 common species for which we recorded two or more active nests, mean clutch size across species was 1.9 eggs per clutch, the lowest site-specific mean clutch size yet reported for a tropical forest bird community. For nine bird species, a subset of the 17 common species, length of breeding season, defined as the difference between the earliest and latest recorded incubation onset date, ranged from 88–139 days. Most of these nine species displayed a unimodal distribution in incubation onset dates across a breeding season which extended from the end of August through middle January. In summary, a wide variation exists in most aspects of the breeding biology within an understory forest bird community in the East Usambara Mountains.

Mkongewa, Victor J.; Newmark, William D.; Stanley, Thomas R.

2013-01-01

339

Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

2012-01-01

340

Collaborative Classroom Management. Video to Accompany "A Biological Brain in a Cultural Classroom: Applying Biological Research to Classroom Management." [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 43-minute VHS videotape is designed to be used in course and workshop settings with "A Biological Brain in a Cultural Classroom: Applying Biological Research to Classroom Management." The videotape's principal values are as an introduction to the issues explored in the book and as a catalyst for group discussions and activities related to…

2001

341

Cell Science and Cell Biology Research at MSFC: Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The common theme of these research programs is that they investigate regulation of gene expression in cells, and ultimately gene expression is controlled by the macromolecular interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA. The NASA Critical Path Roadmap identifies Muscle Alterations and Atrophy and Radiation Effects as Very Serious Risks and Severe Risks, respectively, in long term space flights. The specific problem addressed by Dr. Young's research ("Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Muscle Cell Signaling") is that skeletal muscle loss in space cannot be prevented by vigorous exercise. Aerobic skeletal muscles (i.e., red muscles) undergo the most extensive atrophy during long-term space flight. Of the many different potential avenues for preventing muscle atrophy, Dr. Young has chosen to study the beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) pathway. The reason for this choice is that a family of compounds called betaAR agonists will preferentially cause an increase in muscle mass of aerobic muscles (i.e., red muscle) in animals, potentially providing a specific pharmacological solution to muscle loss in microgravity. In addition, muscle atrophy is a widespread medical problem in neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injury, lack of exercise, aging, and any disease requiring prolonged bedridden status. Skeletal muscle cells in cell culture are utilized as a model system to study this problem. Dr. Richmond's research ("Radiation & Cancer Biology of Mammary Cells in Culture") is directed toward developing a laboratory model for use in risk assessment of cancer caused by space radiation. This research is unique because a human model will be developed utilizing human mammary cells that are highly susceptible to tumor development. This approach is preferential over using animal cells because of problems in comparing radiation-induced cancers between humans and animals.

2003-01-01

342

State of laboratory manual instruction in California community college introductory (non-majors) biology laboratory instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

College students must complete a life science course prior to graduation for a bachelor's degree. Generally, the course has lecture and laboratory components. It is in the laboratory where there are exceptional opportunities for exploration, challenge and application of the material learned. Optimally, this would utilize the best of inquiry based approaches. Most community colleges are using a home-grown or self written laboratory manual for the direction of work in the laboratory period. Little was known about the motivation, development and adaptation of use. It was also not known about the future of the laboratory manuals in light of the recent learning reform in California Community Colleges, Student Learning Outcomes. Extensive interviews were conducted with laboratory manual authors to determine the motivation, process of development, who was involved and learning framework used in the creation of the manuals. It was further asked of manual authors their ideas about the future of the manual, the development of staff and faculty and finally, the role Student Learning Outcomes would play in the manual. Science faculty currently teaching the non-majors biology laboratories for at least two semesters were surveyed on-line about actual practice of the manual, assessment, manual flexibility, faculty training and incorporation of Student Learning Outcomes. Finally, an evaluation of the laboratory manual was done using an established Laboratory Task Analysis Instrument. Laboratory manuals were evaluated on a variety of categories to determine the level of inquiry instruction done by students in the laboratory section. The results were that the development of homegrown laboratory manuals was done by community colleges in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties in an effort to minimize the cost of the manual to the students, to utilize all the exercises in a particular lab and to effectively utilize the materials already owned by the department. Further, schools wanted to utilize the current faculty research expertise and knowledge. Unfortunately, laboratory manual authors had no real learning framework in the development of the manual. Based on the LAI, most manuals focused on the lowest levels of inquiry based instruction. Most manuals focused exercises on cell and molecular topics. The manuals had little student exploration, creation or design in the laboratory exercise and no option for repeating the exercise. There was a clear desire of faculty and authors to improve the laboratory experience and manual. Authors and faculty wished to include more inquiry and utilize the best of Student Learning Outcome (SLO) methodologies. Authors and the laboratory manuals have a major disconnect in that authors have clear desires inquiry based learning for the manual but do not effectively implement the inquiry based learning for various reasons. The manuals themselves, laboratory manuals themselves are not robust inquiry based learning models to maximize student learning. Authors and faculty are disconnected in that authors know what they want their manuals to do...but do not effectively communicate that to faculty. Finally, schools are in a "wait and see" approach as to when to integrate the latest learning theory mandated by the Chancellors Office -- Student Learning Outcomes.

Priest, Michelle

343

A Community Translational Research Pilot Grants Program to Facilitate Community-Academic Partnerships: Lessons From Colorado's Clinical Translational Science Awards  

PubMed Central

Background National growth in translational research has increased the need for practical tools to improve how academic institutions engage communities in research. Methods One used by the Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI) to target investments in community-based translational research on health disparities is a Community Engagement (CE) Pilot Grants program. Innovative in design, the program accepts proposals from either community or academic applicants, requires that at least half of requested grant funds go to the community partner, and offers two funding tracks: One to develop new community–academic partnerships (up to $10,000), the other to strengthen existing partnerships through community translational research projects (up to $30,000). Results and Conclusion We have seen early success in both traditional and capacity building metrics: the initial investment of $272,742 in our first cycle led to over $2.8 million dollars in additional grant funding, with grantees reporting strengthening capacity of their community–academic partnerships and the rigor and relevance of their research.

Main, Deborah S.; Felzien, Maret C.; Magid, David J.; Calonge, B. Ned; O'Brien, Ruth A.; Kempe, Allison; Nearing, Kathryn

2013-01-01

344

Microgravity research in plant biological systems: Realizing the potential of molecular biology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sole all-pervasive feature of the environment that has helped shape, through evolution, all life on Earth is gravity. The near weightlessness of the Space Station Freedom space environment allows gravitational effects to be essentially uncoupled, thus providing an unprecedented opportunity to manipulate, systematically dissect, study, and exploit the role of gravity in the growth and development of all life forms. New and exciting opportunities are now available to utilize molecular biological and biochemical approaches to study the effects of microgravity on living organisms. By careful experimentation, we can determine how gravity perception occurs, how the resulting signals are produced and transduced, and how or if tissue-specific differences in gene expression occur. Microgravity research can provide unique new approaches to further our basic understanding of development and metabolic processes of cells and organisms, and to further the application of this new knowledge for the betterment of humankind.

Lewis, Norman G.; Ryan, Clarence A.

1993-01-01

345

Erecting Closets and Outing Ourselves: Uncomfortable Reflexivity and Community-Based Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Feminist scholars and community psychologists have argued that reflexivity is a necessary component to conducting socially conscious research. Reflexivity, however, is rarely evident in community psychology. In this article, we share the uncomfortable realities that surfaced during a community-based research project in which we adapted and…

Reed, Sarah J.; Miller, Robin Lin; Nnawulezi, Nkiru; Valenti, Maria T.

