Sample records for biology research community

  1. Community annotation in biology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Attempts to engage the scientific community to annotate biological data (such as protein/gene function) stored in databases have not been overly successful. There are several hypotheses on why this has not been successful but it is not clear which of these hypotheses are correct. In this study we have surveyed 50 biologists (who have recently published a paper characterizing a gene or protein) to better understand what would make them interested in providing input/contributions to biological databases. Based on our survey two things become clear: a) database managers need to proactively contact biologists to solicit contributions; and b) potential contributors need to be provided with an easy-to-use interface and clear instructions on what to annotate. Other factors such as 'reward' and 'employer/funding agency recognition' previously perceived as motivators was found to be less important. Based on this study we propose community annotation projects should devote resources to direct solicitation for input and streamlining of the processes or interfaces used to collect this input. Reviewers This article was reviewed by I. King Jordan, Daniel Haft and Yuriy Gusev PMID:20167071

  2. Communities Complicate Gene Transplant Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1976-01-01

    Confrontations have arisen between local communities and universities involved in molecular biology research. The situation in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is described in which citizens have opposed work undertaken at Harvard and MIT. (LBH)

  3. From Biological to Program Efficacy: Promoting Dialogue among the Research, Policy, and Program Communities12

    PubMed Central

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2014-01-01

    The biological efficacy of nutritional supplements to complement usual diets in poor populations is well established. This knowledge rests on decades of methodologic research development and, more recently, on codification of methods to compile and interpret results across studies. The challenge now is to develop implementation (delivery) science knowledge and achieve a similar consensus on efficacy criteria for the delivery of these nutrients by public health and other organizations. This requires analysis of the major policy instruments for delivery and well-designed program delivery studies that examine the flow of a nutrient through a program impact pathway. This article discusses the differences between biological and program efficacy, and why elucidating the fidelity of delivery along the program impact pathways is essential for implementing a program efficacy trial and for assessing its internal and external validity. Research on program efficacy is expanding, but there is a lack of adequate frameworks to facilitate the process of harmonizing concepts and vocabulary, which is essential for communication among scientists, policy planners, and program implementers. There is an urgent need to elaborate these frameworks at national and program levels not only for program efficacy studies but also for the broader research agenda to support and improve the science of delivering adequate nutrition to those who need it most. PMID:24425719

  4. From biological to program efficacy: promoting dialogue among the research, policy, and program communities.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H

    2014-01-01

    The biological efficacy of nutritional supplements to complement usual diets in poor populations is well established. This knowledge rests on decades of methodologic research development and, more recently, on codification of methods to compile and interpret results across studies. The challenge now is to develop implementation (delivery) science knowledge and achieve a similar consensus on efficacy criteria for the delivery of these nutrients by public health and other organizations. This requires analysis of the major policy instruments for delivery and well-designed program delivery studies that examine the flow of a nutrient through a program impact pathway. This article discusses the differences between biological and program efficacy, and why elucidating the fidelity of delivery along the program impact pathways is essential for implementing a program efficacy trial and for assessing its internal and external validity. Research on program efficacy is expanding, but there is a lack of adequate frameworks to facilitate the process of harmonizing concepts and vocabulary, which is essential for communication among scientists, policy planners, and program implementers. There is an urgent need to elaborate these frameworks at national and program levels not only for program efficacy studies but also for the broader research agenda to support and improve the science of delivering adequate nutrition to those who need it most. PMID:24425719

  5. Advancing the microbiome research community.

    PubMed

    Huttenhower, Curtis; Knight, Rob; Brown, C Titus; Caporaso, J Gregory; Clemente, Jose C; Gevers, Dirk; Franzosa, Eric A; Kelley, Scott T; Knights, Dan; Ley, Ruth E; Mahurkar, Anup; Ravel, Jacques; White, Owen

    2014-10-01

    The human microbiome has become a recognized factor in promoting and maintaining health. We outline opportunities in interdisciplinary research, analytical rigor, standardization, and policy development for this relatively new and rapidly developing field. Advances in these aspects of the research community may in turn advance our understanding of human microbiome biology. PMID:25303518

  6. Advancing the Microbiome Research Community

    PubMed Central

    Huttenhower, Curtis; Knight, Rob; Brown, C. Titus; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Clemente, Jose C.; Gevers, Dirk; Franzosa, Eric A.; Kelley, Scott T.; Knights, Dan; Ley, Ruth E.; Mahurkar, Anup; Ravel, Jacques; White, Owen

    2014-01-01

    The human microbiome has become a recognized factor in promoting and maintaining health. We outline opportunities in interdisciplinary research, analytical rigor, standardization, and policy development for this relatively new and rapidly developing field. Advances in these aspects of the research community may in turn advance our understanding of human microbiome biology. PMID:25303518

  7. The role of the individual and the community in the research, development, and use of biologicals with criteria for guidelines: a Memorandum*

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    In view of the widely recognized need to use available vaccines and other biologicals and to develop new ones to control many diseases of world-wide importance, this Memorandum considers the increasingly complex problems that face investigators and public authorities that must review and approve pre-licensing studies and also large-scale regular use. It is stressed that the proper conduct of biologicals research in human beings must be considered from the scientific, sociological, ethical, and legal points of view. The Declaration of Helsinki is regarded of fundamental importance and its applicability to biologicals research is discussed. Recommendations are made for continued international collaboration in this field and “Criteria on the Role of the Individual and the Community in the Research, Development, and Use of Biologicals” are formulated. General criteria and specific criteria related to the design of field trials, human involvement in field trials, and surveillance of safety and effectiveness of biologicals in routine use are discussed. PMID:1088511

  8. Community Research Mythology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldern, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This article is dedicated to an in-depth discussion of the theme community and the implications the multiple meanings of community hold for the field of qualitative research. This theme surfaced from Walderns 2003 study entitled Resistance to Research in Vancouvers Downtown Eastside, which dealt with participant resistance to joining research

  9. Building a Diverse Biological Community

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Abraham Parker (American Institute of Biological Sciences; )

    2006-01-01

    From the pages of magazine, the online version of our education column in BioScience provides educators with updates in science education, examples of successful initiatives to transform biology teaching, and new ways of improving student understanding. This Eye column highlights efforts by the Ecological Society of America and the American Society for Limnology and Oceanography to increase diversity within the scientific community and provides key strategies implemented by successful programs.

  10. Space biology research development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  11. Undergraduate Research Communities: A Powerful Approach to Research Training

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John J. Gaynor

    2006-07-01

    We applied the concept of learning communities, whereby students develop their ideas in cohort-based settings, to undergraduate research training. This creates powerful research communities where students practice science from observation to experimental design to interpretation of data. We describe a biology program, but the approach suits many discovery-based disciplines.

  12. SNOW Research Community of Practice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SNOW Research Community of Practice, sponsored by the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, is a collaboration of professionals whose goal is to "provide a one-stop solution to customers' snow science and engineering problems." The 48 members have expertise in a variety of areas, including geophysics, chemistry, biology, physics, and mechanical, geological, electrical, civil, and geological engineering. This website provides contact information for snow experts and describes the tools and facilities that are at their disposal. They also provide a wealth of information on various aspects of snow research, including snow models, snow chemistry, and GIS/Remote sensing of snow. Also described here is research on snow mechanics and engineering, which can be used "to develop instrumentation, physical understanding and models and combined with other physical principals to solve problems in hydrology, transportation, engineering infrastructure, and climate change." In addition, the group provides updates on snow impacts in the news, such as the extensive snowfall in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan that has affected safety, transportation, and flooding in those regions, and a link to a map of U.S. snow coverage from the National Weather Service. This site is also reviewed in the March 11, 2005_NSDL MET Report_.

  13. Community College Biology Lesson Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Kathie G.

    This catalog contains descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; bioenergetics - enzymes and cellular metabolism;…

  14. Community College Biology Lesson Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manteuffel, Mary S., Comp.; Herrick, Kathie, Comp.

    This catalog contains lesson descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: introductory material on experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; reproduction and…

  15. Research ethics and indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Allyson; Belcourt-Dittloff, Annie; Belcourt, Cheryl; Belcourt, Gordon

    2013-12-01

    Institutional review boards (IRBs) function to regulate research for the protection of human participants. We share lessons learned from the development of an intertribal IRB in the Rocky Mountain/Great Plains Tribal region of the United States. We describe the process through which a consortium of Tribes collaboratively developed an intertribal board to promote community-level protection and participation in the research process. In addition, we examine the challenges of research regulation from a Tribal perspective and explore the future of Tribally regulated research that honors indigenous knowledge and promotes community accountability and transparency. We offer recommendations for researchers, funding agencies, and Tribal communities to consider in the review and regulation of research. PMID:24134372

  16. Developing small worlds of e-science: using quantum mechanics, biological science, and oceanography for education and outreach strategies for engaging research communities within a univeristy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smith Plato L. II; Sharon Schwerzel; Tamara Weatherholt

    2010-01-01

    The poster will use text, diagrams, screenshots, models, and developing e-science digital collections at Florida State University (FSU) Libraries as an experimental approach in developing a digital preservation management policy strategy that promotes current and future use of FSU Libraries digital assets. Scientific research from quantum mechanics, biological science, and oceanography research disciplines will be used as digital collection development

  17. Community IRBS & Research Review Boards: Shaping the Future of Community-Engaged Research

    E-print Network

    Biederman, Irving

    Community IRBS & Research Review Boards: Shaping the Future of Community-Engaged Research #12;i Citation Community IRBs and Research Review Boards: Shaping the Future of Community-Engaged Research. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, The Bronx Health Link and Community-Campus Partnerships for Health

  18. Faculty Perspectives on Community-Based Research: \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caitlin Kennedy; Amanda Vogel; Clara Goldberg-Freeman; Nancy Kass; Mark Farfel

    2009-01-01

    Academic faculty members are increasingly following community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles. We conducted qualitative, in-depth interviews with 22 Johns Hopkins faculty members who conduct community-based research to understand their experiences and perspectives. Respondents engaged the community in numerous ways, ranging from working with community advisory boards to hiring community members as project staff to collaborating with community members across all

  19. Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wade, C. E.; Givens, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    To meet NASA's objective of using the unique aspects of the space environment to expand fundamental knowledge in the biological sciences, the Space Station Biological Research Project at Ames Research Center is developing, or providing oversight, for two major suites of hardware which will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The first, the Gravitational Biology Facility, consists of Habitats to support plants, rodents, cells, aquatic specimens, avian and reptilian eggs, and insects and the Habitat Holding Rack in which to house them at microgravity; the second, the Centrifuge Facility, consists of a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge that will provide acceleration levels between 0.01 g and 2.0 g and a Life Sciences Glovebox. These two facilities will support the conduct of experiments to: 1) investigate the effect of microgravity on living systems; 2) what level of gravity is required to maintain normal form and function, and 3) study the use of artificial gravity as a countermeasure to the deleterious effects of microgravity observed in the crew. Upon completion, the ISS will have three complementary laboratory modules provided by NASA, the European Space Agency and the Japanese space agency, NASDA. Use of all facilities in each of the modules will be available to investigators from participating space agencies. With the advent of the ISS, space-based gravitational biology research will transition from 10-16 day short-duration Space Shuttle flights to 90-day-or-longer ISS increments.

  20. Functional Structure of Biological Communities Predicts Ecosystem Multifunctionality

    PubMed Central

    Mouillot, David; Villéger, Sébastien; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Mason, Norman W. H.

    2011-01-01

    The accelerating rate of change in biodiversity patterns, mediated by ever increasing human pressures and global warming, demands a better understanding of the relationship between the structure of biological communities and ecosystem functioning (BEF). Recent investigations suggest that the functional structure of communities, i.e. the composition and diversity of functional traits, is the main driver of ecological processes. However, the predictive power of BEF research is still low, the integration of all components of functional community structure as predictors is still lacking, and the multifunctionality of ecosystems (i.e. rates of multiple processes) must be considered. Here, using a multiple-processes framework from grassland biodiversity experiments, we show that functional identity of species and functional divergence among species, rather than species diversity per se, together promote the level of ecosystem multifunctionality with a predictive power of 80%. Our results suggest that primary productivity and decomposition rates, two key ecosystem processes upon which the global carbon cycle depends, are primarily sustained by specialist species, i.e. those that hold specialized combinations of traits and perform particular functions. Contrary to studies focusing on single ecosystem functions and considering species richness as the sole measure of biodiversity, we found a linear and non-saturating effect of the functional structure of communities on ecosystem multifunctionality. Thus, sustaining multiple ecological processes would require focusing on trait dominance and on the degree of community specialization, even in species-rich assemblages. PMID:21423747

  1. Community-Scientist Collaboration in Environmental Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANCES M. LYNN

    2000-01-01

    Community participation in governmental environmental decision making is firmly institutionalized. In recent years, citizens have also demanded involvement in the scientific research undergirding policy. Environmental agencies have responded and have made collaboration with community groups an integral part of large-scale research funding. Community-scientist research partnerships are not new but heretofore have involved a few committed scientists. This article reviews the

  2. Farmworkers and Pesticides: Community-Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Quandt, Sara A.; McCauley, Linda

    2000-01-01

    A workshop brought together scientists, community organization members, and agency representatives to review community-based research on the environmental health risks of pesticide exposure for migrant farmworkers; to share appropriate, successful community-based research methods and models; and to determine future research directions and needs…

  3. Community and university--partners in research.

    PubMed

    Morris, B A

    1992-06-01

    Community-based and university-based family practice researchers must come together and merge into a synergistic partnership. Community-based researchers often need the special expertise of university statisticians, epidemiologists, and research methodologists, and the enthusiasm of fellow researchers. University-based researchers look to the community for subjects and the all-important factor of generalizability. We must no longer rely on serendipity to bring community- and university-based researchers together. Community-based people must acknowledge their needs and actively seek out assistance. The university-based departments can respond by deliberately starting outreach programs, setting up buddy systems, engaging community research consultants, and tracking residents and urging them to continue to do research. Sentinel networks can increase the depth of involvement community researchers have with their own, and others', projects. Such efforts will lead to a creative interrelationship that will be rewarding and enjoyable for us all. PMID:1621532

  4. Genome Annotation in a Community College Cell Biology Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagley, C. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Biology Department at Salt Lake Community College has used the IMG-ACT toolbox to introduce a genome mapping and annotation exercise into the laboratory portion of its Cell Biology course. This project provides students with an authentic inquiry-based learning experience while introducing them to computational biology and contemporary learning…

  5. Introduced species can disrupt biological communities and alter biodiversity

    E-print Network

    Holt, Robert D.

    they spread extensively in novel habitats. Biological invasions are an increasing problem in this changing and impact of biological invasions by plants and animals. They can facilitate or limit invasions communities and influence ecosystems undergoing biological invasion. A review of plant and animal invasions

  6. ASCO's Community Research Forum: addressing challenges of community-based research from the grass roots.

    PubMed

    Robert, Nicholas; Lilenbaum, Rogerio; Hurley, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    ASCO's Community Research Forum is a solution-oriented venue for community research sites to overcome barriers to conducting clinical trials. The key objectives of the Forum are to (1) convene community-based researchers to identify challenges to conducting research that ASCO can address, (2) develop solution-oriented projects to address these challenges to facilitate clinical trial participation in community research settings, and (3) shape ASCO programs and policies to support members engaged in community research. The Community Research Forum holds an annual in-person meeting that convenes physician investigators, research administrators, research nurses, and clinical research associates from community-based research programs and practices. To meet identified needs, the Community Research Forum has developed the ASCO Clinical Trial Workload Assessment Tool and the ASCO Research Program Quality Assessment Tool. Both of these tools will be available to the public in 2014. The Forum is currently exploring the concept and potential metrics of a research certification program to formally assess community-based research programs, and to identify gaps and areas to improve the program in order to meet quality standards. The Community Research Forum's website aims to serve as a go-to resource for community-based physician investigators and research staff. The Community Research Forum will continue to provide a forum for community-based researchers to network, share challenges, and develop initiatives that provide solutions and facilitate the conduct of clinical trials. PMID:24857088

  7. Puerto Rico Sustainable Communities Research Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHCRP) is to inform and empower decision?makers to equitably weigh and integrate human health, socio?economic, environmental, and ecological factors to foster community sustainability. Pue...

  8. Exploring community structure in biological networks with random graphs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community structure is ubiquitous in biological networks. There has been an increased interest in unraveling the community structure of biological systems as it may provide important insights into a system’s functional components and the impact of local structures on dynamics at a global scale. Choosing an appropriate community detection algorithm to identify the community structure in an empirical network can be difficult, however, as the many algorithms available are based on a variety of cost functions and are difficult to validate. Even when community structure is identified in an empirical system, disentangling the effect of community structure from other network properties such as clustering coefficient and assortativity can be a challenge. Results Here, we develop a generative model to produce undirected, simple, connected graphs with a specified degrees and pattern of communities, while maintaining a graph structure that is as random as possible. Additionally, we demonstrate two important applications of our model: (a) to generate networks that can be used to benchmark existing and new algorithms for detecting communities in biological networks; and (b) to generate null models to serve as random controls when investigating the impact of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and modularity in empirical biological networks. Conclusion Our model allows for the systematic study of the presence of community structure and its impact on network function and dynamics. This process is a crucial step in unraveling the functional consequences of the structural properties of biological systems and uncovering the mechanisms that drive these systems. PMID:24965130

  9. 78 FR 12043 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Discussion of the...

  10. 77 FR 55201 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics: Discussion of the...

  11. 76 FR 78908 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of...Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee...Biological and Environmental Research Advisory...

  12. Global Biology Research Program: Program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Biological processes which play a dominant role in these cycles which transform and transfer much of this material throughout the biosphere are examined. A greater understanding of planetary biological processes as revealed by the interaction of the biota and the environment. The rationale, scope, research strategy, and research priorities of the global biology is presented.

  13. Undergraduate Biological Research Journal UCSD Division of Biological Sciences

    E-print Network

    Hampton, Randy

    Undergraduate Biological Research Journal UCSD Division of Biological Sciences Volume 8 Nos. 1, 2 Developingvaccineswithantibodiestoabsorb specific drugs as treatment for fighting drug addiction A New Kind of Chemotherapy ELHAM RAHIMY Plates: A Rapid Method to Isolate Antibiotic-producing Bacteria FRANZ SCHWEIS RESEARCH SENIOR HONORS

  14. COMPARISON OF BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES: THE PROBLEM OF SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining an adequate, representative sample of biological communities or assemblages to make richness or compositional comparisons among sites is a continuing challenge. Traditionally, sample size is based on numbers of replicates or area collected or numbers of individuals enum...

  15. Human Health Research Program: Systems biological approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research using systems analytic approaches to integrate biological and toxicological data across scales of biological organization (e.g. molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, full body, population), with the goal of identifying toxicity pathways, biomarkers, and bioindicators for a...

  16. Community-Based Learning and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallimore, Elise; Rochefort, David A.; Simonelli, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Community-Based Learning and Research (CBLR) provides opportunities for institutions of higher education to achieve their goals of educating students, advancing teaching and scholarship, and meeting real needs of under-resourced communities and nonprofit organizations. By providing successful examples of campus and community partnership, this…

  17. Finding Community: A Guide to Community Research and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Ron; And Others

    For those concerned with contemporary social problems, whether as students, members of community groups, or individual citizens, this book attempts not only to describe the issues, but also to offer some starting points for local research and action. As an educational tool, it is based on the belief that a good way to learn about a community is to…

  18. COMMUNITY RESOURCE ASSESSMENT: BUILDING COMMUNITY CAPACITY FOR NUTRITION INTERVENTION RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To describe the methodological process used to access the availability and knowledge of nutrition resources in the rural delta communities. Methods: Three rural communities, one each in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, joined in a consortium with Agricultural Research Service (ARS) an...

  19. Space Station Biological Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox will accommodate use by two crew persons simultaneously and the capability for real time video down-link and data acquisition. In house testbeds and Phase B studies of the centrifuge validated the concepts of vibration isolation and autobalancing systems to meet the ISSA microgravity requirements. The vibration isolation system is effective above the centrifuge rotation frequency while the autobalancing system on the rotor removes vibration at and below the rotation rate. Torque of the Station, induced by spin-up/spindown of the centrifuge, can be minimized by controlling spin-up/spin-down rates. The SSBRP and ISSA will provide the opportunity to perform long-term, repeatable and high quality science. The long duration increments available on the Station will permit multigeneration studies of both plants and animals which have not previously been possible. The u-g habitat racks and the eight habitat centrifuge will accommodate sufficient number of specimens to permit statistically significant sampling of specimens to investigate the time course of adaptation to altered gravity environments. The centrifuge will, for the first time, permit investigators to use gravity itself as a tool to investigate fundamental processes, to investigate the intensity and duration of gravity to maintain normal structure and function, to separate the effects of u-g from other environmental factors and to examine artificial gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physical deconditioning observed during space flight.

  20. Community ecology theory as a framework for biological invasions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katriona Shea; Peter Chesson

    2002-01-01

    Community ecology theory can be used to understand biological invasions by applying recent niche concepts to alien species and the communities that they invade. These ideas lead to the concept of ‘niche opportunity’, which defines conditions that promote invasions in terms of resources, natural enemies, the physical environment, interactions between these factors, and the manner in which they vary in

  1. Disturbance, biological legacies and community development in stream mesocosms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Ledger; Rebecca M. L. Harris; Alexander M. Milner; Patrick D. Armitage

    2006-01-01

    Disturbances reduce the biota in stream ecosystems, and leave biological legacies, including remnant species, which potentially influence post-disturbance community development but are poorly understood. We investigated whether three remnant species, the snail Radix peregra, the mayfly Serratella ignita and the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex, affected community development in mesocosms that mimicked disturbed habitat patches in streams. Following 21 days of colonisation,

  2. Student Involvement in Community-Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Deborah; Fox, Linette; Priest, Thomas; McBride, Freda

    2002-01-01

    Describes how Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina, an "Implementing Urban Missions" grantee, used an Urban Research Group model to involve undergraduates in community research; the needs of community-based organizations and the service mission of the university determine the amount of student involvement. (EV)

  3. Community Engagement about Genetic Variation Research

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kurt D.; Metosky, Susan; Rudofsky, Gayle; Deignan, Kathleen P.; Martinez, Hulda; Johnson-Moore, Penelope; Citrin, Toby

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this article is to describe the methods and effectiveness of the Public Engagement in Genetic Variation and Haplotype Mapping Issues (PEGV) Project, which engaged a community in policy discussion about genetic variation research. The project implemented a 6-stage community engagement model in New Rochelle, New York. First, researchers recruited community partners. Second, the project team created community oversight. Third, focus groups discussed concerns generated by genetic variation research. Fourth, community dialogue sessions addressed focus group findings and developed policy recommendations. Fifth, a conference was held to present these policy recommendations and to provide a forum for HapMap (haplotype mapping) researchers to dialogue directly with residents. Finally, findings were disseminated via presentations and papers to the participants and to the wider community beyond. The project generated a list of proposed guidelines for genetic variation research that addressed the concerns of New Rochelle residents. Project team members expressed satisfaction with the engagement model overall but expressed concerns about how well community groups were utilized and what segment of the community actually engaged in the project. The PEGV Project represents a model for researchers to engage the general public in policy development about genetic research. There are benefits of such a process beyond the desired genetic research. (Population Health Management 2012;15:78–89) PMID:21815821

  4. Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

    2013-01-01

    Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

  5. 78 FR 34088 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Report from the Office of Biological and Environmental Research News from the Biological...

  6. 77 FR 55200 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Report from the Office of Biological and Environmental Research News from the Biological...

  7. 76 FR 8357 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Report from the Office of Biological and Environmental Research News from the Biological...

  8. Conservation Models and Ecological Concerns of the Community: A Case-Based Biology Lesson Plan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fouch, C.

    In this activity, students will design a conservation model that will address the ecological concerns of a community. Students will obtain topographical map of an area and related data; research and analyze appropriate data as to deforestation; survey and select area for removal of trees and landscape according to water flow; and build and produce an ecologically balanced model that will address the concerns of the community. This case will involves the use of botany, environmental science, animal biology, ecology, forestry and mathematics.

  9. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  10. The 2014 Gordon Research Conference: Physics Research & Education: The Complex Intersection of Biology and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabella, Mel; Lang, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The field of biological physics and the physics education of biology and medically oriented students have experienced tremendous growth in recent years. New findings, applications, and technologies in biological and medical physics are having far reaching consequences that affect and influence the science community, the education of future scientists and health-care workers, and the general population. As a result leaders in Physics Education Research have begun to focus their attention on the specific needs of students in the biological sciences, the different ways physicists and biologists view the nature of science and the interactions of scientists in these disciplines. In this poster we highlight some of these findings and pose questions for discussion. The Complex Intersection of Biology and Physics will be the topic of the next Gordon Research Conference on Physics Research and Education to be held in June 2014. The exact date and location are still to be determined.

  11. Promoting Coordinated Development of Community-Based Information Standards for Modeling in Biology: The COMBINE Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hucka, Michael; Nickerson, David P.; Bader, Gary D.; Bergmann, Frank T.; Cooper, Jonathan; Demir, Emek; Garny, Alan; Golebiewski, Martin; Myers, Chris J.; Schreiber, Falk; Waltemath, Dagmar; Le Novčre, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE) is a consortium of groups involved in the development of open community standards and formats used in computational modeling in biology. COMBINE’s aim is to act as a coordinator, facilitator, and resource for different standardization efforts whose domains of use cover related areas of the computational biology space. In this perspective article, we summarize COMBINE, its general organization, and the community standards and other efforts involved in it. Our goals are to help guide readers toward standards that may be suitable for their research activities, as well as to direct interested readers to relevant communities where they can best expect to receive assistance in how to develop interoperable computational models. PMID:25759811

  12. Promoting Coordinated Development of Community-Based Information Standards for Modeling in Biology: The COMBINE Initiative.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Nickerson, David P; Bader, Gary D; Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Demir, Emek; Garny, Alan; Golebiewski, Martin; Myers, Chris J; Schreiber, Falk; Waltemath, Dagmar; Le Novčre, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE) is a consortium of groups involved in the development of open community standards and formats used in computational modeling in biology. COMBINE's aim is to act as a coordinator, facilitator, and resource for different standardization efforts whose domains of use cover related areas of the computational biology space. In this perspective article, we summarize COMBINE, its general organization, and the community standards and other efforts involved in it. Our goals are to help guide readers toward standards that may be suitable for their research activities, as well as to direct interested readers to relevant communities where they can best expect to receive assistance in how to develop interoperable computational models. PMID:25759811

  13. FISHERY RESEARCH BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY , GALVESTON

    E-print Network

    lobsters, Panulirus argus, and blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, with biological stains .... 83 Small beam of nursery areas 47 Effects of engineering projects on estuaries 52 Physiology and Behavior Program 55

  14. A research associate level Developmental Biology/Cell Biology/Biochemistry Experimentalist to develop quantitative

    E-print Network

    Menczer, Filippo

    A research associate level Developmental Biology/Cell Biology/Biochemistry Experimentalist cell or developmental biology, pharmacology, toxicology, cell biology, or biochemistry and experience to cell regulation, cell signaling and cell behavior to extract the underlying biological models

  15. Space Station Biological Research Project: Reference Experiment Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine (Editor); Wade, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP), which is the combined efforts of the Centrifuge Facility (CF) and the Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF), is responsible for the development of life sciences hardware to be used on the International Space Station to support cell, developmental, and plant biology research. The SSBRP Reference Experiment Book was developed to use as a tool for guiding this development effort. The reference experiments characterize the research interests of the international scientific community and serve to identify the hardware capabilities and support equipment needed to support such research. The reference experiments also serve as a tool for understanding the operational aspects of conducting research on board the Space Station. This material was generated by the science community by way of their responses to reference experiment solicitation packages sent to them by SSBRP scientists. The solicitation process was executed in two phases. The first phase was completed in February of 1992 and the second phase completed in November of 1995. Representing these phases, the document is subdivided into a Section 1 and a Section 2. The reference experiments contained in this document are only representative microgravity experiments. They are not intended to define actual flight experiments. Ground and flight experiments will be selected through the formal NASA Research Announcement (NRA) and Announcement of Opportunity (AO) experiment solicitation, review, and selection process.

  16. SYSTEMS THINKING AND COMMUNITY OPERATIONS RESEARCH NEEDED FOR BETTER WORK IN COMMUNITY INFORMATICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Petkova; D Petkov; M D'Onofrio

    The paper shows that systems thinking is needed in research efforts in Community Informatics. It analyses briefly Virtual Community Informatics, Community Informatics and the broader field of (Virtual) Community Informatics as suggested by Bieber and Gurstein. The links between Community Informatics and Community Operations Research and indirectly in that way with systems thinking, are explored as well as the potential

  17. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR): a model organism database providing a centralized, curated gateway to Arabidopsis biology, research materials and community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Yon Rhee; William D. Beavis; Tanya Z. Berardini; Guanghong Chen; David A. Dixon; Aisling Doyle; Margarita Garcia-hernandez; Eva Huala; Gabriel Lander; Mary Montoya; Neil Miller; Lukas A. Mueller; Suparna Mundodi; Leonore Reiser; Julie Tacklind; Dan C. Weems; Yihe Wu; Iris Xu; Daniel Yoo; Jungwon Yoon; Peifen Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely-studied plant today. The concerted efforts of over 11 000 researchers and 4000 organizations around the world are generating a rich diversity and quantity of information and materials. This information is made available through a comprehensive on-line resource called the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) (http:\\/\\/arabidopsis.org), which is accessible via commonly used web browsers and can

  18. 77 FR 28368 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Update from the Office of Biological and Environmental Research Update/highlights from...

  19. 75 FR 53685 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics: Report from the Office...Biological and Environmental Research. News from the...

  20. 78 FR 6087 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Update from the Office of...Biological and Environmental Research News from the...

  1. 77 FR 4028 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics: Report from the Office...Biological and Environmental Research News from the...

  2. 78 FR 77111 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ...Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee...Office of Science, Department...Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee...Office of Science on the biological and environmental research programs....

  3. The role of community review in evaluating the risks of human genetic variation research.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, M W; Sharp, R R; Freeman, W L; Chino, M; Bernsten, D; Carter, T H

    1999-01-01

    The practicality and moral value of community review of human genetic research has become a focus of debate. Examples from two Native American communities are used to address four aspects of that debate: (1) the value of community review in larger, geographically dispersed populations; (2) the identification of culturally specific risks; (3) the potential conflict between individual and group assessments of research-related risks; and (4) the confusion of social categories with biological categories. Our experiences working with these two communities suggest that: (1) successful community review may require the involvement of private social units (e.g., families); (2) culturally specific implications of genetic research may be identifiable only by community members and are of valid concern in their moral universes; (3) community concerns can be incorporated into existing review mechanisms without necessarily giving communities the power to veto research proposals; and (4) the conflation of social and biological categories presents recruitment problems for genetic studies. These conclusions argue for the use of community review to identify and minimize research-related risks posed by genetic studies. Community review also can assist in facilitating participant recruitment and retention, as well as in developing partnerships between researchers and communities. PMID:10330360

  4. Research Summary Community woodlands: an overview

    E-print Network

    , skills development, education ... It's all there open for everybody." Background Globally around 20 from 1 ha to more than 1000 ha. #12;Research Summary Social and Economic Research Group, Forest by the community, arrangements are formalised through mechanisms including leaseholds, partnerships with the owner

  5. Research collaboration in health management research communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study uses scientometrics methodology to reveal the status quo and emerging issues of collaboration in health management. Methods We searched all the articles with the keyword “health management” in the period 1999–2011 in Web of Knowledge, then 3067 articles were found. Methods such as Social network analysis (SNA), co-authorship, co-word analysis were used in this study. Results Analysis of the past 13 years of research in the field of health management indicates that, whether the production of scientific research, or authors, institutions and scientific research collaboration at the national level, collaboration behavior has been growing steadily across all collaboration types. However, the international scientific research cooperation about health management study between countries needs to be further encouraged. 17 researchers can be seen as the academic leaders in this field. 37 research institutions play a vital role in the information dissemination and resources control in health management. The component analysis found that 22 research groups can be regarded as the backbone in this field. The 8 institution groups consisting of 33 institutions form the core of this field. USA, UK and Australia lie in the center by cohesive subgroup analysis; Based on keywords analysis, 44 keywords with high frequency such as care, disease, system and model were involved in the health management field. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although it is growing steadily, collaboration behavior about health management study needs to be enhanced, especially between different institutions or countries/regions, which would promote the progress and internationalization of health management. Besides, researchers should pay attention to the cooperation of representative scholars and institutions, as well as the hot areas of research, because their experience would help us promote the research development of our nation. PMID:23617236

  6. Community structure in social and biological networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Girvan; M. E. J. Newman

    2002-01-01

    A number of recent studies have focused on the statistical properties of networked systems such as social networks and the Worldwide Web. Researchers have concentrated particularly on a few properties that seem to be common to many networks: the small-world property, power-law degree distributions, and network transitivity. In this article, we highlight another property that is found in many networks,

  7. LINKING SERVICE AND NUTRITION RESEARCH: AN APPROACH TO COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN COMMUNITY BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: This paper outlines how community service activities can evolve as a mechanism to identify and initiate community-based participatory research projects in diet/healthy eating. Background: The Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (NIRI) is sponsored by the United States Departm...

  8. Protecting communities in research: current guidelines and limits of extrapolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Goldsand; Ezekiel J. Emanuel; Charles Weijer

    1999-01-01

    As genetic research increasingly focuses on communities, there have been calls for extending research protections to them. We critically examine guidelines developed to protect aboriginal communities and consider their applicability to other communities. These guidelines are based on a model of researcher-community partnership and span the phases of a research project, from protocol development to publication. The complete list of

  9. Research Experiences in Community College Science Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauregard, A.

    2011-12-01

    The benefits of student access to scientific research opportunities and the use of data in curriculum and student inquiry-driven approaches to teaching as effective tools in science instruction are compelling (i.e., Ledley, et al., 2008; Gawel & Greengrove, 2005; Macdonald, et al., 2005; Harnik & Ross. 2003). Unfortunately, these experiences are traditionally limited at community colleges due to heavy faculty teaching loads, a focus on teaching over research, and scarce departmental funds. Without such hands-on learning activities, instructors may find it difficult to stimulate excitement about science in their students, who are typically non-major and nontraditional. I present two different approaches for effectively incorporating research into the community college setting that each rely on partnerships with other institutions. The first of these is a more traditional approach for providing research experiences to undergraduate students, though such experiences are limited at community colleges, and involves student interns working on a research project under the supervision of a faculty member. Specifically, students participate in a water quality assessment study of two local bayous. Students work on different aspects of the project, including water sample collection, bio-assay incubation experiments, water quality sample analysis, and collection and identification of phytoplankton. Over the past four years, nine community college students, as well as two undergraduate students and four graduate students from the local four-year university have participated in this research project. Aligning student and faculty research provides community college students with the unique opportunity to participate in the process of active science and contribute to "real" scientific research. Because students are working in a local watershed, these field experiences provide a valuable "place-based" educational opportunity. The second approach links cutting-edge oceanographic research with my community college students by partnering with a research oceanographer. Through this partnership, students have had access to an active oceanographic researcher through classroom visits, use of data in curriculum, and research/cruise progress updates. With very little research activity currently going on at the community college, this "window" into scientific research is invaluable. Another important aspect of this project is the development of a summer internship program that has allowed four community college students to work directly with an oceanographer in her lab for ten weeks. This connection of community college students with world-class scientists in the field promotes better understanding of research and potentially may encourage more students to major in the sciences. In either approach, the interaction with scientists at different stages of their careers, from undergraduate and graduate students at universities to post docs and research scientists, also provides community college students with the opportunity to gain insight into possible career pathways. For both majors and non-majors, a key outcome of such experiences will be gaining experience in using inquiry and reasoning through the scientific method and becoming comfortable with data and technology.

  10. Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Acting as part of the European Commission's INNOVATION Programme, the Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS) provides information on European Union research, development, and innovation activities to help strengthen the competitiveness of European organizations, particularly small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). CORDIS's ten searchable databases covering various news and research publications, EU-funded research programs, and organizational contact and partnership directories are designed to help SMEs find data and funding. An Acronym dictionary of EU research and development terms aids search navigation, and key pages are available in English, French, German, and Italian.

  11. Biology Education Research Trends in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Seyda; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a content analysis of 633 biology education research [BER] papers published by Turkish science educators in national and international journals. The findings indicate that more research has been undertaken in environment and ecology, the cell and animal form and functions. In addition learning, teaching and attitudes were in…

  12. Infiltration of a Hawaiian community by introduced biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Henneman, M L; Memmott, J

    2001-08-17

    To examine the community-wide effects of introduced biocontrol agents on Kauai Island, Hawaii, we constructed quantitative food webs showing interactions among plants, moths, and moth parasitoids in a native forest. Eighty-three percent of parasitoids reared from native moths were biological control agents, 14% were accidental immigrants, and 3% were native species. Although parasitism by biological control agents reached 28% in some species of moth, all biocontrol agents reared had been released before 1945. This study highlights the importance of considering the potential damage caused by an introduced control agent, in addition to that caused by the target alien species. PMID:11509730

  13. Research With Stored Biological Samples What Do Research Participants Want?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna T. Chen; Donald L. Rosenstein; Palaniappan Muthappan; Susan G. Hilsenbeck; Franklin G. Miller; Ezekiel J. Emanuel; David Wendler

    2005-01-01

    Methods: We analyzed 1670 consent forms signed by research participants at the Warren G. Magnuson Clini- cal Center, National Institutes of Health, between Janu- ary 1, 2000, and May 31, 2002, that offer options for fu- ture research with participants' biological samples. The research participants were healthy volunteers, family members of affected individuals, and individuals with a broadrangeofmedicalconditionsenrolledinclinicalre- search studies

  14. FDA: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is "to protect and enhance the public health through the regulation of biological and related products including blood, vaccines, allergenics, tissues, and cellular and gene therapies." Their mission is an important one, and consumers and scientists will want to bookmark this page and return to it on a regular basis. On this page, visitors can sign up for their RSS feed and read through some key resources. Users can also browse resources on biologics depending on their needs: consumer, healthcare and industry level information is provided.

