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1

Estuarine Science: Biological Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explores the plant and animal communities that exist within an estuary. Specifically, it examines the planktonic, pelagic, benthic and intertidal communities, and focuses on organisms that are characteristic of the community, how scientists investigate these organisms, and why such organisms are important to the biological community of estuaries. Additionally, the site provides specific examples of each community found within the Narragansett Bay.

2

Communities Complicate Gene Transplant Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confrontations have arisen between local communities and universities involved in molecular biology research. The situation in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is described in which citizens have opposed work undertaken at Harvard and MIT. (LBH)

Randal, Judith

1976-01-01

3

Advancing the Microbiome Research Community  

PubMed Central

The human microbiome has become a recognized factor in promoting and maintaining health. We outline opportunities in interdisciplinary research, analytical rigor, standardization, and policy development for this relatively new and rapidly developing field. Advances in these aspects of the research community may in turn advance our understanding of human microbiome biology. PMID:25303518

Huttenhower, Curtis; Knight, Rob; Brown, C. Titus; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Clemente, Jose C.; Gevers, Dirk; Franzosa, Eric A.; Kelley, Scott T.; Knights, Dan; Ley, Ruth E.; Mahurkar, Anup; Ravel, Jacques; White, Owen

2014-01-01

4

Space biology research development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

Bonting, Sjoerd L.

1993-01-01

5

An emerging synthesis between community ecology and evolutionary biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthesis between community ecology and evolutionary biology is emerging that identifies how genetic variation and evolution within one species can shape the ecological properties of entire communities and, in turn, how community context can govern evol- utionary processes and patterns. This synthesis incorp- orates research on the ecology and evolution within communities over short timescales (community genetics and diffuse

Marc T. J. Johnson; John R. Stinchcombe

2007-01-01

6

Systems biology of Microbial Communities  

SciTech Connect

Microbes exist naturally in a wide range of environments, spanning the extremes of high acidity and high temperature to soil and the ocean, in communities where their interactions are significant. We present a practical discussion of three different approaches for modeling microbial communities: rate equations, individual-based modeling, and population dynamics. We illustrate the approaches with detailed examples. Each approach is best fit to different levels of system representation, and they have different needs for detailed biological input. Thus, this set of approaches is able to address the operation and function of microbial communities on a wide range of organizational levels.

Navid, A; Ghim, C; Fenley, A; Yoon, S; Lee, S; Almaas, E

2008-04-11

7

Biology Research Assignment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students relate a specific aspect of biology to its current impact on the world around us in a 3-5 page research paper on a biology-related topic of their own choosing. Suggested topics and evaluation rubrics are included.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Michael Lowry N:Lowry;Michael ORG:The McCallie School REV:2005-04-08 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

8

Community University Research Agreement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the process of engaging the extended Indigenous community within Saskatoon and the surrounding First Nations communities in what would be a first major research project between Indigenous communities and the University of Saskatchewan. A management committee was established comprised of all the major Saskatoon/Saskatchewan…

Settee, Priscilla; Thomas-Prokop, Shelley

2007-01-01

9

Research Councils UK Synthetic biology  

E-print Network

Research Councils UK Synthetic biology #12;Synthetic biology Research funded by the Research, bioinformatics approaches and DNA synthesis, all of which are central to the current field of synthetic biology them commercially. Synthetic biology is one of `Eight Great Technologies' identified by the Chancellor

Berzins, M.

10

The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.  

PubMed

The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow. PMID:24911500

Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

2014-06-01

11

Biological and Environmental Research  

E-print Network

, such as energy security, climate change, environmental management, and homeland and national security. Our work the environment; and contribute to national security. #12;Martin Keller Associate Laboratory Director Biological, to understand global climate change, and to develop highly effective diagnostic and therapeutic techniques based

12

Synthetic biology for translational research.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology involves the engineering of proteins, signaling pathways and even whole organisms using modular designs and formats. A major tool of synthetic biology is artificial gene synthesis, which provides a direct means from a conceptualized DNA sequence to the corresponding physical DNA for the construction of a variety of biological components. To date, synthetic biology has often been used to answer fundamental questions in basic research, but now is poised to greatly enhance translational research. In this review, we discuss several translational applications of synthetic biology including the construction of novel diagnostics and vaccines, development of new synthetic pathways for drug screening and biosynthesis, and the creation of engineered viruses and microbes to fight human disease. Together these and other novel translational applications of artificial gene synthesis and synthetic biology have the opportunity to make major advances for improving human health. PMID:20733948

Burbelo, Peter D; Ching, Kathryn H; Han, Brian L; Klimavicz, Caitlin M; Iadarola, Michael J

2010-01-01

13

Community College Biology Lesson Index.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog contains lesson descriptions of the available biology lessons on PLATO IV, compiled to assist instructors in planning their curricula. Information is provided for 87 lessons in the following areas: introductory material on experimental tools and techniques; chemical basis of life; cellular structure and function; reproduction and…

Manteuffel, Mary S., Comp.; Herrick, Kathie, Comp.

14

Reflections on Community College Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focused researchers have filled the important role of documenting the evolution of community colleges, which have changing missions and diverse programs, designed around their communities. This article reflects on key works of Council for the Study of Community College (CSCC) members in thematic areas of access, student success, faculty…

Floyd, Deborah L.; Antczak, Laura

2010-01-01

15

THE FOREST BIOLOGY RESEARCH COOPERATIVE  

E-print Network

and management tools for sustainable biomass production suitable for forest biorefinery applications. CORE LARGETHE FOREST BIOLOGY RESEARCH COOPERATIVE MISSION: To optimize productivity, health and sustainability of intensively managed forest ecosystems by investigating the interactions among genetics

Watson, Craig A.

16

Community-based Participatory Research  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research (CBPR), with its emphasis on joining with the community as full and equal partners in all phases of the research process, makes it an appealing model for research with vulnerable populations. However, the CBPR approach is not without special challenges relating to ethical, cultural, and scientific issues. In this article, we describe how we managed the challenges we encountered while conducting a CBPR project with a Native American community. We also suggest criteria that will enable evaluation of the project. PMID:15455579

Holkup, Patricia A.; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Salois, Emily Matt; Weinert, Clarann

2009-01-01

17

Transforming a Community through Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1945, the Conrad (Montana) Study Group began a commitment to long-term community action that illustrates the principles of transformative research: awareness, active involvement, and social reconstruction. (SK)

Conti, Gary J.; And Others

1991-01-01

18

Introduced species can disrupt biological communities and alter biodiversity  

E-print Network

world, and ecologists are now considering the factors ­ environmental, man-made and biological Invasive species disrupt communities in all habitats including freshwaters where invaders affect community

Holt, Robert D.

19

Research Ethics and Indigenous Communities  

PubMed Central

Institutional review boards (IRBs) function to regulate research for the protection of human participants. We share lessons learned from the development of an intertribal IRB in the Rocky Mountain/Great Plains Tribal region of the United States. We describe the process through which a consortium of Tribes collaboratively developed an intertribal board to promote community-level protection and participation in the research process. In addition, we examine the challenges of research regulation from a Tribal perspective and explore the future of Tribally regulated research that honors indigenous knowledge and promotes community accountability and transparency. We offer recommendations for researchers, funding agencies, and Tribal communities to consider in the review and regulation of research. PMID:24134372

Kelley, Allyson; Belcourt-Dittloff, Annie

2013-01-01

20

Analysis of BIOLOG GN Substrate Utilization Patterns by Microbial Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BIOLOG GN plates are increasingly used to characterize microbial communities by determining the ability of the communities to oxidize various carbon sources. Studies were done to determine whether the BIOLOG GN plate assay accurately reflects the catabolic potential of the inoculum used. To gain insight into which populations of microbial communities contribute to the BIOLOG patterns, denaturing gradient gel electro-

KORNELIA SMALLA; UTE WACHTENDORF; HOLGER HEUER; WEN-TSO LIU

1998-01-01

21

Space Station Biological Research Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox will accommodate use by two crew persons simultaneously and the capability for real time video down-link and data acquisition. In house testbeds and Phase B studies of the centrifuge validated the concepts of vibration isolation and autobalancing systems to meet the ISSA microgravity requirements. The vibration isolation system is effective above the centrifuge rotation frequency while the autobalancing system on the rotor removes vibration at and below the rotation rate. Torque of the Station, induced by spin-up/spindown of the centrifuge, can be minimized by controlling spin-up/spin-down rates. The SSBRP and ISSA will provide the opportunity to perform long-term, repeatable and high quality science. The long duration increments available on the Station will permit multigeneration studies of both plants and animals which have not previously been possible. The u-g habitat racks and the eight habitat centrifuge will accommodate sufficient number of specimens to permit statistically significant sampling of specimens to investigate the time course of adaptation to altered gravity environments. The centrifuge will, for the first time, permit investigators to use gravity itself as a tool to investigate fundamental processes, to investigate the intensity and duration of gravity to maintain normal structure and function, to separate the effects of u-g from other environmental factors and to examine artificial gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physical deconditioning observed during space flight.

Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

1995-01-01

22

The Biological Flight Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Ames Research Center is building a research facility, the Biological Flight Research Facility (BFRF), to meet the needs of life scientists to study the long-term effects of variable gravity on living systems. The facility will be housed on Space Station Freedom and is anticipated to operate for the lifetime of the station, approximately 30 years. It will allow plant and animal biologists to study the role of gravity, or its absence, at varying gravity intensities for varying periods of time and with various organisms. The principal difference between current Spacelab missions and those on Space Station Freedom, other than length of mission, will be the capability to perform on-orbit science procedures and the capability to simulate earth gravity. Initially, the facility will house plants and rodents in habitats which can be maintained at microgravity or can be placed on a 2.5-m diam centrifuge. However, the facility is also being designed to accommodate future habitats for small primates, avian, and aquatic specimens. The centrifuge will provide 1 g for controls and will also be able to provide gravity from 0.01 to 2.0 g for threshold gravity studies as well as hypergravity studies. The BFRF will provide the means to conduct basic experiments to gain an understanding of the effects of microgravity on the structure and function of plants and animals, as well as investigate the role of gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physiological changes observed in microgravity.

Johnson, Catherine C.

1991-01-01

23

Global Biology Research Program: Program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biological processes which play a dominant role in these cycles which transform and transfer much of this material throughout the biosphere are examined. A greater understanding of planetary biological processes as revealed by the interaction of the biota and the environment. The rationale, scope, research strategy, and research priorities of the global biology is presented.

1983-01-01

24

76 FR 78908 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee...Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee will...Department of Energy on matters related to the Biological and Environmental Research programs....

2011-12-20

25

78 FR 12043 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Discussion of the...

2013-02-21

26

77 FR 55201 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics: Discussion of the...

2012-09-07

27

The Biological Flight Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) is building a research facility, the Biological Flight Research Facility (BFRF), to meet the needs of life scientists to study the long-term effects of variable gravity on living systems. The facility will be housed on Space Station Freedom and is anticipated to operate for the lifetime of the station, approximately thirty years. It will allow plant and animal biologists to study the role of gravity, or its absence, at varying gravity intensities for varying periods of time and with various organisms. The principal difference between current Spacelab missions and those on Space Station Freedom, other than length of mission, will be the capability to perform on-orbit science procedures and the capability to simulate earth gravity. Initially the facility will house plants and rodents in habitats which can be maintained at microgravity or can be placed on a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge. However, the facility is also being designed to accommodate future habitats for small primates, avian, and aquatic specimens. The centrifuge will provide 1 g for controls and will also be able to provide gravity from 0.01 to 2.0 g for threshold gravity studies as well as hypergravity studies. Included in the facility are a service unit for providing clean chambers for the specimens and a glovebox for manipulating the plant and animal specimens and for performing experimental protocols. The BFRF will provide the means to conduct basic experiments to gain an understanding of the effects of microgravity on the structure and function of plants and animals, as well as investigate the role of gravity as a potential countermeasure for the physiological changes observed in microgravity.

Johnson, Catherine C.

1993-01-01

28

Farmworkers and Pesticides: Community-Based Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A workshop brought together scientists, community organization members, and agency representatives to review community-based research on the environmental health risks of pesticide exposure for migrant farmworkers; to share appropriate, successful community-based research methods and models; and to determine future research directions and needs…

Arcury, Thomas A.; Quandt, Sara A.; McCauley, Linda

2000-01-01

29

Functional structure of biological communities predicts ecosystem multifunctionality.  

PubMed

The accelerating rate of change in biodiversity patterns, mediated by ever increasing human pressures and global warming, demands a better understanding of the relationship between the structure of biological communities and ecosystem functioning (BEF). Recent investigations suggest that the functional structure of communities, i.e. the composition and diversity of functional traits, is the main driver of ecological processes. However, the predictive power of BEF research is still low, the integration of all components of functional community structure as predictors is still lacking, and the multifunctionality of ecosystems (i.e. rates of multiple processes) must be considered. Here, using a multiple-processes framework from grassland biodiversity experiments, we show that functional identity of species and functional divergence among species, rather than species diversity per se, together promote the level of ecosystem multifunctionality with a predictive power of 80%. Our results suggest that primary productivity and decomposition rates, two key ecosystem processes upon which the global carbon cycle depends, are primarily sustained by specialist species, i.e. those that hold specialized combinations of traits and perform particular functions. Contrary to studies focusing on single ecosystem functions and considering species richness as the sole measure of biodiversity, we found a linear and non-saturating effect of the functional structure of communities on ecosystem multifunctionality. Thus, sustaining multiple ecological processes would require focusing on trait dominance and on the degree of community specialization, even in species-rich assemblages. PMID:21423747

Mouillot, David; Villéger, Sébastien; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Mason, Norman W H

2011-01-01

30

COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH  

PubMed Central

Community engagement strategies and skills can build trust and reduce historical mistrust between researchers, communities and populations being studied, as well as contribute to the quality of study designs, methods and dissemination of findings. This review paper discusses why community engagement is of increasing importance in children’s environmental health research, describes models and the continuum of methods that are used and discusses their challenges and benefits. Two case studies, representing different study designs and using different community engagement models and methods, and lessons learned from these cases are described. Community engagement methods are best understood on a continuum based on the degree to which community members or representatives of community populations are involved in research planning, decision making and dissemination. Methods along this continuum include community consultation, community based participatory research(CBPR) and community consent to research. Community engagement knowledge and skills are especially important in the conduct of children’s environmental health research with its emphasis on reducing environmental risks at the community level; the increasing focus on genetics and gene-environment interactions; and the importance placed on translation of scientific results into behaviors and policies that protect the community. Across study designs, whether qualitative survey research, an observational epidemiology study, or a randomized intervention trial, understanding community interests, norms and values is necessary to describe attitudes and behaviors of specific population groups, build evidence of cause and effect between environmental exposures and health and/or that demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce risks. PMID:21259265

Brenner, Barbara L.; Manice, Melissa P.

2010-01-01

31

13Vol. 12(2), 2003 International Research: Biological Studies  

E-print Network

, the role of symbiotic polychaetes in the communities and their relationships with their hosts remain13Vol. 12(2), 2003 International Research: Biological Studies Introduction Symbiotic polynoids and Russian expeditions which allowed to better understand the true nature of the relationships between

Martin, Daniel

32

COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PARTNERSHIPS IN THE COMMUNITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working with community partners on research projects where the community members are part of the research team presents its own challenges. The challenges include the possible mismatch of expectations between academic team members and community members, as well as in defining the different roles people play, and managing the process. This paper reports the experiences and insights gained from working

Catherine Lang; Larry Stillman; Henry Linger; Jo Dalvean; Brooke McNamara; Jinny McGrath; Rhonda Collins

2012-01-01

33

Exploring community structure in biological networks with random graphs  

PubMed Central

Background Community structure is ubiquitous in biological networks. There has been an increased interest in unraveling the community structure of biological systems as it may provide important insights into a system’s functional components and the impact of local structures on dynamics at a global scale. Choosing an appropriate community detection algorithm to identify the community structure in an empirical network can be difficult, however, as the many algorithms available are based on a variety of cost functions and are difficult to validate. Even when community structure is identified in an empirical system, disentangling the effect of community structure from other network properties such as clustering coefficient and assortativity can be a challenge. Results Here, we develop a generative model to produce undirected, simple, connected graphs with a specified degrees and pattern of communities, while maintaining a graph structure that is as random as possible. Additionally, we demonstrate two important applications of our model: (a) to generate networks that can be used to benchmark existing and new algorithms for detecting communities in biological networks; and (b) to generate null models to serve as random controls when investigating the impact of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and modularity in empirical biological networks. Conclusion Our model allows for the systematic study of the presence of community structure and its impact on network function and dynamics. This process is a crucial step in unraveling the functional consequences of the structural properties of biological systems and uncovering the mechanisms that drive these systems. PMID:24965130

2014-01-01

34

76 FR 8357 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Report from the Office of Biological and Environmental Research News from the Biological...

2011-02-14

35

78 FR 34088 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics Report from the Office of Biological and Environmental Research News from the Biological...

2013-06-06

36

75 FR 53685 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda...Biological and Environmental Research. News from the Biological... Discussions on the Climate Research Roadmap Workshop, BER Grand...Workshop Report, and Systems Biology Knowledgebase Report....

2010-09-01

37

Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of ‘brain-mind and behavior’. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are currently being investigated by the younger generation with great enthusiasm. What we have achieved so far is the foundation work in last 60 years. Our main challenge in development of biological psychiatry research in India remains resources in terms of manpower, funding and dedicated time for research psychiatrists. Developing basic sciences laboratories, discrete research questions, high quality methodology, and logistical support are some of the essentials. In the present time the culture of research has changed. It is specific and evidence-based. We have time-tested examples of International collaborative research. We need to get more resources, develop education, collaboration and effective leadership. In times to come, India will provide international leadership in basic and clinical biological psychiatry. There is hope. PMID:21836666

Shrivatava, Amresh

2010-01-01

38

Systems biology approaches in aging research.  

PubMed

Aging is a systemic process which progressively manifests itself at multiple levels of structural and functional organization from molecular reactions and cell-cell interactions in tissues to the physiology of an entire organ. There is ever increasing data on biomedical relevant network interactions for the aging process at different scales of time and space. To connect the aging process at different structural, temporal and spatial scales, extensive systems biological approaches need to be deployed. Systems biological approaches can not only systematically handle the large-scale datasets (like high-throughput data) and the complexity of interactions (feedback loops, cross talk), but also can delve into nonlinear behaviors exhibited by several biological processes which are beyond intuitive reasoning. Several public-funded agencies have identified the synergistic role of systems biology in aging research. Using one of the notable public-funded programs (GERONTOSYS), we discuss how systems biological approaches are helping the scientists to find new frontiers in aging research. We elaborate on some systems biological approaches deployed in one of the projects of the consortium (ROSage). The systems biology field in aging research is at its infancy. It is open to adapt existing systems biological methodologies from other research fields and devise new aging-specific systems biological methodologies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25341520

Chauhan, Anuradha; Liebal, Ulf W; Vera, Julio; Baltrusch, Simone; Junghanß, Christian; Tiedge, Markus; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Köhling, Rüdiger

2015-01-01

39

Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

2003-01-01

40

Funding Opportunity: Collections in Support of Biological Research (CSBR) Sponsor: National Science Foundation  

E-print Network

Funding Opportunity: Collections in Support of Biological Research (CSBR) Sponsor: National Science of the collection to the biological research community; and 3) to transfer collection ownership responsibilities by independent organizations or by state, county, or local governments; non-federal and non-profit research

Suzuki, Masatsugu

41

The molecular biology computer research resource.  

PubMed Central

Described is a new National Institutes of Health supported Molecular Biology Computer Research Resource located at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in association with Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts. PMID:2418412

Smith, T F; Gruskin, K; Tolman, S; Faulkner, D

1986-01-01

42

Social Science Research in the European Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information about social science research sponsored and coordinated by the Commission of the European Communities. Discusses financial expenditures for research, research trends, and coordination and use of research results. Recommends formation of a three-year program of coordinated research projects. For journal availability, see SO 506…

Petrella, Riccardo

1977-01-01

43

Knowledge Management for Research Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing ease of access to the Internet is making it feasible for geographically dispersed communities to work closely together, coordinating their activities through electronic mail, digital document archives, and access to remote computing facilities. This article reports on practical experience of knowledge management for a number of communities and projects. It gives an overview of the technologies available, their accessibility,

Brian R. Gaines; Mildred L G Shaw

44

The 2014 Gordon Research Conference: Physics Research & Education: The Complex Intersection of Biology and Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of biological physics and the physics education of biology and medically oriented students have experienced tremendous growth in recent years. New findings, applications, and technologies in biological and medical physics are having far reaching consequences that affect and influence the science community, the education of future scientists and health-care workers, and the general population. As a result leaders in Physics Education Research have begun to focus their attention on the specific needs of students in the biological sciences, the different ways physicists and biologists view the nature of science and the interactions of scientists in these disciplines. In this poster we highlight some of these findings and pose questions for discussion. The Complex Intersection of Biology and Physics will be the topic of the next Gordon Research Conference on Physics Research and Education to be held in June 2014. The exact date and location are still to be determined.

Sabella, Mel; Lang, Matthew

2013-03-01

45

Community Engagement about Genetic Variation Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this article is to describe the methods and effectiveness of the Public Engagement in Genetic Variation and Haplotype Mapping Issues (PEGV) Project, which engaged a community in policy discussion about genetic variation research. The project implemented a 6-stage community engagement model in New Rochelle, New York. First, researchers recruited community partners. Second, the project team created community oversight. Third, focus groups discussed concerns generated by genetic variation research. Fourth, community dialogue sessions addressed focus group findings and developed policy recommendations. Fifth, a conference was held to present these policy recommendations and to provide a forum for HapMap (haplotype mapping) researchers to dialogue directly with residents. Finally, findings were disseminated via presentations and papers to the participants and to the wider community beyond. The project generated a list of proposed guidelines for genetic variation research that addressed the concerns of New Rochelle residents. Project team members expressed satisfaction with the engagement model overall but expressed concerns about how well community groups were utilized and what segment of the community actually engaged in the project. The PEGV Project represents a model for researchers to engage the general public in policy development about genetic research. There are benefits of such a process beyond the desired genetic research. (Population Health Management 2012;15:78–89) PMID:21815821

Christensen, Kurt D.; Metosky, Susan; Rudofsky, Gayle; Deignan, Kathleen P.; Martinez, Hulda; Johnson-Moore, Penelope; Citrin, Toby

2012-01-01

46

Lifesat - A satellite for biological research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lifesat program, which provides for the development and operation of an unmanned, free-flying, recoverable, reusable satellite for microgravity biological research, is briefly reviewed. The payload modules will support research in radiation biology, general biology, and biomedical disciplines. The Lifesat will be capable of long-duration flights of up to 60 days and will be able to fly directly into trapped radiation belts and in circular or eccentric polar orbits. The Lifesat will also serve as a testbed for Space Station Freedom experiments.

Morey-Holton, Emily; Ballard, Rodney W.; Cipriano, Leonard F.; Davies, Philip

1990-01-01

47

Fundamental Biological Research on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental Biology Program of NASA's Life Sciences Division is chartered with enabling and sponsoring research on the International Space Station (ISS) in order to understand the effects of the space flight environment, particularly microgravity, on living systems. To accomplish this goal, NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has been tasked with managing the development of a number of biological habitats, along with their support systems infrastructure. This integrated suite of habitats and support systems is being designed to support research requirements identified by the scientific community. As such, it will support investigations using cells and tissues, avian eggs, insects, plants, aquatic organisms and rodents. Studies following organisms through complete life cycles and over multiple generations will eventually be possible. As an adjunct to the development of these basic habitats, specific analytical and monitoring technologies are being targeted for maturation to complete the research cycle by transferring existing or emerging analytical techniques, sensors, and processes from the laboratory bench to the ISS research platform.

Souza, K. A.; Yost, Bruce; Fletcher, L.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

48

Space Station Biological Research Project: Reference Experiment Book  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP), which is the combined efforts of the Centrifuge Facility (CF) and the Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF), is responsible for the development of life sciences hardware to be used on the International Space Station to support cell, developmental, and plant biology research. The SSBRP Reference Experiment Book was developed to use as a tool for guiding this development effort. The reference experiments characterize the research interests of the international scientific community and serve to identify the hardware capabilities and support equipment needed to support such research. The reference experiments also serve as a tool for understanding the operational aspects of conducting research on board the Space Station. This material was generated by the science community by way of their responses to reference experiment solicitation packages sent to them by SSBRP scientists. The solicitation process was executed in two phases. The first phase was completed in February of 1992 and the second phase completed in November of 1995. Representing these phases, the document is subdivided into a Section 1 and a Section 2. The reference experiments contained in this document are only representative microgravity experiments. They are not intended to define actual flight experiments. Ground and flight experiments will be selected through the formal NASA Research Announcement (NRA) and Announcement of Opportunity (AO) experiment solicitation, review, and selection process.

Johnson, Catherine (Editor); Wade, Charles (Editor)

1996-01-01

49

Some values guiding community research and action  

PubMed Central

The dual purposes of applied research—contributing to understanding and improvement—are only partially served by method systems that encourage studying (with increasing precision) a narrow range of questions of modest societal importance. To optimize contributions to challenging societal problems, a field's cherished standards should be adapted to support more adventuresome forms of community research and action. This paper outlines 10 values for community research and action, based on insights from the fields of behavioral and community psychology. These values—reflect the goals and challenges of establishing collaborative relationships with research participants, determining research goals and methods, designing and disseminating interventions, communicating research findings, and advocating for community change. Critical challenges are outlined, and implications for the field and its clients are discussed. PMID:16795759

Fawcett, Stephen B.

1991-01-01

50

77 FR 4028 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topics: Report from the Office...Biological and Environmental Research News from the...

2012-01-26

51

A newtonian framework for community detection in undirected biological networks.  

PubMed

Community detection is a key problem of interest in network analysis, with applications in a variety of domains such as biological networks, social network modeling, and communication pattern analysis. In this paper, we present a novel framework for community detection that is motivated by a physical system analogy. We model a network as a system of point masses, and drive the process of community detection, by leveraging the Newtonian interactions between the point masses. Our framework is designed to be generic and extensible relative to the model parameters that are most suited for the problem domain. We illustrate the applicability of our approach by applying the Newtonian Community Detection algorithm on protein-protein interaction networks of E. coli , C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae. We obtain results that are comparable in quality to those obtained from the Newman-Girvan algorithm, a widely employed divisive algorithm for community detection. We also present a detailed analysis of the structural properties of the communities produced by our proposed algorithm, together with a biological interpretation using E. coli protein network as a case study. A functional enrichment heat map is constructed with the Gene Ontology functional mapping, in addition to a pathway analysis for each community. The analysis illustrates that the proposed algorithm elicits communities that are not only meaningful from a topological standpoint, but also possess biological relevance. We believe that our algorithm has the potential to serve as a key computational tool for driving therapeutic applications involving targeted drug development for personalized care delivery. PMID:24681920

Narayanan, Tejaswini; Subramaniam, Shankar

2014-02-01

52

Schistosomiasis research and the European Community.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis research within the framework of the Commission of the European Communities 'Science and Technology for Development' (CEC/STD) Programme is targeted at three specific problems: diagnosis of infection and disease; the dynamics of transmission, immunity, and morbidity; and the need for improved tools and strategies for control. Several important advances have been made over the past decade. Improved methods of diagnosis by detection of circulating antigens are in an advanced stage of development and have already undergone field trials in several epidemiological settings. Treatment and reinfection studies combined with immunological observations have allowed the elucidation of possible mechanisms leading to acquired resistance, and have shown that repeated chemotherapy with praziquantel can substantially reduce morbidity. Other projects have studied the epidemiological and ecological determinants of transmission, infection and disease in various endemic situations and also in newly established, epidemic foci where remarkable observations on chemotherapeutic responses were made. Important advances have been made towards the development of a vaccine. The glutathione-S-transferases of the major species of schistosomes have been cloned, sequenced and expressed, and their biological function studied. In a variety of vaccine formulations and animal systems GST has been able to confer protection against infection and to reduce worm fecundity. GST and a series of other crude and defined antigens have been evaluated with varying results in Schistosoma japonicum and S. bovis in cattle. Much work has yet been done, however. Recommendations as to possible future directions for research are provided. PMID:7825231

Hagan, P; Gryseels, B

1994-01-01

53

The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR): a model organism database providing a centralized, curated gateway to Arabidopsis biology, research materials and community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely-studied plant today. The concerted efforts of over 11 000 researchers and 4000 organizations around the world are generating a rich diversity and quantity of information and materials. This information is made available through a comprehensive on-line resource called the Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) (http:\\/\\/arabidopsis.org), which is accessible via commonly used web browsers and can

Seung Yon Rhee; William D. Beavis; Tanya Z. Berardini; Guanghong Chen; David A. Dixon; Aisling Doyle; Margarita Garcia-hernandez; Eva Huala; Gabriel Lander; Mary Montoya; Neil Miller; Lukas A. Mueller; Suparna Mundodi; Leonore Reiser; Julie Tacklind; Dan C. Weems; Yihe Wu; Iris Xu; Daniel Yoo; Jungwon Yoon; Peifen Zhang

2003-01-01

54

Research on orchid biology and biotechnology.  

PubMed

Orchidaceae constitute one of the largest families of angiosperms. They are one of the most ecological and evolutionary significant plants and have successfully colonized almost every habitat on earth. Because of the significance of plant biology, market needs and the current level of breeding technologies, basic research into orchid biology and the application of biotechnology in the orchid industry are continually endearing scientists to orchids in Taiwan. In this introductory review, we give an overview of the research activities in orchid biology and biotechnology, including the status of genomics, transformation technology, flowering regulation, molecular regulatory mechanisms of floral development, scent production and color presentation. This information will provide a broad scope for study of orchid biology and serve as a starting point for uncovering the mysteries of orchid evolution. PMID:21791545

Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Yang, Ya-Ping; Hsu, Yi-Chin; Chuang, Yu-Chen; Shih, Hsing-Hui; Chen, Wen-Huei; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Hong-Hwa

2011-09-01

55

Genomics and future biological weapons: the need for preventive action by the biomedical community.  

PubMed

There is an increasing concern within both the scientific and security communities that the ongoing revolution in biology has great potential to be misused in offensive biological weapons programs. In light of the 11 September tragedy, we can no longer afford to be complacent about the possibility of biological terrorism. Here we review the major relevant trends in genomics research and development, and discuss how these capabilities might be misused in the design of new bioweapons. We also discuss how the breakthroughs that have come from the genomics revolution may be used to enhance detection, protection and treatment so that biological warfare agents are never used. PMID:11687792

Fraser, C M; Dando, M R

2001-11-01

56

FDA: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is "to protect and enhance the public health through the regulation of biological and related products including blood, vaccines, allergenics, tissues, and cellular and gene therapies." Their mission is an important one, and consumers and scientists will want to bookmark this page and return to it on a regular basis. On this page, visitors can sign up for their RSS feed and read through some key resources. Users can also browse resources on biologics depending on their needs: consumer, healthcare and industry level information is provided.

57

Research collaboration in health management research communities  

PubMed Central

Background This study uses scientometrics methodology to reveal the status quo and emerging issues of collaboration in health management. Methods We searched all the articles with the keyword “health management” in the period 1999–2011 in Web of Knowledge, then 3067 articles were found. Methods such as Social network analysis (SNA), co-authorship, co-word analysis were used in this study. Results Analysis of the past 13 years of research in the field of health management indicates that, whether the production of scientific research, or authors, institutions and scientific research collaboration at the national level, collaboration behavior has been growing steadily across all collaboration types. However, the international scientific research cooperation about health management study between countries needs to be further encouraged. 17 researchers can be seen as the academic leaders in this field. 37 research institutions play a vital role in the information dissemination and resources control in health management. The component analysis found that 22 research groups can be regarded as the backbone in this field. The 8 institution groups consisting of 33 institutions form the core of this field. USA, UK and Australia lie in the center by cohesive subgroup analysis; Based on keywords analysis, 44 keywords with high frequency such as care, disease, system and model were involved in the health management field. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although it is growing steadily, collaboration behavior about health management study needs to be enhanced, especially between different institutions or countries/regions, which would promote the progress and internationalization of health management. Besides, researchers should pay attention to the cooperation of representative scholars and institutions, as well as the hot areas of research, because their experience would help us promote the research development of our nation. PMID:23617236

2013-01-01

58

Faculty Experiences in a Research Learning Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examines the experiences of faculty in a research learning community developed to support new faculty in increasing scholarly productivity. A phenomenological, qualitative inquiry was used to portray the lived experiences of faculty within a learning community. Several themes were found including: accountability, belonging,…

Holmes, Courtney M.; Kozlowski, Kelly A.

2014-01-01

59

Small Learning Communities. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is minimal research on the schools-within-a-school model, however, the research on small schools is abundant. According to the research, when determining how a school should be structured, some guiding questions should be asked and answered before a program is established. Those questions are listed in this paper. The size of the school…

Walker, Karen

2003-01-01

60

Bacterial Community Structure in Geographically Distributed Biological  

E-print Network

, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, and Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Instituto de Ingenieria, Unidad Academica

Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

61

A Research Methodology for Community Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of basic research methods focused on community practice organizations have been demonstrated over the last three decades. This article reviews the highlights of this history by examining comparative analysis, quantitative analysis, qualitative study, and historical research methods. A systematic description and analysis of nine specific research methods, including their purpose, stage of knowledge development, and feasibility, are provided.

Ray H. MacNair

1996-01-01

62

An Introduction to Community-Based Participatory Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an approach designed to promote community health and well-being through the establishment and maintenance of research partnerships between communities and academic researchers. Rather than the academic researcher assuming what is best for a community, CBPR utilizes community partnerships…

Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Geishecker, Steve; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Gitlin, David J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

2010-01-01

63

Community structure in social and biological networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent studies have focused on the statistical properties of networked systems such as social networks and the Worldwide Web. Researchers have concentrated particularly on a few properties that seem to be common to many networks: the small-world property, power-law degree distributions, and network transitivity. In this article, we highlight another property that is found in many networks,

Michelle Girvan; M. E. J. Newman

2002-01-01

64

Genomics and Computational Biology lie at the center of a rapid convergence of biomedical research fields. Research in  

E-print Network

Genomics and Computational Biology lie at the center of a rapid convergence of biomedical research institutions creating a lively scientific community that fosters unique interactions. Why Choose Penn? A GT C biology: The diver- sification of organisms from pathogens to people is being studied primarily using high

Plotkin, Joshua B.