2012-01-01

346

Community College Student Success Programs: A Synthesis, Critique, and Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A narrative review was developed to add to the discussion and dissemination of research on community colleges. The review adds to existing work by synthesizing and critiquing the empirical research to date specific to three of the most prevalent programmatic efforts presently seen on community college campuses: (a) learning communities, (b)…

Crisp, Gloria; Taggart, Amanda

2013-01-01

347

Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) as a tool for empowerment and public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach involving community and partners in all phases of the research, aims to produce empowering outcomes including increased community capacities, broader stakeholder participation in decision-making and promotes social justice. This paper discusses CBPR as an effective vehicle for empowerment, and as a tool for engaging public policy dialogue. Through exploring concepts of participation

Crystal Tremblay

348

Research as Mission Creep? Reconsidering Scholarship in the Community College. In Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community college faculty clearly do more than teach. When the potential scholarly activities of full-time community college faculty are narrowly defined as research, however, mission creep is insinuated, and community colleges are accused of attempting to encroach upon the purview of four-year research institutions in an expression of "goal…

Gump, Steven E.

2006-01-01

349

Integration of biological and nursing sciences: a 10-year plan to enhance research and training.  

PubMed

A proposed multiyear plan of funding mechanisms by the National Center for Nursing Research (NCNR) to increase the use of biological theory and measurements in nursing research has been developed for both research training and research programs. The objectives of the research training programs are (a) to develop a cadre of nurse scientists with solid research training in the biological sciences, (b) to upgrade to state-of-the-art biological research for mid-career nurse scientists, and (c) to ensure adequate highly trained biological-nurse manpower will be available to accomplish the nation's nursing research agenda. The objectives of the research programs are (a) to stimulate nurse scientists to undertake novel, innovative research using state-of-the-art biological technology, (b) to link the behavioral and biological underpinnings of nursing science in specified areas of biomedical clinical research, and (c) to ensure that, in the coming decade, nursing science and behavioral research will be inextricably interwoven with biological research. The research training programs include: targeted predoctoral-postdoctoral transitional training, targeted predoctoral or postdoctoral fellowships, training awards for existing institutional training grants in other disciplines, mid-career awards, the Nurse Scientist award, and institutional training grants for biological nursing. The research programs include: small grants programs, augmentation of existing projects in other Institutes, Requests For Applications (RFA) in biobehavioral nursing, cluster studies, and clinical trials. PMID:8488310

Cowan, M J; Heinrich, J; Lucas, M; Sigmon, H; Hinshaw, A S

1993-02-01

350

Research Coordination Network: Geothermal Biology and Geochemistry in Yellowstone National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number and diversity of geothermal features in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) represent a fascinating array of high temperature geochemical environments that host a corresponding number of unique and potentially novel organisms in all of the three recognized domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. The geothermal features of YNP have long been the subject of scientific inquiry, especially in the fields of microbiology, geochemistry, geothermal hydrology, microbial ecology, and population biology. However, there are no organized forums for scientists working in YNP geothermal areas to present research results, exchange ideas, discuss research priorities, and enhance synergism among research groups. The primary goal of the YNP Research Coordination Network (GEOTHERM) is to develop a more unified effort among scientists and resource agencies to characterize, describe, understand and inventory the diverse biota associated with geothermal habitats in YNP. The YNP RCN commenced in January 2005 as a collaborative effort among numerous university scientists, governmental agencies and private industry. The YNP RCN hosted a workshop in February 2006 to discuss research results and to form three working groups focused on (i) web-site and digital library content, (ii) metagenomics of thermophilic microbial communities and (iii) development of geochemical methods appropriate for geomicrobiological studies. The working groups represent one strategy for enhancing communication, collaboration and most importantly, productivity among the RCN participants. If you have an interest in the geomicrobiology of geothermal systems, please feel welcome to join and or participate in the YNP RCN.

Inskeep, W. P.; Young, M. J.; Jay, Z.

2006-12-01

351

Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

Kwiatkowski, Roy E., E-mail: roy_kwiatkowski@hc-sc.gc.c

2011-07-15

352

Operationalising a model framework for consumer and community participation in health and medical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Consumers' Health Forum of Australia and the National Health and Medical Research Council has recently developed a Model Framework for Consumer and Community Participation in Health and Medical Research in order to better align health and medical research with community need, and improve the impact of research. Model frameworks may have little impact on what goes on in practice

Carla Saunders; Sally Crossing; Afaf Girgis; Phyllis Butow; Andrew Penman

2007-01-01

353

A systematic review of community-based participatory research interventions in pediatric and adolescent populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research actively involving community members in all aspects of the research process. CBPR is not a new research method, but an approach that has gained increased attention in the field of public health over the last several years. Recognition of the inequalities in health status associated with social and environmental

Tracy M Voegtle

2008-01-01

354

Community Perspectives on Factors that Influence Collaboration in Public Health Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community collaboration in research may lead to better methods, results, and dissemination of interventions. Little systematic research has examined specific factors that influence community-based organizations (CBOs) to collaborate in public health research. There is an urgent need to advance knowledge on this topic so that together, researchers

Pinto, Rogerio M.

2009-01-01

355

Community Impact Models--A Research and Extension Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extension personnel can aid rural decision makers with impacts felt from rapid growth in their communities via a locally applicable community impact model. This paper illustrates how extension professionals can utilize community impact models. Impact models reviewed include: model to measure the impact of new industry on rural communities in…

Doeksen, Gerald A.; And Others

356

Annual Report and Summaries of FY 1982 Activities Supported by the Division of Biological Energy Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Biological Energy Research (BER) program was established to conduct fundamental studies in biology oriented towards energy conversion and conservation to underpin future developments in energy related biotechnology. The BER program aims at comprehendi...

1982-01-01

357

Teaching Molecular Biological Techniques in a Research Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Molecular biological methods, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis, are now commonly taught to students in introductory biology courses at the college and even high school levels. This often includes hands-on experience with one or more molecular techniques as part of a general biology laboratory. To assure that most…

Stiller, John W.; Coggins, T. Chad

2006-01-01

358

Making health data maps: a case study of a community\\/university research collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the main findings from a collaborative community\\/university research project in Canada. The goal of the project was to improve access to community health information, and in so doing, enhance our knowledge of the development of community health information resources and community\\/university collaboration. The project built on a rich history of community\\/university collaboration in Southeast Toronto (SETO), and

David L Buckeridge; Robin Mason; Ann Robertson; John Frank; Richard Glazier; Lorraine Purdon; Carl G Amrhein; Nita Chaudhuri; Esme Fuller-Thomson; Peter Gozdyra; David Hulchanski; Byron Moldofsky; Maureen Thompson; Robert Wright

2002-01-01

359

Systems Biology Toolbox for MATLAB: a computational platform for research in systems biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We present a Systems Biology Toolbox for the widely used general purpose mathematical software MATLAB. The toolbox offers systems biologists an open and extensible environment, in which to explore ideas, prototype and share new algorithms, and build applica- tions for the analysis and simulation of biological and biochemical sys- tems.Additionallyitiswellsuitedforeducationalpurposes.Thetoolbox supports the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) by providing

Henning Schmidt; Mats Jirstrand

2006-01-01

360

The roles of biological interactions and pollutant contamination in shaping microbial benthic community structure.  