  15. Detection of Composite Communities in Multiplex Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Laura; Kittas, Aristotelis; Muirhead, Gareth; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.; Tsoka, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    The detection of community structure is a widely accepted means of investigating the principles governing biological systems. Recent efforts are exploring ways in which multiple data sources can be integrated to generate a more comprehensive model of cellular interactions, leading to the detection of more biologically relevant communities. In this work, we propose a mathematical programming model to cluster multiplex biological networks, i.e. multiple network slices, each with a different interaction type, to determine a single representative partition of composite communities. Our method, known as SimMod, is evaluated through its application to yeast networks of physical, genetic and co-expression interactions. A comparative analysis involving partitions of the individual networks, partitions of aggregated networks and partitions generated by similar methods from the literature highlights the ability of SimMod to identify functionally enriched modules. It is further shown that SimMod offers enhanced results when compared to existing approaches without the need to train on known cellular interactions. PMID:26012716

  16. Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of ‘governmentality’, and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389

  17. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH WITHIN THE FEDERAL COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the primary ongoing programs for promotion and encouragement of pollution prevention research is a cooperative program between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Federal community at large. EPAżs Waste Reduction Evaluations At Federal Sites (WREAFS) Pro...

  18. Creating Community-Based Participatory Research in a Diverse Community: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Silka; G. Dean Cleghorn; Milagro Grullón; Trinidad Tellez

    2008-01-01

    COMMUNITIES STRUGGLE TO CREATE research guidelines for ethical collaborative research within their locale. In Lawrence, Massachusetts (USA) a collaborative group of community members and aca- demic researchers, known as the Mayor's Health Task Force Research Initiative Working Group, took on the challenge of creating guidelines for ethical community- based research. This case study of the Task Force's work addresses questions

  19. Horseshoe Crab History, Biology, Research and Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Overview of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), a major Mid-Atlantic resource. Topics covered include: horseshoe crab biology and life cycle, breeding beaches and ecological importance of horseshoe crab eggs for migrating birds. Biomedical and other uses of horseshoe crabs are explained, and impacts of overharvesting on their populations are described. Current research, fishery management, volunteer conservation projects are presented.

  20. Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis

    E-print Network

    Adl, Sina

    Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis Instructors: 3 members of the honours committee each year. This class is required of, and restricted to, all Biology and Marine Biology Honours programmes in which Biology or Marine Biology is the major area of study. Students conduct

  1. Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis

    E-print Network

    Adl, Sina

    Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis Instructors: Pat Collins.Pinder@Dal.Ca Bill; 5076B; 494-1853; Bill.Pohajdak@Dal.Ca This class is required of, and restricted to, all Biology And Marine Biology Honours programmes in which Biology or Marine Biology is the major area of study. Students

  2. NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) in Gravitational Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclntire, Larry V.; Rudolph, Frederick B.

    1996-01-01

    The mission of our NSCORT is to investigate the effects of gravity and other environmental factors on biological function at the cellular and molecular level. The research efforts, training opportunities, and scientific exchange will promote the expansion of a scientific peer group well-educated in space-related biological issues. This will stimulate the interest of the larger scientific community and insure the continuing development of rigorous flight investigations in Gravitational Biology.

  3. 76 FR 31319 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topic: Discussion of existing...practices for disseminating research results in the fields...

  4. ENGAGING THE COMMUNITY IN HEALTH RESEARCH IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Preuss, Charles; Pathak, Yashwant; Kosambiya, J. K.; Kumar, Ambuj

    2013-01-01

    Community-engaged research approaches involve members of the community in various aspects of a research endeavor to improve the health of populations. Engaging the community in research is important in the development, dissemination, and evaluation of new interventions, technologies, and other medical advancements to improve population health globally. A review of published community-engaged research studies conducted in India was performed. Fifteen published studies were identified and reviewed to evaluate the state of community-engaged research in India. The review indicated that community-engaged research in India is limited. Most published community-engaged research focused on health promotion, especially in the prevention or management of HIV/AIDS and other STIs. Community members were involved in a variety of aspects of the research, but there was not one published article indicating that community members had defined the disease of focus. Community-engaged research often led to valuable insights into the views, experiences, and behaviors of community members and also led to increased community participation in health initiatives. It is anticipated that future community-engaged research will lead to improvements in global health through increased empowerment of communities and a better ability to implement new and innovative medical advances, technologies, and interventions. PMID:24353757

  5. Biologically Inspired Micro-Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Waszak, Martin R.

    2003-01-01

    Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed- wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.

  6. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, D.A.; Bartholow, J.M.; Jager, H.I.; Beschta, R.L.; Cheslak, E.F.; Deas, M.L.; Ebersole, J.L.; Foott, J.S.; Johnson, S.L.; Marine, K.R.; Mesa, M.G.; Petersen, J.H.; Souchon, Y.; Tiffan, K.F.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems, in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied, and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem. ?? Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  7. Biological communities at the Florida Escarpment resemble hydrothermal vent taxa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, C.K.; Hecker, Barbara; Commeau, R.; Freeman-Lynde, R. P.; Neumann, C.; Corso, W.P.; Golubic, S.; Hook, J.E.; Sikes, E.; Curray, J.

    1984-01-01

    Dense biological communities of large epifaunal taxa similar to those found along ridge crest vents at the East Pacific Rise were discovered in the abyssal Gulf of Mexico. These assemblages occur on a passive continental margin at the base of the Florida Escarpment, the interface between the relatively impermeable hemipelagic clays of the distal Mississippi Fan and the jointed Cretaceous limestone of the Florida Platform. The fauna apparently is nourished by sulfide rich hypersaline waters seeping out at near ambient temperatures onto the sea floor.

  8. Center for Theoretical Biological Physics Research Thrust Area's

    E-print Network

    Collar, Juan I.

    Center for Theoretical Biological Physics Research Thrust Area's: · Statistical Biophysics - Gene towards or away from a stimulus Center for Theoretical Biological Physics - University of California, San Gradients (Molecular Scale) Center for Theoretical Biological Physics - University of California, San Diego

  9. Center for Theoretical Biological Physics Research Thrust Area's

    E-print Network

    Collar, Juan I.

    Center for Theoretical Biological Physics Research Thrust Area's: · Statistical Biophysics - Gene #12;Center for Theoretical Biological Physics University of California, San Diego Using Molecular for Theoretical Biological Physics University of California, San Diego Photoisomerization of Rhodopsin Rhodopsin

  10. Rituals and Research Ethics: Using One Community's Experience to Reconsider the Ways that Communities and Researchers Build Sustainable Partnerships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Silka

    As work on community-based participatory research attests, one of the most pressing issues about research is how it can be done so as to bear directly on people's lives. Urgent discussions are now taking place within the research community about questions such as who owns research and how the impact of research can be increased. When researchers discuss these issues,

  11. Experimental Data from the Proteomics Research Center for Integrative Biology

    DOE Data Explorer

    Smith, Richard D.

    The possible roles and importance of proteomics are rapidly growing across essentially all areas of biological research. The precise and comprehensive measurement of levels of expressed proteins and their modified forms can provide new insights into the molecular nature of cell-signaling pathways and networks, the cell cycle, cellular differentiation, and other processes relevant to understanding human health and the progression of various disease states. The ability to characterize protein complexes complements this capability, allowing hypotheses to be tested and the biological system operation to be defined. The Proteomics Research Center for Integrative Biology is a national user facility established and funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences component of the National Institutes of Health. This Center has been established to serve the biomedical research community by developing and integrating new proteomic technologies for collaborative and service studies, disseminating the new technologies, and training scientists in their use. The Center is housed in DOE’s William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  12. Edinburgh Research Explorer A framework for evolutionary systems biology

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer A framework for evolutionary systems biology Citation for published version: Loewe, L 2009, 'A framework for evolutionary systems biology' BMC Systems Biology, vol 3, 27., 10 Research Explorer Published In: BMC Systems Biology Publisher Rights Statement: © 2009 Loewe; licensee Bio

  13. COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN CHILDREN’S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Barbara L.; Manice, Melissa P.

    2010-01-01

    Community engagement strategies and skills can build trust and reduce historical mistrust between researchers, communities and populations being studied, as well as contribute to the quality of study designs, methods and dissemination of findings. This review paper discusses why community engagement is of increasing importance in children’s environmental health research, describes models and the continuum of methods that are used and discusses their challenges and benefits. Two case studies, representing different study designs and using different community engagement models and methods, and lessons learned from these cases are described. Community engagement methods are best understood on a continuum based on the degree to which community members or representatives of community populations are involved in research planning, decision making and dissemination. Methods along this continuum include community consultation, community based participatory research(CBPR) and community consent to research. Community engagement knowledge and skills are especially important in the conduct of children’s environmental health research with its emphasis on reducing environmental risks at the community level; the increasing focus on genetics and gene-environment interactions; and the importance placed on translation of scientific results into behaviors and policies that protect the community. Across study designs, whether qualitative survey research, an observational epidemiology study, or a randomized intervention trial, understanding community interests, norms and values is necessary to describe attitudes and behaviors of specific population groups, build evidence of cause and effect between environmental exposures and health and/or that demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce risks. PMID:21259265

  14. Disturbance, biological legacies and community development in stream mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Ledger, Mark E; Harris, Rebecca M L; Milner, Alexander M; Armitage, Patrick D

    2006-07-01

    Disturbances reduce the biota in stream ecosystems, and leave biological legacies, including remnant species, which potentially influence post-disturbance community development but are poorly understood. We investigated whether three remnant species, the snail Radix peregra, the mayfly Serratella ignita and the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex, affected community development in mesocosms that mimicked disturbed habitat patches in streams. Following 21 days of colonisation, we found that the occurrence of legacy effects depended on the identity of the remnant species. Radix had the strongest effect. By bulldozing epilithon, the snails acted as ecological engineers that promoted settlement of filter feeders (Simuliidae) and invertebrate predators (especially Pentaneura and Aphelocheirus) and strongly deterred settlement of non-predatory chironomids (e.g. Heterotrissocladius and Microtendipes). Gammarus increased in density (by 665%) where remnant, probably through rapid reproduction. Baetis and Pentaneura were scarce, and Asellus absent, in remnant Gammarus treatments, as a consequence of interference and/or predation by the amphipods. In contrast, Serratella tolerated the colonisation of immigrant species and did not affect the structure of the developing benthic community. Despite the observed effects on the presence and abundance of benthos, remnant fauna had no significant effect on assemblage taxon richness, or that of any specific trophic group. The contrasting effects of remnant species on immigrant colonisation echoed differences in their life-history traits and foraging behaviours. Our results indicate that biota can generate spatial patchiness of epilithon and benthic invertebrates in stream ecosystems. PMID:16639570

  15. Avian Community Response to Lowland Tropical Rainforest Isolation: 40 Years of Change at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRYAN J. SIGEL; THOMAS W. SHERRY; BRUCE E. YOUNG

    2006-01-01

    Since 1960, most of the forest surrounding the La Selva Biological Station, an intensively studied tropical research facility in Costa Rica, has been converted to agricultural uses. We used quantitative censuses and analysis of previously published categorical abundances to assess changes in the bird community, and we evaluated potential causes of species-specific changes by assessing their association with habitat, diet,

  16. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

  17. Building collaborative communities of enquiry in educational research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Christie; Claire Cassidy; Don Skinner; Norman Coutts; Christine Sinclair; Sanna Rimpilainen; Alastair Wilson

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the concept of community of enquiry through an examination of 3 case studies: (a) a school-based community of enquiry involving pupils, teachers, and researchers; (b) a community of enquiry involving teachers from around 100 different schools in a Scottish local authority, together with policy advisers and researchers; and (c) the project team involved in the present study

  18. FAA 391 (SU2), 2012 Action Research Seminar: Food + Community

    E-print Network

    Frank, Thomas D.

    FAA 391 (SU2), 2012 Action Research Seminar: Food + Community June 11 ­ August 2 Instructors's Market, Champaign Course Description: This course is designed for undergraduate students who are interested in communitylearning and how to use community service and research to address community issues

  19. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Address Health Disparities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina B. Wallerstein; Bonnie Duran

    2006-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the past decades as an alternative research paradigm, which integrates education and social action to improve health and reduce health disparities. More than a set of research methods, CBPR is an orientation to research that focuses on relationships between academic and community partners, with principles of colearning, mutual benefit, and long-term commitment and

  20. Doing Community Research Without a Community: Creating Safe Space for Rape Survivors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Campbell; Tracy Sefl; Sharon M. Wasco; Courtney E. Ahrens

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how the values of a feminist research team influenced methodological decisions in a study of rape survivors. Building upon concepts from community psychology and urban sociology, the authors created a community-based research design that respected the emotional needs of rape survivors without sacrificing methodological rigor. We developed relationships with community members in diverse settings, such as nail

  1. Community Partners for Healthy Farming Intervention Research.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, J; Palermo, T

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of the Community Partners for Healthy Farming Intervention Research (CPHF-IR) program is to implement and evaluate existing or new interventions for reduction of agriculture-related injuries, hazards, and illnesses. Objectives include the development of active partnerships between experienced researchers, communities, workers, managers, agricultural organizations, agribusinesses, and other stakeholders. Specific intervention projects were selected by the competitive review process in response to a request for proposals. The second series of projects (funded 2000-2003) targeted: improved ergonomics for handling grapes (CA) and for small-scale berry growers (WI, IA, MI, MN), engineering controls (KY, VA, SC) and training (IN) related to tractors, private-sector financial incentives for safety (IA, NE), and reducing eye injuries in Latino farmworkers (IL, MI, FL). Partners have provided their unique resources for accessing the target population, planning, implementation, dissemination, and evaluation. They have produced useful engineering controls, educational and motivational tools, and helped build infrastructure for promoting agricultural health as essential to sustainable agriculture. Additional outcomes have included: increased interest among participants in collaborating in further research, the feasibility of Latino lay health advisors as active partners in research, and the value of process evaluation of a partnership to enhance intervention sustainability. NIOSH is utilizing the model created for Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers, a document related to earlier CPHF-IR projects, for a comparable document for construction in both English and Spanish. This program has confirmed that such partnerships can produce not only sustainable interventions but also products and models with the potential to expand farther geographically than originally anticipated and even into other sectors, e.g., for primary prevention among healthcare workers and adolescents, and to introduce public health in social studies and language classes. PMID:15931945

  2. Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

    1996-01-01

    Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

  3. Evaluation of a Lay Health Adviser Training for a Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Vanessa M.; Christopher, Suzanne; Streitz, Jana L.; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2005-01-01

    Community-based participatory research directly involves community members and community-based service providers as partners in the research process. It is especially important in Native American communities, where egregious research practices have led some communities and individuals to be wary of researchers. Messengers for Health uses a lay…

  4. Biological research on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, L. P.; Stabekis, P. D.; Teeter, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses laboratory capabilities of the SSF which permit long-term, systematic investigations into the effects of the space environment, particularly the effect of microgravity, on a range of biological specimens. The ability to manipulate gravity levels between 0 and 2.0 g makes it possible to examine gravitational effects along a continuum. Space centrifuge research is expected to lead to practical applications in areas such as aging, treating malfunctions of the body regulatory and defense mechanisms, improving agricultural production, and extending human performance.

  5. A Framework for Building Research Partnerships with First Nations Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2014-01-01

    Solutions to complex health and environmental issues experienced by First Nations communities in Canada require the adoption of collaborative modes of research. The traditional “helicopter” approach to research applied in communities has led to disenchantment on the part of First Nations people and has impeded their willingness to participate in research. University researchers have tended to develop projects without community input and to adopt short term approaches to the entire process, perhaps a reflection of granting and publication cycles and other realities of academia. Researchers often enter communities, collect data without respect for local culture, and then exit, having had little or no community interaction or consideration of how results generated could benefit communities or lead to sustainable solutions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative to the helicopter approach and is promoted here as a method to research that will meet the objectives of both First Nations and research communities. CBPR is a collaborative approach that equitably involves all partners in the research process. Although the benefits of CBPR have been recognized by segments of the University research community, there exists a need for comprehensive changes in approaches to First Nations centered research, and additional guidance to researchers on how to establish respectful and productive partnerships with First Nations communities beyond a single funded research project. This article provides a brief overview of ethical guidelines developed for researchers planning studies involving Aboriginal people as well as the historical context and principles of CBPR. A framework for building research partnerships with First Nations communities that incorporates and builds upon the guidelines and principles of CBPR is then presented. The framework was based on 10 years’ experience working with First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. The framework for research partnership is composed of five phases. They are categorized as the pre-research, community consultation, community entry, research and research dissemination phases. These phases are cyclical, non-linear and interconnected. Elements of, and opportunities for, exploration, discussion, engagement, consultation, relationship building, partnership development, community involvement, and information sharing are key components of the five phases within the framework. The phases and elements within this proposed framework have been utilized to build and implement sustainable collaborative environmental health research projects with Saskatchewan First Nations communities. PMID:24855374

  6. Incorporating community-based participatory research principles into environmental health research: challenges and lessons learned from a housing pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ponder-Brookins, Paris; Witt, Joyce; Steward, John; Greenwell, Douglas; Chew, Ginger L; Samuel, Yvette; Kennedy, Chinaro; Brown, Mary Jean

    2014-06-01

    In environmental health research, a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach can effectively involve community members, researchers, and representatives from nonprofit, academic, and governmental agencies as equal partners throughout the research process. The authors sought to use CBPR principles in a pilot study; its purpose was to investigate how green construction practices might affect indoor exposures to chemicals and biological agents. Information from this pilot informed the development of a methodology for a nationwide study of low-income urban multifamily housing. The authors describe here 1) the incorporation of CBPR principles into a pilot study comparing green vs. conventionally built urban housing, 2) the resulting implementation and reporting challenges, and 3) lessons learned and implications for increased community participation in environmental health research. PMID:24988659

  7. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1984-08-01

    This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)

  8. A Community of Practice among Educators, Researchers and Scientists for Improving Science Teaching in Southern Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros-Cohernour, Edith J.; Lopez-Avila, Maria T.; Barrera-Bustillos, Maria E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a project aimed to improve the quality of science education in Southeast Mexico by the creation of a community of practice among scientists, researchers and teachers, involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of a professional development program for mathematics, chemistry, biology and physics secondary…

  9. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Earth Science Grid Federation (ESGF); Boden, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cowley, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Dattoria, Vince [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Desai, Narayan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Egan, Rob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Foster, Ian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Goldstone, Robin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gregurick, Susan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological Systems Science Division; Houghton, John [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program; Izaurralde, Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Joseph, Renu [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Climate and Environmental Sciences Division; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Monga, Inder [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Pritchard, Matt [British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), Oxon (United Kingdom); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Strand, Gary [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Stuart, Cory [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tatusova, Tatiana [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). ESNet; Thomas, Brian [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zurawski, Jason [Internet2, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  10. Sharing Control: Developing Research Literacy through Community-Based Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juergensmeyer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests that the methodology of community-based action research provides concrete strategies for fostering effective community problem solving. To argue for a community research pedagogy, the author draws upon past and present scholarship in action research and participatory action research, experiences teaching an undergraduate…

  11. Has Modern Biology Entered the Mouth? The Clinical Impact of Biological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of biological research that are beginning to have an impact on clinical medicine are examined, including molecular biology, cell biology, and biotechnology. It is concluded that oral biologists and educators must work cooperatively to bring rapid biological and biomedical advances into dental training in a meaningful way. (MSE)

  12. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Address Social Determinants of Health: Lessons Learned from Seattle Partners for Healthy Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Krieger; Carol Allen; Allen Cheadle; Sandra Ciske; James K. Schier; Kirsten Senturia; Marianne Sullivan

    2002-01-01

    Seattle Partners for Healthy Communities (SPHC) is a multidisciplinary collaboration of community agencies, community activists, public health professionals, academics, and health providers who conduct research aimed at improving the health of urban, socioeconomically marginalized Seattle communities. SPHC uses a community-based participatory research approach to address social factors that affect the health of these communities. This article describes three SPHC projects

  13. Enacting Decolonized Methodologies: The "Doing" of Research in Educational Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Quigley, Cassie; Yazzie-Mintz, Tarajean

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous scholars have debated the impact that researchers and the act of researching have on Native and Indigenous people and communities. Although literature on this subject has grown, little has been written explicitly laying out "the doing" of research with these communities. The authors seek to articulate their "doing" by drawing upon the…

  14. Community-Based Research Partnerships: Challenges and Opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith Minkler

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of many urban health problems often makes them ill suited to traditional research approaches and interventions. The resultant frustration, together with community calls for genuine partnership in the research process, has highlighted the importance of an alternative paradigm. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is presented as a promising collaborative approach that combines systematic inquiry, participation, and action to address

  15. Interdisciplinary Communities and Research Issues in Music Information Retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Futrelle; J. Stephen Downie

    2002-01-01

    Music Information Retrieval (MIR) is an interdisciplinary research area that has grown out of the need to manage burgeoning collections of music in digital form. Its diverse disciplinary communities have yet to articulate a common research agenda or agree on methodological principles and metrics of success. In order for MIR to succeed, researchers need to work with real user communities

  16. Community involvement in HIV and tuberculosis research.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Since advent of the HIV pandemic in the 1980s, affected communities and individuals living with HIV have played key roles in leading the response to the crisis. Achievements of the HIV treatment activist movement include persuading the US Food and Drug Administration to allow expanded access to experimental treatments for those unable to enter controlled clinical trials; accelerated approval of anti-HIV drugs based on surrogate markers such as CD4 cell and HIV RNA changes; and the involvement of people with HIV and their advocates throughout the research system, including in the design, conduct, and evaluation of clinical trials. HIV treatment activists have adapted these skills to tackle tuberculosis (TB) research and programs. Considering the dearth of adequate diagnostic, treatment, and preventive interventions to control TB among people with HIV, the experiences and efforts of HIV activists are vital to accelerate research and development of new diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines to identify, cure, and prevent TB, especially among people living with HIV. Advocacy to implement World Health Organization collaborative HIV/TB activities and to reduce TB's toll among people with HIV provides a case study of how scale-up of HIV and TB programs contributes to health system strengthening. PMID:19858944

  17. A Small Grants Program to Involve Communities in Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beti Thompson; Stephanie Ondelacy; Ruby Godina; Gloria D. Coronado

    2010-01-01

    A key tenet of community-based participatory research is that communities be involved in all facets of research, from defining\\u000a the problem to identifying solutions, to assisting in the research, and to participating in the publication of results. In\\u000a this study, we instituted a small grants program for community participation. A Request for Applications (RFA) was developed\\u000a and circulated widely throughout

  18. Community-oriented support and research structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, Norbert; Eickermann, Thomas; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Coordinated by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Europe is restructuring and strengthening its high-performance computing infrastructure with the aim to create a model HPC ecosystem. At the tip of the pyramid, up to six centres are envisaged that will operate systems of the highest performance class. The HPC Research Infrastructure (HPC-RI) will comprise European, national and regional centres. Science communities are integral partners, strong links will include Grid and Cloud users. The HPC-RI strives at providing scientists all over Europe, on the one hand, with unlimited and independent access to state-of-the-art computer resources in all performance classes and, on the other hand, with a world-class pan-European competence and support network. While the hardware-oriented buildup of the infrastructure is making progress, high-quality user support and software development in the upcoming era of unprecedented parallelism and exascale on the horizon have become the imminent challenges. This has been clearly recognized by the European Commission, who will issue calls for proposals to fund petascale software development in summer 2009. Although traditional support structures are well established in Europe's major supercomputing centres, it is questionable if these structures are able to meet the challenges of the future: in general, support structures are based on cross-disciplinary computer science and mathematics teams; disciplinary computational science support usually is given in an ad-hoc, project-oriented manner. In this paper, we describe our approach to establish a suitable support structure-Simulation Laboratories (SL). SLs are currently being established at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre of the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany. While SLs are community-oriented, i.e. each SL focusses on a specific community, they are structured in a strictly interdisciplinary manner, comprising mathematicians, computer scientists and technicians along with disciplinary scientists. SLs are led by a disciplinary scientist, and representatives of the respective disciplines give guidance to its operation. This concept is proposed as a model for and might become an integral element of a future pan-European HPC support and software research structure.

  19. Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow

    MedlinePLUS

    ... major institutions across the United States and internationally. Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow ... some of NIA’s exciting findings about the basic biology of aging and points to directions for future ...

  20. Drug Discovery and Development from Marine Biology-Based Research

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Drug Discovery and Development from Marine Biology- Based Research Oceanyx Pharmaceuticals is a novel drug discovery and development company that leverages marine biology-based natural identified two lead candidates, largazole and apratoxin, as potential drug candidates for the treatment

  1. SCIENTIFIC SAMPLING IN SMALL RURAL COMMUNITY PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To adapt and modify scientific sampling appropriately in a community participatory set ting. Background: Surveys may be used in community participatory research to assess the state of a community prior to intervention, readiness to participate in an intervention, and post intervention to ...

  2. Perfect Match? Qualitative audience research and the community media sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Meadows; Susan Forde; Jacqui Ewart; Kerrie Foxwell; Christine Morris

    2005-01-01

    Griffith University researchers in 2002 presented the final results of a national survey of community radio stations. The final report 'Culture Commitment Community - The Australian Community Radio Sector' contained a wealth of information on the sector and covered many 'station-based' perspectives on issues such as localism, funding and sponsorship, Indigenous and ethnic programming and training. A key criticism of

  3. INTERDEPARTMENTAL BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES PROGRAM RAPPAPORT AWARD FOR RESEARCH EXCELLENCE

    E-print Network

    Amaral, Luis A.N.

    IBIB ii SS INTERDEPARTMENTAL BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES PROGRAM RAPPAPORT AWARD FOR RESEARCH EXCELLENCE fellowships that will be awarded at the same time as the Rappaport Award for Research Excellence? If so, list receiving the Rappaport Award for Research Excellence. Student Signature

  4. Biology of an Enzyme: A Research-Like Experience for Introductory Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towle, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of laboratory exercises designed to introduce students to a realistic experience in biological research that is feasible with large numbers of beginning biology majors. The exercises center on the study of alkaline phosphatase. (DDR)

  5. Engaging community college students in physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Megan; Napoli, Maria; Lubin, Arica; Kramer, Liu-Yen; Aguirre, Ofelia; Kuhn, Jens-Uwe; Arnold, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    Recruiting talent and fostering innovation in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) disciplines demands that we attract, educate, and retain a larger and more diverse cohort of students. In this regard, Community Colleges (CC), serving a disproportionate number of underrepresented minority, female and nontraditional students, represent a pool of potential talent that, due to a misguided perception of its students as being less capable, often remains untapped. We will present our strategies to attract and support the academic advancement of CC students in the STEM fields through our NSF-sponsored Research Experience for Undergraduates program entitled Internships in Nanosystems Science Engineering and Technology (INSET). For more than a decade, INSET has offered a physics research projects to CC students. The key components of INSET success are: 1) the involvement of CC faculty with a strong interest in promoting student success in all aspects of program planning and execution; 2) the design of activities that provide the level of support that students might need because of lack of confidence and/or unfamiliarity with a university environment; and 3) setting clear goals and high performance expectations.

  6. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  7. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K. [ed.] [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  8. Research Ethics Education for Community-Engaged Research: A Review and Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emily E.; Solomon, Stephanie; Heitman, Elizabeth; DuBois, James M.; Fisher, Celia B.; Kost, Rhonda G.; Lawless, Mary Ellen; Ramsey, Cornelia; Jones, Bonnie; Ammerman, Alice; Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2012-01-01

    Community engagement is increasingly becoming an integral part of research. “Community-engaged research” (CEnR) introduces new stakeholders as well as unique challenges to the protection of participants and the integrity of the research process. We—a group of representatives of CTSA-funded institutions and others who share expertise in research ethics and CEnR—have identified gaps in the literature regarding (1) ethical issues unique to CEnR; (2) the particular instructional needs of academic investigators, community research partners, and IRB members; and (3) best practices for teaching research ethics. This paper presents what we know, as well as what we still need to learn, in order to develop quality research ethics educational materials tailored to the full range of stakeholder groups in CEnR. PMID:22565579

  9. Decolonizing Health Research: Community-Based Participatory Research and Postcolonial Feminist Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Francine; Giles, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Within Canada, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become the dominant methodology for scholars who conduct health research with Aboriginal communities. While CBPR has become understood as a methodology that can lead to more equitable relations of power between Aboriginal community members and researchers, it is not a panacea. In…

  10. Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador Guidelines for research involving

    E-print Network

    Brownstone, Rob

    Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador 1 Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador Fern Brunger, PhD on behalf #12;Guidelines for research involving Aboriginal communities in Newfoundland and Labrador 2 Table

  11. 2013 REU Program in Systems Biology research experiences for undergraduates

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    2013 REU Program in Systems Biology research experiences for undergraduates $4,000 Stipend Research with mentor support. Research Focus The Chicago Center for Systems Biology focuses on how networks of genes interact to enable cells and organisms to respond to environmental and genetic variations. Applicants REU

  12. SUNCAT: The serials union catalogue for the UK research community 

    E-print Network

    Mulligan, Zena

    SUNCAT is the national Serials Union CATalogue for the UK research community and is available at http://www.suncat.ac.uk SUNCAT is a freely available tool to help both researchers and librarians locate serials held in ...

  13. Asking, Witnessing, Interpreting, Knowing: Conducting Qualitative Research in Community Psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine H. Stein; Eric S. Mankowski

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework to describe the process of conducting community-based qualitative research. Qualitative research activities are presented as a series of interrelated acts called asking, witnessing, interpreting, and knowing. Each act in the research process is described in terms of current qualitative research practices, and illustrated with examples from our own research projects on families with schizophrenia and men's

  14. Theoretical Trajectories within Communities of Practice in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tummons, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the role of theory in higher education research is problematised using a communities of practice framework. Drawing on a case study derived from the author's own published work and doctoral study, the article concludes that the differential uses of theory within communities of research practice can be fruitfully explored, in part,…

  15. Community Music Knowledge Exchange Research in Scottish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Nikki; Loening, Gica

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the usefulness of Knowledge Exchange (KE) funding streams for higher education community music research projects, with a case study of one particular project that took place between February and April 2010. The project was funded via a KE stream, linking University researchers with a well-established community music charity…

  16. Ethical and Professional Norms in Community-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campano, Gerald; Ghiso, María Paula; Welch, Bethany J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article Gerald Campano, María Paula Ghiso, and Bethany J. Welch explore the role of ethical and professional norms in community-based research, especially in fostering trust within contexts of cultural diversity, systemic inequity, and power asymmetry. The authors present and describe a set of guidelines for community-based research that…

  17. Exploring the Ethics of Clinical Research in an Urban Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Grady; Lindsay A. Hampson; Gwenyth R. Wallen; Migdalia V. Rivera-Goba; Kelli L. Carrington; Barbara B. Mittleman

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We consulted with representatives of an urban community in Wash- ington, DC, about the ethics of clinical research involving residents of the com- munity with limited access to health care. Methods. A semistructured community consultation was conducted with core members of the Health Partnership Program of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Three research case

  18. Practicing biology: Undergraduate laboratory research, persistence in science, and the impact of self-efficacy beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkes, Elizabeth

    As undergraduate laboratory research internships become more popular and universities devote considerable resources towards promoting them, it is important to clarify what students specifically gain through involvement in these experiences and it is important to understand their impact on the science pipeline. By examining recent findings describing the primary benefits of undergraduate research participation, along with self-efficacy theory, this study aims to provide more explanatory power to the anecdotal and descriptive accounts regarding the relationship between undergraduate research experiences and interest in continuing in science. Furthermore, this study characterizes practices that foster students' confidence in doing scientific work with detailed description and analysis of the interactions of researchers in a laboratory. Phase 1 of the study, a survey of undergraduate biology majors (n=71) at a major research university, investigates the relationships among participation in biology laboratory research internships, biology laboratory self-efficacy strength, and interest in persisting in science. Phase 2 of the study, a two-year investigation of a university biology research laboratory, investigates how scientific communities of practice develop self-efficacy beliefs. The findings suggest that participation in lab internships results in increased interest in continuing in life science/biology graduate school and careers. They also suggest that a significant proportion of that interest is related to the students' biology laboratory self-efficacy. The findings of this study point to two primary ways that undergraduate research participation might work to raise self-efficacy strength. First, university research laboratory communities can provide students with a variety of resources that scaffold them into biology laboratory mastery experiences. Second, university research laboratory communities can provide students with coping and mastery Discourse models and mentors, offering them access to and practice with the social norms of an epistemic community. This study begins to integrate what is currently known regarding student motivation through research experience, traditionally studied by program evaluations, with social learning theories. Given the role strong self-efficacy beliefs play in motivating students, understanding the kinds of social interactions that develop science self-efficacy could provide important policy guidelines for primary investigators who work with undergraduates, department chairs, and other promoters of undergraduate research in colleges and universities.

  19. Community-Based Participatory Research With Native American Communities: The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan

    2010-01-01

    Health disparities among Native Americans persist despite efforts to translate evidence-based programs from research to practice. Few evidence-based, theory-driven prevention and management interventions have been successfully translated within Native American communities. The use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) has shown promise in this process. This article provides an overview of the use of CBPR with Native American communities and discusses

  20. Community-Partnered Research Conference Model: The Experience of Community Partners in Care Study

    PubMed Central

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Pulido, Esmeralda; Ramos, Ana; Dixon, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Problem Conducting community-partnered research conferences is a powerful yet underutilized approach to translating research into practice and improving result dissemination and intervention sustainability strategies. Nonetheless, detailed descriptions of conference features and ways to use them in empirical research are rare. Purpose of Article We describe how community-partnered conferences may be integrated into research projects by using an example of Community Partners in Care, a large cluster-randomized controlled trial that uses Community Partnered Participatory Research principles. Key Points Our conceptual model illustrates the role community-partnered research conferences may play in three study phases and describes how different conference features may increase community engagement, build two-way capacity, and ensure equal project ownership. Conclusion(s) As the number of community-partnered studies grows, so too does the need for practical tools to support this work. Community-partnered research conferences may be effectively employed in translational research to increase two-way capacity-building and promote long-term intervention success. PMID:24859106

  1. Capacity building for health through community based participatory nutrition intervention research in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

  2. The need for unity in the biomedical research community.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, M

    1991-10-01

    The author provides a perspective on how basic scientists view contemporary issues of biomedical research funding by discussing five topics of concern to the biomedical research community and the need for that community to form a new consensus as the basis for new approaches to legislative efforts in Congress and communication with the public. The topics are (1) the reasons scientific societies became active in legislative efforts in Congress, (2) the reasons there was initial friction between these societies and other institutions in the biomedical research community, (3) the history of the founding of a biomedical research community, (3) the history of the founding of a biomedical research caucus in the House of Representatives, (4) the effects of the Institute of Medicine's recent report on funding health sciences research, and (5) the weakness of the present institutional coalition. The author proposes specific steps to develop a more unified approach to achieve a common biomedical research agenda. PMID:1910389

  3. Research News Engineering Microtools in Polymers to Study Cell Biology

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    Research News Engineering Microtools in Polymers to Study Cell Biology By Xingyu Jiang and George M of other cells). Much of the current understanding of the biology of cells comes from attached cell culture]. This article outlines some newly developed methods for studying cell biology with spatially well

  4. NASA's Aeronautics Research Strategy: A Reflection of Research Continuity, Strategic Analysis, and Community Dialogue

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    1 NASA's Aeronautics Research Strategy: A Reflection of Research Continuity, Strategic Analysis, and Community Dialogue Robert Pearce Director ­ Strategy, Architecture & Analysis NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate #12;"ARMD provides critical support to our nation's aeronautics research efforts

  5. Translational Research in Action: Implementation of the Communities That Care Prevention System in 12 Communities.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Abigail A; Hanson, Koren; Hawkins, J David; Arthur, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Translational research (Pentz, Jasuja, Rohrbach, Sussman, & Bardo, 2006; Woolf, 2008) is concerned with moving advances in prevention science into everyday practice in communities, yet there are few models for ensuring this transfer of knowledge. Communities That Care (CTC) provides a planned, structured, and data-driven system that trains community prevention coalitions to select evidence-based programs and replicate them with strong implementation fidelity. This paper describes the implementation of the CTC prevention system in 12 communities participating in the Community Youth Development Study.The results indicated that intervention communities enacted, on average, 90% of the core components of the CTC system, and achieved high rates of implementation fidelity when replicating school, afterschool, and parent training programs. These results held over time; communities successfully launched their prevention coalitions and programs and maintained the quality of their prevention services over five years. These results indicate that the CTC system can be used to foster translational research. PMID:22121303

  6. Community Researchers Conducting Health Disparities Research: Ethical and other insights from fieldwork journaling

    PubMed Central

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ahmed, Rashid; Daniels, Doria; Simon, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Lay persons who are trained to conduct research in their own communities form an essential part of many research projects. However, the effects of conducting research in their own communities have not been adequately explored. This paper examines the experiences, perceptions, and challenges faced by a group of community researchers during their involvement in a research project that examined if, and how, the relationships between mothers and their adolescent daughters could be harnessed to develop a daughter-initiated cervical cancer intervention. Seven community researchers interviewed 157 mother-daughter pairs in Cape Town, South Africa. We examine the use of journaling as a tool to document the experiences of community researchers, and we consider how journaling may help the community-based researcher grapple with the research process, and, more broadly, what such journal content illustrates with respect to the nature and challenges of community-engaged health research. An analysis of the content of the journals provides a strong indication of how personal and intimate the research process can be for community researchers by virtue of the background that they bring into the process as well as the additional weight of the research process itself. The complexities of navigating dual and somewhat oppositional roles – the role of impartial scientist or researcher and the role of invested community person - has been both underestimated and insufficiently researched. PMID:21680071

  7. Nitrogen Fixation and Leaching of Biological Soil Crust Communities in Mesic Temperate Soils

    E-print Network

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Microbial Ecology Nitrogen Fixation and Leaching of Biological Soil Crust Communities in Mesic, and fungi. Although crusts are a dominant source of nitrogen (N) in arid ecosystems, this study is among

  8. Nutrition research in rural communities: application of ethical principles.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mieke; Kruger, H Salomé

    2013-10-01

    This narrative review focuses on ethics related to nutrition-specific community-based research, within the framework of science for society, and focusing on the rights and well-being of fieldworkers and research participants. In addition to generally accepted conditions of scientific validity, such as adequate sample size, unbiased measurement outcome and suitable study population, research needs to be appropriate and feasible within the local context. Communities' suspicions about research can be overcome through community participation and clear dialogue. Recruitment of fieldworkers and research participants should be transparent and guided by project-specific selection criteria. Fieldworkers need to be adequately trained, their daily schedules and remuneration must be realistic, and their inputs to the study must be recognized. Fieldworkers may be negatively affected emotionally, financially and physically. Benefits to research participants may include physical and psychological benefits, minimal economic benefit, and health education; while risks may be of a physical, psychological, social, or economic nature. Targeting individuals in high-risk groups may result in social stigmatization. The time burden to the research participant can be minimized by careful attention to study procedures and questionnaire design. Potential benefits to the community, fieldworkers and research participants and anticipated knowledge to be gained should outweigh and justify the potential risks. Researchers should have an exit strategy for study participants. For effective dissemination of results to individual research participants, the host community and nutrition community, the language, format and level of presentation need to be appropriate for the target audience. PMID:22591024

  9. A Tale of Two Cultures: Building Community by Researching Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drane, Jon; Cai, Wenjie; Wechsler, Andrea; Mussi, Eveline; Shi, Ye; Crommelin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Upon beginning postgraduate research at the Faculty of Built Environment at UNSW, the authors were surprised to find themselves working in a library-like environment, where a culture of silence prevailed. Assuming initially that this was just how postgraduate research was, they soon learned that the building also housed a second postgraduate lab…

  10. State of Research for Faith Community Nursing 2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Dyess; Susan K. Chase; Kelley Newlin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the current state of research for Faith community Nursing (FCN), reviewing the related\\u000a research literature dating back to 1993. Over 20 years old, the practice of FCN is a maturing specialty practice that links\\u000a religious communities and health through professional nursing, but no review of research literature is published. The review\\u000a of the

  11. Community-based research partnerships: Challenges and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith Minkler

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of many urban health problems often makes them ill suited to traditional research approaches and interventions.\\u000a The resultant frustration, together with community calls for genuine partnership in the research process, has highlighted\\u000a the importance of an alternative paradigm. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is presented as a promising collaborative\\u000a approach that combines systematic inquiry, participation, and action to address

  12. RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center Cell Dynamics Research Core

    E-print Network

    Fukai, Tomoki

    RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center Cell Dynamics Research Core Laboratory for Cell Dynamics Design Research Core Laboratory for Synthetic Biology Laboratory for Cell-Free Protein Synthesis Observation Laboratory for Single Cell Gene Dynamics Laboratory for Cell Field Structure Laboratory for Cell

  13. RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center Cell Dynamics Research Core

    E-print Network

    Fukai, Tomoki

    RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center Cell Dynamics Research Core Laboratory for Cell Dynamics for Developmental Morphogeometry Cell Design Research Core Laboratory for Synthetic Biology Laboratory for Cell Observation Laboratory for Single Cell Gene Dynamics Laboratory for Cell Field Structure Laboratory for Cell

  14. Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery

    E-print Network

    - 1 - Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery April 3, 2012 Examining of a variety of cellular phenotypes for the purposes of basic cell biology research and drug discovery. LANL cells has never been clearer with LANL's use of acoustic waves Flow cytometry dates back to a cell

  15. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which may help scientists to find an appropriate research site for potential cooperation projects. Currently, the website is becoming revised and updated. Up to now the LRG counts 485 registered members from 54 countries. Registration is possible free of charge via www.lysimeter.at. The LRG wants to attract new members from all over the world, intensify co-operation with other research groups, and enhance and support new and innovative ideas and technologies in lysimeter research.