65

Messages to the Research Community  

Cancer.gov

May 2013Message to Grantees About NCI Funding and Grant Support for FY2013On May 7, 2013, NCI Director Harold Varmus sent an email to all NCI grantees informing them of reductions to NCI’s budget for fiscal year 2013. The reductions, due in large part to sequestration, are spread across NCI’s portfolio to protect NCI’s ability to issue new and competing research project grants.

66

76 FR 31319 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building...Biological and Environmental Research Program. Tentative Agenda Topic: Discussion of existing...practices for disseminating research results in the fields...

2011-05-31

67

Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis  

E-print Network

Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis Instructors: Pat Collins.Pinder@Dal.Ca Bill; 5076B; 494-1853; Bill.Pohajdak@Dal.Ca This class is required of, and restricted to, all Biology And Marine Biology Honours programmes in which Biology or Marine Biology is the major area of study. Students

Adl, Sina

68

Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis  

E-print Network

Biology/Marine Biology 4900 X/Y & 4901, 4902 Honours Research and Thesis Instructors: 3 members of the honours committee each year. This class is required of, and restricted to, all Biology and Marine Biology Honours programmes in which Biology or Marine Biology is the major area of study. Students conduct

Adl, Sina

69

Detecting and evaluating communities in complex human and biological networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a simple method for detecting the community structure in a network can by utilizing a measure of closeness between nodes. This approach readily leads to a method of coarse graining the network, which allows the detection of the natural hierarchy (or hierarchies) of community structure without appealing to an unknown resolution parameter. The closeness measure can also be used to evaluate the robustness of an individual node's assignment to its community (rather than evaluating only the quality of the global structure). Each of these methods in community detection and evaluation are illustrated using a variety of real world networks of either biological or sociological importance and illustrate the power and flexibility of the approach.

Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

2012-02-01

70

Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acting as part of the European Commission's INNOVATION Programme, the Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS) provides information on European Union research, development, and innovation activities to help strengthen the competitiveness of European organizations, particularly small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). CORDIS's ten searchable databases covering various news and research publications, EU-funded research programs, and organizational contact and partnership directories are designed to help SMEs find data and funding. An Acronym dictionary of EU research and development terms aids search navigation, and key pages are available in English, French, German, and Italian.

71

Structural biological materials: Overview of current research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through specific biological examples this article illustrates the complex designs that have evolved in nature to address strength, toughness, and weight optimization. Current research is reviewed, and the structure of some shells, bones, antlers, crab exoskeletons, and avian feathers and beaks is described using the principles of materials science and engineering by correlating the structure with mechanical properties. In addition, the mechanisms of deformation and failure are discussed.

Chen, P.-Y.; Lin, A. Y.-M.; Stokes, A. G.; Seki, Y.; Bodde, S. G.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M. A.

2008-06-01

72

2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights  

SciTech Connect

LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes; and develop technology and tools which enhance healthcare. We execute our roles through integrated multidisciplinary programs that apply our competencies in: microbial and mammalian genomics--the characterization of DNA, the genes it encodes, their regulation and function and their role in living systems; protein function and biochemistry - the structure, function, and interaction of proteins and other molecules involved in the integrated biochemical function of the processes of life; computational modeling and understanding of biochemical systems--the application of high-speed computing technology to simulate and visualize complex, integrated biological processes; bioinformatics--databasing, networking, and analysis of biological data; and bioinstrumentation--the application of physical and engineering technologies to novel biological and biochemical measurements, laboratory automation, medical device development, and healthcare technologies. We leverage the Laboratory's exceptional capabilities in the physical, computational, chemical, environmental and engineering sciences. We partner with industry and universities to utilize their state-of-the art technology and science and to make our capabilities and discoveries available to the broader research community.

Prange, C

2003-03-01

73

Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem.

McCullough, Dr. Dale [University of California, Berkeley; Bartholow, Dr. John [U.S. Department of Fish and Wildlife; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; al., et. [Various Institutes

2009-01-01

74

Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

1994-02-01

75

Reflections on a Community and University Research Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper reflects on the collaborative research relationship between university and community researchers. It identifies emergent themes expressed in the words of researchers and recommends strategies to assist with other research collaborations.Conclusions: Emergent themes included: Initial reticence by community members followed by positive experiences; the value of empowerment frameworks in research; building trust between community and university researchers; capacity

Kevin Mayo; Komla Tsey

2009-01-01

76

POLLUTION RESEARCH WITHIN THE FEDERAL COMMUNITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This project summary describes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) program to support pollution prevention (P2) research throughout the Federal community, and the current status on all projects as of September 1994...

77

Bioerosion by chemosynthetic biological communities on Holocene submarine slide scars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomorphic, stratigraphic, and faunal observations of submarine slide scars that occur along the flanks of Monterey Canyon in 2.0–2.5 km water depths were made to identify the processes that continue to alter the surface of a submarine landslide scar after the initial slope failure. Deep-sea chemosynthetic biological communities and small caves are common on the sediment-free surfaces of the slide scars,

C. K. Paull; W. Ussler; H. G. Greene; J. Barry; R. Keaten

2005-01-01

78

Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research  

PubMed Central

The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of ‘governmentality’, and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389

Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

2013-01-01

79

Computational systems biology for aging research.  

PubMed

Computational modelling is a key component of systems biology and integrates with the other techniques discussed thus far in this book by utilizing a myriad of data that are being generated to quantitatively represent and simulate biological systems. This chapter will describe what computational modelling involves; the rationale for using it, and the appropriateness of modelling for investigating the aging process. How a model is assembled and the different theoretical frameworks that can be used to build a model are also discussed. In addition, the chapter will describe several models which demonstrate the effectiveness of each computational approach for investigating the constituents of a healthy aging trajectory. Specifically, a number of models will be showcased which focus on the complex age-related disorders associated with unhealthy aging. To conclude, we discuss the future applications of computational systems modelling to aging research. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25341511

Mc Auley, Mark T; Mooney, Kathleen M

2015-01-01

80

NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) in Gravitational Biology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of our NSCORT is to investigate the effects of gravity and other environmental factors on biological function at the cellular and molecular level. The research efforts, training opportunities, and scientific exchange will promote the expansion of a scientific peer group well-educated in space-related biological issues. This will stimulate the interest of the larger scientific community and insure the continuing development of rigorous flight investigations in Gravitational Biology.

Mclntire, Larry V.; Rudolph, Frederick B.

1996-01-01

81

Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery  

E-print Network

- 1 - Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery April 3, 2012 Examining of a variety of cellular phenotypes for the purposes of basic cell biology research and drug discovery. LANL

82

RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center Cell Dynamics Research Core  

E-print Network

Regulation Laboratory for Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics Computational Biology Research Core LaboratoryRIKEN Quantitative Biology Center Cell Dynamics Research Core Laboratory for Cell Dynamics for Computational Molecular Design Drug Discovery Molecular Simulation Platform Unit Laboratory for Biomolecular

Fukai, Tomoki

83

IET Synthetic Biology To date, biological research has focused on the analysis of  

E-print Network

Editorial IET Synthetic Biology To date, biological research has focused on the analysis for a fundamental rethink in our approach to biology and its application. Synthetic biology is the discipline of synthetic systems requires the recruitment of engineering principles to biology. In principle, simple

Haseloff, Jim

84

Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983  

SciTech Connect

This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)

Barr, S.H. (ed.)

1984-08-01

85

Psychiatric research: psychoproteomics, degradomics and systems biology.  

PubMed

While proteomics has excelled in several disciplines in biology (cancer, injury and aging), neuroscience and psychiatryproteomic studies are still in their infancy. Several proteomic studies have been conducted in different areas of psychiatric disorders, including drug abuse (morphine, alcohol and methamphetamine) and other psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia and psychosis). However, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these conditions have not been fully investigated. Thus, one of the primary objectives of this review is to discuss psychoproteomic application in the area of psychiatric disorders, with special focus on substance- and drug-abuse research. In addition, we illustrate the potential role of degradomic utility in the area of psychiatric research and its application in establishing and identifying biomarkers relevant to neurotoxicity as a consequence of drug abuse. Finally, we will discuss the emerging role of systems biology and its current use in the field of neuroscience and its integral role in establishing a comprehensive understanding of specific brain disorders and brain function in general. PMID:18466058

Kobeissy, Firas H; Sadasivan, Shankar; Liu, Jing; Gold, Mark S; Wang, Kevin K W

2008-04-01

86

Biological threat characterization research: a critical component of national biodefense.  

PubMed

Biological warfare (BW) threat assessments identify and prioritize BW threats to civilian and military populations. In an ideal world, they provide policymakers with clear and compelling guidance to prioritize biodefense research, development, testing, evaluation, and acquisition of countermeasures. Unfortunately, the biodefense community does not exist in an ideal world. National security professionals responsible for crafting BW threat assessments often are challenged by factors that limit the clarity and/or timeliness of those assessments. Moreover, the potential for life science advances to enhance threats enabled by state programs and the possibility that non-state actors may pursue crude but effective BW methodologies will drastically expand the scope of the perceived threat. Appropriate investment of federal biodefense funds will require some mechanism for validating and prioritizing present and future threats. Ideally, such a mechanism will incorporate empirical data targeted to elucidate actual hazards. In this regard, the Department of Homeland Security's creation of a Biological Threat Characterization Program for the technical validation of threat agents will be a valuable addition to the nation's overall biodefense strategy. This article articulates the need for a coordinated national biological threat characterization program, discusses some of the principal challenges associated with such research, and suggests a few options for their resolution. PMID:16366839

Petro, James B; Carus, W Seth

2005-01-01

87

ON BANKS OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL OF HUMAN ORIGIN (BIOBANKS) IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present report discusses the key-points of the debate which developed in recent years around banks of human biological material (biobanks). The great importance of biobanks for research and the serious emerging bioethical questions have began to attract the attention of the research community in our country as well. The issue is closely linked to the management of genetic data

T. Vidalis; K. Manolakou; Christina Xanthopoulou

88

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Klebsiella pneumoniae related community-  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Klebsiella pneumoniae related community- acquired acute lower, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very-sector hospitals. Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Community-acquired, Pneumonia, Extended-spectrum betalactamases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

Space Station Biological Research Project Habitat: Incubator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developed as part of the suite of Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) hardware to support research aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Incubator is a temperature-controlled chamber, for conducting life science research with small animal, plant and microbial specimens. The Incubator is designed for use only on the ISS and is transported to/from the ISS, unpowered and without specimens, in the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) of the Shuttle. The Incubator interfaces with the three SSBRP Host Systems; the Habitat Holding Racks (HHR), the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and the 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (CR), providing investigators with the ability to conduct research in microgravity and at variable gravity levels of up to 2-g. The temperature within the Specimen Chamber can be controlled between 4 and 45 C. Cabin air is recirculated within the Specimen Chamber and can be exchanged with the ISS cabin at a rate of approximately equal 50 cc/min. The humidity of the Specimen Chamber is monitored. The Specimen Chamber has a usable volume of approximately equal 19 liters and contains two (2) connectors at 28v dc, (60W) for science equipment; 5 dedicated thermometers for science; ports to support analog and digital signals from experiment unique sensors or other equipment; an Ethernet port; and a video port. It is currently manifested for UF-3 and will be launched integrated within the first SSBRP Habitat Holding Rack.

Nakamura, G. J.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Scheller, N. M.

2001-01-01

90

Microbialites and microbial communities: Biological diversity, biogeochemical functioning, diagenetic  

E-print Network

sedimentary environments (marine realm, thermal springs, lakes, rivers, deserts, karsts etc.), and 2 these structures and the control exerted by environmental and climatic parameters both on their composition of the current research on microbial communities and microbialites. The papers are grouped in two sections: 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Space plant biology research in Lithuania.  

PubMed

In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial Earth satellite, initiating its space exploration programs. Throughout the rest of the twentieth century, the development of these space programs received special attention from Soviet Union authorities. Scientists from the former Soviet Republics, including Lithuania, participated in these programs. From 1971 to 1990, Lithuanians designed more than 20 experiments on higher plant species during space flight. Some of these experiments had never before been attempted and, therefore, made scientific history. However, the formation and development of space plant biology research in Lithuania or its origins, context of formation, and placement in a worldwide context have not been explored from a historical standpoint. By investigating these topics, this paper seeks to construct an image of the development of a very specific field of science in a small former Soviet republic. PMID:22613222

Ri?kien?, Aurika

2012-09-01

92

Connecting Research to Teaching: Professional Communities: Teachers Supporting Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on importance of strong professional communities for supporting reform. National Center for Research in Mathematical Sciences Education (NCRMSE) found significant correlation between teachers' professional community and reformed mathematics instruction. Urban Mathematics Collaboratives (UMC), Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying…

Adajian, Lisa Byrd

1996-01-01

93

Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow  

MedlinePLUS

... major institutions across the United States and internationally. Biology of Aging: Research Today for a Healthier Tomorrow ... some of NIA’s exciting findings about the basic biology of aging and points to directions for future ...

94

Biology of an Enzyme: A Research-Like Experience for Introductory Biology Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a series of laboratory exercises designed to introduce students to a realistic experience in biological research that is feasible with large numbers of beginning biology majors. The exercises center on the study of alkaline phosphatase. (DDR)

Towle, David W.

1992-01-01

95

Modifying Photovoice for community-based participatory Indigenous research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific research occurs within a set of socio-political conditions, and in Canada research involving Indigenous communities has a historical association with colonialism. Consequently, Indigenous peoples have been justifiably sceptical and reluctant to become the subjects of academic research. Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is an attempt to develop culturally relevant research models that address issues of injustice, inequality, and exploitation. The

Heather Castleden; Theresa Garvin; Huu-ay-aht First Nation

2008-01-01

96

Maximizing the Impact of Community-Based Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-based research (CBR) is an increasingly familiar approach to addressing social challenges. Nonetheless, the role it plays in attaining community impact is unclear and largely unstudied. Here the authors discuss an emerging framework aimed toward fostering community impact through university and community civic engagement. They describe…

Beckman, Mary; Penney, Naomi; Cockburn, Bethany

2011-01-01

97

Framing participation in organizational online communities: research challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many organizations have started to experiment with online communities, there is little theoretically grounded knowledge on how to develop, manage and improve such communities. In addressing this gap, we explore how participation in organizational online communities can be framed with the purpose to identify future research challenges. By conceptualizing the online community phenomenon the paper reflects on what motivates

Pär J. Ågerfalk; Mats Edenius; Stefan Hrastinski

98

Effects of Sand Mining on Physical Processes and Biological Communities Offshore New Jersey, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

BYRNES, M.R.; HAMMER, R.M.; THIBAUT, T.D., and SNYDER, D.B., 2004. Potential effects of sand mining on physical processes and biological communities offshore New Jersey, U.S.A. Journal of Coastal Research, 20(1), 25-43. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. Physical processes and biological data were collected and analyzed for eight sand resource areas on the New Jersey Outer Continental Shelf to address

Mark R. Byrnes; Richard M. Hammer; Tim D. Thibaut; David B. Snyder

2004-01-01

99

Zoo Biology 0:113 (2008) RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

Zoo Biology 0:1­13 (2008) RESEARCH ARTICLE Urinary Corticosteroid Excretion Patterns in the Okapi and Naida Loskutoff3 1 Dallas Zoo, Dallas, Texas 2 Department of Psychology and Nebraska Behavioral Biology's Henry Doorly Zoo, Omaha, Nebraska Stress is known to alter a variety of biological processes, including

French, Jeffrey A.

100

Relevance of ammonium oxidation within biological soil crust communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thin, vertically structured topsoil communities that become ecologically important in arid regions (biological soil crusts or BSCs) are responsible for much of the nitrogen inputs into pristine arid lands. We studied N2 fixation and ammonium oxidation (AO) at subcentimetre resolution within BSCs from the Colorado Plateau. Pools of dissolved porewater nitrate/ nitrite, ammonium and organic nitrogen in wetted BSCs were high in comparison with those typical of aridosoils. They remained stable during incubations, indicating that input and output processes were of similar magnitude. Areal N2 fixation rates (6.5-48 ??mol C2H2 m-2 h -1) were high, the vertical distribution of N2 fixation peaking close to the surface if populations of heterocystous cyanobacteria were present, but in the subsurface if they were absent. Areal AO rates (19-46 ??mol N m-2 h-1) were commensurate with N2 fixation inputs. When considering oxygen availability, AO activity invariably peaked 2-3 mm deep and was limited by oxygen (not ammonium) supply. Most probable number (MPN)-enumerated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (6.7-7.9 ?? 103 cells g-1 on average) clearly peaked at 2-3 mm depth. Thus, AO (hence nitrification) is a spatially restricted but important process in the nitrogen cycling of BSC, turning much of the biologically fixed nitrogen into oxidized forms, the fate of which remains to be determined.

Johnson, S.L.; Budinoff, C.R.; Belnap, J.; Garcia-Pichel, F.

2005-01-01

101

How to integrate biological research into society and exclude errors in biomedical publications? Progress in theoretical and systems biology releases pressure on experimental research  

PubMed Central

This brief opinion proposes measures to increase efficiency and exclude errors in biomedical research under the existing dynamic situation. Rapid changes in biology began with the description of the three dimensional structure of DNA 60 years ago; today biology has progressed by interacting with computer science and nanoscience together with the introduction of robotic stations for the acquisition of large-scale arrays of data. These changes have had an increasing influence on the entire research and scientific community. Future advance demands short-term measures to ensure error-proof and efficient development. They can include the fast publishing of negative results, publishing detailed methodical papers and excluding a strict connection between career progression and publication activity, especially for younger researchers. Further development of theoretical and systems biology together with the use of multiple experimental methods for biological experiments could also be helpful in the context of years and decades. With regards to the links between science and society, it is reasonable to compare both these systems, to find and describe specific features for biology and to integrate it into the existing stream of social life and financial fluxes. It will increase the level of scientific research and have mutual positive effects for both biology and society. Several examples are given for further discussion. PMID:24748913

Volkov, Vadim

2014-01-01

102

Undergraduate Biological Research Journal UCSD Division of Biological Sciences  

E-print Network

on happiness, voting and politics From a Single Cell WESTON DAVINI Research at UCSD passes the golden standard of our goals this year was to bring the San Diego youth out from the stands and onto the center court

Hampton, Randy

103

The Community Leaders Institute: An Innovative Program to Train Community Leaders in Health Research  

PubMed Central

An emerging best practice of addressing health and improving health disparities in communities is ensuring that academic health centers (AHCs) are engaged with area schools, primary care practices, and community advocates as equal partners in research, services, and programs. The literature documents the importance of ensuring that academic-community collaboration is based on equity, trust, and respect, and that there is capacity (time and resources) and a shared culture (language, skills, and applied knowledge) for accomplishing mutual goals in academic-community research partnerships. It is also essential that an academic-community collaboration results in tangible and measurable goals and outcomes for both the target community and the AHC. Currently, the models for implementing best practices in community health partnerships, especially training programs, are limited. This paper article summarizes the goals and outcomes for the Community Leaders Institute (CLI), a six-week innovative leadership development training program designed to enhance academic-community research, integrate the interests of community leaders and AHC researchers, and build research capacity and competencies within the community. Based on two years of outcome data, the CLI is achieving its intended goals of engaging faculty as trainer-scholars while promoting academic-community partnerships that align with community and AHC priorities. The training and collaborative research paradigm utilized by the CLI has served to accelerate AHC-community engagement and integration efforts, as CLI graduates are now serving on AHC steering, bioethics, and other committees. PMID:23348087

Crosby, Lori E.; Parr, William; Smith, Teresa; Mitchell, Monica J.

2013-01-01

104

POLICY FOR RESEARCH INVOLVING DRUGS, BIOLOGICS OR DEVICES  

E-print Network

of the approved investigator(s) and must comply with FDA regulations. Drugs or Biologics When research involves of the drug/biologic The investigation will be conducted in compliance with FDA regulations will be shipped in compliance with FDA Regulations for Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research

105

A framework for building research partnerships with first nations communities.  

PubMed

Solutions to complex health and environmental issues experienced by First Nations communities in Canada require the adoption of collaborative modes of research. The traditional "helicopter" approach to research applied in communities has led to disenchantment on the part of First Nations people and has impeded their willingness to participate in research. University researchers have tended to develop projects without community input and to adopt short term approaches to the entire process, perhaps a reflection of granting and publication cycles and other realities of academia. Researchers often enter communities, collect data without respect for local culture, and then exit, having had little or no community interaction or consideration of how results generated could benefit communities or lead to sustainable solutions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative to the helicopter approach and is promoted here as a method to research that will meet the objectives of both First Nations and research communities. CBPR is a collaborative approach that equitably involves all partners in the research process. Although the benefits of CBPR have been recognized by segments of the University research community, there exists a need for comprehensive changes in approaches to First Nations centered research, and additional guidance to researchers on how to establish respectful and productive partnerships with First Nations communities beyond a single funded research project. This article provides a brief overview of ethical guidelines developed for researchers planning studies involving Aboriginal people as well as the historical context and principles of CBPR. A framework for building research partnerships with First Nations communities that incorporates and builds upon the guidelines and principles of CBPR is then presented. The framework was based on 10 years' experience working with First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. The framework for research partnership is composed of five phases. They are categorized as the pre-research, community consultation, community entry, research and research dissemination phases. These phases are cyclical, non-linear and interconnected. Elements of, and opportunities for, exploration, discussion, engagement, consultation, relationship building, partnership development, community involvement, and information sharing are key components of the five phases within the framework. The phases and elements within this proposed framework have been utilized to build and implement sustainable collaborative environmental health research projects with Saskatchewan First Nations communities. PMID:24855374

Bharadwaj, Lalita

2014-01-01

106

Incorporating community-based participatory research principles into environmental health research: challenges and lessons learned from a housing pilot study.  

PubMed

In environmental health research, a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach can effectively involve community members, researchers, and representatives from nonprofit, academic, and governmental agencies as equal partners throughout the research process. The authors sought to use CBPR principles in a pilot study; its purpose was to investigate how green construction practices might affect indoor exposures to chemicals and biological agents. Information from this pilot informed the development of a methodology for a nationwide study of low-income urban multifamily housing. The authors describe here 1) the incorporation of CBPR principles into a pilot study comparing green vs. conventionally built urban housing, 2) the resulting implementation and reporting challenges, and 3) lessons learned and implications for increased community participation in environmental health research. PMID:24988659

Ponder-Brookins, Paris; Witt, Joyce; Steward, John; Greenwell, Douglas; Chew, Ginger L; Samuel, Yvette; Kennedy, Chinaro; Brown, Mary Jean

2014-06-01

107

A Research-Based Molecular Biology Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an apprenticeship-style course that mimics experiences in research laboratories and better reflects trends in educational reform, students perform team projects through collaboration with corporate research institutions. This research-based, student-ce

Buising, Charisse; Henderson, Larhee

2001-02-01

108

Research Coordination Networks in Biological Sciences (RCN)  

NSF Publications Database

... a theme as a focus of its collaboration. The focus could be on a broad research question, a specific ... of research coordination. The research coordination network/group will have a common theme as a ...

109

Engaging community college students in physics research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recruiting talent and fostering innovation in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) disciplines demands that we attract, educate, and retain a larger and more diverse cohort of students. In this regard, Community Colleges (CC), serving a disproportionate number of underrepresented minority, female and nontraditional students, represent a pool of potential talent that, due to a misguided perception of its students as being less capable, often remains untapped. We will present our strategies to attract and support the academic advancement of CC students in the STEM fields through our NSF-sponsored Research Experience for Undergraduates program entitled Internships in Nanosystems Science Engineering and Technology (INSET). For more than a decade, INSET has offered a physics research projects to CC students. The key components of INSET success are: 1) the involvement of CC faculty with a strong interest in promoting student success in all aspects of program planning and execution; 2) the design of activities that provide the level of support that students might need because of lack of confidence and/or unfamiliarity with a university environment; and 3) setting clear goals and high performance expectations.

Valentine, Megan; Napoli, Maria; Lubin, Arica; Kramer, Liu-Yen; Aguirre, Ofelia; Kuhn, Jens-Uwe; Arnold, Nicholas

2013-03-01

110

Practicing biology: Undergraduate laboratory research, persistence in science, and the impact of self-efficacy beliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As undergraduate laboratory research internships become more popular and universities devote considerable resources towards promoting them, it is important to clarify what students specifically gain through involvement in these experiences and it is important to understand their impact on the science pipeline. By examining recent findings describing the primary benefits of undergraduate research participation, along with self-efficacy theory, this study aims to provide more explanatory power to the anecdotal and descriptive accounts regarding the relationship between undergraduate research experiences and interest in continuing in science. Furthermore, this study characterizes practices that foster students' confidence in doing scientific work with detailed description and analysis of the interactions of researchers in a laboratory. Phase 1 of the study, a survey of undergraduate biology majors (n=71) at a major research university, investigates the relationships among participation in biology laboratory research internships, biology laboratory self-efficacy strength, and interest in persisting in science. Phase 2 of the study, a two-year investigation of a university biology research laboratory, investigates how scientific communities of practice develop self-efficacy beliefs. The findings suggest that participation in lab internships results in increased interest in continuing in life science/biology graduate school and careers. They also suggest that a significant proportion of that interest is related to the students' biology laboratory self-efficacy. The findings of this study point to two primary ways that undergraduate research participation might work to raise self-efficacy strength. First, university research laboratory communities can provide students with a variety of resources that scaffold them into biology laboratory mastery experiences. Second, university research laboratory communities can provide students with coping and mastery Discourse models and mentors, offering them access to and practice with the social norms of an epistemic community. This study begins to integrate what is currently known regarding student motivation through research experience, traditionally studied by program evaluations, with social learning theories. Given the role strong self-efficacy beliefs play in motivating students, understanding the kinds of social interactions that develop science self-efficacy could provide important policy guidelines for primary investigators who work with undergraduates, department chairs, and other promoters of undergraduate research in colleges and universities.

Berkes, Elizabeth

111

Research Ethics Education for Community-Engaged Research: A Review and Research Agenda  

PubMed Central

Community engagement is increasingly becoming an integral part of research. “Community-engaged research” (CEnR) introduces new stakeholders as well as unique challenges to the protection of participants and the integrity of the research process. We—a group of representatives of CTSA-funded institutions and others who share expertise in research ethics and CEnR—have identified gaps in the literature regarding (1) ethical issues unique to CEnR; (2) the particular instructional needs of academic investigators, community research partners, and IRB members; and (3) best practices for teaching research ethics. This paper presents what we know, as well as what we still need to learn, in order to develop quality research ethics educational materials tailored to the full range of stakeholder groups in CEnR. PMID:22565579

Anderson, Emily E.; Solomon, Stephanie; Heitman, Elizabeth; DuBois, James M.; Fisher, Celia B.; Kost, Rhonda G.; Lawless, Mary Ellen; Ramsey, Cornelia; Jones, Bonnie; Ammerman, Alice; Ross, Lainie Friedman

2012-01-01

112

Good Research Practice The National Centre for Biological Sciences' Guidelines on Good Research Practice  

E-print Network

Good Research Practice The National Centre for Biological Sciences' Guidelines on Good Research Practice have been developed to emphasise the importance of integrity and rigour in all research carried of interest, leadership, supervision & training, ethical practice, conducting the research, intellectual

Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

113

Microarthropod communities associated with biological soil crusts in the Colorado Plateau and Chihuahuan deserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological soil crusts provide habitat for microarthropods of various trophic groups in arid systems, but the community composition and functional role of microarthropods in these unique systems are not well characterized for many desert locations. This study examined the microarthropod community, including mites, collembolans, and tardigrades, associated with early- and late-successional stage biological soil crusts at two locations, Colorado Plateau

D. A. Neher; S. A. Lewins; T. R. Weicht; B. J. Darby

2009-01-01

114

The resident researcher: An alternative career model centered on community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers the potential benefits and costs of an alternative career model for community researchers, one in which professionals specialize in the community where they live. By virtue of their local familiarity, resident researchers can make more informed judgments about research problems and methods. They can employ longitudinal designs to assess change and be available to assist in interpretation and implementation

Allan W. Wicker; Robert Sommer

1993-01-01

115

Interdisciplinary Communities and Research Issues in Music Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music Information Retrieval (MIR) is an interdisciplinary research area that has grown out of the need to manage burgeoning collections of music in digital form. Its diverse disciplinary communities have yet to articulate a common research agenda or agree on methodological principles and metrics of success. In order for MIR to succeed, researchers need to work with real user communities

Joe Futrelle; J. Stephen Downie

2002-01-01

116

Misbehaviors of Front-Line Research Personnel and the Integrity of Community-Based Research  

PubMed Central

There has been little empirical research into misconduct and misbehavior among community research workers who recruit and collect data in vulnerable and marginalized health populations and are also members of those same communities. We conducted qualitative interviews with community research workers and traditional research assistants to understand the context and consequences of misbehaviors that pose a threat to research ethics and data integrity. In our sample, more community research workers acknowledged engaging in research wrongdoing than did traditional research assistants. These behaviors were most prevalent among community research workers who were not well-integrated into the research team. We suggest best practices for investigators to promote an environment that supports research integrity in research projects that employ community research workers. PMID:21680972

True, Gala; Alexander, Leslie B.; Richman, Kenneth A.

2012-01-01

117

Structural biology research at the National Synchroton Light Source  

SciTech Connect

The world`s foremost facility for scientific research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation is operated by the national synchrotron Light Source Department. This year alone, a total of 2200 guest researchers performed experiments at the world`s largest source of synchrotron light. Researchers are trying to define the three- dimensional structures of biological macromolecules to create a map of life, a guide for exploring the biological and chemical interactions of the vast variety of molecules found in living organisms. Studies in structural biology may lead to new insights into how biological systems are formed and nourished, how they survive and grow, how they are damaged and die. This document discusses some the the structural biological research done at the National Synchrotron Light Source.

NONE

1996-05-01

118

A Life of Research in Biological Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

I much appreciated being invited to write a contribution for this journal, but initially presumed that what was required was a comprehensive review of some major issue in biological anthropology. Indeed I drafted a contribution on the history of the subject during the second part of the twentieth century. I was then firmly told that this was not what was

Geoffrey A. Harrison

119

Saliva assays in clinical and research biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an update of the current knowledges about saliva components whose assays are of biological interest and have been validated. It begins by a recall of saliva physiology: role, flow rate, main components and their mode of entry into saliva. Infectious agents and their markers are not reviewed. Peptidic molecules (catecholamines, short hormonal peptides), lipids, minerals (Na, K,

G Lac

2001-01-01

120

Microfluidic tools for cell biological research  

PubMed Central

Summary Microfluidic technology is creating powerful tools for cell biologists to control the complete cellular microenvironment, leading to new questions and new discoveries. We review here the basic concepts and methodologies in designing microfluidic devices, and their diverse cell biological applications. PMID:21152269

Velve-Casquillas, Guilhem; Le Berre, Mael; Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.

2010-01-01

121

2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant\\/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on

Michael Sussman

2010-01-01

122

The use of proxies in community integration research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cusick CP, Brooks CA, Whiteneck GG. The use of proxies in community integration research. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1018-24. Objective: To assess the level of agreement between persons with various disabilities and their proxies in reporting community integration outcomes using the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique (CHART). Design: Reliability study. Setting: Participants living in the community for a minimum

Christopher P. Cusick; C. A. Brooks; Gale G. Whiteneck

2001-01-01

123

Perfect Match? Qualitative audience research and the community media sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Griffith University researchers in 2002 presented the final results of a national survey of community radio stations. The final report 'Culture Commitment Community - The Australian Community Radio Sector' contained a wealth of information on the sector and covered many 'station-based' perspectives on issues such as localism, funding and sponsorship, Indigenous and ethnic programming and training. A key criticism of

Michael Meadows; Susan Forde; Jacqui Ewart; Kerrie Foxwell; Christine Morris

2005-01-01

124

New Directions for Learning Community Assessment and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the 12th Annual National Learning Communities Conference in November 2007, Juan Carlos Huerta, Gale Stuart, Lauren Chism, and Michele Hansen participated in a panel discussion about new directions in learning communities assessment and research. The intent of the panel discussion was to hear from those involved in learning community assessment,…

Huerta, Juan Carlos

2008-01-01

125

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Severe community-acquired Enterobacter  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Severe community-acquired Enterobacter pneumonia: a plea for greater,3 and Didier Gruson1 Abstract Background: Patients with Enterobacter community-acquired pneumonia (EnCAP) were: health-care-associated pneumonia community-acquired pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

Office of Biological and Environmental Research  

E-print Network

Radiation Research Program (Malignant Transformation) Excitations Heat Chemical "Repair" ( ions recombine ) Mutant Cells Heritable Genetic Effects Cell Deaths- many Cancer Developmental Effects (fetal) Early Days - DecadesMin - Hours #12;DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program (Malignant Transformation

127

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on pest biology: weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 125 permanent full-time scientists conduct research within the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on issues related to weeds. The research emphasis of most of these scientists involves ecology and management or biological control of weeds. Many scientists perform research on weed biology as components of their primary projects on weed control and integrated crop and soil management. Describing all

Frank Forcella

2003-01-01

128

Identifying Community Needs and Resources in a Native Community: A Research Partnership in the Pacific Northwest  

PubMed Central

Indigenous communities have engaged in needs and resources assessments for thousands of years. By blending CBPR/TPR approaches with community-driven assets and needs assessments, academic and community based researchers can work together to better understand and identify community strengths as well as issues of concern in Native communities. This best practice approach can set research agendas that are relevant to Native communities and result in interventions and health promotion programs that are respectful of Tribal sovereignty and that incorporate unique traditions and strengths of Native communities. A successful research partnership to develop and implement a needs and resources assessment using CBPR/TPR approaches is presented using a case study that can be used as a model for other research partnerships. PMID:23123765

Donovan, Dennis M.; Sigo, Robin L. W.

2012-01-01

129

EPA priorities for biologic markers research in environmental health.  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology allow for measurement of biologic events or substances that may provide markers of exposure, effect, or susceptibility in humans. The application of these new and emerging techniques to environmental health offers the possibility of significantly reducing the uncertainties that traditionally hamper risk assessments. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health research program emphasizes the validation of appropriate biologic markers and their application to high-priority Agency issues. The rationale for EPA's biomarker research program is presented, and future research directions are discussed. Exposure biomarkers will receive most of the research emphasis in the near term, particularly body burden indicators of exposure to high-priority chemicals, such as benzene, ozone, selected heavy metals, and organophosphate pesticides. Research on effects biomarkers will attempt to validate the relationship between the observed biological effects and adverse health consequences in humans, especially for cancer, pulmonary toxicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive/developmental toxicity. PMID:1486855

Fowle, J R; Sexton, K

1992-01-01

130

Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which may help scientists to find an appropriate research site for potential cooperation projects. Currently, the website is becoming revised and updated. Up to now the LRG counts 485 registered members from 54 countries. Registration is possible free of charge via www.lysimeter.at. The LRG wants to attract new members from all over the world, intensify co-operation with other research groups, and enhance and support new and innovative ideas and technologies in lysimeter research.

Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

2014-05-01

131

Prevention Research in Rural Communities: Overview and Concluding Comments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the challenges that confront researchers in rural settings, synthesizing the manuscripts in this special issue of The American Journal of Community Psychology. Researchers typically focus on issues of research design, measurement, and data analyses. However, when applied research is conducted in rural settings, greater time and attention are required to identify how the research

Janet S. St. Lawrence; Serigne M. Ndiaye

1997-01-01

132

Drug Discovery and Development from Marine Biology-Based Research  

E-print Network

initiative for novel drug discovery. More than 70 percent of Earth's surface is covered by the ocean, whichDrug Discovery and Development from Marine Biology- Based Research Oceanyx Pharmaceuticals is a novel drug discovery and development company that leverages marine biology-based natural

Jawitz, James W.

133

Developing a Community Science Research Agenda for Building Community Capacity for Effective Preventive Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that prevention programming can improve community health when implemented well. There are examples of successful prevention in local communities, however many continue to face significant challenges, demonstrating a gap between science and practice. Common strategies within the United States to address this gap are available (e.g., trainings), but lack outcomes. Building community capacity to implement high quality

Matthew Chinman; Gordon Hannah; Abraham Wandersman; Patricia Ebener; Sarah B. Hunter; Pamela Imm; Jeffrey Sheldon

2005-01-01

134

Balancing Scientific and Community Interests in Community-Based Participatory Research  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research is an approach to studying human populations that emphasizes extensive partnerships between researchers and community members. While there are many advantages of this approach, it also faces a number of conceptual and practical challenges, one of which is managing the conflict that sometimes arises between promoting scientific and community interests. This essay explores the potential conflict between scientific and community interests in several different stages of community-based participatory research, including research design, data interpretation, and publication, and makes some suggestions for practice and policy. To manage potential conflicts between scientific and community interests, investigators and community partners should enter into written agreements at the beginning of the study. In some cases, it may be necessary for a third party, such as a review committee from a supporting institution, the community, or a funding agency, to help investigators and community partners resolve disagreements. It may also be useful, in some situations, to publish a dissenting opinion when investigators and community partners cannot agree on how to interpret findings resulting from a study. These strategies may help address some of the challenges of implementing community-based participatory research. PMID:20597018

Resnik, David B.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.

2011-01-01

135

Ethics and Community-Based Participatory Research: Commentary on Minkler  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author comments on Meredith Minkler's article, "Ethical Challenges for the "Outside" Researcher in Community-Based Participatory Research," Health Education & Behavior 31(6):684-697, 2004 [see EJ824234]. Specifically, this commentary notes along with Minkler that, in relation to the relatively uncharted territory of Community-Based…

Green, Lawrence W.

2004-01-01

136

Community Music Knowledge Exchange Research in Scottish Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the usefulness of Knowledge Exchange (KE) funding streams for higher education community music research projects, with a case study of one particular project that took place between February and April 2010. The project was funded via a KE stream, linking University researchers with a well-established community music charity…

Moran, Nikki; Loening, Gica

2011-01-01

137

Saltman | Quarterly Undergraduate Biological Research Publication  

E-print Network

to the entire student population. The creators of this journal, Marika Orlov, Louis Nguyen, and Greg Emmanuel of Revelle College and Vice Chancellor of Academic Affairs. Dr. Saltman created an enjoyable, scientific researchers here at UCSD. Not only is this journal now a showcase for current undergraduate research, it has

Hampton, Randy

138

NASA's Aeronautics Research Strategy: A Reflection of Research Continuity, Strategic Analysis, and Community Dialogue  

E-print Network

1 NASA's Aeronautics Research Strategy: A Reflection of Research Continuity, Strategic Analysis, and Community Dialogue Robert Pearce Director ­ Strategy, Architecture & Analysis NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate #12;"ARMD provides critical support to our nation's aeronautics research efforts

Waliser, Duane E.

139

RESEARCH Open Access Coupling groundwater modeling and biological  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Coupling groundwater modeling and biological indicators for identifying river activities will alter the interactions between rivers and groundwater. The quantification of these hydraulic interactions is absolutely necessary for achieving sustainable water use and requires accurate analytical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

140

The Dilemma of Dual Use Biological Research: Polish Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological research with legitimate scientific purpose that may be misused to pose a biological threat to public health and\\/or\\u000a national security is termed dual use. In Poland there are adequate conditions for conducting experiments that could be qualified\\u000a as dual use research, and therefore, a risk of attack on Poland or other countries exists. Optimal solutions for limiting\\u000a such threats

Marek Czarkowski

2010-01-01

141

Postdoctoral Research Fellowships in Biological Informatics  

NSF Publications Database

... Requirements Proposal Review Information NSF Proposal Review Process Review Protocol and Associated ... for a research starter grant through that institution. This program is a continuation of a 5-year ...

142

A Tale of Two Cultures: Building Community by Researching Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Upon beginning postgraduate research at the Faculty of Built Environment at UNSW, the authors were surprised to find themselves working in a library-like environment, where a culture of silence prevailed. Assuming initially that this was just how postgraduate research was, they soon learned that the building also housed a second postgraduate lab…

Drane, Jon; Cai, Wenjie; Wechsler, Andrea; Mussi, Eveline; Shi, Ye; Crommelin, Laura

2012-01-01

143

Biological research on fire in the West  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildland fires are a natural feature of many ecosystems, including grasslands, forests, and shrublands. How-ever, years of fire exclusion have led to accumulations of dead fuels and increases in the density of fire-intolerant species. In most western states, recent fires burning in these altered ecosystems have caused significant damage and huge economic losses to homes, busi-nesses, and communities. They also have dis-turbed forests and rangelands as well as their associated watersheds, plants, and animals. Every western state is concerned about dam-age from such catastrophic fires, and there is strong interest from all sectors in prevent-ing and reducing the resulting damage in the future. There is also interest in the use of fire as a management tool for reducing hazards and restoring damaged ecosystems and for returning fire to its natural role in wilderness ecosystems.

U.S. Geological Survey

2005-01-01

144

Community-Based Participatory Research With Native American Communities: The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health disparities among Native Americans persist despite efforts to translate evidence-based programs from research to practice. Few evidence-based, theory-driven prevention and management interventions have been successfully translated within Native American communities. The use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) has shown promise in this process. This article provides an overview of the use of CBPR with Native American communities and discusses

Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan

2010-01-01

145

Promoting Environmental Justice Through Community-Based Participatory Research: The Role of Community and Partnership Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The authors focus on community and partnership capacity within and across sites, using

Meredith Minkler; Victoria Breckwich Vásquez; Mansoureh Tajik; Dana Petersen

2008-01-01

146

Translational Research in Action: Implementation of the Communities That Care Prevention System in 12 Communities  

PubMed Central

Translational research (Pentz, Jasuja, Rohrbach, Sussman, & Bardo, 2006; Woolf, 2008) is concerned with moving advances in prevention science into everyday practice in communities, yet there are few models for ensuring this transfer of knowledge. Communities That Care (CTC) provides a planned, structured, and data-driven system that trains community prevention coalitions to select evidence-based programs and replicate them with strong implementation fidelity. This paper describes the implementation of the CTC prevention system in 12 communities participating in the Community Youth Development Study. The results indicated that intervention communities enacted, on average, 90% of the core components of the CTC system, and achieved high rates of implementation fidelity when replicating school, afterschool, and parent training programs. These results held over time; communities successfully launched their prevention coalitions and programs and maintained the quality of their prevention services over five years. These results indicate that the CTC system can be used to foster translational research. PMID:22121303

Fagan, Abigail A.; Hanson, Koren; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael

2011-01-01

147

Community ACTION Boards: An Innovative Model for Effective Community–Academic Research Partnerships  

PubMed Central

Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) requires equitable partnerships between community stakeholders and academics. Traditionally, researchers relied on community advisory boards, but these boards often play a reactive role on a project-by-project basis. The East and Central Harlem Health Outcomes (ECHHO) Community Action Board (CAB), however, is an effective, proactive group. Objectives The ECHHO board sought to identify key strategies and tools to build and employ a partnership model, and to disseminate lessons learned to other community–academic partnerships. Methods Current and former board members were interviewed and a wide range of related documents was reviewed. Lessons Learned The board became effective when it prioritized action and relationship-building, across seven key domains: Shared priorities, diversity, participation, transparency, mutual respect and recognition, and personal connections. The model is depicted graphically. Conclusion Community advisory boards may benefit from attention to taking action, and to building relationships between academics and community members. PMID:22616207

James, Sherline; Arniella, Guedy; Bickell, Nina A.; Walker, Willie; Robinson, Virginia; Taylor, Barbara; Horowitz, Carol R.

2012-01-01

148

Balancing Community and University Aims in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Pacific Islander Youth Study  

PubMed Central

Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) holds the promise of improving the planning, conduct, and long-term translation of research findings into community settings. Objectives This 2-year, exploratory study applied CBPR structures and processes to the identification of individual, cultural and community factors associated with obesity among Pacific Islander (PI) youth in Southern California. Methods We describe the CBPR principles and strategies used by a community–university partnership to develop, implement, and report on the findings from assessments of obesity, physical activity, and nutritional intake among PI youth. Results Although CBPR planning processes led to successes in community-based youth recruitment and retention, we learned key lessons regarding implementation of tailored assessment protocols, often involving problems arising from the university side of the CBPR collaborative. Conclusion CBPR has its strengths and limits; more studies are needed that report on processes to increase our understanding of how to balance research rigor with community sustainability. PMID:21441665

Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Wiersma, Lenny; Briand, Greta; Faletau, Vaka; Lepule, Jonathan; Nacpil, Lianne; Eichenauer, Jan

2013-01-01

149

Engaging Communities in Education and Research PBRNs, AHEC, and CTSA  

PubMed Central

Background Community engagement has become a prominent element in medical research and is an important component of the Clinical and Translational Science Awards program. Area Health Education Centers engage communities in education and workforce development. Methods Engaging Communities in Education and Research(ECER) is a successful collaboration among the Colorado Area Health Education Center (AHEC), the Colorado Clinical Translational Science Institute (CCTSI), and Shared Network of Collaborative Ambulatory Practices and Partners (SNOCAP)—Colorado’s practice-based research collaborative. The ECER Conference is an annual conference of community members, health care providers, clinical preceptors, AHEC board members, university faculty, primary care investigators, program administrators and community organization leaders. Results 300–440 participants each year representing all regions of Colorado. Several projects from the “new ideas” break out session have been developed and completed. Six-month follow-up provided evidence of numerous new collaborations, campus-community partnerships, and developing research projects. Several new collaborations highlight the long-term nature of building on relationships started at the ECER Conference. Discussion and Conclusion Engaging Communities in Education and Research has been a successful collaboration to develop and support campus-community collaborations in Colorado. While seemingly just a simple 3-day conference, we have found that this event has lead to many important partnerships. PMID:22686202

Westfall, John M.; Ingram, Beth; Navarro, Daniel; Magee, Deidre; Niebauer, Linda; Zittleman, Linda; Fernald, Douglas; Pace, Wilson

2012-01-01

150

Integrating research and education at research-extensive universities with research-intensive communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the Boyer Commission (1998) lamented the lack of research opportunities for all undergraduates at research-extensive universities, it did not provide a feasible solution consistent with the mandate for faculty to maintain sustainable physiology research programs. The costs associated with one-on-one mentoring, and the lack of a sufficient number of faculty members to give intensive attention to undergraduate researchers, make one-on-one mentoring impractical. We therefore developed and implemented the "research-intensive community" model with the aim of aligning diverse goals of participants while simultaneously optimizing research productivity. The fundamental organizational unit is a team consisting of one graduate student and three undergraduates from different majors, supervised by a faculty member. Undergraduate workshops, Graduate Leadership Forums, and computer-mediated communication provide an infrastructure to optimize programmatic efficiency and sustain a multilevel, interdisciplinary community of scholars dedicated to research. While the model radically increases the number of undergraduates that can be supported by a single faculty member, the inherent resilience and scalability of the resulting complex adaptive system enables a research-intensive community program to evolve and grow.

Ketaki V Desai (Texas A&M University Michael E DeBakery Institute); Sarah N Gatson (Texas A&M University Sociology); Thomas W Stiles (Texas A&M University Teaching, Learning, and Culture); Randolph H Stewart (Texas A&M University Michael E. DeBakery Institute); PhD Glen A. Laine (Texas A&M Univ Col Vet Med); Christopher M Quick (Texas A&M University Michael E. DeBakey Institute)

2008-03-26

151

Entering research: A course that creates community and structure for beginning undergraduate researchers in the STEM disciplines.  

PubMed

Undergraduate research experiences have been shown to enhance the educational experience and retention of college students, especially those from underrepresented populations. However, many challenges still exist relative to building community among students navigating large institutions. We developed a novel course called Entering Research that creates a learning community to support beginning undergraduate researchers and is designed to parallel the Entering Mentoring course for graduate students, postdocs, and faculty serving as mentors of undergraduate researchers. The course serves as a model that can be easily adapted for use across the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines using a readily available facilitator's manual. Course evaluations and rigorous assessment show that the Entering Research course helps students in many ways, including finding a mentor, understanding their place in a research community, and connecting their research to their course work in the biological and physical sciences. Students in the course reported statistically significant gains in their skills, knowledge, and confidence as researchers compared with a control group of students, who also were engaged in undergraduate research but not enrolled in this course. In addition, the faculty and staff members who served as facilitators of the Entering Research course described their experience as rewarding and one they would recommend to their colleagues. PMID:20516356

Balster, Nicholas; Pfund, Christine; Rediske, Raelyn; Branchaw, Janet

2010-01-01

152

Bridging Emotion Research: From Biology to Social Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion research demonstrates that problems of theoretical interest or practical significance are not divided neatly along disciplinary boundaries. Researchers acknowledge both organic and social underpinnings of emotion, but the intersections between biological and structural processes can be difficult to negotiate. In this article, the authors…

Rogers, Kimberly B.; Kavanagh, Liam

2010-01-01

153

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological  

E-print Network

Supporting Advanced Scientific Computing Research · Basic Energy Sciences · Biological and Environmental Research · Fusion Energy Sciences · High Energy Physics · Nuclear Physics ESnet Network · Support adhoc network measurements for troubleshooting and infrastructure verification. ­ By ESnet Staff

154

Zoo Biology 27:470487 (2008) RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-print Network

Zoo Biology 27:470­487 (2008) RESEARCH ARTICLE Mutual Benefits of Research Collaborations Between Zoos and Academic Institutions Eduardo J. Fernandez,� and William Timberlake� Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana Zoos focus on welfare, conservation

Timberlake, William D.

155

UCSD-Scripps Institution of Oceanography: Marine Biology Research Division  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 1,000 staff members, an annual budget of nearly $150 million, and its own fleet of ships capable of global travel, Scripps Institution of Oceanography is one of the most significant homes of scientific inquiry in the world. As part of its many diverse efforts, Scripps operates the Marine Biology Research Division which is presented at this website. The site, while simply designed and easy to navigate, is a great resource for students and researchers interested in learning more about the research activities at Scripps. Those interested in a certain type of research can narrow down the division into its specific labs, such as Cell and Developmental Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Microbiology, and Physiology. Visitors to the site can also access the many sub-laboratories, each focusing on specific subjects, such as Sea Turtles, Bioluminescence, Coral Reef ecology, and tons more. This site is also reviewed in the July 9, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

156

Cooperative Learning in the Community College Biology Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper criticizes traditional methods of science teaching for decreasing student interest in studying science. It describes cooperative learning and its usefulness in teaching biology so that the study of science becomes a social experience. The paper presents two methods used in biology lecture classes: the Introductory (Icebreaker) Workshop…

Morgan, Doris C.

157

Molecular biological research on olfactory chemoreception in fishes.  

PubMed

This review describes recent molecular biological research on olfactory chemoreception in fishes. The recent rapid development of molecular biological techniques has provided new valuable information on the main and vomeronasal olfactory receptor (OR) genes, the axonal projection from ciliated, microvillous and crypt-olfactory receptor cells to the olfactory bulb, properties of odorant substances and olfactory imprinting and homing in salmon. Many important questions, however, remain unanswered on functional differences among OR genes, on ligand binding to each OR and on the molecular biological mechanisms underlying olfactory imprinting and homing in salmon. Olfactory chemoreception is believed to be the oldest sensory cue for both animal survival and adaptation to various different environments. Further intensive molecular biological research on olfactory memory formation and remembrance should be carried out to clarify the fundamental process of olfactory chemoreception in fishes. PMID:20738593

Hino, H; Miles, N G; Bandoh, H; Ueda, H

2009-10-01

158

[Present trends in biological psychiatry research on psychoses (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Most of the present biological hypothesis postulate biogenic amines disorders in schizophrenia: transmethylation and dopaminergic theory. Other systems which can modulate this neuro-transmitter, specially in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, may be concerned: nor-epinephrine, serotonin or endorphins. A dysfunction in arousal and cerebral dominance has been described by the quantitative electroencephalography. Other electrophysiological studies are consistent with these results; they indicate an impairment of the level of arousal to which the disorders of attention and adaptation could be related. In affective psychoses the major hypothesis bear on norepinephrine or serotonin disorders. But other substances may have a role: acetylcholine and dopamine as well as electrolytic modifications of cell membranes or immunological or neuroendocrine disturbances. This biological and physiological fundamental research has numerous practical consequences as the discovery of compounds with a more specific effect, the research of biological and biochemical diagnostic indices, or the drawing up of biological indices for neuroleptics, antidepressants or lithium sensitivity. PMID:7035137

Guelfi, J D; Mialet, J P

1981-01-01

159

Aging research in multi-ethinic rural communities: Gaining entrée through community involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

For aging research in rural multi-ethnic communities to be successful, research barriers must be anticipated, understood, and accommodated or reduced. This paper describes 'gaining entrée' into rural multi-ethnic communities in order to conduct effective aging research. The result of carefully 'gaining entrée' is increased communication with and more in-depth understanding of the study participants. An elder-centered conceptual model of rural

Sara A. Quandt; Juliana McDonald; Ronny A. Bell; Thomas A. Arcury

1999-01-01

160

The Community Perspective for Research on Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining the meaning of lifelong learning within the context of "community" (defined in terms of interests and locality), the author explores many learning resources and opportunities and identifies related research questions. The content of this study is presented in three sections. The first section on the community as a setting for lifelong…

Hiemstra, Roger

161

COMMUNITY ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL RESEARCH Testing successional hypotheses of stability, heterogeneity,  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL RESEARCH Testing successional hypotheses of stability, heterogeneity / Accepted: 22 February 2012 Ã? Springer-Verlag 2012 Abstract Succession is a foundation concept in ecology, the progressive change in species composition in a community through time, is a foundation concept in ecology

Miller, Thomas E.

162

Improving Educational Aspirations and Outcomes through Community Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how a community action research approach supported the implementation of an educational support programme for children, parents and local educators. The aim was the creation of a learning community that acknowledged, valued and used the expertise and experience of all involved. The action reflection cycle informed the…

Bleach, Josephine

2013-01-01

163

Community Engagement and Boundary-Spanning Roles at Research Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, community engagement has emerged as an important priority among many colleges and universities. This study employs a multi-case study design to examine boundary spanning practices of research universities that have adopted a community engagement agenda. A model is advanced to conceptualize spanning behaviors and to inform…

Weerts, David J.; Sandmann, Lorilee R.

2010-01-01

164

Community and Academic Partnership for Health Sciences Research (CAPHSR)  

E-print Network

Club El Paso *Steering Committee 2 #12;2011 CAPHSR UTEP Academic Partners Candyce Berger Social WorkCommunity and Academic Partnership for Health Sciences Research (CAPHSR) 2011 Annual Report Purpose To create a sustainable infrastructure for a community and academic health science partnership that fosters

Ward, Karen

165

Genetic fingerprinting: Advancing the frontiers of crop biology research  

Microsoft Academic Search

enetic fingerprinting is one of the DNA-based techniques that have permeated a wide gamut of biological research, beginning with forensic biology and medicine and now ex- tending to agriculture. The advent of polymerase chain re - action (PCR) ushered a revolutionary approach in producing genetic fingerprints, supplanting hybridization-based techniques. PCR-based methods can be accomplished using either arbitrary markers of un-

Gabriel Romero; Cheryl Adeva; Zosimo Battad

2009-01-01

166

INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH AND THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ANYTHING WHICH IS NOW, OR COULD BE, A PROBLEM OR AN ISSUE FOR THE INSTITUTION CONCERNED IS THE LEGITIMATE PROVINCE OF INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH, WHICH IS THEREFORE A TYPE OF APPLIED RESEARCH TO PERFORM A SERVICE TO THE INSTITUTION. THE OFFICE OF INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH SHOULD (1) PROVIDE DESCRIPTIVE REPORTS CONCERNING THE COLLEGE'S PRESENT STATUS AND…

HIRSCH, PETER M.

167

The Biology of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study in Community Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a project for the Biology of HIV/AIDS course for undergraduate biology majors. This project challenged science students to engage the community on two different levels. They first had to interact directly and personally with HIV/AIDS activists. The proposal then encouraged them to think about and describe ways of engaging a…

Caccavo, Frank, Jr.

2008-01-01

168

Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP): Linking Academic & Community Radiation Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP): Linking University & Community Radiation Oncology to Improve Cancer Outcomes Patrick D. Maguire, M.D. New Hanover Radiation Oncology Wilmington, NC CDRP: Partnerships in Radiation Oncology The Problem Clinical

169

ADDENDUM to Economic and Community Development Research Initiative RFP  

E-print Network

on other topics and addressing other issues related to economic and community development. Research topics? #12;· What is the role of entrepreneurship education and training in successful company start-ups? How has the fledgling youth entrepreneurship education movement

Shyy, Wei

170

Affinity Propagation on Identifying Communities in Social and Biological Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Community structure is one of the most important features of complex networks, it uncovers the internal organization of the nodes. Affinity propagation (AP) is a recent proposed powerful cluster algorithm as it costs much less time and reaches much lower error. But it was shown that AP displayed severe convergence problems for identifying communities on the majority of unweighted protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. On the contrary, AP was shown to achieve great success for identifying communities in benchmark artificial and social networks. So, in this study, we use AP to identify communities on artificial, social and unweighted PPI networks for finding the problem of the conflict. And we compare AP with Markov cluster (MCL), which was shown to outperform a number of clustering algorithms for PPI networks. The experimental results have shown that AP performs well without oscillations when similarity matrixes are chosen properly, and MCL is more accurate than AP but it runs slower than AP in large scale networks.

Jia, Caiyan; Jiang, Yawen; Yu, Jian

171

Affinity Propagation on Identifying Communities in Social and Biological Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Community structure is one of the most important features of complex networks, it uncovers the internal organization of the\\u000a nodes. Affinity propagation (AP) is a recent proposed powerful cluster algorithm as it costs much less time and reaches much\\u000a lower error. But it was shown that AP displayed severe convergence problems for identifying communities on the majority of\\u000a unweighted protein-protein

Caiyan Jia; Yawen Jiang; Jian Yu

2010-01-01

172

Phylogeny, phylogeography, phylobetadiversity and the molecular analysis of biological communities  

PubMed Central

There has been much recent interest and progress in the characterization of community structure and community assembly processes through the application of phylogenetic methods. To date most focus has been on groups of taxa for which some relevant detail of their ecology is known, for which community composition is reasonably easily quantified and where the temporal scale is such that speciation is not likely to feature. Here, we explore how we might apply a molecular genetic approach to investigate community structure and assembly at broad taxonomic and geographical scales, where we have little knowledge of species ecology, where community composition is not easily quantified, and where speciation is likely to be of some importance. We explore these ideas using the class Collembola as a focal group. Gathering molecular evidence for cryptic diversity suggests that the ubiquity of many species of Collembola across the landscape may belie greater community complexity than would otherwise be assumed. However, this morphologically cryptic species-level diversity poses a challenge for attempts to characterize diversity both within and among local species assemblages. Recent developments in high throughput parallel sequencing technology, combined with mtDNA barcoding, provide an advance that can bring together the fields of phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis to bear on this problem. Such an approach could be standardized for analyses at any geographical scale for a range of taxonomic groups to quantify the formation and composition of species assemblages. PMID:21768154

Emerson, Brent C.; Cicconardi, Francesco; Fanciulli, Pietro P.; Shaw, Peter J. A.

2011-01-01

173

A small grants program to involve communities in research.  

PubMed

A key tenet of community-based participatory research is that communities be involved in all facets of research, from defining the problem to identifying solutions, to assisting in the research, and to participating in the publication of results. In this study, we instituted a small grants program for community participation. A Request for Applications (RFA) was developed and circulated widely throughout the Valley. The RFA sought proposals to address health disparities in cancer education, prevention, and treatment among Hispanics living in the Valley. Funds available were $2,500.00-3,500.00 for 1 year's worth of work. To help evaluate the progress of the RFA community projects according to the perspectives of the Community Advisory Board (CAB), an open-ended, semi-structured interview was created and administered by a former staff member to CAB members. In 4 years, ten small grants proposed by community members were funded. Funds allocated totaled approximately $25,000. Interviews with CAB members indicated that the RFA program was perceived positively, but there were concerns about sustainability. Our community grants program resulted in the implementation of several novel cancer prevention programs conducted by a variety of community organizations in the Lower Yakima Valley. PMID:20146091

Thompson, Beti; Ondelacy, Stephanie; Godina, Ruby; Coronado, Gloria D

2010-06-01

174

The Social Justice Implications for Community Engaged Research: Whose Research Agenda? and My Relationship with the Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2010 winner of the Ernest A. Lynton Award examines two social justice themes that have emerged in his community-engaged work. He argues that the traditional model of the development of the scholars' research agenda is one that can promote and maintain the academy-community hierarchy and that the scholars' social identities play an important…

Walls, N. Eugene

2012-01-01

175

Community-Based Participatory Research for Improved Mental Health  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) focuses on specific community needs, and produces results that directly address those needs. Although conducting ethical CBPR is critical to its success, few academic programs include this training in their curricula. This paper describes the development and evaluation of an online training course designed to increase the use of CBPR in mental health disciplines. Developed using a participatory approach involving a community of experts, this course challenges traditional research by introducing a collaborative process meant to encourage increased participation by special populations, and narrow the parity gap in effective mental health treatment and services delivery. PMID:20186257

Smikowski, Jane; Dewane, Sarah; Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane; Bruss, Catherine; Roberts, Laura W.

2009-01-01

176

Research Students and Community Development: The Challenges of Integrating Academic Expectations with Community Needs and Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While universities can play a major role in advancing research-based community development, academic discourses of rigor, quality and ethics often conflict with the participatory and collaborative approaches required by community development principles. While experienced academics often have difficulty negotiating these issues, they present…

Darcy, Michael; Nicholls, Ruth; Roffey, Christopher; Rogers, Dallas

2008-01-01

177

Using Public Policy-Oriented Community-Based Research to Boost Both Community and Political Engagement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Leadership in Public Affairs program at the College of New Jersey has begun to implement a developmental model designed to increase the community and political engagement of students. The primary tool to achieve these ends is public policy-oriented, community-based research (CBR). To date, two courses and a student fellowship based on…

Ball, William J.

178

A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

2008-01-01

179

78 FR 53466 - Announcement of Funding Awards for Transformation Initiative: Sustainable Communities Research...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transformative Initiative: Sustainable Communities Research Grant...Secretary, administered the FY13 Sustainable Communities Research Grant...and preservation, (2) transportation and infrastructure planning...Transformation Initiative: Sustainable Communities Research...

2013-08-29

180

Critical Contexts for Biomedical Research in a Native American Community: Health Care, History, and Community Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Native Americans have been underrepresented in previous studies of biomedical research participants. This paper reports a qualitative interview study of Native Americans' perspectives on biomedical research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 53 members of a Southwest tribal community. Many interviewees viewed biomedical research studies as a…

Sahota, Puneet Chawla

2012-01-01

181

Community engagement in biomedical research in an African setting: the Kintampo Health Research Centre experience  

PubMed Central

Background Community engagement (CE) is becoming relevant in health research activities; however, models for CE in health research are limited in developing countries. The Kintampo Health Research Centre (KHRC) conducts research to influence health policy locally and also internationally. Since its establishment in 1994 with the mandate of conducting relevant public health studies in the middle part of Ghana, KHRC has embarked on a series of clinical and operational studies involving community members. In these studies, community members have been engaged through community durbars before, during and also after all study implementations. Lessons learnt from these activities suggested the need to embark on further CE processes that could serve as a model for emerging research institutions based in African communities. Methods Interactive community durbars, workshops, in-depth discussions, focus group discussions and radio interactions were used as the main methods in the CE process. Results Community members outlined areas of research that they perceived as being of interest to them. Though community members expressed continual interest in our traditional areas of research in communicable, maternal, neonatal and child health, they were interested in new areas such as non- communicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. Misconceptions about KHRC and its research activities were identified and clarified. This research provided KHRC the opportunity to improve communication guidelines with the community and these are being used in engaging the community at various stages of our research, thus improving on the design and implementation of research. Conclusion KHRC has developed a culturally appropriate CE model based on mutual understanding with community members. The experience obtained in the CE process has contributed to building CE capacity in KHRC. Other health research institutions in developing countries could consider the experiences gained. PMID:24090148

2013-01-01

182

Mutualistic Interactions and Community Structure in Biological Metacommunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of space in determining species coexistence and community structure is well established. However, previous studies mainly focus on simple competition and predation systems, and the role of mutualistic interspecies interactions is not well understood. Here we use a spatially explicit metacommunity model, in which new species enter by a mutation process, to study the effect of fitness-dependent dispersal on the structure of communities with interactions comprising mutualism, competition, and exploitation [1]. We find that the diversity and interaction network undergo a nonequilibrium phase transition with increasing dispersal rate. Low dispersion rate favors spontaneous emergence of many dissimilar, strongly mutualistic and species-poor local communities. Due to the local dissimilarities, the global/ diversity is high. High dispersion rate promotes local biodiversity and supports similar, species-rich local communities with a wide range of interactions. The strong similarity between neighboring local communities leads to reduced global diversity. [4pt] [1]. E. Filotas, M. Grant, L. Parrott, P.A. Rikvold, J. Theor. Biol. 266, 419 (2010); Ecol. Modell. 221, 885 (2010).

Rikvold, Per Arne; Filotas, Elise; Grant, Martin; Parrott, Lael

2011-03-01

183

Community data portraiture : perceiving events, people, & ideas within a research community  

E-print Network

As a research community grows, it is becoming increasingly difficult to understand its dynamics, its history, and the varying perspectives with which that history is interpreted and remembered. This thesis focuses on three ...

Fritz, Doug, III

2010-01-01

184

openBIS: a flexible framework for managing and analyzing complex data in biology research  

PubMed Central

Background Modern data generation techniques used in distributed systems biology research projects often create datasets of enormous size and diversity. We argue that in order to overcome the challenge of managing those large quantitative datasets and maximise the biological information extracted from them, a sound information system is required. Ease of integration with data analysis pipelines and other computational tools is a key requirement for it. Results We have developed openBIS, an open source software framework for constructing user-friendly, scalable and powerful information systems for data and metadata acquired in biological experiments. openBIS enables users to collect, integrate, share, publish data and to connect to data processing pipelines. This framework can be extended and has been customized for different data types acquired by a range of technologies. Conclusions openBIS is currently being used by several SystemsX.ch and EU projects applying mass spectrometric measurements of metabolites and proteins, High Content Screening, or Next Generation Sequencing technologies. The attributes that make it interesting to a large research community involved in systems biology projects include versatility, simplicity in deployment, scalability to very large data, flexibility to handle any biological data type and extensibility to the needs of any research domain. PMID:22151573

2011-01-01

185

Island biology and ecosystem functioning in epiphytic soil communities.  

PubMed

Although island attributes such as size and accessibility to colonizing organisms can influence community structure, the consequences of these for ecosystem functioning are little understood. A study of the suspended soils of spatially discrete epiphytes or treetop "islands" in the canopies of New Zealand rainforest trees revealed that different components of the decomposer community responded either positively or negatively to island size, as well as to the tree species that the islands occurred in. This in turn led to important differences between islands in the rates of ecosystem processes driven by the decomposer biota. This system serves as a model for better understanding how attributes of both real and habitat islands may affect key ecosystem functions through determining the community structure of organisms that drive these functions. PMID:14500981

Wardle, David A; Yeates, Gregor W; Barker, Gary M; Bellingham, Peter J; Bonner, Karen I; Williamson, Wendy M

2003-09-19

186

Project Enlists Community Physicians in Cancer Research  

Cancer.gov

To enable more patients and physicians to participate in clinical studies that advance cancer care, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is conducting a pilot project, the Expanded Participation Project (EPP), to speed cancer research by broadening access to clinical trials

187

Community-university Research Liaisons: Translating the Languages of Research and Culture  

PubMed Central

This article describes the experiences of six individuals employed as community-university research liaisons in a grant-funded centre for health disparities research. The liaisons were located in Native American communities and bridged the communities and the university, providing information between these groups, expanding understanding and knowledge of how research can address health disparities, and assisting in the development and ongoing work of partnerships using CBPR approaches. While tribal communities within the state may face similar health disparities, the approach to solving these disparities must be based on an understanding of the context and environment of the specific tribal community. In this paper, the tribal liaisons share their stories of negotiating and navigating their unique positions. Suggestions for utilizing tribal community-university positions to support community and partnership development are offered. PMID:25285102

Bends, Ada; Burns, Charlene; Yellowman-Caye, Pearl; Rider, Tammy; Salois, Emily Matt; Sutherland, Annette; Todd, Mike; LaVeaux, Deb; Christopher, Suzanne

2014-01-01

188

Community Efforts Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individual, departmental and community efforts have all played a major role in developing a thriving research effort addressing thinking and learning in the geosciences. Community efforts have been effective in elevating the importance of the field, defining a research agenda, fostering collaborations with cognitive science and education communities, building capacity within the geosciences, and developing reviewer awareness of the importance and opportunities within geoscience education research. Important community efforts include a call for geoscience education research in the 1997 NSF report Geoscience Education: A Recommended Strategy and in the subsequent 2000 NSF report ‘Bridges: Connecting Research and Education in the Earth System Sciences’. A research agenda and supporting recommendations for collaboration and capacity building were jointly developed by geoscience educators, cognitive scientists and education researchers at the 2002 NSF/Johnson Foundation funded workshop Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences. This research agenda emphasized studies of geoscience expertise, learning pathways (and their challenges) that are critical to the development of that expertise, and materials and environments that support this learning, with a focus on learning in the field and from large data sets, complex systems and deep time, spatial skills, and the synthesis of understanding from multiple sources of incomplete data. Collaboration and capacity building have been further supported by the NAGT sponsored professional development program “On the Cutting Edge” with workshops bringing together cognitive scientists, educators and geoscientists on topics including developing on-line learning resources, teaching with visualizations, the role of the affective domain in geoscience learning, teaching metacognition, and teaching with data. 40 successful educational research proposals are attributed to participation in On the Cutting Edge. An NSF funded synthesis of research on learning in the geosciences is currently expanding the interdisciplinary base for research on geoscience teaching and learning through the collaborative development of papers addressing spatial thinking, geologic time, complex systems, and learning in the field. Participants in this project include anthropologists and philosophers in addition to geologists, oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, education researches and psychologists. The project is currently seeking commentators to respond to an initial set of papers and has initiated the Earth and Mind blog as a mechanism for increased discussion and community interaction. This project builds on the GSA special volume ‘Earth and Mind’ which included writing by geoscience researchers, psychologists and education researchers addressing how we teach and learn about the Earth. These community efforts are an essential aspect of scientific research supporting discussion and synthesis of results and generation of new questions. The breadth of participants in this community indicates the importance of the work within and beyond the geosciences and is an indicator of its robustness.

Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Kastens, K. A.

2009-12-01

189

STEMdex: A Searchable Database of Education Research for Our Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

STEMdex is a new resource for the astronomy Education and Outreach community, designed to improve our community’s knowledge of the published literature pertinent to our work. While we all understand that it is important to base our practice on sound research, there are currently 801 peer-reviewed education journals in existence, and members of our community are hard pressed to cover all the published literature. STEMdex consolidates the research relevant to EPO work into a single searchable database, with summaries written by astronomy educators and posted for the entire community to use. The database will ultimately include research across the spectrum of astronomy education, including formal and informal education, outreach, grades K-16, pedagogy, evaluation and many other topics. The site is currently under development, but we have had significant interest from the community, and have a team of 19 EPO professionals and community volunteers from 14 different institutions signed up to contribute to the project. The STEMdex site can be found at stemdex.ipac.caltech.edu.

Brinkworth, Carolyn; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Bartolone, L.; Llamas, J.; Crane, M.; Martin, A.; Wenger, M.; Squires, G. K.; Hurt, R. L.

2014-01-01

190

USGS Alaska Science Center, Biological Science Office: Research Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the research programs of the USGS Alaska Science Center - Biological Science Office (ASC-BSO). The programs are divided into several categories including Ecosystems & Habitats, Mammals, Technical Programs, Fish and Fisheries, and Birds. Links connect to research information about numerous program subcategories like Coastal and Marine, Sea Otters, Loons, Fisheries Projects, and more. The site also links to background information about the ASC-BSO, job listings, staff contact information, and the Alaska Science Center Publications Database.

2006-01-11

191

USGS Alaska Science Center, Biological Science Office: Research Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the research programs of the USGS Alaska Science Center - Biological Science Office (ASC-BSO). The programs are divided into several categories including Ecosystems & Habitats, Mammals, Technical Programs, Fish and Fisheries, and Birds. Links connect to research information about numerous program subcategories like Coastal and Marine, Sea Otters, Loons, Fisheries Projects, and more. The site also links to background information about the ASC-BSO, job listings, staff contact information, and the Alaska Science Center Publications Database.

192

RESEARCH ARTICLE Annual migrations, diving behavior, and thermal biology  

E-print Network

of the breeding migration and can be used to define spawning location and timing. Introduction Atlantic bluefinRESEARCH ARTICLE Annual migrations, diving behavior, and thermal biology of Atlantic bluefin tuna of the breeding migration was tested. Mature Atlantic bluefin tuna tagged in the western Atlantic and the GOM

Luther, Douglas S.

193

Research degrees MPhil, PhD in Biology  

E-print Network

D in Biology A first- or upper second-class undergraduate honours degree in a subject relevant to your chosen area of research MPhil and PhD in Environmental Science A first- or upper second-class undergraduate online funding database at www.sussex.ac.uk/funding Further information Evolution, behaviour

Sussex, University of

194

Research degrees MPhil, PhD in Biology  

E-print Network

157-158 MPhil, PhD in Biology A first- or upper second-class undergraduate honours degree in a subject relevant to your chosen area of research MPhil, PhD in Environmental Science A first- or upper second-class database at www.sussex.ac.uk/funding Further information Deeptima Massey, Evolution, behaviour

Sussex, University of

195

Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

2008-03-21

196

2010 Tetrapyrroles, Chemistry & Biology of Gordon Research Conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles Gordon Conference is to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines that otherwise would not interact. By bringing biologists, chemists, engineers and clinicians with a common interest in tetrapyrroles the conference provides a forum for cross-disciplinary ideas and collaboration. The perspective provided by biologists, chemists, and clinicians working in fields such as

Angela Wilks

2010-01-01

197

Biomedical Research Experiences for Biology Majors at a Small College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program-level assessment of the biology curriculum at a small liberal arts college validates a previous study demonstrating success in achieving learning outcomes related to content knowledge and communication skills. Furthermore, research opportunities have been provided to complement pedagogical strategies and give students a more complete…

Stover, Shawn K.; Mabry, Michelle L.

2010-01-01

198

Weed Biology and Management 5, 6976 (2005) RESEARCH PAPER  

E-print Network

Weed Biology and Management 5, 69­76 (2005) RESEARCH PAPER Weed composition and cover after three, could lead to increased weed problems for agricultural production. This experiment was conducted to assess weed pressure and species composition on plots receiving various inorganic and organic soil

Lehmann, Johannes

199

Department of Organismal Biology Scientific reports -research groups  

E-print Network

by analysis #12;4 of the levels of gene expression and proteins important for normal brain development, recep and Development · Physiological Botany · Systematic Biology The research at the department has a wide and development, plant develop- ment, innate immune reactions in invertebrates, and the phylogenetic framework

Uppsala Universitet

200

Proceedings of the Biological Sciences Student Research Showcase 2010  

E-print Network

Hermila Torres Media Specialist Katie Frehafer ILLUSTRATORS Cover Jane Rho Articles Nicole Oliver LETTER environment. You Are What You Eat Digging deeper into the physiological mechanisms governing our metabolism memories form and how disorders like multiple sclerosis may be treated Biological Sciences Student Research

Hampton, Randy

201

National Center for Deaf Health Research Center for Community Health  

E-print Network

National Center for Deaf Health Research and Center for Community Health Functional Job Description of several research projects involving deaf people and people with hearing loss, such as health surveys targeted towards deaf populations and people with hearing loss; surveys of healthcare experiences

Goldman, Steven A.

202

Research on Schools, Neighborhoods and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Research on Schools, Neighborhoods, and Communities: Toward Civic Responsibility" focuses on research and theoretical developments related to the role of geography in education, human development, and health. William F. Tate IV, the Edward Mallinckrodt Distinguished University Professor in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis and…

Tate, William F., IV, Ed.

2012-01-01

203

Research on Race and Ethnic Relations among Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerable research has been conducted in the past two decades on race and ethnic relations among community college students. The atheoretical underpinnings of this research have led to vague and conflicting findings regarding such concepts as campus climate, discrimination, and the benefits of campus diversity. This article briefly reviews…

Maxwell, William; Shammas, Diane

2007-01-01

204

Industrial methodology for process verification in research (IMPROVER): toward systems biology verification  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Analyses and algorithmic predictions based on high-throughput data are essential for the success of systems biology in academic and industrial settings. Organizations, such as companies and academic consortia, conduct large multi-year scientific studies that entail the collection and analysis of thousands of individual experiments, often over many physical sites and with internal and outsourced components. To extract maximum value, the interested parties need to verify the accuracy and reproducibility of data and methods before the initiation of such large multi-year studies. However, systematic and well-established verification procedures do not exist for automated collection and analysis workflows in systems biology which could lead to inaccurate conclusions. Results: We present here, a review of the current state of systems biology verification and a detailed methodology to address its shortcomings. This methodology named ‘Industrial Methodology for Process Verification in Research’ or IMPROVER, consists on evaluating a research program by dividing a workflow into smaller building blocks that are individually verified. The verification of each building block can be done internally by members of the research program or externally by ‘crowd-sourcing’ to an interested community. www.sbvimprover.com Implementation: This methodology could become the preferred choice to verify systems biology research workflows that are becoming increasingly complex and sophisticated in industrial and academic settings. Contact: gustavo@us.ibm.com PMID:22423044

Meyer, Pablo; Hoeng, Julia; Rice, J. Jeremy; Norel, Raquel; Sprengel, Jorg; Stolle, Katrin; Bonk, Thomas; Corthesy, Stephanie; Royyuru, Ajay; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

2012-01-01

205

Consciousness, intentionality, and community: Unitary perspectives and research.  

PubMed

Consciousness and intentionality often have been related and studied together. These concepts also are readily viewed and understood for practice, research, and education in a unitary paradigm. How these ideas relate to community is less known. Considering the expansion of our capacity for communication through the World Wide Web and other technologic advances and appreciating recent research on the nonlocal character of intentionality and consciousness, it is more apparent how concepts of community can be seen in the same unitary context. The authors address these issues and review relevant nursing research. PMID:19176855

Zahourek, Rothlyn P; Larkin, Dorothy M

2009-01-01

206

Hydrogeomorphology explains acidification-driven variation in aquatic biological communities in the Neversink Basin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Describing the distribution of aquatic habitats and the health of biological communities can be costly and time-consuming; therefore, simple, inexpensive methods to scale observations of aquatic biota to watersheds that lack data would be useful. In this study, we explored the potential of a simple “hydrogeomorphic” model to predict the effects of acid deposition on macroinvertebrate, fish, and diatom communities in 28 sub-watersheds of the 176-km2 Neversink River basin in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The empirical model was originally developed to predict stream-water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) using the watershed slope and drainage density. Because ANC is known to be strongly related to aquatic biological communities in the Neversink, we speculated that the model might correlate well with biotic indicators of ANC response. The hydrogeomorphic model was strongly correlated to several measures of macroinvertebrate and fish community richness and density, but less strongly correlated to diatom acid tolerance. The model was also strongly correlated to biological communities in 18 sub-watersheds independent of the model development, with the linear correlation capturing the strongly acidic nature of small upland watersheds (2). Overall, we demonstrated the applicability of geospatial data sets and a simple hydrogeomorphic model for estimating aquatic biological communities in areas with stream-water acidification, allowing estimates where no direct field observations are available. Similar modeling approaches have the potential to complement or refine expensive and time-consuming measurements of aquatic biota populations and to aid in regional assessments of aquatic health.

Harpold, Adrian A.; Burns, Douglas A.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

2013-01-01

207

External Community Review Committee: A New Strategy for Engaging Community Stakeholders in Research Funding Decisions  

PubMed Central

Background Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice. PMID:24056512

Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.

2013-01-01

208

The perspectives of nonscience-major students on success in community college biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With more than 36% of nonscience-major community college students unable to successfully complete their general life science courses, graduation and transfer rates to four-year universities are negatively affected. Many students also miss important opportunities to gain some level of science proficiency. In an effort to address the problem of poor science achievement, this research project determined which factors were most significantly related to student success in a community college biology course. It also aimed to understand the student perspectives on which modifications to the course would best help them in the pursuit of success. Drawing heavily on the educational psychology schools of thought on motivation and self-efficacy of science learning, this study surveyed and interviewed students on their perceptions of which factors were related to success in biology and the changes they believed were needed in the course structure to improve success. The data revealed that the primary factors related to student success are the students' study skills and their perceived levels of self-efficacy. The findings also uncovered the critical nature of the professor's role in influencing the success of the students. After assessing the needs of the community college population, meaningful and appropriate curriculum and pedagogical reforms could be created to improve student learning outcomes. This study offered recommendations for reforms that can be used by science practitioners to provide a more nurturing and inspiring environment for all students. These suggestions revolved around the role of the instructor in influencing the self-efficacy and study skills of students. Providing more opportunities for students to interact in class, testing more frequently, establishing peer assistance programs, managing better the course material, and making themselves more available to students were at the forefront of the list. Examples of the potential benefits of increasing community college science success rates include improvement of student transfer rates and better preparation for employment. Because of the increasing importance of science in this modern age, improving science success rates can also have long-lasting positive effects on students' abilities to make decisions about their health, the economy, and to be productive citizens within our science-oriented society.

Kim-Rajab, Oriana Sharon

209

The Blue Highway Engaging Community in Research  

E-print Network

failure treatment guidelines · O'Connor et al. reported the evidence-based clinical practice guideline 10 points by adding another medicine? ­ What are the additional risks? ­ Patients want to know improbable that an academic researcher can ask a clinical question that matters to a patient." #12;What

Carmichael, Owen

210

Building Communities: Teachers Researching Literacy Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the light of wide recognition that the traffic between home and school is traditionally one-way, this article reports on a deliberately counter-cultural project that involved teachers in researching children's everyday literacy practices and "funds of knowledge" (Gonzalez, Moll, & Amanti, 2005) over a year. Eighteen primary teachers from 10…

Cremin, Teresa; Mottram, Marilyn; Collins, Fiona; Powell, Sacha; Drury, Rose

2012-01-01

211

"Communities" in Community Engagement: Lessons Learned from Autism Research in South Africa and South Korea  

PubMed Central

Scientific Abstract Little research has been conducted on behavioral characteristics of children with ASD from diverse cultures within the US or from countries outside of the US or Europe, with little reliable information yet reported from developing countries. We describe the process used to engage diverse communities in ASD research in two community-based research projects—an epidemiological investigation of 7–12 year olds in South Korea and the Early Autism Project, an ASD detection program for 18–36 month old Zulu-speaking children in South Africa. Despite the differences in wealth between these communities, ASD is under-diagnosed in both settings, generally not reported in clinical or educational records. Moreover, in both countries there is low availability of services. In both cases, local knowledge helped researchers to address both ethnographic as well as practical problems. Researchers identified the ways in which these communities generate and negotiate the cultural meanings of developmental disorders. Researchers incorporated that knowledge as they engaged communities in a research protocol, adapted and translated screening and diagnostic tools, and developed methods for screening, evaluating, and diagnosing children with ASD. PMID:22566396

Grinker, Roy Richard; Chambers, Nola; Njongwe, Nono; Lagman, Adrienne E.; Guthrie, Whitney; Stronach, Sheri; Richard, Bonnie O.; Kauchali, Shuaib; Killian, Beverley; Chhagan, Meera; Yucel, Fikri; Kudumu, Mwenda; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Grether, Judith; Wetherby, Amy M.

2012-01-01

212

ANTARCTIC SEA ICE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES, INTERACTIONS, AND VARIABILITY ANTARCTIC RESEARCH SERIES, VOLUME 73, PAGES 45-83  

E-print Network

--../ ANTARCTIC SEA ICE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES, INTERACTIONS, AND VARIABILITY ANTARCTIC RESEARCH on in situ sea ice communities over larger time and space scales. Much better knowledge of UV optics (especially scalar irradiances) within sea ice is required and the magnitude and sources of variability in UV

Moline, Mark

213

Spatial succession modeling of biological communities: a multi-model approach.  

PubMed

Strong spatial correlation may exist in the spatial succession of biological communities, and the spatial succession can be mathematically described. It was confirmed by our study on spatial succession of both plant and arthropod communities along a linear transect of natural grassland. Both auto-correlation and cross-correlation analyses revealed that the succession of plant and arthropod communities exhibited a significant spatial correlation, and the spatial correlation for plant community succession was stronger than arthropod community succession. Theoretically it should be reasonable to infer a site's community composition from the last site in the linear transect. An artificial neural network for state space modeling (ANNSSM) was developed in present study. An algorithm (i.e., Importance Detection Method (IDM)) for determining the relative importance of input variables was proposed. The relative importance for plant families Gramineae, Compositae and Leguminosae, and arthropod orders Homoptera, Diptera and Orthoptera, were detected and analyzed using IDM. ANNSSM performed better than multivariate linear regression and ordinary differential equation, while ordinary differential equation exhibited the worst performance in the simulation and prediction of spatial succession of biological communities. A state transition probability model (STPM) was proposed to simulate the state transition process of biological communities. STPM performed better than multinomial logistic regression in the state transition modeling. We suggested a novel multi-model framework, i.e., the joint use of ANNSSM and STPM, to predict the spatial succession of biological communities. In this framework, ANNSSM and STPM can be separately used to simulate the continuous and discrete dynamics. PMID:18850283

Zhang, WenJun; Wei, Wu

2009-11-01

214

Molecular biology research in neuropsychiatry: India’s contribution  

PubMed Central

Neuropsychiatric disorders represent the second largest cause of morbidity worldwide. These disorders have complex etiology and patho-physiology. The major lacunae in the biology of the psychiatric disorders include genomics, biomarkers and drug discovery, for the early detection of the disease, and have great application in the clinical management of disease. Indian psychiatrists and scientists played a significant role in filling the gaps. The present annotation provides in depth information related to research contributions on the molecular biology research in neuropsychiatric disorders in India. There is a great need for further research in this direction as to understand the genetic association of the neuropsychiatric disorders; molecular biology has a tremendous role to play. The alterations in gene expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction and depression. The development of transgenic neuropsychiatric animal models is of great thrust areas. No studies from India in this direction. Biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders are of great help to the clinicians for the early diagnosis of the disorders. The studies related to gene-environment interactions, DNA instability, oxidative stress are less studied in neuropsychiatric disorders and making efforts in this direction will lead to pioneers in these areas of research in India. In conclusion, we provided an insight for future research direction in molecular understanding of neuropsychiatry disorders. PMID:21836667

Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Ramesh, B. N.; Vasudevaraju, P.; Rao, K. S. J.

2010-01-01

215

TWiCE Undergraduate Experience in Research and Community Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TWiCE, The Women in Computer Engineering, is a project that has proved effective in the retention of women in an undergraduate computer science engineering program. Members of TWiCE apply their developing knowledge to community service and serve as role models for their communities. Research suggests that female students "are likely to report choosing a major that will make it possible for them to 'help people.'âÂÂ

Bair, Bettina; Cohoon, J. M.

2012-03-22

216

LifeSat - A satellite for space biological research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LifeSat Program addresses the need for continuing access by biological scientists to space experimentation by accommodating a wide range of experiments involving animals and plants for durations up to 60 days in an unmanned satellite. The program will encourage interdisciplinary and international cooperation at both the agency and scientist levels, and will provide a recoverable, reusable facility for low-cost missions addressing key scientific issues that can only be answered by space experimentation. It will provide opportunities for research in gravitational biology and on the effects of cosmic radiation on life systems. The scientific aspects of LifeSat are addressed here.

Halstead, Thora W.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.

1990-01-01

217

The solar system: Importance of research to the biological sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt is made to describe the scope of scientific areas that comprise the current field of exobiology in the United States. From investigations of astrophysical phenomena that deal with the birth of stars and planetary systems to questions of molecular biology involving phylogenetic relationships among organisms, from attempts to simulate the synthesis of biological precursor molecules in the chemistry laboratory to making measurements of the organic constituents of Titan's atmosphere, these researches all converge toward a common objective--answering the question of how life came about in the universe.

Klein, Harold P.

1992-01-01

218

The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The life sciences research facilities for the Space Station are being designed to accommodate both animal and plant specimens for long durations studies. This will enable research on how living systems adapt to microgravity, how gravity has shaped and affected life on earth, and further the understanding of basic biological phenomena. This would include multigeneration experiments on the effects of microgravity on the reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging of organisms. To achieve these research goals, a modular habitat system and on-board variable gravity centrifuges, capable of holding various animal, plant, cells and tissues, is proposed for the science laboratory.

Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

1987-01-01

219

Promoting Environmental Justice through Community-Based Participatory Research: The Role of Community and Partnership Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The…

Minkler, Meredith; Vasquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana

2008-01-01

220

Exploring invisible scientific communities: Studying networking relations within an educational research community. A Finnish case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focused on making invisiblecolleges of educational science in Finlandvisible through analysing networking relationsbetween scientific research communities. Thestudy aims at developing methods to analyse theintensity and focus of social collaborationbetween educational research groups in order tounderstand internal relations of scientificdiscipline and support scientific evaluationwith information about participation andinformal communication beyond quantity ofpublished products. Informal and formalnetworking connections of

Palonen Tuire; Lehtinen Erno

2001-01-01

221

Senior Scientist for Cancer Care Delivery Research - NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP)  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI), a major research component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), is conducting a national search for a Senior Scientist for the NCI Community Oncology Research Program, within the Outcomes Research Branch (ORB), Applied Research Program (ARP).

222

A practical workflow for making anatomical atlases for biological research.  

PubMed

The anatomical atlas has been at the intersection of science and art for centuries. These atlases are essential to biological research, but high-quality atlases are often scarce. Recent advances in imaging technology have made high-quality 3D atlases possible. However, until now there has been a lack of practical workflows using standard tools to generate atlases from images of biological samples. With certain adaptations, CG artists' workflow and tools, traditionally used in the film industry, are practical for building high-quality biological atlases. Researchers have developed a workflow for generating a 3D anatomical atlas using accessible artists' tools. They used this workflow to build a mouse limb atlas for studying the musculoskeletal system's development. This research aims to raise the awareness of using artists' tools in scientific research and promote interdisciplinary collaborations between artists and scientists. This video (http://youtu.be/g61C-nia9ms) demonstrates a workflow for creating an anatomical atlas. PMID:24347787

Wan, Yong; Lewis, A Kelsey; Colasanto, Mary; van Langeveld, Mark; Kardon, Gabrielle; Hansen, Charles

2012-01-01

223

Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

2014-10-01

224

Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.  

PubMed

As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy. PMID:25362364

De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

2014-10-01

225

Scientific principles of education research: Experimental Biology 2007  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IN 2002, the Committee on Scientific Principles of Education Research of the National Research Council (NRC) revisited long-standing ideas about the nature of science, so as to place them in the context of modern education research. Their report, Scientific Research in Education (3), investigated "scientifically based" education research to be used for improving education policy and practice. The report showed that while researchers may disagree about philosophical or methodological approaches to education research, they readily agree about the definition and pursuit of good quality education research (3). Research designs were categorized as quantitative versus qualitative, depending on the type of data collected. There were also categorizations of experimental versus observational, depending on the study design and the investigators' ability to draw conclusions about cause and effect. This featured topic sponsored by the American Physiological Society Teaching Section was designed to host Drs. Margaret Eisenhart and Robert DeHaan, members of the NRC committees and experts in the field of educational research. Their talks were complemented by selected educational research abstracts submitted to the Experimental Biology meeting in Washington, DC, in 2007.

PhD Barbara E. Goodman (University of South Dakota School of Medicine Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences); Margaret Eisenhart (University of Colorado); Mr. David W. Rodenbaugh (Wayne State University Department of Physiology)

2007-08-01

226

The cathartic reflection: Enhancing community engagement through use of qualitative research methods in post-disaster community planning.  

E-print Network

??Qualitative research methodological tools such as focus groups, key informant interviews and community surveys are traditionally used to provide context to larger quantitative research studies.… (more)

Gaffey, Abigail Marie

2013-01-01

227

Self-Efficacy in Service-Learning Community Action Research: Theory, Research, and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is threefold: In the first section, an overview of research and theory on the self-efficacy construct\\u000a is provided, and the central role of self-efficacy in service-learning community action research is demonstrated. The second\\u000a section reviews over 10 years of research validating the Community Service Self-Efficacy Scale (CSSES), which measures the individual’s confidence in his or her

Roger N. ReebSusan; Susan F. Folger; Stacey Langsner; Courtney Ryan; Jake Crouse

2010-01-01

228

Community-based knowledge transfer and exchange: Helping community-based organizations link research to action  

PubMed Central

Background Community-based organizations (CBOs) are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts. CBOs increasingly turn to community-based research (CBR) given its participatory focus and emphasis on linking research to action. In order to further facilitate the use of research evidence by CBOs, we have developed a strategy for community-based knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) that helps CBOs more effectively link research evidence to action. We developed the strategy by: outlining the primary characteristics of CBOs and why they are important stakeholders in health systems; describing the concepts and methods for CBR and for KTE; comparing the efforts of CBR to link research evidence to action to those discussed in the KTE literature; and using the comparison to develop a framework for community-based KTE that builds on both the strengths of CBR and existing KTE frameworks. Discussion We find that CBR is particularly effective at fostering a climate for using research evidence and producing research evidence relevant to CBOs through community participation. However, CBOs are not always as engaged in activities to link research evidence to action on a larger scale or to evaluate these efforts. Therefore, our strategy for community-based KTE focuses on: an expanded model of 'linkage and exchange' (i.e., producers and users of researchers engaging in a process of asking and answering questions together); a greater emphasis on both producing and disseminating systematic reviews that address topics of interest to CBOs; developing a large-scale evidence service consisting of both 'push' efforts and efforts to facilitate 'pull' that highlight actionable messages from community relevant systematic reviews in a user-friendly way; and rigorous evaluations of efforts for linking research evidence to action. Summary Through this type of strategy, use of research evidence for CBO advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts can be better facilitated and continually refined through ongoing evaluations of its impact. PMID:20423486

2010-01-01

229

Socioecological Influences on Community Involvement in HIV Vaccine Research  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated socioecological factors influencing HIV vaccine research participation among communities living in geographic areas with high HIV prevalence and high poverty rates. Methods We surveyed a sample of 453 adults ? 18 years from areas of high poverty and high HIV prevalence in metro Atlanta and differentiated the effects of individual-, social/organizational-, and community-level characteristics on participation in HIV vaccine research via multilevel modeling techniques that incorporated questionnaire, program, and census data. Results Models that adjusted for both individual-level covariates (such as race, gender, attitudes, and beliefs concerning HIV research), social/organizational- and community-level factors such as local HIV prevalence rates, revealed that the extent of HIV prevention-related programs and services in census tracts contributed to individuals’ likelihood of participation in an HIV vaccine study. Additionally, neighborhood-based organizations offering HIV medical and treatment programs, support groups, and services (e.g., food, shelter, and clothing) encourage greater HIV vaccine research participation. Conclusions The findings support the hypothesis that community-level factors facilitate participation in HIV vaccine research independent of both individual- and social/organizational-level factors. PMID:21722689

Frew, Paula M.; Archibald, Matthew; Hixson, Brooke; del Rio, Carlos

2011-01-01

230

Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985  

SciTech Connect

The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group.

Barr, S.H. (ed.)

1985-08-01

231

Developing a Bidirectional Academic-Community Partnership with an Appalachian-American Community for Environmental Health Research and Risk Communication  

PubMed Central

Background: Marietta, Ohio, is an Appalachian-American community whose residents have long struggled with understanding their exposure to airborne manganese (Mn). Although community engagement in research is strongly endorsed by the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in particular, little has been documented demonstrating how an academic–community partnership that implements the community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles can be created and mobilized for research. Objectives: We created a bidirectional, academic–community partnership with an Appalachian-American community to a) identify the community’s thoughts and perceptions about local air quality, its effect on health, and the perception of risk communication sources and b) jointly develop and conduct environmental health research. Methods: We formed a community advisory board (CAB), jointly conducted pilot research studies, and used the results to develop a community-driven research agenda. Results: Persons in the community were “very concerned” to “concerned” about local air quality (91%) and perceived the air quality to have a direct impact on their health and on their children’s health (93% and 94%, respectively). The CAB identified the primary research question: “Does Mn affect the cognition and behavior of children?” Although the community members perceived research scientists as the most trusted and knowledgeable regarding risks from industrial emissions, they received very little risk information from research scientists. Conclusions: Engaging a community in environmental health research from its onset enhanced the quality and relevance of the research investigation. The CBPR principles were a useful framework in building a strong academic–community partnership. Because of the current disconnect between communities and research scientists, academic researchers should consider working collaboratively with community-based risk communication sources. PMID:21680278

Beidler, Caroline; Wittberg, Richard; Meloncon, Lisa; Parin, Megan; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Succop, Paul; Dietrich, Kim N.

2011-01-01

232

Participatory Action Research: Integrating Community Occupational Therapy Practice and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…

Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry

2002-01-01

233

Cyberlearning at Community Colleges: 21st Century Biology Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Cyberlearning at Community Colleges (C3) project is to help "faculty leverage digital library resources, network computing and communications technologies, and E-science data and tools to engage in cyberlearning strategies." C3's funding comes from the National Science Foundation and their work will be of interest to wide range of educators. Visitors can sign up to be a part of this program, and they can also create their own profile to network with other members. The Blogs area is worth a look, as it contains practical information about upcoming conferences and events. It also includes relevant Featured Resources, including the Gapminder video series, which provides a statistical window into global development. Visitors can peek into the Forum area to participate in online discussions about teaching with data, preferred instructional styles, and offering students relevant content in the classroom.

2012-03-23

234

Community Agency Survey Formative Research Results From the TAAG Study  

PubMed Central

School and community agency collaboration can potentially increase physical activity opportunities for youth. Few studies have examined the role of community agencies in promoting physical activity, much less in collaboration with schools. This article describes formative research data collection from community agencies to inform the development of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) intervention to provide out-of-school physical activity programs for girls. The community agency survey is designed to assess agency capacity to provide physical activity programs for girls, including resources, programs, and partnerships. Most agency respondents (n = 138) report operations during after-school hours, adequate facilities, and program options for girls, although most are sport oriented. Agency resources and programming vary considerably across the six TAAG field sites. Many agencies report partnerships, some involving schools, although not necessarily related to physical activity. Implications for the TAAG intervention are presented. PMID:16397156

Saunders, Ruth P.; Moody, Jamie

2008-01-01

235

A Bridge Between Communities: Video-making using principles of community-based participatory research.  

PubMed

Health educators can play a critical role in bringing together the partners and resources to successfully make videos using principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). This article is a "how-to" guide for making videos using community-based participatory research principles. The authors describe video-making and CBPR, then outline six steps on how to make a video using principles of CBPR: (a) engaging stakeholders, (b) soliciting funding and informed consent, (c) creation of shared ownership, (d) building cross-cultural collaborations, (e) writing the script together, and (f) pulling it all together: editing and music selection. Still photographs and key themes from the video A Bridge Between Communities are presented as a running case study to illustrate these steps. The article concludes with implications for health promotion research and practice. PMID:15358912

Chávez, Vivian; Israel, Barbara; Allen, Alex J; DeCarlo, Maggie Floyd; Lichtenstein, Richard; Schulz, Amy; Bayer, Irene S; McGranaghan, Robert

2004-10-01

236

Space Station Freedom: a unique laboratory for gravitational biology research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advent of Space Station Freedom (SSF) will provide a permanent laboratory in space with unparalleled opportunities to perform biological research. As with any spacecraft there will also be limitations. It is our intent to describe this space laboratory and present a picture of how scientists will conduct research in this unique environment we call space. SSF is an international venture which will continue to serve as a model for other peaceful international efforts. It is hoped that as the human race moves out from this planet back to the moon and then on to Mars that SSF can serve as a successful example of how things can and should be done.

Phillips, R. W.; Cowing, K. L.

1993-01-01

237

Biological and chemical technologies research. FY 1995 annual summary report  

SciTech Connect

The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1995 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1995 (ASR 95) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1995; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents; and awards arising from work supported by the BCTR.

None

1996-03-01

238

Community health workers support community-based participatory research ethics: lessons learned along the research-to-practice-to-community continuum.  

PubMed

Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)--specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability--stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502

Smith, Selina A; Blumenthal, Daniel S

2012-11-01

239

Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

1982-06-01

240

Ancillary Care in Community-Based Public Health Intervention Research  

PubMed Central

Community-based public health intervention research in developing countries typically takes place not in clinics but in people's homes and other living spaces. Research subjects and their communities may lack adequate nutrition, clean water, sanitation, and basic preventive and therapeutic services. Researchers often encounter unmet health needs in their interactions with individual subjects and need ethical guidelines to help them decide how to respond. To what extent do researchers have an ethical obligation to provide ancillary care—health care beyond what is necessary to ensure scientific validity and subjects' safety? We discuss a case example from Nepal and propose a simple 2-step sequence of questions to aid decision making. PMID:20019298

Taylor, Holly A.; Mullany, Luke C.

2010-01-01

241

Consent and community engagement in diverse research contexts.  

PubMed

Consent and community engagement (CE) in health research are two aspects of a single concern-that research is carried out in a respectful manner where social value is maximized. There are important overlaps and interdependencies between consent and CE; for example, CE can provide insights into how best to tailor consent to context and can be an important component of consent processes. Engaging communities can also have intrinsic and instrumental value beyond consent; for example, as a means of showing respect and identifying appropriate ways of working respectfully. In this paper we critically examine how CE and consent processes are characterized, conducted, and evaluated in diverse health research contexts, and propose a preliminary research agenda to support future learning in these critical areas. PMID:24169417

2013-10-01

242

Therapeutic research in low-income countries: studying trial communities.  