PubMed

Biological interactions between metazoans and the microbial community play a major role in structuring food webs in aquatic sediments. Pollutants can also strongly affect the structure of meiofauna and microbial communities. This study aims investigating, in a non-contaminated sediment, the impact of meiofauna on bacteria facing contamination by a mixture of three PAHs (fluoranthene, phenanthrene and pyrene). Sediment microcosms were incubated in the presence or absence of meiofauna during 30 days. Bioremediation treatments, nutrient amendment and addition of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium, were also tested to enhance PAH biodegradation. Results clearly show the important role of meiofauna as structuring factor for bacterial communities with significant changes observed in the molecular fingerprints. However, these structural changes were not concomitant with changes in biomass or function. PAH contamination had a severe impact on total meiofaunal abundance with a strong decrease of nematodes and the complete disappearance of polychaetes and copepods. In contrast, correspondence analysis, based on T-RFLP fingerprints, showed that contamination by PAH resulted in small shifts in microbial composition, with or without meiofauna, suggesting a relative tolerance of bacteria to the PAH cocktail. The PAH bioremediation treatments were highly efficient with more than 95% biodegradation. No significant difference was observed in presence or absence of meiofauna. Nutrient addition strongly enhanced bacterial and meiofaunal abundances as compared to control and contaminated microcosms, as well as inducing important changes in the bacterial community structure. Nutrients thus were the main structural factor in shaping bacterial community composition, while the role of meiofauna was less evident. PMID:24206831

Louati, Hela; Said, Olfa Ben; Soltani, Amel; Got, Patrice; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert; Aissa, Patricia; Pringault, Olivier

2013-11-01

361

Preparing the "New" Biologist of the Future: Student Research at the Interface of Mathematics and Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe a unique Research Experience for Undergraduates and Research Experience for Veterinary students summer program at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis on the campus of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The program focused on interdisciplinary research at the interface of biology and mathematics.…

Duncan, Sarah I.; Bishop, Pamela; Lenhart, Suzanne

2010-01-01

362

Ethical Dilemmas in Community-Based Participatory Research: Recommendations for Institutional Review Boards  

Microsoft Academic Search

National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater\\u000a adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue\\u000a to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective\\u000a new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process

Sarah Flicker; Robb Travers; Adrian Guta; Sean McDonald; Aileen Meagher

2007-01-01

363

Community mobilization and community-based participatory research to prevent youth violence among Asian and immigrant populations.  

PubMed

Many community mobilization activities for youth violence prevention involve the researchers assisting communities in identifying, adapting, and/or tailoring evidence-based programs to fit the community needs, population, and cultural and social contexts. This article describes a slightly different framework in which the collaborative research/evaluation project emerged from the community mobilization activities. As will be discussed, this collaborative, sustained partnership was possible in the context of the Center on Culture, Immigration and Youth Violence Prevention's (UC Berkeley ACE) community mobilization activities that brought the issue of youth violence, particularly among immigrant and minority populations, to the forefront of many of the community partners' agendas. The East Bay Asian Youth Center (EBAYC) was one of the partners that came to the table, which facilitated the community-based engagement/mobilization. UC Berkeley ACE collaborated with EBAYC to evaluate an after-school program and an alternative probation program serving a diverse youth and immigrant population, including African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics. This article describes UC Berkeley ACE's community mobilization activity and the collaborative partnership with EBAYC, discusses how the evaluations incorporated community-based principles in design and practice, and presents some findings from the evaluations. PMID:21210205

Le, Thao N; Arifuku, Isami; Vuong, Linh; Tran, Gianna; Lustig, Deborah F; Zimring, Franklin

2011-09-01

364

GUI to Facilitate Research on Biological Damage from Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer program has been developed to facilitate research on the damage caused by highly energetic particles and photons impinging on living organisms. The program brings together, into one computational workspace, computer codes that have been developed over the years, plus codes that will be developed during the foreseeable future, to address diverse aspects of radiation damage. These include codes that implement radiation-track models, codes for biophysical models of breakage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by radiation, pattern-recognition programs for extracting quantitative information from biological assays, and image-processing programs that aid visualization of DNA breaks. The radiation-track models are based on transport models of interactions of radiation with matter and solution of the Boltzmann transport equation by use of both theoretical and numerical models. The biophysical models of breakage of DNA by radiation include biopolymer coarse-grained and atomistic models of DNA, stochastic- process models of deposition of energy, and Markov-based probabilistic models of placement of double-strand breaks in DNA. The program is designed for use in the NT, 95, 98, 2000, ME, and XP variants of the Windows operating system.

Cucinotta, Frances A.; Ponomarev, Artem Lvovich

2010-01-01

365

Gross's anatomy: textual politics in science/biology education research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In approaching how the grotesque is—or should be—situated within contemporary science (biology) education practices, Weinstein and Broda undertake a passionate reclaim of an education that is at the same time scientific, critical, and liberatory. However legitimate, their work offers more than they probably could have anticipated: It exemplifies how the textual structure of a research article can be such as to "tip-off" readers about how it is supposed to be understood. In this way, what one learns from reading the manuscript is grounded on the way the authors examine the data presented. That is, the findings are not intrinsic to the materials collected, but constructed within the analyses that precede/follow the account of each one of the four "specimens" reported. Therefore, the present commentary seeks to re-consider the original study from an alternative perspective, one that challenges its seemingly objective (re)construction of facts by placing emphasis on how the text contains instructions for its own interpretation and validation. Ultimately, the purpose here is to describe and discuss the interpretive and validation work that is done by this discursive mechanism of self-appraisal rather than discredit the two authors' initiative.

Reis, Giuliano

2009-12-01

366

Community member and faith leader perspectives on the process of building trusting relationships between communities and researchers.  

PubMed

In the first phase of this research, we conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed seven focus groups with more than 50 English- or Spanish-speaking women of childbearing age. Qualitative analysis revealed the following themes: (1) expectation that participation would involve relationships based on trust that is built over time and impacted by cultural factors; (2) perceived characteristics of research staff that would help facilitate the development of trusting relationships; (3) perceptions about the location of the visits that may affect trust; (4) perceptions of a research study and trust for the institution conducting the study may affect trust; (5) connecting the study to larger communities, including faith communities, could affect trust and willingness to participate. In the second phase of this research, we conducted, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed interviews with leaders from diverse faith communities to explore the potential for research partnerships between researchers and faith communities. In addition to confirming themes identified in focus groups, faith leaders described an openness to research partnerships between the university and faith communities and considerations for the formation of these partnerships. Faith leaders noted the importance of finding common ground with researchers, establishing and maintaining trusting relationships, and committing to open, bidirectional communication. PMID:24405695

Lakes, Kimberley D; Vaughan, Elaine; Pham, Jennifer; Tran, Tuyet; Jones, Marissa; Baker, Dean; Swanson, James M; Olshansky, Ellen

2014-02-01

367

Building and Maintaining Trust in a Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership  

PubMed Central

Although intervention research is vital to eliminating health disparities, many groups with health disparities have had negative research experiences, leading to an understandable distrust of researchers and the research process. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches seek to reverse this pattern by building trust between community members and researchers. We highlight strategies for building and maintaining trust from an American Indian CBPR project and focus on 2 levels of trust building and maintaining: (1) between university and community partners and (2) between the initial project team and the larger community. This article was cowritten by community and academic partners; by offering the voices of community partners, it provides a novel and distinctive contribution to the CBPR literature.

Christopher, Suzanne; Watts, Vanessa; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun; Young, Sara

2008-01-01

368

Universities, Civil Society and the Global Agenda of Community-Engaged Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a key point of tension in contemporary discussions of community-university research engagement. Two perspectives are discussed. The first suggests that changes in the nature and structure of research have helped create democratic research spaces and opportunities within the university for communities. In this emerging…

Bourke, Alan

2013-01-01

369

Issues in Community Research: Asian American Perspectives. Occasional Paper No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises a collection of workshop papers addressing the issues of doing research on the complex social and human problems faced in any community from an Asian American perspective. The following topics are discussed: (1) the nature of community research; (2) the pros and cons of pure basic and applied research; (3) the nature and…

Murata, Alice K., Ed.; Salvador-Burris, Juanita, Ed.