  16. Communities of practice and ways to learning: charting the progress of biology undergraduates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Orsmond; Stephen Merry; Arthur Callaghan

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses social learning outside of the overt curriculum. A thematic approach was used to analyse data from semi-structured interviews with 30 biological sciences students from a post-1992 university in the UK. The results indicate that: (1) students form communities of practice which function outside the formal curriculum, (2) there is a changing profile to community practice over three

  17. Spatial succession modeling of biological communities: a multi-model approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WenJun Zhang; Wu Wei

    2009-01-01

    Strong spatial correlation may exist in the spatial succession of biological communities, and the spatial succession can be\\u000a mathematically described. It was confirmed by our study on spatial succession of both plant and arthropod communities along\\u000a a linear transect of natural grassland. Both auto-correlation and cross-correlation analyses revealed that the succession\\u000a of plant and arthropod communities exhibited a significant spatial

  18. Guidelines for community based partners for reviewing research grant applications: Lessons from the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR) Community Engagement Research Core (CERC)

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Robert M; Calhoun, Karen; Choate, Celeste B; De Loney, E. Hill; Paberzs, Adam; Sampselle, Carolyn M; Vereen, Donald R; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    One of most important mandates of the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) Clinical and Translational Science Award’s (CTSA) awards is to accelerate the dissemination of scientific discoveries so that the public benefits from health related research. Carrying out that mandate requires equitable and bi-directional research partnerships with those who will use these discoveries to benefit health. The mission of the Michigan Institute for Clinical & Health Research’s (MICHR) Community Engagement & Research Core is to increase community decision-making and action for health promotion, disease prevention, and treatment by involving the community in all phases of clinical research. Some of the community partners serving on MICHR’s Community Engagement Coordinating Council (CECC) have expressed concern about reviewing university/community partner research projects. They found the scientific nature of proposals somewhat challenging. These guidelines are intended to help community partners bring to bear their unique expertise and experience in the evaluation of proposed research studies that include community partners as co-principle investigators. This paper provides an approach for ensuring the community’s voice plays an important role in reviewing pilot project proposals for community-engaged research. PMID:24330687

  19. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Disseminate a Mass Media Campaign Into Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Garney, Whitney R; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Clark, Heather R; Drake, Kelly N; Wendel, Monica L; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Castle, Billie F; Ingram, Coya M; Jackson, Vicky; Shaw, Robert L

    2015-07-01

    The authors present the results of a media documentary, Weight of the Nation, disseminated in rural communities in the Brazos Valley region of east central Texas. Researchers relied on a community-based participatory research strategy to assure community participation in the implementation and evaluation of the media documentary in rural communities. To measure the short-term effects of the documentary, the research team used a mixed-methods approach of quantitative panel data from a pre/post survey, qualitative meeting notes, and observations from facilitated discussion groups. Results showed short-term increases in behavioral intention, as well as an increase in self and collective efficacy of participants to make healthy changes at individual and community levels to reduce obesity. The findings suggest that Weight of the Nation is a catalyst for increasing awareness about obesity and initiating changes in intention and efficacy perceptions. PMID:25962104

  20. Community Engagement and Boundary-Spanning Roles at Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David J.; Sandmann, Lorilee R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, community engagement has emerged as an important priority among many colleges and universities. This study employs a multi-case study design to examine boundary spanning practices of research universities that have adopted a community engagement agenda. A model is advanced to conceptualize spanning behaviors and to inform…

  1. Developing Effective Social Work University-Community Research Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begun, Audrey L.; Berger, Lisa K.; Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Rose, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    In many instances, departments of social work in universities and community-based social services agencies have common interests in improving professional practice and advancing knowledge in the profession. Effective university-community research collaborations can help partners achieve these goals jointly, but to be effective these collaborative…

  2. Community-based research and leisure scholarship: a discernment process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peggy Hutchison; John Lord

    2012-01-01

    Many communities are realizing the importance of becoming more responsive and welcoming in light of the many local and global challenges facing them. Approaches to epistemology that are more participatory in nature may play a role in this social change process. Community-based research (CBR) is known for its ability to be both participatory and action-oriented and represents a paradigm shift

  3. Community-Based Participatory Research for Improved Mental Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Smikowski; Sarah Dewane; Mark E. Johnson; Christiane Brems; Catherine Bruss; Laura Weiss Roberts

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) focuses on specific community needs, and produces results that directly address those needs. Although conducting ethical CBPR is critical to its success, few academic programs include this training in their curricula. This article describes the development and evaluation of an online training course designed to increase the use of CBPR in mental health disciplines. Developed using

  4. RESEARCH ARTICLE Local and landscape effects on the butterfly community

    E-print Network

    Debinski, Diane M.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Local and landscape effects on the butterfly community in fragmented Midwest USA matrix, potentially impermeable to dis- persing individuals. We examined butterfly responses to local and configuration of the landscape affects butterfly community within the fragment, 2) determine whether explanatory

  5. Research on the Impact of HBCUs on African American Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Ralph; Davis, Ronnie

    2008-01-01

    The authors conducted a formal research study to investigate the perceptions of faculty, staff, and community residents regarding town-gown relationships and the sustainability of African American communities as related to educational benefits, home ownership, employment and job training, earning potential, and graduation rates.

  6. Participatory Research for Chronic Disease Prevention in Inuit Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Kratzmann, Meredith; Reid, Rhonda; Ogina, Julia; Sharma, Sangita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop a community-based chronic disease prevention program for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. Methods: Stakeholders contributed to intervention development through formative research [in-depth interviews (n = 45), dietary recalls (n = 42)], community workshops, group feedback and implementation training. Results: Key cultural themes…

  7. Research Article Microbial Community Structures of Novel Icelandic Hot

    E-print Network

    Low, Steven H.

    Research Article Microbial Community Structures of Novel Icelandic Hot Spring Systems Revealed community profiles of recently formed hot spring systems ranging in temperatures from 57°C to 100°C and p revealed distinct bacterial and archaeal diversity in geographically distinct hot springs. Slight

  8. Principles Relevant to Health Research among Indigenous Communities

    PubMed Central

    O’Donahoo, Francis J.; Ross, Kirstin E.

    2015-01-01

    Research within Indigenous communities has been criticised for lacking community engagement, for being exploitative, and for poorly explaining the processes of research. To address these concerns, and to ensure ‘best practice’, Jamieson, et al. (2012) recently published a summary of principles outlined by the NHMRC (2003) in “one short, accessible document”. Here we expand on Jamieson et al.’s paper, which while commendable, lacks emphasis on the contribution that communities themselves can make to the research process and how culturally appropriate engagement, can allow this contribution to be assured, specifically with respect to engagement with remote communities. Engagement started before the research proposal is put forward, and continued after the research is completed, has integrity. We emphasise the value of narratives, of understanding cultural and customary behaviours and leadership, the importance of cultural legitimacy, and of the need for time, not just to allow for delays, but to ensure genuine participatory engagement from all members of the community. We also challenge researchers to consider the outcomes of their research, on the basis that increasing clinical evidence does not always result in better outcomes for the community involved. PMID:25996884

  9. Research Students and Community Development: The Challenges of Integrating Academic Expectations with Community Needs and Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, Michael; Nicholls, Ruth; Roffey, Christopher; Rogers, Dallas

    2008-01-01

    While universities can play a major role in advancing research-based community development, academic discourses of rigor, quality and ethics often conflict with the participatory and collaborative approaches required by community development principles. While experienced academics often have difficulty negotiating these issues, they present…

  10. Community-Based Research and Participatory Change: A Strategic, Multi-Method Community Impact Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa L. Córdova

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a community impact assessment that was triggered by a proposed land development project that had the potential to dramatically change the social fabric and quality of life in a neighborhood whose history dated back several generations. Developers of the project never asked, “How would this project impact the surrounding neighborhood?” Community planning faculty and student researchers embarked

  11. Community dissemination and genetic research: Moving beyond results reporting.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Susan Brown; Ludman, Evette J; Hopkins, Scarlett; James, Rosalina D; Hoeft, Theresa J; Kinegak, Annie; Lupie, Henry; Kinegak, Ralph; Boyer, Bert B; Burke, Wylie

    2015-07-01

    The community-based participatory research (CBPR) literature notes that researchers should share study results with communities. In the case of human genetic research, results may be scientifically interesting but lack clinical relevance. The goals of this study were to learn what kinds of information community members want to receive about genetic research and how such information should be conveyed. We conducted eight focus group discussions with Yup'ik Alaska Native people in southwest Alaska (N?=?60) and 6 (N?=?61) with members of a large health maintenance organization in Seattle, Washington. Participants wanted to receive genetic information they "could do something about" and wanted clinically actionable information to be shared with their healthcare providers; they also wanted researchers to share knowledge about other topics of importance to the community. Although Alaska Native participants were generally less familiar with western scientific terms and less interested in web-based information sources, the main findings were the same in Alaska and Seattle: participants wished for ongoing dialogue, including opportunities for informal, small-group conversations, and receiving information that had local relevance. Effective community dissemination is more than a matter of presenting study results in lay language. Community members should be involved in both defining culturally appropriate communication strategies and in determining which information should be shared. Reframing dissemination as a two-way dialogue, rather than a one-way broadcast, supports the twin aims of advancing scientific knowledge and achieving community benefit. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25900516

  12. LECTURE PRESENTATION Open Access Networking the Leishmania research community

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LECTURE PRESENTATION Open Access Networking the Leishmania research community for the development uses a highly interdisciplinary approach to reveal Leishmania signaling molecules associated to exploit the Leishmania kinome for anti-parasitic drug development. The consortium is based on three

  13. Research-based communities of practice in UK higher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lai Ling Ng; Jon Pemberton

    2012-01-01

    Research is an integral element of the work of higher education institutions, underpinning not only academics' responsibilities in developing intellectual skills and personal reputations, but contributing to the status of an organisation. Whilst formalised approaches are adopted for developing research, there is a growing trend towards informal groupings or communities of practice. This research, based on interviews with members of

  14. The Early Childhood Teacher's Voice in the Research Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Carol R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines early childhood teachers' perspectives on research and presents ways and reasons for early childhood teachers to become more active in the research community. Discusses the value of systematic inquiry into one's own classroom and identifies historical support. Presents examples of partnership research using a video camera as a data…

  15. Biomedical Research Advisory Group: Critical Areas of Research Chemical Biology/Pharmacology/Therapeutics White Paper

    E-print Network

    Goodrich, Lisa V.

    1 Biomedical Research Advisory Group: Critical Areas of Research Chemical Biology/Pharmacology/Therapeutics White Paper Executive Summary The related areas of chemical biology, pharmacology, and therapeutics. There are major strengths in these areas at Harvard on which to build, particularly in basic biology and clinical

  16. Critical Contexts for Biomedical Research in a Native American Community: Health Care, History, and Community Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahota, Puneet Chawla

    2012-01-01

    Native Americans have been underrepresented in previous studies of biomedical research participants. This paper reports a qualitative interview study of Native Americans' perspectives on biomedical research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 53 members of a Southwest tribal community. Many interviewees viewed biomedical research studies as a…

  17. The Social Justice Implications for Community Engaged Research: Whose Research Agenda? and My Relationship with the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, N. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    This 2010 winner of the Ernest A. Lynton Award examines two social justice themes that have emerged in his community-engaged work. He argues that the traditional model of the development of the scholars' research agenda is one that can promote and maintain the academy-community hierarchy and that the scholars' social identities play an important…

  18. A Small Grants Program to Involve Communities in Research

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Beti; Ondelacy, Stephanie; Godina, Ruby; Coronado, Gloria D.

    2010-01-01

    A key tenet of community-based participatory research is that communities be involved in all facets of research, from defining the problem to identifying solutions, to assisting in the research, and to participating in the publication of results. In this study, we instituted a small grants program for community participation. A Request for Applications (RFA) was developed and circulated widely throughout the Valley. The RFA sought proposals to address health disparities in cancer education, prevention, and treatment among Hispanics living in the Valley. Funds available were $2,500.00–3,500.00 for 1 year’s worth of work. To help evaluate the progress of the RFA community projects according to the perspectives of the Community Advisory Board (CAB), an open-ended, semi-structured interview was created and administered by a former staff member to CAB members. In 4 years, ten small grants proposed by community members were funded. Funds allocated totaled approximately $25,000. Interviews with CAB members indicated that the RFA program was perceived positively, but there were concerns about sustainability. Our community grants program resulted in the implementation of several novel cancer prevention programs conducted by a variety of community organizations in the Lower Yakima Valley. PMID:20146091

  19. Affinity Propagation on Identifying Communities in Social and Biological Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Caiyan; Jiang, Yawen; Yu, Jian

    Community structure is one of the most important features of complex networks, it uncovers the internal organization of the nodes. Affinity propagation (AP) is a recent proposed powerful cluster algorithm as it costs much less time and reaches much lower error. But it was shown that AP displayed severe convergence problems for identifying communities on the majority of unweighted protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. On the contrary, AP was shown to achieve great success for identifying communities in benchmark artificial and social networks. So, in this study, we use AP to identify communities on artificial, social and unweighted PPI networks for finding the problem of the conflict. And we compare AP with Markov cluster (MCL), which was shown to outperform a number of clustering algorithms for PPI networks. The experimental results have shown that AP performs well without oscillations when similarity matrixes are chosen properly, and MCL is more accurate than AP but it runs slower than AP in large scale networks.

  20. Reproductive biology in the Oneida Community, 1848-1880.

    PubMed

    Wylie, B

    1972-01-01

    The Oneida Community -- a communistic settlement that originated in 1848 and was located in central New York State -- made medical history in the areas of birth control, sexuality, and selective breeding. The perfectionist theology of the Community's leader, John Humphrey Noyes, held that the 2nd coming of Christ had already occurred, that true believers had already been "saved," and that he had been designated as an agent of God to proclaim "Heaven on Earth." This spiritual condition involved freedom from sin, universal love, community property, and total unselfishness. All members of the Community were in effect married to all other members, in that Heaven "they neither marry, nor are given in marriage." "Complex marriage" was the term used for this sexual relationship. Some method of birth control was essential as a corollary of complex marriage. Noyes introduced as his "invention" a principle which he termed "male continence," meaning that the man voluntarily avoided a sexual climax. Noyes published pamphlets on the subject of "male continence" and suggested methods for its achievement. From a practical perspective, the successful application of male continence required some special considerations. In the Community, women were accepted on a par with men and were free to either choose or refuse intercourse with any man, as long as there was no "special love" involved. 20 years following its founding, Noyes believed that the Community was economically ready to have children, and during the following ten years 58 children were born. 45 of these were the result of selective breeding. PMID:12336631

  1. Electrical and chemical sensors for biological cell research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Edell; V. M. McNeil; M. G. Curley; J. H. Wolfe

    1986-01-01

    Electrical and chemical microsensors for biological cell research allow for the continuous study of biological systems under normal physiological conditions. Two sensor technologies which take most advantage of microfabrication technology are discussed. One is being developed for monitoring the environment of cancer cells during radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia treatment. Of current interest is the measurement of temperature and interstitial free

  2. Perceived impact of human subjects protection training on community partners in community based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nancy C.; Wieland, Mark L.; Weis, Jennifer A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Human subject protection training (HSPT) is a requirement of Institutional Review Boards for individuals who engage in research. The lack of HSPT among community partners may contribute to power imbalance between community and academic members of community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. The Rochester Healthy Community Partnership (RHCP) is an established CBPR partnership in Minnesota who works primarily with immigrant and refugee populations. Objective To describe the implementation and evaluation of HSPT among community members of a CBPR partnership. Methods Seven community partners participated in HSPT through adaptation of an existing institutional program. Evaluation of program acceptability was measured through a 5-item survey (5-point Likert scales). A focus group with all 7 participants was conducted to evaluate impact of training on perceptions of research, characteristics of a successful program, and potential value of training to CBPR partnerships. Coding and inductive analysis were done on the transcript with NVIVO-9 software. Results The HSPT program was highly acceptable (mean score= 4.5 ± 0.2). Focus groups revealed that training implementation should be done as a cohesive group with the opportunity to discuss concepts as they pertain to partnership projects. Training fostered an encouraging and safe environment, accommodated diverse learning styles, and promoted interaction. Participants reported improved trust in research as a result of the training. Perceived impact of the training on the CBPR partnership included improved transparency and enhanced camaraderie while establishing essential knowledge required for community leaders. Conclusions HSPT is feasible among community members of a CBPR partnership, and may improve perceptions of research while strengthening capacity of partnerships to impact community health. PMID:25152106

  3. Hydrogeomorphology explains acidification-driven variation in aquatic biological communities in the Neversink Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harpold, Adrian A.; Burns, Douglas A.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2013-01-01

    Describing the distribution of aquatic habitats and the health of biological communities can be costly and time-consuming; therefore, simple, inexpensive methods to scale observations of aquatic biota to watersheds that lack data would be useful. In this study, we explored the potential of a simple “hydrogeomorphic” model to predict the effects of acid deposition on macroinvertebrate, fish, and diatom communities in 28 sub-watersheds of the 176-km2 Neversink River basin in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The empirical model was originally developed to predict stream-water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) using the watershed slope and drainage density. Because ANC is known to be strongly related to aquatic biological communities in the Neversink, we speculated that the model might correlate well with biotic indicators of ANC response. The hydrogeomorphic model was strongly correlated to several measures of macroinvertebrate and fish community richness and density, but less strongly correlated to diatom acid tolerance. The model was also strongly correlated to biological communities in 18 sub-watersheds independent of the model development, with the linear correlation capturing the strongly acidic nature of small upland watersheds (2). Overall, we demonstrated the applicability of geospatial data sets and a simple hydrogeomorphic model for estimating aquatic biological communities in areas with stream-water acidification, allowing estimates where no direct field observations are available. Similar modeling approaches have the potential to complement or refine expensive and time-consuming measurements of aquatic biota populations and to aid in regional assessments of aquatic health.

  4. The perspectives of nonscience-major students on success in community college biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim-Rajab, Oriana Sharon

    With more than 36% of nonscience-major community college students unable to successfully complete their general life science courses, graduation and transfer rates to four-year universities are negatively affected. Many students also miss important opportunities to gain some level of science proficiency. In an effort to address the problem of poor science achievement, this research project determined which factors were most significantly related to student success in a community college biology course. It also aimed to understand the student perspectives on which modifications to the course would best help them in the pursuit of success. Drawing heavily on the educational psychology schools of thought on motivation and self-efficacy of science learning, this study surveyed and interviewed students on their perceptions of which factors were related to success in biology and the changes they believed were needed in the course structure to improve success. The data revealed that the primary factors related to student success are the students' study skills and their perceived levels of self-efficacy. The findings also uncovered the critical nature of the professor's role in influencing the success of the students. After assessing the needs of the community college population, meaningful and appropriate curriculum and pedagogical reforms could be created to improve student learning outcomes. This study offered recommendations for reforms that can be used by science practitioners to provide a more nurturing and inspiring environment for all students. These suggestions revolved around the role of the instructor in influencing the self-efficacy and study skills of students. Providing more opportunities for students to interact in class, testing more frequently, establishing peer assistance programs, managing better the course material, and making themselves more available to students were at the forefront of the list. Examples of the potential benefits of increasing community college science success rates include improvement of student transfer rates and better preparation for employment. Because of the increasing importance of science in this modern age, improving science success rates can also have long-lasting positive effects on students' abilities to make decisions about their health, the economy, and to be productive citizens within our science-oriented society.

  5. Overcoming barriers to research in a Magnet community hospital.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Melanie; Turkel, Marian; Cashy, John

    2008-01-01

    This study describes barriers perceived by nurses to the implementation of research findings in a community hospital. The BARRIERS to Research Utilization Scale was distributed to 1100 registered nurses. Items related to characteristics of the organization, including lack of time and practice authority, were perceived as the greatest barriers. Results of this study are useful for determining strategies to facilitate clinical nursing research and integrate research findings in the practice setting. PMID:18806648

  6. STEMdex: A Searchable Database of Education Research for Our Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkworth, Carolyn; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Bartolone, L.; Llamas, J.; Crane, M.; Martin, A.; Wenger, M.; Squires, G. K.; Hurt, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    STEMdex is a new resource for the astronomy Education and Outreach community, designed to improve our community’s knowledge of the published literature pertinent to our work. While we all understand that it is important to base our practice on sound research, there are currently 801 peer-reviewed education journals in existence, and members of our community are hard pressed to cover all the published literature. STEMdex consolidates the research relevant to EPO work into a single searchable database, with summaries written by astronomy educators and posted for the entire community to use. The database will ultimately include research across the spectrum of astronomy education, including formal and informal education, outreach, grades K-16, pedagogy, evaluation and many other topics. The site is currently under development, but we have had significant interest from the community, and have a team of 19 EPO professionals and community volunteers from 14 different institutions signed up to contribute to the project. The STEMdex site can be found at stemdex.ipac.caltech.edu.

  7. Saliva assays in clinical and research biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Lac

    2001-01-01

    This paper is an update of the current knowledges about saliva components whose assays are of biological interest and have been validated. It begins by a recall of saliva physiology: role, flow rate, main components and their mode of entry into saliva. Infectious agents and their markers are not reviewed. Peptidic molecules (catecholamines, short hormonal peptides), lipids, minerals (Na, K,

  8. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) as a model system in community, landscape and ecosystem ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Eldridge, David; Belnap, Jayne; Castillo-Monroy, Andrea; Escolar, Cristina; Soliveres, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Model systems have had a profound influence on the development of ecological theory and general principles. Compared to alternatives, the most effective models share some combination of the following characteristics: simpler, smaller, faster, general, idiosyncratic or manipulable. We argue that biological soil crusts (biocrusts) have unique combinations of these features that should be more widely exploited in community, landscape and ecosystem ecology. In community ecology, biocrusts are elucidating the importance of biodiversity and spatial pattern for maintaining ecosystem multifunctionality due to their manipulability in experiments. Due to idiosyncrasies in their modes of facilitation and competition, biocrusts have led to new models on the interplay between environmental stress and biotic interactions and on the maintenance of biodiversity by competitive processes. Biocrusts are perhaps one of the best examples of micro-landscapes—real landscapes that are small in size. Although they exhibit varying patch heterogeneity, aggregation, connectivity and fragmentation, like macro-landscapes, they are also compatible with well-replicated experiments (unlike macro-landscapes). In ecosystem ecology, a number of studies are imposing small-scale, low cost manipulations of global change or state factors in biocrust micro-landscapes. The versatility of biocrusts to inform such disparate lines of inquiry suggests that they are an especially useful model system that can enable researchers to see ecological principles more clearly and quickly.

  9. ReseaRch at the University of Maryland Bioinformatics: Computational Analysis of Biological Information

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    ReseaRch at the University of Maryland Bioinformatics: Computational Analysis of Biological Information Bioinformatics--the use of advanced computational techniques for biological research's Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (CBCB) is at the forefront of bioinformatics research

  10. VIMS Molluscan Ecology Oyster Reef Community Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site describes the Molluscan Ecology research program at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS). Research projects investigate cephalopods, coastal habitats, hard clams, oysters, and rapa whelks. Background information is given regarding the history of the research, including management efforts and associated publications. Maps of restoration areas are available in addition to information about molluscan educational materials (including instructional publications and cds). Fees apply for cds.

  11. The Latin American Mössbauer research community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, John G.

    1994-12-01

    Interest in Mössbauer spectroscopy among the Latin American countries has increased in the last five years. Two-thirds of the published research is coming from the Mössbauer research groups in Brazil. Other Latin American countries with active Mössbauer research include Argentina, Chile, Columbia, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. In recent years, the area having the most interest has been the investigation of minerals and high temperature superconductors.

  12. Ethics of Health Research in Communities: Perspectives From the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Robert L.; Willging, Cathleen E.; Quintero, Gilbert; Kalishman, Summers; Sussman, Andrew L.; Freeman, William L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The increasing attention paid to community-based research highlights the question of whether human research protections focused on the individual are adequate to safeguard communities. We conducted a study to explore how community members perceive low-risk health research, the adequacy of human research protection processes, and the ethical conduct of community-based research. METHODS Eighteen focus groups were conducted among rural and urban Hispanic and Native American communities in New Mexico using a semistructured guide. Group transcriptions were analyzed using iterative readings and coding, with review of the analytic summary by group members. RESULTS Although participants recognized the value of health research, many also identified several adverse effects of research in their communities, including social (community and individual labeling, stigmatization, and discrimination) and economic (community job losses, increased insurance rates, and loss of community income). A lack of community beneficence was emphasized by participants who spoke of researchers who fail to communicate results adequately or assist with follow-through. Many group members did not believe current human research and data privacy processes were adequate to protect or assist communities. CONCLUSIONS Ethical review of community-based health research should apply the Belmont principles to communities. Researchers should adopt additional approaches to community-based research by engaging communities as active partners throughout the research process, focusing on community priorities, and taking extra precautions to assure individual and community privacy. Plans for meaningful dissemination of results to communities should be part of the research design. PMID:20843885

  13. Ethical Issues Affecting Human Participants in Community College Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtz, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demand of constituents to conduct analyses in order to help inform the decision-making process has led to the need for Institutional Research (IR) guidelines for community college educators. One method of maintaining the quality of research conducted by IR staff is to include professional development about ethics. This article…

  14. Social Research and the Black Community: Selected Issues and Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E., Ed.

    This volume is comprised of selected papers which were presented at a workshop sponsored by the Institute for Urban Affairs and Research, Howard University, Washington, D.C. Part 1 of the volume presents an overview of the functional significance of social research in the black community. The four papers in this section deal with issues such as…

  15. Challenges of Introducing Participant Observation to Community Health Research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Participant observation elicits unique observation data from both an insider's and an outsider's perspectives. Despite the growing tendency to adopt participant observation strategies in health care research regarding health-related beliefs and types of behavior, the use of participant observation in current research is mostly limited to structured clinical settings rather than community settings. In this paper, we describe how we use participant observation in a community health research study with Chinese-born immigrant women. We document discrepancies between these women's beliefs and types of behavior regarding health and health promotion. We further discuss the ethnical, time, and setting challenges in community health research using participant observation. Possible solutions are also discussed. PMID:24527223

  16. Literacy in Indigenous Communities. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Broekhuizen, L. David

    In this research synthesis, notions of literacy from a variety of inclusive rather than exclusive perspectives are presented. Notions of national literacies, mother-tongue literacies, multiple literacies, and bi-literacies are explored. Information and research pertaining to threatened languages, language shift, and language loss is presented,…

  17. Vision and Change in the Biology Community: Snapshots of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasaly, Helen L.; Feser, Jason; Lettrich, Matthew D.; Correa, Kevin; Denniston, Katherine J.

    2014-01-01

    When the authors were first invited to write these columns, the editors felt it would be an interesting way to give the readers of "CBE - Life Sciences Education" an agency's-eye view of its concerns, workings, and accomplishments. This column is written with that charge in mind. It is intended to inform the community about outreach…

  18. Developing a Bidirectional Academic–Community Partnership with an Appalachian-American Community for Environmental Health Research and Risk Communication

    PubMed Central

    Beidler, Caroline; Wittberg, Richard; Meloncon, Lisa; Parin, Megan; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Succop, Paul; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Marietta, Ohio, is an Appalachian-American community whose residents have long struggled with understanding their exposure to airborne manganese (Mn). Although community engagement in research is strongly endorsed by the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in particular, little has been documented demonstrating how an academic–community partnership that implements the community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles can be created and mobilized for research. Objectives: We created a bidirectional, academic–community partnership with an Appalachian-American community to a) identify the community’s thoughts and perceptions about local air quality, its effect on health, and the perception of risk communication sources and b) jointly develop and conduct environmental health research. Methods: We formed a community advisory board (CAB), jointly conducted pilot research studies, and used the results to develop a community-driven research agenda. Results: Persons in the community were “very concerned” to “concerned” about local air quality (91%) and perceived the air quality to have a direct impact on their health and on their children’s health (93% and 94%, respectively). The CAB identified the primary research question: “Does Mn affect the cognition and behavior of children?” Although the community members perceived research scientists as the most trusted and knowledgeable regarding risks from industrial emissions, they received very little risk information from research scientists. Conclusions: Engaging a community in environmental health research from its onset enhanced the quality and relevance of the research investigation. The CBPR principles were a useful framework in building a strong academic–community partnership. Because of the current disconnect between communities and research scientists, academic researchers should consider working collaboratively with community-based risk communication sources. PMID:21680278

  19. Community-Based Review of Research Across Diverse Community Contexts: Key Characteristics, Critical Issues, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Shore, Nancy; Ford, Angela; Wat, Eric; Brayboy, Missy; Isaacs, Mei-Ling; Park, Alice; Strelnick, Hal; Seifer, Sarena D

    2015-07-01

    A growing number of community-based organizations and community-academic partnerships are implementing processes to determine whether and how health research is conducted in their communities. These community-based research review processes (CRPs) can provide individual and community-level ethics protections, enhance the cultural relevance of study designs and competence of researchers, build community and academic research capacity, and shape research agendas that benefit diverse communities. To better understand how they are organized and function, representatives of 9 CRPs from across the United States convened in 2012 for a working meeting. In this article, we articulated and analyzed the models presented, offered guidance to communities that seek to establish a CRP, and made recommendations for future research, practice, and policy. PMID:25973834

  20. TWiCE Undergraduate Experience in Research and Community Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bair, Bettina

    TWiCE, The Women in Computer Engineering, is a project that has proved effective in the retention of women in an undergraduate computer science engineering program. Members of TWiCE apply their developing knowledge to community service and serve as role models for their communities. Research suggests that female students "are likely to report choosing a major that will make it possible for them to 'help people.'â?ť

  1. Participatory research supporting community-based fishery management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie Wiber; Fikret Berkes; Anthony Charles; John Kearney

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a project to engage researchers and fishers together in adapting social science approaches to the purposes and the constraints of community-based fisher organizations. The work was carried out in the Scotia–Fundy Region of Atlantic Canada (the Bay of Fundy and Scotian Shelf). Its rationale reflects arguments that (1) effective community-based management requires that managers are able

  2. The Blue Highway Engaging Community in Research

    E-print Network

    Carmichael, Owen

    the Causeway: A Center for Healthcare Policy and Research Symposium UC Davis Center for Healthcare Policy updated and distributed. · fundamental questions about how to implement these recommendations in primary

  3. Methods for ecological monitoring: Biological interactions in a rocky subtidal community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, H.

    1980-03-01

    Whilst both abiotic and biotic factors affect communities, biological interactions are widely believed to be the most important factors structuring subtidal communities. Among the potential biological interactions a few “key ” species may regulate species fluctuations. A rocky subtidal community in the Oslofjord (Norway) has been investigated using stereophotography, field experiments and manipulations (settlement plates, scraping, cages). The purpose was to develop a method for biological monitoring of chronic pollution effects. Around 60 species were identified in the community. The most permanent occupants were Lithothamnion sp. (25 30% cover) and Pomatoceros triqueter (ca. 20% cover). The most important fluctuation was induced by the rapid growth of the hydroid Laomedea longissima to a 100% cover in June and its rapid disappearance. Free space covered more than 30% except in the period with large hydroid occurrence. The most active settlement period was in summer and autumn. The most important predators observed were Coryphella sp., Asterias rubens and Pasmmechinus miliaris. Coryphella grazed upon the hydroids and Asterias and Psammechinus foraged on settled organisms which resulted in an increase of free space. Predation and recruitment in that order are probably the two most important factors structuring the studied community. The “key ” species were therefore the three predators. A monitoring programme should concentrate on these predators and their influence on the success of recruitment and the abundance of hydroids and free space, since these species control the natural fluctuations in the studied community. The stereophotographic method combined with simple settlement-plate experiments seems suitable for such a monitoring programme.

  4. Plant seeds in biological research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. T.

    1982-01-01

    Data of 15 years of space flight and laboratory tests of plant seeds of 20 species, mainly on the combined and separate effects of launch vibration, ionizing radiation and weightlessness, are surveyed. It is concluded that plants do not show a pronounced response to space flight factors. Conditions of return to Earth, the number of heavy cosmic ray particles striking biological targets and effects of change in magnetic an electromagnetic fields have been little studied, and that more study of growing plants in space is needed.