PubMed

Social scientists undertaking studies of transnational medical research in developing countries focus on 'trial communities': networks of funders, institutions, researchers, clinical staff, fieldworkers and study participants. They relate these to the political economy that brings powerful research resources to poor settings. Whereas bioethicists tend to consider universal ethical requirements, social scientists examine how ethics are practiced in given situations in the light of the concerns and interests held by different parties involved in medical research. In conditions of poverty, high morbidity and weak public health services, research subjects are heavily induced by the prospect of high quality medical care and other benefits that researchers seem to offer. Studies of medical research undertaken by well-established internationally funded institutions in Africa show that parents are keen to have their children 'join' projects at these organisations. They assess benefits and risks less in terms of specific research projects and more in terms of their overall trust in the care these institutions are known to have provided previously for others in the community. Bioethics should widen its scope beyond concern with protecting individual subjects from the risks of specific research projects. It should recognise that clinical and research functions are indistinguishable for many participants, who want information on results of clinical investigations and sustained support for improving the health of their children. PMID:24748638

Whyte, Susan Reynolds

2014-11-01

243

University of Minnesota Task Force on Community Research  

E-print Network

Disparities Research; Associate Professor, Family Medicine and Community Health Mark S. Paller, MD, MS, Chair, Academic Health Center; Professor, Pharmaceutical Care and Health Systems William Doherty, PhD Professor Consortium; Associate Professor, Pediatrics and Neurology Kola Okuyemi, MD, MPH Director, Program in Health

Amin, S. Massoud

244

Research Summary Evaluating Cydcoed have community-managed woodlands provided  

E-print Network

to social and environmental justice in Wales. Objectives This research aimed to: explore the social and close to nature. Cydcoed (which is Welsh for `Woods for All') used a large EU grant to fund community grant money for activities such as improving the condition of woods; opening up woods with new paths

245

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Perceived morbidity and community burden  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Perceived morbidity and community burden after a Chikungunya outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, especially incapacitating polyarthralgia and fatigue. So far, little after an outbreak of Chikungunya virus, we implemented the TELECHIK survey; a retrospective cohort study

246

Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Ameliorate Cancer Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although much attention has been paid to health disparities in the past decades, interventions to ameliorate disparities have been largely unsuccessful. One reason is that the interventions have not been culturally tailored to the disparity populations whose problems they are meant to address. Community-engaged research has been successful in…

Gehlert, Sarah; Coleman, Robert

2010-01-01

247

Electronically Distributed Work Communities: Implications for Research on Telework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the concept of telework, or telecommuting, and its influence on the electronic community and organizational structures. The electronically distributed organization is discussed, and implications for research on telework are suggested in the areas of privacy regulation, self-efficacy, temporal aspects of employee behavior, communication…

Hesse, Bradford W.; Grantham, Charles E.

1991-01-01

248

Successful Strategies for Earth Science Research in Native Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small U.S. Geological Survey pilot project utilizes strategies that are successful at involving the Native community in earth science research. This work has ignited the interest of Native students in interdisciplinary geoscience studies, and gained the recognition of tribal community leaders from the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Canada. This study seeks to examine land use, climatic variability, and their related impacts on land-surface conditions in the ecologically sensitive Tsezhin Bii' region of the Navajo Nation. Work conducted by predominantly Native American researchers, includes studies of bedrock geology, surficial processes, soil and water quality, and plant ecology, as well as the history of human habitation. Community involvement that began during the proposal process, has helped to guide research, and has provided tribal members with information that they can use for land use planning and natural resource management. Work by Navajo tribal members who have become involved in research as it has progressed, includes K-12 science curriculum development, community outreach and education on environmental and geologic hazards, drought mitigation, grazing management, and impacts of climate change and land use on medicinal plants.

Redsteer, M. H.; Anderson, D.; Ben, N.; Bitsuie, R.; Blackhorse, A.; Breit, G.; Clifford, A.; Salabye, J.; Semken, S.; Weaver, K.; Yazzie, N.

2004-12-01

249

Oklahoma City Community College Institutional Research Monographs, FY 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten institutional research reports from Oklahoma City Community College (OCCC) are presented in this collection. Three of the reports examine the educational objectives of students enrolled in fall 1987, spring 1988, and summer 1988. Two reports compare fall 1987 and spring 1988 students with those from previous semesters in terms of gender, age,…

Shirazi, Annmarie

250

Community Science, Philosophy of Science, and the Practice of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded in community science are implicit theories on the nature of reality (ontology), the justification of knowledge claims (epistemology), and how knowledge is constructed (methodology). These implicit theories influence the conceptualization and practice of research, and open up or constrain its possibilities. The purpose of this paper is to make some of these theories explicit, trace their intellectual history, and

Jacob Kraemer Tebes

2005-01-01

251

Research and Policy: Can Online Learning Communities Foster Professional Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column posits enhancing professional development through uses of digital tools to create professional learning communities (PLCs) designed to support collective inquiry and action research leading to schoolwide improvement. These digital tools include a social networking/discussion forum for teacher collaboration; teachers' individual…

Beach, Richard

2012-01-01

252

Harnad, Stevan (2011, in press) Open Access Is a Research Community Matter, Not a Publishing Community Matter. Lifelong Learning in Europe.  

E-print Network

Access Is a Research Community Matter, Not a Publishing Community Matter Harnad, Stevan (2011, in press) Open Access Is a Research Community Matter, Not a Publishing Community Matter. Lifelong Learning in Europe. Open

Carr, Leslie

253

Nitrogen Fixation and Leaching of Biological Soil Crust Communities in Mesic Temperate Soils  

E-print Network

Microbial Ecology Nitrogen Fixation and Leaching of Biological Soil Crust Communities in Mesic Temperate Soils Roberta M. Veluci1,2 , Deborah A. Neher1,3 and Thomas R. Weicht1,3 (1) Department of Earth, FL 32611-0760, USA (3) Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Vermont, 105 Carrigan Dr

Neher, Deborah A.

254

Two Year Community: Exploring Student Engagement in an Introductory Biology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successfully engaging students with a community college's introductory biology curriculum is a challenging endeavor. Students have numerous distractions competing with faculty for their attention. Traditional presentation of information may leave students longing for something more engaging to do, and the place where most college-level…

Lysne, Steven J.; Miller, Brant G.; Eitel, Karla Bradley

2013-01-01

255

Explorations: A Research-Based Program Introducing Undergraduates to Diverse Biology Research Topics Taught by Grad Students and Postdocs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate biology majors are often overwhelmed by and underinformed about the diversity and complexity of biological research that is conducted on research-intensive campuses. We present a program that introduces undergraduates to the diversity and scope of biological research and also provides unique teaching opportunities for graduate…

Brownell, Sara E.; Khalfan, Waheeda; Bergmann, Dominique; Simoni, Robert

2013-01-01

256

Current molecular biologic techniques for characterizing environmental microbial community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbes are vital to the earth because of their enormous numbers and instinct function maintaining the natural balance. Since\\u000a the microbiology was applied in environmental science and engineering more than a century ago, researchers desire for more\\u000a and more information concerning the microbial spatio-temporal variations in almost every fields from contaminated soil to\\u000a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). For the past

Dawen Gao; Yu Tao

257

[Advances in research of biological purification of eutrophic water body].  

PubMed

Eutrophication is a global problem, and the key of its controlling is to manipulate the structure of aquatic ecosystem, to recover the function of natural, healthy and stable aquatic ecosystem, and to improve the biological purification capability of eutrophic water body. Aquatic higher plant and vegetation is the most important primary producer in aquatic ecosystem, because of its large individual, long life cycle, and strong capability of absorbing nutrients. Maintaining and restoring a certain amount of aquatic plant could restrain the growth of phytoplankton, improve the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystem, and stabilize its structure. Aquatic animal plays an important role in material and energy cycles of aquatic ecosystem. Zooplankton and benthos can graze phytoplankton directly, so as to controll the number of phytoplankton. It is possible to improve the number of zooplankton by changing the structure of fish population, which might control the serious reproduction of phytoplankton, and achieve the goal of controlling eutrophication. The research of biological purification is still at its initial stage in China. In future, the following two aspects of researches should be enforced: the key technology of biological purification of aquatic higher plant and vegetation; the new model of breed aquatics. These technologies will have a important significance to controlling eutrophication and in sustainable utilization of water body. PMID:14997677

Quan, Weimin; Shen, Xinqiang; Yan, Lijiao

2003-11-01

258

Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

1983-05-01

259

A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm  

SciTech Connect

The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.

Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

2011-02-01

260

A systems biology approach to infectious disease research: innovating the pathogen-host research paradigm.  

PubMed

The twentieth century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and waterborne illnesses are frequent, multidrug-resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past-including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology-have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the twenty-first century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program, we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm. PMID:21285433

Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J; Law, G Lynn; McDermott, Jason G; Proll, Sean C; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G

2011-01-01

261

Aging, Community and Health Research Unit Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Community-Based Care of Older Adults with  

E-print Network

Aging, Community and Health Research Unit Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Community-Based Care of Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions Introduction The Aging, Community and Health Research Unit, co-led by Drs. Maureen Markle-Reid and Jenny Ploeg, will focus on promoting optimal aging at home for older

Hitchcock, Adam P.

262

Student Performance in Lower Division Collegiate General Biology Programs in Selected Community Colleges and Four-Year Institutions in Oregon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community college students achieved higher scores on biology knowledge tests than did university students, but were equivalent on tests of biological comprehension, application and analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Students attending universities had higher mean critical thinking scores than those at community colleges. (AL)

Tolman, Richard

1971-01-01

263

Biologically Weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy: an EMRP Joint Research Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Funded within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) [1], the joint research project "Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy" (BioQuaRT) [2] aims to develop measurement and simulation techniques for determining the physical properties of ionising particle tracks on different length scales (about 2 nm to 10 ?m), and to investigate the correlation of these track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation at the cellular level. Work package 1 develops micro-calorimeter prototypes for the direct measurement of lineal energy and will characterise their response for different ion beams by experiment and modelling. Work package 2 develops techniques to measure particle track structure on different length scales in the nanometre range as well as a measurement device integrating a silicon microdosimeter and a nanodosimeter. Work package 3 investigates the indirect effects of radiation based on probes for quantifying particular radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Work package 4 focuses on the biological aspects of radiation damage and will produce data on initial DNA damage and late effects for radiotherapy beams of different qualities. Work package 5 provides evaluated data sets of DNA cross-sections and develops a multi-scale model to address microscopic and nanometric track structure properties. The project consortium includes three linked researchers holding so-called Researcher Excellence Grants, who carry out ancillary investigations such as developing and benchmarking a new biophysical model for induction of early radiation damage and developing methods for the translation of quantities derived from particle track structure to clinical applications in ion beam therapy.

Rabus, Hans; Palmans, Hugo; Hilgers, Gerhard; Sharpe, Peter; Pinto, Massimo; Villagrasa, Carmen; Nettelbeck, Heidi; Moro, Davide; Pola, Andrea; Pszona, Stanislaw; Teles, Pedro

2014-08-01

264

Ethical community-engaged research: a literature review.  

PubMed

Health research has relied on ethical principles, such as those of the Belmont Report, to protect the rights and well-being of research participants. Community-based participatory research (CBPR), however, must also consider the rights and well-being of communities. This requires additional ethical considerations that have been extensively discussed but not synthesized in the CBPR literature. We conducted a comprehensive thematic literature review and summarized empirically grounded discussions of ethics in CBPR, with a focus on the value of the Belmont principles in CBPR, additional essential components of ethical CBPR, the ethical challenges CBPR practitioners face, and strategies to ensure that CBPR meets ethical standards. Our study provides a foundation for developing a working definition and a conceptual model of ethical CBPR. PMID:24134352

Mikesell, Lisa; Bromley, Elizabeth; Khodyakov, Dmitry

2013-12-01

265

Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates.  

PubMed

Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR) system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic) contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community. PMID:23882444

Gregg, Ak; Hatay, M; Haas, Af; Robinett, Nl; Barott, K; Vermeij, Mja; Marhaver, Kl; Meirelles, P; Thompson, F; Rohwer, F

2013-01-01

266

Systems biology and bioinformatics in aging research: a workshop report.  

PubMed

In an "aging society," health span extension is most important. As in 2010, talks in this series of meetings in Rostock-Warnemünde demonstrated that aging is an apparently very complex process, where computational work is most useful for gaining insights and to find interventions that counter aging and prevent or counteract aging-related diseases. The specific topics of this year's meeting entitled, "RoSyBA: Rostock Symposium on Systems Biology and Bioinformatics in Ageing Research," were primarily related to "Cancer and Aging" and also had a focus on work funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The next meeting in the series, scheduled for September 20-21, 2013, will focus on the use of ontologies for computational research into aging, stem cells, and cancer. Promoting knowledge formalization is also at the core of the set of proposed action items concluding this report. PMID:22950424

Fuellen, Georg; Dengjel, Jörn; Hoeflich, Andreas; Hoeijemakers, Jan; Kestler, Hans A; Kowald, Axel; Priebe, Steffen; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Schmeck, Bernd; Schmitz, Ulf; Stolzing, Alexandra; Sühnel, Jürgen; Wuttke, Daniel; Vera, Julio

2012-12-01

267

Community-Based Participatory Research in Indian Country: Improving Health through Water Quality Research and Awareness  

PubMed Central

Water has always been held in high respect by the Apsaálooke (Crow) people of Montana. Tribal members questioned the health of the rivers and well water due to visible water quality deterioration and potential connections to illnesses in the community. Community members initiated collaboration among local organizations, the Tribe and academic partners, resulting in genuine community based participatory research. The article shares what we have learned as tribal members and researchers about working together to examine surface and groundwater contaminants, assess routes of exposure and use our data to bring about improved health of our people and our waters. PMID:20531097

Cummins, C.; Doyle, J.; Kindness, L.; Lefthand, M.J.; Bear Don't Walk, U.J.; Bends, A.; Broadaway, S.C.; Camper, A.K.; Fitch, R.; Ford, T.E.; Hamner, S.; Morrison, A.R.; Richards, C.L.; Young, S.L.; Eggers, M.J.

2011-01-01

268

Aspen Biology, Community Classification, and Management in the Blue Mountains  

E-print Network

of the Nation’s forest resources for sustained yields of wood, water, forage, wildlife, and recreation. Through forestry research, cooperation with the States and private forest owners, and management of the national forests and national grasslands, it strives—as directed by Congress—to provide increasingly greater service to a growing Nation. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or part of an individual’s income is derived from any public assistance program. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA’s TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and

United States; Forest Service; David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell; The Forest; Service U. S; Department Agriculture

2010-01-01

269

Case Study in Designing a Research Fundamentals Curriculum for Community Health Workers: A University - Community Clinic Collaborative  

PubMed Central

Introduction Community health workers are increasingly incorporated into research teams. Training them in research methodology and ethics, while relating these themes to a community’s characteristics, may help to better integrate these health promotion personnel into research teams. Approach and Strategies This pilot project involved the design and implementation of an interactive training course on research fundamentals for community health workers from clinics in a rural, predominately Latino setting. Curriculum development was guided by collaborative activities arising from a university - clinic partnership, a community member focus group, and the advice of community-based researchers. The resulting curriculum was interactive and stimulated dialogue between trainees and academic researchers. Discussion and Conclusions Collaboration between researchers and health agency professionals proved to be a practical method to develop curriculum for clinic staff. An interactive curriculum allowed trainees to incorporate community-specific themes into the discussion. This interaction educated course instructors from academia about the community as much as it educated course participants about research. The bidirectional engagement that occurs during the development and teaching of this course can potentially lead to research partnerships between community agencies and academia, better-informed members of the public, and research protocols that accommodate community characteristics. PMID:24121537

Dumbauld, Jill; Kalichman, Michael; Bell, Yvonne; Dagnino, Cynthia; Taras, Howard

2014-01-01

270

The Challenges of Agenda Conflict in Higher-Education-Community Research Partnerships: Views from the Community Side  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to both the proliferation of higher-education-community partnerships and the paucity of studies that report the perspective of the community partners in such relationships, we interviewed community leaders to learn about their motivations for and experiences of participating in higher-education-community research partnerships. The article reports community leaders' assessments of the benefits and challenges of engaging in such partnerships, shares their

Barbara Ferman; T. L. Hill

2004-01-01

271

Xenopus laevis a success story of biological research in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clawed toad Xenopus laevis is a common experimental animal used in many disciplines of life sciences, such as integrative, developmental and molecular biology or experimental medicine. Since 30 years, Xenopus is used in biological research in space. Important milestones were the years 1975, when Xenopus embryos flew for the first time on the Russian space station Salut-4 and 1994, when Xenopus eggs were successfully fertilized for the first time in space during the Japanese Spacelab mission STS-47 and developed in microgravity to vital tadpoles. Most Xenopus studies were related to embryogenesis and development. Observations during and after altered gravity revealed changes such as the thickening of the blastocoel roof, the dorsalization of the tail, and modifications of vestibular reflexes, fictive and freely swimming. Many changes were reversible even during microgravity exposure. Studies about the vestibuloocular reflex or synapse formation revealed an age-related sensitivity to altered gravity. Xenopus offers useful tools for studies about microgravity effects on living systems. Its oocyte is a suitable model to study ion channel function in space; the dorsalization model can be used to analyse growth factor sensibilities. Hardware for life support of adults, tadpoles and embryos (cf. SUPPLY unit in combination with miniaquaria) as well as for controlled experiments in space are prerequisites for an extension of research with Xenopus. The application aspect is based on the fact that fundamental research per se brings benefit to man.

Horn, Eberhard R.

2006-01-01

272

Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late-than early-successional stage biological soil crusts  

E-print Network

Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage-living soil nematode communities reflect their environment and have been used as biological indicators of soil condition. In this study, we test the hypothesis that nematode communities are successionally more mature

Neher, Deborah A.

273

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on pest biology: weeds.  

PubMed

Over 125 permanent full-time scientists conduct research within the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on issues related to weeds. The research emphasis of most of these scientists involves ecology and management or biological control of weeds. Many scientists perform research on weed biology as components of their primary projects on weed control and integrated crop and soil management. Describing all ARS projects involved with weed biology is impossible, and consequently only research that falls within the following arbitrarily chosen topics is highlighted in this article: dormancy mechanisms; cell division; diversity of rangeland weeds; soil resources and rangeland weeds; poisonous rangeland plants; horticultural weeds; weed traits limiting chemical control; aquatic and semi-aquatic weeds; weed/transgenic wheat hybrids; seedbanks, seedling emergence and seedling populations; and weed seed production. Within these topics, and others not highlighted, the desire of ARS is that good information on weed biology currently translates or eventually will translate into practical advice for those who must manage weeds. PMID:12846326

Forcella, Frank

2003-01-01

274

Cambridge Healthtech Institute's Fourth Annual In silico Biology Conference "Modeling Systems Biology for Research and Target Prioritization"  

SciTech Connect

In silico biology, the computer aided analysis of biological systems, is a relatively young research area. It first has been coined in the late 1990's and emerged from Theoretical and Computational Biology. As in other fields before, biology experiences an increased use of systems mathematics and computer simulation. With the human genome sequence available, with an exponentially growing number of completely sequenced genomes from various model organisms and with expression and proteomic data at hand, the research paradigm is shifted towards systems analysis and simulation. Computer aided modeling of complex biomolecules and assemblies are already routinely performed. Nowadays, theoretical description and computer simulation of cellular components in larger intra- and inter-cellular networks is of growing importance. Together with classic biological and clinical experiments as well as data from functional genomics, in silico biology will take the leading role in the analysis of biological systems.

Forst, C. (Christian)

2002-01-01

275

Community-Based Partnered Research: New Directions in Mental Health Services Research  

PubMed Central

Objective Community-based participatory research has the potential to improve implementation of best practices to reduce disparities but has seldom been applied in mental health services research. This article presents the content and lessons learned from a national conference designed to stimulate such an application. Design Mental health program developers collaborated in hosting a two-day conference that included plenary and break-out sessions, sharing approaches to community-academic partnership development, and preliminary findings from partnered research studies. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed by teams of academic and community conference participants to identify themes about best practices, challenges faced in partnered research, and recommendations for development of the field. Themes were illustrated with selections from project descriptions at the conference. Setting and Participants Participants, representing 9 academic institutions and 12 community-based agencies from four US census regions, were academic and community partners from five research centers funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, and also included staff from federal and non-profit funding agencies. Results Five themes emerged: 1) Partnership Building; 2) Implementing and Supporting Partnered Research; 3) Developing Creative Dissemination Strategies; 4) Evaluating Impact; and 5) Training. Conclusions Emerging knowledge of the factors in the partnership process can enhance uptake of new interventions in mental health services. Conference proceedings suggested that further development of this field may hold promise for improved approaches to address the mental health services quality chasm and service disparities. PMID:22352075

Alegria, Margarita; Wong, Yuting; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Nillni, Anna; Proctor, Enola; Nickel, Michael; Jones, Loretta; Green, Bonnie; Koegel, Paul; Wright, Aziza; Wells, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01

276

The opportunities for space biology research on the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of space biology research to be conducted aboard the Space Station in 1990s include long-term studies of reproduction, development, growth, physiology, behavior, and aging in both animals and plants. They also include studies of the mechanisms by which gravitational stimuli are sensed, processed, and transmitted to a responsive site, and of the effect of microgravity on each component. The Space Station configuration will include a life sciences research facility, where experiment cyles will be on a 90-day basis (since the Space Station missions planned for the 1990s call for 90-day intervals). A modular approach is taken to accomodate animal habitats, plant growth chambers, and other specimen holding facilities; the modular habitats would be transportable between the launch systems, habitat racks, a workbench, and a variable-gravity centrifuge (included for providing artificial gravity and accurately controlled acceleration levels aboard Space Station).

Ballard, Rodney W.; Souza, Kenneth A.

1987-01-01

277

TWiCE Undergraduate Experience in Research and Community Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

TWiCE (The Women in Computer Engineering) is an innovative project which has proved effective on the retention of women in an undergraduate computer science engineering program. TWiCE helps participants develop a new perspective on career possibilities in computing. Women members of TWiCE apply their developing expertise in support of community non-profits and in researching new technology. At the same time,

Bettina Bair; J. McGrath Cohoon

278

Collaborative e-science architecture for Reaction Kinetics research community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel collaborative e-science architecture (CeSA) to address two challenging issues in e-science that arise from the management of heterogeneous distributed environments: (i) how to provide individual scientists an integrated environment to collaborate with each other in distributed, loosely coupled research communities where each member might be using a disparate range of tools; and (ii) how to

Tran Vu Pham; L. M. S. Lau; P. M. Dew; M. J. Pilling

2005-01-01

279

2010 Tetrapyrroles, Chemistry & Biology of Gordon Research Conference  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles Gordon Conference is to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines that otherwise would not interact. By bringing biologists, chemists, engineers and clinicians with a common interest in tetrapyrroles the conference provides a forum for cross-disciplinary ideas and collaboration. The perspective provided by biologists, chemists, and clinicians working in fields such as newly discovered defects in human porphyrin metabolism, the myriad of strategies for light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms, novel tetrapyrroles that serve as auxiliary chromophores or enzyme cofactors, synthetic strategies in the design of novel tetrapyrrole scaffolds, and tetrapyrrole based cell signaling and regulatory systems, makes this conference unique in the field. Over the years the growing evidence for the role of tetrapyrroles and their reactive intermediates in cell signaling and regulation has been of increasing importance at this conference. The 2010 conference on Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles will focus on many of these new frontiers as outlined in the preliminary program listed. Speakers will emphasize unpublished results and new findings in the field. The oral sessions will be followed by the highly interactive afternoon poster sessions. The poster sessions provide all conferees with the opportunity to present their latest research and to exchange ideas in a more informal setting. As in the past, this opportunity will continue during the nightly social gathering that takes place in the poster hall following the evening lectures. All conferees are encouraged to submit and present posters. At the conference the best poster in the areas of biology, chemistry and medicine will be selected by a panel of previous conference chairs.

Angela Wilks

2010-07-30

280

NASA Sponsored Research Involving Crystallization of Biological Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of NASA's plans for the performing experiments involving the crystallization of biological materials on the International Space Station (ISS) is presented. In addition, a brief overview of past work is provided as background. Descriptions of flight hardware currently available for use on the ISS are given and projections of future developments are discussed. In addition, experiment selection and funding is described. As of the flight of STS-95, these crystallization projects have proven to be some of the most successful in the history of microgravity research. The NASA Microgravity Research Division alone has flown 185 different proteins, nucleic acids, viruses, and complexes on 43 different missions. 37 of the 185 have resulted, in, diffraction patterns with higher resolution than was obtained in all previous ground based experiments. This occurred despite the fact that an average of only 41 samples per protein were flown. A number of other samples have shown improved signal to noise characteristics, i.e. relative Wilson plots, when compared to the best ground experiments. In addition, a number of experiments investigating the effects of microgravity conditions on the crystallization of biological material have been conducted.

Downey, James Patton

2000-01-01

281

Community-Based Research: From Practice to Theory and Back Again.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the theoretical strands being combined in community-based research--charity service learning, social justice service learning, action research, and participatory research. Shows how different models of community-based research, based in different theories of society and different approaches to community work, may combine or conflict. (EV)

Stoecker, Randy

2003-01-01

282

LifeMapper: Open Source Geospatial Tools for the Biological Community  

E-print Network

Lifemapper 2.0 Using and Creating Geospatial Data and Open Source Tools for the Biological Community Aimee Stewart, CJ Grady, Dave Vieglais, Jim Beach Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Institute University of Kansas Overview • Overall Goals... Predicted In Non-native Region Ecological Niche Model Prediction Algorithm (GARP) Region Implementation • Pipeline • Spatial Data Library (SDL) • Cluster • Open-source • Python Operation • Pipeline – retrieves point data – constructs request – sends job...

Stewart, Aimee

2007-11-14

283

Salinity as a determinant of the structure of biological communities in salt lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the extent to which salinity determines the structure of biological communities (composition and species\\u000a richness and diversity) in saline lakes, i.e. inland bodies of water with salinities in excess of 3 g l-1. It also considers\\u000a the extent to which oxygen, ionic composition, pH, hydrological patterns (degree of permanence and impermanence of water),\\u000a geographical position, palaeoclimatic events,

W. D. Williams

1998-01-01

284

Rural Community Members' Perceptions of Harm from Medical Mistakes: A High Plains Research Network (HPRN) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to learn about community members' definitions and types of harm from medical mistakes. Methods: Mixed methods study using community-based participatory research (CBPR). The High Plains Research Network (HPRN) with its Community Advisory Council (CAC) designed and distributed an anonymous survey through local community newspapers. Survey included open-ended questions on patients' experiences with medical

Rebecca F. Van Vorst; Rodrigo Araya-Guerra; Douglas Fernald; Nancy Elder; Christine Duclos; John M. Westfall

2007-01-01

285

Environmental Research Translation: enhancing interactions with communities at contaminated sites.  

PubMed

The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Artiola, Janick F; Maier, Raina M; Gandolfi, A Jay

2014-11-01

286

The Morgridge Center for Public Service connects campus with community through service, service learning and community based research  

E-print Network

, service learning and community based research to build a thriving democratic society. Vision The Morgridge social justice. 2. Community-based Learning We believe in the high-impact practices of academic serviceMission The Morgridge Center for Public Service connects campus with community through service

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

287

Methods for open innovation on a genome-design platform associating scientific, commercial, and educational communities in synthetic biology.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology requires both engineering efficiency and compliance with safety guidelines and ethics. Focusing on the rational construction of biological systems based on engineering principles, synthetic biology depends on a genome-design platform to explore the combinations of multiple biological components or BIO bricks for quickly producing innovative devices. This chapter explains the differences among various platform models and details a methodology for promoting open innovation within the scope of the statutory exemption of patent laws. The detailed platform adopts a centralized evaluation model (CEM), computer-aided design (CAD) bricks, and a freemium model. It is also important for the platform to support the legal aspects of copyrights as well as patent and safety guidelines because intellectual work including DNA sequences designed rationally by human intelligence is basically copyrightable. An informational platform with high traceability, transparency, auditability, and security is required for copyright proof, safety compliance, and incentive management for open innovation in synthetic biology. GenoCon, which we have organized and explained here, is a competition-styled, open-innovation method involving worldwide participants from scientific, commercial, and educational communities that aims to improve the designs of genomic sequences that confer a desired function on an organism. Using only a Web browser, a participating contributor proposes a design expressed with CAD bricks that generate a relevant DNA sequence, which is then experimentally and intensively evaluated by the GenoCon organizers. The CAD bricks that comprise programs and databases as a Semantic Web are developed, executed, shared, reused, and well stocked on the secure Semantic Web platform called the Scientists' Networking System or SciNetS/SciNeS, based on which a CEM research center for synthetic biology and open innovation should be established. PMID:21601679

Toyoda, Tetsuro

2011-01-01

288

Faculty perspectives on community-based research: "I see this still as a journey"  

PubMed Central

Academic faculty members are increasingly following community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles. We conducted qualitative, in-depth interviews with 22 Johns Hopkins faculty members who conduct community-based research to understand their experiences and perspectives. Respondents engaged the community in numerous ways, ranging from working with community advisory boards to hiring community members as project staff to collaborating with community members across all phases of research. Challenges included defining “community,” ensuring adequate community representation, sharing power with community partners, overcoming an institutional history of strained community-academic relationships, and working within existing academic incentive structures. Despite these challenges, respondents generally felt their experiences conducting research with community participation were positive and successful. Policy changes at funding and academic institutions and an emphasis on the similarities between CBPR and ethical principles could improve support for CBPR approaches. PMID:19480587

Kennedy, Caitlin; Vogel, Amanda; Goldberg-Freeman, Clara; Kass, Nancy; Farfel, Mark

2011-01-01

289

"You've Gotta Know the Community": Minority Women Make Recommendations About Community-Focused Health Research  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine what ethnic and racial minority women recommend as the best approaches to participatory health research in their communities. To achieve this goal, this study focused on HIV prevention research. Methods In 2003, Seven African American and seven Latina women (ages 33 to 52), all members of an HIV Prevention Collaborative Board, participated in individual interviews, lasting about 90 minutes each. Participants discussed their involvement in participatory research, and made recommendations as to how health researchers might better engage their communities. Data were coded independently by two coders following standard procedure for content analysis. Results Women’s voices and expertise can help guide health-related research. This study shows that: (1) participatory HIV prevention research should be founded on trust and commitment, leading to social support; (2) research partners ought to come from diverse backgrounds and be knowledgeable about the community and willing to work on common objectives; and (3) collaborative partnerships ought to portray an image of strength and cohesion, and a clear articulation of the mission around a research project. Implications To develop meaningful health research, researchers need to establish long-term ongoing relationships with community collaborators, including minority women from diverse backgrounds. Researchers ought to take a holistic approach working with communities, and ought to consider their research interests vis-à-vis the community’s needs. PMID:18581694

Pinto, Rogerio M.; McKay, Mary M.; Escobar, Celeste

2009-01-01

290

Ethical challenges for the "outside" researcher in community-based participatory research.  

PubMed

Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) shares many of the core values of health education and related fields, the outside researcher embracing this approach to inquiry frequently is confronted with thorny ethical challenges. Following a brief review of the conceptual and historical roots of CBPR, Kelly's ecological principles for community-based research and Jones's three-tiered framework for understanding racism are introduced as useful frameworks for helping explore several key challenges. These are (a) achieving a true "community-driven" agenda; (b) insider-outsider tensions; (c) real and perceived racism; (d) the limitations of "participation"; and (e) issues involving the sharing, ownership, and use of findings for action. Case studies are used in an initial exploration of these topics. Green et al.'s guidelines for appraising CBPR projects then are highlighted as an important tool for helping CBPR partners better address the challenging ethical issues often inherent in this approach. PMID:15539542

Minkler, Meredith

2004-12-01

291

Effects of demographic stochasticity on biological community assembly on evolutionary time scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effects of demographic stochasticity on the long-term dynamics of biological coevolution models of community assembly. The noise is induced in order to check the validity of deterministic population dynamics. While mutualistic communities show little dependence on the stochastic population fluctuations, predator-prey models show strong dependence on the stochasticity, indicating the relevance of the finiteness of the populations. For a predator-prey model, the noise causes drastic decreases in diversity and total population size. The communities that emerge under influence of the noise consist of species strongly coupled with each other and have stronger linear stability around the fixed-point populations than the corresponding noiseless model. The dynamics on evolutionary time scales for the predator-prey model are also altered by the noise. Approximate 1/f fluctuations are observed with noise, while 1/f2 fluctuations are found for the model without demographic noise.

Murase, Yohsuke; Shimada, Takashi; Ito, Nobuyasu; Rikvold, Per Arne

2010-04-01

292

A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology  

PubMed Central

Genomic data now allow the large-scale manual or semi-automated reconstruction of metabolic networks. A network reconstruction represents a highly curated organism-specific knowledge base. A few genome-scale network reconstructions have appeared for metabolism in the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These alternative network reconstructions differ in scope and content, and further have used different terminologies to describe the same chemical entities, thus making comparisons between them difficult. The formulation of a ‘community consensus’ network that collects and formalizes the ‘community knowledge’ of yeast metabolism is thus highly desirable. We describe how we have produced a consensus metabolic network reconstruction for S. cerevisiae. Special emphasis is laid on referencing molecules to persistent databases or using database-independent forms such as SMILES or InChI strings, since this permits their chemical structure to be represented unambiguously and in a manner that permits automated reasoning. The reconstruction is readily available via a publicly accessible database and in the Systems Biology Markup Language, and we describe the manner in which it can be maintained as a community resource. It should serve as a common denominator for system biology studies of yeast. Similar strategies will be of benefit to communities studying genome-scale metabolic networks of other organisms. PMID:18846089

Herrgård, Markus J.; Swainston, Neil; Dobson, Paul; Dunn, Warwick B.; Arga, K. Yalçin; Arvas, Mikko; Blüthgen, Nils; Borger, Simon; Costenoble, Roeland; Heinemann, Matthias; Hucka, Michael; Le Novère, Nicolas; Li, Peter; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Mo, Monica L.; Oliveira, Ana Paula; Petranovic, Dina; Pettifer, Stephen; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Smallbone, Kieran; Spasi?, Irena; Weichart, Dieter; Brent, Roger; Broomhead, David S.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; K?rdar, Betül; Penttilä, Merja; Klipp, Edda; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.; Sauer, Uwe; Oliver, Stephen G.; Mendes, Pedro; Nielsen, Jens; Kell, Douglas B.

2014-01-01

293

Community-Based Participatory Research and Service-Learning Campus to Campus Partnership Team  

E-print Network

Community-Based Participatory Research and Service-Learning Campus to Campus Partnership Team Washington, Michigan State 2007 Summer Institute: Community Based Participatory Research: A Pathway curriculum, teaching, and learning; ­ prepare educated, engaged citizens; ­ strengthen democratic values

294

Impact of substratum surface on microbial community structure and treatment performance in biological aerated filters.  