370

Ethics and Community-Based Participatory Research: Perspectives From the Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring

Elena M. Bastida; Tung-Sung Tseng; Corliss McKeever; Leonard Jack

2010-01-01

371

A Virtue Ethics Guide to Best Practices for Community-Based Participatory Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Rule ethics, or principled thinking, is important in the analysis of risks and benefits of research and informed consent, but is not completely adequate for guiding ethical responses to communities as research participants and collaborators. Virtue ethics theory can be used to guide actions in relationships, which are foundational to the implementation of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Virtues are

Marjorie A. Schaffer

2009-01-01

372

Learning-style preferences of Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the learning-style preferences and the demographic variables of age, gender, number of prior science courses, second language learner status, and earlier exposure to scientific information. Methodology. The study design was descriptive and ex post facto. The sample consisted of a total of 332 Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in General Biology 3. Major findings. The study revealed that Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in introductory biology at a large urban community college scored higher for the learning preference element of structure. Students twenty-five years and older scored higher for the learning preference elements of light, design, persistence, responsibility, and morning time (p <= 0.05). Females scored higher in the preference elements of (a) light, (b) temperature (warmth), (c) authority and (d) auditory (p <= 0.05). Significant differences were found for the elements of sound, warmth, motivation, several ways, and intake between the students with no prior science coursework and those who completed more than one (p <= 0.05). No significant learning-style preferences were found between second English language learners and those who learned English as their primary language (p <= 0.05). Students who frequently read science articles scored higher for the elements of motivation, persistence, responsibility, and tactile (p <= 0.05). Conclusions and recommendations. The conclusions were that Latino/Hispanic students need detailed guidance and clearly stated course objectives. The recommendations were: (1) College professors, counselors, and administrators must become aware of the Dunn learning-style model and instruments and on recent learning-style research articles on ethnically diverse groups of adult learners; and (2) Instructors should plan their instruction to incorporate the learning-style preferences of their students.

Sarantopoulos, Helen D.

373

Impacts of Volcanic Eruptions and Disturbances on Mid-Ocean Ridge Biological Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding ecological processes in mid-ocean ridge benthic environments requires a knowledge of the temporal and spatial scales over which those processes take place. Over the past 17 years, the detection and now “direct observation” of more than nine seafloor eruptions and even more numerous and diverse geologic disturbances (e.g., dyking and cracking events) have provided a broad spectrum of perturbating seafloor phenomena that serve as key agents for creating new vent habitat, providing bursts of nutrients, supporting blooms of microbial and macrobiological communities, imparting magmatic/hydrothermal fluxes, controlling fluid geochemical composition, altering the successional stage of faunal communities, guiding the temporal and spatial scales of local extinction and recolonization, and for directing the evolution of physiological adaptations. Eruptions have now been documented on the East Pacific Rise, Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Gakkel Ridge, Galapagos Rift, CoAxial, Northwest Rota, West Mata, and Loihi Seamounts, representing diverse emergent eruptive styles, from explosive pyroclastic deposits to thin lava flows, these processes are occurring in different biogeographic regions hosting different regional species pools. As such, not only do these eruptions provide a method of establishing a “time-zero” with which to construct manipulative temporal experiments, but also provide a contextual framework with which to interpret the affect eruptions and disturbance have on ecological interactions in different biogeographic regions of the world, and the timescales over which they vary. The temporal and spatial impact of these different eruptive styles in relation to the alteration of biological community structure will be discussed.

Shank, T. M.

2009-12-01

374

LacCore: Support for the terrestrial sediment core research community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LacCore, the National Lacustrine Core Facility, has been funded by the US National Science Foundation and the University of Minnesota for the past decade as a public facility to support the terrestrial sediment core research community. LacCore provides free or low-cost access to an array of expensive equipment and instrumentation in the field and lab, training for a variety of procedures, and core and data curation. The user base has increased from perhaps 20 users and a handful of projects in the first year to 621 users and 250 projects in 2008. The community served is diverse, with topics including invasive species, eutrophication, salinization, tectonics, geomicrobiology, evolutionary biology, isostatic rebound, stream bank erosion, glaciology, hydrogeology, atmospheric chemistry, carbon cycling, and rock magnetics, as well as paleoenvironment and paleoclimate. The changing needs of projects drive innovation in procedures and equipment, all of which become available to subsequent researchers. Among the newest additions to the lab is a benchtop scanning electron microscope with electron-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX or -EDS) capability for sediment characterization. This instrument allows rapid imaging of sedimentary components and determination of their elemental composition without substantial sample preparation, lead time, or user training. These images and data augment the initial core description process, filling a void between existing smear slide and scanning micro XRF capabilities.

Brady, K. L.; Noren, A. J.; Myrbo, A.; Ito, E.

2009-12-01

375

Blended Hydrometeorological Products for the Research and Operational Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With advances in environmental parameter retrieval algorithms and their use of a wide array of satellite instruments, constantly changing views of Earth are possible. Enabling users to reap the benefits of this data requires good communication about the products. More and more, new near-realtime blended multisensor satellite products are becoming available to the weather forecaster, who must quickly decide whether the product is helpful or not. Research users of blended products can take more time to explore the suitability of these data for their applications, but communication and guidance from the data provider is essential. An effort under NASA's Making Earth Science Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program has reprocessed and extended the NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP) dataset, which now includes data from 1988-2009. The new dataset is named NVAP-M and includes global grids of both total and layered precipitable water vapor, as well as data source codes for each grid box. NVAP-M is distributed to the weather and climate research community via the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The global (land and ocean) NVAP-M dataset features different product types designed to fit a variety of user needs on a variety of time scales, from weather case studies to studies of climate change and trends. In particular, a three-track approach focused on weather, climate and ocean applications was chosen. Challenges and lessons learned in communicating with the diverse user community for NVAP-M (e.g., hydrologists, weather and climate scientists, epidemiologists) will be presented. Close relatives of NVAP-M are the NOAA Operational Blended Total Precipitable Water and Blended Rain Rate products. These products are available hourly in near-real time to National Weather Service forecast offices and are valuable for precipitation analysis and forecasting. They are created from a composite of passive microwave instruments on board typically six polar orbiting satellites. The types of comments from users, how they are trained to use the blended products, and the process for user feedback and product modifications will be discussed.

Kidder, S. Q.; Vonder Haar, T. H.; Forsythe, J.