  5. Assessing soil biological characteristics: a comparison of bulk soil community DNA, PLFA-, and Biolog™analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Widmer; A. Fließbach; E. Laczkó; J. Schulze-Aurich; J. Zeyer

    2001-01-01

    Soil microbiological analyses may serve as a means for assessing soil characteristics. Standard microbiological culture-techniques, however, leave over 90% of the microorganisms in the environment unaccounted for. Several more recently developed analytical techniques such as DNA, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and community level substrate utilization (CLSU) fingerprints allow for more detailed analyses of soil microbial communities. We applied analyses of

  6. Applying indigenous community-based participatory research principles to partnership development in health disparities research.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Suzanne; Saha, Robin; Lachapelle, Paul; Jennings, Derek; Colclough, Yoshiko; Cooper, Clarice; Cummins, Crescentia; Eggers, Margaret J; Fourstar, Kris; Harris, Kari; Kuntz, Sandra W; Lafromboise, Victoria; Laveaux, Deborah; McDonald, Tracie; Bird, James Real; Rink, Elizabeth; Webster, Lennie

    2011-01-01

    This case study of community and university research partnerships utilizes previously developed principles for conducting research in the context of Native American communities to consider how partners understand and apply the principles in developing community-based participatory research partnerships to reduce health disparities. The 7 partnership projects are coordinated through a National Institutes of Health-funded center and involve a variety of tribal members, including both health care professionals and lay persons and native and nonnative university researchers. This article provides detailed examples of how these principles are applied to the projects and discusses the overarching and interrelated emergent themes of sharing power and building trust. PMID:21633218

  7. Developing effective social work university-community research collaborations.

    PubMed

    Begun, Audrey L; Berger, Lisa K; Otto-Salaj, Laura L; Rose, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    In many instances, departments of social work in universities and community-based social services agencies have common interests in improving professional practice and advancing knowledge in the profession. Effective university-community research collaborations can help partners achieve these goals jointly, but to be effective these collaborative partnerships require considerable effort and understanding by all partners involved. This article provides to novice investigators and social work agencies new to research partnerships an integrated discussion of important issues to develop the groundwork necessary for building and maintaining effective university-community social work collaborations. Through experience gained from a series of social work research partnerships, as well as an overview of relevant literature, the authors offer a set of strategies for building and sustaining research collaborations between university and community-based social work professionals. The general topics discussed are technology exchange, adopting a longitudinal perspective, knowing your partners, and practical contracting/budgetary issues. The article has relevance to beginning social work researchers, social work educators, and social work practitioners seeking to engage in collaborative partnerships that improve social work practice through research and advance the knowledge base of the profession. PMID:20069941

  8. ANTARCTIC SEA ICE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES, INTERACTIONS, AND VARIABILITY ANTARCTIC RESEARCH SERIES, VOLUME 73, PAGES 45-83

    E-print Network

    Moline, Mark

    --../ ANTARCTIC SEA ICE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES, INTERACTIONS, AND VARIABILITY ANTARCTIC RESEARCH on in situ sea ice communities over larger time and space scales. Much better knowledge of UV optics (especially scalar irradiances) within sea ice is required and the magnitude and sources of variability in UV

  9. Zoo Biology 27:470487 (2008) RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Timberlake, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Zoo Biology 27:470­487 (2008) RESEARCH ARTICLE Mutual Benefits of Research Collaborations Between Zoos and Academic Institutions Eduardo J. Fernandez,Ă and William TimberlakeĂ Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana Zoos focus on welfare, conservation

  10. Subject Didactic Studies of Research Training in Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lybeck, Leif

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and design of a 3-year study of research training and supervision in biology and physics are discussed. Scientific problems arising from work on the thesis will be a focus for the postgraduate students and their supervisors. Attention will be focused on supervisors' and students' conceptions of science, subject range, research,…

  11. International Research: Its Role in Environmental Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginson, John

    1970-01-01

    Proposes an international research laboratory to investigate environmental factors in human health. By international cooperation unnecessary duplication and waste of resources can be avoided and long-term studies can examine various world-wide environments. (JM)

  12. A Bridge Between Communities: Video-making using principles of community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Vivian; Israel, Barbara; Allen, Alex J; DeCarlo, Maggie Floyd; Lichtenstein, Richard; Schulz, Amy; Bayer, Irene S; McGranaghan, Robert

    2004-10-01

    Health educators can play a critical role in bringing together the partners and resources to successfully make videos using principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). This article is a "how-to" guide for making videos using community-based participatory research principles. The authors describe video-making and CBPR, then outline six steps on how to make a video using principles of CBPR: (a) engaging stakeholders, (b) soliciting funding and informed consent, (c) creation of shared ownership, (d) building cross-cultural collaborations, (e) writing the script together, and (f) pulling it all together: editing and music selection. Still photographs and key themes from the video A Bridge Between Communities are presented as a running case study to illustrate these steps. The article concludes with implications for health promotion research and practice. PMID:15358912

  13. Nicotine Anonymous: Community Resource and Research Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Lichtenstein

    1999-01-01

    There are now over 450 active Nicotine Anonymous meetings (groups) in the United States. The origins and current status of Nicotine Anonymous are described, and some comparisons are drawn with Alcoholics Anonymous. Several research issues are identified including determination of what kinds of smokers are attracted to,stick with, and benefit from Nicotine Anonymous; describing patterns of utilization; and the degree

  14. Developing a Community of Research Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Rowena

    2012-01-01

    Writing journal articles is essential for academics and professionals to develop their ideas, make an impact in their fields and progress in their careers. Research assessment makes successful performance in this form of writing even more important. This article describes a course on writing journal articles and draws on interviews with…

  15. openBIS: a flexible framework for managing and analyzing complex data in biology research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Modern data generation techniques used in distributed systems biology research projects often create datasets of enormous size and diversity. We argue that in order to overcome the challenge of managing those large quantitative datasets and maximise the biological information extracted from them, a sound information system is required. Ease of integration with data analysis pipelines and other computational tools is a key requirement for it. Results We have developed openBIS, an open source software framework for constructing user-friendly, scalable and powerful information systems for data and metadata acquired in biological experiments. openBIS enables users to collect, integrate, share, publish data and to connect to data processing pipelines. This framework can be extended and has been customized for different data types acquired by a range of technologies. Conclusions openBIS is currently being used by several SystemsX.ch and EU projects applying mass spectrometric measurements of metabolites and proteins, High Content Screening, or Next Generation Sequencing technologies. The attributes that make it interesting to a large research community involved in systems biology projects include versatility, simplicity in deployment, scalability to very large data, flexibility to handle any biological data type and extensibility to the needs of any research domain. PMID:22151573

  16. Assessing Research Interest and Capacity in Community Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Karen; Bhuiya, Nazmim; Pernice, Joan; Khan, Sami M.; Sequist, Thomas; Tendulkar, Shalini A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Community health centers (CHCs) have great potential to participate in the development of evidence-based primary care but face obstacles to engagement in clinical translational research. Methods To understand factors associated with CHC interest in building research infrastructure, Harvard Catalyst and the Massachusetts League of Community Health Centers conducted an online survey of medical directors in all 50 Massachusetts CHC networks. Results Thirty-two (64%) medical directors completed the survey representing 126 clinical sites. Over 80% reported that their primary care providers (PCPs) were slightly to very interested in future clinical research and that they were interested in building research infrastructure at their CHC. Frequently cited barriers to participation in research included financial issues, lack of research skills and lack of research infrastructure. In bivariate analyses, PCP interest in future clinical research and a belief that involvement in research contributed to PCP retention were significantly associated with interest in building research infrastructure. Conclusion CHCs critical role in caring for vulnerable populations ideally positions them to raise relevant research questions and translate evidence into practice. Our findings suggest a high interest in engagement in research among CHC leadership. CTSAs have a unique opportunity to support local CHCs in this endeavor. PMID:24127928

  17. Community health workers support community-based participatory research ethics: lessons learned along the research-to-practice-to-community continuum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Selina A; Blumenthal, Daniel S

    2012-11-01

    Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)--specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability--stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502

  18. Amphipols: Polymeric surfactants for membrane biology research.

    SciTech Connect

    Popot, J.-L.; Berry, E.A.; Charvolin, D.; Creuzenet, C.; Ebel, C.; Engelman, D.M.; Flotenmeyer, M.; Giusti, F.; Gohon, Y.; Hong, Q.; Lakey, J.H.; Leonard, K.; Shuman, H.A.; Timmins, P.; Warschawski, D.E.; Zito, F.; Zoonens, M.; Pucci, B.; Tribet, C.

    2003-06-20

    Membrane proteins classically are handled in aqueous solutions as complexes with detergents. The dissociating character of detergents, combined with the need to maintain an excess of them, frequently results in more or less rapid inactivation of the protein under study. Over the past few years, we have endeavored to develop a novel family of surfactants, dubbed amphipols (APs). APs are amphiphilic polymers that bind to the transmembrane surface of the protein in a noncovalent but, in the absence of a competing surfactant, quasi-irreversible manner. Membrane proteins complexed by APs are in their native state, stable, and they remain water soluble in the absence of detergent or free APs. An update is presented of the current knowledge about these compounds and their demonstrated or putative uses in membrane biology.

  19. A response to Rome: lessons from pre- and post-publication data-sharing in the C. elegans research community

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years numerous studies have undertaken to measure the impact of patents, material transfer agreements, data-withholding and commercialization pressures on biomedical researchers. Of particular concern is the theory that such pressures may have negative effects on academic and other upstream researchers. In response to these concerns, commentators in some research communities have called for an increased level of access to, and sharing of, data and research materials. We have been studying how data and materials are shared in the community of researchers who use the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as a model organism for biological research. Specifically, we conducted a textual analysis of academic articles referencing C. elegans, reviewed C. elegans repository request lists, scanned patents that reference C. elegans and conducted a broad survey of C. elegans researchers. Of particular importance in our research was the role of the C. elegans Gene Knockout Consortium in the facilitation of sharing in this community. Results Our research suggests that a culture of sharing exists within the C. elegans research community. Furthermore, our research provides insight into how this sharing operates and the role of the culture that underpins it. Conclusions The greater scientific community is likely to benefit from understanding the factors that motivate C. elegans researchers to share. In this sense, our research is a 'response' to calls for a greater amount of sharing in other research communities, such as the mouse community, specifically, the call for increased investment and support of centralized resource sharing infrastructure, grant-based funding of data-sharing, clarity of third party recommendations regarding sharing, third party insistence of post-publication data sharing, a decrease in patenting and restrictive material transfer agreements, and increased attribution and reward. PMID:21162753

  20. Using Modeling and Creating a Research Discourse Community to Teach a Doctoral Action Research Course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cher Hendricks

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching action research through modeling. Participants were 11 doctoral students enrolled in a two-semester practitioner-based research course. In this study, I was both instructor and member of the research community. I modeled the steps of action research as I conducted a study of my practice, which focused on having

  1. Ethical Challenges for the “Outside” Researcher in Community-Based Participatory Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith Minkler

    2004-01-01

    Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) shares many of the core values of health education and related fields, the outside researcher embracing this approach to inquiry frequently is confronted with thorny ethical challenges. Following a brief review of the conceptual and historical roots of CBPR, Kelly’s ecological principles for community-based research and Jones’s three-tiered framework for understanding racism are introduced as

  2. Socioecological Influences on Community Involvement in HIV Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Archibald, Matthew; Hixson, Brooke; del Rio, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study investigated socioecological factors influencing HIV vaccine research participation among communities living in geographic areas with high HIV prevalence and high poverty rates. Methods We surveyed a sample of 453 adults ? 18 years from areas of high poverty and high HIV prevalence in metro Atlanta and differentiated the effects of individual-, social/organizational-, and community-level characteristics on participation in HIV vaccine research via multilevel modeling techniques that incorporated questionnaire, program, and census data. Results Models that adjusted for both individual-level covariates (such as race, gender, attitudes, and beliefs concerning HIV research), social/organizational- and community-level factors such as local HIV prevalence rates, revealed that the extent of HIV prevention-related programs and services in census tracts contributed to individuals’ likelihood of participation in an HIV vaccine study. Additionally, neighborhood-based organizations offering HIV medical and treatment programs, support groups, and services (e.g., food, shelter, and clothing) encourage greater HIV vaccine research participation. Conclusions The findings support the hypothesis that community-level factors facilitate participation in HIV vaccine research independent of both individual- and social/organizational-level factors. PMID:21722689

  3. Reproductive biology of the holothurians from the major communities of the New Caledonian Lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Conand

    1993-01-01

    The reproductive biology of nine species of aspidochirote holothurians from the major communities of the New Caledonian lagoon has been analysed. The data were obtained from monthly sampling from 1978 to 1982 of their populations on reef slopes and passes for Holothuria nobilis, H. fuscogilva, H. fuscopunctata and Thelenota ananas, in the inner lagoon for Stichopus variegatus, H. scabra and

  4. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 16081614 Endogeic earthworms differentially influence bacterial communities

    E-print Network

    Rilli, Matthias C.

    2006-01-01

    C. Rilliga , Johan Sixb a Division of Biological Sciences, Microbial Ecology Program, The University-facilitated aggregate formation, how and where within the soil matrix earthworm-facilitated influences on soil microbial, the extent to which microbial communities associated with different soil microhabitats are affected is

  5. Learning style and concept acquisition of community college students in introductory biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Burin Bobick

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of learning style on concept acquisition within a sample of community college students in a general biology course. There are two subproblems within the larger problem: (1) the influence of demographic variables (age, gender, number of college credits, prior exposure to scientific information) on learning style, and (2) the correlations between prior scientific knowledge, learning

  6. Industrial methodology for process verification in research (IMPROVER): toward systems biology verification

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Pablo; Hoeng, Julia; Rice, J. Jeremy; Norel, Raquel; Sprengel, Jörg; Stolle, Katrin; Bonk, Thomas; Corthesy, Stephanie; Royyuru, Ajay; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Analyses and algorithmic predictions based on high-throughput data are essential for the success of systems biology in academic and industrial settings. Organizations, such as companies and academic consortia, conduct large multi-year scientific studies that entail the collection and analysis of thousands of individual experiments, often over many physical sites and with internal and outsourced components. To extract maximum value, the interested parties need to verify the accuracy and reproducibility of data and methods before the initiation of such large multi-year studies. However, systematic and well-established verification procedures do not exist for automated collection and analysis workflows in systems biology which could lead to inaccurate conclusions. Results: We present here, a review of the current state of systems biology verification and a detailed methodology to address its shortcomings. This methodology named ‘Industrial Methodology for Process Verification in Research’ or IMPROVER, consists on evaluating a research program by dividing a workflow into smaller building blocks that are individually verified. The verification of each building block can be done internally by members of the research program or externally by ‘crowd-sourcing’ to an interested community. www.sbvimprover.com Implementation: This methodology could become the preferred choice to verify systems biology research workflows that are becoming increasingly complex and sophisticated in industrial and academic settings. Contact: gustavo@us.ibm.com PMID:22423044

  7. Community-Based Participatory Research with Hispanic/Latino Leaders and Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendola, Mary Grace

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are being studied for healthcare disparities research utilizing community-based participatory research (CBPR). CBPR's active participation of community members and researchers suggests improvement in community health. Yet there are no known studies that inductively investigated the lived experience of H/L community leaders…

  8. Case Study in Designing a Research Fundamentals Curriculum for Community Health Workers: A University - Community Clinic Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    Dumbauld, Jill; Kalichman, Michael; Bell, Yvonne; Dagnino, Cynthia; Taras, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Community health workers are increasingly incorporated into research teams. Training them in research methodology and ethics, while relating these themes to a community’s characteristics, may help to better integrate these health promotion personnel into research teams. Approach and Strategies This pilot project involved the design and implementation of an interactive training course on research fundamentals for community health workers from clinics in a rural, predominately Latino setting. Curriculum development was guided by collaborative activities arising from a university - clinic partnership, a community member focus group, and the advice of community-based researchers. The resulting curriculum was interactive and stimulated dialogue between trainees and academic researchers. Discussion and Conclusions Collaboration between researchers and health agency professionals proved to be a practical method to develop curriculum for clinic staff. An interactive curriculum allowed trainees to incorporate community-specific themes into the discussion. This interaction educated course instructors from academia about the community as much as it educated course participants about research. The bidirectional engagement that occurs during the development and teaching of this course can potentially lead to research partnerships between community agencies and academia, better-informed members of the public, and research protocols that accommodate community characteristics. PMID:24121537

  9. Consent and community engagement in diverse research contexts.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Consent and community engagement (CE) in health research are two aspects of a single concern-that research is carried out in a respectful manner where social value is maximized. There are important overlaps and interdependencies between consent and CE; for example, CE can provide insights into how best to tailor consent to context and can be an important component of consent processes. Engaging communities can also have intrinsic and instrumental value beyond consent; for example, as a means of showing respect and identifying appropriate ways of working respectfully. In this paper we critically examine how CE and consent processes are characterized, conducted, and evaluated in diverse health research contexts, and propose a preliminary research agenda to support future learning in these critical areas. PMID:24169417

  10. Scientific Community on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Place Names and Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reim, C.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this poster is to convey the process by which Antarctic place names are checked for accuracy, and the importance the work has on the scientific community. The database that SCAR (Scientific Community on Antarctic Research) has includes features that are both falsely named or not in an accurate location. This results from the original data coming from multiple sources. The polygons representing the coast line are also updated, as the original lines were both inaccurate or have changed over the years. Using both feature research and a high resolution imagery viewer application, the correct names and locations of Antarctic features and coastlines are collected into a single database, where any number of Polar researchers can have access to it. Accurate results are important to both aid scientists in their research and to provide safe maps for use in the field.

  11. Bacterial community dynamics over successional stages of Australian biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilton, Angela; Woodhouse, Jason; Neilan, Brett

    2015-04-01

    A key aspect for successful ecological rehabilitation is understanding the naturally occurring ecosystem and landscape function which is to be restored. This allows for recovery indicators to be identified and criteria to be developed to assess progress and outcomes. In arid rangelands, environmental stresses result in characteristically heterogeneous landscapes where biological soil crusts (BSCs) cover large expanses of inter-plant areas. Here, BSCs perform crucial roles in nutrient cycling and re-distribution, affect hydrological patterns and stabilise the soil surface. They also serve as a large reservoir of microbial and avascular plant biodiversity. The recognition of these important roles has resulted in increased global arid rehabilitation efforts employing BSCs. Within Australia, research has focused on the macro components of BSCs including lichens and mosses, however, there have been insufficient studies examining the BSC bacterial communities and their dynamics over different successional stages. This project surveyed the bacterial community of crust-free soil and three successional stages of undisturbed BSCs from New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in order to provide reference standards of naturally occurring Australian BSCs. Visual assessments were conducted and BSCs were categorised as Early, Mid or Late stage depending on colour, thickness, topography and presence of lichens and mosses. The crust-free soil and different stages were sampled within three 50 m2 plots of the same edaphic conditions near the town of Cobar, NSW. High throughput sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform was performed targeting the V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Preliminary analysis has revealed a clear distinction between the crust-free and crusted soil while Canonical Analysis of Principal Co-ordinates (CAP) suggests the presence of two distinct BSC microbial communities despite three stages being sampled. Across all sample types, the dominant phyla were Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria. Further analysis will determine indicator species which may be used to track the recovery of Australian BSCs in disturbed lands as well as identify pioneer genera as candidate organisms for inoculum based rehabilitation trials. It is important for BSC research to continue in order to adequately direct rehabilitation efforts and for disturbed arid lands to return to self-sustaining ecosystems.

  12. Therapeutic research in low-income countries: studying trial communities.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2014-11-01

    Social scientists undertaking studies of transnational medical research in developing countries focus on 'trial communities': networks of funders, institutions, researchers, clinical staff, fieldworkers and study participants. They relate these to the political economy that brings powerful research resources to poor settings. Whereas bioethicists tend to consider universal ethical requirements, social scientists examine how ethics are practiced in given situations in the light of the concerns and interests held by different parties involved in medical research. In conditions of poverty, high morbidity and weak public health services, research subjects are heavily induced by the prospect of high quality medical care and other benefits that researchers seem to offer. Studies of medical research undertaken by well-established internationally funded institutions in Africa show that parents are keen to have their children 'join' projects at these organisations. They assess benefits and risks less in terms of specific research projects and more in terms of their overall trust in the care these institutions are known to have provided previously for others in the community. Bioethics should widen its scope beyond concern with protecting individual subjects from the risks of specific research projects. It should recognise that clinical and research functions are indistinguishable for many participants, who want information on results of clinical investigations and sustained support for improving the health of their children. PMID:24748638

  13. Cyberlearning at Community Colleges: 21st Century Biology Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-23

    The goal of the Cyberlearning at Community Colleges (C3) project is to help "faculty leverage digital library resources, network computing and communications technologies, and E-science data and tools to engage in cyberlearning strategies." C3's funding comes from the National Science Foundation and their work will be of interest to wide range of educators. Visitors can sign up to be a part of this program, and they can also create their own profile to network with other members. The Blogs area is worth a look, as it contains practical information about upcoming conferences and events. It also includes relevant Featured Resources, including the Gapminder video series, which provides a statistical window into global development. Visitors can peek into the Forum area to participate in online discussions about teaching with data, preferred instructional styles, and offering students relevant content in the classroom.

  14. Cyberlearning at Community Colleges: 21st Century Biology Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The goal of the Cyberlearning at Community Colleges (C3) project is to help "faculty leverage digital library resources, network computing and communications technologies, and E-science data and tools to engage in cyberlearning strategies." C3's funding comes from the National Science Foundation and their work will be of interest to wide range of educators. Visitors can sign up to be a part of this program, and they can also create their own profile to network with other members. The Blogs area is worth a look, as it contains practical information about upcoming conferences and events. It also includes relevant Featured Resources, including the Gapminder video series, which provides a statistical window into global development. Visitors can peek into the Forum area to participate in online discussions about teaching with data, preferred instructional styles, and offering students relevant content in the classroom.

  15. Marriage patterns in a Mesoamerican peasant community are biologically adaptive.

    PubMed

    Little, Bertis B; Malina, Robert M

    2010-12-01

    Differential investment in offspring by parental and progeny gender has been discussed and periodically analyzed for the past 80 years as an evolutionary adaptive strategy. Parental investment theory suggests that parents in poor condition have offspring in poor condition. Conversely, parents in good condition give rise to offspring in good condition. As formalized in the Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH), investment in daughters will be greater under poor conditions while sons receive greater parental investment under good conditions. Condition is ultimately equated to offspring reproductive fitness, with parents apparently using a strategy to maximize their genetic contribution to future generations. Analyses of sex ratio have been used to support parental investment theory and in many instances, though not all, results provide support for TWH. In the present investigation, economic strategies were analyzed in the context of offspring sex ratio and survival to reproductive age in a Zapotec-speaking community in the Valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico. Growth status of children, adult stature, and agricultural resources were analyzed as proxies for parental and progeny condition in present and prior generations. Traditional marriage practice in Mesoamerican peasant communities is patrilocal postnuptial residence with investments largely favoring sons. The alternative, practiced by ?25% of parents, is matrilocal postnuptial residence which is an investment favoring daughters. Results indicated that sex ratio of offspring survival to reproductive age was related to economic strategy and differed significantly between the patrilocal and matrilocal strategies. Variance in sex ratio was affected by condition of parents and significant differences in survival to reproductive age were strongly associated with economic strategy. While the results strongly support TWH, further studies in traditional anthropological populations are needed. PMID:21089106

  16. Activist Research and Student Agency in Universities and Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcintyre, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Unlike school-aged youth attending well-resourced suburban schools, working-class poor students attending inner-city public schools are oftentimes denied the opportunity to develop a sense of agency within their schools and communities. In this article, the author addresses one way that educators and researchers can encourage young people to…

  17. The Community College Baccalaureate Movement: Cutting-Edge Dissertation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrabak, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    In this review of dissertations, the researcher presents summaries of 10 of the most recent and cutting-edge dissertations focusing on the ever-growing and complex field of the community college baccalaureate movement. These studies focus on the gamut of specific legislation, case studies of particular programs and schools, financing of such…

  18. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Ameliorate Cancer Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlert, Sarah; Coleman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Although much attention has been paid to health disparities in the past decades, interventions to ameliorate disparities have been largely unsuccessful. One reason is that the interventions have not been culturally tailored to the disparity populations whose problems they are meant to address. Community-engaged research has been successful in…

  19. Research and Policy: Can Online Learning Communities Foster Professional Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This column posits enhancing professional development through uses of digital tools to create professional learning communities (PLCs) designed to support collective inquiry and action research leading to schoolwide improvement. These digital tools include a social networking/discussion forum for teacher collaboration; teachers' individual…

  20. Thinking Like Researchers: An ESL Project that Investigates Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherron, Paul; Randolph, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on task-based and intercultural teaching approaches, this article presents an ESL classroom project at two different university settings in which students investigate aspects of their local communities through the use of ethnographic and observational research techniques. For related reasons, the instructors at each university developed…

  1. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    PubMed Central

    Hatay, M; Haas, AF; Robinett, NL; Barott, K; Vermeij, MJA; Marhaver, KL; Meirelles, P; Thompson, F; Rohwer, F

    2013-01-01

    Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR) system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic) contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community. PMID:23882444

  2. "Doing Research Was Inspiring": Building a Research Community with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinovic, Dragana; Wiebe, Natasha; Ratkovic, Snezana; Willard-Holt, Colleen; Spencer, Terry; Cantalini-Williams, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a mixed-methods study related to K-12 teachers' understandings of what research is, and what enables or inhibits teacher use of research in the classroom towards informing their instructional practices. In a collaboration exemplifying school board and university partnerships, we examined the nature of associations between…

  3. Biological Communities and Geomorphology of Patch Reefs in Biscayne National Park, Florida, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Brock, John C.; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Hickey, T. Don; Bonito, Victor; Bracone, Jeremy E.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystem management benefits from continual, quantitative assessment of the resources being managed, plus assessment of factors that affect distribution patterns of organisms in the ecosystem. In this study, we investigated the relationships among physical, benthic, and fish variables in effort to help explain the distribution patterns of ecologically and economically important species on twelve patch reefs within Biscayne National Park (BNP), Florida, U.S.A. We visited 196 randomly-located sampling stations across twelve shallow (< 10m) patch reefs, using SCUBA to conduct our surveys. We measured physical variables (e.g., substratum type), estimated the percent cover of benthic community members (e.g., coral, algae), and counted and estimated mean size for each fish species observed. We also used high-density bathymetric data collected remotely via airborne laser surveying (Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL)) to calculate rugosity (bumpiness) of the reef habitat. Here we present our findings visually by graphing our quantitative community and physical structure data simultaneously in a GIS map format. You will see that biological organisms arrange themselves on each patch reef in a non-random manner. For example, many species of fish prefer to locate themselves in areas of the reef where the rugosity index is high. Rugose parts of the reef provide them with good hiding places from predators. These maps (and the data used to create them) are permanent records of the status of reef resources found on these twelve patch reefs in BNP as of September, 2003. The survey data found in the shapefile located on this CD product includes benthic percent cover data for algae, coral, encrusting invertebrates, and substratum type, in addition to gorgonian abundance and volume, total fish abundance and species richness, and specific counts for Acanthurids (surgeonfish), Scarids (parrotfish), Lutjanids (snappers), Haemulids (grunts), Serranids (groupers), and Pomacentrids (damselfish).

  4. University--Government--International Donor Community Cooperation in Research, Teaching and Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaniki, M.

    2010-01-01

    World geo-economics of the last two decades have seriously impacted on governments' capability to finance university teaching, research and community engagement, especially in the developing world. Over the same period however, the demands and expectations exerted on universities by government and society have increased phenomenally. To meet these…

  5. NON Community Networks Program Centers (CNPC) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Projects

    Cancer.gov

    Strengthen the use of evidence-based education, outreach, and dissemination using the Community Guide, as well as partnership and capacity building, to improve knowledge, behavior, attitude, and beliefs with focus on the early detection of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers, clinical trial and biospecimen research.

  6. Energy Efficient Community Development in California: Chula Vista Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gas Technology Institute

    2009-03-31

    In 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy joined the California Energy Commission in funding a project to begin to examine the technical, economic and institutional (policy and regulatory) aspects of energy-efficient community development. That research project was known as the Chula Vista Research Project for the host California community that co-sponsored the initiative. The researches proved that the strategic integration of the selected and economically viable buildings energy efficiency (EE) measures, photovoltaics (PV), distributed generation (DG), and district cooling can produce significant reductions in aggregate energy consumption, peak demand and emissions, compared to the developer/builder's proposed baseline approach. However, the central power plant emission reductions achieved through use of the EE-DG option would increase local air emissions. The electric and natural gas utility infrastructure impacts associated with the use of the EE and EE-PV options were deemed relatively insignificant while use of the EE-DG option would result in a significant reduction of necessary electric distribution facilities to serve a large-scale development project. The results of the Chula Vista project are detailed in three separate documents: (1) Energy-Efficient Community Development in California; Chula Vista Research Project report contains a detailed description of the research effort and findings. This includes the methodologies, and tools used and the analysis of the efficiency, economic and emissions impacts of alternative energy technology and community design options for two development sites. Research topics covered included: (a) Energy supply, demand, and control technologies and related strategies for structures; (b) Application of locally available renewable energy resources including solar thermal and PV technology and on-site power generation with heat recovery; (c) Integration of local energy resources into district energy systems and existing energy utility networks; (d) Alternative land-use design and development options and their impact on energy efficiency and urban runoff, emissions and the heat island effect; and (e) Alternative transportation and mobility options and their impact on local emissions. (2) Creating Energy-Efficient Communities in California: A Reference Guide to Barriers, Solutions and Resources report provides the results of an effort to identify the most innovative existing and emerging public policy, incentive and market mechanisms that encourage investment in advanced energy technologies and enabling community design options in the State of California and the nation. The report evaluates each of these mechanisms in light of the preceding research and concludes with a set of recommended mechanisms designed for consideration by relevant California State agencies, development and finance industry associations, and municipal governments. (3) Creating Energy-Efficient Communities in California: A Technical Reference Guide to Building and Site Design report contains a set of selected commercially viable energy technology and community design options for high-efficiency, low-impact community development in California. It includes a summary of the research findings referenced above and recommendations for energy technology applications and energy-efficient development strategies for residential, commercial and institutional structures and supporting municipal infrastructure for planned communities. The document also identifies design options, technology applications and development strategies that are applicable to urban infill projects.

  7. Factors Influencing Community Structure Communities have both biological structure (species richness,

    E-print Network

    Creel, Scott

    : Abiotic factors such as depth and flow of water in aquatic environments Biotic factors such as spatial Branch watershed, Oak Ridge, TN Height(ft) Zonation is spatial change in community structure Zonation composition of forest stands along a topographic gradient in Virginia #12;4/22/2013 3 Patterns of zonation

  8. Ethical community-engaged research: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Mikesell, Lisa; Bromley, Elizabeth; Khodyakov, Dmitry

    2013-12-01

    Health research has relied on ethical principles, such as those of the Belmont Report, to protect the rights and well-being of research participants. Community-based participatory research (CBPR), however, must also consider the rights and well-being of communities. This requires additional ethical considerations that have been extensively discussed but not synthesized in the CBPR literature. We conducted a comprehensive thematic literature review and summarized empirically grounded discussions of ethics in CBPR, with a focus on the value of the Belmont principles in CBPR, additional essential components of ethical CBPR, the ethical challenges CBPR practitioners face, and strategies to ensure that CBPR meets ethical standards. Our study provides a foundation for developing a working definition and a conceptual model of ethical CBPR. PMID:24134352

  9. Biological Field Stations: Research Legacies and Sites for Serendipity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William Michener (University of New Mexico; Department of Biology and LTER Network Office)

    2009-04-01

    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only framework for documenting and understanding the nature and pace of ecosystem, regional, and global changes in environmental conditions; ecological processes; and biodiversity. Because of these legacies and because they serve as gathering places for a rich diversity of highly creative and motivated scientists, students, and citizens, biological field stations are frequently where serendipitous scientific discoveries take place. The inclusion of biological field stations in environmental observatories and research networks ensures that these places will continue to foster future serendipitous scientific discoveries.

  10. Reengineering the clinical research enterprise to involve more community clinicians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gery Ryan; Claude Berrebi; Megan Beckett; Stephanie Taylor; Elaine Quiter; Michelle Cho; Harold Pincus; Katherine Kahn

    2011-01-01

    Background  The National Institutes of Health has called for expansion of practice-based research to improve the clinical research enterprise.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This paper presents a model for the reorganization of clinical research to foster long-term participation by community clinicians.\\u000a \\u000a Based on the literature and interviews with clinicians and other stakeholders, we posited a model, conducted further interviews\\u000a to test the viability of the

  11. Glimpses of Biological Research and Education in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margulis, Lynn; Kunz, Thomas H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses Cuban medical facilities, biological research (focusing on sugarcane tissue culture, interferon, hybrid cattle, tropical fruits, and yeast biosynthetic pathways), science education programs at all levels, and institutions of higher education. Also examines such concerns as the Cuban literacy rate and efforts to improve the environment.…

  12. POLICY FOR RESEARCH INVOLVING DRUGS, BIOLOGICS OR DEVICES

    E-print Network

    of the drug/biologic The investigation will be conducted in compliance with FDA regulations will be conducted in compliance with the FDA requirements for Promotion and Charging for Investigational Drugs (21 will be shipped in compliance with FDA Regulations for Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research

  13. Conbrio Concept Briefing: A Regional Institute for Research in Biology,

    E-print Network

    Kimbrough, Steven Orla

    JPL model. "Nice work if you can get it. (And you can get it if you try.)" But: excessively contested and competitive; very distant horizon; feasibility not established. · Contract research Example: Success in Ohio way to biology and all of the social science (economics, game theory, sociology, political science

  14. Weed Biology and Management 5, 6976 (2005) RESEARCH PAPER

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Weed Biology and Management 5, 69­76 (2005) RESEARCH PAPER Weed composition and cover after three, could lead to increased weed problems for agricultural production. This experiment was conducted to assess weed pressure and species composition on plots receiving various inorganic and organic soil

  15. Biomedical Research Experiences for Biology Majors at a Small College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Shawn K.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    A program-level assessment of the biology curriculum at a small liberal arts college validates a previous study demonstrating success in achieving learning outcomes related to content knowledge and communication skills. Furthermore, research opportunities have been provided to complement pedagogical strategies and give students a more complete…

  16. Articles An Introduction to Mass Spectrometry Applications in Biological Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin J. Finehout; Kelvin H. Lee

    Mass spectrometry involves the measurement of the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. It has become an essential analytical tool in biological research and can be used to characterize a wide variety of biomol- ecules such as sugars, proteins, and oligonucleotides. In this review, a brief history of mass spectrometry is discussed, and the basic principles of the technology are introduced. A

  17. Community-based research in AIDS-service organizations: what helps and what doesn't?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Flicker; Michael Wilson; Robb Travers; Tarik Bereket; Colleen McKaye; Anna van der Meulen; Adrian Gutaf; Shelley Cleverlyg; Sean B. Rourkeh

    2009-01-01

    Background. Community-based research (CBR) approaches have become commonplace in many North American HIV communities. In many large urban centers, AIDS-service organizations (ASOs) have become active research hubs, advocating for research dollars in community settings. While ASOs have historically integrated local knowledge into their prevention, care and advocacy initiatives, many are now initiating or collaborating in research which addresses emerging issues

  18. The Building of a Responsible Research Community: The Role of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lategan, Laetus O. K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks into the importance of a responsible research community and how ethics can contribute towards the building of such a community. The paper starts off by outlining the many challenges facing a responsible research community. These challenges range from doing research, transferring the research results, commercialising the…

  19. Community-Based Participatory Research in Indian Country: Improving Health through Water Quality Research and Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, C.; Doyle, J.; Kindness, L.; Lefthand, M.J.; Bear Don't Walk, U.J.; Bends, A.; Broadaway, S.C.; Camper, A.K.; Fitch, R.; Ford, T.E.; Hamner, S.; Morrison, A.R.; Richards, C.L.; Young, S.L.; Eggers, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Water has always been held in high respect by the Apsaálooke (Crow) people of Montana. Tribal members questioned the health of the rivers and well water due to visible water quality deterioration and potential connections to illnesses in the community. Community members initiated collaboration among local organizations, the Tribe and academic partners, resulting in genuine community based participatory research. The article shares what we have learned as tribal members and researchers about working together to examine surface and groundwater contaminants, assess routes of exposure and use our data to bring about improved health of our people and our waters. PMID:20531097

  20. Investing in lay researchers for community-based health action research: implications for research, policy and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Carlisle; Stephen Cropper

    2009-01-01

    Calls for greater community participation health-related research are increasingly made and, it seems, heeded–albeit to varying degrees. We report here, from the perspective of external evaluators, on practical efforts by the leaders of two community-based health action research projects to enhance such participation still further by employing a small number of local people as lay action researchers within their own

  1. COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH: BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES IN THE HOLLANDALE FIT FOR LIFE STEPS PROGRAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hollandale Fit for Life Steps, a 6-month community intervention involving volunteer “coaches” leading fellow community members in walking groups, utilizes the community-based participatory research model (CBPR). CBPR may improve community interventions by empowering community members to be active pa...

  2. Community research in other contexts: learning from sustainability science.

    PubMed

    Silka, Linda

    2010-12-01

    In health research, community based participatory research (CBPR) has seen remarkable growth as an approach that overcomes many of the ethical concerns raised by traditional approaches. A community of CBPR scholars is now sharing ideas and devising new approaches to collaborative research. Yet, this is occurring in isolation from similar efforts using different nomenclature and occurring outside of health research areas. There is much to be gained by bringing these parallel discussions together. In sustainability science, for example, scholars are struggling with the question of how stakeholders and scientists can coproduce knowledge that offers useful solutions to complex and urgent environmental problems. Like CBPR in health, sustainability science is denigrated for perceived lack of rigor because of its applied problem focus and lack of positivist approach. Approaches to knowledge creation in sustainability science involve "new" ideas such as wicked problems and agent-based modeling, which would be equally applicable to CBPR. Interestingly, sustainability research is motivated less by recognition of the corrosive effects of the inequality of power than from frustration at how limited the impact of research has been, a perspective that might be useful in CBPR, particularly in conjunction with the use of some borrowed tools of sustainability science such as wicked problem analysis and agent-based modeling. Importantly, the example of sustainability science has the potential to keep CBPR from entering into a new orthodoxy of how research should be done. PMID:21133782

  3. Conducting Drug Abuse Prevention Research in Partnership with Native American Communities: Meeting Challenges Through Collaborative Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Baldwin

    1998-01-01

    Many prior drug abuse studies conducted in Native American communities have been almost exclusively directed by researchers with little community input. This paper focuses on the challenges in conducting research in Native American communities and provides a multi-step model for developing, implementing, and evaluating drug abuse prevention programs in partnership with Native American communities. Key steps in the model include:

  4. Participating in Research in a Biology Professor`s Lab (BIOS Research Credits, Departmental Honors)

    E-print Network

    King, Bethia H.

    Participating in Research in a Biology Professor`s Lab (BIOS Research Credits, Departmental Honors) *****requires at least 3.0 bioGPA****** Who should go see Dr. Bethia King and/or read these FAQs? Students with a bioGPA of 3.0 or better who are interested in getting research experience in a professor's laboratory

  5. Molecular biology research in neuropsychiatry: India’s contribution

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Ramesh, B. N.; Vasudevaraju, P.; Rao, K. S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders represent the second largest cause of morbidity worldwide. These disorders have complex etiology and patho-physiology. The major lacunae in the biology of the psychiatric disorders include genomics, biomarkers and drug discovery, for the early detection of the disease, and have great application in the clinical management of disease. Indian psychiatrists and scientists played a significant role in filling the gaps. The present annotation provides in depth information related to research contributions on the molecular biology research in neuropsychiatric disorders in India. There is a great need for further research in this direction as to understand the genetic association of the neuropsychiatric disorders; molecular biology has a tremendous role to play. The alterations in gene expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction and depression. The development of transgenic neuropsychiatric animal models is of great thrust areas. No studies from India in this direction. Biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders are of great help to the clinicians for the early diagnosis of the disorders. The studies related to gene-environment interactions, DNA instability, oxidative stress are less studied in neuropsychiatric disorders and making efforts in this direction will lead to pioneers in these areas of research in India. In conclusion, we provided an insight for future research direction in molecular understanding of neuropsychiatry disorders. PMID:21836667

  6. The solar system: Importance of research to the biological sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Harold P.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to describe the scope of scientific areas that comprise the current field of exobiology in the United States. From investigations of astrophysical phenomena that deal with the birth of stars and planetary systems to questions of molecular biology involving phylogenetic relationships among organisms, from attempts to simulate the synthesis of biological precursor molecules in the chemistry laboratory to making measurements of the organic constituents of Titan's atmosphere, these researches all converge toward a common objective--answering the question of how life came about in the universe.