PubMed

The impact of substratum surface property change on biofilm community structure was investigated using laboratory biological aerated filter (BAF) reactors and molecular microbial community analysis. Two substratum surfaces that differed in surface properties were created via surface coating and used to develop biofilms in test (modified surface) and control (original surface) BAF reactors. Microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the surface property change consistently resulted in distinct profiles of microbial populations during replicate reactor start-ups. Pyrosequencing of the bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons surveyed more than 90% of the microbial diversity in the microbial communities and identified 72 unique bacterial species within 19 bacterial orders. Among the 19 orders of bacteria detected, Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales of the Betaproteobacteria class were numerically dominant and accounted for 90.5 to 97.4% of the sequence reads, and their relative abundances in the test and control BAF reactors were different in consistent patterns during the two reactor start-ups. Three of the five dominant bacterial species also showed consistent relative abundance changes between the test and control BAF reactors. The different biofilm microbial communities led to different treatment efficiencies, with consistently higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the test reactor than in the control reactor. Further understanding of how surface properties affect biofilm microbial communities and functional performance would enable the rational design of new generations of substrata for the improvement of biofilm-based biological treatment processes. PMID:24141134

Kim, Lavane; Pagaling, Eulyn; Zuo, Yi Y; Yan, Tao

2014-01-01

295

Impact of Substratum Surface on Microbial Community Structure and Treatment Performance in Biological Aerated Filters  

PubMed Central

The impact of substratum surface property change on biofilm community structure was investigated using laboratory biological aerated filter (BAF) reactors and molecular microbial community analysis. Two substratum surfaces that differed in surface properties were created via surface coating and used to develop biofilms in test (modified surface) and control (original surface) BAF reactors. Microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the surface property change consistently resulted in distinct profiles of microbial populations during replicate reactor start-ups. Pyrosequencing of the bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons surveyed more than 90% of the microbial diversity in the microbial communities and identified 72 unique bacterial species within 19 bacterial orders. Among the 19 orders of bacteria detected, Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales of the Betaproteobacteria class were numerically dominant and accounted for 90.5 to 97.4% of the sequence reads, and their relative abundances in the test and control BAF reactors were different in consistent patterns during the two reactor start-ups. Three of the five dominant bacterial species also showed consistent relative abundance changes between the test and control BAF reactors. The different biofilm microbial communities led to different treatment efficiencies, with consistently higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the test reactor than in the control reactor. Further understanding of how surface properties affect biofilm microbial communities and functional performance would enable the rational design of new generations of substrata for the improvement of biofilm-based biological treatment processes. PMID:24141134

Kim, Lavane; Pagaling, Eulyn; Zuo, Yi Y.

2014-01-01

296

Using Biological-Control Research in the Classroom to Promote Scientific Inquiry & Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists researching biological control should engage in education because translating research programs into classroom activities is a pathway to increase scientific literacy among students. Classroom activities focused on biological control target all levels of biological organization and can be cross-disciplinary by drawing from subject areas…

Richardson, Matthew L.; Richardson, Scott L.; Hall, David G.

2012-01-01

297

STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)  

SciTech Connect

The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages. The development of publicly accessible, web-based servers, including the HOTPATCH server, the ProKnow Server and the SAVEs server. All of these are accessible from the home page of the Institute. Advancing the science of bioenergy, in the laboratories of the Principal Investigators of the Institute, including the laboratories of Shimon Weiss, James Liao, James Bowie, Todd Yeates, Rob Gunsalus.

Eisenberg, David S.

2008-07-15

298

Community-based participatory research in complex settings: clean mind-dirty hands.  

PubMed

Despite the abundance of the literature which discusses factors supporting or inhibiting effective participation of community members in community-based research, there is a paucity of publications analysing challenges to participation in complex settings. This manuscript describes an intervention built on researcher-community partnership amid complex social conditions which challenged participation of community members at different stages of the research process. The research took place in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon and 1 of 12 in Lebanon which suffer from deteriorating social, economic and physical conditions perpetuated by state-imposed restrictions. The research team developed a community coalition which was involved in all stages of planning, designing, implementation and dissemination. In all those stages the aim was to maintain rigorous research, to follow a 'clean mind' approach to research, but maintain principles of community participation which necessitate 'a dirty hand'. Despite commitment to the principles of community-based participatory research, participation of community members (including youth, parents and teachers) was affected to a great extent by the social, physical and structural conditions of the community context. Characteristics of the context where research is conducted and how it affects community members should not be overlooked since multiple factors beyond the researchers' control could interfere with the rigour of scientific research. Researchers need to develop a plan for participation with the community from the beginning with an understanding of the community forces that affect meaningful participation and address possible deterrence. PMID:23872385

Makhoul, Jihad; Nakkash, Rima; Harpham, Trudy; Qutteina, Yara

2014-09-01

299

The West End Revitalization Association's Community-Owned and Managed Research Model: Development, Implementation, and Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Principal investigators (PIs) of community- based projects are predominantly university faculty who partner with community-based organizations (CBOs) to find a place to conduct research in communities that will cooperate with their research objectives. University-managed research models (UMRMs) are not always beneficial for CBOs because the university usually manages the study, collects and owns the data, and leverages control at

Christopher D. Heaney; Omega R. Wilson

2007-01-01

300

Regulation of marine scientific research by the European community and its member states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The competence of the European Community (EC) in the area of marine scientific research, since 1987 based expressly on European Economic Community (EEC) Treaty provisions, is limited to the promotion and coordination of such research in the EC member states; it may also itself conduct research. In addition, the Community is becoming increasingly active in international cooperation, thus exercising external

Alfred H. A. Soons

1992-01-01

301

The sociologist and the community developer: Autonomy and role conflict in qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociologists are being called upon to evaluate community development efforts in the United States at an increasing rate. These sociologists, as independent researchers, are working side by side with professional community development consultants. Based on an ongoing community development research project, which rests largely upon qualitative techniques, the roles of consultant and researcher are delineated. Methodological advantages and disadvantages of

Stephen Clark King

1981-01-01

302

Improving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health: National Organizations Leading Community Research Initiatives  

PubMed Central

Background Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. Objectives To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Methods Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations Results Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Conclusions Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research. PMID:22643786

Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Chung, Corina; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia

2012-01-01

303

Developing Meaningful and Manageable Research Opportunities for Community College Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Independent research experience opportunities are bountiful for juniors and seniors at 4-year institutions, but far fewer opportunities exist for community college geoscience students. At Mt. San Antonio College (a community college in Los Angeles County), we sometimes offer an independent study course to 1 or 2 exceptional students. In the Spring 2012 semester our goal, for a few qualified students, was to extend their understanding (beyond what they had learned in Physical Geology) of some of the techniques, tools, and ways of thinking used by professional geoscientists, in an effort to better prepare them to transfer to 4-year institutions as geoscience majors. However, when 7 students became excited to participate, we quickly expanded the goals to include giving students the responsibility of defining the project's scope and procedures, introducing them to collaborative and ongoing research, and growing the scope of the project over several semesters. The project involved a preliminary assessment of a tributary in the San Juan Creek watershed in Orange County; techniques included stream and beach profiling, bedrock geology mapping, and sediment sampling and analysis. In addition to presenting preliminary results, we will report on lessons learned about necessary course elements, the importance of establishing academic and personal conduct expectations for students, and methods of assessing student work in a lower-division research experience. We will also discuss several barriers that were encountered during the first semester of the project, including involving faculty, students, and resources as well as strategies that we are currently employing to address these challenges.

Boryta, M. D.; Walker, B.; Cano, E.; Chi, B.; De Martinez, L.; Diaz, M.; Eckert, S.; Hoffman, A.; Lee, T.

2012-12-01

304

Using Census Data to Classify Community College Students by Socioeconomic Status and Community Characteristics. CCRC Research Tools. Number 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and state higher education agencies too often lack accurate information about the socioeconomic status (SES) of their students. This paper describes the methodology that Community College Research Center (CCRC) researchers used to estimate the SES of individual students in the Washington State community and technical college system using…

Crosta, Peter M.; Leinbach, Timothy; Jenkins, Davis

2006-01-01

305

Community Metabolism in Microbial Mats: The Occurrence of Biologically-mediated Iron and Manganese Reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Community metabolism and nutrient, iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) cycling were examined in two intertidal, marine, microbial mat communities during short (4-5 days) incubations in closed, flow-through microcosms. Sediment microcosms were incubated under either light (light-dark cycles) or dark (continuous darkness) conditions to assess the effect(s) of photosynthetic oxygen production and microalgal activity on nutrient, Fe and Mn cycling. The effects of chemical redox reactions between reduced sulphur (S), Fe and Mn cycling were examined by blocking sulphate reduction, and reduced S production, with 25 mM molybdate while incubating under dark conditions. In light-incubated microcosms, negligible fluxes of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and trace metals were observed. A substantial sediment-water flux of reduced Fe (Fe 2+) and Mn (Mn 2+) was observed in microcosms incubated under continuous darkness; highest fluxes were observed in molybdate-amended microcosms. At both sites, biologically-mediated redox reactions accounted for a substantial (>50%) portion of the Fe 2+and Mn 2+flux. Both microbial mat communities exhibited similar rates of gross photosynthetic oxygen (O 2) production, but dramatically different rates of net benthic O 2flux. Distinct patterns of net O 2production and trace metal cycling arose from differences in either trace metal oxide availability or reactivity (mineralogy), organic carbon mineralization rates, or sediment characteristics (porosity). Variations in the microbial community responsible for trace metal cycling could have also contributed to the pattern. The present data illustrate that chemically-mediated redox reactions between metal oxides and reduced S complicate interpretation of Fe and Mn fluxes, underscoring the need to separate chemical and biological reactions when attempting to determine the role of biological trace metal reduction in organic carbon oxidation.

Joye, Samantha B.; Mazzotta, Mandy L.; Hollibaugh, James T.

1996-12-01

306

Microgravity research in plant biological systems: Realizing the potential of molecular biology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sole all-pervasive feature of the environment that has helped shape, through evolution, all life on Earth is gravity. The near weightlessness of the Space Station Freedom space environment allows gravitational effects to be essentially uncoupled, thus providing an unprecedented opportunity to manipulate, systematically dissect, study, and exploit the role of gravity in the growth and development of all life forms. New and exciting opportunities are now available to utilize molecular biological and biochemical approaches to study the effects of microgravity on living organisms. By careful experimentation, we can determine how gravity perception occurs, how the resulting signals are produced and transduced, and how or if tissue-specific differences in gene expression occur. Microgravity research can provide unique new approaches to further our basic understanding of development and metabolic processes of cells and organisms, and to further the application of this new knowledge for the betterment of humankind.

Lewis, Norman G.; Ryan, Clarence A.

1993-01-01

307

Meeting the research infrastructure needs of micropolitan and rural communities.  

PubMed

In the 1800s, this country chose to establish land-grant colleges to see that the working class could attain higher education, and that the research needs of the agricultural and manufacturing segments of this country could be met. It seems contrary to our origins to see so little support at present for research infrastructure going to the very communities that need such research to sustain their populations, grow their economies, to attract physicians, to provide adequate health care, and to educate, retain, and employ their youth. Cities are viewed as sources for high-paying jobs, yet many of these same jobs could be translated to rural and micropolitan areas, provided that the resources are established to support it. One of the fastest growing economic periods in this country's history was during World War II, when even the smallest and most remote towns contributed substantially to the innovations, manufacture, and production of goods benefiting our nation as a whole. Rural areas have always lagged somewhat behind metropolitan areas in acquisition of new technology. Rural electricity and rural phone access are examples from the past. Testing our universities' abilities to grow distributive research networks beyond their campuses will create a competitive edge regionally, against global workplace, educational, and research competition, and will lay the groundwork for efficiency in research and for new innovation. PMID:19552350

Strasburger, Janette F

2009-05-01

308

Data management for community research projects: A JGOFS case study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the mid 1980s, much of the marine science research effort in the United Kingdom has been focused into large scale collaborative projects involving public sector laboratories and university departments, termed Community Research Projects. Two of these, the Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) and the North Sea Project incorporated large scale data collection to underpin multidisciplinary modeling efforts. The challenge of providing project data sets to support the science was met by a small team within the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) operating as a topical data center. The role of the data center was to both work up the data from the ship's sensors and to combine these data with sample measurements into online databases. The working up of the data was achieved by a unique symbiosis between data center staff and project scientists. The project management, programming and data processing skills of the data center were combined with the oceanographic experience of the project communities to develop a system which has produced quality controlled, calibrated data sets from 49 research cruises in 3.5 years of operation. The data center resources required to achieve this were modest and far outweighed by the time liberated in the scientific community by the removal of the data processing burden. Two online project databases have been assembled containing a very high proportion of the data collected. As these are under the control of BODC their long term availability as part of the UK national data archive is assured. The success of the topical data center model for UK Community Research Project data management has been founded upon the strong working relationships forged between the data center and project scientists. These can only be established by frequent personal contact and hence the relatively small size of the UK has been a critical factor. However, projects covering a larger, even international scale could be successfully supported by a network of topical data centers managing online databases which are interconnected by object oriented distributed data management systems over wide area networks.

Lowry, Roy K.

1992-01-01

309

Formative Research on Perceptions of Biobanking: What Community Members Think  

PubMed Central

Preparing healthy community members with timely communications prior to engaging them in a request to donate biospecimens promises to improve the experience of biobanking participation. To this end, a qualitative study was conducted to assess community member knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and informational needs about cancer-related biospecimen collection in a large metropolitan area in southwest Florida. The study utilized purposive sampling techniques to recruit a total of 95 participants to participate in 12 focus groups, segmented by race/ethnicity and language preference (mixed race, African American only, and Spanish speaking) and age (18–29, 30–54, and 55 and older). Focus group interviews were analyzed using content analysis to identify emergent themes. Overall, participants in the 30 years and older groups were favorable toward participating in biobanking if their concerns were addressed, such as confidentiality and consent issues, in contrast to participants aged 18–29 who were more skeptical. For all participants, the desire to participate in research that seeks new cancer treatments outweighed mistrust. Moreover, many cited the potential scientific benefit for future generations as a primary motivator. Finally, in some groups a therapeutic misconception was expressed, where participants expressed a willingness to forego confidentiality of their health status in exchange for therapeutic benefit. This study contributes to the literature on community perceptions of the benefits and barriers of biobanking and adds to the development of meaningful education communication priming tools to advance understandings about biobanking. PMID:21927867

Luque, John S.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Montel-Ishino, Francisco A.; Arevalo, Mariana; Bynum, Shalanda A.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Wells, Kristen J.; Gwede, Clement K.; Meade, Cathy D.

2013-01-01

310

"It's my blood": ethical complexities in the use, storage and export of biological samples: perspectives from South African research participants  

PubMed Central

Background The use of biological samples in research raises a number of ethical issues in relation to consent, storage, export, benefit sharing and re-use of samples. Participant perspectives have been explored in North America and Europe, with only a few studies reported in Africa. The amount of research being conducted in Africa is growing exponentially with volumes of biological samples being exported from the African continent. In order to investigate the perspectives of African research participants, we conducted a study at research sites in the Western Cape and Gauteng, South Africa. Methods Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire that captured both quantitative and qualitative information at 6 research sites in South Africa. Interviews were conducted in English and Afrikaans. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Our study indicates that while the majority of participants were supportive of providing samples for research, serious concerns were voiced about future use, benefit sharing and export of samples. While researchers view the provision of biosamples as a donation, participants believe that they still have ownership rights and are therefore in favour of benefit sharing. Almost half of the participants expressed a desire to be re-contacted for consent for future use of their samples. Interesting opinions were expressed with respect to export of samples. Conclusions Eliciting participant perspectives is an important part of community engagement in research involving biological sample collection, export, storage and future use. A tiered consent process appears to be more acceptable to participants in this study. Eliciting opinions of researchers and research ethics committee (REC) members would contribute multiple perspectives. Further research is required to interrogate the concept of ownership and the consent process in research involving biological samples. PMID:24447822

2014-01-01

311

Community Coalition Building—Contemporary Practice and Research: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 20 years, coalition building has become a prominent intervention employed in communities across America. Coalitions provide community psychologists and those in related fields with a chance to work with whole communities and to better understand how to create community change. As we reflect on the past two decades of community coalition building, there are many questions to

Thomas Wolff

2001-01-01

312

Strengthening community involvement in grant review: insights from the Community-University Research Partnership (CURES) pilot review process.  

PubMed

In 2007, the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR) at the University of Michigan received a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Within MICHR, the Community Engagement (CE) program supports partnership efforts between researchers, practitioners, and community-based organizations in specific focal communities throughout Michigan. A key component of the CE program is the Community Engagement Coordinating Council, a group that provides input and guidance on program priorities, strategic planning, and reviews pilot funding proposals for community-academic partnerships. This paper will describe a unique MICHR pilot funding mechanism for Community-University Research Partnerships (CURES) with an emphasis on the ways that community partners are involved in the review process, as well as the benefits, challenges, and insights gained over 5 years of pilot review. There is a growing need for community involvement and expertise in review of funding proposals for community-engaged research at both institutional and federal levels. The CURES pilot review process is one example of an institutional effort to engage community partners in university funding decisions and has demonstrated clear benefit toward accomplishing the aims of the CTSA. PMID:24456508

Paberzs, Adam; Piechowski, Patricia; Warrick, Debra; Grawi, Carolyn; Choate, Celeste; Sneed, Glenda; Carr, Diane; Lota, Kanchan; Key, Kent; Alexander, Valerie; Ghosh, Pratik; Sampselle, Carolyn

2014-04-01

313

Early career academic researchers and community-based participatory research: wrestling match or dancing partners?  

PubMed

Early career faculty members at academic medical centers face unique obstacles when engaging in community-based participatory research (CBPR). Challenges and opportunities for solutions pertaining to mentorship, time demands, unfamiliarity of colleagues with CBPR approaches, ethical review regulations, funding, and publication and promotion are discussed. PMID:24330696

Lowry, Kelly Walker; Ford-Paz, Rebecca

2013-12-01

314

Teaching Molecular Biological Techniques in a Research Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Molecular biological methods, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis, are now commonly taught to students in introductory biology courses at the college and even high school levels. This often includes hands-on experience with one or more molecular techniques as part of a general biology laboratory. To assure that most…

Stiller, John W.; Coggins, T. Chad

2006-01-01

315

Effects of anthropogenic salinization on biological traits and community composition of stream macroinvertebrates.  

PubMed

Salinization of rivers resulting from industrial discharge or road-deicing can adversely affect macroinvertebrates. Trait-based approaches are a promising tool in ecological monitoring and may perform better than taxonomy-based approaches. However only little is known how and which biological traits are affected by salinization. We investigated the effects of anthropogenic salinization on macroinvertebrate communities and biological traits in the Werra River, Germany and compared the taxonomic and trait response. We found a change in macroinvertebrate community and trait composition. Communities at saline sites were characterized by the three exotic species Gammarus tigrinus, Apocorophium lacustre and Potamopyrgus antipodarum. The frequencies of trait modalities long life cycle duration, respiration by gill, ovoviviparity, shredder and multivoltinism were statistically significantly increased at saline sites. The trait-based ordination resulted in a higher explained variance than the taxonomy-based ordination, indicating a better performance of the trait-based approach, resulting in a better discrimination between saline and non-saline sites. Our results are in general agreement with other studies from Europe, indicating a trait convergence for saline streams, being dominated by the traits ovoviviparity and multivoltinism. Three further traits (respiration by gill, life cycle duration and shredders) responded strongly to salinization, but this may primarily be attributed to the dominance of a single invasive species, G. tigrinus, at the saline sites in the Werra River. PMID:24080419

Szöcs, Eduard; Coring, Eckhard; Bäthe, Jürgen; Schäfer, Ralf B

2014-01-15

316

Understanding Fibromyalgia: Lessons from the Broader Pain Research Community  

PubMed Central

Fibromaylgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition marked by centrally-mediated augmentation of pain and sensory processes. Skepticism has marked the history of this condition, but more recent study has identified neurobiological underpinnings supporting many of the symptoms associated with this condition. Early research in FM had unprecedented latitude within the Rheumatology community to borrow heavily from theory and methods being applied in chronic pain research more generally. These insights facilitated rapid advances in FM research; not the least of which was the abandonment of a peripheral focus in favor of studying central mechanisms associated with central augmentation. Currently, rapid paced discovery is taking place in FM genetics, patient assessment, new therapeutic targets, and novel methods of treatment delivery. Such insights are not likely to be limited in application just to FM; but could have relevance to the broader field of pain research as well. Perspective This manuscript reviews the history of FM and its diagnosis, evidence supporting central augmentation of pain in FM, potential mechanisms of central augmentation, current approaches to integrated care of FM, and areas of active collaboration between FM research and other chronic pain conditions. PMID:19638325

Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

2009-01-01

317

Fostering community-based wildlife health monitoring and research in the Canadian North.  

PubMed

Many northern Canadians have continued a subsistence lifestyle of wildlife harvesting and, therefore, value sustainable wildlife populations. At a regional wildlife workshop in the Sahtu Settlement Area, Northwest Territories in 2002, elders and community leaders raised concerns regarding wildlife health, food safety, and the effects of climate change on wildlife. They requested that efforts be put toward training youth in science and increasing involvement of hunters and youth in wildlife research. In response, we initiated a long-term, integrated approach to foster community-based wildlife health monitoring and research. Annual trips were made to all schools in the Sahtu from 2003 to 2009 to provide hands-on learning for 250-460 students on a range of wildlife topics. In addition, interviews were conducted with 31 hunters and elders to document their local ecological knowledge of wildlife health and local hunters were trained as monitors to collect tissue samples and measurements to assess body condition and monitor health of harvested caribou (n = 69) and moose (n = 19). In 2007 the program was extended to include participation in the annual caribou hunt held by one community. Each year since 2005, a graduate student and/or a postdoctoral trainee in the veterinary or biological sciences has participated in the program. The program has evolved during the last 6 years in response to community and school input, results of empirical research, hunter feedback, local knowledge, and logistical constraints. The continuity of the program is attributed to the energetic collaboration among diverse partners and a unified approach that responds to identified needs. PMID:19953294

Brook, Ryan K; Kutz, Susan J; Veitch, Alasdair M; Popko, Richard A; Elkin, Brett T; Guthrie, Glen

2009-06-01

318

Learning-style preferences of Latino\\/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino\\/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the

Helen D. Sarantopoulos

2005-01-01

319

Paul Tabbush Social Research Group Consultation and community  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Research methods

320

Creating Community-Academic Partnerships for Cancer Disparities Research and Health Promotion  

PubMed Central

To effectively attenuate cancer disparities in multiethnic, medically underserved populations, interventions must be developed collaboratively through solid community–academic partnerships and driven by community-based participatory research (CBPR). The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) has been created to identify and implement interventions to address local cancer disparities in partnership with community-based nonprofit organizations, faith-based groups, community health centers, local media, and adult literacy and education organizations. TBCCN activities and research efforts are geared toward addressing critical information and access issues related to cancer control and prevention in diverse communities in the Tampa Bay area. Such efforts include cross-cultural health promotion, screening, and awareness activities in addition to applied research projects that are rooted in communities and guided by CBPR methods. This article describes these activities as examples of partnership building to positively affect cancer disparities, promote community health, and set the stage for community-based research partnerships. PMID:19822724

Meade, Cathy D.; Menard, Janelle M.; Luque, John S.; Martinez-Tyson, Dinorah; Gwede, Clement K.

2010-01-01

321

Community Development and Research. Aboriginal Peoples Collection = Developpement Communautaire et Recherches. Collection sur les Autochtones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides Canadian Aboriginal communities with information and resources for carrying out participatory action research and applying the results to community development. Presented in English and French, the report is based on a literature review and a 2-day focus group involving 14 community development experts, Aboriginal community

Ministry of the Solicitor General, Ottawa (Ontario).

322

PATHOLOGICAL INTERNET COMMUNITIES: A NEW DIRECTION FOR SEXUAL DEVIANCE RESEARCH IN A POST MODERN ERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the impact of the Internet and related technologies on the nature of deviant behavior, deviant communities, and the future of deviance research. The idea that pathological communities, once largely suppressed by time, space, and societal restraints, can now create and use virtual communities is focal. Those new communities may expand their numbers and\\/or pathology, while reinforcing their

Keith Durkin; Craig J. Forsyth; James F. Quinn

2006-01-01

323

Community Music: History and Current Practice, Its Constructions of "Community", Digital Turns and Future Soundings, an Arts and Humanities Research Council Research Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Kingdom has been a pivotal national player within the development of community music practice. There are elements of cultural and debatably pedagogic innovations in community music. These have to date only partly been articulated and historicized within academic research. This report, funded by the UK's Arts and Humanities Research

McKay, George; Higham, Ben

2012-01-01

324

Community College Engagement in Community Programs and Services. AACC Research Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a report on a 2001 national survey of community colleges conducted by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). The survey was designed to identify various community service programs that community colleges administered, partnered, or sponsored. The study surveyed 1,067 community colleges, with 363 colleges (34%)…

Phinney, Lisa; Schoen, Mary Kay; Hause, Ellen

325

GUI to Facilitate Research on Biological Damage from Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer program has been developed to facilitate research on the damage caused by highly energetic particles and photons impinging on living organisms. The program brings together, into one computational workspace, computer codes that have been developed over the years, plus codes that will be developed during the foreseeable future, to address diverse aspects of radiation damage. These include codes that implement radiation-track models, codes for biophysical models of breakage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by radiation, pattern-recognition programs for extracting quantitative information from biological assays, and image-processing programs that aid visualization of DNA breaks. The radiation-track models are based on transport models of interactions of radiation with matter and solution of the Boltzmann transport equation by use of both theoretical and numerical models. The biophysical models of breakage of DNA by radiation include biopolymer coarse-grained and atomistic models of DNA, stochastic- process models of deposition of energy, and Markov-based probabilistic models of placement of double-strand breaks in DNA. The program is designed for use in the NT, 95, 98, 2000, ME, and XP variants of the Windows operating system.

Cucinotta, Frances A.; Ponomarev, Artem Lvovich

2010-01-01

326

Gross's anatomy: textual politics in science/biology education research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In approaching how the grotesque is—or should be—situated within contemporary science (biology) education practices, Weinstein and Broda undertake a passionate reclaim of an education that is at the same time scientific, critical, and liberatory. However legitimate, their work offers more than they probably could have anticipated: It exemplifies how the textual structure of a research article can be such as to "tip-off" readers about how it is supposed to be understood. In this way, what one learns from reading the manuscript is grounded on the way the authors examine the data presented. That is, the findings are not intrinsic to the materials collected, but constructed within the analyses that precede/follow the account of each one of the four "specimens" reported. Therefore, the present commentary seeks to re-consider the original study from an alternative perspective, one that challenges its seemingly objective (re)construction of facts by placing emphasis on how the text contains instructions for its own interpretation and validation. Ultimately, the purpose here is to describe and discuss the interpretive and validation work that is done by this discursive mechanism of self-appraisal rather than discredit the two authors' initiative.

Reis, Giuliano

2009-12-01

327

A Community Translational Research Pilot Grants Program to Facilitate Community-Academic Partnerships: Lessons From Colorado's Clinical Translational Science Awards  

PubMed Central

Background National growth in translational research has increased the need for practical tools to improve how academic institutions engage communities in research. Methods One used by the Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI) to target investments in community-based translational research on health disparities is a Community Engagement (CE) Pilot Grants program. Innovative in design, the program accepts proposals from either community or academic applicants, requires that at least half of requested grant funds go to the community partner, and offers two funding tracks: One to develop new community–academic partnerships (up to $10,000), the other to strengthen existing partnerships through community translational research projects (up to $30,000). Results and Conclusion We have seen early success in both traditional and capacity building metrics: the initial investment of $272,742 in our first cycle led to over $2.8 million dollars in additional grant funding, with grantees reporting strengthening capacity of their community–academic partnerships and the rigor and relevance of their research. PMID:22982851

Main, Deborah S.; Felzien, Maret C.; Magid, David J.; Calonge, B. Ned; O'Brien, Ruth A.; Kempe, Allison; Nearing, Kathryn

2013-01-01

328

The Metropolitan Studies Institute at USC Upstate: Translational Research that Drives Community Decision-Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Metropolitan Studies Institute (MSI) at the University of South Carolina Upstate (USC Upstate) demonstrates a robust and unique record of community impact through community indicators research and other translational research. The MSI's work drives programmatic priorities and funding decisions, generates revenue, and increases the community's…

Brady, Kathleen

2012-01-01

329

Community Psychology's Search for a Viable Paradigm: Establishing an Ecologically Valid Intervention Research Base.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper suggests that community psychology may be going through an identity crisis because of its lack of empirical demonstrations of community intervention effectiveness, and an ecologically valid intervention research base. Although the majority of research in community psychology has used an individualistic paradigm that conceptualizes…

Fiene, Richard

330

An Examination: Using Participatory Action Research in a Marginalized Coastal Community at Risk to Natural Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This extended case study examines the appropriateness of using Participatory Action Research (PAR) in a small, marginalized coastal community at risk to natural hazards. PAR is a method of conducting high-quality research to support the social change goals of diverse cultural and ethnic communities, especially as they relate to community involvement, democracy, emancipation, and liberation (Lindsey and McGuinness (1998). PAR

Joselin Simoneaux Landry

2008-01-01

331

New Canada Research Chairs for UAlberta National research chairs will lead promising research in education, health care, cell biology and Earth  

E-print Network

in education, health care, cell biology and Earth sciences. By Michael Brown on November 14, 2013 Montpetit: Understanding the fundamentals of cell biology The research being conducted in Ben Montpetit

Machel, Hans

332

Views on Researcher-Community Engagement in Autism Research in the United Kingdom: A Mixed-Methods Study  

PubMed Central

There has been a substantial increase in research activity on autism during the past decade. Research into effective ways of responding to the immediate needs of autistic people is, however, less advanced, as are efforts at translating basic science research into service provision. Involving community members in research is one potential way of reducing this gap. This study therefore investigated the views of community involvement in autism research both from the perspectives of autism researchers and of community members, including autistic adults, family members and practitioners. Results from a large-scale questionnaire study (n?=?1,516) showed that researchers perceive themselves to be engaged with the autism community but that community members, most notably autistic people and their families, did not share this view. Focus groups/interviews with 72 participants further identified the potential benefits and remaining challenges to involvement in research, especially regarding the distinct perspectives of different stakeholders. Researchers were skeptical about the possibilities of dramatically increasing community engagement, while community members themselves spoke about the challenges to fully understanding and influencing the research process. We suggest that the lack of a shared approach to community engagement in UK autism research represents a key roadblock to translational endeavors. PMID:25303222

Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

2014-01-01

333

Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

Kwiatkowski, Roy E., E-mail: roy_kwiatkowski@hc-sc.gc.c

2011-07-15

334

Silicon's organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve*  

PubMed Central

Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon’s biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon’s erosion of soil particles. A study on the organic pool and biological cycle of silicon (Si) of the moso bamboo community was conducted in Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve, China. The results showed that: (1) the standing crop of the moso bamboo community was 13355.4 g/m2, of which 53.61%, 45.82% and 0.56% are represented by the aboveground and belowground parts of moso bamboos, and the understory plants, respectively; (2) the annual net primary production of the community was 2887.1 g/(m2·a), among which the aboveground part, belowground part, litterfalls, and other fractions, accounted for 55.86%, 35.30%, 4.50% and 4.34%, respectively; (3) silicon concentration in stem, branch, leaf, base of stem, root, whip of bamboos, and other plants was 0.15%, 0.79%, 3.10%, 4.40%, 7.32%, 1.52% and 1.01%, respectively; (4) the total Si accumulated in the standing crop of moso bamboo community was 448.91 g/m2, with 99.83% of Si of the total community stored in moso bamboo populations; (5) within moso bamboo community, the annual uptake, retention, and return of Si were 95.75, 68.43, 27.32 g/(m2·a), respectively; (6) the turnover time of Si, which is the time an average atom of Si remains in the soil before it is recycled into the trees or shrubs, was 16.4 years; (7) the enrichment ratio of Si in the moso bamboo community, which is the ratio of the mean concentration of nutrients in the net primary production to the mean concentration of nutrients in the biomass of a community, was 0.64; and lastly, (8) moso bamboo plants stored about 1.26×1010 kg of silicon in the organic pool made up by the moso bamboo forests in the subtropical area of China. PMID:17048297

Li, Zhen-ji; Lin, Peng; He, Jian-yuan; Yang, Zhi-wei; Lin, Yi-ming

2006-01-01

335

Training partnership dyads for community-based participatory research: strategies and lessons learned from the Community Engaged Scholars Program.  

PubMed

This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus-community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution's Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-P provides simultaneous training to CBPR teams, with each team consisting of at least one community partner and one academic partner. Program elements include 12 months of monthly interactive group sessions, mentorship with apprenticeship opportunities, and funding for a CBPR pilot project. A modified RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation plan. Lessons learned include challenges of group instruction with varying levels of readiness among the CBPR partners, navigating the institutional review board process with community co-investigators, and finding appropriate academic investigators to match community research interests. Future directions are recommended for this promising and unique dyadic training of academic and community partners. PMID:23091303

Andrews, Jeannette O; Cox, Melissa J; Newman, Susan D; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E; Slaughter, Sabra

2013-07-01

336

Training Partnership Dyads for Community-Based Participatory Research: Strategies and Lessons Learned From the Community Engaged Scholars Program  

PubMed Central

This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus–community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution’s Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-P provides simultaneous training to CBPR teams, with each team consisting of at least one community partner and one academic partner. Program elements include 12 months of monthly interactive group sessions, mentorship with apprenticeship opportunities, and funding for a CBPR pilot project. A modified RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation plan. Lessons learned include challenges of group instruction with varying levels of readiness among the CBPR partners, navigating the institutional review board process with community co-investigators, and finding appropriate academic investigators to match community research interests. Future directions are recommended for this promising and unique dyadic training of academic and community partners. PMID:23091303

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A.; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E.; Slaughter, Sabra

2014-01-01

337

Community Based Research Network: Opportunities for Coordination of Care, Public Health Surveillance, and Farmworker Research  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The lack of aggregated longitudinal health data on farmworkers has severely limited opportunities to conduct research to improve their health status. To correct this problem, we have created the infrastructure necessary to develop and maintain a national Research Data Repository of migrant and seasonal farmworker patients and other community members receiving medical care from Community and Migrant Health Centers (C/MHCs). Project specific research databases can be easily extracted from this repository. Methods: The Community Based Research Network (CBRN) has securely imported and merged electronic health records (EHRs) data from five geographically dispersed C/MHCs. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our data aggregation methodologies, we also conducted a small pilot study using clinical, laboratory and demographic data from the CBRN Data Repository from two initial C/MHCs to evaluate HbA1c management. Results: Overall, there were 67,878 total patients (2,858 farmworkers) that were seen by two C/MHCs from January to August 2013. A total of 94,189 encounters were captured and all could be linked to a unique patient. HbA1c values decreased as the number of tests or intensity of testing increased. Conclusion: This project will inform the foundation for an expanding collection of C/MHC data for use by clinicians for medical care coordination, by clinics to assess quality of care, by public health agencies for surveillance, and by researchers under Institutional Review Board (IRB) oversight to advance understanding of the needs and capacity of the migrant and seasonal farmworker population and the health centers that serve them. Approved researchers can request data that constitute a Limited Data Set from the CBRN Data Repository to establish a specific research database for their project. PMID:25379130

Cooper, Sharon P.; Heyer, Nicholas; Shipp, Eva M.; Ryder, E. Roberta; Hendrikson, Edward; Socias, Christina M; del Junco, Deborah J.; Valerio, Melissa; Partida, Sylvia

2014-01-01

338

Primary and complex stressors in polluted mediterranean rivers: Pesticide effects on biological communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryWe examined the presence of pesticides in the Llobregat river basin (Barcelona, Spain) and their effects on benthic biological communities (invertebrates and diatoms). The Llobregat river is one of Barcelona's major drinking water resources. It has been highly polluted by industrial, agricultural, and urban wastewaters, and—as a typical Mediterranean river—is regularly subjected to periodic floods and droughts. Water scarcity periods result in reduced water flow and dilution capacity, increasing the potential environmental risk of pollutants. Seven sites were selected, where we analysed the occurrence of 22 pesticides (belonging to the classes of triazines, organophosphates, phenylureas, anilides, chloroacetanilides, acidic herbicides and thiocarbamates) in the water and sediment, and the benthic community structure. Biofilm samples were taken to measure several metrics related to both the algal and bacterial components of fluvial biofilms. Multivariate analyses revealed a potential relationship between triazine-type herbicides and the distribution of the diatom community, although no evidence of disruption in the invertebrate community distribution was found. Biofilm metrics were used as response variables rather than abundances of individual species to identify possible cause-effect relationships between pesticide pollution and biotic responses. Certain effects of organophosphates and phenylureas in both structural and functional aspects of the biofilm community were suggested, but the sensitivity of each metric to particular stressors must be assessed before we can confidently assign causality. Complemented with laboratory experiments, which are needed to confirm causality, this approach could be successfully incorporated into environmental risk assessments to better summarise biotic integrity and improve the ecological management.