2013-12-01

376

The Development of Hybrid-Collaboration Community Model in Bioinformatics Researches  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have developed hybrid-collaborative community architecture in bio-information intensive researches, and have also analyzed as the economic value chain model. Bio-informatics researches consist of small size-research unit and operated by apprentice system, so there are the absences of communication and information sharing. In proposed community model, to enhance information sharing in the community for all users, the

AeYoung Yoon; JaeJeung Rho; EunJi Ahn

2006-01-01

377

Research Leadership for the Community-Engaged University: Key Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Great Britain, attempts to broaden university-community engagement have taken significant steps in recent years. A wide variety of community-engagement structures and activities are now emerging. This paper uses one innovative example--University of Brighton's Community-University Partnership Program--to describe the opportunities and probe the…

Hart, Angie; Church, Andrew

2011-01-01

378

Disability Support Services in Community Colleges. AACC Research Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the extent to which community colleges provide services and programs for students with disabilities, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) conducted a national survey in 1995 of public and private community, technical, and junior colleges in the United States, U.S. territories, and Canada. Fall 1995 headcounts for both…

Barnett, Lynn; Li, Yong

379

The research of city community safety management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of society, more and more emphasis put on community safety, Community Safety Manager plays an important positive role in maintaining social safety and stability and the promotion of social harmony. Therefore, How to implement the innovative model of community management system, strengthening grass-roots development and democratic self-government building and improve the city economic, political and cultural development

Lizhen Liu; Maohong Zhang; Lei Chen; Chao Du

2010-01-01

380

Community college biology majors: The dynamics of the successful community college transfer program. A comparative analysis of the program determinants which lead to high transfer success in community college biology transfer programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Community Colleges in California have long been asked to fulfill a number of the state's different needs in higher education including the first two years of preparation for students who plan to transfer to universities and receive their baccalaureate. Transfer rates published since the 60's suggest that community colleges in the state have largely been failures at transferring students. Current data, however, show that biology majors programs at area colleges surrounding UCLA, the primary goal of biology majors, varied widely in their transfer success. This study compared two biology majors programs with high transfer success (HTS) with two programs with low transfer success (LTS). Qualitative methods were used in the analysis to establish common themes which existed at both the HTS and LTS programs. Methodology involved: site descriptions, participant-observation, document analysis, questionnaires, and interviews of faculty, staff, and students involved with the majors program. It was concluded that the HTS institutions shared many characteristics in common. Since California abolished district boundaries, eliminated guaranteed enrollment for colleges and created a free-flow situation, colleges have competed for students. In this study, students free-flowed from colleges in higher SES communities from inner city colleges in lower SES communities. Both HTS programs were at colleges in higher SES communities. They were responsive to the articulation demands of UCLA, had firm chemistry prerequisites, and were taught as two sequential courses. Programs had one faculty member who was clearly the head of the program and had been instrumental in the evolution of the program. HTS programs had high academic rigor and included a lab portion which was instrumental in bringing the students together with each other and with the faculty. Student collaboration involved academics, transfer information, and career information and lead to transfer momentum for the class. Faculty mentoring activities with students contributed to transfer success. The sum total of all the components in the program which enhanced transfer success was called the program effect. LTS programs could be located in high or low SES neighborhoods. They had a program head but were less responsive to UCLA's articulation demands. Courses were not taught sequentially and chemistry was not a prerequisite. Academic rigor was judged to be significantly lower than in the HTS programs and labs involved far less student personal discovery. Students did not collaborate in lab and there was no visible transfer momentum. Faculty did not act as mentors for students. In their other characteristics, LTS programs tended to be dissimilar.

Harlan, Ronald Keith

1997-09-01

381

Research Lasers and Air Traffic Safety: Issues, Concerns and Responsibilities of the Research Community  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subject of outdoor use of lasers relative to air traffic has become a diverse and dynamic topic. During the past several decades, the use of lasers in outdoor research activities have increased significantly. Increases in the outdoor use of lasers and increases in air traffic densities have changed the levels of risk involved. To date there have been no documented incidents of air traffic interference from research lasers; however, incidents involving display lasers have shown a marked increase. As a result of the national response to these incidents, new concerns over lasers have arisen. Through the efforts of the SAE G-10T Laser Safety Hazards Subcommittee and the ANSI Z136.6 development committee, potential detrimental effects to air traffic beyond the traditional eye damage concerns have been identified. An increased emphasis from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Center for Devices and Radiological Hazards (CDRH), and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) along with increased concern by the public have resulted in focused scrutiny of potential hazards presented by lasers. The research community needs to rethink the traditional methods of risk evaluation and application of protective measures. The best current approach to assure adequate protection of air traffic is the application of viable hazard and risk analysis and the use of validated protective measures. Standards making efforts and regulatory development must be supported by the research community to assure that reasonable measures are developed. Without input, standards and regulations can be developed that are not compatible with the needs of the research community. Finally, support is needed for the continued development and validation of protective measures.

Nessler, Phillip J., Jr.

1998-01-01

382

Avian community response to lowland tropical rainforest isolation: 40 years of change at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Since 1960, most of the forest surrounding the La Selva Biological Station, an intensively studied tropical research facility in Costa Rica, has been converted to agricultural uses. We used quantitative censuses and analysis of previously published categorical abundances to assess changes in the bird community, and we evaluated potential causes of species-specific changes by assessing their association with habitat, diet, participation in mixed-species flocks, and nest type. Approximately the same percentage of species increased as decreased in abundance from 1960 to 1999 (10-20% of all species, depending on method of assessment). Diet was the single most important trait associated with declining species. At least 50% of the species that declined have insectivorous diets. Use of forest habitat and participation in mixed-species flocks were also significant factors associated with declines, but nest type was unrelated to change in abundance. The species that increased in abundance tended to occur in open habitats and have omnivorous diets. These results reinforce the importance of several population risk factors associated with tropical understory insectivory and mixed-species flocking: patchy spatial distribution, low population density, large home range, and dietary specialization. La Selva's protected area (1611 ha), despite a forested connection on one boundary with a higher elevation national park, is apparently too small to maintain at least one major guild (understory insectivores). This first quantitative assessment of bird community change at La Selva highlights the need to intensify study of the mechanisms and consequences of biological diversity change in tropical forest fragments. PMID:16909664

Sigel, Bryan J; Sherry, Thomas W; Young, Bruce E

2006-02-01

383

2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights  

Microsoft Academic Search

LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes;

2003-01-01

384

The impact of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity on natural products research.  

PubMed

The discovery and development of novel, biologically active agents from natural sources, whether they be drugs, agrochemicals or other bioactive entities, involve a high level of interdisciplinary as well as international collaboration. Such collaboration, particularly at the international level, requires the careful negotiation of collaborative agreements protecting the rights of all parties, with special attention being paid to the rights of host (source) country governments, communities and scientific organizations. While many biodiversity-rich source countries currently might not have the necessary resources for in-country drug discovery and advanced development, they provide valuable opportunities for collaboration in this endeavor with research organizations from more high-income nations. This chapter discusses the experiences of the US National Cancer Institute and the US government-sponsored International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups program in the establishment of international agreements in the context of the Convention of Biological Diversity's objectives of promoting fair and equitable collaboration with multiple parties in many countries, and includes some specific lessons of value in developing such collaborations. PMID:23037777

Cragg, Gordon M; Katz, Flora; Newman, David J; Rosenthal, Joshua

2012-12-01

385

Community-University Research Partnerships for Workers' and Environmental Health in Campinas Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three partnerships between the University of Campinas, community, and public health care services are discussed in this article. A theoretical framework underpins the critical reviews of their accomplishments following criteria proposed by scholars of community-university partnerships and community-based participatory research. The article…

Monteiro, Maria Ines; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Filho, Heleno Rodrigues Correa

2011-01-01

386

Competency-Based Community Education Administration. Volume I: The Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A need for research and development in community education competencies was the impetus of this study. Community educators identified and field tested competencies determined to be essential in four community education roles: superintendent, district coordinator, principal, and building level director. Results showed that participants in this…

Miller, Brian P.; And Others

387

Community Geography as a Model for International Research Experiences in Study Abroad Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative engagement with local residents and organizations is often cited as one of the most valuable aspects of community-based research integration in classroom settings. However, little has been written on the impact of community engagement in international study abroad programs. We explore the use of community geography in Belize to…

Hawthorne, Timothy L.; Atchison, Christopher; LangBruttig, Artis

2014-01-01

388

Extending the Concept and Practice of Classroom Based Research to California Community Colleges. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With support from the California Community College Fund for Instructional Improvement, 14 classroom-based research studies were conducted in fall 1991 at American River College (ARC), Consumnes River College (CRC), Sacramento City College (SCC), San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC), Solano Community College (SoCC), and Yuba Community College (YCC).…

Sacramento City Coll., CA. Learning Resources Div.