  7. Modifying Photovoice for community-based participatory Indigenous research.

    PubMed

    Castleden, Heather; Garvin, Theresa

    2008-03-01

    Scientific research occurs within a set of socio-political conditions, and in Canada research involving Indigenous communities has a historical association with colonialism. Consequently, Indigenous peoples have been justifiably sceptical and reluctant to become the subjects of academic research. Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is an attempt to develop culturally relevant research models that address issues of injustice, inequality, and exploitation. The work reported here evaluates the use of Photovoice, a CBPR method that uses participant-employed photography and dialogue to create social change, which was employed in a research partnership with a First Nation in Western Canada. Content analysis of semi-structured interviews (n=45) evaluated participants' perspectives of the Photovoice process as part of a larger study on health and environment issues. The analysis revealed that Photovoice effectively balanced power, created a sense of ownership, fostered trust, built capacity, and responded to cultural preferences. The authors discuss the necessity of modifying Photovoice, by building in an iterative process, as being key to the methodological success of the project. PMID:18191883

  8. SHARING RESULTS FROM COMPLEx DISEASE GENETICS STUDIES: A COMMUNITY BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH APPROACH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert B. Boyer; Gerald V. Mohatt; Renee L. Pasker; Elaine M. Drew; Kathleen K. McGlone

    Objectives. Dissemination of research results to communities builds capacity of the community to understand and utilize the results. The objective of this manuscript was to propose a culturally appropriate approach to disseminate complex disease genetics research findings in small Alaska

  9. Methods for open innovation on a genome-design platform associating scientific, commercial, and educational communities in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology requires both engineering efficiency and compliance with safety guidelines and ethics. Focusing on the rational construction of biological systems based on engineering principles, synthetic biology depends on a genome-design platform to explore the combinations of multiple biological components or BIO bricks for quickly producing innovative devices. This chapter explains the differences among various platform models and details a methodology for promoting open innovation within the scope of the statutory exemption of patent laws. The detailed platform adopts a centralized evaluation model (CEM), computer-aided design (CAD) bricks, and a freemium model. It is also important for the platform to support the legal aspects of copyrights as well as patent and safety guidelines because intellectual work including DNA sequences designed rationally by human intelligence is basically copyrightable. An informational platform with high traceability, transparency, auditability, and security is required for copyright proof, safety compliance, and incentive management for open innovation in synthetic biology. GenoCon, which we have organized and explained here, is a competition-styled, open-innovation method involving worldwide participants from scientific, commercial, and educational communities that aims to improve the designs of genomic sequences that confer a desired function on an organism. Using only a Web browser, a participating contributor proposes a design expressed with CAD bricks that generate a relevant DNA sequence, which is then experimentally and intensively evaluated by the GenoCon organizers. The CAD bricks that comprise programs and databases as a Semantic Web are developed, executed, shared, reused, and well stocked on the secure Semantic Web platform called the Scientists' Networking System or SciNetS/SciNeS, based on which a CEM research center for synthetic biology and open innovation should be established. PMID:21601679

  10. BIOPACK: the ground controlled late access biological research facility.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Jack J W A

    2004-03-01

    Future Space Shuttle flights shall be characterized by activities necessary to further build the International Space Station, ISS. During these missions limited resources are available to conduct biological experiments in space. The Shuttles' Middeck is a very suitable place to conduct science during the ISS assembly missions or dedicated science missions. The BIOPACK, which flew its first mission during the STS-107, provides a versatile Middeck Locker based research tool for gravitational biology studies. The core facility occupies the space of only two Middeck Lockers. Experiment temperatures are controlled for bacteria, plant, invertebrate and mammalian cultures. Gravity levels and profiles can be set ranging from 0 to 2.0 x g on three independent centrifuges. This provides the experimenter with a 1.0 x g on-board reference and intermediate hypogravity and hypergravity data points to investigate e.g. threshold levels in biological responses. Temperature sensitive items can be stored in the facilities' -10 degrees C and +4 degrees C stowage areas. During STS-107 the facility also included a small glovebox (GBX) and passive temperature controlled units (PTCU). The GBX provides the experimenter with two extra levels of containment for safe sample handling. This biological research facility is a late access (L-10 hrs) laboratory, which, when reaching orbit, could automatically be starting up reducing important experiment lag-time and valuable crew time. The system is completely telecommanded when needed. During flight system parameters like temperatures, centrifuge speeds, experiment commanding or sensor readouts can be monitored and changed when needed. Although ISS provides a wide range of research facilities there is still need for an STS-based late access facility such as the BIOPACK providing experimenters with a very versatile research cabinet for biological experiments under microgravity and in-flight control conditions. PMID:16145804

  11. Self-optimization, community stability, and fluctuations in two individual-based models of biological coevolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Arne Rikvold

    2007-01-01

    We compare and contrast the long-time dynamical properties of two individual-based models of biological coevolution. Selection\\u000a occurs via multispecies, stochastic population dynamics with reproduction probabilities that depend nonlinearly on the population\\u000a densities of all species resident in the community. New species are introduced through mutation. Both models are amenable\\u000a to exact linear stability analysis, and we compare the analytic results

  12. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy. PMID:22395365

  13. Researching Religious Education Pedagogy through an Action Research Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The Warwick REDCo community of practice was a group of religious education researchers operating in several contexts: English secondary schools and universities, English and European collaborations on religious education. The group undertook action research, seeking to illustrate and critically assess the interpretive approach to religious…

  14. Beyond locality: the creation of public practice?based knowledge through practitioner research in professional learning communities and communities of practice. A review of three books on practitioner research and professional communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Enthoven; E. de Bruijn

    2010-01-01

    In both the fields of educational practice and educational research the professional development of teachers was, is and is promising to remain an urgent and relevant topic. Practitioner research performed by teachers in professional learning communities and communities of practice is promising to serve their professional development. In addition, practitioner research and participation in these learning and working communities aim

  15. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Basner, Mathias; Brink, Mark; Bristow, Abigail; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Finegold, Lawrence; Hong, Jiyoung; Janssen, Sabine A; Klaeboe, Ronny; Leroux, Tony; Liebl, Andreas; Matsui, Toshihito; Schwela, Dieter; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health. PMID:25774609

  16. Using Census Data to Classify Community College Students by Socioeconomic Status and Community Characteristics. CCRC Research Tools. Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosta, Peter M.; Leinbach, Timothy; Jenkins, Davis

    2006-01-01

    Colleges and state higher education agencies too often lack accurate information about the socioeconomic status (SES) of their students. This paper describes the methodology that Community College Research Center (CCRC) researchers used to estimate the SES of individual students in the Washington State community and technical college system using…

  17. Using Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) to Target Health Disparities in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Doherty, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an action research approach that emphasizes collaborative partnerships between community members, community organizations, health care providers, and researchers to generate knowledge and solve local problems. Although relatively new to the field of family social science, family and health…

  18. Against the Odds: A Discussion of the Problems and Solutions of Researching at a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Martha

    Although most community college faculty are not engaged in research, community college settings can provide research opportunities for those faculty members determined to overcome the considerable obstacles. At Whatcom Community College, in Washington, for example, constraints facing faculty seeking to conduct research include limited access to…

  19. Mobile virtual communities research: a synthesis of current trends and a look at future perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christo El-morr; Jalal Kawash

    2007-01-01

    This article is a synthesis of current research trends in mobile virtual communities. It classifies Mobile Virtual Communities (MVCs) research into appropriate domains, and categorises the different types of virtual communities with respect to three criteria: the degree of virtualisation, the degree of mobility and the degree of cooperation. It also draws some conclusions on future research directions.

  20. Impact of substratum surface on microbial community structure and treatment performance in biological aerated filters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lavane; Pagaling, Eulyn; Zuo, Yi Y; Yan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The impact of substratum surface property change on biofilm community structure was investigated using laboratory biological aerated filter (BAF) reactors and molecular microbial community analysis. Two substratum surfaces that differed in surface properties were created via surface coating and used to develop biofilms in test (modified surface) and control (original surface) BAF reactors. Microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the surface property change consistently resulted in distinct profiles of microbial populations during replicate reactor start-ups. Pyrosequencing of the bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons surveyed more than 90% of the microbial diversity in the microbial communities and identified 72 unique bacterial species within 19 bacterial orders. Among the 19 orders of bacteria detected, Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales of the Betaproteobacteria class were numerically dominant and accounted for 90.5 to 97.4% of the sequence reads, and their relative abundances in the test and control BAF reactors were different in consistent patterns during the two reactor start-ups. Three of the five dominant bacterial species also showed consistent relative abundance changes between the test and control BAF reactors. The different biofilm microbial communities led to different treatment efficiencies, with consistently higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the test reactor than in the control reactor. Further understanding of how surface properties affect biofilm microbial communities and functional performance would enable the rational design of new generations of substrata for the improvement of biofilm-based biological treatment processes. PMID:24141134

  1. Configuration of biological wastewater treatment line and influent composition as the main factors driving bacterial community structure of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Jaranowska, Paulina; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    The structure of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment facilities is a resultant of environmental conditions created by the operational parameters of the purification process. In the research, activated sludge from nine Polish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was investigated at a molecular level to determine the impact of the complexity of biological treatment line and the influent composition on the species structure and the diversity of bacterial consortia. The community fingerprints and technological data were subjected to the canonical correspondence and correlation analyses. The number of separated biological processes realized in the treatment line and the presence of industrial wastewater in the influent were the key factors determining the species structure of total and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in biomass. The N2O-reducers community composition depended significantly on the design of the facility; the highest species richness of denitrifiers was noted in the WWTPs with separated denitrification tanks. The contribution of industrial streams to the inflow affected the diversity of total and denitrifying bacterial consortia and diminished the diversity of ammonia oxidizers. The obtained data are valuable for engineers since they revealed the main factors, including the design of wastewater treatment plant, influencing the microbial groups critical for the stability of purification processes. PMID:23397107

  2. Biological Mass Spectrometry and Shotgun Proteomics of Microbial Systems: Methods for studying microbial physiology from isolates to environmental communities

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, Brian [ORNL; Young, Jacque C [ORNL; Carey, Patricia A [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Microbial ecology is currently experiencing a renaissance spurred by the rapid development of molecular techniques and omics technologies in particular. As never before, these tools have allowed researchers in the field to produce a massive amount of information through in situ measurements and analysis of natural microbial communities, both vital approaches to the goal of unraveling the interactions of microbes with their environment and with one another. While genomics can provide information regarding the genetic potential of microbes, proteomics characterizes the primary end-stage product, proteins, thus conveying functional information concerning microbial activity. Advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation and methodologies, along with bioinformatic approaches, have brought this analytic chemistry technique to relevance in the biological realm due to its powerful applications in proteomics. Mass spectrometry-enabled proteomics, including bottom-up and top-down approaches, is capable of supplying a wealth of biologically-relevant information, from simple protein cataloging of the proteome of a microbial community to identifying post-translational modifications of individual proteins.

  3. The Colorado Plateau: cultural, biological, and physical research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Kenneth L.

    2004-01-01

    Stretching from the four corners of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah, the Colorado Plateau is a natural laboratory for a wide range of studies. This volume presents 23 original articles drawn from more than 100 research projects presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. This scientific gathering revolved around research, inventory, and monitoring of lands in the region. The book's contents cover management techniques for cultural, biological, and physical resources, representing collaborative efforts among federal, university, and private sector scientists and land managers. Chapters on cultural concerns cover benchmarks of modern southwestern anthropological knowledge, models of past human activity and impact of modern visitation at newly established national monuments, challenges in implementing the 1964 Wilderness Act, and opportunities for increased federal research on Native American lands. The section on biological resources comprises sixteen chapters, with coverage that ranges from mammalian biogeography to responses of elk at the urban-wildland interface. Additional biological studies include the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation; research on bald eagles at Grand Canyon and tracking wild turkeys using radio collars; and management of palentological resources. Two final chapters on physical resources consider a proposed rerouting of the Rio de Flag River in urban Flagstaff, Arizona, and an examination of past climate patterns over the Plateau, using stream flow records and tree ring data. In light of similarities in habitat and climate across the Colorado Plateau, techniques useful to particular management units have been found to be applicable in many locations. This volume highlights an abundance of research that will prove useful for all of those working in the region, as well as for others seeking comparative studies that integrate research into land management actions.

  4. Explorations: A Research-Based Program Introducing Undergraduates to Diverse Biology Research Topics Taught by Grad Students and Postdocs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Sara E.; Khalfan, Waheeda; Bergmann, Dominique; Simoni, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate biology majors are often overwhelmed by and underinformed about the diversity and complexity of biological research that is conducted on research-intensive campuses. We present a program that introduces undergraduates to the diversity and scope of biological research and also provides unique teaching opportunities for graduate…

  5. Applying community-based participatory research methods to improve maternal and child health in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Karmaliani, Rozina; McFarlane, Judith; Asad, Nargis; Madhani, Farhana; Hirani, Saima; Shehzad, Shireen; Zaidi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    To achieve health for all, the development of partnerships between community residents and researchers is essential. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) engages community members, uses local knowledge in the understanding of health problems and the design of interventions, and invests community members in the processes and products of research. CBPR pivots on an iterative process of open communication, mutual respect, and power sharing to build community capacity to sustain effective health interventions. This article describes how the tenets of CBPR were applied by a multidisciplinary, international research team of maternal-child health specialists toward better health for women and children in multilingual, multiethnic, low socioeconomic communities in Karachi, Pakistan. PMID:19631062

  6. Methods for biological monitoring: Biological interactions in communities of subtidal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, J. A.

    1980-03-01

    Predation has been demonstrated to be of fundamental importance in structuring benthic communities in the intertidal zone. The aim of the present investigation was to elucidate some of the effects of predation on structuring communities in unvegetated subtidal sediments. Field manipulative cage experiments were performed on sediment in the inner part of the Oslofjord (Norway), where the species composition was typical for a moderately organically enriched sediment. Sediment from this area was transferred to an area not suspected a priori to be seriously affected by organic pollution, and the effect of predation on the fauna was evaluated. Predation effects were not observed in the Oslofjord experiments partially because of extensive obstruction of recruitment to the sediment by settlement of Polydora antennata on the cage; however, further experiments are in progress in this area. No such settling was observed in the unpolluted area. Here 63 taxonomic groups were identified, 57 in the control and 50 in the cages; 43 taxonomic groups were found in both the cage and the control. The total number of individuals was significantly higher in the cage (4779) than in the control (2849). The fauna recruited to the sediment in the cage responded to decreased predation by macropredators by a significant reduction in diversity. Of the 10 most abundant groups 3 (Tellinacea, Syllidae and Pholoë minuta) were significantly more abundant in the cage than in the control; 3 others ( Prionospio malmgreni, Microphthalmus abberans and Paraonidea) were significantly more abundant in the control. It is concluded that in an unpolluted area predation is an important factor in controlling numbers of at least some of the most abundant species. However, the effect of predation does not seem to be of the same importance in the subtidal as has previously been recognized for unvegetated intertidal mudflats.

  7. CAPACITY BUILDING OF COMMUNITIES AND ACADEMIA IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI DELTA NUTRITION INTERVENTION RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NIRI)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: The purpose is to outline the process by which community based participatory research (CBPR) builds capacity of rural communities and academicians to promote full participation of all partners in research interventions and activities. Background: While full participation of community memb...

  8. Strengthening community involvement in grant review: insights from the Community-University Research Partnership (CURES) pilot review process.

    PubMed

    Paberzs, Adam; Piechowski, Patricia; Warrick, Debra; Grawi, Carolyn; Choate, Celeste; Sneed, Glenda; Carr, Diane; Lota, Kanchan; Key, Kent; Alexander, Valerie; Ghosh, Pratik; Sampselle, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    In 2007, the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR) at the University of Michigan received a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Within MICHR, the Community Engagement (CE) program supports partnership efforts between researchers, practitioners, and community-based organizations in specific focal communities throughout Michigan. A key component of the CE program is the Community Engagement Coordinating Council, a group that provides input and guidance on program priorities, strategic planning, and reviews pilot funding proposals for community-academic partnerships. This paper will describe a unique MICHR pilot funding mechanism for Community-University Research Partnerships (CURES) with an emphasis on the ways that community partners are involved in the review process, as well as the benefits, challenges, and insights gained over 5 years of pilot review. There is a growing need for community involvement and expertise in review of funding proposals for community-engaged research at both institutional and federal levels. The CURES pilot review process is one example of an institutional effort to engage community partners in university funding decisions and has demonstrated clear benefit toward accomplishing the aims of the CTSA. PMID:24456508

  9. Current challenges and approaches for the synergistic use of systems biology data in the scientific community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian H. Ahrens; Ulrich Wagner; Hubert K. Rehrauer; Can Türker; Ralph Schlapbach

    Today’s rapid development and broad application of high-throughput analytical technologies are transforming biological research\\u000a and provide an amount of data and analytical opportunities to understand the fundamentals of biological processes undreamt\\u000a of in past years. To fully exploit the potential of the large amount of data, scientists must be able to understand and interpret\\u000a the information in an integrative manner.

  10. Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological

    E-print Network

    Feb18th Site/hubupgrades: · ORNLM20:UpgradedtoMX480onDec17th · AMESLABM10:UpgradedtoM10ionJan13th · FORR Oct,2002 Jan,2003 Apr,2003 Jul,2003 Oct,2003 Jan,2004 Apr,2004 Jul,2004 Oct,2004 Jan,2005 Apr,2005 JulSupporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research · Basic Energy Sciences · Biological

  11. Eight Years of Building Community Partnerships and Trust: The UCLA Family Medicine Community-Based Participatory Research Experience

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Gerardo; Rodríguez, Michael A.; Lopez, Glenn A.; Bholat, Michelle A.; Dowling, Patrick T.

    2014-01-01

    Acknowledging the growing disparities in health and health care that exist among immigrant families and minority populations in large urban communities, the UCLA Department of Family Medicine (DFM) sought a leadership role in the development of family medicine training and community-based participatory research (CBPR). Performing CBPR requires that academic medicine departments build sustainable and long-term community partnerships. The authors describe the eight-year (2000–2008) process of building sustainable community partnerships and trust between the UCLA DFM and the Sun Valley community, located in Los Angeles County. The authors used case studies of three research areas of concentration (asthma, diabetes prevention, and establishing access to primary care) to describe how they established community trust and sustained long-term community research partnerships. In preparing each case study, they used an iterative process to review qualitative data. Many lessons were common across their research concentration areas. They included the importance of (1) having clear and concrete community benefits, (2) supporting an academic–community champion, (3) political advocacy, (4) partnering with diverse organizations, (5) long-term academic commitment, and (6) medical student involvement. The authors found that establishing a long-term relationship and trust was a prerequisite to successfully initiate CBPR activities that included an asthma school-based screening program, community walking groups, and one of the largest school-based primary care clinics in the United States. Their eight-year experience in the Sun Valley community underscores how academic–community research partnerships can result in benefits of high value to communities and academic departments. PMID:19881437

  12. Community-Based Research and American Indians with Disabilities: Learning Together Methods that Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine A.; Johnson, Sharon R.; Kendall, Elizabeth; Busby, Howard; Schacht, Robert; Hill, Calvin

    Researchers working with the American Indian Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Arizona have found that culture is important in social research, especially with indigenous people. Community-based participatory research is one approach that has yielded outcomes valuable to researchers and community members. However, ethical concerns…

  13. Biological and chemical technologies research. FY 1995 annual summary report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1996-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1995 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1995 (ASR 95) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1995; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents; and awards arising from work supported by the BCTR.

  14. Biological soil crusts from arctic environments: characterization of the prokaryotic community and exopolysaccharidic matrix analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnai, Gianmarco; Ventura, Stefano; Mascalchi, Cristina; Rossi, Federico; Adessi, Alessandra; De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are highly specialized topsoil microbial communities widespread in many ecosystems, from deserts to polar regions. BSCs play an active role in promoting soil fertility and plant growth. In Arctic environments BSCs are involved in promoting primary succession after deglaciation, increasing moisture availability and nutrient immission at the topsoil. The organisms residing on BSCs produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in response to the environmental characteristics, thus contributing to the increase of constraint tolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities, together with the analysis of the chemical features of EPS, from BSC samples collected in several sites near Ny-?lesund, Norway. The phylogenetic composition of the prokaryotic community was assessed through a metagenomic approach. Exopolysaccharidic fractions were quantified using ion-exchange chromatography to determine the monosaccharidic composition. Size exclusion chromatography was used to determine the distribution of the EPS fractions. Abundance of phototrophic microorganisms, which are known to contribute to EPS excretion, was also evaluated. Results underlined the complexity of the microbial communities, showing a high level of diversity within the BSC sampled analyzed. The analysis of the polysaccharide composition displayed a high number of constituent sugars; the matrix was found to be constituted by two main fractions, a higher molecular weight (2 10 exp(6) Da) and a lower molecular weight fraction (< 100 10 exp(3) Da). This study presents novel data concerning EPS of BSCs matrix in relationship with the microbial communities in cold environments.

  15. An eQTL biological data visualization challenge and approaches from the visualization community

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the IEEE VisWeek conferences inaugurated a symposium on Biological Data Visualization. Like other domain-oriented Vis symposia, this symposium's purpose was to explore the unique characteristics and requirements of visualization within the domain, and to enhance both the Visualization and Bio/Life-Sciences communities by pushing Biological data sets and domain understanding into the Visualization community, and well-informed Visualization solutions back to the Biological community. Amongst several other activities, the BioVis symposium created a data analysis and visualization contest. Unlike many contests in other venues, where the purpose is primarily to allow entrants to demonstrate tour-de-force programming skills on sample problems with known solutions, the BioVis contest was intended to whet the participants' appetites for a tremendously challenging biological domain, and simultaneously produce viable tools for a biological grand challenge domain with no extant solutions. For this purpose expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) data analysis was selected. In the BioVis 2011 contest, we provided contestants with a synthetic eQTL data set containing real biological variation, as well as a spiked-in gene expression interaction network influenced by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA variation and a hypothetical disease model. Contestants were asked to elucidate the pattern of SNPs and interactions that predicted an individual's disease state. 9 teams competed in the contest using a mixture of methods, some analytical and others through visual exploratory methods. Independent panels of visualization and biological experts judged entries. Awards were given for each panel's favorite entry, and an overall best entry agreed upon by both panels. Three special mention awards were given for particularly innovative and useful aspects of those entries. And further recognition was given to entries that correctly answered a bonus question about how a proposed "gene therapy" change to a SNP might change an individual's disease status, which served as a calibration for each approaches' applicability to a typical domain question. In the future, BioVis will continue the data analysis and visualization contest, maintaining the philosophy of providing new challenging questions in open-ended and dramatically underserved Bio/Life Sciences domains. PMID:22607587

  16. Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell

    E-print Network

    Saunders, Mark

    Summary of current research interests Field of Research: Retinal Stem Cell Biology, Development of Stem Cell Based Therapies to treat Retinal Diseases, Endogenous Regeneration of the human Retina Stem is to investigate the application of Müller stem cells in cell replacement therapies for glaucomatous degeneration

  17. History of Physics Education Research as a Model for Geoscience Education Research Community Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    Discipline-based Education Research (DBER) is a research field richly combining a deep understanding of how to teach a particular discipline with an evolving understanding how people learn that discipline. At its center, DBER has an overarching goal of improving the teaching and learning of a discipline by focusing on understanding the underlying mental mechanisms learners use as they develop expertise. Geoscience Education Research, or GER, is a young but rapidly advancing field which is poised to make important contributions to the teaching and learning of earth and space science. Nascent geoscience education researchers could accelerate their community's progress by learning some of the lessons from the more mature field of Physics Education Research, PER. For the past three decades, the PER community has been on the cutting edge of DBER. PER started purely as an effort among traditionally trained physicists to overcome students' tenaciously held misconceptions about force, motion, and electricity. Over the years, PER has wrestled with the extent to which they included the faculty from the College of Education, the value placed on interpretive and qualitative research methods, the most appropriate involvement of professional societies, the nature of its PhD programs in the College of Science, and how to best disseminate the results of PER to the wider physics teaching community. Decades later, as a more fully mature field, PER still struggles with some of these aspects, but has learned important lessons in how its community progresses and evolves to be successful, valuable, and pertinent.

  18. Confronting Condescending Ethics: How Community-Based Research Challenges Traditional Approaches to Consent, Confidentiality, and Capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colleen Reid

    2009-01-01

    Community based research is conducted by, for, and with the participation of community members, and aims to ensure that knowledge\\u000a contributes to making a concrete and constructive difference in the world (The Loka Institute 2002). Yet decisions about research ethics are often controlled outside the research community itself. In this analysis we grapple\\u000a with the imposition of a community confidentiality

  19. Learning-style preferences of Latino\\/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen D. Sarantopoulos

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino\\/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the

  20. Fostering community-based wildlife health monitoring and research in the Canadian North.

    PubMed

    Brook, Ryan K; Kutz, Susan J; Veitch, Alasdair M; Popko, Richard A; Elkin, Brett T; Guthrie, Glen

    2009-06-01

    Many northern Canadians have continued a subsistence lifestyle of wildlife harvesting and, therefore, value sustainable wildlife populations. At a regional wildlife workshop in the Sahtu Settlement Area, Northwest Territories in 2002, elders and community leaders raised concerns regarding wildlife health, food safety, and the effects of climate change on wildlife. They requested that efforts be put toward training youth in science and increasing involvement of hunters and youth in wildlife research. In response, we initiated a long-term, integrated approach to foster community-based wildlife health monitoring and research. Annual trips were made to all schools in the Sahtu from 2003 to 2009 to provide hands-on learning for 250-460 students on a range of wildlife topics. In addition, interviews were conducted with 31 hunters and elders to document their local ecological knowledge of wildlife health and local hunters were trained as monitors to collect tissue samples and measurements to assess body condition and monitor health of harvested caribou (n = 69) and moose (n = 19). In 2007 the program was extended to include participation in the annual caribou hunt held by one community. Each year since 2005, a graduate student and/or a postdoctoral trainee in the veterinary or biological sciences has participated in the program. The program has evolved during the last 6 years in response to community and school input, results of empirical research, hunter feedback, local knowledge, and logistical constraints. The continuity of the program is attributed to the energetic collaboration among diverse partners and a unified approach that responds to identified needs. PMID:19953294

  1. A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

    2011-02-01

    The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.

  2. Biological sulphide removal from anaerobically treated domestic sewage: reactor performance and microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Graziella Patrício Pereira; Diniz, Renata Côrtes Oliveira; Bicalho, Sarah Kinaip; Franco, Vitor Araujo de Souza; Gontijo, Eider Max de Oliveira; Toscano, Rodrigo Argolo; Canhestro, Kenia Oliveira; Santos, Merly Rita Dos; Carmo, Ana Luiza Rodrigues Dias; Lobato, Livia Cristina S; Brandt, Emanuel Manfred F; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Calabria de Araujo, Juliana

    2015-09-01

    We developed a biological sulphide oxidation system and evaluated two reactors (shaped similar to the settler compartment of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket [UASB] reactor) with different support materials for biomass retention: polypropylene rings and polyurethane foam. The start-up reaction was achieved using microorganisms naturally occurring on the open surface of UASB reactors treating domestic wastewater. Sulphide removal efficiencies of 65% and 90% were achieved with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 24 and 12?h, respectively, in both reactors. However, a higher amount of elemental sulphur was formed and accumulated in the biomass from reactor 1 (20?mg?S(0)?g(-1) VTS) than in that from reactor 2 (2.9?mg?S(0)?g(-1) VTS) with an HRT of 24?h. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that the the pink and green biomass that developed in both reactors comprised a diverse bacterial community and had sequences related to phototrophic green and purple-sulphur bacteria such as Chlorobium sp., Chloronema giganteum, and Chromatiaceae. DGGE band patterns also demonstrated that bacterial community was dynamic over time within the same reactor and that different support materials selected for distinct bacterial communities. Taken together, these results indicated that sulphide concentrations of 1-6?mg?L(-1) could be efficiently removed from the effluent of a pilot-scale UASB reactor in two sulphide biological oxidation reactors at HRTs of 12 and 24?h, showing the potential for sulphur recovery from anaerobically treated domestic wastewater. PMID:25737383

  3. Breeding biology of an afrotropical forest understory bird community in northeastern Tanzania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mkongewa, Victor J.; Newmark, William D.; Stanley, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of the breeding biology of Afrotropical forest birds are poorly known. Here we provide a description based on the monitoring of 1461 active nests over eight breeding seasons about one or more aspects of the breeding biology for 28 coexisting understory bird species on the Amani Plateau in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Mean nest height and mean distance of nest from forest edge varied widely among species with most species constructing nests across a broad vertical and forest edge to interior gradient. However, there were important exceptions with all sunbird species and several dove and waxbill species constructing nests in close proximity to the forest edge. For 17 common species for which we recorded two or more active nests, mean clutch size across species was 1.9 eggs per clutch, the lowest site-specific mean clutch size yet reported for a tropical forest bird community. For nine bird species, a subset of the 17 common species, length of breeding season, defined as the difference between the earliest and latest recorded incubation onset date, ranged from 88–139 days. Most of these nine species displayed a unimodal distribution in incubation onset dates across a breeding season which extended from the end of August through middle January. In summary, a wide variation exists in most aspects of the breeding biology within an understory forest bird community in the East Usambara Mountains.

  4. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  5. [Advances in research of biological purification of eutrophic water body].

    PubMed

    Quan, Weimin; Shen, Xinqiang; Yan, Lijiao

    2003-11-01

    Eutrophication is a global problem, and the key of its controlling is to manipulate the structure of aquatic ecosystem, to recover the function of natural, healthy and stable aquatic ecosystem, and to improve the biological purification capability of eutrophic water body. Aquatic higher plant and vegetation is the most important primary producer in aquatic ecosystem, because of its large individual, long life cycle, and strong capability of absorbing nutrients. Maintaining and restoring a certain amount of aquatic plant could restrain the growth of phytoplankton, improve the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystem, and stabilize its structure. Aquatic animal plays an important role in material and energy cycles of aquatic ecosystem. Zooplankton and benthos can graze phytoplankton directly, so as to controll the number of phytoplankton. It is possible to improve the number of zooplankton by changing the structure of fish population, which might control the serious reproduction of phytoplankton, and achieve the goal of controlling eutrophication. The research of biological purification is still at its initial stage in China. In future, the following two aspects of researches should be enforced: the key technology of biological purification of aquatic higher plant and vegetation; the new model of breed aquatics. These technologies will have a important significance to controlling eutrophication and in sustainable utilization of water body. PMID:14997677

  6. Interfacing mathematics and biology: a discussion on training, research, collaboration, and funding.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura A; Alben, Silas

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes the discussion at a workshop on "Working at the Interface of Mathematics and Biology" at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. The goal of this workshop was to foster an ongoing discussion by the community on how to effectively train students from the biological, physical, engineering, and mathematical sciences to work at the intersection of these fields. One major point of discussion centered on how to be a successful interdisciplinary researcher in terms of where to publish, how to successfully write grants, and how to navigate evaluations for tenure and promotion. An emphasis was placed on the importance of developing strong multidisciplinary collaborations and clearly defining one's career trajectory to the home discipline. Another focus of the discussion was on the training of students and postdoctoral fellows in interdisciplinary work and helping these junior researchers to launch their careers. The group emphasized the need for the development of publicly available resources for biologists to learn basic tools for mathematical modeling and for mathematicians and engineers to see how their fields may be applied to current topics in the life sciences. PMID:22730496

  7. Formative Research on Perceptions of Biobanking: What Community Members Think

    PubMed Central

    Luque, John S.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Montel-Ishino, Francisco A.; Arevalo, Mariana; Bynum, Shalanda A.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Wells, Kristen J.; Gwede, Clement K.; Meade, Cathy D.

    2013-01-01

    Preparing healthy community members with timely communications prior to engaging them in a request to donate biospecimens promises to improve the experience of biobanking participation. To this end, a qualitative study was conducted to assess community member knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and informational needs about cancer-related biospecimen collection in a large metropolitan area in southwest Florida. The study utilized purposive sampling techniques to recruit a total of 95 participants to participate in 12 focus groups, segmented by race/ethnicity and language preference (mixed race, African American only, and Spanish speaking) and age (18–29, 30–54, and 55 and older). Focus group interviews were analyzed using content analysis to identify emergent themes. Overall, participants in the 30 years and older groups were favorable toward participating in biobanking if their concerns were addressed, such as confidentiality and consent issues, in contrast to participants aged 18–29 who were more skeptical. For all participants, the desire to participate in research that seeks new cancer treatments outweighed mistrust. Moreover, many cited the potential scientific benefit for future generations as a primary motivator. Finally, in some groups a therapeutic misconception was expressed, where participants expressed a willingness to forego confidentiality of their health status in exchange for therapeutic benefit. This study contributes to the literature on community perceptions of the benefits and barriers of biobanking and adds to the development of meaningful education communication priming tools to advance understandings about biobanking. PMID:21927867

  8. Expanding the obesity research paradigm to reach African American communities.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Gary, Tiffany L; Prewitt, T Elaine; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Banks-Wallace, Joanne; Beech, Bettina M; Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Karanja, Njeri; Lancaster, Kristie J; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D

    2007-10-01

    Obesity is more prevalent among African Americans and other racial and ethnic minority populations than among whites. The behaviors that determine weight status are embedded in the core social and cultural processes and environments of day-to-day life in these populations. Therefore, identifying effective, sustainable solutions to obesity requires an ecological model that is inclusive of relevant contextual variables. Race and ethnicity are potent stratification variables in U.S. society and strongly influence life contexts, including many aspects that relate to eating and physical activity behaviors. This article describes a synthesis initiated by the African American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN) to build and broaden the obesity research paradigm. The focus is on African Americans, but the expanded paradigm has broader implications and may apply to other populations of color. The synthesis involves both community and researcher perspectives, drawing on and integrating insights from an expanded set of knowledge domains to promote a deeper understanding of relevant contexts. To augment the traditional, biomedical focus on energy balance, the expanded paradigm includes insights from family sociology, literature, philosophy, transcultural psychology, marketing, economics, and studies of the built environment. We also emphasize the need for more attention to tensions that may affect African American or other researchers who identify or are identified as members of the communities they study. This expanded paradigm, for which development is ongoing, poses new challenges for researchers who focus on obesity and obesity-related health disparities but also promises discovery of new directions that can lead to new solutions. PMID:17875256

  9. Research on Dynamic Mechanism of Urban Community Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianli Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The urban community economy is a basic component of the urban economy. The development of community economy is useful to achieve the urban construction, orderly management, consummated serve, and civilized and harmonious society. The development of urban community economy needs motivation. This study aimed to analyze the urban community economy system, establish the dynamic model of urban community economic development,

  10. Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) as a tool for empowerment and public policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Crystal Tremblay

    Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach involving community and partners in all phases of the research, aims to produce empowering outcomes including increased community capacities, broader stakeholder participation in decision-making and promotes social justice. This paper discusses CBPR as an effective vehicle for empowerment, and as a tool for engaging public policy dialogue. Through exploring concepts of participation

  11. Cambridge Healthtech Institute's Fourth Annual In silico Biology Conference "Modeling Systems Biology for Research and Target Prioritization"

    SciTech Connect

    Forst, C. (Christian)

    2002-01-01

    In silico biology, the computer aided analysis of biological systems, is a relatively young research area. It first has been coined in the late 1990's and emerged from Theoretical and Computational Biology. As in other fields before, biology experiences an increased use of systems mathematics and computer simulation. With the human genome sequence available, with an exponentially growing number of completely sequenced genomes from various model organisms and with expression and proteomic data at hand, the research paradigm is shifted towards systems analysis and simulation. Computer aided modeling of complex biomolecules and assemblies are already routinely performed. Nowadays, theoretical description and computer simulation of cellular components in larger intra- and inter-cellular networks is of growing importance. Together with classic biological and clinical experiments as well as data from functional genomics, in silico biology will take the leading role in the analysis of biological systems.

  12. Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E., E-mail: roy_kwiatkowski@hc-sc.gc.c

    2011-07-15

    The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

  13. Community)based/digital/fabrica5on/ workshops:/A/review/of/the/research/

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Community)based/digital/fabrica5on/ workshops:/A/review/of/the/research/ literature// Sabineon/is/to/provide/access/to/early/copies/of/SPRU/research./ #12;! 1! Community)based/digital/fabrication/workshops:/A/review/of/the/research/literature/individual/research/contribu5ons./ Guidelines.for.authors/ Papers/ shall/ be/ submiLed/ in/ pdf/ or/ Word/ format./ They/ should

  14. Community Perspectives on Factors that Influence Collaboration in Public Health Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Rogerio M.

    2009-01-01

    Community collaboration in research may lead to better methods, results, and dissemination of interventions. Little systematic research has examined specific factors that influence community-based organizations (CBOs) to collaborate in public health research. There is an urgent need to advance knowledge on this topic so that together, researchers

  15. Training Partnership Dyads for Community-Based Participatory Research: Strategies and Lessons Learned From the Community Engaged Scholars Program

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A.; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E.; Slaughter, Sabra

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus–community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution’s Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-P provides simultaneous training to CBPR teams, with each team consisting of at least one community partner and one academic partner. Program elements include 12 months of monthly interactive group sessions, mentorship with apprenticeship opportunities, and funding for a CBPR pilot project. A modified RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation plan. Lessons learned include challenges of group instruction with varying levels of readiness among the CBPR partners, navigating the institutional review board process with community co-investigators, and finding appropriate academic investigators to match community research interests. Future directions are recommended for this promising and unique dyadic training of academic and community partners. PMID:23091303

  16. Research Problems in Community College Mathematics Education: Testing the Boundaries of K-12 Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa, Vilma; Wladis, Claire; Watkins, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This commentary articulates the need to investigate problems of mathematics instruction at community colleges. The authors briefly describe some features of this often-ignored institution and the current status of research. They also make an argument for how investigations of instruction in this setting can both advance understanding of this…

  17. HIGHER DEGREE RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES A COMMUNITY CREATED FOR ADVANCING HUMAN-CENTRED DESIGN RESEARCH

    E-print Network

    Liley, David

    @sizechina.com University Distinguished Professor Ken Friedman Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Design, Economics and Innovation a lasting impact on society. Product Design Engineering PhD student and 2014 Young Design Award finalist also reducing the risk of further disability. International research communities Being part

  18. Global Biology: An Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Program at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, James G.; Colin, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    NASA has initiated new effort in Global Biology, the primary focus of which is to understand biogeochemical cycles. As part of this effort, an interdisciplinary team of scientists has formed at Ames Research Center to investigate the cycling of sulfur in the marine coastal zone and to study the cycling of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Both studies will use remotely sensed data, coupled with ground-based research, to identify and measure the transfer of major and minor biologically produced gases between these ecosystems and global reservoirs.

  19. Global biology - An interdisciplinary scientific research program at NASA, Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.; Colin, L.

    1983-01-01

    NASA has initiated new effort in Global Biology, the primary focus of which is to understand biogeochemical cycles. As part of this effort, an interdisciplinary team of scientists has formed at Ames Research Center to investigate the cycling of sulfur in the marine coastal zone and to study the cycling of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Both studies will use remotely sensed data, coupled with ground-based research, to identify and measure the transfer of major and minor biologically produced gases between these ecosystems and global reservoirs.

  20. Effects of Environmental Variation and Nonpoint Source (NPS) Nutrient Pollution on Aquatic Plant Communities in Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (WBNERR), AL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molly M. Miller; Scott W. Phipps; Clinton S. Major; Kelly M. Major

    This study was designed to investigate non-point source nutrient pollution and its influences on submerged aquatic plant community\\u000a structure and biological invasion in the Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (WBNERR). A monthly vegetation survey\\u000a was conducted to document plant abundance and changes in community structure; physicochemical data and water samples were\\u000a collected on a bi-monthly basis to monitor environmental

  1. Evaluation of Community Health Education Workshops among Chinese Older Adults in Chicago: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Xinqi; Li, Yawen; Chen, Ruijia; Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health education is one of the proven ways to improve knowledge and change health attitudes and behaviors. This study is intended to assess the effectiveness of five health workshops in a Chinese community, focusing on depression, elder abuse, nutrition, breast cancer and stroke. Methods: A community-based participatory research

  2. TO: NIH Extramural Community This is a brief communication to update the biomedical research community of the current status

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    TO: NIH Extramural Community This is a brief communication to update the biomedical research community of the current status of extramural operations at NIH. The NIH continues to be shut down for all non-excepted activities. This means that the vast majority of NIH staff that oversee program, review

  3. Department of Energy's Biological and Environmental Research Strategic Data Roadmap for Earth System Science

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Palanisamy, Giri [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shipman, Galen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boden, Thomas A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Voyles, Jimmy W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-04-25

    Rapid advances in experimental, sensor, and computational technologies and techniques are driving exponential growth in the volume, acquisition rate, variety, and complexity of scientific data. This wealth of scientifically meaningful data has tremendous potential to lead to scientific discovery. However, to achieve scientific breakthroughs, these data must be exploitable—they must be analyzed effectively and efficiently and the results shared and communicated easily within the wider Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) community. The explosion in data complexity and scale makes these tasks exceedingly difficult to achieve, particularly given that an increasing number of disciplines are working across techniques, integrating simulation and experimental or observational results (see Table 5 in Appendix 2). Consequently, we need new approaches to data management, analysis, and visualization that provide research teams with easy-to-use and scalable end-to-end solutions. These solutions must facilitate (and where feasible, automate and capture) every stage in the data lifecycle (shown in Figure 1), from collection to management, annotation, sharing, discovery, analysis, and visualization. In addition, the core functionalities are the same across climate science communities, but they require customization to adapt to specific needs and fit into research and analysis workflows. To this end, the mission of CESD’s Data and Informatics Program is to integrate all existing and future distributed CESD data holdings into a seamless and unified environment for the acceleration of Earth system science.