Ricart, Marta; Guasch, Helena; Barceló, Damià; Brix, Rikke; Conceição, Maria H.; Geiszinger, Anita; José López de Alda, Maria; López-Doval, Julio C.; Muñoz, Isabel; Postigo, Cristina; Romaní, Anna M.; Villagrasa, Marta; Sabater, Sergi

2010-03-01

339

Reducing diabetes health disparities through community-based participatory action research: the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition.  

PubMed

To address disproportionately high rates of diabetes morbidity and mortality in some of Chicago's medically underserved minority neighborhoods, a group of community residents, medical and social service providers, and a local university founded the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention REACH 2010 Initiative. A community-based participatory action research model guided coalition activities from conceptualization through implementation. Capacity building activities included training on: diabetes, coalition building, research methods, and action planning. Other activities sought to increase coalition members' understanding of the social causes and potential solutions for health disparities related to diabetes. Trained coalition members conducted epidemiologic analyses, focus groups, a telephone survey, and a community inventory. All coalition members participated in decisions. The participatory process led to increased awareness of the complexities of diabetes in the community and to a state of readiness for social action. Data documented disparities in diabetes. The participatory action research approach (a) encouraged key stakeholders outside of the health care sector to participate (e.g., business sector, church groups); (b) permitted an examination of the sociopolitical context affecting the health of the community; (c) provided an opportunity to focus on preventing the onset of diabetes and its complications; (d) increased understanding of the importance of community research in catalyzing social action aimed at community and systems change and change among change agents. PMID:12815078

Giachello, Aida L; Arrom, Jose O; Davis, Margaret; Sayad, Judith V; Ramirez, Dinah; Nandi, Chandana; Ramos, Catalina

2003-01-01

340

Management of Biological Materials in Wastewater from Research & Development Facilities  

SciTech Connect

PNNL has developed and instituted a systematic approach to managing work with biological material that begins in the project planning phase and carries through implementation to waste disposal. This paper describes two major processes used at PNNL to analyze and mitigate the hazards associated with working with biological materials and evaluate them for disposal to the sewer, ground, or surface water in a manner that protects human health and the environment. The first of these processes is the Biological Work Permit which is used to identify requirements for handling, storing, and working with biological materials and the second is the Sewer Approval process which is used to evaluate discharges of wastewaters containing biological materials to assure they meet industrial wastewater permits and other environmental regulations and requirements.

Raney, Elizabeth A.; Moon, Thomas W.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2011-04-01

341

Toward a culturally anchored ecological framework of research in ethnic-cultural communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed a research framework (the “cube” model) in which community psychologists working in ethnic-cultural communities can make appropriate decisions on conceptual and methodological issues from a culturally anchored, ecological-contextualist perspective. The intent of the model is to articulate ethnic-cultural heterogeneity in community research by elucidating three metamethodological issues: (a) definition of an ethnic-cultural community, (b) applicability of cross-cultural theories and

Toshiaki Sasao; Stanley Sue

1993-01-01

342

Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.  

PubMed

Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement. PMID:23846829

Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

2013-12-01

343

Research partnerships with local communities: two case studies from Papua New Guinea and Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partnerships between scientists and local communities can increase research capacity and data delivery while improving management effectiveness through enhanced community participation. To encourage such collaboration, this study demonstrates how these partnerships can be formed, drawing on two case studies in coral reef ecosystems in very different social settings (Papua New Guinea and Australia). In each case, steps towards successfully engaging communities in research were similar. These included: (1) early engagement by collaborating organizations to build trust, (2) ensuring scientific questions have direct relevance to the community, (3) providing appropriate incentives for participation, and (4) clear and open communication. Community participants engaged in a variety of research activities, including locating and capturing fishes, collecting and recording data (weight, length and sex), applying external tags, and removing otoliths (ear bones) for ageing and elemental analysis. Research partnerships with communities enhanced research capacity, reduced costs and, perhaps more importantly, improved the likelihood of long-term community support for marine protected areas (MPAs).

Almany, G. R.; Hamilton, R. J.; Williamson, D. H.; Evans, R. D.; Jones, G. P.; Matawai, M.; Potuku, T.; Rhodes, K. L.; Russ, G. R.; Sawynok, B.

2010-09-01

344

Learning How Scientists Work: Experiential Research Projects to Promote Cell Biology Learning and Scientific Process Skills  

PubMed Central

Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses. PMID:12669101

2002-01-01

345

Learning-style preferences of Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify, according to the Productivity Environment Preference Survey (PEPS) instrument, which learning-style domains (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physiological) were favored among Latino/Hispanic community college students enrolled in introductory biology classes in a large, urban community college. An additional purpose of this study was to determine whether statistically significant differences existed between the learning-style preferences and the demographic variables of age, gender, number of prior science courses, second language learner status, and earlier exposure to scientific information. Methodology. The study design was descriptive and ex post facto. The sample consisted of a total of 332 Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in General Biology 3. Major findings. The study revealed that Latino/Hispanic students enrolled in introductory biology at a large urban community college scored higher for the learning preference element of structure. Students twenty-five years and older scored higher for the learning preference elements of light, design, persistence, responsibility, and morning time (p <= 0.05). Females scored higher in the preference elements of (a) light, (b) temperature (warmth), (c) authority and (d) auditory (p <= 0.05). Significant differences were found for the elements of sound, warmth, motivation, several ways, and intake between the students with no prior science coursework and those who completed more than one (p <= 0.05). No significant learning-style preferences were found between second English language learners and those who learned English as their primary language (p <= 0.05). Students who frequently read science articles scored higher for the elements of motivation, persistence, responsibility, and tactile (p <= 0.05). Conclusions and recommendations. The conclusions were that Latino/Hispanic students need detailed guidance and clearly stated course objectives. The recommendations were: (1) College professors, counselors, and administrators must become aware of the Dunn learning-style model and instruments and on recent learning-style research articles on ethnically diverse groups of adult learners; and (2) Instructors should plan their instruction to incorporate the learning-style preferences of their students.

Sarantopoulos, Helen D.

346

Ethical Dilemmas in Community-Based Participatory Research: Recommendations for Institutional Review Boards  

Microsoft Academic Search

National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater\\u000a adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue\\u000a to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective\\u000a new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process

Sarah Flicker; Robb Travers; Adrian Guta; Sean McDonald; Aileen Meagher

2007-01-01

347

Enacting research ethics in partnerships with indigenous communities in Canada: "Do it in a good way".  

PubMed

Two studies conducted through community-campus partnerships demonstrated emerging frameworks for ethical conduct of research involving Indigenous peoples in Canada. Both projects involved multiple Indigenous community partners whose interests in promoting children's development and fathers' involvement motivated the projects. The Indigenous projects were conceived within a broader social agenda of restorative justice and self-determination of Indigenous peoples in Canada following centuries of colonial government interventions. Guiding principles included community relevance, community participation, mutual capacity building, and benefit to Indigenous communities. Memoranda of Understanding negotiated with each community partner specified the roles of community and university partners and research team members in each phase of the research. Testimonials obtained from community representatives before and after the research projects indicated the success of the projects in yielding benefits to the communities in the form of substantive knowledge and strengthened capacities to engage in collaborative research through community-campus partnerships. The larger collaborative research projects in which these two Indigenous projects were embedded created challenges and opportunities due to varying recognition within these networks of the primacy of relationships as a foundation for research and the indeterminacy of outcomes when ownership of data and control over dissemination is in the hands of community partners. PMID:19385744

Ball, Jessica; Janyst, Pauline

2008-06-01

348

Community mobilization and community-based participatory research to prevent youth violence among Asian and immigrant populations.  

PubMed

Many community mobilization activities for youth violence prevention involve the researchers assisting communities in identifying, adapting, and/or tailoring evidence-based programs to fit the community needs, population, and cultural and social contexts. This article describes a slightly different framework in which the collaborative research/evaluation project emerged from the community mobilization activities. As will be discussed, this collaborative, sustained partnership was possible in the context of the Center on Culture, Immigration and Youth Violence Prevention's (UC Berkeley ACE) community mobilization activities that brought the issue of youth violence, particularly among immigrant and minority populations, to the forefront of many of the community partners' agendas. The East Bay Asian Youth Center (EBAYC) was one of the partners that came to the table, which facilitated the community-based engagement/mobilization. UC Berkeley ACE collaborated with EBAYC to evaluate an after-school program and an alternative probation program serving a diverse youth and immigrant population, including African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics. This article describes UC Berkeley ACE's community mobilization activity and the collaborative partnership with EBAYC, discusses how the evaluations incorporated community-based principles in design and practice, and presents some findings from the evaluations. PMID:21210205

Le, Thao N; Arifuku, Isami; Vuong, Linh; Tran, Gianna; Lustig, Deborah F; Zimring, Franklin

2011-09-01

349

Blended Hydrometeorological Products for the Research and Operational Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With advances in environmental parameter retrieval algorithms and their use of a wide array of satellite instruments, constantly changing views of Earth are possible. Enabling users to reap the benefits of this data requires good communication about the products. More and more, new near-realtime blended multisensor satellite products are becoming available to the weather forecaster, who must quickly decide whether the product is helpful or not. Research users of blended products can take more time to explore the suitability of these data for their applications, but communication and guidance from the data provider is essential. An effort under NASA's Making Earth Science Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program has reprocessed and extended the NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP) dataset, which now includes data from 1988-2009. The new dataset is named NVAP-M and includes global grids of both total and layered precipitable water vapor, as well as data source codes for each grid box. NVAP-M is distributed to the weather and climate research community via the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The global (land and ocean) NVAP-M dataset features different product types designed to fit a variety of user needs on a variety of time scales, from weather case studies to studies of climate change and trends. In particular, a three-track approach focused on weather, climate and ocean applications was chosen. Challenges and lessons learned in communicating with the diverse user community for NVAP-M (e.g., hydrologists, weather and climate scientists, epidemiologists) will be presented. Close relatives of NVAP-M are the NOAA Operational Blended Total Precipitable Water and Blended Rain Rate products. These products are available hourly in near-real time to National Weather Service forecast offices and are valuable for precipitation analysis and forecasting. They are created from a composite of passive microwave instruments on board typically six polar orbiting satellites. The types of comments from users, how they are trained to use the blended products, and the process for user feedback and product modifications will be discussed.

Kidder, S. Q.; Vonder Haar, T. H.; Forsythe, J.

2013-12-01

350

Research Programs Constituting U.S. Participation in the International Biological Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States contribution to the International Biological Program, which aims to understand more clearly the interrelationships within ecosystems, is centered on multidisciplinary research programs investigating the biological basis of ecological productivity and human welfare. Integrated research programs have been established for the…

National Academy of Sciences--National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Biology and Agriculture.

351

Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010, 52 (2): 205220 Research Article  

E-print Network

and cotton fiber. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(2), 205­220. Introduction The aim of this research was to compare of Sciences #12;206 Journal of Integrative Plant Biology Vol. 52 No. 2 2010 temporal progression of cottonJournal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010, 52 (2): 205­220 Research Article Phylogenetically

Wendel, Jonathan F.

352

Interdisciplinary Biomathematics: Engaging Undergraduates in Research on the Fringe of Mathematical Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The US National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Undergraduate Biology and Mathematics (UBM) program significantly increased undergraduate research in the biomathematical sciences. We discuss three UBM-funded student research projects at Clarkson University that lie at the intersection of not just mathematics and biology, but also other…

Fowler, Kathleen; Luttman, Aaron; Mondal, Sumona

2013-01-01

353

Building and Maintaining Trust in a Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership  

PubMed Central

Although intervention research is vital to eliminating health disparities, many groups with health disparities have had negative research experiences, leading to an understandable distrust of researchers and the research process. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches seek to reverse this pattern by building trust between community members and researchers. We highlight strategies for building and maintaining trust from an American Indian CBPR project and focus on 2 levels of trust building and maintaining: (1) between university and community partners and (2) between the initial project team and the larger community. This article was cowritten by community and academic partners; by offering the voices of community partners, it provides a novel and distinctive contribution to the CBPR literature. PMID:18556605

Christopher, Suzanne; Watts, Vanessa; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun; Young, Sara

2008-01-01

354

Completing the Circle: A Model for Effective Community Review of Environmental Health Research  

PubMed Central

While it is well understood that multiple and cumulative environmental stressors negatively impact health at the community level, existing ethical research review procedures are designed to protect individual research participants but not communities. Increasing concerns regarding the ethical conduct of research in general and environmental and genetic research in particular underscore the need to expand the scope of current human participant research regulations and ethical guidelines to include protections for communities. In an effort to address this issue, West Harlem Environmental Action (WE ACT), a nonprofit, community-based environmental justice organization in New York City that has been involved in community–academic partnerships for the past decade, used qualitative interview data to develop a pilot model for community review of environmental health science research. PMID:19890159

Shepard, Peggy Morrow; Corbin-Mark, Cecil D.

2009-01-01

355

Building A Scientific Community: An Inquiry-Based Biology Short Course for the 2009 Hartnell SUMS Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hartnell College Summer Undergraduate Math and Science (SUMS) program is a five-week course for incoming college students. The SUMS program exposes students to a broad array of math and science disciplines by engaging them in a variety of inquiry-based activities designed to increase their knowledge of these disciplines, and more importantly, to approach these areas of study in a way that more accurately reflects how scientific research is done. Four participants from the Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Professional Development Program (PDP) designed and instructed Biology Week for the 2009 SUMS program. We designed an activity that allowed our students to use and develop problem-solving skills used by all scientists, in the context of learning about bacteria and antimicrobial compounds. Moreover, we sought to make biology accessible to our students, and to increase their sense of belonging in the scientific community. In this paper we describe details of our activity and provide a post-teaching reflection on its success.

Yuh, P.; Wheaton, M.; Wright, A.; Contreras, L.; McCann, S.

2010-12-01

356

Disability Support Services in Community Colleges. AACC Research Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the extent to which community colleges provide services and programs for students with disabilities, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) conducted a national survey in 1995 of public and private community, technical, and junior colleges in the United States, U.S. territories, and Canada. Fall 1995 headcounts for both…

Barnett, Lynn; Li, Yong

357

Research Leadership for the Community-Engaged University: Key Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Great Britain, attempts to broaden university-community engagement have taken significant steps in recent years. A wide variety of community-engagement structures and activities are now emerging. This paper uses one innovative example--University of Brighton's Community-University Partnership Program--to describe the opportunities and probe the…

Hart, Angie; Church, Andrew

2011-01-01

358

Issues in Community Research: Asian American Perspectives. Occasional Paper No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises a collection of workshop papers addressing the issues of doing research on the complex social and human problems faced in any community from an Asian American perspective. The following topics are discussed: (1) the nature of community research; (2) the pros and cons of pure basic and applied research; (3) the nature and…

Murata, Alice K., Ed.; Salvador-Burris, Juanita, Ed.

359

DNA on Loan: Issues to Consider when Carrying Out Genetic Research with Aboriginal Families and Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current research milieu where genetic etiology is considered a critical component in the discovery of pathogenesis, aboriginal families and communities affected with genetic conditions may be considered as research participants. However, because of concerns about the impact of genetic information and historical harmful research practices, some aboriginal communities have considerable unease when faced with this prospect. Therefore, in

Laura Arbour; Doris Cook

2006-01-01

360

Research Lasers and Air Traffic Safety: Issues, Concerns and Responsibilities of the Research Community  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subject of outdoor use of lasers relative to air traffic has become a diverse and dynamic topic. During the past several decades, the use of lasers in outdoor research activities have increased significantly. Increases in the outdoor use of lasers and increases in air traffic densities have changed the levels of risk involved. To date there have been no documented incidents of air traffic interference from research lasers; however, incidents involving display lasers have shown a marked increase. As a result of the national response to these incidents, new concerns over lasers have arisen. Through the efforts of the SAE G-10T Laser Safety Hazards Subcommittee and the ANSI Z136.6 development committee, potential detrimental effects to air traffic beyond the traditional eye damage concerns have been identified. An increased emphasis from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Center for Devices and Radiological Hazards (CDRH), and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) along with increased concern by the public have resulted in focused scrutiny of potential hazards presented by lasers. The research community needs to rethink the traditional methods of risk evaluation and application of protective measures. The best current approach to assure adequate protection of air traffic is the application of viable hazard and risk analysis and the use of validated protective measures. Standards making efforts and regulatory development must be supported by the research community to assure that reasonable measures are developed. Without input, standards and regulations can be developed that are not compatible with the needs of the research community. Finally, support is needed for the continued development and validation of protective measures.

Nessler, Phillip J., Jr.

1998-01-01

361

An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion  

PubMed Central

Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0%) and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%), community programs (61.4%) and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%). Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0%) and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%), community programs (33.8%) and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%). Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated. PMID:22233608

2012-01-01

362

Teacher and student actions to construct biology literacy at a community college: A bounded case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science content area literacy, particularly literacy development in college level biology, is the focus of this study. The study investigates the actions and activities of an instructor and six students over the course of 16 weeks. The study is in response to interest in the literate practices in science classes (NSES, 1996) and to the call for contextual studies that facilitate the learning of science (Borasi & Siegel, 1999; Moje, 1996; Nist & Holschuh, 1996; Prentiss, 1998). A collaborative study between the biology teacher and the researcher, this study investigates the practices believed to be effective for the development of biology literacy. Data sources, in the qualitative bounded case study (Bogdin & Biklin, 1982; Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Miles & Huberman, 1994), include: field notes of classroom observations, in-depth interviews (Seidman, 1992), class surveys, and literate artifacts. The data were coded and analyzed using a constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The six students reveal similarities and differences regarding the actions, patterns, practices and use of materials and their beliefs about effective practice in the development of biology literacy. The results indicate that a variety of actions and activities are needed to facilitate the development of biology literacy. The common themes to develop from the students' data about effective teacher actions are the following: (a) involves and engages students in inquiry learning through group projects, hands-on, and group discussions; (b) relates examples, experiences, and stories; (c) exhibits expertise; (d) encourages a relaxed classroom atmosphere; (e) facilitates and coaches students; and (f) credits creativity. Further, students report their teacher to be an expert, in terms of science knowledge and literate practices, and that her expertise contributes to their understanding of biology literacy. The teachers' data reveals three themes embedded in her classroom actions: science as a language, science as a social activity, and science as an experiential activity. The researcher's role in the study suggests that other researchers may benefit from a similar collaborative effort where the teacher and researcher learn from each other and from their students while supporting content literacy development. Content literacy practice from a constructivist paradigm (Anders & Guzzetti, 1996; Staver, 1998) has merit beyond high school and powerful implications for practice at the college level.

Griesel, Patricia

2000-10-01

363

Beyond the Medical Model: Interdisciplinary Programs of Community-Engaged Health Research  

PubMed Central

This report describes four diverse programs of community-engaged research, all of which demonstrated positive health outcomes. Three of the programs were focused on communities of people with diabetes, and one program targeted at-risk young families raising infants and young children. Brief descriptions of each research study and outcomes are presented as well as a discussion of the processes and lessons that were learned from each model of successful interdisciplinary community-university health research partnerships. PMID:21884518

Sadler, Lois S.; Newlin, Kelley H; Johnson-Spruill, Ida; Jenkins, Carolyn

2011-01-01

364

Through Microgravity and Towards the Stars: Microgravity and Strategic Research at Marshall's Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microgravity and Strategic research at Marshall s Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory will be reviewed. The environment in orbit provides a unique opportunity to study Materials Science and Biotechnology in the absence of sedimentation and convection. There are a number of peer-selected investigations that have been selected to fly on the Space Station that have been conceived and are led by Marshall s Biological and Physical Research Laboratory s scientists. In addition to Microgravity research the Station will enable research in "Strategic" Research Areas that focus on enabling humans to live, work, and explore the solar system safely. New research in Radiation Protection, Strategic Molecular Biology, and In-Space Fabrication will be introduced.

Curreri, Peter A.

2003-01-01

365

MTL ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT 2014 Biological & Medical 121 Biological, Medical Devices  

E-print Network

.................................................................................................................................123 A Portable Bioimpedance Spectroscopy Measurement System for Managing Congestive Heart Failure ....................................................................................................................125 An Electronically Steered, Wearable Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound System Biological & Medical 123 Vital signs such as heart rate, blood pressure, blood ox- ygenation, cardiac output

Reif, Rafael

366

Pharmacogenetic research in partnership with American Indian and Alaska Native communities.  

PubMed

Pharmacogenetics is a subset of personalized medicine that applies knowledge about genetic variation in gene-drug pairs to help guide optimal dosing. There is a lack of data, however, about pharmacogenetic variation in underserved populations. One strategy for increasing participation of underserved populations in pharmacogenetic research is to include communities in the research process. We have established academic-community partnerships with American Indian and Alaska Native people living in Alaska and Montana to study pharmacogenetics. Key features of the partnership include community oversight of the project, research objectives that address community health priorities, and bidirectional learning that builds capacity in both the community and the research team. Engaging the community as coresearchers can help build trust to advance pharmacogenetic research objectives. PMID:25141898

Woodahl, Erica L; Lesko, Lawrence J; Hopkins, Scarlett; Robinson, Renee F; Thummel, Kenneth E; Burke, Wylie

2014-06-01

367

The contested terrain of environmental justice research: community as unit of analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social scientists have entered the debate over the environmental inequities facing the poor in general, and communities of color in particular. Crucial to their empirical studies is the operational definition of “community” as a unit of analysis. Different operationalizations of community exist, leading to divergent conclusions about the extent of the problem. Earlier research concluded that inequities were national in

Robert W Williams

1999-01-01

368

Building Virtual Community in a K-6 School: An Action Research Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual communities (VCs) potentially increase community interaction, social support, civic engagement, and social capital. Concurrently, education research suggests that one important factor in improving student achievement is community and parent involvement. Would building a VC in a K-6 school to support information exchange facilitate parents’ involvement in school activities? How can a K-6 public school with limited resources build a

Alicia Iriberri

2005-01-01

369

Community Geography as a Model for International Research Experiences in Study Abroad Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative engagement with local residents and organizations is often cited as one of the most valuable aspects of community-based research integration in classroom settings. However, little has been written on the impact of community engagement in international study abroad programs. We explore the use of community geography in Belize to…

Hawthorne, Timothy L.; Atchison, Christopher; LangBruttig, Artis

2014-01-01

370

Extending the Concept and Practice of Classroom Based Research to California Community Colleges. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With support from the California Community College Fund for Instructional Improvement, 14 classroom-based research studies were conducted in fall 1991 at American River College (ARC), Consumnes River College (CRC), Sacramento City College (SCC), San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC), Solano Community College (SoCC), and Yuba Community College (YCC).…

Sacramento City Coll., CA. Learning Resources Div.

371

Work Characteristics and Pesticide Exposures among Migrant Agricultural Families: A Community-Based Research Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farm- worker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in

Linda A. McCauley; Michael R. Lasarev; Gregory Higgins; Joan Rothlein; Juan Muniz; Caren Ebbert; Jacki Phillips

2001-01-01

372

An Interactive and Contextual Model of Community-University Collaborations for Research and Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community-university partnerships for research and action are at the heart of many fields in the social sciences including public health, urban planning, education, and community psychology. These partnerships involve individuals from different backgrounds and disciplines working together to address social issues of importance to the community.…

Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Harper, Gary W.; Lewis, Rhonda

2005-01-01

373

[Small compounds libraries: a research tool for chemical biology].  

PubMed

Obtaining and screening collections of small molecules remain a challenge for biologists. Recent advances in analytical techniques and instrumentation now make screening possible in academia. The history of the creation of such public or commercial collections and their accessibility is related. It shows that there is interest for an academic laboratory involved in medicinal chemistry, chemogenomics or "chemical biology" to organize its own collection and make it available through existing networks such as the French National chimiothèque or the European partner network "European Infrastructure of open screening platforms for Chemical Biology" EU-OpenScreen under construction. PMID:23694724

Florent, Jean-Claude

2013-01-01

374

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological and Physical Research Enterprise Strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the 21st century begins, NASA's new Vision and Mission focuses the Agency's Enterprises toward exploration and discovery.The Biological and Physical Research Enterprise has a unique and enabling role in support of the Agency's Vision and Mission. Our strategic research seeks innovations and solutions to enable the extension of life into deep space safely and productively. Our fundamental research, as well as our research partnerships with industry and other agencies, allow new knowledge and tech- nologies to bring improvements to life on Earth. Our interdisciplinary research in the unique laboratory of microgravity addresses opportunities and challenges on our home planet as well as in space environments. The Enterprise maintains a key role in encouraging and engaging the next generation of explorers from primary school through the grad- uate level via our direct student participation in space research.The Biological and Physical Research Enterprise encompasses three themes. The biological sciences research theme investigates ways to support a safe human presence in space. This theme addresses the definition and control of physiological and psychological risks from the space environment, including radiation,reduced gravity, and isolation. The biological sciences research theme is also responsible for the develop- ment of human support systems technology as well as fundamental biological research spanning topics from genomics to ecologies. The physical sciences research theme supports research that takes advantage of the space environment to expand our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature. This theme also supports applied physical sciences research to improve safety and performance of humans in space. The research partnerships and flight support theme establishes policies and allocates space resources to encourage and develop entrepreneurial partners access to space research.Working together across research disciplines, the Biological and Physical Research Enterprise is performing vital research and technology development to extend the reach of human space flight.

2003-01-01

375

The Community and Phylogenetic Diversity of Biological Soil Crusts in the Colorado Plateau Studied by Molecular Fingerprinting and Intensive Cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the bacterial communities in biological soil crusts (BSCs) from the Colorado Plateau by enrichment and cultivation, and by statistically analyzed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of environmental 16S rRNA genes, and phylogenetic analyses. Three 500-m-long transects, tens of km apart, consisting of 10 equally spaced samples each, were analyzed. BSC communities consistently displayed less richness (10–32 detectable

Sathyanarayana Reddy Gundlapally; Ferran Garcia-Pichel

2006-01-01

376

Community-Based Participatory Research Contributions to Intervention Research: The Intersection of Science and Practice to Improve Health Equity  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the last decades as a transformative research paradigm that bridges the gap between science and practice through community engagement and social action to increase health equity. CBPR expands the potential for the translational sciences to develop, implement, and disseminate effective interventions across diverse communities through strategies to redress power imbalances; facilitate mutual benefit among community and academic partners; and promote reciprocal knowledge translation, incorporating community theories into the research. We identify the barriers and challenges within the intervention and implementation sciences, discuss how CBPR can address these challenges, provide an illustrative research example, and discuss next steps to advance the translational science of CBPR. PMID:20147663

Duran, Bonnie

2010-01-01

377

Edge effects in the primate community of the biological dynamics of forest fragments project, Amazonas, Brazil.  

PubMed

While much is known about abiotic and vegetative edge effects in tropical forests, considerably less is known about the impact of forest edges on large mammals. In this study, we examine edge effects in a primate community to determine: 1) the distance from the edge over which edge effects in primate density are detectable, 2) whether individual species exhibit edge effects in their density, and 3) whether biological characteristics can be used to predict primate presence in edge habitats. Given their importance to many primate species, we also examine the influence of the number of large trees. We found edge penetration distances of 150 m for the five species that experienced edge effects, suggesting that primates respond to edge-related changes in the plant community that are known to be strongest over the first 150 m. Four species had higher edge densities: Alouatta macconnelli (folivore-frugivore), Chiropotes chiropotes (frugivorous seed predator), Saguinus midas (frugivore-faunivore), and Sapajus apella apella (frugivore-faunivore); one species' density was lower: Ateles paniscus (frugivore); and the final species, Pithecia chrysocephala (frugivorous seed predator), did not show an edge-related pattern. The lone significant relationship between the biological characteristics examined (body weight, diet, group size, and home range size) and primate presence in edge habitats was a negative relationship with the amount of fruit consumed. Though we did not examine primate responses to edges that border a denuded matrix, we have shown that edges influence primate distribution even following decades of secondary forest regeneration at habitat edges. Am J Phys Anthropol 155:436-446, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25130367

Lenz, Bryan B; Jack, Katharine M; Spironello, Wilson R

2014-11-01

378

COMMUNITY-RESEARCH COLLABORATION BETWEEN RESEARCHERS AND ACUPUNCTURISTS :I NTEGRATING A PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH APPROACH IN A STATEWIDE SURVEY OF LICENSED ACUPUNCTURISTS IN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Licensed Acupuncture Collaborative Study, a job analysis of licensed acupuncturists in California, provides a model for building community-research partnerships between university researchers and communities of non-physician clinicians. The study design used a project-management approach based on the core principles of community-based participatory research: 1) mobilizing shared expertise and resources to address issues of concern; 2) sharing power in the

Tony Kuo; Rebekah Christensen; Lillian Gelberg; Lisa Rubenstein; Adam Burke

2006-01-01

379

Introduction! Researchers working at the intersection of biology and architecture  

E-print Network

-known detrimental effects on the growth and viability of bacteria, but this relationship has not yet been applied of cells in an inert medium. 7) Mix known numbers of cells of each culture to create mock community. 8, under overcast sky conditions. 12) Maintain thermal gain within an operative temperature range of 65

Oregon, University of

380

Chemical and Biological Warfare (I): The Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological warfare is the intentional use of living organisms or their toxic products to cause death, disability, or damage in man, animals, or plants. The target is man, either by causing his sickness or death, or through limitation of his food supplies or other agricultural resources. Man must wage a continuous fight to maintain and defend himself, his animals, and

Elinor Langer

1967-01-01

381

How the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope entered Biological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A history of the early development of the confocal laser scanning microscope in the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge is presented. The rapid uptake of this technology is explained by the wide use of fluorescence in the 80s. The key innovations were the scanning of the light beam over the specimen rather than vice-versa and a high magnification

W. B. Amos; J. G. White

2003-01-01

382

Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 25 river kilometers long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek have been increasing in recent years. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the water quality and biological communities in Fish Creek. Water-quality samples were collected for analyses of physical properties and water chemistry (nutrients, nitrate isotopes, and wastewater chemicals) between March 2007 and October 2008 from seven surface-water sites and three groundwater wells. During this same period, aquatic plant and macroinvertebrate samples were collected and habitat characteristics were measured at the surface-water sites. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate nutrient concentrations (that influence biological indicators of eutrophication) and potential sources of nutrients by using stable isotope analysis and other indicator chemicals (such as caffeine and disinfectants) that could provide evidence of anthropogenic sources, such as wastewater or septic tank contamination in Fish Creek and adjacent groundwater, and (2) characterize the algal, macrophyte, and macroinvertebrate communities and habitat of Fish Creek. Nitrate was the dominant species of dissolved nitrogen present in all samples and was the only bioavailable species detected at concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level in all surface-water samples. Average concentrations of dissolved nitrate in surface water were largest in samples collected from the two sites with seasonal flow near Teton Village and decreased downstream; the smallest concentration was at downstream site A-Wck. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate in groundwater were consistently greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event. Orthophosphate was the primary dissolved species of phosphorus present in all surface-water and groundwater samples. The average concentration of dissolved orthophosphate in surface water was largest in samples collected from near Teton Village; samples from all other sites had similar average concentrations. Concentrations of dissolved orthophosphate in groundwater also were typically greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event. The aquatic plant communities in Fish Creek typically were composed of a mixture of macrophytes, macroalgae, microalgae, and moss. The composition of the aquatic plant community in Fish Creek appeared to shift in the downstream direction in 2007. On average, the proportion of macrophytes ranged from about 1 percent at site A-R1U, the most upstream site, to 54 percent of the plant community at site A-R6D, the farthest downstream site sampled during 2007. The downstream increase in macrophytes was accompanied by a downstream decrease in microalgae. The average proportion of microalgae ranged from 80 percent at site A-R1U to 24 percent at site A-R6D. The proportion of the macroalgae Cladophora in the aquatic plant community was relatively high at sites A-Wck and A-R3D in both 2007 and 2008.

Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

383

Effects of a spill of bunker oil on the marine biological communities in Hong Kong  

SciTech Connect

The effects of a recent bunker oil spill on the marine environment were assessed through investigation of the rocky shore fauna, phytoplankton population and macrobenthic communities over a study period of 150 days. In addition, toxicity experiments were carried out in the laboratory to ascertain the toxic effects of the oil-plus-dispersant on selected test organisms. The impacts of the spill on the marine fauna were minimal with no visible reduction in species and individual numbers. Possible reasons were the small amount of oil spilled, the rapid containment and dispersion in the clean-up operations, and the less toxic effects of the heavy bunker oil. On Hong Kong shores, the limpets can be identified as indicator species to oil pollution. A quick survey of the limpet fauna on the rocky shores immediately after a spill provides an initial assessment of the impacts on the shoreline. However, faunal recovery over a long-term period may be difficult to assess in view of the lack of baseline data on most of the marine biological communities in Hong Kong waters.

Shin, P.K. (Empire Centre, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

1988-01-01

384

Strategies for setting a national research agenda that is responsive to community needs.  

PubMed Central

Setting a national environmental health research agenda requires broad public input, including that from leading scientists, health care professionals, and communities. Contributions from these diverse constituencies are essential to formulating a research and education strategy that both advances our understanding of the causes and mechanisms of environmentally related diseases and translates such findings into effective prevention and clinical applications to protect those most affected by adverse environmental exposures. Given the increasing number of individual researchers working with communities to address environmental health needs during the past decade, it is also essential for research institutions to foster relationships with communities to understand and respond to their unique public health needs, as well as to communicate research advances in a manner that is both understandable and culturally appropriate. To achieve broad public input and to foster community-university partnerships, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) supports various workshops, roundtables, and advisory groups. In particular, the NIEHS finds Town Meetings to be a successful model for bringing academic researchers together with community residents, state and local departments of health, and community-based organizations to foster greater awareness of community needs, public health needs, and environmental health science research. Since 1998, the NIEHS has supported 16 Town Meetings across the country. In this article we highlight the major outcomes of these meetings to demonstrate the effectiveness of this mechanism for enhancing cooperation among researchers, community residents, and public health officials with the goal of improving public health and setting a national research agenda. PMID:14644657

O'Fallon, Liam R; Wolfle, Geraldine M; Brown, David; Dearry, Allen; Olden, Kenneth

2003-01-01

385

78 FR 63170 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science...Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463...Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852....

2013-10-23

386

A metagenome of a full-scale microbial community carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal  

PubMed Central

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used for removal of phosphorus from wastewater. In this study, a metagenome (18.2?Gb) was generated using Illumina sequencing from a full-scale EBPR plant to study the community structure and genetic potential. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was applied as an independent method to evaluate the community structure. The results were in qualitative agreement, but a DNA extraction bias against gram positive bacteria using standard extraction protocols was identified, which would not have been identified without the use of qFISH. The genetic potential for community function showed enrichment of genes involved in phosphate metabolism and biofilm formation, reflecting the selective pressure of the EBPR process. Most contigs in the assembled metagenome had low similarity to genes from currently sequenced genomes, underlining the need for more reference genomes of key EBPR species. Only the genome of ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter', a genus of phosphorus-removing organisms, was closely enough related to the species present in the metagenome to allow for detailed investigations. Accumulibacter accounted for only 4.8% of all bacteria by qFISH, but the depth of sequencing enabled detailed insight into their microdiversity in the full-scale plant. Only 15% of the reads matching Accumulibacter had a high similarity (>95%) to the sequenced Accumulibacter clade IIA strain UW-1 genome, indicating the presence of some microdiversity. The differences in gene complement between the Accumulibacter clades were limited to genes for extracellular polymeric substances and phage-related genes, suggesting a selective pressure from phages on the Accumulibacter diversity. PMID:22170425

Albertsen, Mads; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer; Nielsen, Kare Lehmann

2012-01-01

387

Biological soil crusts across disturbance-recovery scenarios: effect of grazing regime on community dynamics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grazing represents one of the most common disturbances in drylands worldwide, affecting both ecosystem structure and functioning. Despite the efforts to understand the nature and magnitude of grazing effects on ecosystem components and processes, contrasting results continue to arise. This is particularly remarkable for the biological soil crust (BSC) communities (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichens, and bryophytes), which play an important role in soil dynamics. Here we evaluated simultaneously the effect of grazing impact on BSC communities (resistance) and recovery after livestock exclusion (resilience) in a semiarid grassland of Central Mexico. In particular, we examined BSC species distribution, species richness, taxonomical group cover (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichen, bryophyte), and composition along a disturbance gradient with different grazing regimes (low, medium, high impact) and along a recovery gradient with differently aged livestock exclosures (short-, medium-, long-term exclusion). Differences in grazing impact and time of recovery from grazing both resulted in slight changes in species richness; however, there were pronounced shifts in species composition and group cover. We found we could distinguish four highly diverse and dynamic BSC species groups: (1) species with high resistance and resilience to grazing, (2) species with high resistance but low resilience, (3) species with low resistance but high resilience, and (4) species with low resistance and resilience. While disturbance resulted in a novel diversity configuration, which may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning, we observed that 10 years of disturbance removal did not lead to the ecosystem structure found after 27 years of recovery. These findings are an important contribution to our understanding of BCS dynamics from a species and community perspective placed in a land use change context.

Concostrina-Zubiri, L.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Martínez, I.; Flores Flores, J. L.; Reyes-Agüero, J. A.; Escudero, A.; Belnap, Jayne

2014-01-01

388

Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository: an open shared public resource of structural genomics plasmids for the biological community  

PubMed Central

The Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository (PSI-MR; http://psimr.asu.edu) provides centralized storage and distribution for the protein expression plasmids created by PSI researchers. These plasmids are a resource that allows the research community to dissect the biological function of proteins whose structures have been identified by the PSI. The plasmid annotation, which includes the full length sequence, vector information and associated publications, is stored in a freely available, searchable database called DNASU (http://dnasu.asu.edu). Each PSI plasmid is also linked to a variety of additional resources, which facilitates cross-referencing of a particular plasmid to protein annotations and experimental data. Plasmid samples can be requested directly through the website. We have also developed a novel strategy to avoid the most common concern encountered when distributing plasmids namely, the complexity of material transfer agreement (MTA) processing and the resulting delays this causes. The Expedited Process MTA, in which we created a network of institutions that agree to the terms of transfer in advance of a material request, eliminates these delays. Our hope is that by creating a repository of expression-ready plasmids and expediting the process for receiving these plasmids, we will help accelerate the accessibility and pace of scientific discovery. PMID:19906724

Cormier, Catherine Y.; Mohr, Stephanie E.; Zuo, Dongmei; Hu, Yanhui; Rolfs, Andreas; Kramer, Jason; Taycher, Elena; Kelley, Fontina; Fiacco, Michael; Turnbull, Greggory; LaBaer, Joshua

2010-01-01

389

Faculty Beliefs, Perceptions, and Level of Community Involvement in Their Research: A Survey at One Urban Academic Institution  

PubMed Central

Health researchers are increasingly interested in how best to engage communities in their health-related research studies. To help determine how researchers have interacted with community members in their research, we conducted a survey of full-time faculty from the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions regarding researchers’ beliefs and experiences with community-based research. Approximately 41% of respondents who conducted human subject studies had enrolled local residents in their research. Researchers whose studies were based in the surrounding community were significantly more likely to involve community members in all stages of their research (e.g., selection of the problem, project planning, data collection, interpretation and dissemination of results, or developing an intervention) than were faculty whose studies enrolled community members as research participants but whose studies were not set in the community. Over 90% of all faculty respondents agree that community involvement improves the relevance of their research, although almost 60% had not done so. Most faculty value community involvement, but they want more institutional support for such activities and they seek better skills to involve community. Few studies have surveyed researchers who enroll community members as research participants to document practices regarding community involvement in the research process. Given that the majority (73.6%) of faculty responded that they intend to include local residents in their upcoming studies, future research to evaluate interventions designed to facilitate community involvement, especially in the inner city, would help stakeholders identify best practices for involving and engaging communities in health research. PMID:21133788

Goldberg-Freeman, Clara; Kass, Nancy; Gielen, Andrea; Tracey, Patricia; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Farfel, Mark

2011-01-01

390

Using Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) To Target Health Disparities in Families  

PubMed Central

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an action research approach that emphasizes collaborative partnerships between community members, community organizations, health care providers, and researchers to generate knowledge and solve local problems. Although relatively new to the field of family social science, family and health researchers have been using CBPR for over a decade. This paper will introduce CBPR methods, illustrate the usefulness of CBPR methods in families and health research, describe two CBPR projects related to diabetes, and conclude with lessons learned and strengths and weaknesses of CBPR. PMID:20625444

Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Doherty, William J.

2010-01-01

391

Becoming Agents of Change through Participation in a Teacher-Driven Professional Research Community  

E-print Network

Becoming Agents of Change through Participation in a Teacher-Driven Professional Research Community identities and practices as education reform advocates and agents of educational change. Introduction ineffective at instigating meaningful change. Though researchers have theorized about innovative PD

Colorado at Boulder, University of

392

Working with Concepts: The Role of Community in International Collaborative Biomedical Research  

PubMed Central

The importance of communities in strengthening the ethics of international collaborative research is increasingly highlighted, but there has been much debate about the meaning of the term ‘community’ and its specific normative contribution. We argue that ‘community’ is a contingent concept that plays an important normative role in research through the existence of morally significant interplay between notions of community and individuality. We draw on experience of community engagement in rural Kenya to illustrate two aspects of this interplay: (i) that taking individual informed consent seriously involves understanding and addressing the influence of communities in which individuals’ lives are embedded; (ii) that individual participation can generate risks and benefits for communities as part of the wider implications of research. We further argue that the contingent nature of a community means that defining boundaries is generally a normative process itself, with ethical implications. Community engagement supports the enactment of normative roles; building mutual understanding and trust between researchers and community members have been important goals in Kilifi, requiring a broad range of approaches. Ethical dilemmas are continuously generated as part of these engagement activities, including the risks of perverse outcomes related to existing social relations in communities and conditions of ‘half knowing’ intrinsic to processes of developing new understandings. PMID:21416064

Marsh, V. M.; Kamuya, D. K.; Parker, M. J.; Molyneux, C. S.

2011-01-01

393

Building partnerships in community-based participatory research: budgetary and other cost considerations.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077

Hoeft, Theresa J; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B; James, Rosalina D; Boyer, Bert B

2014-03-01

394

Research review: spillover effects of foreclosures on communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A house is not just a physical shelter, but also a stitch in the fabric of society, integrating its residents into the life of the larger community. That is why foreclosures may hurt neighborhoods as much as they hurt those who lose their homes. Foreclosures may negatively impact a community when they depress the values of nearby properties, reduce the

Kai-yan Lee

2008-01-01

395

Martorana's Legacy: Research on State Systems of Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a few of the more important national characteristics of community colleges and state community college systems, the latter in three "snapshots" taken at different times in the 20th century. This paper is divided into the following topics of discussion: state coordination and governance structures, mission evolution, and state…

Tollefson, Terrence A.

396

COMMUNITY COLLEGE RESEARCH CENTER | NOVEMBER 2013 Lingerers in the  

E-print Network

. Many community college students fail to graduate. Even among those stu- dents who enroll, yet they do not earn an award. This result is costly both for the students and the colleges in community college? How do their course-taking behaviors differ from those of students who complete an award

Qian, Ning

397

Determining What We Stand for Will Guide What We Do: Community Priorities, Ethical Research Paradigms, and Research With Vulnerable Populations  

PubMed Central

Prisoners, ex-offenders, and the communities they belong to constitute a distinct and highly vulnerable population, and research must be sensitive to their priorities. In light of recent suggestions that scientific experimentation involving prisoners be reconsidered, community-based participatory research can be a valuable tool for determining the immediate concerns of prisoners, such as the receipt of high-quality and dignified health care inside and outside prisons. In building research agendas, more must be done to ensure the participation of communities affected by the resulting policies. PMID:19141599

Treadwell, Henrie M.

2009-01-01

398

Notes From the Field: Service Learning and the Development of Multidisciplinary Community-Based Research Initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent literature suggests that community-based research (CbR) is a model of service learning that can advance student learning, as well as support the research interests of community organizations. For the pedagogy to be successful, however, faculty must overcome a number of challenges. This article discusses these challenges and illustrates how multidisciplinary, multiyear CbR initiatives are important vehicles for furthering university–community

Howard Rosing; Nila Ginger Hofman

2010-01-01

399

Network perspective of science and technology policy research community in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a way of mapping Sci-Tech policy research community by quantitatively analyzing Sci-Tech policy research projects funded by Taiwan government in recent thirty years. Taiwans Sci-Tech policy rsearch networks composed by research community and knowledge distribution are quantitatively investigated by the use of network theory and Taiwans Sci-Tech policy research map is created to obtain the purpose of

Hsin-Ning Su; Pei-Chun Lee

2010-01-01

400

An Engineering Approach to Management of Occupational and Community Noise Exposure at NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workplace and environmental noise issues at NASA Lewis Research Center are effectively managed via a three-part program that addresses hearing conservation, community noise control, and noise control engineering. The Lewis Research Center Noise Exposure Management Program seeks to limit employee noise exposure and maintain community acceptance for critical research while actively pursuing engineered controls for noise generated by more than 100 separate research facilities and the associated services required for their operation.

Cooper, Beth A.

1997-01-01

401

Perspectives on Biological Research for CO 2 Ocean Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feasibility studies recently suggest that sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in the deep ocean could help reduce the atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, implementation of this strategy could have a significant environmental impact on marine organisms.\\u000a This has highlighted the urgent need of further studies concerning the biological impact of CO2 ocean sequestration. In this paper we summarize the recent literature reporting

Jun Kita; Takashi Ohsumi

2004-01-01

402

Status of research on Yangtze fish biology and fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yangtze is the largest river in China and the third largest river in the world. Being pregnant with plentiful fish resources,\\u000a it is not only the representative of the areas with biological diversity, but also a cradle of freshwater fisheries in China.\\u000a In the Yangtze, at present, the fishery resources are seriously depleted; the fishery yield by fishing is

Daqing Chen; Fei Xiong; Ke Wang; Yonghua Chang

2009-01-01

403

Community College Journal for Research and Planning; Volume 4, Numbers 1-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a forum for the exchange of information among members of the National Council for Research and Planning, these two journal issues offer 10 articles concerning community college research and planning. The first issue presents: (1) "Just Testing," by Arthur M. Cohen; (2) "Enrollment Patterns of Adult Learning in a Community College," by…

Carter, Edith H., Ed.

1985-01-01

404

Institutionalizing Community-Based Learning and Research: The Case for External Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conversations continue as to whether and how community-based learning and research (CBLR) can be most effectively integrated into the mission and practice of institutions of higher education (IHEs). In 2005, eight District of Columbia- (DC-) area universities affiliated with the Community Research and Learning (CoRAL) Network engaged in a planning…

Shrader, Elizabeth; Saunders, Mary Anne; Marullo, Sam; Benatti, Sylvia; Weigert, Kathleen Maas

2008-01-01

405

Creative Art Therapy in a Community's Participatory Research and Social Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

When people come together in community to practice critical inquiry, they develop a capacity to see, reflect, and become subjects of their own development. This article describes arts-based participatory action research in partnership with a nongovernmental organization in Central America. Creative art therapy was culturally adapted and practiced on the macro level to facilitate a community's art-based research, achieving outcomes

Lynn Kapitan; Mary Litell; Anabel Torres

2011-01-01

406

Rockbridge Poverty Assessment 2008 A Community-Based Research Project supported by  

E-print Network

Rockbridge Poverty Assessment 2008 A Community-Based Research Project supported by the Shepherd;Rockbridge Poverty Assessment 2008 2 A Community-Based Research Study supported by the Shepherd Program at Washington and Lee University THE SHEPHERD PROGRAM FOR THE INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF POVERTY AND HUMAN

Marsh, David

407

Addressing Perinatal Disparities Using Community-Based Participatory Research: Data into Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers that are focused on developing…

Masho, Saba; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara; Singleton, Rose; Bradford, Judith; Chapman, Derek; Svikis, Dace

2011-01-01

408

Culture and Community in Research with American Indian and Alaska Native Infants, Toddlers, and Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this brief essay the authors reflect on the value of community participation and cultural adaptation in their evolving research on American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) infant and toddler development. They describe three concerns identified by their AI/AN community partners in adapting established research methodologies to work in AI/AN…

Spicer, Paul; Sarche, Michelle

2007-01-01

409

Unraveling Ethics: Reflections from a Community-Based Participatory Research Project with Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is limited literature describing the ethical dilemmas that arise when conducting community-based participatory research. The following provides a case example of ethical dilemmas that developed during a multi-method community-based participatory action research project with youth in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Several ethical dilemmas emerged…

Walsh, Christine A.; Hewson, Jennifer; Shier, Michael; Morales, Edwin

2008-01-01

410

Community College Journal for Research and Planning, Volume VII, Numbers 1 and 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing a forum for the exchange of information among members of the National Council for Research and Planning, this refereed journal offers articles on various aspects of community college research, management, and planning. The two issues of volume 7 contain the following articles: (1) "Case Studies of Community College High Risk Students:…

Carter, Edith H., Ed.

1990-01-01

411

2012 CELLULAR & MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 17 - 22, 2012  

SciTech Connect

The Gordon Research Conference on CELLULAR & MOLECULAR FUNGAL BIOLOGY was held at Holderness School, Holderness New Hampshire, June 17 - 22, 2012. The 2012 Gordon Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (CMFB) will present the latest, cutting-edge research on the exciting and growing field of molecular and cellular aspects of fungal biology. Topics will range from yeast to filamentous fungi, from model systems to economically important organisms, and from saprophytes and commensals to pathogens of plants and animals. The CMFB conference will feature a wide range of topics including systems biology, cell biology and morphogenesis, organismal interactions, genome organisation and regulation, pathogenesis, energy metabolism, biomass production and population genomics. The Conference was well-attended with 136 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

Judith Berman

2012-06-22

412

Building Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships with a Somali Refugee Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The process of establishing a partnership with a Somali community is described wherein the challenges, successes, and lessons learned in the process of conducting CBPR are examined. Challenges obtaining informed consent, language barriers, and reliance on FGC self-report were surmounted through mobilization of community social networks, trust-building, and the use of a video-elicitation device. The community partnership collaborated around

Crista E. Johnson; Sagal A. Ali; Michèle P.-L. Shipp

2009-01-01

413

Beyond Locality: The Creation of Public Practice-Based Knowledge through Practitioner Research in Professional Learning Communities and Communities of Practice. A Review of Three Books on Practitioner Research and Professional Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In both the fields of educational practice and educational research the professional development of teachers was, is and is promising to remain an urgent and relevant topic. Practitioner research performed by teachers in professional learning communities and communities of practice is promising to serve their professional development. In addition,…

Enthoven, M.; de Bruijn, E.

2010-01-01

414

Research to reality: moving evidence into practice through an online community of practice.  

PubMed

How can a community of practice help further the practical application of cancer control research? In 2011, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) launched an online community of practice, Research to Reality (R2R). R2R aims to infuse evidence-based strategies into communities by engaging researchers and practitioners in a joint approach to research dissemination. To measure community growth and engagement, NCI measures data across 3 program domains: content, interaction, and activity. NCI uses Web analytics, usability testing, and content analyses to manage and evaluate R2R. As of December 2013, R2R had more than 1,700 registered members. More than 500 researchers and practitioners register for the monthly cyber-seminars, and 40% return each month. R2R hosts more than 15,500 page views and 5,000 site visits in an average month. This article describes the process of convening this online community and quantifies our experiences to date. PMID:24809364

Farrell, Margaret M; La Porta, Madeline; Gallagher, Alissa; Vinson, Cynthia; Bernal, Sarah Bruce

2014-01-01

415

The Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center: development, implementation, and evaluation.  

PubMed

There is increasing research evidence that stressors in the social and physical environment (e.g., poverty, inadequate housing, air pollution, and racism) are associated with poor health outcomes. Given the complex set of determinants of health status, the disproportionate burden of disease experienced within marginalized communities, and the limited effectiveness of traditional prevention research, particularly within communities of color, there have been growing calls for more comprehensive and participatory approaches to public health research and practice. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the process of establishing, implementing, and evaluating the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center (URC), a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership involving community-based organizations, a local health department, academia, and an integrated health care system. Lessons learned and recommendations for creating effective CBPR partnerships are presented. PMID:11680026

Israel, B A; Lichtenstein, R; Lantz, P; McGranaghan, R; Allen, A; Guzman, J R; Softley, D; Maciak, B

2001-09-01

416

Research to Reality: Moving Evidence Into Practice Through an Online Community of Practice  

PubMed Central

How can a community of practice help further the practical application of cancer control research? In 2011, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) launched an online community of practice, Research to Reality (R2R). R2R aims to infuse evidence-based strategies into communities by engaging researchers and practitioners in a joint approach to research dissemination. To measure community growth and engagement, NCI measures data across 3 program domains: content, interaction, and activity. NCI uses Web analytics, usability testing, and content analyses to manage and evaluate R2R. As of December 2013, R2R had more than 1,700 registered members. More than 500 researchers and practitioners register for the monthly cyber-seminars, and 40% return each month. R2R hosts more than 15,500 page views and 5,000 site visits in an average month. This article describes the process of convening this online community and quantifies our experiences to date. PMID:24809364

La Porta, Madeline; Gallagher, Alissa; Vinson, Cynthia; Bernal, Sarah Bruce

2014-01-01

417

Community-based participatory research as a tool to advance environmental health sciences.  

PubMed Central

The past two decades have witnessed a rapid proliferation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects. CBPR methodology presents an alternative to traditional population-based biomedical research practices by encouraging active and equal partnerships between community members and academic investigators. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the premier biomedical research facility for environmental health, is a leader in promoting the use of CBPR in instances where community-university partnerships serve to advance our understanding of environmentally related disease. In this article, the authors highlight six key principles of CBPR and describe how these principles are met within specific NIEHS-supported research investigations. These projects demonstrate that community-based participatory research can be an effective tool to enhance our knowledge of the causes and mechanisms of disorders having an environmental etiology, reduce adverse health outcomes through innovative intervention strategies and policy change, and address the environmental health concerns of community residents. PMID:11929724

O'Fallon, Liam R; Dearry, Allen

2002-01-01

418

Working with Viral Vectors Introduction: Viruses and viral vectors have become a staple of the molecular biology community.  

E-print Network

of the molecular biology community. As such, it is important for users to understand the origins of these tools into the circulation, products that may have a general effect on the host- immune system (see Viral Vector chart antibody protection (present at birth) disappears. Many children become infected with EBV

Kay, Mark A.

419

Secondary successional patterns in a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) community as they relate to soil disturbance and soil biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between secondary succession, soil disturbance, and soil biological activity were studied on a sagebrush community (Artemisia tridentata) in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado, U.S.A. Four levels of disturbance were imposed. I: the vegetation was mechanically removed and as much topsoil as possible was left; 2: the vegetation was mechanically removed and the topsoil scarified to a depth

Mario E. Biondini; Charles D. Bonham; Edward F. Redente

1985-01-01

420

The Effects of Restructuring Biology Teaching by a Constructivist Teaching Approach: An Action Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on the improvement of a teacher researcher's teaching practice by adopting a constructivist teaching approach. Four biology units on the nervous system, human circulatory system, evolution, and vertebrate classification were selected to illustrate a model of biology teaching. Data were drawn from student responses to…

Lin, Wan-Ju

421

Systems Biology of Innate Immunity: From basic research to novel therapies  

E-print Network

Systems Biology of Innate Immunity: From basic research to novel therapies THURSDAY, OCTOBER 11, 2012 11:00 am-12:00 pm LYMAN DUFF AMPHITHEATRE, Duff Medical Bldg, 3775 University St., Montreal infections, the systems biology of innate immunity and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and antibiotic uptake

Volesky, Bohumil

422

World Malaria Day at UC Davis: Current research in vector biology and genetics at UC Davis  

E-print Network

World Malaria Day at UC Davis: Current research in vector biology and genetics at UC Davis When School at UC Davis: Google Maps UCD Vet School Purpose: Malaria remains one of the most deadly vector research available. In honor of the Roll Back Malaria Program, promoting the education and research

Ferrara, Katherine W.

423

BIOL 30200 RESEARCH IN BIOLOGY Fall 2007 Projects Ren Borgella (section 17)  

E-print Network

BIOL 30200 RESEARCH IN BIOLOGY Fall 2007 Projects René Borgella (section 17) Alternative Landscaping Project Research on ecological / environmental issues regarding alternatives to traditional turf, as well as cost-effectiveness of land management practices Field Research on Ithaca College's Natural

424

The 1984 Research Report to the Texas Association of Junior and Community College Instructional Administrators. Junior and Community College Research: Texas, 1983-84.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports and abstracts of research studies conducted by members of the Research Committee of the Texas Association of Junior and Community College Instructional Administrators are provided. Section I presents the following reports: "A Learner Analysis Experiment: Cognitive Style versus Learning Style in Undergraduate Nursing Education," by Charles…

Texas Association of Junior and Community Coll. Instructional Administrators.

425

Chemical and Biological Warfare Should Defenses Be Researched and Deployed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

and and Toxin Weapons Convention of 1972, which is now in jeopardy. This article ~~n~~~~ ~~~t~~t~~~x~~~ti ~~~~~ discusses the history of chemical and biological warfare, existing and potential Germany.l weapons, the proliferation of weapons and delivery systems, ways to prevent the use of these weapons, and ways to protect populations from their effects. EXISTING AND POTENTIAL (~AM~.1989;262:644-648) WEAPONS

Jane M Orient

426

Progress in nucleic acid research and molecular biology  

SciTech Connect

Complementary Use of Chemical Modification and Site-Directed Mutagenesis to Probe Structure-Activity Relationships in Enzymes. Mechanisms of the Antiviral Action of Inteferons. Modulation of Cellular Genes by Oncogenes. DNA Damage Produced by Ionizing Radiation in Mammalian Cells: Identities, Mechanisms of Formation, and Reparability. Human Ferritin Gene Expression. Molecular Biology of the Insulin Receptor. Cap-Binding Proteins of Eukaryotic Messenger RNA: Functions in Initiation and Control of Translation. Physical Monitoring of Meiotic and Mitotic Recombination in Yeast. Early Signals Underlying the Induction of the c-fos and c-myc Genes in Quiescent Fibroblasts: Studies with Bombesin and Other Growth Factors. Each chapter includes references.

Cohn, W.E.; Moldave, K.

1988-01-01

427

Postdoctoral Research Position in Cartilage Biology A postdoctoral research position is immediately available in the Center for  

E-print Network

conditional (Cre/LoxP) mutant and transgenic mouse models to understand the genetic contributions of variousPostdoctoral Research Position in Cartilage Biology A postdoctoral research position is immediately to characterize several novel mouse models of articular cartilage degeneration and identify the molecular

Goldman, Steven A.

428

Community Forestry Scotland A Report for Forest Research  

E-print Network

in contesting existing patterns of land tenure, legislation and power relations within forestry. The number intensive and low carbon methods. In many communities there is a limited pool of people available to serve

429

EDIC RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1 Utility Driven Community Sensing  

E-print Network

or services such as sport equipments or health-care services. This paradigm is referred to as community owners to participate while best satisfying application demands? Each of the selected papers tackles

430

UCLA-Community Breast Cancer Collaborative Clinical Translational Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this proposal was to develop a consortium of community physicians committed to study novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of breast cancer, provide them with a clinical trials infrastructure linked to an academic center with exp...

J. A. Glaspy

2004-01-01

431

9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research...section. (a) The label shall identify...

2010-01-01

432

Community-Based Suicide Prevention Research in Remote On-Reserve First Nations Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suicide is a complex problem linked to genetic, environmental, psychological and community factors. For the Aboriginal population more specifically, loss of culture, history of traumatic events, individual, family and community factors may also play a role in suicidal behaviour. Of particular concern is the high rate of suicide among Canadian…

Isaak, Corinne A.; Campeau, Mike; Katz, Laurence Y.; Enns, Murray W.; Elias, Brenda; Sareen, Jitender

2010-01-01

433

Development of a Model, Metal-reducing Microbial Community for a System Biology Level Assessment of Desulfovibrio vulgaris as part of a Community  

SciTech Connect

One of the largest experimental gaps is between the simplicity of pure cultures and the complexity of open environmental systems, particularly in metal-contaminated areas. These microbial communities form ecosystem foundations, drive biogeochemical processes, and are relevant for biotechnology and bioremediation. A model, metal-reducing microbial community was constructed as either syntrophic or competitive to study microbial cell to cell interactions, cell signaling and competition for resources. The microbial community was comprised of the metal-reducing Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Additionally, Methanococcus maripaludis S2 was added to study complete carbon reduction and maintain a low hydrogen partial pressure for syntrophism to occur. Further, considerable work has been published on D. vulgaris and the D. vulgaris/ Mc. maripaludis co-culture both with and without stress. We are extending this work by conducting the same stress conditions on the model community. Additionally, this comprehensive investigation includes physiological and metabolic analyses as well as specially designed mRNA microarrays with the genes for all three organisms on one slide so as to follow gene expression changes in the various cultivation conditions as well as being comparable to the co- and individual cultures. Further, state-of -the-art comprehensive AMT tag proteomics allows for these comparisons at the protein level for a systems biology assessment of a model, metal-reducing microbial community. Preliminary data revealed that lactate oxidation by D. vulgaris was sufficient to support both G. sulfurreducens and M. maripaludis via the excretion of H2 and acetate. Fumarate was utilized by G. sulfurreducens and reduced to succinate since neither of the other two organisms can reduce fumarate. Methane was quantified, suggesting acetate and H2 concentrations were sufficient for M. maripaludis. Steady state community cultivation will allow for a comprehensive, system biology level analysis of a metal-reducing microbial community.

Elias, Dwayne; Schadt, Christopher; Miller, Lance; Phelps, Tommy; Brown, S. D.; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry; Drake, Megin; Yang, Z.K.; Podar, Mircea

2010-05-17

434

Undergraduate research in geochemistry at a larger university: developing a community of undergraduate and graduate researchers.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faculty at state research universities can find the paired requirements of establishing research programs and developing a "pipeline" of graduate students to be the most challenging aspects of their jobs, especially with shrinking pools of graduate applicants. These problems may be more acute for laboratory-based geochemists, as few graduate candidates possess the requisite quantitative and chemical backgrounds. The need to "get my research going" at the University of South Florida led me to work primarily with undergraduates, as a) they were available and interested, b) they required no more laboratory training than M.S. students; and c) small-dollar funds were available to support them, both in-house and via NSF REU Supplements. Some senior colleagues argued that this approach would hinder my developing a graduate program as is necessary for tenure. This contention turned out to be untrue. My success in undergraduate research draws funding (in NSF REU Site and disciplinary research grants), has attracted outside MS and Ph.D. candidates, and has retained quality in-house students seeking MS degrees. Students working with me join a laboratory community in which undergraduate and graduate researchers are on equal footing in terms of access to instrumentation and other facilities. I work with all my students, irrespective of rank, as members of a cooperative research group. I encourage and expect that technical instruction I provide to any individual will be passed on to their colleagues, which helps develop a "lab culture" of best practices, and ingrains new knowledge and skills through the act of teaching them to others. Maintaining this research environment requires active recruitment of capable graduate AND undergraduate students, regular monitoring of laboratory practices, and ready availability for consultation and mentoring. One must be cognizant of the differing time commitment issues of undergraduates and graduates, and set research goals appropriately. Undergraduate research projects in which 3-4 students work together to collect necessary data can get around the class vs. research scheduling issues they face as they can share the laboratory workload through the week. Group projects can thus collect larger bodies of data, allowing students to address more substantive problems.

Ryan, J. G.

2003-12-01

435

UCLA-Community Breast Cancer Collaborative Clinical Translational Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer remains a serious disease in the United States. Recently, advances in molecular and cell biology have identified specific targets and strategies for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. The rapid translation of these advances into ...

J. A. Glaspy

2002-01-01

436

Ontology-supported research on vaccine efficacy, safety and integrative biological networks.  

PubMed

While vaccine efficacy and safety research has dramatically progressed with the methods of in silico prediction and data mining, many challenges still exist. A formal ontology is a human- and computer-interpretable set of terms and relations that represent entities in a specific domain and how these terms relate to each other. Several community-based ontologies (including Vaccine Ontology, Ontology of Adverse Events and Ontology of Vaccine Adverse Events) have been developed to support vaccine and adverse event representation, classification, data integration, literature mining of host-vaccine interaction networks, and analysis of vaccine adverse events. The author further proposes minimal vaccine information standards and their ontology representations, ontology-based linked open vaccine data and meta-analysis, an integrative One Network ('OneNet') Theory of Life, and ontology-based approaches to study and apply the OneNet theory. In the Big Data era, these proposed strategies provide a novel framework for advanced data integration and analysis of fundamental biological networks including vaccine immune mechanisms. PMID:24909153

He, Yongqun

2014-07-01

437

The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research  

SciTech Connect

The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a flexible and extensible community tool used to investigate a diverse set of earth system interactions across multiple time and space scales. This global coupled model is a natural evolution from its predecessor, the Community Climate System Model, following the incorporation of new earth system capabilities. These include the ability to simulate biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, ice sheets, and a high-top atmosphere. These and other new model capabilities are enabling investigations into a wide range of pressing scientific questions, providing new predictive capabilities and increasing our collective knowledge about the behavior and interactions of the earth system. Simulations with numerous configurations of the CESM have been provided to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and are being analyzed by the broader community of scientists. Additionally, the model source code and associated documentation are freely available to the scientific community to use for earth system studies, making it a true community tool. Here we describe this earth modeling system, its various possible configurations, and illustrate its capabilities with a few science highlights.

Hurrell, Jim; Holland, Marika M.; Gent, Peter R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Kay, Jennifer; Kushner, P.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Large, William G.; Lawrence, David M.; Lindsay, Keith; Lipscomb, William; Long , Matthew; Mahowald, N.; Marsh, D.; Neale, Richard; Rasch, Philip J.; Vavrus, Steven J.; Vertenstein, Mariana; Bader, David C.; Collins, William D.; Hack, James; Kiehl, J. T.; Marshall, Shawn

2013-09-30

438

Case studies of community college non-science majors: Effects of self-regulatory interventions on biology self-efficacy and biological literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science literacy has been at the heart of current reform efforts in science education. The focus on developing essential skills needed for individual ability to be literate in science has been at the forefront of most K--12 science curricula. Reform efforts have begun to stretch into the postsecondary arena as well, with an ever increasing dialogue regarding the need for attention to science literacy by college students, especially non-science majors. This study set out to investigate how the use of self-regulatory interventions (specifically, goal setting, concept mapping, and reflective writing) affected student biology self-efficacy and biol