389

AFRICAN AMERICANS IN COMMUNITY COLLEGES: A REVIEW OF RESEARCH REPORTED IN THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND PRACTICE : 1990-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of a review of research published in the Community College Journal of Research and Practice from 1990-2000 regarding the African-American experience in community colleges. The authors found three major themes related to articles published over the 10-year period: (a) environmental factors related to student success, (b) the need for faculty diversity, and (c) race and

Chance W. Lewis; Valerie Middleton

2003-01-01

390

Council on Undergraduate Research: A Resource (and a Community) for Science Educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) is a professional organization dedicated to strengthening science and undergraduate science education. Central to the activities and programs sponsored by CUR is the recognition that the investigative process, especially undergraduate student research, plays a key role in an undergraduate science education. Publications, conferences, and other activities of CUR have facilitated the establishment and maintenance of a network of undergraduate teacher-researchers. For many members, myself included, the most important aspect of CUR is this sense of community provided by the opportunities to meet and work with colleagues who hold shared values and common expectations for science education. First established by a small group of prominent chemistry faculty in 1978, the Council on Undergraduate Research is now a rapidly growing multidisciplinary organization serving over 3,500 members in seven scientific and mathematical divisions, including biology, chemistry, geology, physics/astronomy, mathematics, and psychology (Fig. 1.). Chemists continue to play an important role in CUR; the Division of Chemistry, with more than 1,200 members, is the largest division.

Halstead, Judith A.

1997-02-01

391

Perceptions of community-based participatory research in the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative: an academic perspective.  

PubMed

Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic-community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been used to develop sustainable nutrition intervention strategies. Focus groups were conducted with 22 faculty and staff members from the academic partners on the project to document their perceptions of community-based participatory processes in a federally funded, multi-academic-community partnership spanning a decade. Focus groups were conducted to glean insights or lessons from the experiences of academic personnel. Focus groups were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Two researchers analyzed each transcript independently and reached consensus on the consistent themes. Participants candidly shared their experiences of working with community members to devise research plans, implement programs, and evaluate outcomes. The majority of faculty and staff members were attracted to this project by an excitement for conducting a more egalitarian and potentially more successful type of research. Yet each academic partner voiced that there was an underlying disconnect between community practices and research procedures during the project. Additional barriers to collaboration and action, located in communities and academic institutions, were described. Academic partners stressed the importance of open and ongoing communication, collective decision-making strategies, and techniques that support power sharing between all parties involved in the project. Findings from this research can inform academic-community partnerships and hopefully improve the community-based participatory research process implemented by academic institutions and communities. PMID:20530639

Downey, Laura Hall; Castellanos, Diana Cuy; Yadrick, Kathy; Avis-Williams, Amanda; Graham-Kresge, Susan; Bogle, Margaret

2011-09-01

392

A Network Assessment of Community-Based Participatory Research: Linking Communities and Universities to Reduce Cancer Disparities  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to determine whether a community-based initiative designed to reduce cancer disparities among Pacific Islanders in Southern California increased communications between community-based organizations and university researchers. Methods. We conducted network analysis among 11 community-based organizations (CBOs) and 5 universities by interviewing 91 and 56 members of these organizations, respectively, at 2 points in time. We estimated random effects probit regression and stochastic actor-oriented network dynamic models. Results. We found that, during the 2-year study period, CBOs increased their connectedness with one another (b= 0.44; P < .05) and to the universities (b = 0.46; P < .05), but that university researchers did not increase their connectedness to each other or to CBOs. Conclusions. Cancer awareness, cancer education, and access to cancer services are low among Pacific Island groups, and this study provides an initial attempt to reduce these disparities. Community-based initiatives can strengthen a CBO network, creating the potential for increased community-informed cancer research and improved community access to cancer research resources.

Fujimoto, Kayo; Palmer, Paula; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

2010-01-01

393

Community-based participatory research contributions to intervention research: the intersection of science and practice to improve health equity.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the last decades as a transformative research paradigm that bridges the gap between science and practice through community engagement and social action to increase health equity. CBPR expands the potential for the translational sciences to develop, implement, and disseminate effective interventions across diverse communities through strategies to redress power imbalances; facilitate mutual benefit among community and academic partners; and promote reciprocal knowledge translation, incorporating community theories into the research. We identify the barriers and challenges within the intervention and implementation sciences, discuss how CBPR can address these challenges, provide an illustrative research example, and discuss next steps to advance the translational science of CBPR. PMID:20147663

Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie

2010-04-01

394

NASA Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century provided a unique opportunity to train individuals to conduct biological research in hypo- and hyper-gravity, and to conduct ground-based research. This grant was developed to maximize the potential for Space Biology as an emerging discipline and to train a cadre of space biologists. The field of gravitational and space biology is rapidly growing at the future of the field is reflected in the quality and education of its personnel. Our chief objective was to train and develop these scientists rapidly and in a cost effective model.

Sonnenfeld, Gerald

2000-01-01

395

Opportunities for Materials Science and Biological Research at the OPAL Research Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron scattering techniques have evolved over more than 1/2 century into a powerful set of tools for determination of atomic and molecular structures. Modern facilities offer the possibility to determine complex structures over length scales from ~0.1 nm to ~500 nm. They can also provide information on atomic and molecular dynamics, on magnetic interactions and on the location and behaviour of hydrogen in a variety of materials. The OPAL Research Reactor is a 20 megawatt pool type reactor using low enriched uranium fuel, and cooled by water. OPAL is a multipurpose neutron factory with modern facilities for neutron beam research, radioisotope production and irradiation services. The neutron beam facility has been designed to compete with the best beam facilities in the world. After six years in construction, the reactor and neutron beam facilities are now being commissioned, and we will commence scientific experiments later this year. The presentation will include an outline of the strengths of neutron scattering and a description of the OPAL research reactor, with particular emphasis on it's scientific infrastructure. It will also provide an overview of the opportunities for research in materials science and biology that will be possible at OPAL, and mechanisms for accessing the facilities. The discussion will emphasize how researchers from around the world can utilize these exciting new facilities.

Kennedy, S. J.

2008-03-01

396

The Place of Community in Social Work Practice Research: Conceptual and Methodological Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Community,is widely acknowledged,as a fundamental,aspect of social work practice and this formulation distinguishes social work from other professions. Because of this longstanding tradition, the field needs to make a greater investment in producing scientific knowledge,to enable community,change and to incorporate community,context into practice. This type of research faces numerous,challenges related to the complexity of community interventions, the lack of

Claudia Coulton

2004-01-01

397

Introduction to Special Issue: Advancing the Ethics of Community-Based Participatory Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

INCREASINGLY COMMUNITIES ARE ENGAGING in community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address their pressing health concerns, frequently in partnership with institutions. CBPR with its underlying values challenges us to expand the traditional frame- work of ethical analysis to include community-level and partnership-oriented considerations. This special issue considers ethical considerations inherent in CBPR, presents examples of how communities have created their own

Nancy Shore; Kristine A. Wong; Sarena D. Seifer; Jessica Grignon; Vanessa Northington Gamble

2008-01-01

398

Strategies for setting a national research agenda that is responsive to community needs.  