  4. Community-based participatory clinical research in obesity by adolescents: pipeline for researchers of the future.

    PubMed

    Branch, Robert; Chester, Ann

    2009-10-01

    We propose a novel, untapped opportunity, challenging cultural and man-power barriers to transferring advances in biomedical science knowledge that will improve community health care (Type II Clinical Translational Research) in a medically underserved community. We describe a pilot model in which adolescents apply principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) at the epicenter of the obesity diabetes epidemic in rural Appalachia in West Virginia. The model invites minority, financially disadvantaged, and educationally disadvantaged adolescents to become educated on ethics, then provides infrastructure to support study design and conduct of CBPR. This experience demonstrates that these adolescents can effi ciently, with quality and integrity, reach into the most vulnerable of communities and their own families to show that the prevalence of obesity is at 50% and diabetes 10.4% (n= 989). Our experience illustrates the infrastructure requirements for this strategy to be successful and emphasizes the substantial benefit that could accrue if the model is successfully sustained. The benefit includes not only the translation of knowledge to influence community lifestyle behavior but also the creation of a pipeline of new biomedical scientists for the future. PMID:20443918

  5. Toward a culturally anchored ecological framework of research in ethnic-cultural communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Sasao; Stanley Sue

    1993-01-01

    Proposed a research framework (the “cube” model) in which community psychologists working in ethnic-cultural communities can make appropriate decisions on conceptual and methodological issues from a culturally anchored, ecological-contextualist perspective. The intent of the model is to articulate ethnic-cultural heterogeneity in community research by elucidating three metamethodological issues: (a) definition of an ethnic-cultural community, (b) applicability of cross-cultural theories and

  6. Silicon’s organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen-ji; Lin, Peng; He, Jian-yuan; Yang, Zhi-wei; Lin, Yi-ming

    2006-01-01

    Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon’s biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon’s erosion of soil particles. A study on the organic pool and biological cycle of silicon (Si) of the moso bamboo community was conducted in Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve, China. The results showed that: (1) the standing crop of the moso bamboo community was 13355.4 g/m2, of which 53.61%, 45.82% and 0.56% are represented by the aboveground and belowground parts of moso bamboos, and the understory plants, respectively; (2) the annual net primary production of the community was 2887.1 g/(m2·a), among which the aboveground part, belowground part, litterfalls, and other fractions, accounted for 55.86%, 35.30%, 4.50% and 4.34%, respectively; (3) silicon concentration in stem, branch, leaf, base of stem, root, whip of bamboos, and other plants was 0.15%, 0.79%, 3.10%, 4.40%, 7.32%, 1.52% and 1.01%, respectively; (4) the total Si accumulated in the standing crop of moso bamboo community was 448.91 g/m2, with 99.83% of Si of the total community stored in moso bamboo populations; (5) within moso bamboo community, the annual uptake, retention, and return of Si were 95.75, 68.43, 27.32 g/(m2·a), respectively; (6) the turnover time of Si, which is the time an average atom of Si remains in the soil before it is recycled into the trees or shrubs, was 16.4 years; (7) the enrichment ratio of Si in the moso bamboo community, which is the ratio of the mean concentration of nutrients in the net primary production to the mean concentration of nutrients in the biomass of a community, was 0.64; and lastly, (8) moso bamboo plants stored about 1.26×1010 kg of silicon in the organic pool made up by the moso bamboo forests in the subtropical area of China. PMID:17048297

  7. Engaging and sustaining adolescents in community-based participatory research: structuring a youth-friendly community-based participatory research environment.

    PubMed

    LoIacono Merves, Marni; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low-income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly Community-Based Participatory Research environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners. PMID:25423241

  8. Genetic research participation in a young adult community sample.

    PubMed

    Storr, Carla L; Or, Flora; Eaton, William W; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    Opposed to large nationally sponsored health initiatives or biobanks, little is known about gathering genetic samples from young adults participating in academic community-based epidemiologic studies of mental health and substance use, especially samples with a large number of minority participants. This study describes our experience of establishing a genetic arm within a longitudinal study of a cohort of young adults (mean age 29, 75 % African American, 58 % female). In total, 75 % of those interviewed in the most recent wave donated a DNA sample (31.6 % blood and 68.4 % saliva) and over 90 % provided consent for storage and sharing. Current smokers were more likely to donate a sample than nonsmokers (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)?=?1.59, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.14, 2.22). The odds of obtaining a saliva sample were increased for those who were former cannabis smokers and who drank more regularly, but decreased among participants with less education and a history with drug use. Fewer minorities (aOR?=?0.37, 95 % CI?=?0.18, 0.75; p?=?0.006) and cannabis users (aOR?=?0.46, 95 % CI?=?0.27, 0.77) consented to sharing their sample with other investigators. Findings also illustrate there are many study parameters that are important in planning biologic collection efforts. Building strong rapport and trust with subjects, minimizing the burden involved by the respondent to obtain a biological sample, offering a choice to provide blood or saliva, and offering an incentive will increase the likelihood of obtaining a sample and, importantly, increase the opportunity to store and share the sample for the future. PMID:24948529

  9. Perceptions of community-based participatory research in the delta nutrition intervention research initiative:an academic perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic-community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been employed to develop susta...

  10. The roles of biological interactions and pollutant contamination in shaping microbial benthic community structure.

    PubMed

    Louati, Hela; Said, Olfa Ben; Soltani, Amel; Got, Patrice; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert; Aissa, Patricia; Pringault, Olivier

    2013-11-01

    Biological interactions between metazoans and the microbial community play a major role in structuring food webs in aquatic sediments. Pollutants can also strongly affect the structure of meiofauna and microbial communities. This study aims investigating, in a non-contaminated sediment, the impact of meiofauna on bacteria facing contamination by a mixture of three PAHs (fluoranthene, phenanthrene and pyrene). Sediment microcosms were incubated in the presence or absence of meiofauna during 30 days. Bioremediation treatments, nutrient amendment and addition of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium, were also tested to enhance PAH biodegradation. Results clearly show the important role of meiofauna as structuring factor for bacterial communities with significant changes observed in the molecular fingerprints. However, these structural changes were not concomitant with changes in biomass or function. PAH contamination had a severe impact on total meiofaunal abundance with a strong decrease of nematodes and the complete disappearance of polychaetes and copepods. In contrast, correspondence analysis, based on T-RFLP fingerprints, showed that contamination by PAH resulted in small shifts in microbial composition, with or without meiofauna, suggesting a relative tolerance of bacteria to the PAH cocktail. The PAH bioremediation treatments were highly efficient with more than 95% biodegradation. No significant difference was observed in presence or absence of meiofauna. Nutrient addition strongly enhanced bacterial and meiofaunal abundances as compared to control and contaminated microcosms, as well as inducing important changes in the bacterial community structure. Nutrients thus were the main structural factor in shaping bacterial community composition, while the role of meiofauna was less evident. PMID:24206831

  11. Community Control and Self-Determination in Aboriginal Education Research: The Changed Roles, Relationships and Responsibilities of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Researchers and Aboriginal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shayne; Stewart, Ian

    This paper examines ongoing changes related to appropriate methods and practices in Aboriginal educational research, including community control of research based on the principle of self-determination. This assertion of control includes the redefinition of relationships in the research process; appropriate initiation of research projects;…

  12. Ethical Dilemmas in Community-Based Participatory Research: Recommendations for Institutional Review Boards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Flicker; Robb Travers; Adrian Guta; Sean McDonald; Aileen Meagher

    2007-01-01

    National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater\\u000a adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue\\u000a to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective\\u000a new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process

  13. 2010 Tetrapyrroles, Chemistry & Biology of Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Angela Wilks

    2010-07-30

    The objective of the Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles Gordon Conference is to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines that otherwise would not interact. By bringing biologists, chemists, engineers and clinicians with a common interest in tetrapyrroles the conference provides a forum for cross-disciplinary ideas and collaboration. The perspective provided by biologists, chemists, and clinicians working in fields such as newly discovered defects in human porphyrin metabolism, the myriad of strategies for light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms, novel tetrapyrroles that serve as auxiliary chromophores or enzyme cofactors, synthetic strategies in the design of novel tetrapyrrole scaffolds, and tetrapyrrole based cell signaling and regulatory systems, makes this conference unique in the field. Over the years the growing evidence for the role of tetrapyrroles and their reactive intermediates in cell signaling and regulation has been of increasing importance at this conference. The 2010 conference on Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles will focus on many of these new frontiers as outlined in the preliminary program listed. Speakers will emphasize unpublished results and new findings in the field. The oral sessions will be followed by the highly interactive afternoon poster sessions. The poster sessions provide all conferees with the opportunity to present their latest research and to exchange ideas in a more informal setting. As in the past, this opportunity will continue during the nightly social gathering that takes place in the poster hall following the evening lectures. All conferees are encouraged to submit and present posters. At the conference the best poster in the areas of biology, chemistry and medicine will be selected by a panel of previous conference chairs.

  14. Community Member and Faith Leader Perspectives on the Process of Building Trusting Relationships Between Communities and Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Vaughan, Elaine; Pham, Jennifer; Tran, Tuyet; Jones, Marissa; Baker, Dean; Swanson, James M.; Olshansky, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    In the first phase of this research, we conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed seven focus groups with more than 50 English- or Spanish-speaking women of childbearing age. Qualitative analysis revealed the following themes: 1) expectation that participation would involve relationships based on trust that is built over time and impacted by cultural factors; 2) perceived characteristics of research staff that would help facilitate the development of trusting relationships; 3) perceptions about the location of the visits that may affect trust; 4) perceptions of a research study and trust for the institution conducting the study may affect trust; 5) connecting the study to larger communities, including faith communities, could affect trust and willingness to participate. In the second phase of this research, we conducted, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed interviews with leaders from diverse faith communities to explore the potential for research partnerships between researchers and faith communities. In addition to confirming themes identified in focus groups, faith leaders described an openness to research partnerships between the university and faith communities and considerations for the formation of these partnerships. Faith leaders noted the importance of finding common ground with researchers, establishing and maintaining trusting relationships, and committing to open, bidirectional communication. PMID:24405695

  15. Community member and faith leader perspectives on the process of building trusting relationships between communities and researchers.

    PubMed

    Lakes, Kimberley D; Vaughan, Elaine; Pham, Jennifer; Tran, Tuyet; Jones, Marissa; Baker, Dean; Swanson, James M; Olshansky, Ellen

    2014-02-01

    In the first phase of this research, we conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed seven focus groups with more than 50 English- or Spanish-speaking women of childbearing age. Qualitative analysis revealed the following themes: (1) expectation that participation would involve relationships based on trust that is built over time and impacted by cultural factors; (2) perceived characteristics of research staff that would help facilitate the development of trusting relationships; (3) perceptions about the location of the visits that may affect trust; (4) perceptions of a research study and trust for the institution conducting the study may affect trust; (5) connecting the study to larger communities, including faith communities, could affect trust and willingness to participate. In the second phase of this research, we conducted, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed interviews with leaders from diverse faith communities to explore the potential for research partnerships between researchers and faith communities. In addition to confirming themes identified in focus groups, faith leaders described an openness to research partnerships between the university and faith communities and considerations for the formation of these partnerships. Faith leaders noted the importance of finding common ground with researchers, establishing and maintaining trusting relationships, and committing to open, bidirectional communication. PMID:24405695

  16. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0%) and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%), community programs (61.4%) and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%). Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0%) and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%), community programs (33.8%) and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%). Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated. PMID:22233608

  17. Community Based Participatory Research to Reduce Oral Health Disparities in American Indian Children

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, T; Sharma, T; Harper, M; Zacher, T; Roan, R; George, C; Swyers, E; Toledo, N; Batliner, T; Braun, PA; Albino, J

    2015-01-01

    Community based participatory research is an approach aimed to equitably involve community members, representatives, and academic researchers in all aspects of the research process. Using this methodology can help integrate cultural knowledge into interventions, supporting researchers to effectively partner with communities in addressing health disparities. The Center for Native Oral Health Research (CNOHR) collaborates with two American Indian (AI) tribes to advance oral health knowledge and practice, including the conduct of randomized controlled clinical trials of culturally sensitive behavioral interventions for primary prevention of early childhood caries (ECC). This manuscript describes the development of researcher–community partnership, and the development and implementation of the two clinical trial in the community. It also gives a detailed account of the strategies developed through the community input in recruitment and retention of the study participants and finally the lessons learnt during the study implementation.

  18. Microbial communities involved in biological ammonium removal from coal combustion wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Fisher, L Suzanne; Brodie, Greg A; Phelps, Tommy J

    2013-07-01

    The efficiency of a novel integrated treatment system for biological removal of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and heavy metals from fossil power plant effluent was evaluated. Microbial communities were analyzed using bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (Sanger sequences) and 454 pyrosequencing technology. While seasonal changes in microbial community composition were observed, the significant (P?=?0.001) changes in bacterial and archaeal communities were consistent with variations in ammonium concentration. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed an increase of potential ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), Nitrosomonas, Nitrosococcus, Planctomycetes, and OD1, in samples with elevated ammonium concentration. Other bacteria, such as Nitrospira, Nitrococcus, Nitrobacter, Thiobacillus, ?-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Acidobacteria, which play roles in nitrification and denitrification, were also detected. The AOB oxidized 56 % of the ammonium with the concomitant increase in nitrite and ultimately nitrate in the trickling filters at the beginning of the treatment system. Thermoprotei within the phylum Crenarchaeota thrived in the splitter box and especially in zero-valent iron extraction trenches, where an additional 25 % of the ammonium was removed. The potential ammonium-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) (Candidatus Nitrosocaldus) were detected towards the downstream end of the treatment system. The design of an integrated treatment system consisting of trickling filters, zero-valent iron reaction cells, settling pond, and anaerobic wetlands was efficient for the biological removal of ammonium and several other contaminants from wastewater generated at a coal burning power plant equipped with selective catalytic reducers for nitrogen oxide removal. PMID:23314095

  19. Academic-community collaboration, gender research, and development: pitfalls and possibilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Cottrell; Jane L. Parpart

    2006-01-01

    Collaboration has become a watchword for development practitioners and theorists. Yet collaboration or partnerships between academics and community-based researchers and activists have often proved difficult. This is particularly true for partnerships with smaller, grassroots community researchers, who are generally less resourced than their academic partners. This paper focuses on such partnerships in gender research, with the aim of reflecting on

  20. DNA on Loan: Issues to Consider when Carrying Out Genetic Research with Aboriginal Families and Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Arbour; Doris Cook

    2006-01-01

    In the current research milieu where genetic etiology is considered a critical component in the discovery of pathogenesis, aboriginal families and communities affected with genetic conditions may be considered as research participants. However, because of concerns about the impact of genetic information and historical harmful research practices, some aboriginal communities have considerable unease when faced with this prospect. Therefore, in

  1. A Virtue Ethics Guide to Best Practices for Community-Based Participatory Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjorie A. Schaffer

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rule ethics, or principled thinking, is important in the analysis of risks and benefits of research and informed consent, but is not completely adequate for guiding ethical responses to communities as research participants and collaborators. Virtue ethics theory can be used to guide actions in relationships, which are foundational to the implementation of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Virtues are

  2. Ethics and Community-Based Participatory Research: Perspectives From the Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena M. Bastida; Tung-Sung Tseng; Corliss McKeever; Leonard Jack

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring

  3. UNH Center for Freshwater Biology Research Vol 13(2): 10-17 (2011) Invasion of a littoral cladoceran Sida crystallina into the pelagic zone of Christine

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    2011-01-01

    UNH Center for Freshwater Biology Research Vol 13(2): 10-17 (2011) 10 Invasion of a littoral This study evaluated the phytoplankton community and grazing influences of the zooplankton in oligotrophic Freshwat. Biol. Res. Vol 13(2): 10-17 (2011) Introduction Trophic interactions are important in explaining

  4. Bacterial Community and “Candidatus Accumulibacter” Population Dynamics in Laboratory-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Reactors ? †

    PubMed Central

    He, Shaomei; Bishop, Forrest I.; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2010-01-01

    “Candidatus Accumulibacter” and total bacterial community dynamics were studied in two lab-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) reactors by using a community fingerprint technique, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). We first evaluated the quantitative capability of ARISA compared to quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). ARISA and qPCR provided comparable relative quantification of the two dominant “Ca. Accumulibacter” clades (IA and IIA) detected in our reactors. The quantification of total “Ca. Accumulibacter” 16S rRNA genes relative to that from the total bacterial community was highly correlated, with ARISA systematically underestimating “Ca. Accumulibacter” abundance, probably due to the different normalization techniques applied. During 6 months of normal (undisturbed) operation, the distribution of the two clades within the total “Ca. Accumulibacter” population was quite stable in one reactor while comparatively dynamic in the other reactor. However, the variance in the clade distribution did not appear to affect reactor performance. Instead, good EBPR activity was positively associated with the abundance of total “Ca. Accumulibacter.” Therefore, we concluded that the different clades in the system provided functional redundancy. We disturbed the reactor operation by adding nitrate together with acetate feeding in the anaerobic phase to reach initial reactor concentrations of 10 mg/liter NO3-N for 35 days. The reactor performance deteriorated with a concomitant decrease in the total “Ca. Accumulibacter” population, suggesting that a population shift was the cause of performance upset after a long exposure to nitrate in the anaerobic phase. PMID:20601516

  5. Mental Health Service Needs of a Latino Population: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona M. Shattell; Sharon S. Starr; Courtney J. Jenkins; Norma Angelica Hinderliter

    2008-01-01

    Made available courtesy of Taylor and Francis: http:\\/\\/www.informaworld.com\\/smpp\\/title~content=t713669522 ***Note: Figures may be missing from this format of the document Abstract: Community-based participatory research bridges the gap between academic researchers and the real-life issues of communities and offers promise for addressing racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care. The purpose of this community-based participatory research was to identify factors that

  6. Beyond the Medical Model: Interdisciplinary Programs of Community-Engaged Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Lois S.; Newlin, Kelley H; Johnson-Spruill, Ida; Jenkins, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This report describes four diverse programs of community-engaged research, all of which demonstrated positive health outcomes. Three of the programs were focused on communities of people with diabetes, and one program targeted at-risk young families raising infants and young children. Brief descriptions of each research study and outcomes are presented as well as a discussion of the processes and lessons that were learned from each model of successful interdisciplinary community-university health research partnerships. PMID:21884518

  7. Collaborative Classroom Management. Video to Accompany "A Biological Brain in a Cultural Classroom: Applying Biological Research to Classroom Management." [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This 43-minute VHS videotape is designed to be used in course and workshop settings with "A Biological Brain in a Cultural Classroom: Applying Biological Research to Classroom Management." The videotape's principal values are as an introduction to the issues explored in the book and as a catalyst for group discussions and activities related to…

  8. Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife Biology, Ecology, and Management

    E-print Network

    Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife Biology, Ecology, and Management of Western Hemlock Dwarf Mistletoe in Coastal British.W. Negrave. 2007. Biology, Ecology, and Management of Western Hemlock Dwarf Mistletoe in Coastal British

  9. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research and evaluation. A biological...

  10. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research and evaluation. A biological...

  11. A First Attempt to Bring Computational Biology into Advanced High School Biology Classrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Renick Gallagher; William Coon; Kristin Donley; Abby Scott; Debra S. Goldberg

    2011-01-01

    Computer science has become ubiquitous in many areas of biological research, yet most high school and even college students are unaware of this. As a result, many college biology majors graduate without adequate computational skills for contemporary fields of biology. The absence of a computational element in secondary school biology classrooms is of growing concern to the computational biology community

  12. Pharmacogenetic research in partnership with American Indian and Alaska Native communities

    PubMed Central

    Woodahl, Erica L; Lesko, Lawrence J; Hopkins, Scarlett; Robinson, Renee F; Thummel, Kenneth E; Burke, Wylie

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics is a subset of personalized medicine that applies knowledge about genetic variation in gene–drug pairs to help guide optimal dosing. There is a lack of data, however, about pharmacogenetic variation in underserved populations. One strategy for increasing participation of underserved populations in pharmacogenetic research is to include communities in the research process. We have established academic–community partnerships with American Indian and Alaska Native people living in Alaska and Montana to study pharmacogenetics. Key features of the partnership include community oversight of the project, research objectives that address community health priorities, and bidirectional learning that builds capacity in both the community and the research team. Engaging the community as coresearchers can help build trust to advance pharmacogenetic research objectives. PMID:25141898

  13. Introduction to special issue: advancing the ethics of community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Shore, Nancy; Wong, Kristine A; Seifer, Sarena D; Grignon, Jessica; Gamble, Vanessa Northington

    2008-06-01

    Increasingly communities are engaging in community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address their pressing health concerns, frequently in partnership with institutions. CBPR with its underlying values challenges us to expand the traditional framework of ethical analysis to include community-level and partnership-oriented considerations. This special issue considers ethical considerations inherent in CBPR, presents examples of how communities have created their own processes for research ethics review, and identifies challenges CBPR teams may encounter with institution-based research ethics committees. Drawing upon the special issue articles and the work conducted by Community-Campus Partnerships for Health and the Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care, we propose an approach and a set of strategies to create a system of research ethics review that more fully accounts for individual and community-level considerations. PMID:19385741

  14. An Interactive and Contextual Model of Community-University Collaborations for Research and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Harper, Gary W.; Lewis, Rhonda

    2005-01-01

    Community-university partnerships for research and action are at the heart of many fields in the social sciences including public health, urban planning, education, and community psychology. These partnerships involve individuals from different backgrounds and disciplines working together to address social issues of importance to the community.…

  15. Community Geography as a Model for International Research Experiences in Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorne, Timothy L.; Atchison, Christopher; LangBruttig, Artis

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative engagement with local residents and organizations is often cited as one of the most valuable aspects of community-based research integration in classroom settings. However, little has been written on the impact of community engagement in international study abroad programs. We explore the use of community geography in Belize to…

  16. The contested terrain of environmental justice research: community as unit of analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W Williams

    1999-01-01

    Social scientists have entered the debate over the environmental inequities facing the poor in general, and communities of color in particular. Crucial to their empirical studies is the operational definition of “community” as a unit of analysis. Different operationalizations of community exist, leading to divergent conclusions about the extent of the problem. Earlier research concluded that inequities were national in

  17. The adaptation and implementation of a community-based participatory research curriculum to build tribal research capacity.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Jacob, Tvli; Styne, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    We studied community-based participatory research in American Indian/Alaska Native communities. We have presented a case study describing a community-clinic-academic partnership with the goal of building tribal capacity and infrastructure to conduct health disparities research. The 2-year intensive training was guided by the framework of an evidence- and community-based participatory research curriculum, adapted and implemented with practice-based data collection activities and seminars to address issues specific to community-based participatory research with sovereign tribal nations. The initiative highlighted important challenges and opportunities in transdisciplinary partnerships; identified gaps in conducting health disparities research at the tribal, clinical, and university levels; and led to important policy change initiatives in all the partner settings. PMID:25905848

  18. COMMUNITY ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL RESEARCH Testing successional hypotheses of stability, heterogeneity,

    E-print Network

    Miller, Thomas E.

    or tested: (1) individual communities become more stable over time, (2) replicate communities become more succession as a common phenomenon in which a com- munity changes through a predictable series of succes

  19. Building capacity for community-based participatory research for health disparities in Canada: the case of "Partnerships in Community Health Research".

    PubMed

    Masuda, Jeffrey R; Creighton, Genevieve; Nixon, Sean; Frankish, James

    2011-03-01

    Enthusiasm for community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasing among health researchers and practitioners in addressing health disparities. Although there are many benefits of CBPR, such as its ability to democratize knowledge and link research to community action and social change, there are also perils that researchers can encounter that can threaten the integrity of the research and undermine relationships. Despite the increasing demand for CBPR-qualified individuals, few programs exist that are capable of facilitating in-depth and experiential training for both students and those working in communities. This article reviews the Partnerships in Community Health Research (PCHR), a training program at the University of British Columbia that between 2001 and 2009 has equipped graduate student and community-based learners with knowledge, skills, and experience to engage together more effectively using CBPR. With case studies of PCHR learner projects, this article illustrates some of the important successes and lessons learned in preparing CBPR-qualified researchers and community-based professionals in Canada. PMID:21057046

  20. Faculty beliefs, perceptions, and level of community involvement in their research: a survey at one urban academic institution.

    PubMed

    Goldberg-Freeman, Clara; Kass, Nancy; Gielen, Andrea; Tracey, Patricia; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Farfel, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Health researchers are increasingly interested in how best to engage communities in their health-related research studies. To help determine how researchers have interacted with community members in their research, we conducted a survey of full-time faculty from the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions regarding researchers' beliefs and experiences with community-based research. Approximately 41% of respondents who conducted human subject studies had enrolled local residents in their research. Researchers whose studies were based in the surrounding community were significantly more likely to involve community members in all stages of their research (e.g., selection of the problem, project planning, data collection, interpretation and dissemination of results, or developing an intervention) than were faculty whose studies enrolled community members as research participants but whose studies were not set in the community. Over 90% of all faculty respondents agree that community involvement improves the relevance of their research, although almost 60% had not done so. Most faculty value community involvement, but they want more institutional support for such activities and they seek better skills to involve community. Few studies have surveyed researchers who enroll community members as research participants to document practices regarding community involvement in the research process. Given that the majority (73.6%) of faculty responded that they intend to include local residents in their upcoming studies, future research to evaluate interventions designed to facilitate community involvement, especially in the inner city, would help stakeholders identify best practices for involving and engaging communities in health research. PMID:21133788

  1. Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenberger, A. G.; Kross, B.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J.; McKisson, J. E.; Xi, W.; Zorn, C.; Howell, C. R.; Crowell, A. S.; Reid, C. D.; Smith, M.

    2013-08-01

    The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: 11C has been utilized as a 11CO2 tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the 11CO2 radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using 11CO2. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for 11CO2 tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

  2. Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenberger, Andrew G. [JLAB; Kross, Brian J. [JLAB; Lee, Seung Joo [JLAB; McKisson, John E. [JLAB; Xi, Wenze [JLAB; Zorn, Carl J. [JLAB; Howell, Calvin [DUKE; Crowell, A.S. [DUKE; Reid, C.D. [DUKE; Smith, Mark [MARYLAND U.

    2013-08-01

    The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: {sup 11}C has been utilized as a {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the {sup 11}CO{sub 2} radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using {sup 11}CO{sub 2}. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

  3. Research Leadership for the Community-Engaged University: Key Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Angie; Church, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In Great Britain, attempts to broaden university-community engagement have taken significant steps in recent years. A wide variety of community-engagement structures and activities are now emerging. This paper uses one innovative example--University of Brighton's Community-University Partnership Program--to describe the opportunities and probe the…

  4. The research of city community safety management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lizhen Liu; Maohong Zhang; Lei Chen; Chao Du

    2010-01-01

    With the development of society, more and more emphasis put on community safety, Community Safety Manager plays an important positive role in maintaining social safety and stability and the promotion of social harmony. Therefore, How to implement the innovative model of community management system, strengthening grass-roots development and democratic self-government building and improve the city economic, political and cultural development

  5. COMMUNITY READINESS FOR NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTION RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To present findings from an assessing of community readiness for nutrition and physical activities in three rural Delta communities. Methods: The Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Survey, an instrument that translates qualitative interviews into six dimensions of readiness, was adapted for ...

  6. Making the Difference: Research and Practice in Community Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Martin J.; Melaville, Atelia; Shah, Bela P.

    2003-01-01

    Through this report, the Coalition for Community Schools, an alliance of more than 160 national, state, and local organizations, makes the case that community schools offer a practical and effective strategy for educating all children to their full potential. It outlines the advantages of community schools and the conditions for learning that…

  7. Blended Hydrometeorological Products for the Research and Operational Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, S. Q.; Vonder Haar, T. H.; Forsythe, J.

    2013-12-01

    With advances in environmental parameter retrieval algorithms and their use of a wide array of satellite instruments, constantly changing views of Earth are possible. Enabling users to reap the benefits of this data requires good communication about the products. More and more, new near-realtime blended multisensor satellite products are becoming available to the weather forecaster, who must quickly decide whether the product is helpful or not. Research users of blended products can take more time to explore the suitability of these data for their applications, but communication and guidance from the data provider is essential. An effort under NASA's Making Earth Science Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program has reprocessed and extended the NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP) dataset, which now includes data from 1988-2009. The new dataset is named NVAP-M and includes global grids of both total and layered precipitable water vapor, as well as data source codes for each grid box. NVAP-M is distributed to the weather and climate research community via the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The global (land and ocean) NVAP-M dataset features different product types designed to fit a variety of user needs on a variety of time scales, from weather case studies to studies of climate change and trends. In particular, a three-track approach focused on weather, climate and ocean applications was chosen. Challenges and lessons learned in communicating with the diverse user community for NVAP-M (e.g., hydrologists, weather and climate scientists, epidemiologists) will be presented. Close relatives of NVAP-M are the NOAA Operational Blended Total Precipitable Water and Blended Rain Rate products. These products are available hourly in near-real time to National Weather Service forecast offices and are valuable for precipitation analysis and forecasting. They are created from a composite of passive microwave instruments on board typically six polar orbiting satellites. The types of comments from users, how they are trained to use the blended products, and the process for user feedback and product modifications will be discussed.

  8. Towards Building a Bridge between Community Engagement in Research (CEnR) and Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed M; Nelson, David; Kissack, Anne; Franco, Zeno; Whittle, Jeff; Kotchen, Theodore; Meurer, John R; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Brandenburg, Terry

    2015-04-01

    A major national priority is establishing an effective infrastructure for translation of scientific discoveries into the community. Knowledge and practice continue to accelerate in health research yet healthcare recommendation adoption remains slow for practitioners, patients, and communities. Two areas of research placed in the later stages of the translational research spectrum, Community Engagement in Research and Comparative Effectiveness Research, are ideal for approaching this challenge collaboratively. The Clinical and Translational Science Institute of Southeastern Wisconsin convened academics and community-based organizations familiar with these fields of research in a 1-day workshop to establish an initial dialogue on similarities and differences with a goal of exploring ways to operationalize a collective effort. Participants represented four academic institutions and twelve other healthcare and community-based service organizations. Primary fields of study included community engaged research, comparative effectiveness research, psychology, clinical research, administration, nursing, public health, education, and other professionals. This initial report outlines the results of this diverse discussion and provides insights into the priorities, diverging issues, and areas for future examination and practice. Key discoveries reveal clear crosscutting issues, value in philosophical and provocative discussions among investigators, a need for practice and lessons learned, and bidirectional exchange with community representation. PMID:25441215

  9. Introduction to Special Issue: Advancing the Ethics of Community-Based Participatory Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Shore; Kristine A. Wong; Sarena D. Seifer; Jessica Grignon; Vanessa Northington Gamble

    2008-01-01

    INCREASINGLY COMMUNITIES ARE ENGAGING in community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address their pressing health concerns, frequently in partnership with institutions. CBPR with its underlying values challenges us to expand the traditional frame- work of ethical analysis to include community-level and partnership-oriented considerations. This special issue considers ethical considerations inherent in CBPR, presents examples of how communities have created their own

  10. Community-based research as a mechanism to reduce environmental health disparities in american Indian and alaska native communities.

    PubMed

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K; Doyle, John T; Eggers, Margaret J; Ford, Tim E; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees-tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators-have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019

  11. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, David S.

    2008-07-15

    The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages. The development of publicly accessible, web-based servers, including the HOTPATCH server, the ProKnow Server and the SAVEs server. All of these are accessible from the home page of the Institute. Advancing the science of bioenergy, in the laboratories of the Principal Investigators of the Institute, including the laboratories of Shimon Weiss, James Liao, James Bowie, Todd Yeates, Rob Gunsalus.

  12. Consulting Communities When Patients Cannot Consent: A Multi-Center Study of Community Consultation for Research in Emergency Settings

    PubMed Central

    Dickert, Neal W; Mah, Victoria A; Biros, Michelle H; Harney, Deneil M; Silbergleit, Robert; Sugarman, Jeremy; Veledar, Emir; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Wright, David W; Pentz, Rebecca D

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the range of responses to community consultation efforts conducted within a large network and the impact of different consultation methods on acceptance of exception from informed consent (EFIC) research and understanding of the proposed study. Design A cognitively pre-tested survey instrument was administered to 2,612 community consultation participants at 12 US centers participating in a multi-center trial of treatment for acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). Setting Survey nested within community consultation for a Phase III, randomized controlled trial of treatment for acute TBI conducted within a multi-center trial network and using EFIC. Subjects Adult participants in community consultation events. Interventions Community consultation efforts at participating sites. Measurements and Main Results Acceptance of EFIC in general, attitude toward personal EFIC enrollment, and understanding of the study content were assessed. 54% of participants agreed EFIC was acceptable in the proposed study; 71% were accepting of personal EFIC enrollment. Participants in interactive versus non-interactive community consultation events were more accepting of EFIC in general (63% vs. 49%) and personal EFIC inclusion (77% vs. 67%). Interactive community consultation participants had high-level recall of study content significantly more often than non-interactive consultation participants (77% vs. 67%). Participants of interactive consultation were more likely to recall possible study benefits (61% vs. 45%) but less likely to recall potential risks (56% vs. 69%). Conclusions Interactive community consultation methods were associated with increased acceptance of EFIC and greater overall recall of study information but lower recall of risks. There was also significant variability in EFIC acceptance among different interactive consultation events. These findings have important implications for IRBs and investigators conducting EFIC research and for community engagement efforts in research more generally. PMID:24145834

  13. Preparing the "New" Biologist of the Future: Student Research at the Interface of Mathematics and Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Sarah I.; Bishop, Pamela; Lenhart, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    We describe a unique Research Experience for Undergraduates and Research Experience for Veterinary students summer program at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis on the campus of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The program focused on interdisciplinary research at the interface of biology and mathematics.…

  14. Microgravity research in plant biological systems: Realizing the potential of molecular biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1993-01-01

    The sole all-pervasive feature of the environment that has helped shape, through evolution, all life on Earth is gravity. The near weightlessness of the Space Station Freedom space environment allows gravitational effects to be essentially uncoupled, thus providing an unprecedented opportunity to manipulate, systematically dissect, study, and exploit the role of gravity in the growth and development of all life forms. New and exciting opportunities are now available to utilize molecular biological and biochemical approaches to study the effects of microgravity on living organisms. By careful experimentation, we can determine how gravity perception occurs, how the resulting signals are produced and transduced, and how or if tissue-specific differences in gene expression occur. Microgravity research can provide unique new approaches to further our basic understanding of development and metabolic processes of cells and organisms, and to further the application of this new knowledge for the betterment of humankind.