PubMed Central

Setting a national environmental health research agenda requires broad public input, including that from leading scientists, health care professionals, and communities. Contributions from these diverse constituencies are essential to formulating a research and education strategy that both advances our understanding of the causes and mechanisms of environmentally related diseases and translates such findings into effective prevention and clinical applications to protect those most affected by adverse environmental exposures. Given the increasing number of individual researchers working with communities to address environmental health needs during the past decade, it is also essential for research institutions to foster relationships with communities to understand and respond to their unique public health needs, as well as to communicate research advances in a manner that is both understandable and culturally appropriate. To achieve broad public input and to foster community-university partnerships, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) supports various workshops, roundtables, and advisory groups. In particular, the NIEHS finds Town Meetings to be a successful model for bringing academic researchers together with community residents, state and local departments of health, and community-based organizations to foster greater awareness of community needs, public health needs, and environmental health science research. Since 1998, the NIEHS has supported 16 Town Meetings across the country. In this article we highlight the major outcomes of these meetings to demonstrate the effectiveness of this mechanism for enhancing cooperation among researchers, community residents, and public health officials with the goal of improving public health and setting a national research agenda.

O'Fallon, Liam R; Wolfle, Geraldine M; Brown, David; Dearry, Allen; Olden, Kenneth

2003-01-01

399

Can communities and academia work together on public health research? Evaluation results from a community-based participatory research partnership in Detroit.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of a formative evaluation of the first 4 years of the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center (URC), a community-based participatory research partnership that was founded in 1995 with core funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Several organizations are members of this partnership, including a university, six community-based organizations, a city health department, a health care system, and CDC. The Detroit URC is a strong partnership that has accomplished many of its goals, including the receipt of over $11 million in funding for 12 community-based participatory research projects during its initial 4 years. Detroit URC Board members identified a number of facilitating factors for their growth and achievements, such as (1) developing a sound infrastructure and set of processes for making decisions and working together, (2) building trust among partners, (3) garnering committed and active leadership from community partners, and (4) receiving support from CDC. Board members also identified a number of ongoing challenges, including organizational constraints, time pressures, and balancing community interests in interventions and academic research needs. Overall, the Detroit URC represents a partnership approach to identifying community health concerns and implementing potential solutions. PMID:11564852

Lantz, P M; Viruell-Fuentes, E; Israel, B A; Softley, D; Guzman, R

2001-09-01

400

Nucleic Acids Research annual Database Issue and the NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection in 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current issue of Nucleic Acids Research includes descriptions of 179 databases, of which 95 are new. These databases (along with several molecular biology databases described in other journals) have been included in the Nucleic Acids Research online Molecular Biology Database Collection, bringing the total number of databases in the collection to 1170. In this introductory comment, we briefly describe

M. Y. Galperin; Guy Cochrane

2009-01-01

401

Calibrated Peer Review for Computer-Assisted Learning of Biological Research Competencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, both science and technology faculty have been recognizing biological research competencies that are valued but rarely assessed. Some of these valued learning outcomes include scientific methods and thinking, critical assessment of primary papers, quantitative reasoning, communication, and putting biological research into a historical and…

Clase, Kari L.; Gundlach, Ellen; Pelaez, Nancy J.

2010-01-01

402

Research Programs Constituting U.S. Participation in the International Biological Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States contribution to the International Biological Program, which aims to understand more clearly the interrelationships within ecosystems, is centered on multidisciplinary research programs investigating the biological basis of ecological productivity and human welfare. Integrated research programs have been established for the…

National Academy of Sciences--National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Biology and Agriculture.

403

Interdisciplinary Biomathematics: Engaging Undergraduates in Research on the Fringe of Mathematical Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The US National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Undergraduate Biology and Mathematics (UBM) program significantly increased undergraduate research in the biomathematical sciences. We discuss three UBM-funded student research projects at Clarkson University that lie at the intersection of not just mathematics and biology, but also other…

Fowler, Kathleen; Luttman, Aaron; Mondal, Sumona

2013-01-01

404

The Community and Phylogenetic Diversity of Biological Soil Crusts in the Colorado Plateau Studied by Molecular Fingerprinting and Intensive Cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the bacterial communities in biological soil crusts (BSCs) from the Colorado Plateau by enrichment and cultivation, and by statistically analyzed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of environmental 16S rRNA genes, and phylogenetic analyses. Three 500-m-long transects, tens of km apart, consisting of 10 equally spaced samples each, were analyzed. BSC communities consistently displayed less richness (10–32 detectable

Sathyanarayana Reddy Gundlapally; Ferran Garcia-Pichel

2006-01-01

405

Attitudinal, Behavioral, and Biological Outcomes of a Community Popular Opinion Leader Intervention in China  

PubMed Central

The effects of a community popular opinion leader (CPOL) intervention were examined among market vendors in a city on the eastern coast of China. Employees of 40 food markets were enrolled in a study that provided HIV-related education and tests, and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Twenty markets were randomly assigned to a CPOL intervention (N = 1695) and 20 markets to a control condition (N = 1616). Market employees in the intervention condition reported positive attitudes regarding STD/HIV prevention and more frequent discussions about safe sex than those in the control condition. Compared to baseline, the prevalence of unprotected sexual acts and new STDs were significantly lower within each study condition 24 months later. Although the CPOL intervention achieved its goal of shifting attitudes within food markets, the gains did not lead to the expected behavioral and biological outcomes.

Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wen, Yi; Wu, Zunyou

2013-01-01

406

Self Organizing Systems and the Research Implications for Biological Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge gained from the human genome project, has provided an added opportunity to study the dynamical relationships within biological systems and can lead to an increased knowledge of diseases and subsequent drug discovery. Through computation, methods in which to rebuild these systems are being studied. These methods, which have first been applied to simpler systems: predator-prey, and self sustaining ecosystems can be applied to the study of microscopic biological systems.

Denkins-Taffe, Lauren R.; Alfred, Marcus; Lindesay, James

2008-03-01

407

Working with Concepts: The Role of Community in International Collaborative Biomedical Research  

PubMed Central

The importance of communities in strengthening the ethics of international collaborative research is increasingly highlighted, but there has been much debate about the meaning of the term ‘community’ and its specific normative contribution. We argue that ‘community’ is a contingent concept that plays an important normative role in research through the existence of morally significant interplay between notions of community and individuality. We draw on experience of community engagement in rural Kenya to illustrate two aspects of this interplay: (i) that taking individual informed consent seriously involves understanding and addressing the influence of communities in which individuals’ lives are embedded; (ii) that individual participation can generate risks and benefits for communities as part of the wider implications of research. We further argue that the contingent nature of a community means that defining boundaries is generally a normative process itself, with ethical implications. Community engagement supports the enactment of normative roles; building mutual understanding and trust between researchers and community members have been important goals in Kilifi, requiring a broad range of approaches. Ethical dilemmas are continuously generated as part of these engagement activities, including the risks of perverse outcomes related to existing social relations in communities and conditions of ‘half knowing’ intrinsic to processes of developing new understandings.

Marsh, V. M.; Kamuya, D. K.; Parker, M. J.; Molyneux, C. S.

2011-01-01

408

Community-based participatory research increases cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese-Americans.  

PubMed

Using community-based participatory research methods, a community-research coalition in Santa Clara County, California (SCC) conducted a quasi-experimental, controlled trial to increase Pap test receipt and to build community capacity among Vietnamese-American women. From 1999 to 2004, the Coalition planned and implemented an Action Plan with six components: multimedia campaign, lay health worker outreach, Vietnamese Pap clinic with patient navigation, registry and reminder system, continuing medical education for Vietnamese physicians, and restoring a Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program site. Components were evaluated individually. Community-wide, cross-sectional telephone surveys of Vietnamese women in SCC (intervention community) and Harris County, Texas (comparison community) measured overall project impact. Receipt and currency of Pap tests increased significantly in the intervention compared with the comparison community. Community involvement, system changes, community and research capacity building, dissemination of results, and program sustainability were also demonstrated. Community-based participatory research is feasible and effective in Vietnamese-American communities. PMID:16809874

Nguyen, Tung T; McPhee, Stephen J; Bui-Tong, Ngoc; Luong, Thien-Nhien; Ha-Iaconis, Tuyet; Nguyen, Thoa; Wong, Ching; Lai, Ky Q; Lam, Hy

2006-05-01

409

Building partnerships in community-based participatory research: budgetary and other cost considerations.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077

Hoeft, Theresa J; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B; James, Rosalina D; Boyer, Bert B

2014-03-01

410

Family Violence and the Need for Prevention Research in First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Communities.  

PubMed

Existing sources produce widely varying estimates of family violence in First Nations, Inuit, and Métis communities; taken together, they imply a convincing if poorly quantified higher risk of family violence in Aboriginal communities, with the greater burden borne by women. With the accelerating HIV epidemic in some Aboriginal communities, prevention of domestic violence takes on even greater urgency. Five planks in a prevention research platform include: training emerging researchers from all Aboriginal groups to promote culturally specific research; systematic review of unpublished and published knowledge of interventions that reduce domestic violence; intervention theory development specific to each community; attention to the particular ethical issues; and methods development focused on interventions. PMID:20975851

Andersson, Neil; Nahwegahbow, Amy

2010-01-01

411

Report of the Research Secretariat on Social Services and Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Research Secretariat on Social Services and Community Development was one of the five Hispanic research task forces funded by the Ford Foundation to determine Hispanic research priorities. Its three major purposes were the following: (1) to develop an Hispanic research and policy agenda which recommends research activities and prioritizes…

National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

412

Adapting to context in community-based participatory research: "participatory starting points" in a Chinese immigrant worker community.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasingly being used to better understand and improve the health of diverse communities. A key strength of this research orientation is its adaptability to community contexts and characteristics. To date, however, few studies explicitly discuss adaptations made to CBPR principles and processes in response to community context and partners' needs. Using data from our CBPR study, the San Francisco Chinatown Restaurant Worker Health and Safety Project, and drawing from literature on immigrant political incorporation, we examine the links between the contexts of the Chinese immigrant worker community, adaptations made by our collaborative, and study outcomes. In particular, we explore the concepts of contexts of reception and participatory starting points, which may be especially relevant for partnerships with immigrant communities whose members have historically had lower rates of civic and political participation in the US. We discuss contextual findings such as worker partner accounts of language barriers, economic and social marginalization, and civic skills and participation, as well as subsequent adaptations made by the partnership. We also describe the relative effectiveness of these adaptations in yielding equitable participation and building partners' capacity. We conclude by sharing lessons learned and their implications for CBPR and partnerships with immigrant communities more broadly. PMID:23370942

Chang, Charlotte; Salvatore, Alicia L; Lee, Pam Tau; Liu, Shaw San; Tom, Alex T; Morales, Alvaro; Baker, Robin; Minkler, Meredith

2013-06-01

413

Through Microgravity and Towards the Stars: Microgravity and Strategic Research at Marshall's Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microgravity and Strategic research at Marshall s Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory will be reviewed. The environment in orbit provides a unique opportunity to study Materials Science and Biotechnology in the absence of sedimentation and convection. There are a number of peer-selected investigations that have been selected to fly on the Space Station that have been conceived and are led by Marshall s Biological and Physical Research Laboratory s scientists. In addition to Microgravity research the Station will enable research in "Strategic" Research Areas that focus on enabling humans to live, work, and explore the solar system safely. New research in Radiation Protection, Strategic Molecular Biology, and In-Space Fabrication will be introduced.

Curreri, Peter A.

2003-01-01

414

The importance of story-telling: research protocols in aboriginal communities.  

PubMed

AN ORAL TRADITION AND STORY TELLING CULTURE are still central to aboriginal personal and community identity, and provide major means of remembering and conveying personal and community experience with university researchers. These stories describe stark accounts of betrayal and upset, as well as descriptions of positive experiences. They provide dramatic reminders to researchers of the importance of respectful and collaborative relationships with traditional community leaders and their members. PMID:19385820

Poff, Deborah C

2006-09-01

415

Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 25 river kilometers long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek have been increasing in recent years. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the water quality and biological communities in Fish Creek. Water-quality samples were collected for analyses of physical properties and water chemistry (nutrients, nitrate isotopes, and wastewater chemicals) between March 2007 and October 2008 from seven surface-water sites and three groundwater wells. During this same period, aquatic plant and macroinvertebrate samples were collected and habitat characteristics were measured at the surface-water sites. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate nutrient concentrations (that influence biological indicators of eutrophication) and potential sources of nutrients by using stable isotope analysis and other indicator chemicals (such as caffeine and disinfectants) that could provide evidence of anthropogenic sources, such as wastewater or septic tank contamination in Fish Creek and adjacent groundwater, and (2) characterize the algal, macrophyte, and macroinvertebrate communities and habitat of Fish Creek. Nitrate was the dominant species of dissolved nitrogen present in all samples and was the only bioavailable species detected at concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level in all surface-water samples. Average concentrations of dissolved nitrate in surface water were largest in samples collected from the two sites with seasonal flow near Teton Village and decreased downstream; the smallest concentration was at downstream site A-Wck. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate in groundwater were consistently greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event. Orthophosphate was the primary dissolved species of phosphorus present in all surface-water and groundwater samples. The average concentration of dissolved orthophosphate in surface water was largest in samples collected from near Teton Village; samples from all other sites had similar average concentrations. Concentrations of dissolved orthophosphate in groundwater also were typically greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event. The aquatic plant communities in Fish Creek typically were composed of a mixture of macrophytes, macroalgae, microalgae, and moss. The composition of the aquatic plant community in Fish Creek appeared to shift in the downstream direction in 2007. On average, the proportion of macrophytes ranged from about 1 percent at site A-R1U, the most upstream site, to 54 percent of the plant community at site A-R6D, the farthest downstream site sampled during 2007. The downstream increase in macrophytes was accompanied by a downstream decrease in microalgae. The average proportion of microalgae ranged from 80 percent at site A-R1U to 24 percent at site A-R6D. The proportion of the macroalgae Cladophora in the aquatic plant community was relatively high at sites A-Wck and A-R3D in both 2007 and 2008.

Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

416

Effects of a spill of bunker oil on the marine biological communities in Hong Kong  

SciTech Connect

The effects of a recent bunker oil spill on the marine environment were assessed through investigation of the rocky shore fauna, phytoplankton population and macrobenthic communities over a study period of 150 days. In addition, toxicity experiments were carried out in the laboratory to ascertain the toxic effects of the oil-plus-dispersant on selected test organisms. The impacts of the spill on the marine fauna were minimal with no visible reduction in species and individual numbers. Possible reasons were the small amount of oil spilled, the rapid containment and dispersion in the clean-up operations, and the less toxic effects of the heavy bunker oil. On Hong Kong shores, the limpets can be identified as indicator species to oil pollution. A quick survey of the limpet fauna on the rocky shores immediately after a spill provides an initial assessment of the impacts on the shoreline. However, faunal recovery over a long-term period may be difficult to assess in view of the lack of baseline data on most of the marine biological communities in Hong Kong waters.

Shin, P.K. (Empire Centre, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

1988-01-01

417

Community College Students, Costs and Finances: A Review of Research Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a review of the literature and ongoing research, this four-part monograph provides a composite profile of the enrollment and financial status of the nation's community colleges. After introductory material describing research methodology, Part I analyzes community college enrollment by sex, examines the increase in the number of adult…<