  15. Effective recruitment strategies and community-based participatory research: Community Networks Program Centers’ recruitment in cancer prevention studies

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, K. Allen; Friedman, Daniela B.; Adams, Swann Arp; Gwede, Clement K.; Cupertino, Paula; Engelman, Kimberly K.; Meade, Cathy D.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches that involve community and academic partners in activities ranging from protocol design through dissemination of study findings can increase recruitment of medically underserved and underrepresented racial/ethnic minority populations into biomedical research. Settings/Methods Five cancer screening and prevention trials in three NCI-funded Community Networks Program Centers (CNPCs); in Florida, Kansas and South Carolina, were conducted across diverse populations. Data were collected on total time period of recruitment, ratios of participants enrolled over potential participants approached, selected CBPR strategies, capacity-building development, and systematic procedures for community stakeholder involvement. Findings Community-engaged approaches employed included establishing co-learning opportunities, participatory procedures for community-academic involvement, and community and clinical capacity building. A relatively large proportion of individuals identified for recruitment were actually approached (between 50% and 100%). The proportion of subjects who were eligible among all those approached ranged from 25% to over 70% (in the community setting). Recruitment rates were very high (78%–100% of eligible individuals approached) and the proportion who refused or who were not interested among those approached was very low (5%–11%). Conclusions Recruitment strategies used by the CNPCs were associated with low refusal and high enrollment ratios of potential subjects. Adherence to CBPR principles in the spectrum of research activities; from strategic planning to project implementation has significant potential to increase involvement in biomedical research and improve our ability to make appropriate recommendations for cancer prevention and control programming in underrepresented diverse populations. Impact CBPR strategies should be more widely implemented to enhance study recruitment. PMID:24609851

  16. Building partnerships in community-based participatory research: Budgetary and other cost considerations

    PubMed Central

    Hoeft, Theresa J.; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B.; James, Rosalina D.; Boyer, Bert B.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners’ time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077

  17. Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository: an open shared public resource of structural genomics plasmids for the biological community.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Catherine Y; Mohr, Stephanie E; Zuo, Dongmei; Hu, Yanhui; Rolfs, Andreas; Kramer, Jason; Taycher, Elena; Kelley, Fontina; Fiacco, Michael; Turnbull, Greggory; LaBaer, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    The Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository (PSI-MR; http://psimr.asu.edu) provides centralized storage and distribution for the protein expression plasmids created by PSI researchers. These plasmids are a resource that allows the research community to dissect the biological function of proteins whose structures have been identified by the PSI. The plasmid annotation, which includes the full length sequence, vector information and associated publications, is stored in a freely available, searchable database called DNASU (http://dnasu.asu.edu). Each PSI plasmid is also linked to a variety of additional resources, which facilitates cross-referencing of a particular plasmid to protein annotations and experimental data. Plasmid samples can be requested directly through the website. We have also developed a novel strategy to avoid the most common concern encountered when distributing plasmids namely, the complexity of material transfer agreement (MTA) processing and the resulting delays this causes. The Expedited Process MTA, in which we created a network of institutions that agree to the terms of transfer in advance of a material request, eliminates these delays. Our hope is that by creating a repository of expression-ready plasmids and expediting the process for receiving these plasmids, we will help accelerate the accessibility and pace of scientific discovery. PMID:19906724

  18. Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository: an open shared public resource of structural genomics plasmids for the biological community

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Catherine Y.; Mohr, Stephanie E.; Zuo, Dongmei; Hu, Yanhui; Rolfs, Andreas; Kramer, Jason; Taycher, Elena; Kelley, Fontina; Fiacco, Michael; Turnbull, Greggory; LaBaer, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    The Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository (PSI-MR; http://psimr.asu.edu) provides centralized storage and distribution for the protein expression plasmids created by PSI researchers. These plasmids are a resource that allows the research community to dissect the biological function of proteins whose structures have been identified by the PSI. The plasmid annotation, which includes the full length sequence, vector information and associated publications, is stored in a freely available, searchable database called DNASU (http://dnasu.asu.edu). Each PSI plasmid is also linked to a variety of additional resources, which facilitates cross-referencing of a particular plasmid to protein annotations and experimental data. Plasmid samples can be requested directly through the website. We have also developed a novel strategy to avoid the most common concern encountered when distributing plasmids namely, the complexity of material transfer agreement (MTA) processing and the resulting delays this causes. The Expedited Process MTA, in which we created a network of institutions that agree to the terms of transfer in advance of a material request, eliminates these delays. Our hope is that by creating a repository of expression-ready plasmids and expediting the process for receiving these plasmids, we will help accelerate the accessibility and pace of scientific discovery. PMID:19906724

  19. Edge effects in the primate community of the biological dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Bryan B; Jack, Katharine M; Spironello, Wilson R

    2014-11-01

    While much is known about abiotic and vegetative edge effects in tropical forests, considerably less is known about the impact of forest edges on large mammals. In this study, we examine edge effects in a primate community to determine: 1) the distance from the edge over which edge effects in primate density are detectable, 2) whether individual species exhibit edge effects in their density, and 3) whether biological characteristics can be used to predict primate presence in edge habitats. Given their importance to many primate species, we also examine the influence of the number of large trees. We found edge penetration distances of 150 m for the five species that experienced edge effects, suggesting that primates respond to edge-related changes in the plant community that are known to be strongest over the first 150 m. Four species had higher edge densities: Alouatta macconnelli (folivore-frugivore), Chiropotes chiropotes (frugivorous seed predator), Saguinus midas (frugivore-faunivore), and Sapajus apella apella (frugivore-faunivore); one species' density was lower: Ateles paniscus (frugivore); and the final species, Pithecia chrysocephala (frugivorous seed predator), did not show an edge-related pattern. The lone significant relationship between the biological characteristics examined (body weight, diet, group size, and home range size) and primate presence in edge habitats was a negative relationship with the amount of fruit consumed. Though we did not examine primate responses to edges that border a denuded matrix, we have shown that edges influence primate distribution even following decades of secondary forest regeneration at habitat edges. PMID:25130367

  20. Training in Research Ethics and Standards for Community Health Workers and Promotores Engaged in Latino Health Research.

    PubMed

    Nebeker, Camille; Kalichman, Michael; Talavera, Ana; Elder, John

    2015-07-01

    A model frequently used to implement community-based research involves engaging local community health workers who are trusted members of the community and familiar with local customs, language, and culture. In Spanish-speaking communities, the CHWs are also known as promotores de salud ("health promoters"). Depending on the study design and nature of the research, promotores facilitate research through community outreach, instrument design, participant recruitment, intervention delivery, data collection, and other research-related tasks. In 2000, the National Institutes of Health published a regulation requiring training of "key personnel" named on NIH-supported research involving human subjects. Regardless of whether promotores are technically designated as key personnel on a particular study, they may benefit from training in research ethics. Unfortunately, the educational programs designed for academic researchers in response to the NIH mandate were poorly aligned with the needs of promotores and not suited for learning about human research ethics applied to the community health setting. For example, many promotores in our California-Mexico border region are monolingual Spanish speakers who have no formal academic research training. Therefore, we set out to develop a training alternative appropriate to our local CHWs. In this essay, we provide overviews of the relevant instructional design principles and our formative research process, including examples of key findings. PMID:26152386

  1. Report of the Research Secretariat on Social Services and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    The Research Secretariat on Social Services and Community Development was one of the five Hispanic research task forces funded by the Ford Foundation to determine Hispanic research priorities. Its three major purposes were the following: (1) to develop an Hispanic research and policy agenda which recommends research activities and prioritizes…

  2. Toward a Conversation System Modeling Research Methodology for Studying Computer-Mediated Learning Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppicini, Rocci J.

    2002-01-01

    Examines methodological challenges in the study of computer-mediated learning communities and proposes a conversational system modeling (CSM) strategy as a guide for researchers. Discusses the growing concern for researchers to address a broader range of social, political, and cultural factors when studying computer-mediated learning communities;…

  3. Use of Community Health Workers in Research With Ethnic Minority Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeannette O. Andrews; Gwen Felton; Mary Ellen Wewers; Janie Heath

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To explore roles and effectiveness of community health workers in research with ethnic minority tvomen in the United States (US). Methods: Medline (1966-2002) and CINAHL (Cumulative hidex to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; 1982-2002) databases were used to locate puhlished research studies on the use of community health workers with ethnic minority women in the VS. Key words for

  4. The Impact of Research Strategies on University-Community College Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearon, Ronald W.; Brownlee, Irene A.

    Over the past 25 years, five large-scale research studies of community college students have been conducted in North Carolina, involving cooperation between Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the North Carolina Department of Community Colleges. The different research strategies employed in these studies can be seen as taking one…

  5. Institutionalizing Community-Based Learning and Research: The Case for External Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrader, Elizabeth; Saunders, Mary Anne; Marullo, Sam; Benatti, Sylvia; Weigert, Kathleen Maas

    2008-01-01

    Conversations continue as to whether and how community-based learning and research (CBLR) can be most effectively integrated into the mission and practice of institutions of higher education (IHEs). In 2005, eight District of Columbia- (DC-) area universities affiliated with the Community Research and Learning (CoRAL) Network engaged in a planning…

  6. Community members' engagement with and involvement in genomic research: lessons to learn from the field.

    PubMed

    Folayan, Morenike O; Oyedeji, Kolawole S; Fatusi, Olawunmi A

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we describe the potential role laypersons on ethics committees can play in ensuring community concerns are addressed in the design and implementation of genomic research. We draw inferences from the outcome of an empirical study of the impact of training of laypersons to address community engagement issues in ethics review of research protocol. While this paper does not advocate a particular solution, it describes the importance of community engagement in genomic research, the current limitations there are in engaging communities in the design of these research projects and how communities can be indirectly engaged in the design and implementation of genomic research through the engagement of laypersons on ethics committees. However, to ensure that these laypersons can play this role, their capacity needs to be built to play this role appropriately. There is evidence to show that where resources are invested in building the capacity of laypersons to play their role as community 'watchdogs' in research, they play this role aptly. Community engagement is important in genomic research as genomic researchers will increasingly require community perspectives in critical ethics decision making. PMID:23594220

  7. Beyond the Rhetoric: Implementing a Culturally Appropriate Research Project in First Nations Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Peter; Taylor-Henley, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    A participatory research project on adolescent well-being and related community factors was conducted under contract with a Manitoba tribal council organization representing nine Ojibwa communities. The project used the nominal group process and focus groups and was based on four principles of culturally appropriate research: elder input, use of…

  8. Community College Journal for Research and Planning, Volume VII, Numbers 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edith H., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Providing a forum for the exchange of information among members of the National Council for Research and Planning, this refereed journal offers articles on various aspects of community college research, management, and planning. The two issues of volume 7 contain the following articles: (1) "Case Studies of Community College High Risk Students:…

  9. Addressing Perinatal Disparities Using Community-Based Participatory Research: Data into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masho, Saba; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara; Singleton, Rose; Bradford, Judith; Chapman, Derek; Svikis, Dace

    2011-01-01

    Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers that are focused on developing…

  10. Creative Art Therapy in a Community's Participatory Research and Social Transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Kapitan; Mary Litell; Anabel Torres

    2011-01-01

    When people come together in community to practice critical inquiry, they develop a capacity to see, reflect, and become subjects of their own development. This article describes arts-based participatory action research in partnership with a nongovernmental organization in Central America. Creative art therapy was culturally adapted and practiced on the macro level to facilitate a community's art-based research, achieving outcomes

  11. Culture and Community in Research with American Indian and Alaska Native Infants, Toddlers, and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Paul; Sarche, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    In this brief essay the authors reflect on the value of community participation and cultural adaptation in their evolving research on American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) infant and toddler development. They describe three concerns identified by their AI/AN community partners in adapting established research methodologies to work in AI/AN…

  12. Network perspective of science and technology policy research community in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsin-Ning Su; Pei-Chun Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a way of mapping Sci-Tech policy research community by quantitatively analyzing Sci-Tech policy research projects funded by Taiwan government in recent thirty years. Taiwans Sci-Tech policy rsearch networks composed by research community and knowledge distribution are quantitatively investigated by the use of network theory and Taiwans Sci-Tech policy research map is created to obtain the purpose of

  13. An Engineering Approach to Management of Occupational and Community Noise Exposure at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1997-01-01

    Workplace and environmental noise issues at NASA Lewis Research Center are effectively managed via a three-part program that addresses hearing conservation, community noise control, and noise control engineering. The Lewis Research Center Noise Exposure Management Program seeks to limit employee noise exposure and maintain community acceptance for critical research while actively pursuing engineered controls for noise generated by more than 100 separate research facilities and the associated services required for their operation.

  14. Conducting Research with Tribal Communities: Sovereignty, Ethics, and Data-Sharing Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Harding; Barbara Harper; Dave Stone; Catherine O'Neill; Patricia Berger; Stuart Harris; Jamie Donatuto

    2012-01-01

    Background: When conducting research with American Indian tribes, informed consent beyond conventional institutional review board (IRB) review is needed because of the potential for adverse consequences at a community or governmental level that are unrecognized by academic researchers. Objectives: In this article, we review sovereignty, research ethics, and data-sharing considerations when doing community-based participatory health-related or natural-resource-related research with American

  15. Biological soil crusts across disturbance-recovery scenarios: effect of grazing regime on community dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Concostrina-Zubiri, L.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Martínez, I.; Flores Flores, J. L.; Reyes-Agüero, J. A.; Escudero, A.; Belnap, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Grazing represents one of the most common disturbances in drylands worldwide, affecting both ecosystem structure and functioning. Despite the efforts to understand the nature and magnitude of grazing effects on ecosystem components and processes, contrasting results continue to arise. This is particularly remarkable for the biological soil crust (BSC) communities (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichens, and bryophytes), which play an important role in soil dynamics. Here we evaluated simultaneously the effect of grazing impact on BSC communities (resistance) and recovery after livestock exclusion (resilience) in a semiarid grassland of Central Mexico. In particular, we examined BSC species distribution, species richness, taxonomical group cover (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichen, bryophyte), and composition along a disturbance gradient with different grazing regimes (low, medium, high impact) and along a recovery gradient with differently aged livestock exclosures (short-, medium-, long-term exclusion). Differences in grazing impact and time of recovery from grazing both resulted in slight changes in species richness; however, there were pronounced shifts in species composition and group cover. We found we could distinguish four highly diverse and dynamic BSC species groups: (1) species with high resistance and resilience to grazing, (2) species with high resistance but low resilience, (3) species with low resistance but high resilience, and (4) species with low resistance and resilience. While disturbance resulted in a novel diversity configuration, which may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning, we observed that 10 years of disturbance removal did not lead to the ecosystem structure found after 27 years of recovery. These findings are an important contribution to our understanding of BCS dynamics from a species and community perspective placed in a land use change context.

  16. COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES DVELOPMENT PROGRAM The Montana Healthcare Research and Education Foundation has contracted with the Montana Office of

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES DVELOPMENT PROGRAM The Montana Healthcare Research and Education Foundation has contracted with the Montana Office of Rural Health (MORH) to provide community planning are encouraged to participate in MORH's Community Health Services Development Program (CHSD). This technical

  17. Research to Reality: Moving Evidence Into Practice Through an Online Community of Practice

    PubMed Central

    La Porta, Madeline; Gallagher, Alissa; Vinson, Cynthia; Bernal, Sarah Bruce

    2014-01-01

    How can a community of practice help further the practical application of cancer control research? In 2011, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) launched an online community of practice, Research to Reality (R2R). R2R aims to infuse evidence-based strategies into communities by engaging researchers and practitioners in a joint approach to research dissemination. To measure community growth and engagement, NCI measures data across 3 program domains: content, interaction, and activity. NCI uses Web analytics, usability testing, and content analyses to manage and evaluate R2R. As of December 2013, R2R had more than 1,700 registered members. More than 500 researchers and practitioners register for the monthly cyber-seminars, and 40% return each month. R2R hosts more than 15,500 page views and 5,000 site visits in an average month. This article describes the process of convening this online community and quantifies our experiences to date. PMID:24809364

  18. Characterization of an orthovoltage biological irradiator used for radiobiological research

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Rezvan; Alaei, Parham; Spezi, Emiliano; Hui, Susanta K.

    2015-01-01

    Orthovoltage irradiators are routinely used to irradiate specimens and small animals in biological research. There are several reports on the characteristics of these units for small field irradiations. However, there is limited knowledge about use of these units for large fields, which are essential for emerging large-field irregular shape irradiations, namely total marrow irradiation used as a conditioning regimen for hematological malignancies. This work describes characterization of a self-contained Orthovoltage biological irradiator for large fields using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations that could be used to compute the dose for in vivo or in vitro studies for large-field irradiation using this or a similar unit. Percentage depth dose, profiles, scatter factors, and half-value layers were measured and analyzed. A Monte Carlo model of the unit was created and used to generate depth dose and profiles, as well as scatter factors. An ion chamber array was also used for profile measurements of flatness and symmetry. The output was determined according to AAPM Task Group 61 guidelines. The depth dose measurements compare well with published data for similar beams. The Monte Carlo–generated depth dose and profiles match our measured doses to within 2%. Scatter factor measurements indicate gradual variation of these factors with field size. Dose rate measured by placing the ion chamber atop the unit's steel plate or solid water indicate enhanced readings of 5 to 28% compared with those measured in air. The stability of output over a 5-year period is within 2% of the 5-year average. PMID:25694476

  19. The cycling hair follicle as an ideal systems biology research model

    E-print Network

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    The cycling hair follicle as an ideal systems biology research model Yusur Al-Nuaimi1,2 , Gerold in Integrative Systems Biology, Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK for publication 23 March 2010 Abstract: In the postgenomic era, systems biology has rapidly emerged as an exciting

  20. Original research article Spatiotemporal complexity of biological invasion in a space-and time-discrete

    E-print Network

    Original research article Spatiotemporal complexity of biological invasion in a space- and time Biological invasions have been attracting considerable atten- tion over the last few decades as they have for theoretical and practical ecology. In a somewhat more general context, biological invasion is a factor related

  1. SCHOLARSHIP FOR BIOLOGY MAJORS The James C. Parks Scholarship in Botanical Research

    E-print Network

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    - 1 - SCHOLARSHIP FOR BIOLOGY MAJORS The James C. Parks Scholarship in Botanical Research will award a scholarship of approximately $1000.00 to an entering freshman biology major with a keen interest project, under the supervision of a Biology faculty member. To apply for this scholarship, please submit

  2. Challenges in conducting community-driven research created by differing ways of talking and thinking about science: a researcher's perspective.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, Amy; Geary, Janis; Goodman, Karen J

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, health scientists are becoming aware that research collaborations that include community partnerships can be an effective way to broaden the scope and enhance the impact of research aimed at improving public health. Such collaborations extend the reach of academic scientists by integrating a variety of perspectives and thus strengthening the applicability of the research. Communication challenges can arise, however, when attempting to address specific research questions in these collaborations. In particular, inconsistencies can exist between scientists and community members in the use and interpretation of words and other language features, particularly when conducting research with a biomedical component. Additional challenges arise from differing perceptions of the investigative process. There may be divergent perceptions about how research questions should and can be answered, and in expectations about requirements of research institutions and research timelines. From these differences, misunderstandings can occur about how the results will ultimately impact the community. These communication issues are particularly challenging when scientists and community members are from different ethnic and linguistic backgrounds that may widen the gap between ways of talking and thinking about science, further complicating the interactions and exchanges that are essential for effective joint research efforts. Community-driven research that aims to describe the burden of disease associated with Helicobacter pylori infection is currently underway in northern Aboriginal communities located in the Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada, with the goal of identifying effective public health strategies for reducing health risks from this infection. This research links community representatives, faculty from various disciplines at the University of Alberta, as well as territorial health care practitioners and officials. This highly collaborative work will be used to illustrate, from a researcher's perspective, some of the challenges of conducting public health research in teams comprising members with varying backgrounds. The consequences of these challenges will be outlined, and potential solutions will be offered. PMID:23986884

  3. Systems Biology Toolbox for MATLAB: a computational platform for research in systems biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henning Schmidt; Mats Jirstrand

    2006-01-01

    Summary: We present a Systems Biology Toolbox for the widely used general purpose mathematical software MATLAB. The toolbox offers systems biologists an open and extensible environment, in which to explore ideas, prototype and share new algorithms, and build applica- tions for the analysis and simulation of biological and biochemical sys- tems.Additionallyitiswellsuitedforeducationalpurposes.Thetoolbox supports the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) by providing

  4. Learning how scientists work: experiential research projects to promote cell biology learning and scientific process skills.

    PubMed

    DebBurman, Shubhik K

    2002-01-01

    Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses. PMID:12669101

  5. Building Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships with a Somali Refugee Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Crista E. Johnson; Sagal A. Ali; Michčle P.-L. Shipp

    2009-01-01

    Results: The process of establishing a partnership with a Somali community is described wherein the challenges, successes, and lessons learned in the process of conducting CBPR are examined. Challenges obtaining informed consent, language barriers, and reliance on FGC self-report were surmounted through mobilization of community social networks, trust-building, and the use of a video-elicitation device. The community partnership collaborated around

  6. The Community-First Land-Centred Theoretical Framework: Bringing a "Good Mind" to Indigenous Education Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styres, Sandra D.; Zinga, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an emergent research theoretical framework, the community-first Land-centred research framework. Carefully examining the literature within Indigenous educational research, we noted the limited approaches for engaging in culturally aligned and relevant research within Indigenous communities. The community-first Land-centred…

  7. COMPUTATIONAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TRAINING PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, John

    NSF-IGERT COMPUTATIONAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TRAINING PROGRAM GRADUATE TRAINEE HANDBOOK FALL 2007 #12 for computational molecular biology. The grant, which was secured by a team of ISU and NMSU faculty, builds molecular biology community and help make quality research possible ­ such as equipping computer labs

  8. International Programs at Community Colleges. AACC Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Donna; Phinney, Lisa; Phillippe, Kent A.

    The American Association of Community Colleges conducted a year 2000 survey that was designed to determine the involvement of U.S. community colleges in international programs and services. The survey was a follow-up to a 1995 survey in the same areas. International services and programs, for the purposes of the study, are defined as programs and…

  9. Community College Transfers at UMCP. Research Brief 88-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    Information gathered by the Maryland State Board for Community Colleges and articulation staff at the University of Maryland, College Park (UNCP) was analyzed to assess the academic performance of transfer students from Prince George's Community College (PGCC) and to draw preliminary conclusions concerning retention through the bachelor's degree.…

  10. Change in the Rural Southern Appalachian Community. Research Series 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Photiadis, John

    Rural Appalachian communities are being forced to reorganize by economic pressures and higher level-of-living standards which have been impressed primarily through the mass media. Outmigration and disorganization have emerged as the means of response by these communities to imposed societal pressure. Ideally, social adjustment in rural Southern…

  11. Hot Programs at Community Colleges. AACC Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Maryam M.; Shults, Christopher

    The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) periodically conducts a survey of community colleges to identify "hot" programs, defined as programs from which students are hired immediately upon graduation. Survey findings include the following: (1) reported starting salaries for hot program graduates increased by 21% between 1997 and 2000;…

  12. The 1984 Research Report to the Texas Association of Junior and Community College Instructional Administrators. Junior and Community College Research: Texas, 1983-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Association of Junior and Community Coll. Instructional Administrators.

    Reports and abstracts of research studies conducted by members of the Research Committee of the Texas Association of Junior and Community College Instructional Administrators are provided. Section I presents the following reports: "A Learner Analysis Experiment: Cognitive Style versus Learning Style in Undergraduate Nursing Education," by Charles…

  13. Engaging Students in Authentic Microbiology Research in an Introductory Biology Laboratory Course is Correlated with Gains in Student Understanding of the Nature of Authentic Research and Critical Thinking†

    PubMed Central

    Gasper, Brittany J.; Gardner, Stephanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent recommendations for biology education highlight the role of authentic research experiences early in undergraduate education as a means of increasing the number and quality of biology majors. These experiences will inform students on the nature of science, increase their confidence in doing science, as well as foster critical thinking skills, an area that has been lacking despite it being one of the desired outcomes at undergraduate institutions and with future employers. With these things in mind, we have developed an introductory biology laboratory course where students design and execute an authentic microbiology research project. Students in this course are assimilated into the community of researchers by engaging in scholarly activities such as participating in inquiry, reading scientific literature, and communicating findings in written and oral formats. After three iterations of a semester-long laboratory course, we found that students who took the course showed a significant increase in their understanding of the nature of authentic research and their level of critical thinking skills. PMID:23858351

  14. A call for a community of practice to assess the impact of emerging technologies on undergraduate biology education.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jamie L; Dario-Becker, Juville; Hughes, Lee E; Amburn, D Sue Katz; Shaw, Joyce A

    2012-01-01

    Recent recommendations for educational research encourage empirically tested, theory-based, completely transparent, and broadly applicable studies. In light of these recommendations, we call for a research standard and community of practice in the evaluation of technology use in the undergraduate life science classroom. We outline appropriate research methodology, review and critique the past research on technology usage and, lastly, suggest a new and improved focus for research on emerging technologies. PMID:23653777

  15. Addressing Perinatal Disparities in Urban Setting: Using Community Based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Masho, Saba W.; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara B.; Chapman, Derek; Singleton, Rose; Svikis, Dace

    2012-01-01

    Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans (AA) nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers focused on developing effective and sustainable interventions and programs targeting needs of the community. The current paper details use of the Perinatal Period of Risk (PPOR) model as a method to engage communities by identifying factors influencing racial disparities in infant mortality and examining changes in those factors over a ten year period. PMID:23459130

  16. Nourishing a partnership to improve middle school lunch options: a community-based participatory research project.

    PubMed

    Reich, Stephanie M; Kay, Joseph S; Lin, Grace C

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research is predicated on building partnerships that tackle important issues to the community and effectively improve these issues. Community-based participatory research can also be an empowering experience, especially for children. This article describes a university-community partnership in which students at a low-income middle school worked to improve the quality of the cafeteria food provided to the 986 students eligible for free and reduced price lunches. The project led to menu changes, improved communication between youth, school administrators, and district staff, and enabled youth to enact school improvements that were beneficial for their health. PMID:25423246

  17. The Indigenous Resiliency Project: a worked example of community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Mooney-Somers, Julie; Maher, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is often cited as a suitable methodological approach for academic researchers wanting to work collaboratively with Indigenous communities. This paper describes the Indigenous Resiliency Project currently being conducted in Redfern, Townsville and Perth. This case study is used to demonstrate how a group of university-based researchers and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services have used CBPR to work with young Indigenous Australians to explore young people's perspectives on resilience in relation to bloodborne viruses and sexually transmissible infections. This paper also describes some initial benefits gained through the process of developing the Indigenous Resiliency CBPR Project, such as: developing research capacity; establishing relationships between community organisations and research institutions; and prioritising ethical and social considerations in the conduct of research. A commentary on the experience of one health worker involved in the project accompanies the paper. PMID:19735622

  18. Community-Based Suicide Prevention Research in Remote On-Reserve First Nations Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaak, Corinne A.; Campeau, Mike; Katz, Laurence Y.; Enns, Murray W.; Elias, Brenda; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a complex problem linked to genetic, environmental, psychological and community factors. For the Aboriginal population more specifically, loss of culture, history of traumatic events, individual, family and community factors may also play a role in suicidal behaviour. Of particular concern is the high rate of suicide among Canadian…

  19. Calibrated Peer Review for Computer-Assisted Learning of Biological Research Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clase, Kari L.; Gundlach, Ellen; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, both science and technology faculty have been recognizing biological research competencies that are valued but rarely assessed. Some of these valued learning outcomes include scientific methods and thinking, critical assessment of primary papers, quantitative reasoning, communication, and putting biological research into a historical and…

  20. Research Opportunities in Subtidal Marine Biology and Ecology in the Gagnon Lab

    E-print Network

    Oyet, Alwell

    Research Opportunities in Subtidal Marine Biology and Ecology in the Gagnon Lab Opportunities are available for motivated undergraduate and graduate students to conduct research in marine biology of shallow, marine benthic ecosystems in subarctic and cold temperate regions, while contributing novel

  1. Interdisciplinary Biomathematics: Engaging Undergraduates in Research on the Fringe of Mathematical Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Kathleen; Luttman, Aaron; Mondal, Sumona

    2013-01-01

    The US National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Undergraduate Biology and Mathematics (UBM) program significantly increased undergraduate research in the biomathematical sciences. We discuss three UBM-funded student research projects at Clarkson University that lie at the intersection of not just mathematics and biology, but also other…

  2. Social responsibility and research ethics in community-driven studies of industrialized hog production.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Environmental health research can document exposures and health effects that result from inequitable relationships between communities of low income or people of color and the institutions that derive benefits (profits, federal and state funding or services, avoidance of wastes) from activities and policies that burden these communities. Researchers, most of whom work in relatively privileged institutions, are placed in situations of conflicting loyalties if they conduct research in collaboration with, or on behalf of, communities burdened by environmental injustices. These conflicts can threaten the self-interest of researchers and may raise social and ethical issues that do not typically arise in research projects that respond to the agendas of institutions. This article describes how we addressed issues of research ethics and social responsibility in environmental health research on industrialized hog production in North Carolina. Researchers and institutional review boards are not well prepared to address ethical issues when interests of entire communities, as well as individual research participants, are involved. Community-driven research partnerships can help address problems in research ethics and can enhance the social responsibility of researchers and their institutions. PMID:12003746

  3. GenomeBiology.com

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Genome Biology "serves the biological research community as an international forum, both in print and on the Web, for the dissemination, discussion and critical review of information about all areas of biology informed by genomic research." While a paid subscription is required to access all features on the Genome Biology Web site, non-subscribers will find a number of open-access resources as well. Offerings include research articles, conference reports, software downloads, lab protocols, and much more. This frequently updated and ever-evolving Web site will also publish and maintain databases at some point; users are encouraged to submit comments and suggestions.

  4. EPA AND THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY - PARTNERS IN RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes EPA's anticipatory research program for establishing institutional research centers. The center concept is intended to obtain the assistance of the best available researchers to establish a focal point of continuing research in specific areas fundamental to e...

  5. Strategies for assessing community challenges and strengths for cancer disparities participatory research and outreach.

    PubMed

    Gwede, Clement K; Menard, Janelle M; Martinez-Tyson, Dinorah; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Padhya, Tapan A; Meade, Cathy D

    2010-11-01

    Interventions involving community-academic partnerships must be driven by a participatory approach that is informed by a comprehensive understanding of the perspectives of communities or focus populations. Often research agendas of academics are different from perceived priority needs of community members. Successful and sustainable interventions are made possible with initial open dialogue among all collaborators so that roles are clearly defined and concerns are addressed. This article describes approaches used in the development of a participatory assessment of health and social issues as defined by community and academic partners, current findings, and lessons learned. The assessment is one initial activity of the Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) to guide network directions through 2010. The TBCCN is one of 25 programs nationwide addressing cancer disparities through sustainable community-based participatory research, outreach, and screening activities. PMID:19515858

  6. Annual net community production and the biological carbon flux in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The flux of biologically produced organic matter from the surface ocean (the biological pump), over an annual cycle, is equal to the annual net community production (ANCP). Experimental determinations of ANCP at ocean time series sites using a variety of different metabolite mass balances have made it possible to evaluate the accuracy of sediment trap fluxes and satellite-determined ocean carbon export. ANCP values at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT), the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS), Ocean Station Papa (OSP) are 3 ± 1 mol C m-2 yr-1—much less variable than presently suggested by satellite remote sensing measurements and global circulation models. ANCP determined from mass balances at these locations are 3-4 times particulate organic carbon fluxes measured in sediment traps. When the roles of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux, zooplankton migration, and depth-dependent respiration are considered these differences are reconciled at HOT and OSP but not at BATS, where measured particulate fluxes are about 3 times lower than expected. Even in the cases where sediment trap fluxes are accurate, it is not possible to "scale up" these measurements to determine ANCP without independent determinations of geographically variable DOC flux and zooplankton migration. Estimates of ANCP from satellite remote sensing using net primary production determined by the carbon-based productivity model suggests less geographic variability than its predecessor (the vertically generalized productivity model) and brings predictions at HOT and OSP closer to measurements; however, satellite-predicted ANCP at BATS is still 3 times too low.

  7. A Community-Specific Approach to Cancer Research in Indian Country

    PubMed Central

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Matloub, Jacqueline; Creswell, Paul; Strickland, Rick; Anderson, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Healthcare leaders in a small rural American Indian community and university partners used the community-based participatory research (CBPR) method to survey cancer survivors. Objectives To provide support for the use of CBPR to generate ideas for how to improve the detection and treatment of cancer in American Indian communities. Methods Partners worked together to develop a mail-out survey and send it to the Indian health clinic’s patients who had cancer in the past five years. The survey sought information on their experiences with cancer screenings, cancer diagnoses, and accessing and receiving cancer treatment. Results Community leaders identified three priority areas for intervention: 1) high incidence of breast cancer; 2) lack of culturally appropriate cancer education; and 3) need for a more in-depth assessment. Conclusions CBPR’s partnership principle allowed for results to be viewed within the community’s context, availability of community resources, and relevant cultural beliefs and traditions. PMID:20097993

  8. Research on Bacteria in the Mainstream of Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magasanik, Boris

    1988-01-01

    Stresses the importance of investigating bacterial mechanisms to discover clues for a greater understanding of cells. Cites examples of study areas of biological significance which may reveal information about the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and lead to a comprehensive theory of cell biology. (RT)

  9. CURRENT RESEARCH IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PLANT DISEASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns about the impact of agricultural chemicals and pesticides on human health and the environment have been a major driving force for the development of more environmentally benign plant disease management practices such as the use of biological controls. The idea is to use biological cont...

  10. Making health data maps: a case study ofa community\\/ university research collaboration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L Buckeridgea; Robin Masonb; John Franka; Richard Glaziera; Lorraine Purdond; Carl G Amrheine; Esme Fuller-Thomsong; Peter Gozdyrae; David Hulchanskig; Robert Wrighti

    This paper presents the main findings from a collaborative community\\/university research project in Canada. The goal ofthe project was to improve access to community health information, and in so doing, enhance our knowledge of the development ofcommunity health information resources and community\\/university collaboration. The project built on a rich history ofcommunity\\/university collaboration in Southeast Toronto (SETO), and employed an interdisciplinary

  11. The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hurrell, Jim; Holland, Marika M.; Gent, Peter R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Kay, Jennifer; Kushner, P.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Large, William G.; Lawrence, David M.; Lindsay, Keith; Lipscomb, William; Long , Matthew; Mahowald, N.; Marsh, D.; Neale, Richard; Rasch, Philip J.; Vavrus, Steven J.; Vertenstein, Mariana; Bader, David C.; Collins, William D.; Hack, James; Kiehl, J. T.; Marshall, Shawn

    2013-09-30

    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a flexible and extensible community tool used to investigate a diverse set of earth system interactions across multiple time and space scales. This global coupled model is a natural evolution from its predecessor, the Community Climate System Model, following the incorporation of new earth system capabilities. These include the ability to simulate biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, ice sheets, and a high-top atmosphere. These and other new model capabilities are enabling investigations into a wide range of pressing scientific questions, providing new predictive capabilities and increasing our collective knowledge about the behavior and interactions of the earth system. Simulations with numerous configurations of the CESM have been provided to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and are being analyzed by the broader community of scientists. Additionally, the model source code and associated documentation are freely available to the scientific community to use for earth system studies, making it a true community tool. Here we describe this earth modeling system, its various possible configurations, and illustrate its capabilities with a few science highlights.

  12. Management of Biological Materials in Wastewater from Research & Development Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, Elizabeth A.; Moon, Thomas W.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2011-04-01

    PNNL has developed and instituted a systematic approach to managing work with biological material that begins in the project planning phase and carries through implementation to waste disposal. This paper describes two major processes used at PNNL to analyze and mitigate the hazards associated with working with biological materials and evaluate them for disposal to the sewer, ground, or surface water in a manner that protects human health and the environment. The first of these processes is the Biological Work Permit which is used to identify requirements for handling, storing, and working with biological materials and the second is the Sewer Approval process which is used to evaluate discharges of wastewaters containing biological materials to assure they meet industrial wastewater permits and other environmental regulations and requirements.

  13. Through Microgravity and Towards the Stars: Microgravity and Strategic Research at Marshall's Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    The Microgravity and Strategic research at Marshall s Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory will be reviewed. The environment in orbit provides a unique opportunity to study Materials Science and Biotechnology in the absence of sedimentation and convection. There are a number of peer-selected investigations that have been selected to fly on the Space Station that have been conceived and are led by Marshall s Biological and Physical Research Laboratory s scientists. In addition to Microgravity research the Station will enable research in "Strategic" Research Areas that focus on enabling humans to live, work, and explore the solar system safely. New research in Radiation Protection, Strategic Molecular Biology, and In-Space Fabrication will be introduced.

  14. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Develop the PARTNERS Youth Violence Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Vaughn, Nicole A.; Thomas, Nicole A.; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Freedman, Melanie A.; Abdul-Kabir, Saburah; Woodlock, Joseph; Guerra, Terry; Bradshaw, Ayana S.; Woodburn, Elizabeth M.; Myers, Rachel K.; Fein, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background School-based violence prevention programs have shown promise for reducing aggression and increasing children’s prosocial behaviors. Prevention interventions within the context of urban after-school programs provide a unique opportunity for academic researchers and community stakeholders to collaborate in the creation of meaningful and sustainable violence prevention initiatives. Objectives This paper describes the development of a collaborative between academic researchers and community leaders to design a youth violence prevention/leadership promotion program (PARTNERS Program) for urban adolescents. Employing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) model, this project addresses the needs of urban youth, their families, and their community. Methods Multiple strategies were used to engage community members in the development and implementation of the PARTNERS Program. These included focus groups, pilot testing the program in an after-school venue, and conducting organizational assessments of after-school sites as potential locations for the intervention. Results Community members and academic researchers successfully worked together in all stages of the project development. Community feedback helped the PARTNERS team redesign the proposed implementation and evaluation of the PARTNERS Program such that the revised study design allows for all sites to obtain the intervention over time and increases the possibility of building community capacity and sustainability of programs. Conclusion Despite several challenges inherent to CBPR, the current study provides a number of lessons learned for the continued development of relationships and trust among researchers and community members, with particular attention to balancing the demand for systematic implementation of community-based interventions while being responsive to the immediate needs of the community. PMID:20729611

  15. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments. PMID:25801369

  16. Two Methods for Engaging with the Community in Setting Priorities for Child Health Research: Who Engages?

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Anne; Hancock, Kirsten; Haines, Hayley; Christensen, Daniel; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to assess participatory methods for obtaining community views on child health research. Background Community participation in research is recognised as an important part of the research process; however, there has been inconsistency in its implementation and application in Australia. The Western Australian Telethon Kids Institute Participation Program employs a range of methods for fostering active involvement of community members in its research. These include public discussion forums, called Community Conversations. While participation levels are good, the attendees represent only a sub-section of the Western Australian population. Therefore, we conducted a telephone survey of randomly selected households to evaluate its effectiveness in eliciting views from a broader cross-section of the community about our research agenda and community participation in research, and whether the participants would be representative of the general population. We also conducted two Conversations, comparing the survey as a recruitment tool and normal methods using the Participation Program. Results While the telephone survey was a good method for eliciting community views about research, there were marked differences in the profile of study participants compared to the general population (e.g. 78% vs 50% females). With a 26% response rate, the telephone survey was also more expensive than a Community Conversation. The cold calling approach proved an unsuccessful recruitment method, with only two out of a possible 816 telephone respondents attending a Conversation. Conclusion While the results showed that both of the methods produced useful input for our research program, we could not conclude that either method gained input that was representative of the entire community. The Conversations were relatively low-cost and provided more in-depth information about one subject, whereas the telephone survey provided information across a greater range of subjects, and allowed more quantitative analysis. PMID:25938240

  17. Striving to provide opportunities for farm worker community participation in research.

    PubMed

    Crowe, J L; Keifer, M C; Salazar, M K

    2008-04-01

    Hispanic farm workers and their families in the U.S. face a number of environmental and occupational health risks, yet they are rarely given the opportunity to choose the focus of the research and interventions that take place in their communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) can be one effective approach to changing this situation. CBPR is an approach to research that makes community members partners in research rather than subjects of research. This article describes the experience of El Proyecto Bienestar (The Well-Being Project), a CBPR project in the Yakima Valley, Washington, with the aim of facilitating the Hispanic community's involvement in the identification and prioritization of occupational and environmental health issues among farm workers. The project utilized three forms of data collection (key informant interviews, community surveys, and a town hall meeting) to create a list of environmental and occupational health issues of concern. Investigators strove to provide opportunities for community participation in the various stages of research: study concept and design, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, conclusions, and dissemination of results. This article describes the involvement that community members had at each stage of the three forms of data collection and outlines the basic findings that led the Community Advisory Board to prioritize four areas for future work. In addition, it describes the challenges the project faced from the researcher perspective. Using examples from this experience, we conclude that this model may be an effective way for farm workers and their families to have a voice in prioritizing health and safety issues for research and action in their communities. PMID:18524285

  18. Community-based Suicide Prevention Research in Remote On-Reserve First Nations Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne A. Isaak; Mike Campeau; Laurence Y. Katz; Murray W. Enns; Brenda Elias; Jitender Sareen

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a complex problem linked to genetic, environmental, psychological and community factors. For the Aboriginal population\\u000a more specifically, loss of culture, history of traumatic events, individual, family and community factors may also play a\\u000a role in suicidal behaviour. Of particular concern is the high rate of suicide among Canadian Aboriginal youth. While the need\\u000a to develop interventions to reduce

  19. Awareness of Biologically Confirmed HCV Among a Community Residing Sample of Drug Users in Baltimore City

    PubMed Central

    Hearn, Lauren E.; Marsiske, Michael; Kahn, Maria R.; Latimer, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study sought to examine: (1) the prevalence and correlates of biologically confirmed Hepatitis C (HCV) and (2) the prevalence and correlates of prior HCV diagnosis and an unmet need for HCV treatment, among a community residing sample of drug users. The current study used a subset of HCV tested participants from the larger NEURO-HIV Epidemiologic Study from Baltimore, Maryland (Mage = 34.81, SD = 9.25; 46 % female). All participants were tested for HCV at baseline. Self-report was used to assess awareness of an HCV diagnosis and participation in treatment. Of the 782 participants tested for HCV, 19 % reported having received an HCV diagnosis in the past while 48 % tested positive for HCV. Only 6 % reported having received treatment for any form of hepatitis. Of those who tested HCV positive, 63 % reported never being diagnosed, and only 13 % received any treatment for HCV. We found that only 35 % of those who reported a prior HCV diagnosis received any treatment. The findings regarding lack of HCV awareness and diagnosis were considerable as expected. These deficits suggest that there are numerous gaps in patients' knowledge and beliefs regarding HCV that may interfere at multiple steps along the path from diagnosis to treatment. This study clearly demonstrates that a critical need exists to improve public knowledge of HCV risk factors, the need for testing, and the availability of effective treatment. PMID:24173529

  20. Awareness of biologically confirmed HCV among a community residing sample of drug users in Baltimore City.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Nicole Ennis; Hearn, Lauren E; Marsiske, Michael; Kahn, Maria R; Latimer, William W

    2014-06-01

    The present study sought to examine: (1) the prevalence and correlates of biologically confirmed Hepatitis C (HCV) and (2) the prevalence and correlates of prior HCV diagnosis and an unmet need for HCV treatment, among a community residing sample of drug users. The current study used a subset of HCV tested participants from the larger NEURO-HIV Epidemiologic Study from Baltimore, Maryland (M(age) = 34.81, SD = 9.25; 46% female). All participants were tested for HCV at baseline. Self-report was used to assess awareness of an HCV diagnosis and participation in treatment. Of the 782 participants tested for HCV, 19% reported having received an HCV diagnosis in the past while 48% tested positive for HCV. Only 6% reported having received treatment for any form of hepatitis. Of those who tested HCV positive, 63% reported never being diagnosed, and only 13% received any treatment for HCV. We found that only 35% of those who reported a prior HCV diagnosis received any treatment. The findings regarding lack of HCV awareness and diagnosis were considerable as expected. These deficits suggest that there are numerous gaps in patients' knowledge and beliefs regarding HCV that may interfere at multiple steps along the path from diagnosis to treatment. This study clearly demonstrates that a critical need exists to improve public knowledge of HCV risk factors, the need for testing, and the availability of effective treatment. PMID:24173529

  1. Linking Research and Practice through Teacher Communities: A Place Where Formal and Practical Knowledge Meet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie N.; Ormel, Bart J. B.; McKenney, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterises the links between research and practice across 12 projects concerned with the collaborative design of lesson plans by teacher communities (TCs). Analyses focused on sources of knowledge used to inform lesson design, participants' roles and knowledge generated by the teacher community. Three patterns emerged pertaining…

  2. Policy, Leadership, and Student Achievement: Implications for Urban Communities. The Achievement Gap, Research, Practice, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, C. Kent, Ed.; Ikpa, Vivian W., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This is the second book in the series examining student achievement. The chapters in this book reflect the scholarly papers presented at the July 2006 Education Policy, Leadership Summer Institute (EPLSI) by K-16 educators, researchers, community advocates, and policymakers who work in urban communities. The Institute serves as a place where…

  3. Primary Research Paper Invertebrate community and stream substrate responses to woody debris

    E-print Network

    Kraft, Clifford E.

    Primary Research Paper Invertebrate community and stream substrate responses to woody debris, invertebrates were collected once before (June 2000) and once after (June 2001) wood removal from the downstream. The following metrics were used to compare the invertebrate communities before and after wood removal: genera

  4. Non-Credit Community Arts Programs: A Comparative Case Study of Three Programs within Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Toro, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of "Non-credit community arts programs: A comparative case study of three programs within research universities" is to examine the perceptions of the various stakeholders of non-credit community arts programs to determine the perceived benefits received by all stakeholders from the non-credit program, the university, and its…

  5. Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community-

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community- associated for a Human Pandemic Clone of2013. Laura E. Spoor, Paul R. McAdam, Lucy A. Weinert, et al. aureus StaphylococcusMethicillin-Resistant Community-Associated Pandemic Clone of Livestock Origin for a Human http

  6. Annotated Bibliography: Research from the Center on Families, Communities, Schools and Children's Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Amy, Comp.

    The mission of the Center on Families, Communities, Schools and Children s Learning at Johns Hopkins University is to conduct research evaluations and policy analyses, and to produce and disseminate new knowledge about how families, schools, and communities influence students' motivation, learning, and development. This annotated bibliography…

  7. Appreciative Inquiry as a Mode of Action Research for Community Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Neil M.; Bright, David S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors highlight the potential for rethinking approaches to community and social change interventions that draw on participatory action research at the organizational and community level. They distinguish problem-centric from opportunity-centric approaches to social change. Theory on social norms suggests that problem-centric…

  8. Waste Siting Decisions and Communities of Color: A Call for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Recent government reports and court cases document the disproportionate siting of landfills in communities with high populations of African Americans, Chicanos, and Native Americans. More research at the community level is necessary to explain the complex nature of this pattern of land use decision making. (Author/SK)

  9. Community-Based Participatory Research in Little Haiti: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin Kobetz; Janelle Menard; Joshua Diem; Betsy Barton; Jenny Blanco; Larry Pierre; Pascale D. Auguste; Marie Etienne; Cheryl Brewster

    2009-01-01

    Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective methodology for developing relevant interventions with socially marginalized communities. However, implementing CBPR methods is challenging for several reasons. This paper presents challenges encountered in the context of an ongoing CBPR initiative in Little Haiti in Miami, Florida, and describes the solutions used to address them. Objectives: We sought to describe the challenges

  10. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Assess Health Needs among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Eva; Rager, Robin; Bates, Denise; Cooper, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    Principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) were applied among migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs) in a seven-county region of east Texas. The study purpose was to establish community-based partnerships for CBPR and conduct a preliminary qualitative assessment of perceived health needs and capacities. Key informant interviews…

  11. Diversity Challenges in Community Research and Action: The Story of a Special Issue of AJCP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meg A. Bond; Shelly P. Harrell

    2006-01-01

    Community research and action often involve managing difficult diversity-related dilemmas. However, the literature on diversity tends to focus on success stories that tie up very complex issues into neatly-packaged case studies or lists of specific recommendations. This article introduces a special issue of the American Journal of Community Psychology that was rooted in the belief that it is within the

  12. Urban Indian Voices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Health and Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Chad V.; Bartgis, Jami; Worley, Jody A.; Hellman, Chan M.; Burkhart, Russell

    2010-01-01

    This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project utilized a mixed-methods survey design to identify urban (Tulsa, OK) American Indian (AI) strengths and needs. Six hundred fifty AIs (550 adults and 100 youth) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and beliefs about their community. These results were used in conjunction with other…

  13. Undergraduate research in geochemistry at a larger university: developing a community of undergraduate and graduate researchers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2003-12-01

    Faculty at state research universities can find the paired requirements of establishing research programs and developing a "pipeline" of graduate students to be the most challenging aspects of their jobs, especially with shrinking pools of graduate applicants. These problems may be more acute for laboratory-based geochemists, as few graduate candidates possess the requisite quantitative and chemical backgrounds. The need to "get my research going" at the University of South Florida led me to work primarily with undergraduates, as a) they were available and interested, b) they required no more laboratory training than M.S. students; and c) small-dollar funds were available to support them, both in-house and via NSF REU Supplements. Some senior colleagues argued that this approach would hinder my developing a graduate program as is necessary for tenure. This contention turned out to be untrue. My success in undergraduate research draws funding (in NSF REU Site and disciplinary research grants), has attracted outside MS and Ph.D. candidates, and has retained quality in-house students seeking MS degrees. Students working with me join a laboratory community in which undergraduate and graduate researchers are on equal footing in terms of access to instrumentation and other facilities. I work with all my students, irrespective of rank, as members of a cooperative research group. I encourage and expect that technical instruction I provide to any individual will be passed on to their colleagues, which helps develop a "lab culture" of best practices, and ingrains new knowledge and skills through the act of teaching them to others. Maintaining this research environment requires active recruitment of capable graduate AND undergraduate students, regular monitoring of laboratory practices, and ready availability for consultation and mentoring. One must be cognizant of the differing time commitment issues of undergraduates and graduates, and set research goals appropriately. Undergraduate research projects in which 3-4 students work together to collect necessary data can get around the class vs. research scheduling issues they face as they can share the laboratory workload through the week. Group projects can thus collect larger bodies of data, allowing students to address more substantive problems.

  14. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological and Physical Research Enterprise Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As the 21st century begins, NASA's new Vision and Mission focuses the Agency's Enterprises toward exploration and discovery.The Biological and Physical Research Enterprise has a unique and enabling role in support of the Agency's Vision and Mission. Our strategic research seeks innovations and solutions to enable the extension of life into deep space safely and productively. Our fundamental research, as well as our research partnerships with industry and other agencies, allow new knowledge and tech- nologies to bring improvements to life on Earth. Our interdisciplinary research in the unique laboratory of microgravity addresses opportunities and challenges on our home planet as well as in space environments. The Enterprise maintains a key role in encouraging and engaging the next generation of explorers from primary school through the grad- uate level via our direct student participation in space research.The Biological and Physical Research Enterprise encompasses three themes. The biological sciences research theme investigates ways to support a safe human presence in space. This theme addresses the definition and control of physiological and psychological risks from the space environment, including radiation,reduced gravity, and isolation. The biological sciences research theme is also responsible for the develop- ment of human support systems technology as well as fundamental biological research spanning topics from genomics to ecologies. The physical sciences research theme supports research that takes advantage of the space environment to expand our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature. This theme also supports applied physical sciences research to improve safety and performance of humans in space. The research partnerships and flight support theme establishes policies and allocates space resources to encourage and develop entrepreneurial partners access to space research.Working together across research disciplines, the Biological and Physical Research Enterprise is performing vital research and technology development to extend the reach of human space flight.

  15. Community-based participatory research and the challenges of qualitative analysis enacted by lay, nurse, and academic researchers.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jennifer W; Chiang, Fidela; Burgos, Rosa I; Cáceres, Ramona E; Tejada, Carmen M; Almonte, Asela T; Noboa, Frank R M; Perez, Lidia J; Urbaez, Marilín F; Heath, Annemarie

    2012-10-01

    There are multiple challenges in adhering to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), especially when there is a wide range of academic preparation within the research team. This is particularly evident in the analysis phase of qualitative research. We describe the process of conducting qualitative analysis of data on community perceptions of public maternity care in the Dominican Republic, in a cross-cultural, CBPR study. Analysis advanced through a process of experiential and conversational learning. Community involvement in analysis provided lay researchers an imperative for improvements in maternity care, nurses a new perspective about humanized care, and academic researchers a deeper understanding of how to create the conditions to enable conversational learning. PMID:22911059

  16. The Florida State University Department of Biological Science and The Florida State University Coastal & Marine Laboratory The Undergraduate Research Program in Marine Biology and Living Marine Resource Ecology is designed for

    E-print Network

    Bass, Hank W.

    Coastal & Marine Laboratory The Undergraduate Research Program in Marine Biology and Living Marine's potential for a career in marine biological research. Name of Reference THE UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH PROGRAM IN MARINE BIOLOGY & LIVING MARINE RESOURCE ECOLOGY HTTP

  17. Evolutionary, biological origins of morality: implications for research with human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Baschetti, Riccardo

    2005-06-01

    Medical research with human embryonic stem cells, despite its enormous potential to reduce human suffering, is banned in many countries and heavily restricted in others. "Moral reasons" are invoked to justify bans and restrictions on this promising research. Rather surprisingly, while those moral reasons have been extensively discussed and hotly debated in several papers, not a single article on the moral aspects of that research has attempted to answer this fundamental question: What is morality? Considering that a scientifically objective definition of morality is essential to determine whether those moral reasons are justified or groundless, this article focuses on the evolutionary origins of morality and its biological basis. Morality arose as a selectively advantageous product of evolution and preceded all religions and philosophies by millions of years. For the 99% of humankind's evolution, morality was axiomatically aimed at reducing the sufferings of the social members, because pains and afflictions, as expressions of diseases and impairments, tended to hasten the extinction of the small ancestral groups, which characteristically consisted of a few tens of members. Had the therapeutic use of human embryos been available in remote times, our ancestors would have deemed it unquestionably immoral to save amorphous and microscopic agglomerates of insensitive cells representing neither parental nor social investment, at the expense of the lives of the suffering members of their little communities. Unless we venture the untenable thesis that the unlikelihood of extinction of our immense societies entitles us to overturn the meaning of morality, we cannot but conclude that bans and restrictions on research with human embryonic stem cells are patently immoral. PMID:15969618

  18. NAGT-GER: A Community of Practice to Support the Emerging Field of Geoscience Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, L.; LaDue, N.; Cheek, K.; Ryker, K.

    2014-12-01

    As the National Research Council noted in its 2012 report on discipline-based education research (DBER) in undergraduate science and engineering, in order to advance DBER as a field of inquiry, "a robust infrastructure is required to recognize and support [DBER] within professional societies." One way to develop such an infrastructure around geoscience education research is to create a community of practice within the broader geoscience education community. In recent years, the members of the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) have created two divisions to support the geoscience education needs of specific subpopulations of the geoscience community: the 2YC division, focusing on community college issues, and TED, focusing on teacher education. This year marks the first year of a new division within the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) focused on geoscience education research. The Geoscience Education Research division (GER) is committed to the promotion of high quality, scholarly research in geoscience education that improves teaching and learning in K-12, higher education, and informal learning environments. High quality DBER in geoscience requires the ability to connect current theories of teaching and learning with deep content-specific conceptual understanding. A community of practice like NAGT GER, has the potential to improve the quality of scholarly efforts in geoscience education by providing a forum for improving the collective knowledge and expertise of the geoscience education research community. Current division initiatives and efforts will be highlighted and time for dialogue on future directions will be included.

  19. Variation in the Interpretation of Scientific Integrity in Community-based Participatory Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become essential in health disparities and environmental justice research; however, the scientific integrity of CBPR projects has become a concern. Some concerns, such as appropriate research training, lack of access to resources and finances, have been discussed as possibly limiting the scientific integrity of a project. Prior to understanding what threatens scientific integrity in CBPR, it is vital to understand what scientific integrity means for the professional and community investigators who are involved in CBPR. This analysis explores the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR among 74 professional and community research team members from of 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. It describes the basic definition for scientific integrity and then explores variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR. Variations in the interpretations were associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Professional investigators understood scientific integrity in CBPR as either conceptually or logistically flexible, as challenging to balance with community needs, or no different than traditional scientific integrity. Community investigators interpret other factors as important in scientific integrity, such as trust, accountability, and overall benefit to the community. This research demonstrates that the variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR call for a new definition of scientific integrity in CBPR that takes into account the understanding and needs of all investigators. PMID:24161098

  20. Research and Teaching: An Experimental Project Approach to Biology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chris E. Petersen

    2000-11-01

    In the study described in this article, the author examined the educational benefits of an experimental project approach to students taking the last course of the introductory sequence, Biology 103. Educational benefits were defined in terms of analytical

  1. national centre for biological sciences tata institute of fundamental research

    E-print Network

    Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

    13 Delegates Visiting Paul Miller Assistant Professor, Brandeis University Bulbul Chakraborty Professor, Physics, Brandeis University Zvonimir Dogic Associate Professor, Physics, Brandeis University Irving R. Epstein Professor, Chemistry, Brandeis University Leslie Griffith Professor, Biology, Brandeis

  2. Research or "Cheerleading"? Scholarship on Community School District 2, New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Lois

    2003-01-01

    Examined data on student achievement and school demographics not explored by the researchers who promoted Community School District 2, Manhattan, New York, as a model of urban school reform. Concludes that the alleged superiority of the district is questionable. (SLD)

  3. REACH Detroit is a community research partnership that works with African American and Latino families, health care providers and community organiza-

    E-print Network

    Awtar, Shorya

    ). Latino and African American Family Health Advocates (FHA), Community Facilitators and Community HealthREACH Detroit is a community research partnership that works with African American and Latino to Health El Camino a la Salud The purpose of the REACH Detroit Family Intervention is to work with African

  4. A Case Study Exploring Research Communication and Engagement in a Rural Community Experiencing an Environmental Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Charlene A.; Kuntz, Sandra W.; Weinert, Clarann; Black, Brad

    2014-01-01

    As a means to involve the public in research, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the Partners in Research Program and solicited research grant applications from academic/scientific institutions and community organizations that proposed to forge partnerships: (a) to study methods and strategies to engage and inform the public…

  5. Healthy Foods, Healthy Lives Institute Community-University Partnership Research Grants Awarded Fall 2012

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Healthy Foods, Healthy Lives Institute Community-University Partnership Research Grants Awarded Together Program Chrisa Arcan, PhD, MRS, MBA, RD, Research Associate, Division of Epidemiology research team and requested additional classes focusing on maintenance and long-term sustainability

  6. A Vehicle for Research: Using Street Sweepers to Explore the Landscape of Environmental Community Action

    E-print Network

    Aoki, Paul M.

    A Vehicle for Research: Using Street Sweepers to Explore the Landscape of Environmental Community. To inform research on mobile environmental sensing, we conducted design fieldwork with government, private" by grounding our interviews and affording us status as environmental action researchers. In this paper, we

  7. Views of Biobanking Research Among Alaska Native People: The Role of Community Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Hiratsuka; Jennifer Brown; Denise Dillard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research using stored clinical data and samples held in biobanks has potential to address health disparities in minority communities. However, ethical and cultural considerations about use of these samples for research warrant attention. Literature about how Alaska Native people (ANs) view biobanking research consists largely of theoretical papers and position statements with limited systematic information gathered from a broad

  8. Developing the Next Generation of Community-Based Researchers: Tips for Undergraduate Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Ryser; Sean Markey; Greg Halseth

    2012-01-01

    Universities and funding agencies are increasingly calling for collaborative research between community partners and academics. When combined with faculty roles in training the next generation of researchers, these collaborative frameworks can present a challenge to undergraduate students seeking experience with research activities—both in terms of the types of needed training and the timelines involved. The quality and effectiveness of student

  9. Community College Journal for Research and Planning; Volume III, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edith, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Designed as a forum for the exchange of ideas among professionals involved in community college research and planning, this journal contains a series of articles concerned with institutional research and research-related topics. The following articles are presented: (1) "The Importance of Time," by Arthur M. Cohen, which discusses the significance…

  10. Applying Organizational Theories to Action Research in Community Settings: A Case Study in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Keli S.; Klein, Dena A.; Elias, Maurice J.

    2007-01-01

    Action research is well grounded in the worlds of organizational and community psychology. The practice of action research within each of these fields has been shaped by their dominant settings, theories, and values; where these diverge, rich learning opportunities have been created. Each phase of the action research cycle has particular…

  11. Self Organizing Systems and the Research Implications for Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denkins-Taffe, Lauren R.; Alfred, Marcus; Lindesay, James

    2008-03-01

    The knowledge gained from the human genome project, has provided an added opportunity to study the dynamical relationships within biological systems and can lead to an increased knowledge of diseases and subsequent drug discovery. Through computation, methods in which to rebuild these systems are being studied. These methods, which have first been applied to simpler systems: predator-prey, and self sustaining ecosystems can be applied to the study of microscopic biological systems.

  12. Eco-bio-social research on community-based approaches for Chagas disease vector control in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Yadon, Zaida E.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of three research projects which designed and implemented innovative interventions for Chagas disease vector control in Bolivia, Guatemala and Mexico. The research initiative was based on sound principles of community-based ecosystem management (ecohealth), integrated vector management, and interdisciplinary analysis. The initial situational analysis achieved a better understanding of ecological, biological and social determinants of domestic infestation. The key factors identified included: housing quality; type of peridomestic habitats; presence and abundance of domestic dogs, chickens and synanthropic rodents; proximity to public lights; location in the periphery of the village. In Bolivia, plastering of mud walls with appropriate local materials and regular cleaning of beds and of clothes next to the walls, substantially decreased domestic infestation and abundance of the insect vector Triatoma infestans. The Guatemalan project revealed close links between house infestation by rodents and Triatoma dimidiata, and vector infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. A novel community-operated rodent control program significantly reduced rodent infestation and bug infection. In Mexico, large-scale implementation of window screens translated into promising reductions in domestic infestation. A multi-pronged approach including community mobilisation and empowerment, intersectoral cooperation and adhesion to integrated vector management principles may be the key to sustainable vector and disease control in the affected regions. PMID:25604759

  13. Latina recruitment for cancer prevention education via Community Based Participatory Research strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda K. Larkey; Julie A. Gonzalez; Lily E. Mar; Namino Glantz

    2009-01-01

    Increasing minority participation in cancer research is an ethical and statistical necessity for gaining population-specific knowledge of cancer prevention, screening, and treatment. Locating and recruiting eligible and willing minority participants presents unique structural and cultural\\/linguistic challenges. Community Based Participatory Research provides a viable set of principles for facilitating recruitment in hard-to-recruit communities. We focus on the specific challenge of recruiting

  14. Component Exchange Community: A Model of Utilizing Research Components to Foster International Collaboration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-chan Deng; Taiyu Lin; Kinshuk; Tak-wai Chan

    2006-01-01

    One-to-one technology enhanced learning research refers to the design and investigation of learning environments and learning activities where every learner is equipped with at least one portable computing device enabled by wireless capability. G1:1 is an international research community coordinated by a network of laboratories conducting one-to-one technology enhanced learning. The concept of component exchange community emerged as a means

  15. Ethical considerations for conducting health disparities research in community health centers: a social-ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; Scott, Ebony; Melendez, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Anna; Ramos, Rosio; Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Michelen, Walid

    2013-12-01

    Community health centers (CHCs) provide optimal research settings. They serve a high-risk, medically underserved population in the greatest need of intervention. Low socioeconomic status renders this population particularly vulnerable to research misconduct. Traditional principles of research ethics are often applied to participants only. The social-ecological model offers a comprehensive framework for applying these principles across multiple levels (participants, providers, organizations, communities, and policy). Our experience with the Trial Using Motivational Interviewing, Positive Affect and Self-Affirmation in African-Americans with Hypertension, a randomized trial conducted in CHCs, led us to propose a new platform for discussing research ethics; examine the social, community, and political factors surrounding research conducted in CHCs; and recommend how future research should be conducted in such settings. PMID:24134347

  16. Ethical Considerations for Conducting Health Disparities Research in Community Health Centers: A Social-Ecological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ebony; Melendez, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Anna; Ramos, Rosio; Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Michelen, Walid

    2013-01-01

    Community health centers (CHCs) provide optimal research settings. They serve a high-risk, medically underserved population in the greatest need of intervention. Low socioeconomic status renders this population particularly vulnerable to research misconduct. Traditional principles of research ethics are often applied to participants only. The social-ecological model offers a comprehensive framework for applying these principles across multiple levels (participants, providers, organizations, communities, and policy). Our experience with the Trial Using Motivational Interviewing, Positive Affect and Self-Affirmation in African-Americans with Hypertension, a randomized trial conducted in CHCs, led us to propose a new platform for discussing research ethics; examine the social, community, and political factors surrounding research conducted in CHCs; and recommend how future research should be conducted in such settings. PMID:24134347

  17. Using Community-Based Participatory Research Principles to Develop More Understandable Recruitment and Informed Consent Documents in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Harlyn G.; Calancie, Larissa; Vu, Maihan B.; Garcia, Beverly; DeMarco, Molly; Patterson, Cam; Ammerman, Alice; Schisler, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart Healthy Lenoir is a transdisciplinary project aimed at creating long-term, sustainable approaches to reduce cardiovascular disease risk disparities in Lenoir County, North Carolina using a design spanning genomic analysis and clinical intervention. We hypothesized that residents of Lenoir County would be unfamiliar and mistrustful of genomic research, and therefore reluctant to participate; additionally, these feelings would be higher in African-Americans. Methodology To test our hypothesis, we conducted qualitative research using community-based participatory research principles to ensure our genomic research strategies addressed the needs, priorities, and concerns of the community. African-American (n = 19) and White (n = 16) adults in Lenoir County participated in four focus groups exploring perceptions about genomics and cardiovascular disease. Demographic surveys were administered and a semi-structured interview guide was used to facilitate discussions. The discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed in ATLAS.ti. Results and Significance From our analysis, key themes emerged: transparent communication, privacy, participation incentives and barriers, knowledge, and the impact of knowing. African-Americans were more concerned about privacy and community impact compared to Whites, however, African-Americans were still eager to participate in our genomic research project. The results from our formative study were used to improve the informed consent and recruitment processes by: 1) reducing misconceptions of genomic studies; and 2) helping to foster participant understanding and trust with the researchers. Our study demonstrates how community-based participatory research principles can be used to gain deeper insight into the community and increase participation in genomic research studies. Due in part to these efforts 80.3% of eligible African-American participants and 86.9% of eligible White participants enrolled in the Heart Healthy Lenoir Genomics study making our overall enrollment 57.8% African-American. Future research will investigate return of genomic results in the Lenoir community. PMID:25938669

  18. Perceptions that influence the maintenance of scientific integrity in community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and unique concerns. Understanding the perceptions that promote or discourage scientific integrity in CBPR as identified by professional and community investigators is essential to promoting the value of CBPR. This analysis explores the perceptions that facilitate scientific integrity in CBPR as well as the barriers among a sample of 74 professional and community CBPR investigators from 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. There were variations in perceptions associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Perceptions identified to promote and discourage scientific integrity in CBPR by professional and community investigators were external pressures, community participation, funding, quality control and supervision, communication, training, and character and trust. Some perceptions such as communication and training promoted scientific integrity whereas other perceptions, such as a lack of funds and lack of trust could discourage scientific integrity. These results demonstrate that one of the most important perceptions in maintaining scientific integrity in CBPR is active community participation, which enables a co-responsibility by scientists and community members to provide oversight for scientific integrity. Credible CBPR science is crucial to empower the vulnerable communities to be heard by those in positions of power and policy making. PMID:25588933

  19. Community health partnerships for chronic disease prevention among Latinos: the San Diego Prevention Research Center.

    PubMed

    Elder, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Arredondo, Elva M; Talavera, Gregory A; McKenzie, Thomas L; Hoffman, Lisa; Cuestas, Lisa; Molina, Marisa; Patrick, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Over 20 years ago, university-community partnerships (i.e., Prevention Research Centers [PRCs]) across the United States were funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to conduct research and training in order to promote health and prevent disease in underserved populations. In 2004, the San Diego PRC (SDPRC) became the first PRC to focus on obesity prevention and control in a community of mostly Mexican Americans/Mexican immigrants. The SDPRC was also the first PRC to comprise a university-community partnership with a school of public health, a school of medicine, and a federally qualified health center. In conjunction with two additional funded community partners and involvement of a community advisory board, the SDPRC seeks to develop effective intervention strategies that ultimately lead to behavior change. Now in its second cycle of funding, the SDPRC has identified three primary principles that are important for these and similar efforts: (1) developing culturally appropriate interventions requires community engagement; (2) building the evidence in a systematic and rigorous way yields meaningful strategies for translation to practice; and (3) translating evidence-based interventions to practice involves capacity building for both researchers and community partners. This article describes these principles to help others involved in similar intervention efforts identify the best approach for promoting health in their own communities. PMID:23355255

  20. Unconventional natural gas development and public health: toward a community-informed research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Elam, Sarah; Gray, Kathleen M.; Haynes, Erin; Hughes, Megan Hoert

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production in recent years. However, the rapid expansion of UNGD has also raised concerns about its potential impacts on public health. Academics and government agencies are developing research programs to explore these concerns. Community involvement in activities such as planning, conducting, and communicating research is widely recognized as having an important role in promoting environmental health. Historically, however, communities most often engage in research after environmental health concerns have emerged. This community information needs assessment took a prospective approach to integrating community leaders' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns into the research agenda prior to initiation of local UNGD. We interviewed community leaders about their views on environmental health information needs in three states (New York, North Carolina, and Ohio) prior to widespread UNGD. Interviewees emphasized the cumulative, long-term, and indirect determinants of health, as opposed to specific disease outcomes. Responses focused not only on information needs, but also on communication and transparency with respect to research processes and funding. Interviewees also prioritized investigation of policy approaches to effectively protect human health over the long term. Although universities were most often cited as a credible source of information, interviewees emphasized the need for multiple strategies for disseminating information. By including community leaders' concerns, insights, and questions from the outset, the research agenda on UNGD is more likely to effectively inform decision making that ultimately protects public health. PMID:25204212

  1. Unconventional natural gas development and public health: toward a community-informed research agenda.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Elam, Sarah; Gray, Kathleen M; Haynes, Erin; Hughes, Megan Hoert

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production in recent years. However, the rapid expansion of UNGD has also raised concerns about its potential impacts on public health. Academics and government agencies are developing research programs to explore these concerns. Community involvement in activities such as planning, conducting, and communicating research is widely recognized as having an important role in promoting environmental health. Historically, however, communities most often engage in research after environmental health concerns have emerged. This community information needs assessment took a prospective approach to integrating community leaders' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns into the research agenda prior to initiation of local UNGD. We interviewed community leaders about their views on environmental health information needs in three states (New York, North Carolina, and Ohio) prior to widespread UNGD. Interviewees emphasized the cumulative, long-term, and indirect determinants of health, as opposed to specific disease outcomes. Responses focused not only on information needs, but also on communication and transparency with respect to research processes and funding. Interviewees also prioritized investigation of policy approaches to effectively protect human health over the long term. Although universities were most often cited as a credible source of information, interviewees emphasized the need for multiple strategies for disseminating information. By including community leaders' concerns, insights, and questions from the outset, the research agenda on UNGD is more likely to effectively inform decision making that ultimately protects public health. PMID:25204212

  2. Urban Greenhouse Solar\\/Geothermal Research and Community Outreach Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew S. Sanders; Mark G. Thompson; Yuri Y. Sikorski

    2011-01-01

    The need for developing a self-sustaining urban farm greenhouse project in a cold-weather climate is discussed. A greenhouse heating system solution based on a hybrid geothermal -solar photovoltaic system is proposed. Specific greenhouse heat loss mechanisms are investigated. Implementation of a community outreach website information dissemination plan is outlined. The steady increase in the world population and the problems associated

  3. Educational Communities of Inquiry: Theoretical Framework, Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyol, Zehra; Garrison, D. Randy

    2013-01-01

    Communications technologies have been continuously integrated into learning and training environments which has revealed the need for a clear understanding of the process. The Community of Inquiry (COI) Theoretical Framework has a philosophical foundation which provides planned guidelines and principles to development useful learning environments…

  4. Research Summary Community experiences of the National Forest Land Scheme

    E-print Network

    , local economy and democracy. This study focuses on one scheme managed by Forestry Commission ScotlandBackground The National Forest Land Scheme (NFLS) gives Scottish communities the opportunity to buy forest land currently, by low average local incomes, scattered distribution of households, and by a focus on local jobs

  5. Living Research: Oral History in the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesiyan, H. Rose

    Both blacks and whites arriving in Hammond, Indiana in the late 1800s and early 1900s played significant roles in its development. The role of the early black settlers has been largely untold outside the black community and is thus unappreciated. The goal of this project was to change this historical neglect. Statistical data from traditional…

  6. Century Three: Implications for Community and Junior College Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korim, Andrew S.

    The past and present economic and social problems and cause-effect relationships are major factors in the development of education at the community and junior college levels. Internal redesign of public junior colleges during the 1960's and early 1970's transformed them from liberal arts institutions into administratively flexible institutions…

  7. EDIC RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1 Community Structures in Recommender Systems

    E-print Network

    systems on the social networks. Netflix Prize winner algorithm is an example of good recommender system to be studied. Netflix Prize winner is built based on the combination of three different contributions. We--Recommender systems, Netflix prize, community detection, clustering function. I. INTRODUCTION MARK Zuckerberg

  8. Multiple Learning Communities: Students, Teachers, Instructional Designers, and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2004-01-01

    Fostering a Community of Learners (FCL) exemplifies a class of pedagogical approaches aimed at having students become reasoners and sense-makers in various content domains. While the pedagogical practices among these approaches vary to some degree, they tend to overlap in philosophy and general pedagogical style. Hence issues confronted by those…

  9. A Community College Instructor's Reflective Journey Toward Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Nature of Science in a Non-majors Undergraduate Biology Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, Sarah J.; Schwartz, Renee

    2014-08-01

    Research supports an explicit-reflective approach to teaching about nature of science (NOS), but little is reported on teachers' journeys as they attempt to integrate NOS into everyday lessons. This participatory action research paper reports the challenges and successes encountered by an in-service teacher, Sarah, implementing NOS for the first time throughout four units of a community college biology course (genetics, molecular biology, evolution, and ecology). Through the action research cycles of planning, implementing, and reflecting, Sarah identified areas of challenge and success. This paper reports emergent themes that assisted her in successfully embedding NOS within the science content. Data include weekly lesson plans and pre/post reflective journaling before and after each lesson of this lecture/lab combination class that met twice a week. This course was taught back to back semesters, and this study is based on the results of a year-long process. Developing pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for NOS involves coming to understand the overlaps and connections between NOS, other science subject matter, pedagogical strategies, and student learning. Sarah found that through action research she was able to grow and assimilate her understanding of NOS within the biology content she was teaching. A shift in orientation toward teaching products of science to teaching science processes was a necessary shift for NOS pedagogical success. This process enabled Sarah's development of PCK for NOS. As a practical example of putting research-based instructional recommendations into practice, this study may be very useful for other teachers who are learning to teach NOS.

  10. "Entering Research": A Course that Creates Community and Structure for Beginning Undergraduate Researchers in the STEM Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balster, Nicholas; Pfund, Christine; Rediske, Raelyn; Branchaw, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate research experiences have been shown to enhance the educational experience and retention of college students, especially those from underrepresented populations. However, many challenges still exist relative to building community among students navigating large institutions. We developed a novel course called "Entering Research" that…

  11. Investigating Health Disparities through Community-Based Participatory Research: Lessons Learned from a Process Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Valerie; Brye, Willette; Hudson, Kenneth; Dubose, Leevones; Hansberry, Shantisha; Arrieta, Martha

    2014-01-01

    This article describes one university's efforts to partner with a local agency (the “Coalition”) within a disadvantaged, predominantly African American neighborhood, to assist them with studying their community's health disparities and health care access. The final, mutually agreed-upon plan used a community-based participatory research approach, wherein university researchers prepared neighborhood volunteers and Coalition members to conduct face-to-face interviews with residents about their health and health care access. Subsequently, the Coalition surveyed 138 residents, and the agency now possesses extensive data about the nature and extent of health problems in their community. Lessons learned from these experiences are offered. PMID:24871770

  12. Benevolent Paradox: Integrating Community-Based Empowerment and Transdisciplinary Research Approaches into Traditional Frameworks to Increase Funding and Long-Term Sustainability of Chicano-Community Research Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Adela

    2014-01-01

    Nińos Sanos, Familia Sana (NSFS) is a 5-year multi-intervention study aimed at preventing childhood obesity among Mexican-origin children in rural California. Using a transdisciplinary approach and community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodology, NSFS's development included a diversely trained team working in collaboration with…

  13. Research Note: Cops, Kids, and Community Policing—An Assessment of a Community Policing Demonstration Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quint C. Thurman; Andrew Giacomazzi; Phil Bogen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents evaluation findings from a community policing demonstration project undertaken during the summer months of 1992 in Spokane, Washington. Police officers assigned to the project were involved with youths in brief, nonthreatening weekly interactions, which they expected might improve the image of the police, promote law-abiding behavior, and instill in the youths a conventional work ethic. Data from

  14. Contemporary Research on the Transfer Mission of Community Colleges. UCLA Community College Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal of Research & Practice, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The references in this document provide an overview of empirical studies that draw upon both national survey data and institutional case studies to advance the understanding of the community college transfer mission. Specific themes addressed in the selected references include: (1) factors that influence student transfer opportunities as well as…

  15. Biological community structure on patch reefs in Biscayne National Park, FL, USA.

    PubMed

    Kuffner, Ilsa B; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Brock, John C; Hickey, T Don

    2010-05-01

    Coral reef ecosystem management benefits from continual quantitative assessment of the resources being managed, plus assessment of factors that affect distribution patterns of organisms in the ecosystem. In this study, we investigate the relationships among physical, benthic, and fish variables in an effort to help explain the distribution patterns of organisms on patch reefs within Biscayne National Park, FL, USA. We visited a total of 196 randomly selected sampling stations on 12 shallow (<10 m) patch reefs and measured physical variables (e.g., substratum rugosity, substratum type) and benthic and fish community variables. We also incorporated data on substratum rugosity collected remotely via airborne laser surveying (Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar-EAARL). Across all stations, only weak relationships were found between physical, benthic cover, and fish assemblage variables. Much of the variance was attributable to a "reef effect," meaning that community structure and organism abundances were more variable at stations among reefs than within reefs. However, when the reef effect was accounted for and removed statistically, patterns were detected. Within reefs, juvenile scarids were most abundant at stations with high coverage of the fleshy macroalgae Dictyota spp., and the calcified alga Halimeda tuna was most abundant at stations with low EAARL rugosity. Explanations for the overwhelming importance of "reef" in explaining variance in our dataset could include the stochastic arrangement of organisms on patch reefs related to variable larval recruitment in space and time and/or strong historical effects due to patchy disturbances (e.g., hurricanes, fishing), as well as legacy effects of prior residents ("priority" effects). PMID:19399634

  16. Systems Biology of Innate Immunity: From basic research to novel therapies

    E-print Network

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Systems Biology of Innate Immunity: From basic research to novel therapies THURSDAY, OCTOBER 11 infections, the systems biology of innate immunity and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and antibiotic uptake antimicrobials and modulators of innate immunity, the development of novel treatments for antibiotic resistant

  17. The Effects of Restructuring Biology Teaching by a Constructivist Teaching Approach: An Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Wan-Ju

    This study reports on the improvement of a teacher researcher's teaching practice by adopting a constructivist teaching approach. Four biology units on the nervous system, human circulatory system, evolution, and vertebrate classification were selected to illustrate a model of biology teaching. Data were drawn from student responses to…

  18. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  19. Beaumont NCI Community Oncology Research Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  20. National Community Oncology Research Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention