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Sample records for bioluminescent escherichia coli

  1. Antioxidant assay using genetically engineered bioluminescent Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolome, Amelita; Macalino, Bernadette; Pastoral, Ian Lemuel; Sevilla, Fortunato, III

    2006-02-01

    A new antioxidant activity assay based on the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inducible bacterial strain (E. coli DPD2511) is described. The strain harbors the plasmid pKatG::luxCDABE and responds to hydrogen peroxide treatment by increasing light emission at 490 nm. Antioxidant capacity is evaluated through the ability of an agent to inhibit the hydrogen peroxide-induced bioluminescence of E. coli DPD2511. Applicability of the developed assay in detecting levels of antioxidants in various aqueous plant extracts is demonstrated. The assay was validated against 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, a known antioxidant assay.

  2. Generation of recombinant bioluminescent Escherichia coli for quantitative determination of bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    AlLuhaybi, Khalid Abdul Rahman; Alghaith, Ghadah Yazeed; Moneib, Nayera Ahmed; Yassien, Mahmoud Abdul Magead

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial adhesion to urinary catheter was evaluated by measuring the light emitted from a recombinant bioluminescent glycocalyx producer Escherichia coli strain. Generation of the bioluminescent strain was carried out by transforming the bacterial cells with pUCP18-GFP plasmid that contains a green fluorescence gene. Light emission measurement was closely correlated with the number of the adherent cells, giving a detectable signal from 1.2 X 10² cells. The efficiency of this assay was confirmed by testing the antiadherent effect of subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin with the aid of a model for in-vitro catheter colonization. There was no significant difference in the percentage reduction of adherent cells obtained by both light emission measurement and viable cell count techniques. PMID:26142520

  3. Effect of cosmic-ray shielding on the ultraweak bioluminescence emitted by cultures of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Tilbury, R.N.; Quickenden, T.I.

    1987-11-01

    Neither the growth of Escherichia coli nor its associated luminescence was significantly affected when cultures were shielded from the soft component of cosmic rays. The study included experiments in which the cultures were shielded intermittently during their two periods of luminescence emission and experiments in which the cultures were continuously shielded throughout their entire growth cycle. These results do not support previous suggestions that the ultraweak bioluminescences from living organisms might be cosmic-ray-excited fluorescences induced in certain biological molecules synthesized during the various stages of growth.

  4. Posttranslationally caused bioluminescence burst of the Escherichia coli luciferase reporter strain.

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Yamato; Oshikoshi, Yuta; Ryo, Masashi; Motoki, Shogo; Kuwano, Takashi; Tezuka, Takafumi; Aoki, Setsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We continuously monitored bioluminescence from a wild-type reporter strain of Escherichia coli (lacp::luc+/WT), which carries the promoter of the lac operon (lacp) fused with the firefly luciferase gene (luc+). This strain showed a bioluminescence burst when shifted into the stationary growth phase. Bioluminescence profiles of other wild-type reporter strains (rpsPp::luc+ and argAp::luc+) and gene-deletion reporter strains (lacp::luc+/crp- and lacp::luc+/lacI-) indicate that transcriptional regulation is not responsible for generation of the burst. Consistently, changes in the luciferase protein levels did not recapitulate the profile of the burst. On the other hand, dissolved oxygen levels increased over the period across the burst, suggesting that the burst is, at least partially, caused by an increase in intracellular oxygen levels. We discuss limits of the firefly luciferase when used as a reporter for gene expression and its potential utility for monitoring metabolic changes in cells. PMID:26506945

  5. A bioluminescent Escherichia coli auxotroph for use in an in vitro lysine availability assay.

    PubMed

    Erickson, A M; Díaz, I B; Kwon, Y M; Ricke, S C

    2000-05-01

    Microbiological methods have been used to determine the amino acid availability of a variety of animal feed and human food protein sources. Growth of Escherichia coli auxotrophs have been shown to yield a consistent linear response to lysine concentration when compared to chemical measures. Extent of total growth of E. coli lysine mutant (American Type Culture Collection #23812) when measured as optical density (OD) displays a lysine-dependent growth response that can be used to estimate lysine in feed proteins. However, typical OD-based growth studies for amino acid quantitation using the mutant may require anywhere from 12 to over 40 h. To develop an improved rapid method for lysine quantitation in protein sources, the plasmid pJHD500 carrying genes that encode for expression of bioluminescence and ampicillin resistance was transformed into the E. coli mutant by electroporation (set at 1.80 kV). The luminescence measured during early exponential growth allowed detectable differentiation of lysine concentration in the media in 4 h. When the luminescence method was compared with the conventional optical density lysine growth assay, the correlation coefficient was 0.989. Lysine availability valued for enzymatically hydrolyzed protein sources were comparable with availability measures using animal methods for lysine availability. This research shows potential applications for more rapid quantitative measurement of bioavailable lysine. PMID:10802136

  6. Development of a biosensor for on-line detection of tributyltin with a recombinant bioluminescent Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Thouand, G; Horry, H; Durand, M J; Picart, P; Bendriaa, L; Daniel, P; DuBow, M S

    2003-08-01

    A biosensor was developed for the detection of tributyltin (TBT), using a bioluminescent recombinant Escherichia coli:: luxAB strain. Dedicated devices allowed the on-line measurement of bioluminescence, pH and dissolved oxygen values and the feed-back regulation of temperature. Bacterial physiology was monitored by the measurement of the cellular density, respiratory activity and the intracellular level of ATP, glucose and acetate levels. Our results showed that a synthetic glucose medium gave a better TBT detection limit than LB medium (respectively 0.02 micro M and 1.5 micro M TBT). High growth and dilution rates ( D=0.9 h(-1)) allowed maximum light emission from the bacterium. Moreover, simple atmospheric air bubbling was sufficient to provide oxygen for growth and the bioluminescence reaction. Real-time monitoring of bioluminescence after TBT induction occurred with continuous addition of decanal up to 300 micro M, which was not toxic throughout a 7-day experiment. The design of our biosensor and the optimization of the main parameters that influence microbial activity led to the capacity for the detection of TBT. PMID:12883867

  7. LuxCDABE—Transformed Constitutively Bioluminescent Escherichia coli for Toxicity Screening: Comparison with Naturally Luminous Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Kurvet, Imbi; Ivask, Angela; Bondarenko, Olesja; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We show that in vitro toxicity assay based on inhibition of the bioluminescence of recombinant Escherichia coli encoding thermostable luciferase from Photorhabdus luminescens is a versatile alternative to Vibrio fischeri Microtox™ test. Performance of two luxCDABE-transformed E. coli MC1061 constructs (pDNlux) and (pSLlux) otherwise identical, but having 100-fold different background luminescence was compared with the performance of V. fischeri. The microplate luminometer and a kinetic Flash-Assay test format was used that differently from Microtox test is also applicable for high throughput analysis. Toxic effects (30-s till 30-min EC50) of four heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Hg, Cu) and three organic chemicals (aniline, 3,5-dichloroaniline and 3,5-dichlorophenol) were studied. Both E. coli strains had comparable sensitivity and the respective 30-min EC50 values highly correlated (log-log R2 = 0.99; p < 0.01) showing that the sensitivity of the recombinant bacteria towards chemicals analyzed did not depend on the bioluminescence level of the recombinant cells. The most toxic chemical for all used bacterial strains (E. coli, V. fischeri) was mercury whereas the lowest EC50 values for Hg (0.04–0.05 mg/L) and highest EC50 values for aniline (1,300–1,700 mg/L) were observed for E. coli strains. Despite of that, toxicity results obtained with both E. coli strains (pSLlux and pDNlux) significantly correlated with V. fischeri results (log-log R2 = 0.70/0.75; p < 0.05/0.01). The use of amino acids (0.25%) and glucose (0.05%)-supplemented M9 medium instead of leucine-supplemented saline significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the apparent toxicity of heavy metals to both E. coli strains up to three orders of magnitude, but had little or no complexing effect on organic compounds. Thus, P. luminescens luxCDABE-transformed E. coli strains can be successfully used for the acute toxicity screening of various types of organic chemicals and heavy metals and can replace V. fischeri in certain cases where the thermostability of luciferase >30 °C is crucial. The kinetic Flash Assay test format of the bioluminescence inhibition assay facilitates high throughput analysis. The assay medium, especially in case of testing heavy metals should be a compromise: optimal for the viability/luminescence of the recombinant test strain and of minimum complexing potential. PMID:22164050

  8. Biological toxicity of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) against the luxCDABE-based bioluminescent bioreporter Escherichia coli 652T7.

    PubMed

    Du, Liyu; Arnholt, Kelly; Ripp, Steven; Sayler, Gary; Wang, Siqun; Liang, Chenghua; Wang, Jingkuan; Zhuang, Jie

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological toxicity of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) using the constitutively bioluminescent luxCDABE-based bioreporter Escherichia coli 652T7. The effects of CNCs on E. c oli 652T7 biotoxicity were investigated at different CNC concentrations, reaction times, and IC50 values. CNC toxicity was also compared with and without ultrasonic dispersion to establish dispersibility effects. The results demonstrated that CNCs were not significantly toxic at concentrations at or below 250 mg/L. At concentrations higher than 300 mg/L, toxicity increased linearly as CNC concentrations increased up to 2000 mg/L. IC50 calculations demonstrated an increase in cytotoxicity as CNC exposure times increased, and elevated dispersibility of the CNCs were shown to increase cytotoxicity effects. These results suggest that CNCs can impact microbial populations if elevated concentration thresholds are met. PMID:26419245

  9. [Photoreactivating Activity of Bioluminescence: Repair of UV-damaged DNA of Escherichia coli Occurs with Assistance of lux-Genes of Marine Bacteria].

    PubMed

    Zavilgelsky, G B; Melkina, O E; Kotova, V Yu; Konopleva, M N; Manukhov, I V; Pustovoit, K Ss

    2015-01-01

    The UV resistance of luminescent bacteria Escherichia coli AB1886 uvrA6 (pLeo1) containing the plasmid with luxCDABE genes of marine bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi is approximately two times higher than the UV resistance of non-luminous bacteria E. coli AB1886 uvrA6. Introduction of phr::kan(r) mutations (a defect in the functional activity of photolyase) into the genome of E. coli AB1886 uvrA6 (pLeo1) completely removes the high UV resistance of the cells. Therefore, photoreactivation that involves bacterial photolyase contributes mainly to the bioluminescence-induced DNA repair. It is shown that photoreactivating activity of bioluminescence of P. leiognathi is about 2.5 times lower compared with that one induced by a light source with ? > 385 nm. It is also shown that an increase in the bioluminescence intensity, induced by UV radiation in E. coli bacterial cells with a plasmid containing the luxCD ABE genes under RecA-LexA-regulated promoters, occurs only 25-30 min later after UV irradiation of cells and does not contribute to DNA repair. A quorum sensing regulatory system is not involved in the DNA repair by photolyase. PMID:26591600

  10. Ex Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Late Gestation Ewes Following Intra-uterine Inoculation With Lux-modified Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objectives were to develop an ovine model for Escherichia coli-induced preterm delivery, and monitor E. coli (lux modified for photonic detection) invasion of the fetal environment—ewes (124 ± 18 d of gestation) received intrauterine inoculations using E. coli-lux as follows: control (n = 5), 1....

  11. Ex Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Late Gestation Ewes Following Intra-uterine Inoculation With Lux-modified Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objectives were to develop an ovine model for Escherichia coli-induced preterm delivery, and monitor E. coli (lux modified for photonic detection) invasion of the fetal environment—ewes (124 ± 18 d of gestation) received intrauterine inoculations using E. coli-lux as follows: control (n = 5), 1....

  12. Real-Time Monitoring of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Adherence to Beef Carcass Surface Tissues with a Bioluminescent Reporter

    PubMed Central

    Siragusa, Gregory R.; Nawotka, Kevin; Spilman, Stanley D.; Contag, Pamela R.; Contag, Christopher H.

    1999-01-01

    A method for studying bacteria that are attached to carcass surfaces would eliminate the need for exogenous sampling and would facilitate understanding the interaction of potential human food-borne pathogens with food animal tissue surfaces. We describe such a method in which we used a bioluminescent reporter strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 that was constructed by transformation with plasmid pCGLS1, an expression vector that contains a complete bacterial luciferase (lux) operon. Beef carcass surface tissues were inoculated with the bioluminescent strain, and adherent bacteria were visualized in real time by using a sensitive photon-counting camera to obtain in situ images. The reporter strain was found to luminesce from the tissue surfaces whether it was inoculated as a suspension in buffer or as a suspension in a bovine fecal slurry. With this method, areas of tissues inoculated with the reporter strain could be studied without obtaining, excising, homogenizing, and culturing multiple samples from the tissue surface. Use of the complete lux operon as the bioluminescent reporter eliminated the need to add exogenous substrate. This allowed detection and quantitation of bacterial inocula and rapid evaluation of adherence of a potential human pathogen to tissue surfaces. Following simple water rinses of inoculated carcass tissues, the attachment duration varied with different carcass surface types. On average, the percent retention of bioluminescent signal from the reporter strain was higher on lean fascia-covered tissue (54%) than on adipose fascia-covered tissue (18%) following water washing of the tissues. Bioluminescence and culture-derived viable bacterial counts were highly correlated (r2 = 0.98). Real-time assessment of microbial attachment to this complex menstruum should facilitate evaluation of carcass decontamination procedures and mechanistic studies of microbial contamination of beef carcass tissues. PMID:10103275

  13. Bioluminescent imaging reveals novel patterns of colonization and invasion in systemic Escherichia coli K1 experimental infection in the neonatal rat.

    PubMed

    Witcomb, Luci A; Collins, James W; McCarthy, Alex J; Frankel, Gadi; Taylor, Peter W

    2015-12-01

    Key features of Escherichia coli K1-mediated neonatal sepsis and meningitis, such as a strong age dependency and development along the gut-mesentery-blood-brain course of infection, can be replicated in the newborn rat. We examined temporal and spatial aspects of E. coli K1 infection following initiation of gastrointestinal colonization in 2-day-old (P2) rats after oral administration of E. coli K1 strain A192PP and a virulent bioluminescent derivative, E. coli A192PP-lux2. A combination of bacterial enumeration in the major organs, two-dimensional bioluminescence imaging, and three-dimensional diffuse light imaging tomography with integrated micro-computed tomography indicated multiple sites of colonization within the alimentary canal; these included the tongue, esophagus, and stomach in addition to the small intestine and colon. After invasion of the blood compartment, the bacteria entered the central nervous system, with restricted colonization of the brain, and also invaded the major organs, in line with increases in the severity of symptoms of infection. Both keratinized and nonkeratinized surfaces of esophagi were colonized to a considerably greater extent in susceptible P2 neonates than in corresponding tissues from infection-resistant 9-day-old rat pups; the bacteria appeared to damage and penetrate the nonkeratinized esophageal epithelium of infection-susceptible P2 animals, suggesting the esophagus represents a portal of entry for E. coli K1 into the systemic circulation. Thus, multimodality imaging of experimental systemic infections in real time indicates complex dynamic patterns of colonization and dissemination that provide new insights into the E. coli K1 infection of the neonatal rat. PMID:26351276

  14. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  15. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  16. Ex vivo bioluminescence imaging of late gestation ewes following intrauterine inoculation with lux-modified Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Moulton, K; Ryan, P; Christiansen, D; Hopper, R; Klauser, C; Bennett, W; Rodts-Palenik, S; Willard, S

    2009-09-01

    Our objectives were to develop an ovine model for Escherichia coli-induced preterm delivery, and monitor E. coli (lux modified for photonic detection) invasion of the fetal environment--ewes (124+/-18d of gestation) received intrauterine inoculations using E. coli-lux as follows: control (n = 5), 1.2 x 10(6) CFU/ml (n = 5), 5.6 x 10(6) CFU/ml (n = 5) E. coli-lux. Preterm delivery occurred between 48 and 120 h post-inoculation in 60%, 60% of ewes infected with 1.2, and 5.6 x 10(6) CFU/ml E. coli-lux, respectively, with presence of emitting bacteria confirmed by real-time imaging of lamb tissues. In summary, preterm delivery and/or fetal distress were observed in a majority of inoculated ewes. Finally, the use of photonic bacteria with imaging was a feasible means to monitor bacterial presence ex vivo. PMID:18440069

  17. Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thomlinson, J. R.; Buxton, A.

    1963-01-01

    Pigs were subjected to active anaphylactic shock using egg albumin and to reversed passive anaphylaxis using Escherichia coli (O138). The symptoms and lesions closely resembled those of oedema disease and haemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Catarrhal enteritis was also observed. There was a relationship between the character of the lesions which were produced and the severity and duration of the anaphylactic symptoms. Further evidence confirmed earlier observations that clinically normal pigs may develop a hypersensitivity to those serotypes of E. coli which are associated with these conditions. The results are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of these diseases, and it is considered that oedema disease and haemorrhagic gastro-enteritis develop from an anaphylactic type of hypersensitivity to E. coli rather than from a direct toxaemia arising from the sudden absorption of increased quantities of bacterial polysaccharide. ImagesFIGS. 1-2FIGS. 3-4FIGS. 5-6FIG. 7FIGS. 8-9FIGS. 10-11 PMID:13981132

  18. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nataro, James P.; Kaper, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler’s diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (enteropathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens. PMID:9457432

  19. Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is a part of the normal flora of the intestinal tract of humans and a variety of animals. E. coli strains are classified on the basis of antigenic differences in two surface components (serotyping), the somatic antigen (O) of the lipopoly...

  20. PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli is a bacterial species which inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of man and warm-blooded animals. Because of the ubiquity of this bacterium in the intestinal flora, it serves as an important indicator organism of fecal contamination. E. coli, aside from serving a...

  1. Escherichia coli biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Beloin, Christophe; Roux, Agnès; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a predominant species among facultative anaerobic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract. Both its frequent community lifestyle and the availability of a wide array of genetic tools contributed to establish E. coli as a relevant model organism for the study of surface colonization. Several key factors, including different extracellular appendages, are implicated in E. coli surface colonization and their expression and activity are finely regulated, both in space and time, to ensure productive events leading to mature biofilm formation. This chapter will present known molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm development in both commensal and pathogenic E. coli. PMID:18453280

  2. Genetic recombination. [Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, F.W.

    1987-02-01

    The molecular pathways of gene recombination are explored and compared in studies of the model organisms, Escherichia coli and phase lambda. In the discussion of data from these studies it seems that recombination varies with the genetic idiosyncrasies of the organism and may also vary within a single organism.

  3. Escherichia coli virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Mainil, Jacques

    2013-03-15

    Escherichia coli was described in 1885 by a German pediatrician, Theodor Escherich, in the faeces of a child suffering diarrhoea. In 1893, a Danish veterinarian postulated that the E. coli species comprises different strains, some being pathogens, others not. Today the E. coli species is subdivided into several pathogenic strains causing different intestinal, urinary tract or internal infections and pathologies, in animal species and in humans. Since this congress topic is the interaction between E. coli and the mucosal immune system, the purpose of this manuscript is to present different classes of adhesins (fimbrial adhesins, afimbrial adhesins and outer membrane proteins), the type 3 secretion system, and some toxins (oligopeptide, AB, and RTX pore-forming toxins) produced by E. coli, that can directly interact with the epithelial cells of the intestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts. PMID:23083938

  4. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Harry L T; Donnenberg, Michael S; Hagan, Erin C

    2009-08-01

    The urinary tract is among the most common sites of bacterial infection, and Escherichia coli is by far the most common species infecting this site. Individuals at high risk for symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) include neonates, preschool girls, sexually active women, and elderly women and men. E. coli that cause the majority of UTIs are thought to represent only a subset of the strains that colonize the colon. E. coli strains that cause UTIs are termed uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). In general, UPEC strains differ from commensal E. coli strains in that the former possess extragenetic material, often on pathogenicity-associated islands (PAIs), which code for gene products that may contribute to bacterial pathogenesis. Some of these genes allow UPEC to express determinants that are proposed to play roles in disease. These factors include hemolysins, secreted proteins, specific lipopolysaccharide and capsule types, iron acquisition systems, and fimbrial adhesions. The current dogma of bacterial pathogenesis identifies adherence, colonization, avoidance of host defenses, and damage to host tissues as events vital for achieving bacterial virulence. These considerations, along with analysis of the E. coli CFT073, UTI89, and 536 genomes and efforts to identify novel virulence genes should advance the field significantly and allow for the development of a comprehensive model of pathogenesis for uropathogenic E. coli.Further study of the adaptive immune response to UTI will be especially critical to refine our understanding and treatment of recurrent infections and to develop vaccines. PMID:26443763

  5. PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI IN FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli are defined as those E. coli strains that are capable of causing diarrhoeal disease in humans. Subdivision of the pathogenic forms is made on the basis of the mechanism underlying the illness. Presently, four types of pathogenic E. coli have been implicated in foodborne...

  6. EXTRAINTESTINAL PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI (EXPEC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) possess virulence traits that allow them to invade, colonize, and induce disease in bodily sites outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Human diseases caused by ExPEC include urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, surgic...

  7. Bioluminescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail

    1993-01-01

    Describes bioluminescence and the chemistry of how it occurs. Presents information for conducting the following classroom activities: (1) firefly mimic; (2) modeling deep-sea fish; (3) sea fireflies; and (4) the chemistry of light. (PR)

  8. Exonuclease IX of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Shafritz, K M; Sandigursky, M; Franklin, W A

    1998-01-01

    The bacteria Escherichia coli contains several exonucleases acting on both double- and single-stranded DNA and in both a 5'-->3' and 3'-->5' direction. These enzymes are involved in replicative, repair and recombination functions. We have identified a new exonuclease found in E.coli, termed exonuclease IX, that acts preferentially on single-stranded DNA as a 3'-->5' exonuclease and also functions as a 3'-phosphodiesterase on DNA containing 3'-incised apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites to remove the product trans -4-hydroxy-2-pentenal 5-phosphate. The enzyme showed essentially no activity as a deoxyribophosphodiesterase acting on 5'-incised AP sites. The activity was isolated as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein from a sequence of the E.coli genome that was 60% identical to a 260 bp region of the small fragment of the DNA polymerase I gene. The protein has a molecular weight of 28 kDa and is free of AP endonuclease and phosphatase activities. Exonuclease IX is expressed in E.coli , as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR, and it may function in the DNA base excision repair and other pathways. PMID:9592142

  9. SEROLOGICAL CROSS-REACTIONS BETWEEN ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 AND OTHER SPECIES OF THE GENUS ESCHERICHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia hermannii, a sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia, has been reported to be agglutinated by Escherichia coli 0157 and four sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia: . hermannii (24 isolates), Escherichia fergusonii (12 isolates), Escherichia vul...

  10. Nonchemotactic Mutants of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, John B.; Adler, Julius; Dahl, Margaret M.

    1967-01-01

    We have isolated 40 mutants of Escherichia coli which are nonchemotactic as judged by their failure to swarm on semisolid tryptone plates or to make bands in capillary tubes containing tryptone broth. All the mutants have normal flagella, a fact shown by their shape and reaction with antiflagella serum. All are fully motile under the microscope and all are sensitive to the phage chi. Unlike its parent, one of the mutants, studied in greater detail, failed to show chemotaxis toward oxygen, glucose, serine, threonine, or aspartic acid. The failure to exhibit chemotaxis does not result from a failure to use the chemicals. The swimming of this mutant was shown to be random. The growth rate was normal under several conditions, and the growth requirements were unchanged. Images PMID:5335897

  11. Genetic Instability in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Norman M.

    1965-01-01

    Schwartz, Norman M. (Yale University, New Haven, Conn.). Genetic instability in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 89:712–717. 1965.—Results obtained from a transductional analysis demonstrated that an extremely unstable reversion of lac? is a suppressor mutation. This mutation suppresses 2 of 22 different lac? alleles tested. Five different Hfr strains transferred the suppressor soon after mating and at low frequency. Acridine orange enhanced the segregation of lac? clones from the unstable suppressed mutant. Stable suppressed lac? clones were produced by the unstable suppressed mutant. Two such stable suppressors were transferred at high frequency and mapped at different chromosomal sites on the basis of time of entry data. One of the stable suppressed lac? mutants reverted to the unstable suppressed lac? state. It is proposed that the suppressor is carried on an extrachromosomal element. The differences in stability observed may reflect differences in the state of the suppressor-bearing element. PMID:14273650

  12. Iron uptake by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Braun, Volkmar

    2003-09-01

    Ferric iron is transported into Escherichia coli by a number of chelating compounds. Iron transport through the outer membrane by citrate, ferrichrome, enterobactin, aerobactin, yersiniabactin, and heme is catalyzed by highly specific proteins and across the cytoplasmic membrane by ABC transport systems with lower specificity. Transport across the outer membrane requires energy, which is provided by the proton motive force of the cytoplasmic membrane and transmitted to the outer membrane via the TonB-ExbB-ExbD proteins. Binding of substrates induces large long-range structural changes in the transport proteins, but does not open the channel. It is thought that the channel is opened by energy input from the cytoplasmic membrane. Although a basic understanding of how the transport proteins might function has been obtained from the crystal structures of three outer membrane proteins of E. coli and from many genetic and biochemical experiments, numerous fundamental questions still remain open. Transcription of the transport protein genes is regulated by the Fur protein, which when loaded with ferrous iron functions as a repressor. Fur also positively regulates genes of iron-containing proteins by repressing synthesis of an anti-sense RNA. Regulation of ferric citrate transport genes via a transmembrane device has become the paradigm of the regulation of a variety of systems, including the hypersensitivity response of plants to bacterial infections. PMID:12957834

  13. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    van Heijenoort, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The review summarizes the abundant information on the 35 identified peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases of Escherichia coli classified into 12 distinct families, including mainly glycosidases, peptidases, and amidases. An attempt is also made to critically assess their functions in PG maturation, turnover, elongation, septation, and recycling as well as in cell autolysis. There is at least one hydrolytic activity for each bond linking PG components, and most hydrolase genes were identified. Few hydrolases appear to be individually essential. The crystal structures and reaction mechanisms of certain hydrolases having defined functions were investigated. However, our knowledge of the biochemical properties of most hydrolases still remains fragmentary, and that of their cellular functions remains elusive. Owing to redundancy, PG hydrolases far outnumber the enzymes of PG biosynthesis. The presence of the two sets of enzymes acting on the PG bonds raises the question of their functional correlations. It is difficult to understand why E. coli keeps such a large set of PG hydrolases. The subtle differences in substrate specificities between the isoenzymes of each family certainly reflect a variety of as-yet-unidentified physiological functions. Their study will be a far more difficult challenge than that of the steps of the PG biosynthesis pathway. PMID:22126997

  14. Structure of Escherichia Coli Tryptophanase

    SciTech Connect

    Ku,S.; Yip, P.; Howell, P.

    2006-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent tryptophanase has been isolated from Escherichia coli and its crystal structure has been determined. The structure shares the same fold with and has similar quaternary structure to Proteus vulgaris tryptophanase and tyrosine-phenol lyase, but is found in a closed conformation when compared with these two enzymes. The tryptophanase structure, solved in its apo form, does not have covalent PLP bound in the active site, but two sulfate ions. The sulfate ions occupy the phosphoryl-binding site of PLP and the binding site of the {alpha}-carboxyl of the natural substrate tryptophan. One of the sulfate ions makes extensive interactions with both the transferase and PLP-binding domains of the protein and appears to be responsible for holding the enzyme in its closed conformation. Based on the sulfate density and the structure of the P. vulgaris enzyme, PLP and the substrate tryptophan were modeled into the active site. The resulting model is consistent with the roles of Arg419 in orienting the substrate to PLP and acidifying the {alpha}-proton of the substrate for {beta}-elimination, Lys269 in the formation and decomposition of the PLP quinonoid intermediate, Arg230 in orienting the substrate-PLP intermediates in the optimal conformation for catalysis, and His463 and Tyr74 in determining substrate specificity and suggests that the closed conformation observed in the structure could be induced by substrate binding and that significant conformational changes occur during catalysis. A catalytic mechanism for tryptophanase is proposed. Since E. coli tryptophanase has resisted forming diffraction-quality crystals for many years, the molecular surface of tryptophanase has been analyzed in various crystal forms and it was rationalized that strong crystal contacts occur on the flat surface of the protein and that the size of crystal contact surface seems to correlate with the diffraction quality of the crystal.

  15. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  16. Quantitation of Dam methyltransferase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Boye, E; Marinus, M G; Løbner-Olesen, A

    1992-03-01

    An antiserum against Escherichia coli Dam methyltransferase has been developed in rabbits and employed to detect and quantitate the enzyme in immunoblots. A wild-type, rapidly growing E. coli cell (doubling time = 30 min) was found to contain about 130 molecules of Dam methyltransferase. PMID:1537808

  17. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  18. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  19. Succinate production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thakker, Chandresh; Martínez, Irene; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N.

    2012-01-01

    Succinate has been recognized as an important platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. While a number of organisms are capable of succinate production naturally, this review focuses on the engineering of Escherichia coli for production of the four-carbon dicarboxylic acid. Important features of a succinate production system are to achieve optimal balance of reducing equivalents generated by consumption of the feedstock, while maximizing the amount of carbon that is channeled to the product. Aerobic and anaerobic production strains have been developed and applied to production from glucose as well as other abundant carbon sources. Metabolic engineering methods and strain evolution have been used and supplemented by the recent application of systems biology and in silico modeling tools to construct optimal production strains. The metabolic capacity of the production strain, as well as the requirement for efficient recovery of succinate and the reliability of the performance under scale-up are important in the overall process. The costs of the overall biorefinery compatible process will determine the economical commercialization of succinate and its impact in larger chemical markets. PMID:21932253

  20. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from...

  3. [Photoreactivation of UV-irradiated Escherichia coli K12 AB1886 uvrA6 with assistance of luminescence of Photobacterium leiognathi Luciferase].

    PubMed

    Melkina, O E; Kotova, V Yu; Konopleva, M N; Manukhov, I V; Pustovoit, K S; Zavilgelsky, G B

    2015-01-01

    The bioluminescence induced by luciferases of marine bacteria promotes repair of UV damaged DNA of Escherichia coli AB1886 uvrA6. It is shown that bacterial photolyase that implements photoreactivation activity is the major contributor to DNA repair. However, the intensity of bioluminescence increasing induced by UV-irradiation (SOS-induction) in bacterial cells is not enough for efficient photoreactivation. PMID:26710787

  4. Growth rate of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Marr, A G

    1991-01-01

    It should be possible to predict the rate of growth of Escherichia coli of a given genotype in a specified environment. The idea that the rate of synthesis of ATP determines the rate of growth and that the yield of ATP determines the yield of growth is entrenched in bacterial physiology, yet this idea is inconsistent with experimental results. In minimal media the growth rate and yield vary with the carbon source in a manner independent of the rate of formation and yield of ATP. With acetate as the carbon source, anapleurotic reactions, not ATP synthesis, limit the growth rate. For acetate and other gluconeogenic substrates the limiting step appears to be the formation of triose phosphate. I conclude that the rate of growth is controlled by the rate of formation of a precursor metabolite and, thus, of monomers such as amino acids derived from it. The protein-synthesizing system is regulated according to demand for protein synthesis. I examine the conjecture that the signal for this regulation is the ratio of uncharged tRNA to aminoacyl-tRNA, that this signal controls the concentration of guanosine tetraphosphate, and that the concentration of guanosine tetraphosphate controls transcription of rrn genes. Differential equations describing this system were solved numerically for steady states of growth; the computed values of ribosomes and guanosine tetraphosphate and the maximal growth rate agree with experimental values obtained from the literature of the past 35 years. These equations were also solved for dynamical states corresponding to nutritional shifts up and down. PMID:1886524

  5. Clinical Implications of Enteroadherent Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M.P.; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli that colonize the small intestine primarily cause gastrointestinal illness in infants and travelers. The main categories of pathogenic E. coli that colonize the epithelial lining of the small intestine are enterotoxigenic E. coli enteropathogenic E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli. These organisms accomplish their pathogenic process by a complex, coordinated multistage strategy, including non-intimate adherence mediated by various adhesins. These so called “enteroadherent E. coli ” categories subsequently produced toxins or effector proteins that are either secreted to the milieu or injected to the host cell. Finally, destruction of the intestinal microvilli results from the intimate adherence or the toxic effect exerted over the epithelia, resulting in water secretion and diarrhea. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding these enteroadherent E. coli strains and the present clinical understanding of how these organisms colonize the human intestine and cause disease. PMID:22798032

  6. Infection strategies of enteric pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Abigail; Young, Joanna C.; Constantinou, Nicholas; Frankel, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Enteric Escherichia coli (E. coli) are both natural flora of humans and important pathogens causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally enteric E. coli have been divided into 6 pathotypes, with further pathotypes often proposed. In this review we suggest expansion of the enteric E. coli into 8 pathotypes to include the emerging pathotypes of adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) and Shiga-toxin producing enteroaggregative E. coli (STEAEC). The molecular mechanisms that allow enteric E. coli to colonize and cause disease in the human host are examined and for two of the pathotypes that express a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) we discuss the complex interplay between translocated effectors and manipulation of host cell signaling pathways that occurs during infection. PMID:22555463

  7. In-stream Escherichia coli Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, P.; Soupir, M.

    2013-12-01

    Elevated levels of pathogenic bacteria indicators such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) in streams are a serious concern. Controlling E. coli levels in streams requires improving our existing understanding of fate and transport of E. coli at watershed scale. In-stream E. coli concentrations are potentially linked to non-point pollution sources (i.e., agricultural land). Water of a natural stream can receive E. coli by either through overland flow (via runoff from cropland) or resuspension from the streambed to the water column. Calculating in-stream total E. coli loads requires estimation of particle attached bacteria as well free floating E. coli transport. Currently water quality models commonly used for predicting E. coli levels in stream water have limited capability for predicting E. coli levels in the water column as well as in the streambed sediment. The challenges in calculating in-stream E. coli levels include difficulties in modeling the complex interactions between sediment particles and E. coli. Here we have developed a watershed scale model (integrated with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)), which involves calculation of particle attached E. coli, to predict in-stream E. coli concentrations. The proposed model predicts E. coli levels in streambed bed sediment as well as in the water column. An extensive in-stream E. coli monitoring was carried out to verify the model predictions, and results indicate that the model performed well. The study proposed here will improve understanding on in-stream bacterial contamination, and help improving existing water quality models for predicting pathogenic bacteria levels in ambient water bodies.

  8. Spontaneous Escherichia coli meningitis in an adult.

    PubMed

    Mofredj, A; Guerin, J M; Leibinger, F; Mamoudi, R

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous meningitis due to gram-negative bacilli (excluding Hemophilus influenzae) is an infrequent infection in adult patients. It usually occurs in patients with underlying immunosuppressive conditions. Most of the cases are due to Escherichia coli and represent a complication of bacteraemia. The infection has a high mortality rate which may be as high as 90%, especially if associated with septicaemia. We report the case of a 53-y-old man with spontaneous, community-acquired Escherichia coli meningitis who was admitted with an unusual presentation. Blood and urine cultures were negative. PMID:11200386

  9. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA.

    PubMed

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L; Spychala, Caressa N; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A; Doi, Yohei

    2015-11-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described. PMID:26488485

  10. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA

    PubMed Central

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L.; Spychala, Caressa N.; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A.

    2015-01-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described. PMID:26488485

  11. Chaperone-usher fimbriae of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wurpel, Daniël J; Beatson, Scott A; Totsika, Makrina; Petty, Nicola K; Schembri, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Chaperone-usher (CU) fimbriae are adhesive surface organelles common to many Gram-negative bacteria. Escherichia coli genomes contain a large variety of characterised and putative CU fimbrial operons, however, the classification and annotation of individual loci remains problematic. Here we describe a classification model based on usher phylogeny and genomic locus position to categorise the CU fimbrial types of E. coli. Using the BLASTp algorithm, an iterative usher protein search was performed to identify CU fimbrial operons from 35 E. coli (and one Escherichia fergusonnii) genomes representing different pathogenic and phylogenic lineages, as well as 132 Escherichia spp. plasmids. A total of 458 CU fimbrial operons were identified, which represent 38 distinct fimbrial types based on genomic locus position and usher phylogeny. The majority of fimbrial operon types occupied a specific locus position on the E. coli chromosome; exceptions were associated with mobile genetic elements. A group of core-associated E. coli CU fimbriae were defined and include the Type 1, Yad, Yeh, Yfc, Mat, F9 and Ybg fimbriae. These genes were present as intact or disrupted operons at the same genetic locus in almost all genomes examined. Evaluation of the distribution and prevalence of CU fimbrial types among different pathogenic and phylogenic groups provides an overview of group specific fimbrial profiles and insight into the ancestry and evolution of CU fimbriae in E. coli. PMID:23382825

  12. Escherichia Coli--Key to Modern Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregegere, Francois

    1982-01-01

    Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to modern-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from early gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.…

  13. Detection of O antigens in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipopolysaccharide on the surface of Escherichia coli constitute the O antigens, which are important virulence factors that are targets of both the innate and adaptive immune system and play a major role in host-pathogen interactions. O antigens that are responsible for antigenic specificity of the ...

  14. Escherichia Coli--Key to Modern Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregegere, Francois

    1982-01-01

    Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to modern-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from early gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.…

  15. Escherichia coli and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bettelheim, Karl A.; Goldwater, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the association of strains of Escherichia coli with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and the possible role these bacteria play in this enigmatic condition. The review addresses evidence for E. coli in SIDS infants, potential sources of E. coli in the environment, colonization by commensal and pathogenic strains, the variety of currently accepted pathotypes, and how these pathotypes could compromise intestinal integrity and induce inflammation. Both intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes are compared in relation to the apparent liability in which virulence traits can be gained or lost by strains of E. coli. The way in which E. coli infections fit with current views on infant sleeping position and other SIDS risk factors is highlighted. PMID:26191064

  16. Escherichia coli in Europe: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Allocati, Nerino; Masulli, Michele; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.; Di Ilio, Carmine

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli remains one of the most frequent causes of several common bacterial infections in humans and animals. E. coli is the prominent cause of enteritis, urinary tract infection, septicaemia and other clinical infections, such as neonatal meningitis. E. coli is also prominently associated with diarrhoea in pet and farm animals. The therapeutic treatment of E. coli infections is threatened by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli strains is increasing worldwide principally due to the spread of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids. The rise of multidrug-resistant strains of E. coli also occurs in Europe. Therefore, the spread of resistance in E. coli is an increasing public health concern in European countries. This paper summarizes the current status of E. coli strains clinically relevant in European countries. Furthermore, therapeutic interventions and strategies to prevent and control infections are presented and discussed. The article also provides an overview of the current knowledge concerning promising alternative therapies against E. coli diseases. PMID:24287850

  17. Adhesion behaviors of Escherichia coli on hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Takahashi, Shohei; Yokoi, Taishi; Inoue, Chihiro; Ioku, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Optimum design of support materials for microorganisms is required for the construction of bioreactors. However, the effects of support materials on microorganisms are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the adhesion behavior of Escherichia coli (E. coli) on hydroxyapatite (HA), polyurethane (PU), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and carbon (Carbon) to obtain basic knowledge for the design of support materials. The total metabolic activity and number of E. coli adhering on the samples followed the order of HA≈Carbon>PVC>PU. On the other hand, the water contact angle of the pellet surfaces followed the order of HAcoli. The results implied that HA has a potential as a support material for microorganisms used in bioreactors. PMID:26838837

  18. Escherichia coli Capsule Bacteriophages II. Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Stirm, Stephan; Freund-Mölbert, Elisabeth

    1971-01-01

    The Escherichia coli capsule bacteriophages (K phages) described herein are specific for certain capsular strains of E. coli, all of them test strains for different E. coli K antigens. The phages are not adsorbed to the acapsular mutants of their host organisms nor to similar strains with serologically and chemically different capsular polysaccharides. Thirteen E. coli (and one Klebsiella) K phages were visualized in the electron microscope. Most viruses are similar to P22 and thus belong to Bradley group C; however, one each of group A (long, contractile tail) and group B (long, noncontractile tail) was also found. All K phages were seen to carry spikes but no tail fibers were detected. These results suggest that the structures responsible for the recognition of the thick (about 400 nm or more) capsular polysaccharide gels are located in these spikes. Images PMID:4107543

  19. Escherichia coli in retail processed food.

    PubMed

    Pinegar, J A; Cooke, E M

    1985-08-01

    Four thousand two hundred and forty six samples of retail processed food were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli. Overall 12% of samples contained this organism, cakes and confectionery being more frequently contaminated (28%) than meat and meat based products (9%). Contamination was more frequent in the summer months than in the colder weather and 27% of the contaminated foods contained greater than 10(3) E. coli/g. E. coli from meat and meat based products were more commonly resistant to one or more antibiotics (14%) than were confectionery strains (1%). The significance of these findings in relation to the E. coli population of the human bowel is discussed. PMID:3894508

  20. Hydrogen production by recombinant Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez‐Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best‐studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E. coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole‐cell systems and cell‐free systems are compared. PMID:21895995

  1. Dissolution of silver nanowires and nanospheres dictates their toxicity to Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Visnapuu, Meeri; Joost, Urmas; Juganson, Katre; Künnis-Beres, Kai; Kahru, Anne; Kisand, Vambola; Ivask, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are extensively used in antibacterial applications. However, the mechanisms of their antibacterial action are not yet fully explored. We studied the solubility-driven toxicity of 100 × 6100 nm (mean primary diameter × length) silver nanowires (NWs) to recombinant bioluminescent Escherichia coli as a target representative of enteric pathogens. The bacteria were exposed to silver nanostructures in water to exclude the speciation-driven alterations. Spherical silver nanoparticles (83 nm mean primary size) were used as a control for the effect of NPs shape. Toxicity of both Ag NWs and spheres to E. coli was observed at similar nominal concentrations: the 4h EC50 values, calculated on the basis of inhibition of bacterial bioluminescence, were 0.42 ± 0.06 and 0.68 ± 0.01 mg Ag/L, respectively. Dissolution and bioavailability of Ag from NWs and nanospheres, analyzed with AAS or Ag-sensor bacteria, respectively, suggested that the toxic effects were caused by solubilized Ag(+) ions. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of Ag NWs suspension and its ultracentrifuged particle-free supernatant were equal. The latter indicated that the toxic effects of ~80-100 nm Ag nanostructures to Escherichia coli were solely dependent on their dissolution and no shape-induced/related effects were observed. Yet, additional nanospecific effects could come into play in case of smaller nanosilver particles. PMID:24024212

  2. Dissolution of Silver Nanowires and Nanospheres Dictates Their Toxicity to Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Künnis-Beres, Kai; Kahru, Anne; Ivask, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are extensively used in antibacterial applications. However, the mechanisms of their antibacterial action are not yet fully explored. We studied the solubility-driven toxicity of 100 × 6100 nm (mean primary diameter × length) silver nanowires (NWs) to recombinant bioluminescent Escherichia coli as a target representative of enteric pathogens. The bacteria were exposed to silver nanostructures in water to exclude the speciation-driven alterations. Spherical silver nanoparticles (83 nm mean primary size) were used as a control for the effect of NPs shape. Toxicity of both Ag NWs and spheres to E. coli was observed at similar nominal concentrations: the 4h EC50 values, calculated on the basis of inhibition of bacterial bioluminescence, were 0.42 ± 0.06 and 0.68 ± 0.01 mg Ag/L, respectively. Dissolution and bioavailability of Ag from NWs and nanospheres, analyzed with AAS or Ag-sensor bacteria, respectively, suggested that the toxic effects were caused by solubilized Ag+ ions. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of Ag NWs suspension and its ultracentrifuged particle-free supernatant were equal. The latter indicated that the toxic effects of ~80–100 nm Ag nanostructures to Escherichia coli were solely dependent on their dissolution and no shape-induced/related effects were observed. Yet, additional nanospecific effects could come into play in case of smaller nanosilver particles. PMID:24024212

  3. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In United States, it is estimated that non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause more illnesses than STEC O157:H7, and the majority of cases of non-O157 STEC infections is due to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, referred to as the top six non-O157 STEC. The diseas...

  4. Frequency-dependent Escherichia coli chemotaxis behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuejun; Si, Guangwei; Deng, Nianpei; Ouyang, Qi; Wu, Tailin; He, Zhuoran; Jiang, Lili; Luo, Chunxiong; Tu, Yuhai

    2012-01-01

    We study Escherichia coli chemotaxis behaviors in environments with spatially and temporally varying attractant sources by developing a unique microfluidic system. Our measurements reveal a frequency-dependent chemotaxis behavior. At low frequency, the E. coli population oscillate in synchrony with the attractant. In contrast, in fast-changing environments, the population response becomes smaller and out of phase with the attractant waveform. These observations are inconsistent with the well-known Keller-Segel chemotaxis equation. A new continuum model is proposed to describe the population level behavior of E. coli chemotaxis based on the underlying pathway dynamics. With the inclusion of a finite adaptation time and an attractant consumption rate, our model successfully explains the microfluidic experiments at different stimulus frequencies. PMID:22540625

  5. Frequency-Dependent Escherichia coli Chemotaxis Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuejun; Si, Guangwei; Deng, Nianpei; Ouyang, Qi; Wu, Tailin; He, Zhuoran; Jiang, Lili; Luo, Chunxiong; Tu, Yuhai

    2012-03-01

    We study Escherichia coli chemotaxis behavior in environments with spatially and temporally varying attractant sources by developing a unique microfluidic system. Our measurements reveal a frequency-dependent chemotaxis behavior. At low frequency, the E. coli population oscillates in synchrony with the attractant. In contrast, in fast-changing environments, the population response becomes smaller and out of phase with the attractant waveform. These observations are inconsistent with the well-known Keller-Segel chemotaxis equation. A new continuum model is proposed to describe the population level behavior of E. coli chemotaxis based on the underlying pathway dynamics. With the inclusion of a finite adaptation time and an attractant consumption rate, our model successfully explains the microfluidic experiments at different stimulus frequencies.

  6. Frequency-dependent Escherichia coli chemotaxis behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuejun; Si, Guangwei; Deng, Nianpei; Ouyang, Qi; Wu, Tailin; He, Zhuoran; Jiang, Lili; Luo, Chunxiong; Tu, Yuhai

    2012-03-23

    We study Escherichia coli chemotaxis behavior in environments with spatially and temporally varying attractant sources by developing a unique microfluidic system. Our measurements reveal a frequency-dependent chemotaxis behavior. At low frequency, the E. coli population oscillates in synchrony with the attractant. In contrast, in fast-changing environments, the population response becomes smaller and out of phase with the attractant waveform. These observations are inconsistent with the well-known Keller-Segel chemotaxis equation. A new continuum model is proposed to describe the population level behavior of E. coli chemotaxis based on the underlying pathway dynamics. With the inclusion of a finite adaptation time and an attractant consumption rate, our model successfully explains the microfluidic experiments at different stimulus frequencies. PMID:22540625

  7. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in human medicine.

    PubMed

    Karch, Helge; Tarr, Phillip I; Bielaszewska, Martina

    2005-10-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are the pathogenic subgroup of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli. EHEC can cause non-bloody and bloody diarrhoea, and the haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). HUS is a major cause of acute renal failure in children. E. coli O57:H7 is the predominant, but far from being the only, serotype that can cause HUS. The cascade leading from gastrointestinal infection to renal impairment is complex, with the microvascular endothelium being the major histopathological target. EHEC also produce non-Stx molecules, such as cytolethal distending toxin, which can contribute to the endothelial or vascular injury. Because there are no specific therapies for EHEC infections, efficient reservoir and human preventive strategies are important areas of ongoing investigations. This review will focus on the microbiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of EHEC-associated diseases, and illustrate future challenges and opportunities for their control. PMID:16238016

  8. Action of sodium deoxycholate on Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    D'Mello, A.; Yotis, W.W.

    1987-08-01

    Sodium deoxycholate is used in a number of bacteriological media for the isolation and classification of gram-negative bacteria from food and the environment. Initial experiments to study the effect of deoxycholate on the growth parameters of Escherichia coli showed an increase in the lag time constant and generation time and a decrease in the growth rate constant total cell yield of this microorganisms. Cell fractionation studies indicated that sodium deoxycholate at levels used in bacteriological media interferes with the incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into the cold-trichloroacetic acid-soluble, ethanol-soluble, and trypsin-soluble cellular fractions of E. coli. Finally, sodium deoxycholate interfered with the flagellation and motility of Proteus mirabilis and E. coli. It would appear then that further improvement of the deoxycholate medium may be in order.

  9. Thymineless Death in Escherichia coli: Strain Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Donald J.; Mondale, Lee

    1967-01-01

    Thymineless death of various ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive strains of Escherichia coli B and K-12 was investigated. It was found that E. coli B, Bs−12, K-12 rec-21, and possibly K-12 Lon−, all sensitive to UV, were also sensitive to thymine starvation. However, other UV-sensitive strains of E. coli were found to display the typical resistant-type kinetics of thymineless death. The correlation of these results with various other cellular processes suggested that the filament-forming ability of the bacteria might be involved in the mechanism of thymineless death. It was apparent from the present results that capacity for host-cell reactivation, recombination ability, thymine dimer excision, and probably induction of a defective prophage had little to do with determining sensitivity to thymine deprivation. Images PMID:5337772

  10. Biodegradation of Aromatic Compounds by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Eduardo; Ferrández, Abel; Prieto, María A.; García, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli has long been recognized as the best-understood living organism, little was known about its abilities to use aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. This review gives an extensive overview of the current knowledge of the catabolism of aromatic compounds by E. coli. After giving a general overview of the aromatic compounds that E. coli strains encounter and mineralize in the different habitats that they colonize, we provide an up-to-date status report on the genes and proteins involved in the catabolism of such compounds, namely, several aromatic acids (phenylacetic acid, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, phenylpropionic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acid) and amines (phenylethylamine, tyramine, and dopamine). Other enzymatic activities acting on aromatic compounds in E. coli are also reviewed and evaluated. The review also reflects the present impact of genomic research and how the analysis of the whole E. coli genome reveals novel aromatic catabolic functions. Moreover, evolutionary considerations derived from sequence comparisons between the aromatic catabolic clusters of E. coli and homologous clusters from an increasing number of bacteria are also discussed. The recent progress in the understanding of the fundamentals that govern the degradation of aromatic compounds in E. coli makes this bacterium a very useful model system to decipher biochemical, genetic, evolutionary, and ecological aspects of the catabolism of such compounds. In the last part of the review, we discuss strategies and concepts to metabolically engineer E. coli to suit specific needs for biodegradation and biotransformation of aromatics and we provide several examples based on selected studies. Finally, conclusions derived from this review may serve as a lead for future research and applications. PMID:11729263

  11. Logarithmic Sensing in Escherichia coli Bacterial Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kalinin, Yevgeniy V.; Jiang, Lili; Tu, Yuhai; Wu, Mingming

    2009-01-01

    We studied the response of swimming Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria in a comprehensive set of well-controlled chemical concentration gradients using a newly developed microfluidic device and cell tracking imaging technique. In parallel, we carried out a multi-scale theoretical modeling of bacterial chemotaxis taking into account the relevant internal signaling pathway dynamics, and predicted bacterial chemotactic responses at the cellular level. By measuring the E. coli cell density profiles across the microfluidic channel at various spatial gradients of ligand concentration grad[L] and the average ligand concentration [L]¯near the peak chemotactic response region, we demonstrated unambiguously in both experiments and model simulation that the mean chemotactic drift velocity of E. coli cells increased monotonically with grad [L]/[L]¯ or ∼grad(log[L])—that is E. coli cells sense the spatial gradient of the logarithmic ligand concentration. The exact range of the log-sensing regime was determined. The agreements between the experiments and the multi-scale model simulation verify the validity of the theoretical model, and revealed that the key microscopic mechanism for logarithmic sensing in bacterial chemotaxis is the adaptation kinetics, in contrast to explanations based directly on ligand occupancy. PMID:19289068

  12. Profiling of Escherichia coli Chromosome database.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yukiko; Niki, Hironori; Kato, Jun-ichi

    2008-01-01

    The Profiling of Escherichia coli Chromosome (PEC) database (http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/ecoli/pec/) is designed to allow E. coli researchers to efficiently access information from functional genomics studies. The database contains two principal types of data: gene essentiality and a large collection of E. coli genetic research resources. The essentiality data are based on data compilation from published single-gene essentiality studies and on cell growth studies of large-deletion mutants. Using the circular and linear viewers for both whole genomes and the minimal genome, users can not only gain an overview of the genome structure but also retrieve information on contigs, gene products, mutants, deletions, and so forth. In particular, genome-wide exhaustive mutants are an essential resource for studying E. coli gene functions. Although the genomic database was constructed independently from the genetic resources database, users may seamlessly access both types of data. In addition to these data, the PEC database also provides a summary of homologous genes of other bacterial genomes and of protein structure information, with a comprehensive interface. The PEC is thus a convenient and useful platform for contemporary E. coli researchers. PMID:18392982

  13. Response of Gnotobiotic Pigs to Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Miniats, O. P.; Mitchell, L.; Barnum, D. A.

    1970-01-01

    In a study of the response of gnotobiotic pigs to coliform infections, 45 one-week-old germfree pigs were divided into five groups and each group was inoculated orally with a different strain of Escherichia coli. Three of these were enteropathogenic swine strains, P307[08:K87(B), K88 a,b (L):H19]; P570 [0138:K81]; P568[0141:K85a,b(B), K88a,b(L):H4], one was a virulent human strain, H224, [026:K60(B6)], and one was a non-enteropathogenic swine strain, P581[OX13:K68]. It was attempted to protect a portion of the pigs with orally administered specific antisera and sera from non-immunized specific pathogenfree (SPF) pigs. Observations were made on the clinical response, bacterial counts of feces and intestinal contents, gross pathological changes, distribution of the organisms in organs and serum hemagglutinin titers. Infection with E. coli P307 resulted in diarrhea, dehydration and death, unless the pig was protected with specific antiserum. The pigs infected with E. coli P570 had a transient diarrhea but retained their appetites and recovered. Those infected with the other three strains remained healthy throughout. No circulating hemagglutinating antibody against the test strains of E. coli could be detected in any of the pigs seven days or earlier post-inoculation. Relationship could not be established between the numbers of viable E. coli in the feces and the presence of clinical colibacillosis. Orally administered specific antiserum afforded protection against strain P307, but did not reduce the number of E. coli in the gut or alter their distribution in the internal organs. This suggested that the protective effect of specific antibody in the intestine was due to its action on a metabolite (enterotoxin) produced by E. coli P307 rather than the organism itself. PMID:4248448

  14. ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 AND WILD-TYPE ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of a number of human-virulent and "wild-type" Escherichia coli strains in phosphate buffered water was measured. The impact of pH, ionic strength, cation type (valence) and concentration, and bacterial strain on the EPM was investigated. Resul...

  15. Cyanide degradation by an Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Figueira, M M; Ciminelli, V S; de Andrade, M C; Linardi, V R

    1996-05-01

    Chemical formation of a glucose-cyanide complex was necessary for metabolic degradation of cyanide at concentrations up to 50.0 mg/L by a strain of Escherichia coli isolated from gold extraction circuit liquids. Ammonia accumulating during the culture log phase as the sole nitrogen by-product was further utilized for bacterial growth. Washed (intact) cells, harvested at different periods of bacterial growth on cyanide, consumed oxygen in presence of cyanide. These findings suggest that metabolism of cyanide involved a dioxygenase enzyme that converted cyanide directly to ammonia, without the formation of cyanate. PMID:8640610

  16. Shape of nonseptated Escherichia coli is asymmetric.

    PubMed

    Itan, E; Carmon, G; Rabinovitch, A; Fishov, I; Feingold, M

    2008-06-01

    The shape of Escherichia coli is approximately that of a cylinder with hemispherical caps. Since its size is not much larger than optical resolution, it has been difficult to quantify deviations from this approximation. We show that one can bypass this limitation and obtain the cell shape with subpixel accuracy. The resulting contours are shown to deviate from the hemisphere-cylinder-hemisphere shape. In particular, the cell is weakly asymmetric. Its two caps are different from each other and the sides are slightly curved. Most cells have convex sides. We discuss our results in light of several mechanisms that are involved in determining the shape of cells. PMID:18643295

  17. Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.

  18. Engineering the Escherichia coli Fermentative Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orencio-Trejo, M.; Utrilla, J.; Fernández-Sandoval, M. T.; Huerta-Beristain, G.; Gosset, G.; Martinez, A.

    Fermentative metabolism constitutes a fundamental cellular capacity for industrial biocatalysis. Escherichia coli is an important microorganism in the field of metabolic engineering for its well-known molecular characteristics and its rapid growth. It can adapt to different growth conditions and is able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Through the use of metabolic pathway engineering and bioprocessing techniques, it is possible to explore the fundamental cellular properties and to exploit its capacity to be applied as industrial biocatalysts to produce a wide array of chemicals. The objective of this chapter is to review the metabolic engineering efforts carried out with E. coli by manipulating the central carbon metabolism and fermentative pathways to obtain strains that produce metabolites with high titers, such as ethanol, alanine, lactate and succinate.

  19. Gas signatures from Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli-inoculated human whole blood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The gaseous headspace above naïve Escherichia Coli (E. coli) cultures and whole human blood inoculated with E. coli were collected and analyzed for the presence of trace gases that may have the potential to be used as novel, non-invasive markers of infectious disease. Methods The naïve E. coli culture, LB broth, and human whole blood or E. coli inoculated whole blood were incubated in hermetically sealable glass bioreactors at 37°C for 24 hrs. LB broth and whole human blood were used as controls for background volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The headspace gases were collected after incubation and analyzed using a gas chromatographic system with multiple column/detector combinations. Results Six VOCs were observed to be produced by E. coli-infected whole blood while there existed nearly zero to relatively negligible amounts of these gases in the whole blood alone, LB broth, or E. coli-inoculated LB broth. These VOCs included dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon disulfide (CS2), ethanol, acetaldehyde, methyl butanoate, and an unidentified gas S. In contrast, there were several VOCs significantly elevated in the headspace above the E. coli in LB broth, but not present in the E. coli/blood mixture. These VOCs included dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), methyl propanoate, 1-propanol, methylcyclohexane, and unidentified gases R2 and Q. Conclusions This study demonstrates 1) that cultivated E. coli in LB broth produce distinct gas profiles, 2) for the first time, the ability to modify E. coli-specific gas profiles by the addition of whole human blood, and 3) that E. coli-human whole blood interactions present different gas emission profiles that have the potential to be used as non-invasive volatile biomarkers of E. coli infection. PMID:23842518

  20. Cells of Escherichia coli are protected against severe chemical stress by co-habiting cell aggregates formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Jagmann, Nina; Henke, Sebastian Franz; Philipp, Bodo

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial cells within biofilms and cell aggregates show increased resistance against chemical stress compared with suspended cells. It is not known whether bacteria that co-habit biofilms formed by other bacteria also acquire such resistance. This scenario was investigated in a proof-of-principle experiment with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 as cell aggregate-forming bacterium and Escherichia coli strain MG1655 as potential co-habiting bacterium equipped with an inducible bioluminescence system. Cell aggregation of strain PAO1 can be induced by the toxic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In single cultures of strain MG1655, bioluminescence was inhibited by the protonophor carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) but the cells were still viable. By applying CCCP and SDS together, cells of strain MG1655 lost their bioluminescence and viability indicating the importance of energy-dependent resistance mechanisms against SDS. In co-suspensions with strain PAO1, bioluminescence of strain MG1655 was sustained in the presence of SDS and CCCP. Image analysis showed that bioluminescent cells were located in cell aggregates formed by strain PAO1. Thus, cells of strain MG1655 that co-habited cell aggregates formed by strain PAO1 were protected against a severe chemical stress that was lethal to them in single cultures. Co-habiting could lead to increased survival of pathogens in clinical settings and could be employed in biotechnological applications involving toxic milieus. PMID:26066844

  1. [Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC): topical enterobacteriaceae].

    PubMed

    Gouali, Malika; Weill, François-Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, EnterohaemorrhagicEscherichia coli (EHEC) have been recognised as emergent pathogens causing foodborne outbreaks. The latest one is the E. coli O104:H4 outbreak which occurred in Germany in May 2011 then in France. In France, the surveillance of EHEC infections is based on surveillance of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in children under 15 years old. The average annual incidence is 0.8/100,000 children under 15 years old with a predominance of the O157:H7 serotype. EHEC are one of the six clinical pathovars of E. coli defined by their capacity to produce Shiga-toxins and for that reason, are part of a larger group called: Shigatoxin-producingE. coli (STEC). EHEC are a cause of different troubles ranging from mild diarrhea to haemorrhagic colitis which might be complicated by HUS in young children and thrombocytopenic thrombotic purpura in adults. The reservoir of EHEC is mainly the intestinal tract of ruminants: EHEC are transmitted via ingestion of contaminated food or water, person-to-person contact, direct animal contact and exposure to the environment. The diagnosis of the EHEC infections relies on isolation of STEC in stool samples or detection of genes encoding for Shiga-toxins. Treatment is mainly symptomatic. Use of antibiotics is controversial because the risk of HUS could be increased (release of toxins). PMID:23237787

  2. Cell shape dynamics in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reshes, Galina; Vanounou, Sharon; Fishov, Itzhak; Feingold, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria are the simplest living organisms. In particular, Escherichia coli has been extensively studied and it has become one of the standard model systems in microbiology. However, optical microscopy studies of single E. coli have been limited by its small size, approximately 1 x 3 microm, not much larger than the optical resolution, approximately 0.25 microm. As a result, not enough quantitative dynamical information on the life cycle of single E. coli is presently available. We suggest that, by careful analysis of images from phase contrast and fluorescence time-lapse microscopy, this limitation can be bypassed. For example, we show that applying this approach to monitoring morphogenesis in individual E. coli leads to a simple, quantitative description of this process. First, we find the time when the formation of the septum starts, tau(c). It occurs much earlier than the time when the constriction can be directly observed by phase contrast. Second, we find that the growth law of single cells is more likely bilinear/trilinear than exponential. This is further supported by the relations that hold between the corresponding growth rates. These methods could be further extended to study the dynamics of cell components, e.g., the nucleoid and the Z-ring. PMID:17766333

  3. Biophysical characterization of highly active recombinant Gaussia luciferase expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rathnayaka, Tharangani; Tawa, Minako; Sohya, Shihori; Yohda, Masafumi; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Recently, the smallest bioluminescent protein (MW: 19.9 kDa), Gaussia luciferase (GLuc), has been isolated from the marine copepod Gaussia princeps and has attracted much attention as a reporter protein. However, preparation of large quantities of homogeneous natively folded recombinant GLuc appears to be difficult due to its ten cysteines. Here, we report the biophysical characterization of recombinant GLuc expressed using a novel Escherichia coli expression system based on a cold induced expression vector (pCold). Using this system, a large fraction of the protein was expressed in the soluble fraction. GLuc, purified exclusively from the supernatant using nickel affinity chromatography, yielded a large amount of pure GLuc with a native disulfide bond pattern (Soluble-GLuc). Soluble-GLuc had a strong bioluminescence activity and it retained 65% of its activity after 30 min incubation at 95 degrees C. Soluble-GLuc remained fully folded until 40 degrees C, as assessed by circular dichroism; and the thermal denaturation curve was S-shaped, indicating a cooperative transition, with a midpoint temperature of 56 degrees C. These results indicate that both the structure and bioluminescence activity of GLuc remain stable at high temperatures, and they strongly suggest GLuc's potential as a reporter protein. PMID:20452471

  4. Arabidopsis alternative oxidase sustains Escherichia coli respiration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A M; Söll, D

    1992-11-15

    Glutamyl-tRNA reductase, encoded by the hemA gene, is the first enzyme in porphyrin biosynthesis in many organisms. Hemes, important porphyrin derivatives, are essential components of redox enzymes, such as cytochromes. Thus a hemA Escherichia coli strain (SASX41B) is deficient in cytochrome-mediated aerobic respiration. Upon complementation of this strain with an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library, we isolated a clone which permitted the SASX41B strain to grow aerobically. The clone encodes the gene for Arabidopsis alternative oxidase, whose deduced amino acid sequence was found to have 71% identity with that of the enzyme from the voodoo lily, Sauromatum guttatum. The Arabidopsis protein is expressed as a 31-kDa protein in E. coli and confers on this organism cyanide-resistant growth, which in turn is sensitive to salicylhydroxamate. This implies that a single polypeptide is sufficient for alternative oxidase activity. Based on these observations we propose that a cyanide-insensitive respiratory pathway operates in the transformed E. coli hemA strain. Introduction of this pathway now opens the way to genetic/molecular biological investigations of alternative oxidase and its cofactor. PMID:1438286

  5. STUDIES ON THE LACTASE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    PubMed

    Knopfmacher, H P; Salle, A J

    1941-01-20

    A "lactase solution" was prepared from Escherichia coli. The mechanism of its action has been studied and changes in the rate of hydrolysis under various conditions investigated. The hydrolysis of lactose by the enzyme approximates the course of reaction of the integrated Michaelis-Menten equation. One molecule of enzyme combines with one molecule of substrate. E. coli lactase is readily inactivated at pH 5.0, and its optimal activity at 36 degrees C. is reached between pH 7.0 and pH 7.5. The optimal temperature for its action was found to be 46 degrees C. when determinations were carried out after an incubation period of 30 minutes. Its inactivation by heat follows the course of a first order reaction, and the critical thermal increment between the temperatures of 45 degrees C. and 53 degrees C. was calculated to be 56,400 calories per mol. The enzyme is activated by potassium cyanide, sodium sulfide, and cysteine, and irreversibly inactivated by mercuric chloride, silver nitrate, and iodine. After inactivation with copper sulfate partial reactivation is possible, while the slight inhibition brought about by hydrogen peroxide is completely reversible. The possible structure of the active groups of E. coli lactase as compared with other enzymes has been discussed. PMID:19873223

  6. Engineering a Reduced Escherichia coli Genome

    PubMed Central

    Kolisnychenko, Vitaliy; Plunkett, Guy; Herring, Christopher D.; Fehér, Tamás; Pósfai, János; Blattner, Frederick R.; Pósfai, György

    2002-01-01

    Our goal is to construct an improved Escherichia coli to serve both as a better model organism and as a more useful technological tool for genome science. We developed techniques for precise genomic surgery and applied them to deleting the largest K-islands of E. coli, identified by comparative genomics as recent horizontal acquisitions to the genome. They are loaded with cryptic prophages, transposons, damaged genes, and genes of unknown function. Our method leaves no scars or markers behind and can be applied sequentially. Twelve K-islands were successfully deleted, resulting in an 8.1% reduced genome size, a 9.3% reduction of gene count, and elimination of 24 of the 44 transposable elements of E. coli. These are particularly detrimental because they can mutagenize the genome or transpose into clones being propagated for sequencing, as happened in 18 places of the draft human genome sequence. We found no change in the growth rate on minimal medium, confirming the nonessential nature of these islands. This demonstration of feasibility opens the way for constructing a maximally reduced strain, which will provide a clean background for functional genomics studies, a more efficient background for use in biotechnology applications, and a unique tool for studies of genome stability and evolution. [Sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the DNA Data Bank of Japan, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, and GenBank databases under accession nos. AF402780, AF402779, and AF406953, respectively.] PMID:11932248

  7. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for fermentation and anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its cloning sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting the ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

  8. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the synthesis of ethanol and related fermentation products are regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its coding sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase and have recently cloned the ldh gene. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of tryptanthrins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bandekar, Pooja P; Roopnarine, Keir Alekseii; Parekh, Virali J; Mitchell, Thomas R; Novak, Mark J; Sinden, Richard R

    2010-05-13

    Tryptanthrins have potential therapeutic activity against a wide variety of pathogenic organisms, although little is known about their mechanism. Activity against Escherichia coli, however, has not been examined. The effects of tryptanthrin (indolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-6,12-dione) and nine derivatives on growth, survival, and mutagenesis in E. coli were examined. Analogues with a nitrogen atom at the 4-position of tryptanthrin stopped log phase growth of E. coli cultures at concentrations as low as 5 microM. Tryptanthrins decreased viability during incubation with cells in buffer by factors of 10(-2) to <10(-6) at 0.2-40 microM. Derivatives with an oxime group at the 6-position exhibited the greatest bactericidal activity. Most tryptanthrins were not mutagenic in several independent assays, although the 4-aza and 4 aza-8-fluoro derivatives increased frameshift mutations about 22- and 4-fold, respectively. Given the structure of trypanthrins, binding to DNA may occur by intercalation. From analysis using a sensitive linking number assay, several tryptanthrins, especially the 4-aza and 6-oximo derivatives, intercalate into DNA. PMID:20373766

  10. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), also known as verocytotoxin-producing E. coli, are important food-borne pathogens responsible for outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). STEC that cause HC and HUS are also referred to as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (E...

  11. WGS accurately predicts antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in identifying resistance genotypes of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and whether these correlate with observed phenotypes. Methods: Seventy-six E. coli strains were isolated from farm cattle and measured f...

  12. Population Phylogenomics of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tourret, Jérôme; Denamur, Erick

    2016-02-01

    The emergence of genomics over the last 10 years has provided new insights into the evolution and virulence of extraintestinal Escherichia coli. By combining population genetics and phylogenetic approaches to analyze whole-genome sequences, it became possible to link genomic features to specific phenotypes, such as the ability to cause urinary tract infections. An E. coli chromosome can vary extensively in length, ranging from 4.3 to 6.2 Mb, encoding 4,084 to 6,453 proteins. This huge diversity is structured as a set of less than 2,000 genes (core genome) that are conserved between all the strains and a set of variable genes. Based on the core genome, the history of the species can be reliably reconstructed, revealing the recent emergence of phylogenetic groups A and B1 and the more ancient groups B2, F, and D. Urovirulence is most often observed in B2/F/D group strains and is a multigenic process involving numerous combinations of genes and specific alleles with epistatic interactions, all leading down multiple evolutionary paths. The genes involved mainly code for adhesins, toxins, iron capture systems, and protectins, as well as metabolic pathways and mutation-rate-control systems. However, the barrier between commensal and uropathogenic E. coli strains is difficult to draw as the factors that are responsible for virulence have probably also been selected to allow survival of E. coli as a commensal in the intestinal tract. Genomic studies have also demonstrated that infections are not the result of a unique and stable isolate, but rather often involve several isolates with variable levels of diversity that dynamically changes over time. PMID:26999389

  13. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    TAKEDA, Yoshifumi

    2011-01-01

    This review highlighted the following: (i) pathogenic mechanism of the thermostable direct hemolysin produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, especially on its cardiotoxicity, (ii) heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, especially structure–activity relationship of heat-stable enterotoxin, (iii) RNA N-glycosidase activity of Vero toxins (VT1 and VT2) produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, (iv) discovery of Vibrio cholerae O139, (v) isolation of new variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor that carries classical ctxB, and production of high concentration of cholera toxin by these strains, and (vi) conversion of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae to culturable state by co-culture with eukaryotic cells. PMID:21233598

  14. Efficient production of indigoidine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuchao; Gage, David; Zhan, Jixun

    2015-08-01

    Indigoidine is a bacterial natural product with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Its bright blue color resembles the industrial dye indigo, thus representing a new natural blue dye that may find uses in industry. In our previous study, an indigoidine synthetase Sc-IndC and an associated helper protein Sc-IndB were identified from Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982 and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BAP1 to produce the blue pigment at 3.93 g/l. To further improve the production of indigoidine, in this work, the direct biosynthetic precursor L-glutamine was fed into the fermentation broth of the engineered E. coli strain harboring Sc-IndC and Sc-IndB. The highest titer of indigoidine reached 8.81 ± 0.21 g/l at 1.46 g/l L-glutamine. Given the relatively high price of L-glutamine, a metabolic engineering technique was used to directly enhance the in situ supply of this precursor. A glutamine synthetase gene (glnA) was amplified from E. coli and co-expressed with Sc-indC and Sc-indB in E. coli BAP1, leading to the production of indigoidine at 5.75 ± 0.09 g/l. Because a nitrogen source is required for amino acid biosynthesis, we then tested the effect of different nitrogen-containing salts on the supply of L-glutamine and subsequent indigoidine production. Among the four tested salts including (NH4)2SO4, NH4Cl, (NH4)2HPO4 and KNO3, (NH4)2HPO4 showed the best effect on improving the titer of indigoidine. Different concentrations of (NH4)2HPO4 were added to the fermentation broths of E. coli BAP1/Sc-IndC+Sc-IndB+GlnA, and the titer reached the highest (7.08 ± 0.11 g/l) at 2.5 mM (NH4)2HPO4. This work provides two efficient methods for the production of this promising blue pigment in E. coli. PMID:26109508

  15. Intrahost genome alterations in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mellmann, Alexander; Bielaszewska, Martina; Karch, Helge

    2009-05-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are not fixed molecules; they evolve over the course of infections in human beings. During infection, a variety of strong selective pressures are exerted on the pathogen. The resulting genetic changes that occur in intestinal pathogens might influence clinical outcome and have an impact on diagnosis and epidemiology. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a good example of this process. These zoonotic pathogens cause diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in human beings, whereas in their natural habitat they mostly are asymptomatic colonizers. Thus, EHEC must be able to quickly adapt from one milieu to another. The greatest challenge it might face is to infect human beings--profound chromosomal changes occur during the brief period that EHEC passes through the human gastrointestinal tract, leading to gains and losses of virulence determinants. The intensive study of human enteric factors that induce or modulate pathogen chromosome instability could provide important information about host-microbial interactions. PMID:19462505

  16. Mechanism of Escherichia coli Resistance to Pyrrhocoricin

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Shalini; Modak, Joyanta K.; Ryan, Catherine S.; Garcia-Bustos, Jose; Davies, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their lack of toxicity to mammalian cells and good serum stability, proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PR-AMPs) have been proposed as promising candidates for the treatment of infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens. It has been hypothesized that these peptides act on multiple targets within bacterial cells, and therefore the likelihood of the emergence of resistance was considered to be low. Here, we show that spontaneous Escherichia coli mutants resistant to pyrrhocoricin arise at a frequency of approximately 6 × 10?7. Multiple independently derived mutants all contained a deletion in a nonessential gene that encodes the putative peptide uptake permease SbmA. Sensitivity could be restored to the mutants by complementation with an intact copy of the sbmA gene. These findings question the viability of the development of insect PR-AMPs as antimicrobials. PMID:24590485

  17. Animal models of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli infection

    PubMed Central

    Philipson, Casandra W.; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Hontecillas, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) has been acknowledged as an emerging cause of gastroenteritis worldwide for over two decades. Epidemiologists are revealing the role of EAEC in diarrheal outbreaks as a more common occurrence than ever suggested before. EAEC induced diarrhea is most commonly associated with travelers, children and immunocompromised individuals however its afflictions are not limited to any particular demographic. Many attributes have been discovered and characterized surrounding the capability of EAEC to provoke a potent pro-inflammatory immune response, however cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying initiation, progression and outcomes are largely unknown. This limited understanding can be attributed to heterogeneity in strains and the lack of adequate animal models. This review aims to summarize current knowledge about EAEC etiology, pathogenesis and clinical manifestation. Additionally, current animal models and their limitations will be discussed along with the value of applying systems-wide approaches such as computational modeling to study host-EAEC interactions. PMID:23680797

  18. Direct Upstream Motility in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Tolga; Koser, Hur

    2012-01-01

    We provide an experimental demonstration of positive rheotaxis (rapid and continuous upstream motility) in wild-type Escherichia coli freely swimming over a surface. This hydrodynamic phenomenon is dominant below a critical shear rate and robust against Brownian motion and cell tumbling. We deduce that individual bacteria entering a flow system can rapidly migrate upstream (>20 μm/s) much faster than a gradually advancing biofilm. Given a bacterial population with a distribution of sizes and swim speeds, local shear rate near the surface determines the dominant hydrodynamic mode for motility, i.e., circular or random trajectories for low shear rates, positive rheotaxis for moderate flow, and sideways swimming at higher shear rates. Faster swimmers can move upstream more rapidly and at higher shear rates, as expected. Interestingly, we also find on average that both swim speed and upstream motility are independent of cell aspect ratio. PMID:22500751

  19. Ribonuclease Sensitivity of Escherichia coli Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Santer, Melvin; Smith, Josephine R.

    1966-01-01

    Santer, Melvin (Haverford College, Haverford, Pa.), and Josephine R. Smith. Ribonuclease sensitivity of Escherichia coli ribosomes. J. Bacteriol. 92:1099–1110. 1966.—The ribonucleic acid (RNA) contained in 70S ribosomes and in 50S and 30S subunits was hydrolyzed by pancreatic ribonuclease. A 7% amount of the RNA was removed from the 70S particle; at 10?4m magnesium concentration, a maximum of 24 and 30% of the RNA in the 50S and the 30S fractions, respectively, was removed by ribonuclease. At the two lower magnesium ion concentrations, 50S ribosomes did not lose any protein, whereas 30S ribosomes lost protein as a result of ribonuclease treatment. A number of proteins were removed from the 30S particles by ribonuclease, and these proteins were antigenically related to proteins present in 50S ribosomes. The differential effect of ribonuclease on 50S and 30S ribosomes suggested that they have structural dissimilarities. Images PMID:5332866

  20. Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme: purification and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Snapka, R.M.; Sutherland, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    Researchers have purified large quantities of Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme to apparent homogeneity and have studied its physical and chemical properties. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 36,800 and a S/sub 20,w//sup 0/ of 3.72 S. Amino acid analysis revealed an apparent absence of tryptophan, a low content of aromatic residues, and the presence of no unusual amino acids. The N terminus is arginine. The purified enzyme contained up to 13% carbohydrate by weight. The carbohydrate was composed of mannose, galactose, glucose, and N-acetylglucosamine. The enzyme is also associated with RNA containing uracil, adenine, guanine, and cytosine with no unusual bases detected.

  1. Escherichia coli with two linear chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiquan; Baek, Chang-Ho; Katzen, Federico

    2013-12-20

    A number of attempts have been made to simplify the synthesis of whole chromosomes to generate artificial microorganisms. However, the sheer size of the average bacterial genome makes the task virtually impracticable. A major limitation is the maximum assembly DNA size imposed by the current available technologies. We propose to fragment the bacterial chromosome into autonomous replicating units so that (i) each episome becomes small enough to be assembled in its entirety within an assembly host and (ii) the complete episome set should be able to generate a viable cell. In this work, we used the telN/tos system of bacteriophage N1 to show that the circular genome of Escherichia coli can be split into two linear chromosomes that complement each other to produce viable cells. PMID:24160891

  2. Chemotaxis Toward Sugars in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Julius; Hazelbauer, Gerald L.; Dahl, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Using a quantitative assay for measuring chemotaxis, we tested a variety of sugars and sugar derivatives for their ability to attract Escherichia coli bacteria. The most effective attractants, i.e., those that have thresholds near 10?5 M or below, are N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, 6-deoxy-d-glucose, d-fructose, d-fucose, 1-d-glycerol-?-d-galactoside, galactitol, d-galactose, d-glucosamine, d-glucose, ?-d-glucose-1-phosphate, lactose, maltose, d-mannitol, d-mannose, methyl-?-d-galactoside, methyl-?-d-glucoside, d-ribose, d-sorbitol, and trehalose. Lactose, and probably d-glucose-1-phosphate, are attractive only after conversion to the free monosaccharide, while the other attractants do not require breakdown for taxis. Nine different chemoreceptors are involved in detecting these various attractants. They are called the N-acetyl-glucosamine, fructose, galactose, glucose, maltose, mannitol, ribose, sorbitol, and trehalose chemoreceptors; the specificity of each was studied. The chemoreceptors, with the exception of the one for d-glucose, are inducible. The galactose-binding protein serves as the recognition component of the galactose chemoreceptor. E. coli also has osmotically shockable binding activities for maltose and d-ribose, and these appear to serve as the recognition components for the corresponding chemoreceptors. PMID:4580570

  3. Expanding ester biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M; Tashiro, Yohei; Atsumi, Shota

    2014-04-01

    To expand the capabilities of whole-cell biocatalysis, we have engineered Escherichia coli to produce various esters. The alcohol O-acyltransferase (ATF) class of enzyme uses acyl-CoA units for ester formation. The release of free CoA upon esterification with an alcohol provides the free energy to facilitate ester formation. The diversity of CoA molecules found in nature in combination with various alcohol biosynthetic pathways allows for the biosynthesis of a multitude of esters. Small to medium volatile esters have extensive applications in the flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, solvent, paint and coating industries. The present work enables the production of these compounds by designing several ester pathways in E. coli. The engineered pathways generated acetate esters of ethyl, propyl, isobutyl, 2-methyl-1-butyl, 3-methyl-1-butyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohols. In particular, we achieved high-level production of isobutyl acetate from glucose (17.2 g l(-1)). This strategy was expanded to realize pathways for tetradecyl acetate and several isobutyrate esters. PMID:24609358

  4. Expanding ester biosynthesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M; Tashiro, Yohei; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-01-01

    To expand the capabilities of whole-cell biocatalysis, we have engineered Escherichia coli to produce various esters. The alcohol O-acyltransferase (ATF) class of enzyme uses acyl-CoA units for ester formation. The release of free CoA upon esterification with an alcohol provides the free energy to facilitate ester formation. The diversity of CoA molecules found in nature in combination with various alcohol biosynthetic pathways allows for the biosynthesis of a multitude of esters. Small to medium volatile esters have extensive applications in the flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, solvent, paint and coating industries. The present work enables the production of these compounds by designing several ester pathways in E. coli. The engineered pathways generated acetate esters of ethyl, propyl, isobutyl, 2-methyl-1-butyl, 3-methyl-1-butyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohols. In particular, we achieved high-level production of isobutyl acetate from glucose (17.2 g l?1). This strategy was expanded to realize pathways for tetradecyl acetate and several isobutyrate esters. PMID:24609358

  5. Trehalose transport and metabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Boos, W; Ehmann, U; Forkl, H; Klein, W; Rimmele, M; Postma, P

    1990-01-01

    Trehalose metabolism in Escherichia coli is complicated by the fact that cells grown at high osmolarity synthesize internal trehalose as an osmoprotectant, independent of the carbon source, although trehalose can serve as a carbon source at both high and low osmolarity. The elucidation of the pathway of trehalose metabolism was facilitated by the isolation of mutants defective in the genes encoding transport proteins and degradative enzymes. The analysis of the phenotypes of these mutants and of the reactions catalyzed by the enzymes in vitro allowed the formulation of the degradative pathway at low osmolarity. Thus, trehalose utilization begins with phosphotransferase (IITre/IIIGlc)-mediated uptake delivering trehalose-6-phosphate to the cytoplasm. It continues with hydrolysis to trehalose and proceeds by splitting trehalose, releasing one glucose residue with the simultaneous transfer of the other to a polysaccharide acceptor. The enzyme catalyzing this reaction was named amylotrehalase. Amylotrehalase and EIITre were induced by trehalose in the medium but not at high osmolarity. treC and treB encoding these two enzymes mapped at 96.5 min on the E. coli linkage map but were not located in the same operon. Use of a mutation in trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase allowed demonstration of the phosphoenolpyruvate- and IITre-dependent in vitro phosphorylation of trehalose. The phenotype of this mutant indicated that trehalose-6-phosphate is the effective in vivo inducer of the system. Images PMID:2160944

  6. Mutants of Escherichia coli producing pyrroloquinoline quinone.

    PubMed

    Biville, F; Turlin, E; Gasser, F

    1991-08-01

    In glucose minimal medium a PTS- strain of Escherichia coli [delta (ptsH ptsI crr)] could grow slowly (doubling time, d = 10 h). When the population reached 5 x 10(6) to 2 x 10(7) cells ml-1, mutants growing rapidly (d = 1.5 h) appeared and rapidly outgrew the initial population. These mutants (EF mutants) do not use a constitutive galactose permease for glucose translocation. They synthesize sufficient pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) to yield a specific activity of glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) equivalent to that found in the parent strain grown in glucose minimal medium supplemented with 1 nM-PQQ. Membrane preparations containing an active GDH oxidized glucose to gluconic acid, which was also present in the culture supernatant of EF strains in glucose minimal medium. Glucose utilization is the only phenotypic trait distinguishing EF mutants from the parent strain. Glucose utilization by EF mutants was strictly aerobic as expected from a PQQ-dependent catabolism. The regulation of PQQ production by E. coli is discussed. PMID:1659611

  7. Concerted control of Escherichia coli cell division.

    PubMed

    Osella, Matteo; Nugent, Eileen; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2014-03-01

    The coordination of cell growth and division is a long-standing problem in biology. Focusing on Escherichia coli in steady growth, we quantify cell division control using a stochastic model, by inferring the division rate as a function of the observable parameters from large empirical datasets of dividing cells. We find that (i) cells have mechanisms to control their size, (ii) size control is effected by changes in the doubling time, rather than in the single-cell elongation rate, (iii) the division rate increases steeply with cell size for small cells, and saturates for larger cells. Importantly, (iv) the current size is not the only variable controlling cell division, but the time spent in the cell cycle appears to play a role, and (v) common tests of cell size control may fail when such concerted control is in place. Our analysis illustrates the mechanisms of cell division control in E. coli. The phenomenological framework presented is sufficiently general to be widely applicable and opens the way for rigorous tests of molecular cell-cycle models. PMID:24550446

  8. Nucleotide excision repair in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, B

    1990-01-01

    One of the best-studied DNA repair pathways is nucleotide excision repair, a process consisting of DNA damage recognition, incision, excision, repair resynthesis, and DNA ligation. Escherichia coli has served as a model organism for the study of this process. Recently, many of the proteins that mediate E. coli nucleotide excision have been purified to homogeneity; this had led to a molecular description of this repair pathway. One of the key repair enzymes of this pathway is the UvrABC nuclease complex. The individual subunits of this enzyme cooperate in a complex series of partial reactions to bind to and incise the DNA near a damaged nucleotide. The UvrABC complex displays a remarkable substrate diversity. Defining the structural features of DNA lesions that provide the specificity for damage recognition by the UvrABC complex is of great importance, since it represents a unique form of protein-DNA interaction. Using a number of in vitro assays, researchers have been able to elucidate the action mechanism of the UvrABC nuclease complex. Current research is devoted to understanding how these complex events are mediated within the living cell. PMID:2181258

  9. Independence of replisomes in Escherichia coli chromosomalreplication

    SciTech Connect

    Breier, Adam M.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R.

    2005-03-13

    In Escherichia coli DNA replication is carried out by the coordinated action of the proteins within a replisome. After replication initiation, the two bidirectionally oriented replisomes from a single origin are colocalized into higher-order structures termed replication factories. The factory model postulated that the two replisomes are also functionally coupled. We tested this hypothesis by using DNA combing and whole-genome microarrays. Nascent DNA surrounding oriC in single, combed chromosomes showed instead that one replisome, usually the leftward one, was significantly ahead of the other 70% of the time. We next used microarrays to follow replication throughout the genome by measuring DNA copy number. We found in multiple E. coli strains that the replisomes are independent, with the leftward replisome ahead of the rightward one. The size of the bias was strain-specific, varying from 50 to 130 kb in the array results. When we artificially blocked one replisome, the other continued unabated, again demonstrating independence. We suggest an improved version of the factory model that retains the advantages of threading DNA through colocalized replisomes at about equal rates, but allows the cell flexibility to overcome obstacles encountered during elongation.

  10. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli induces chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Rudick, Charles N; Berry, Ruth E; Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Klumpp, David J; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2011-02-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a debilitating syndrome of unknown etiology often postulated, but not proven, to be associated with microbial infection of the prostate gland. We hypothesized that infection of the prostate by clinically relevant uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) can initiate and establish chronic pain. We utilized an E. coli strain newly isolated from a patient with CP/CPPS (strain CP1) and examined its molecular pathogenesis in cell culture and in a murine model of bacterial prostatitis. We found that CP1 is an atypical isolate distinct from most UPEC in its phylotype and virulence factor profile. CP1 adhered to, invaded, and proliferated within prostate epithelia and colonized the prostate and bladder of NOD and C57BL/6J mice. Using behavioral measures of pelvic pain, we showed that CP1 induced and sustained chronic pelvic pain in NOD mice, an attribute not exhibited by a clinical cystitis strain. Furthermore, pain was observed to persist even after bacterial clearance from genitourinary tissues. CP1 induced pelvic pain behavior exclusively in NOD mice and not in C57BL/6J mice, despite comparable levels of colonization and inflammation. Microbial infections can thus serve as initiating agents for chronic pelvic pain through mechanisms that are dependent on both the virulence of the bacterial strain and the genetic background of the host. PMID:21078846

  11. The extracellular RNA complement of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Upadhyaya, Bimal Babu; Fritz, Joëlle V; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Desai, Mahesh S; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Huang, David; Baumuratov, Aidos; Wang, Kai; Galas, David; Wilmes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but they also play roles in inter-kingdom exchanges and pathogenicity. To date, released products, such as small molecules, DNA, peptides, and proteins, have been well studied in bacteria. However, the bacterial extracellular RNA complement has so far not been comprehensively characterized. Here, we have analyzed, using a combination of physical characterization and high-throughput sequencing, the extracellular RNA complement of both outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-associated and OMV-free RNA of the enteric Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 substrain MG1655 and have compared it to its intracellular RNA complement. Our results demonstrate that a large part of the extracellular RNA complement is in the size range between 15 and 40 nucleotides and is derived from specific intracellular RNAs. Furthermore, RNA is associated with OMVs and the relative abundances of RNA biotypes in the intracellular, OMV and OMV-free fractions are distinct. Apart from rRNA fragments, a significant portion of the extracellular RNA complement is composed of specific cleavage products of functionally important structural noncoding RNAs, including tRNAs, 4.5S RNA, 6S RNA, and tmRNA. In addition, the extracellular RNA pool includes RNA biotypes from cryptic prophages, intergenic, and coding regions, of which some are so far uncharacterised, for example, transcripts mapping to the fimA-fimL and ves-spy intergenic regions. Our study provides the first detailed characterization of the extracellular RNA complement of the enteric model bacterium E. coli. Analogous to findings in eukaryotes, our results suggest the selective export of specific RNA biotypes by E. coli, which in turn indicates a potential role for extracellular bacterial RNAs in intercellular communication. PMID:25611733

  12. Identification of pseudouridine methyltransferase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ero, Rya; Peil, Lauri; Liiv, Aivar; Remme, Jaanus

    2008-10-01

    In ribosomal RNA, modified nucleosides are found in functionally important regions, but their function is obscure. Stem-loop 69 of Escherichia coli 23S rRNA contains three modified nucleosides: pseudouridines at positions 1911 and 1917, and N3 methyl-pseudouridine (m(3)Psi) at position 1915. The gene for pseudouridine methyltransferase was previously not known. We identified E. coli protein YbeA as the methyltransferase methylating Psi1915 in 23S rRNA. The E. coli ybeA gene deletion strain lacks the N3 methylation at position 1915 of 23S rRNA as revealed by primer extension and nucleoside analysis by HPLC. Methylation at position 1915 is restored in the ybeA deletion strain when recombinant YbeA protein is expressed from a plasmid. In addition, we show that purified YbeA protein is able to methylate pseudouridine in vitro using 70S ribosomes but not 50S subunits from the ybeA deletion strain as substrate. Pseudouridine is the preferred substrate as revealed by the inability of YbeA to methylate uridine at position 1915. This shows that YbeA is acting at the final stage during ribosome assembly, probably during translation initiation. Hereby, we propose to rename the YbeA protein to RlmH according to uniform nomenclature of RNA methyltransferases. RlmH belongs to the SPOUT superfamily of methyltransferases. RlmH was found to be well conserved in bacteria, and the gene is present in plant and in several archaeal genomes. RlmH is the first pseudouridine specific methyltransferase identified so far and is likely to be the only one existing in bacteria, as m(3)Psi1915 is the only methylated pseudouridine in bacteria described to date. PMID:18755836

  13. Identification of pseudouridine methyltransferase in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ero, Rya; Peil, Lauri; Liiv, Aivar; Remme, Jaanus

    2008-01-01

    In ribosomal RNA, modified nucleosides are found in functionally important regions, but their function is obscure. Stem–loop 69 of Escherichia coli 23S rRNA contains three modified nucleosides: pseudouridines at positions 1911 and 1917, and N3 methyl-pseudouridine (m3?) at position 1915. The gene for pseudouridine methyltransferase was previously not known. We identified E. coli protein YbeA as the methyltransferase methylating ?1915 in 23S rRNA. The E. coli ybeA gene deletion strain lacks the N3 methylation at position 1915 of 23S rRNA as revealed by primer extension and nucleoside analysis by HPLC. Methylation at position 1915 is restored in the ybeA deletion strain when recombinant YbeA protein is expressed from a plasmid. In addition, we show that purified YbeA protein is able to methylate pseudouridine in vitro using 70S ribosomes but not 50S subunits from the ybeA deletion strain as substrate. Pseudouridine is the preferred substrate as revealed by the inability of YbeA to methylate uridine at position 1915. This shows that YbeA is acting at the final stage during ribosome assembly, probably during translation initiation. Hereby, we propose to rename the YbeA protein to RlmH according to uniform nomenclature of RNA methyltransferases. RlmH belongs to the SPOUT superfamily of methyltransferases. RlmH was found to be well conserved in bacteria, and the gene is present in plant and in several archaeal genomes. RlmH is the first pseudouridine specific methyltransferase identified so far and is likely to be the only one existing in bacteria, as m3?1915 is the only methylated pseudouridine in bacteria described to date. PMID:18755836

  14. Determination of spatial and temporal colonization of enteropathogenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli in mice using bioluminescent in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Cheng, Hao; Harris, Antoneicka; Morin, Cara; Kaper, James B

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea is a major contributor of child morbidity and mortality in developing nations. Murine models to study the pathogenesis of infectious diarrhea caused by organisms such as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are not fully characterized. More emphasis has been placed on infection of mice with the murine specific pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. While these three organisms are genetically related they are not identical. Our goal was to better characterize the murine model of EPEC and EHEC infection by using bioluminescent bacteria to determine temporal and spatial colonization of these two human pathogens. EPEC and EHEC were transformed with a bacterial luciferase expression plasmid containing the constitutive OmpC promoter. C57BL/6 mice were orally inoculated with bioluminescent EPEC or EHEC and bacterial localization in the intestine was monitored ex vivo and in vivo by IVIS. At 3 days after infection, EPEC, EHEC and Citrobacter rodentium were all localized in the cecum and colon. EPEC colonization peaked at day 2–3 and was undetectable by day 7. The bioluminescent EPEC adheres to the cecum and colon of the mouse intestine. However, when EPEC infected mice were administered xylazine/ketamine for in vivo live imaging, the EPEC persisted at high densities for up to 31 days. This is the first report of a bioluminescent imaging of luciferase expressing EPEC in a mouse model. PMID:21637016

  15. Persistence, dissipation, and activity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within sand and seawater environments.

    PubMed

    Williams, A Prysor; Avery, Lisa M; Killham, Ken; Jones, David L

    2007-04-01

    Runoff from agricultural land into watercourses may transport and deposit animal-derived waste contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 onto beaches, which may in turn lead to human infection. To simulate contamination, freshwater mixed with cattle slurry containing E. coli O157:H7 was added to sand from three recreational beaches. The sand was then maintained in a dry state (nontidal) or subjected to a repeated seawater tidal simulation. The pathogen could still be recovered from all sands by day 5. Although survival of the pathogen did not statistically vary between sands of different origin under nontidal conditions, significant differences in numbers occurred between sands when subject to tidal simulation. In the tidal simulations, a considerable proportion of the E. coli O157:H7 rapidly dissipated from sand into the seawater. In a separate experiment, the activity of bioluminescent (lux-marked) E. coli O157:H7 cells was monitored in various mixtures of contaminated runoff water and seawater over 5 days. Pathogen activity declined with increasing seawater concentration; however, cells remained viable in all treatments over the 5-day period. The addition of nutrients to water rapidly increased pathogen activity in all treatments. Our findings highlight the resilience of E. coli O157:H7 in aquatic and marine environments. PMID:17250753

  16. Influence of carbon-based nanomaterials on lux-bioreporter Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jia, Kun; Marks, Robert S; Ionescu, Rodica E

    2014-08-01

    The cytotoxic effects of carbon-based nanomaterials are evaluated via the induction of luminescent genetically engineered Escherichia coli bacterial cells. Specifically, two engineered E. coli bacteria strains of DPD2794 and TV1061 were incubated with aqueous dispersion of three carbon allotropes (multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphene nanosheets and carbon black nanopowders) with different concentrations and the resulting bioluminescence was recorded at 30°C and 25°C, respectively. The corresponding optical density changes of bacterial cells in the presence of various carbon nanomaterials were recorded as well. Based on these results, E. coli DPD2794 bacterial induction responds to a greater degree than E. coli TV1061 bacteria when exposed to various carbon-based nanomaterials. Finally, the surface morphology of E. coli DPD2794 bacteria cells before and after carbon-based nanomaterials treatment was observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), from which morphological changes from the presence of carbon-based nanomaterials were observed and discussed. PMID:24881555

  17. Escherichia coli in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases: An update on adherent invasive Escherichia coli pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Garcia-Gil, Librado Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli), and particularly the adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) pathotype, has been increasingly implicated in the ethiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). E. coli strains with similar pathogenic features to AIEC have been associated with other intestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer, and coeliac disease, but AIEC prevalence in these diseases remains largely unexplored. Since AIEC was described one decade ago, substantial progress has been made in deciphering its mechanisms of pathogenicity. However, the molecular bases that characterize the phenotypic properties of this pathotype are still not well resolved. A review of studies focused on E. coli populations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is presented here and we discuss about the putative role of this species on each IBD subtype. Given the relevance of AIEC in CD pathogenesis, we present the latest research findings concerning AIEC host-microbe interactions and pathogenicity. We also review the existing data regarding the prevalence and abundance of AIEC in CD and its association with other intestinal diseases from humans and animals, in order to discuss the AIEC disease- and host-specificity. Finally, we highlight the fact that dietary components frequently found in industrialized countries may enhance AIEC colonization in the gut, which merits further investigation and the implementation of preventative measures. PMID:25133024

  18. Overexpression of vsr in Escherichia coli is mutagenic.

    PubMed

    Doiron, K M; Viau, S; Koutroumanis, M; Cupples, C G

    1996-07-01

    Overexpression of vsr in Escherichia coli stimulates transition and frameshift mutations. The pattern of mutations suggests that mutagenesis is due to saturation or inactivation of dam-directed mismatch repair. PMID:8763960

  19. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  20. The N-degradome of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Humbard, Matthew A.; Surkov, Serhiy; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Jenkins, Lisa M.; Maurizi, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The N-end rule is a conserved mechanism found in Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes for marking proteins to be degraded by ATP-dependent proteases. Specific N-terminal amino acids (N-degrons) are sufficient to target a protein to the degradation machinery. In Escherichia coli, the adaptor ClpS binds an N-degron and delivers the protein to ClpAP for degradation. As ClpS recognizes N-terminal Phe, Trp, Tyr, and Leu, which are not found at the N terminus of proteins translated and processed by the canonical pathway, proteins must be post-translationally modified to expose an N-degron. One modification is catalyzed by Aat, an enzyme that adds leucine or phenylalanine to proteins with N-terminal lysine or arginine; however, such proteins are also not generated by the canonical protein synthesis pathway. Thus, the mechanisms producing N-degrons in proteins and the frequency of their occurrence largely remain a mystery. To address these issues, we used a ClpS affinity column to isolate interacting proteins from E. coli cell lysates under non-denaturing conditions. We identified more than 100 proteins that differentially bound to a column charged with wild-type ClpS and eluted with a peptide bearing an N-degron. Thirty-two of 37 determined N-terminal peptides had N-degrons. Most of the proteins were N-terminally truncated by endoproteases or exopeptidases, and many were further modified by Aat. The identities of the proteins point to possible physiological roles for the N-end rule in cell division, translation, transcription, and DNA replication and reveal widespread proteolytic processing of cellular proteins to generate N-end rule substrates. PMID:23960079

  1. Mono and diterpene production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reiling, K Kinkead; Yoshikuni, Yasuo; Martin, Vincent J J; Newman, Jack; Bohlmann, Jörg; Keasling, Jay D

    2004-07-20

    Mono- and diterpenoids are of great industrial and medical value as specialty chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Production of these compounds in microbial hosts, such as Escherichia coli, can be limited by intracellular levels of the polyprenyl diphosphate precursors, geranyl diphosphate (GPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). To alleviate this limitation, we constructed synthetic operons that express three key enzymes for biosynthesis of these precursors: (1). DXS,1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase; (2). IPPHp, IPP isomerase from Haematococcus pluvialis; and (3). one of two variants of IspA, FPP synthase that produces either GPP or GGPP. The reporter plasmids pAC-LYC and pACYC-IB, which encode enzymes that convert either FPP or GGPP, respectively, to the pigment lycopene, were used to demonstrate that at full induction, the operon encoding the wild-type FPP synthase and mutant GGPP synthase produced similar levels of lycopene. To synthesize di- or monoterpenes in E. coli using the GGPP and GPP encoding operons either a diterpene cyclase [casbene cyclase (Ricinus communis L) and ent-kaurene cyclase (Phaeosphaeria sp. L487)] or a monoterpene cyclase [3-carene cyclase (Picea abies)] was coexpressed with their respective precursor production operon. Analysis of culture extracts or headspace by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmed the in vivo production of the diterpenes casbene, kaur-15-ene, and kaur-16-ene and the monoterpenes alpha-pinene, myrcene, sabinene, 3-carene, alpha-terpinene, limonene, beta-phellandrene, alpha-terpinene, and terpinolene. Construction and functional expression of GGPP and GPP operons provides an in vivo precursor platform host for the future engineering of di- and monoterpene cyclases and the overproduction of terpenes in bacteria. PMID:15236249

  2. The Escherichia coli Peripheral Inner Membrane Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Papanastasiou, Malvina; Orfanoudaki, Georgia; Koukaki, Marina; Kountourakis, Nikos; Sardis, Marios Frantzeskos; Aivaliotis, Michalis; Karamanou, Spyridoula; Economou, Anastassios

    2013-01-01

    Biological membranes are essential for cell viability. Their functional characteristics strongly depend on their protein content, which consists of transmembrane (integral) and peripherally associated membrane proteins. Both integral and peripheral inner membrane proteins mediate a plethora of biological processes. Whereas transmembrane proteins have characteristic hydrophobic stretches and can be predicted using bioinformatics approaches, peripheral inner membrane proteins are hydrophilic, exist in equilibria with soluble pools, and carry no discernible membrane targeting signals. We experimentally determined the cytoplasmic peripheral inner membrane proteome of the model organism Escherichia coli using a multidisciplinary approach. Initially, we extensively re-annotated the theoretical proteome regarding subcellular localization using literature searches, manual curation, and multi-combinatorial bioinformatics searches of the available databases. Next we used sequential biochemical fractionations coupled to direct identification of individual proteins and protein complexes using high resolution mass spectrometry. We determined that the proposed cytoplasmic peripheral inner membrane proteome occupies a previously unsuspected ?19% of the basic E. coli BL21(DE3) proteome, and the detected peripheral inner membrane proteome occupies ?25% of the estimated expressed proteome of this cell grown in LB medium to mid-log phase. This value might increase when fleeting interactions, not studied here, are taken into account. Several proteins previously regarded as exclusively cytoplasmic bind membranes avidly. Many of these proteins are organized in functional or/and structural oligomeric complexes that bind to the membrane with multiple interactions. Identified proteins cover the full spectrum of biological activities, and more than half of them are essential. Our data suggest that the cytoplasmic proteome displays remarkably dynamic and extensive communication with biological membrane surfaces that we are only beginning to decipher. PMID:23230279

  3. EFFECT OF MANURE ON ESCHERICHIA COLI ATTACHMENT TO SOIL FRACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli are commonly used as indicators of fecal contamination in the environment. Attachment of bacteria to soil and sediment is an important retardation factor of bacterial transport with runoff water. Despite the fact that E. coli are derived exclusively from feces/manure, the effect of ...

  4. Properties and Transport Behavior among 12 Different Environmental Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli is a commonly used indicator organism for detecting the presence of fecal-borne pathogenic microorganisms in water supplies. The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism has led to numerous studies looking at cell properties and transport behavior of this microorganism. In man...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Myophage Murica

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, Joseph N.; Lancaster, Jacob C.; Cahill, Jesse L.; Rasche, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Murica is an rv5-like myophage that infects enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Pathogenic E. coli strains are responsible for many intestinal diseases, and phages that infect these bacteria may prove useful in preventing severe health issues. The following is a report of the complete genome sequence of Murica and its important features. PMID:26430048

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Myophage Murica.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Joseph N; Lancaster, Jacob C; Cahill, Jesse L; Rasche, Eric S; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Murica is an rv5-like myophage that infects enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Pathogenic E. coli strains are responsible for many intestinal diseases, and phages that infect these bacteria may prove useful in preventing severe health issues. The following is a report of the complete genome sequence of Murica and its important features. PMID:26430048

  7. ESCHERICHIA COLI O ANTIGEN TYPING USING DNA MICROARRAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA microarrays were developed for rapid identification of different serogroups of Escherichia coli in a single platform. Oligonucleotides, as well as PCR products from genes in the O-antigen gene clusters of E. coli serogroups O7, O104, O111, and O157 were spotted onto glass slides. This was foll...

  8. Molecular Serotyping of Escherichia coli O111:H8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate Escherichia coli serotyping is critical for pathogen diagnosis and surveillance of non-O157 shiga-toxigenic strains, however, few laboratories have this capacity. The molecular serotyping protocol described in this paper targets the somatic and flagellar antigens of E. coli O111:H8 used in...

  9. RAPID GLUTAMATE DECARBOXYLASE ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid test procedure for the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase was developed for the detection of Escherichia coli. he assay procedure was able to confirm the presence of E. coli in enteric broth cultures with a 95 percent specificity for both pure cultures and environmental sampl...

  10. Glucuronidase Activity Of Escherichia Coli Isolated From Chicken Carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Martins Perin, Luana; Keizo Yamazi, Anderson; Mendonça Moraes, Paula; Coutinho Cossi, Marcus Vinícius; Sérgio de Arruda Pinto, Paulo; Augusto Nero*, Luís

    2010-01-01

    To identify Escherichia coli through the production of ?-D-glucuronidase (GUD), 622 suspect cultures were isolated from chicken carcasses and plated in Petrifilm™ EC. Of these cultures, only 44 (7.1%) failed to produce GUD. This result indicates the usefulness of GUD production for estimating E. coli populations in chicken. PMID:24031561

  11. Escherichia coli with Resistance Factors in Vegetarians, Babies, and Nonvegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Guinée, P.; Ugueto, N.; van Leeuwen, N.

    1970-01-01

    The prevalence of Escherichia coli carrying resistance factors (R factors) was examined in meat-consuming individuals and in those not consuming meat (vegetarians and babies below the age of 6 months). Assuming that the transport of resistant E. coli from animals through meat and meat products to the human consumer is most important, with regard to the incidence of resistant E. coli in man, we expected a significant difference in the proportions of people with resistant E. coli between the two groups. However, the percentage with resistant E. coli was larger in the group of vegetarians and babies than in the group of meat-eating individuals. PMID:4926439

  12. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverría, Analía Inés; Padola, Nora Lía

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. Outbreaks are linked to bovine food sources. STEC O157:H7 has been responsible for the most severe outbreaks worldwide. However, non-O157 serotypes have emerged as important enteric pathogens in several countries. The main virulence factor of STEC is the production of Shiga toxins 1 and 2. Additional virulence markers are a plasmid-encoded enterohemolysin (ehxA), an autoagglutinating adhesin (Saa), a catalase-peroxidase (katP), an extracellular serine protease (espP), a zinc metalloprotease (stcE), a subtilase cytotoxin (subAB), among others. Other virulence factors are intimin and adhesins that had a roll in the adherence of STEC to bovine colon. This review focuses on the virulence traits of STEC and especially on those related to the adhesion to bovine colon. The known of the interaction between STEC and the bovine host is crucial to develop strategies to control cattle colonization. PMID:23624795

  13. Mouse Model of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection

    PubMed Central

    Savkovic, Suzana D.; Villanueva, Jennilee; Turner, Jerrold R.; Matkowskyj, Kristina A.; Hecht, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important cause of diarrhea in humans. EPEC infection of cultured intestinal epithelial cells induces attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions, alters intestinal ion transport, increases paracellular permeability, and stimulates inflammation. The lack of a small-animal model has restricted in vivo studies examining EPEC-host interactions. The aim of this study was to characterize the C57BL/6J mouse as a model of EPEC infection. We have shown that EPEC can adhere to and colonize the intestinal epithelium of C57BL/6J mice. Animal weight and water intake were not altered during 10 days of EPEC infection. The proximal colon of infected mice contained semisolid stool, with stool pellets forming only in the distal colon. In contrast, the entire colon of control mice contained formed stool. Microvillous effacement and actin rearrangement, characteristic of A/E lesions, were seen in the intestine of infected mice but not control mice. Histological assessment revealed increased numbers of lamina propria neutrophils with occasional crypt abscesses, intraepithelial lymphocytes, and goblet cells in the intestine of EPEC-infected mice. Altogether, these data suggest that the C57BL/6J mouse is susceptible to infection by EPEC and will provide a suitable in vivo model for studying the consequences of EPEC infection. PMID:15664959

  14. Tiamulin resistance mutations in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Böck, A; Turnowsky, F; Högenauer, G

    1982-01-01

    Forty "two-step" and 13 "three-step" tiamulin-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli PR11 were isolated and tested for alteration of ribosomal proteins. Mutants with altered ribosomal proteins S10, S19, L3, and L4 were detected. The S19, L3, and L4 mutants were studied in detail. The L3 and L4 mutations did not segregate from the resistance character in transductional crosses and therefore seem to be responsible for the resistance. Extracts of these mutants also exhibited an increased in vitro resistance to tiamulin in the polyuridylic acid and phage R17 RNA-dependent polypeptide synthesis systems, and it was demonstrated that this was a property of the 50S subunit. In the case of the S19 mutant, genetic analysis showed segregation between resistance and the S19 alteration and therefore indicated that mutation of a protein other than S19 was responsible for the resistance phenotype. The isolated ribosomes of the S19, L3, and L4 mutants bound radioactive tiamulin with a considerably reduced strength when compared with those of wild-type cells. The association constants were lower by factors ranging from approximately 20 to 200. When heated in the presence of ammonium chloride, these ribosomes partially regained their avidity for tiamulin. Images PMID:7050084

  15. A surprising sweetener from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Infections with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are remarkably devoid of gut inflammation and necrotic damage compared to infections caused by invasive pathogens such as Salmonella and Shigella. Recently, we observed that EPEC blocks cell death using the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector NleB. NleB mediated post-translational modification of death domain containing adaptor proteins by the covalent attachment of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to a conserved arginine in the death domain.??N-linked glycosylation of arginine has not previously been reported in mammalian cell biology and the precise biochemistry of this modification is not yet defined. Although the addition of a single GlcNAc to arginine is a seemingly slight alteration, the impact of NleB is considerable as arginine in this location is critical for death domain interactions and death receptor induced apoptosis. Hence, by blocking cell death, NleB promotes enterocyte survival and thereby prolongs EPEC attachment to the gut epithelium. PMID:25536377

  16. Eclipse period without sequestration in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Jan; Dasgupta, Santanu; Berg, Otto G; Nordström, Kurt

    2002-06-01

    The classical Meselson-Stahl density shift experiment was used to determine the length of the eclipse period in Escherichia coli, the minimum time period during which no new initiation is allowed from a newly replicated origin of chromosome replication, oriC. Populations of bacteria growing exponentially in heavy ((15)NH(4)+ and (13)C(6)-glucose) medium were shifted to light ((14)NH(4)+ and (12)C(6)-glucose) medium. The HH-, HL- and LL-DNA were separated by CsCl density gradient centrifugation, and their relative amounts were determined using radioactive gene-specific probes. The eclipse period, estimated from the kinetics of conversion of HH-DNA to HL- and LL-DNA, turned out to be 0.60 generation times for the wild-type strain. This was invariable for widely varying doubling times (35, 68 and 112 min) and was independent of the chromosome locus at which the eclipse period was measured. For strains with seqA, dam and damseqA mutants, the length of the eclipse period was 0.16, 0.40 and 0.32 generation times respectively. Thus, initiations from oriC were repressed for a considerable proportion of the generation time even when the sequestration function seemed to be severely compromised. The causal relationship between the length of the eclipse period and the synchrony of initiations from oriC is discussed. PMID:12067334

  17. Imprecision of adaptation in Escherichia coli chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Silke; Vladimirov, Nikita; Krembel, Anna K; Wingreen, Ned S; Sourjik, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Adaptability is an essential property of many sensory systems, enabling maintenance of a sensitive response over a range of background stimulus levels. In bacterial chemotaxis, adaptation to the preset level of pathway activity is achieved through an integral feedback mechanism based on activity-dependent methylation of chemoreceptors. It has been argued that this architecture ensures precise and robust adaptation regardless of the ambient ligand concentration, making perfect adaptation a celebrated property of the chemotaxis system. However, possible deviations from such ideal adaptive behavior and its consequences for chemotaxis have not been explored in detail. Here we show that the chemotaxis pathway in Escherichia coli shows increasingly imprecise adaptation to higher concentrations of attractants, with a clear correlation between the time of adaptation to a step-like stimulus and the extent of imprecision. Our analysis suggests that this imprecision results from a gradual saturation of receptor methylation sites at high levels of stimulation, which prevents full recovery of the pathway activity by violating the conditions required for precise adaptation. We further use computer simulations to show that limited imprecision of adaptation has little effect on the rate of chemotactic drift of a bacterial population in gradients, but hinders precise accumulation at the peak of the gradient. Finally, we show that for two major chemoeffectors, serine and cysteine, failure of adaptation at concentrations above 1 mM might prevent bacteria from accumulating at toxic concentrations of these amino acids. PMID:24416308

  18. Physical Properties of Escherichia coli Spheroplast Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yen; Sun, Tzu-Lin; Huang, Huey W.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the physical properties of bacterial cytoplasmic membranes by applying the method of micropipette aspiration to Escherichia coli spheroplasts. We found that the properties of spheroplast membranes are significantly different from that of laboratory-prepared lipid vesicles or that of previously investigated animal cells. The spheroplasts can adjust their internal osmolality by increasing their volumes more than three times upon osmotic downshift. Until the spheroplasts are swollen to their volume limit, their membranes are tensionless. At constant external osmolality, aspiration increases the surface area of the membrane and creates tension. What distinguishes spheroplast membranes from lipid bilayers is that the area change of a spheroplast membrane by tension is a relaxation process. No such time dependence is observed in lipid bilayers. The equilibrium tension-area relation is reversible. The apparent area stretching moduli are several times smaller than that of stretching a lipid bilayer. We conclude that spheroplasts maintain a minimum surface area without tension by a membrane reservoir that removes the excessive membranes from the minimum surface area. Volume expansion eventually exhausts the membrane reservoir; then the membrane behaves like a lipid bilayer with a comparable stretching modulus. Interestingly, the membranes cease to refold when spheroplasts lost viability, implying that the membrane reservoir is metabolically maintained. PMID:25418093

  19. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczykowski, S C; Dixon, D A; Eggleston, A K; Lauder, S D; Rehrauer, W M

    1994-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a fundamental biological process. Biochemical understanding of this process is most advanced for Escherichia coli. At least 25 gene products are involved in promoting genetic exchange. At present, this includes the RecA, RecBCD (exonuclease V), RecE (exonuclease VIII), RecF, RecG, RecJ, RecN, RecOR, RecQ, RecT, RuvAB, RuvC, SbcCD, and SSB proteins, as well as DNA polymerase I, DNA gyrase, DNA topoisomerase I, DNA ligase, and DNA helicases. The activities displayed by these enzymes include homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, helicase, branch migration, Holliday junction binding and cleavage, nuclease, ATPase, topoisomerase, DNA binding, ATP binding, polymerase, and ligase, and, collectively, they define biochemical events that are essential for efficient recombination. In addition to these needed proteins, a cis-acting recombination hot spot known as Chi (chi: 5'-GCTGGTGG-3') plays a crucial regulatory function. The biochemical steps that comprise homologous recombination can be formally divided into four parts: (i) processing of DNA molecules into suitable recombination substrates, (ii) homologous pairing of the DNA partners and the exchange of DNA strands, (iii) extension of the nascent DNA heteroduplex; and (iv) resolution of the resulting crossover structure. This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. Images PMID:7968921

  20. Completion of DNA replication in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Brian M; Courcelle, Charmain T; Courcelle, Justin

    2014-11-18

    The mechanism by which cells recognize and complete replicated regions at their precise doubling point must be remarkably efficient, occurring thousands of times per cell division along the chromosomes of humans. However, this process remains poorly understood. Here we show that, in Escherichia coli, the completion of replication involves an enzymatic system that effectively counts pairs and limits cellular replication to its doubling point by allowing converging replication forks to transiently continue through the doubling point before the excess, over-replicated regions are incised, resected, and joined. Completion requires RecBCD and involves several proteins associated with repairing double-strand breaks including, ExoI, SbcDC, and RecG. However, unlike double-strand break repair, completion occurs independently of homologous recombination and RecA. In some bacterial viruses, the completion mechanism is specifically targeted for inactivation to allow over-replication to occur during lytic replication. The results suggest that a primary cause of genomic instabilities in many double-strand-break-repair mutants arises from an impaired ability to complete replication, independent from DNA damage. PMID:25368150

  1. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. Focus is on the two final steps in alcohol synthesis, which are catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde CoA dehydrogenase. We have isolated a series of mutations affecting the expression of these enzymes. Some of these mutations are in the structural genes for these enzymes; others affect the regulation of the adh operon. We have recently cloned the genes coding for these enzymes and are now studying the effect of multiple copies of the adh gene on fermentative growth and its regulation. A recently invented technique, proton suicide has allowed the selection of a variety of novel mutants affecting fermentation which are presently being characterized. We have isolated a comprehensive collection of operon fusions in which the lacZ structural gene is fused to promoters that are inactive aerobically but active anaerobically. Although these genes (like adh) are only expressed under anaerobic conditions, the level of induction varies from two-fold to nearly 100-fold. The nitrogen source, medium pH, nature of the buffer, presence of alternative electron acceptors (e.g., nitrate), and other factors exert a great effect on the expression of many of these genes. In the near future we will investigate control mechanisms common to the adh operon and other anaerobically regulated genes.

  2. Regulation of the Escherichia coli lrp gene.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q; Wu, J; Friedberg, D; Plakto, J; Calvo, J M

    1994-01-01

    Lrp (leucine-responsive regulatory protein) is a major Escherichia coli regulatory protein which regulates expression of a number of operons, some negatively and some positively. This work relates to a characterization of lrp, the gene encoding Lrp. Nucleotide sequencing established that the coding regions of lrp and trxB (encoding thioredoxin reductase) are separated by 543 bp and that the two genes are transcribed in opposite directions. In addition, we used primer extension, deletion analyses, and lrp-lacZ transcriptional fusions to delineate the promoter and regulatory region of the lrp operon. The lrp promoter is located 267 nucleotides upstream of the translational start codon of the lrp gene. In comparison with a wild-type strain, expression of the lrp operon was increased about 3-fold in a strain lacking Lrp and decreased about 10-fold in a strain overproducing Lrp. As observed from DNA mobility shift and DNase I footprinting analyses, Lrp binds to one or more sites within the region -80 to -32 relative to the start point of lrp transcription. A mutational analysis indicated that this same region is at least partly required for repression of lrp expression in vivo. These results demonstrate that autogenous regulation of lrp involves Lrp acting directly to cause repression of lrp transcription. Images PMID:8144448

  3. Endonuclease IV (nfo) mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, R P; Saporito, S M; Spitzer, S G; Weiss, B

    1986-01-01

    A cloned gene, designated nfo, caused overproduction of an EDTA-resistant endonuclease specific for apurinic-apyrimidinic sites in DNA. The sedimentation coefficient of the enzyme was similar to that of endonuclease IV. An insertion mutation was constructed in vitro and transferred from a plasmid to the Escherichia coli chromosome. nfo mutants had an increased sensitivity to the alkylating agents methyl methanesulfonate and mitomycin C and to the oxidants tert-butyl hydroperoxide and bleomycin. The nfo mutation enhanced the killing of xth (exonuclease III) mutants by methyl methanesulfonate, H2O2, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and gamma rays, and it enhanced their mutability by methyl methanesulfonate. It also increased the temperature sensitivity of an xth dut (dUTPase) mutant that is defective in the repair of uracil-containing DNA. These results are consistent with earlier findings that endonuclease IV and exonuclease III both cleave DNA 5' to an apurinic-apyrimidinic site and that exonuclease III is more active. However, nfo mutants were more sensitive to tert-butyl hydroperoxide and to bleomycin than were xth mutants, suggesting that endonuclease IV might recognize some lesions that exonuclease III does not. The mutants displayed no marked increase in sensitivity to 254-nm UV radiation, and the addition of an nth (endonuclease III) mutation to nfo or nfo xth mutants did not significantly increase their sensitivity to any of the agents tested. Images PMID:2430946

  4. Oligosaccharide Binding in Escherichia coli Glycogen Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Fang; Yep, Alejandra; Feng, Lei; Preiss, Jack; Geiger, James H.

    2010-11-17

    Glycogen/starch synthase elongates glucan chains and is the key enzyme in the synthesis of glycogen in bacteria and starch in plants. Cocrystallization of Escherichia coli wild-type glycogen synthase (GS) with substrate ADPGlc and the glucan acceptor mimic HEPPSO produced a closed form of GS and suggests that domain-domain closure accompanies glycogen synthesis. Cocrystallization of the inactive GS mutant E377A with substrate ADPGlc and oligosaccharide results in the first oligosaccharide-bound glycogen synthase structure. Four bound oligosaccharides are observed, one in the interdomain cleft (G6a) and three on the N-terminal domain surface (G6b, G6c, and G6d). Extending from the center of the enzyme to the interdomain cleft opening, G6a mostly interacts with the highly conserved N-terminal domain residues lining the cleft of GS. The surface-bound oligosaccharides G6c and G6d have less interaction with enzyme and exhibit a more curled, helixlike structural arrangement. The observation that oligosaccharides bind only to the N-terminal domain of GS suggests that glycogen in vivo probably binds to only one side of the enzyme to ensure unencumbered interdomain movement, which is required for efficient, continuous glucan-chain synthesis.

  5. Transcription of the Escherichia coli fliC gene is regulated by metal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Guzzo, A.; Diorio, C.; DuBow, M.S. )

    1991-08-01

    luxAB gene fusions in the Escherichia coli genome were used to screen for clones displaying transcriptional changes in the presence of aluminum. One clone was found that contained a luciferase gene fusion in which transcription was increased in the presence of aluminum and which was subsequently shown to be induced by copper, iron, and nickel. Cloning of the metal-regulated gene, hybridization to the ordered phage {lambda} bank of the E. coli chromosome, and sequencing of DNA adjacent to the luxAB fusion revealed that the insertion occurred within the fliC (hag) gene of E. coli. This gene encodes flagellin the filament subunit of the bacterial motility organ, and is under the control of several regulatory cascades. These results suggest that environmental metals may play a role in the regulation of the motility potential of E. coli and that this bioluminescent gene fusion clone (or derivatives thereof) may be used to prepare a biosensor for the rapid detection of metal contamination in water samples.

  6. 76 FR 58157 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ...The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) intends to carry out verification procedures, including sampling and testing manufacturing trim and other raw ground beef product components, to ensure control of both Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) and six other serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). The Agency intends to implement......

  7. Soil solarization reduces Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total Escherichia coli on cattle feedlot pen surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feedlot pen soils are a source for transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and therefore a target for preharvest strategies to reduce this pathogen in cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of soil solarization to reduce E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot surface material (FSM)....

  8. Photodynamic inactivation of Escherichia coli with cationic ammonium Zn(II) phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Deisy M G C; Venkatramaiah, N; Gomes, Maria C; Almeida, Adelaide; Faustino, Maria A F; Almeida Paz, Filipe A; Cunha, Ângela; Tomé, João P C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was the development of a family of novel water soluble Zinc(II) phthalocyanines (Pc) for the photodynamic inactivation of Gram-negative bacteria. Pc derivatives 1a, 2a and 3a containing trimethylammonium groups with varied number and nature of the groups at peripheral positions were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of dimethyl amino substituted phthalonitriles in the presence of zinc powder, using 1-chloronaphthalene as a solvent, followed by cationization using dimethyl sulfate. The solubility, singlet oxygen generation ((1)O2) and stability/photostability of each Pc were evaluated as well as the affinity to bacterial cells and their photosensitizing potential against a recombinant bioluminescent Escherichia coli strain, used as a biological model for Gram negative bacteria. The efficiency of photodynamic inactivation was assessed under white and red light at an irradiance of 150 mW cm(-2). All Pc were soluble in phosphate buffer saline and in dimethyl sulfoxide and demonstrated good stability/photostability. The photochemical parameters reveal that Pc 2a and 3a are more efficient singlet oxygen producers than Pc 1a, for which singlet oxygen generation could not be demonstrated. Pc 2a and 3a caused photosensitization in E. coli. The inactivation factors attained with red light were, however, generally higher than those with white light. Under red light Pc 3a and 2a caused, respectively, 5.6 and 4.9 log reduction in the bioluminescence of the E. coli while, with white light, the corresponding inactivation factors were 2.5 and 0.5 log. The order of the PDI efficiency (3a > 2a ⋙ 1a) was determined by the combined effect of solubility, singlet oxygen generation ability and affinity to bacterial cells. Ammonium phthalocyanines with eight charges or containing halogen atoms such as chlorine, when irradiated with red light can, therefore, be regarded as promising photosensitizers for the inactivation of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26222379

  9. Free RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Michael; Dennis, Patrick P; Ehrenberg, Mans; Bremer, Hans

    2015-12-01

    The frequencies of transcription initiation of regulated and constitutive genes depend on the concentration of free RNA polymerase holoenzyme [Rf] near their promoters. Although RNA polymerase is largely confined to the nucleoid, it is difficult to determine absolute concentrations of [Rf] at particular locations within the nucleoid structure. However, relative concentrations of free RNA polymerase at different growth rates, [Rf]rel, can be estimated from the activities of constitutive promoters. Previous studies indicated that the rrnB P2 promoter is constitutive and that [Rf]rel in the vicinity of rrnB P2 increases with increasing growth rate. Recently it has become possible to directly visualize Rf in growing Escherichia coli cells. Here we examine some of the important issues relating to gene expression based on these new observations. We conclude that: (i) At a growth rate of 2 doublings/h, there are about 1000 free and 2350 non-specifically DNA-bound RNA polymerase molecules per average cell (12 and 28%, respectively, of 8400 total) which are in rapid equilibrium. (ii) The reversibility of the non-specific binding generates more than 1000 free RNA polymerase molecules every second in the immediate vicinity of the DNA. Of these, most rebind non-specifically to the DNA within a few ms; the frequency of non-specific binding is at least two orders of magnitude greater than specific binding and transcript initiation. (iii) At a given amount of RNA polymerase per cell, [Rf] and the density of non-specifically DNA-bound RNA polymerase molecules along the DNA both vary reciprocally with the amount of DNA in the cell. (iv) At 2 doublings/h an E. coli cell contains, on the average, about 1 non-specifically bound RNA polymerase per 9 kbp of DNA and 1 free RNA polymerase per 20 kbp of DNA. However some DNA regions (i.e. near active rRNA operons) may have significantly higher than average [Rf]. PMID:26482806

  10. Toxicity of Graphene Shells, Graphene Oxide, and Graphene Oxide Paper Evaluated with Escherichia coli Biotests

    PubMed Central

    Efremova, Ludmila V.; Vasilchenko, Alexey S.; Rakov, Eduard G.; Deryabin, Dmitry G.

    2015-01-01

    The plate-like graphene shells (GS) produced by an original methane pyrolysis method and their derivatives graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide paper (GO-P) were evaluated with luminescent Escherichia coli biotests and additional bacterial-based assays which together revealed the graphene-family nanomaterials' toxicity and bioactivity mechanisms. Bioluminescence inhibition assay, fluorescent two-component staining to evaluate cell membrane permeability, and atomic force microscopy data showed GO expressed bioactivity in aqueous suspension, whereas GS suspensions and the GO-P surface were assessed as nontoxic materials. The mechanism of toxicity of GO was shown not to be associated with oxidative stress in the targeted soxS::lux and katG::lux reporter cells; also, GO did not lead to significant mechanical disruption of treated bacteria with the release of intracellular DNA contents into the environment. The well-coordinated time- and dose-dependent surface charge neutralization and transport and energetic disorders in the Escherichia coli cells suggest direct membrane interaction, internalization, and perturbation (i.e., “membrane stress”) as a clue to graphene oxide's mechanism of toxicity. PMID:26221608

  11. An adhesive protein capsule of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Orskov, I; Birch-Andersen, A; Duguid, J P; Stenderup, J; Orskov, F

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the adhesive capacity of three hemagglutinating Escherichia coli strains that had earlier been described as nonfimbriated was studied. The strains that were isolated from human disease adhered to human buccal and urinary tract epithelial cells, an adhesion that was not inhibited by D-mannose. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis it was shown that the three strains produced a common antigen, Z1, developed after growth at 37 degrees C but not 18 degrees C. One of the strains produced an additional antigen, Z2, of almost the same electrophoretic mobility in crossed immunoelectrophoresis. A mutant of this strain deficient of its polysaccharide K antigen had maintained the adhesive capacity, indicating that the K antigen was not responsible for adhesion. A further mutant of the acapsular mutant produced a strongly reduced amount of the Z antigens and had lost the ability to adhere. The Z1 (and Z2?) antigens were therefore deemed to be responsible for adhesion. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts of cells of the three strains, a heavy Coomassie-blue stained line was seen, indicating the presence of a protein subunit of molecular weight slightly above 14,400. By immunoblotting with absorbed antiserum, it was shown that this protein was the same as that detected by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Protease from Streptomyces griseus, but not trypsin, digested the protein. Heating to 100 degrees C did not affect it. By immunoelectron microscopy of embedded and sectioned bacteria that had first been treated with specific antisera and ferritin-labeled antirabbit immunoglobulin, the protein adhesin-antibody complex was found to surround the bacteria as a heavy capsule. After negative staining with uranylacetate (pH approximately 4), the capsule appeared as a mesh of very fine filaments. The possible role of this capsule in the pathogenesis of disease is discussed. Images PMID:2856913

  12. Very slow growth of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Chesbro, W; Evans, T; Eifert, R

    1979-01-01

    A recycling fermentor (a chemostat with 100% biomass feedback) was used to study glucose-limited behavior of Escherichia coli B. The expectation from mass transfer analysis that growth would asymptotically approach a limit mass determined by the glucose provision rate (GPR) and the culture's maintenance requirement was not met. Instead, growth proceeded at progressively lower rates through three distinct phases. After the fermentor was seeded, but before glucose became limiting, growth followed the usual, exponential path (phase 1). About 12 h postseeding, residual glucose in the fermentor fell below 1 microgram . ml-1 and the growth rate (dx/dt) became constant and a linear function of GPR (phase 2). The specific growth rate, mu, therefore fell continuously throughout the phase. Biomass yield and glucose assimilation (13%) were near the level for exponential growth, however, and independent of GPR over a broad range. At a critical specific growth rate (0.04 h-1 for this strain), phase 2 ended abruptly and phase 3 commenced. In phase 3, the growth rate was again constant, although lower than in phase 2, so that mu continued to fall, but growth rates and yields were praboloid functions of GPR. They were never zero, however, at any positive value of GPR. By inference, the fraction of metabolic energy used for maintenance functions is constant for a given GPR, although different for phases 2 and 3, and independent of biomass. In both phases 2 and 3, orcinol, diphenylamine, and Lowry reactive materials were secreted at near-constant rates such that over 50% as much biosynthetic mass was secreted as was retained by the cells. Images PMID:378981

  13. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Infections and the Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Page, Andrea V; Liles, W Conrad

    2013-07-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC; Shiga toxin/verotoxin-producing E. coli) can cause bloody diarrhea and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), typically following consumption of contaminated food (including ground beef, leafy greens, and sprouts) and water. Often associated with foodborne outbreaks, EHEC possess unique virulence factors that facilitate effective colonization of the human gastrointestinal tract and subsequent release of Shiga toxin. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and prevention of EHEC infections, focusing on E. coli O157:H7, the serotype most common in North America, and E. coli O104:H4, the serotype responsible for the EHEC outbreak in Germany in 2011. PMID:23809720

  14. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  15. Serological cross-reactions between Escherichia coli O157 and other species of the genus Escherichia.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, E W; Sowers, E G; Johnson, C H; Dunnigan, M E; Strockbine, N A; Edberg, S C

    1992-01-01

    The antigenic relatedness of Escherichia coli O157 and four sorbitol-negative species of the genus Escherichia was examined. Isolates of Escherichia hermannii, E. fergusonii, E. vulneris, and E. blattae were tested in the tube agglutination assay by using polyclonal antisera and in the slide agglutination assay by using latex reagents. Only four isolates (17%) of E. hermannii exhibited serological cross-reactivity. PMID:1583138

  16. The Biology of the Escherichia coli Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Hufnagel, David A.; DePas, William H.; Chapman, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Chapter Summary Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the world’s best-characterized organisms, as it has been extensively studied for over a century. However, most of this work has focused on E. coli grown under laboratory conditions that do not faithfully simulate its natural environments. Therefore, the historical perspectives on E. coli physiology and life cycle are somewhat skewed toward experimental systems that feature E. coli growing logarithmically in a test tube. Typically a commensal bacterium, E. coli resides in the lower intestines of a slew of animals. Outside of the lower intestine, E. coli can adapt and survive in a very different set of environmental conditions. Biofilm formation allows E. coli to survive, and even thrive, in environments that do not support the growth of planktonic populations. E. coli can form biofilms virtually everywhere; in the bladder during a urinary tract infection, on in-dwelling medical devices, and outside of the host on plants and in the soil. The E. coli extracellular matrix, primarily composed of the protein polymer named curli and the polysaccharide cellulose, promotes adherence to organic and inorganic surfaces, and resistance to desiccation, the host immune system and other antimicrobials. The pathways that govern E. coli biofilm formation, cellulose production, and curli biogenesis will be discussed in this book chapter, which concludes with insights into the future of E. coli biofilm research and potential therapies. PMID:26185090

  17. Escherichia coli O157 infections and unpasteurised milk.

    PubMed

    Allerberger, F; Wagner, M; Schweiger, P; Rammer, H P; Resch, A; Dierich, M P; Friedrich, A W; Karch, H

    2001-10-01

    We report on two children with Escherichia coli O157 infection, one of whom developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). Both had drunk raw cows or goats milk in the week before their illness. Molecular subtyping identified a sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli O157:H isolate from a dairy cow. This isolate differed from Shiga toxin producing O157:H strains isolated from the 6 year old boy with HUS. This result underlines the need to search for other causes of infection, despite documented consumption of unpasteurised milk. In the second patient, human sorbitol non-fermenting O157:H isolates and animal isolates from goats were indistinguishable. The isolation of indistinguishable sorbitol non-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:H from contact animals supports the association between HUS and consumption of raw goats milk, and re-emphasises the importance of pasteurising milk. PMID:11891383

  18. Recurrent Hemolytic and Uremic Syndrome Induced by Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Commereuc, Morgane; Weill, Francois-Xavier; Loukiadis, Estelle; Gouali, Malika; Gleizal, Audrey; Kormann, Raphaël; Ridel, Christophe; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Rondeau, Eric; Hertig, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A widespread belief is that typical hemolytic and uremic syndrome (HUS) does not recur. We report the case of a patient infected twice with raw milk taken from his own cow and containing a Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O174:H21 that induced recurrent HUS causing severe renal and cerebral disorders. A genomic comparison of the human and bovine Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O174:H21 isolates revealed that they were identical. Typical HUS may recur. Since milk from this animal was occasionally distributed locally, thereby posing a serious threat for the whole village, this particular cow was destroyed. PMID:26735524

  19. Recurrent Hemolytic and Uremic Syndrome Induced by Escherichia Coli.

    PubMed

    Commereuc, Morgane; Weill, Francois-Xavier; Loukiadis, Estelle; Gouali, Malika; Gleizal, Audrey; Kormann, Raphaël; Ridel, Christophe; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Rondeau, Eric; Hertig, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    A widespread belief is that typical hemolytic and uremic syndrome (HUS) does not recur. We report the case of a patient infected twice with raw milk taken from his own cow and containing a Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O174:H21 that induced recurrent HUS causing severe renal and cerebral disorders. A genomic comparison of the human and bovine Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O174:H21 isolates revealed that they were identical.Typical HUS may recur. Since milk from this animal was occasionally distributed locally, thereby posing a serious threat for the whole village, this particular cow was destroyed. PMID:26735524

  20. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Marcela; Prado, Valeria

    2003-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are emerging as a significant source of food-borne infectious disease all over the world. Illness caused by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli can range from self limited, watery diarrhea to life-threatening manifestations such as hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and death. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli can potentially enter the human food chain from a number of animal sources, most commonly by contamination of meat with feces or intestinal contents after slaughter or cross-contamination of unpasteurized milk products. Because of the low infectious dose of the O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strain, laboratory diagnosis of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in food samples has developed a great importance. This review will focus on the microorganism, giving priority to illness prevention and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli detection in food. PMID:12528368

  1. Recent advances in adherence and invasion of pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, Anjana; Hu, Jia; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Colonization of the host epithelia by pathogenic Escherichia coli is influenced by the ability of the bacteria to interact with host surfaces. Because the initial step of an E. coli infection is to adhere, invade, and persist within host cells, some strategies used by intestinal and extra-intestinal E. coli to infect host cell are presented. Recent findings This review highlights recent progress understanding how extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli strains express specific adhesins/invasins that allow colonization of the urinary tract or the meninges, while intestinal E. coli strains are able to colonize different regions of the intestinal tract using other specialized adhesins/invasins. Finally, evaluation of, different diets and environmental conditions regulating the colonization of these pathogens is discussed. Summary Discovery of new interactions between pathogenic E. coli and the host epithelial cells unravels the need of more mechanistic studies that can provide new clues in how to combat these infections. PMID:25023740

  2. Cattle Water Troughs as Reservoirs of Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    LeJeune, Jeffrey T.; Besser, Thomas E.; Hancock, Dale D.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental survival of Escherichia coli O157 may play an important role in the persistence and dissemination of this organism on farms. The survival of culturable and infectious E. coli O157 was studied using microcosms simulating cattle water troughs. Culturable E. coli O157 survived for at least 245 days in the microcosm sediments. Furthermore, E. coli O157 strains surviving more than 6 months in contaminated microcosms were infectious to a group of 10-week-old calves. Fecal excretion of E. coli O157 by these calves persisted for 87 days after challenge. Water trough sediments contaminated with feces from cattle excreting E. coli O157 may serve as a long-term reservoir of this organism on farms and a source of infection for cattle. PMID:11425721

  3. The Biology of the Escherichia coli Extracellular Matrix.

    PubMed

    Hufnagel, David A; Depas, William H; Chapman, Matthew R

    2015-06-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the world's best-characterized organisms, because it has been extensively studied for over a century. However, most of this work has focused on E. coli grown under laboratory conditions that do not faithfully simulate its natural environments. Therefore, the historical perspectives on E. coli physiology and life cycle are somewhat skewed toward experimental systems that feature E. coli growing logarithmically in a test tube. Typically a commensal bacterium, E. coli resides in the lower intestines of a slew of animals. Outside of the lower intestine, E. coli can adapt and survive in a very different set of environmental conditions. Biofilm formation allows E. coli to survive, and even thrive, in environments that do not support the growth of planktonic populations. E. coli can form biofilms virtually everywhere: in the bladder during a urinary tract infection, on in-dwelling medical devices, and outside of the host on plants and in the soil. The E. coli extracellular matrix (ECM), primarily composed of the protein polymer named curli and the polysaccharide cellulose, promotes adherence to organic and inorganic surfaces and resistance to desiccation, the host immune system, and other antimicrobials. The pathways that govern E. coli biofilm formation, cellulose production, and curli biogenesis will be discussed in this article, which concludes with insights into the future of E. coli biofilm research and potential therapies. PMID:26185090

  4. Pathogenomics of the Virulence Plasmids of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Bacterial plasmids are self-replicating, extrachromosomal elements that are key agents of change in microbial populations. They promote the dissemination of a variety of traits, including virulence, enhanced fitness, resistance to antimicrobial agents, and metabolism of rare substances. Escherichia coli, perhaps the most studied of microorganisms, has been found to possess a variety of plasmid types. Included among these are plasmids associated with virulence. Several types of E. coli virulence plasmids exist, including those essential for the virulence of enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Despite their diversity, these plasmids belong to a few plasmid backbones that present themselves in a conserved and syntenic manner. Thanks to some recent research, including sequence analysis of several representative plasmid genomes and molecular pathogenesis studies, the evolution of these virulence plasmids and the implications of their acquisition by E. coli are now better understood and appreciated. Here, work involving each of the E. coli virulence plasmid types is summarized, with the available plasmid genomic sequences for several E. coli pathotypes being compared in an effort to understand the evolution of these plasmid types and define their core and accessory components. PMID:19946140

  5. Genes and proteins of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Riley, M

    1998-01-01

    GenProtEC is a database of Escherichia coli genes and their gene products, classified by type of function and physiological role and with citations to the literature for each. Also present are data on sequence similarities among E.coli proteins, representing groups of paralogous genes, with PAM values, percent identity of amino acids, length of alignment and percent aligned. GenProtEC can be accessed at the URL http://www.mbl.edu/html/ecoli.html PMID:9399799

  6. Identification and quantification of toxic chemicals by use of Escherichia coli carrying lux genes fused to stress promoters

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Israel, O.; Ben-Israel, H.; Ulitzur, S.

    1998-11-01

    The luxCDABE bioluminescence genes of the Vibrio fischeri lux system have been used as a reporter system for different stress and regulatory promoters of Escherichia coli. Selected E. coli strains carrying lux genes fused to different promoters were exposed to various toxic chemicals, and the recorded luminescence was used for the characterization of the biologic signature of each compound. Analysis of these data with the aid of a proper algorithm allowed quantitative and qualitative assessment of toxic chemicals. Of the 25 tested chemicals, 23 were identified by this novel strategy in a 3-h procedure. This system can also be adapted for the identification of simple mixtures of toxic agents when the biologic signatures of the individual compounds are known. This biologic recognition strategy also provides a tool for evaluating the degree of similarity between the modes of action of different toxic agents.

  7. Transgenic strain Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7 survival in aquatic microcosms with different salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, L. Y.; Kargatova, T. V.; Ganusova, E. E.; Lobova, T. I.; Boyandin, A. N.; Mogilnaya, O. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    The population dynamics and expression variability of transgenic microorganism (TM) Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7 (AprLux+) bioluminescence genes cloned in recombinant plasmid have been studied in the artificial aquatic ecosystems with different salinity and bacterial species composition. It was shown that in competition with indigenous microflora the TM population was 2-4 times lower than in sterile fresh-water and brackish microcosms. Higher salt concentration in the medium led to the differencies in displaying plasmid genes expression as compared to fresh-water microcosms, independent of their complexity. Particularly, in brackish medium the bioluminescence expression reduced to a greater extent and was revealed only at plating into TM accumulative cultures with high content of selective factor (50-200 ? kg/ml ampicillin). TM clones isolated from fresh-water microcosms maintained higher bioluminescence level, at that for sterile microcosms it was higher than for non-sterile. Many clones could be seen during the plating of microcosm water samples on the selective media.

  8. Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in Asia: epidemiology and management.

    PubMed

    Sidjabat, Hanna E; Paterson, David L

    2015-05-01

    Escherichia coli has become multiresistant by way of production of a variety of ?-lactamases. The prevalence of CTX-M-producing E. coli has reached 60-79% in certain parts of Asia. The acquisition of CTX-M plasmids by E. coli sequence type 131, a successful clone of E. coli, has caused further dissemination of CTX-M-producing E. coli. The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing E. coli, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, and New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase (NDM)-producing E. coli has been increasing in Asia. K. pneumoniae carbapenemase and NDM have now been found in E. coli sequence type 131. The occurrence of NDM-producing E. coli is a major concern particularly in the Indian subcontinent, but now elsewhere in Asia as well. There are multiple reasons why antibiotic resistance in E. coli in Asia has reached such extreme levels. Approaches beyond antibiotic therapy, such as prevention of antibiotic resistance by antibiotic stewardship and protecting natural microbiome, are strategies to avoid further spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:25805210

  9. Genetic engineering of ethanol production in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.O.; Conway, T.; Clark, D.P.; Sewell, G.W.; Preston, J.F.

    1987-10-01

    The genes encoding essential enzymes of the fermentative pathway for ethanol production in Zymomonas mobilis, an obligately ethanologenic bacterium, were inserted into Escherichia coli under the control of a common promoter. Alcohol dehydrogenase II and pyruvate decarboxylase from Z. mobilis were expressed at high levels in E. coli, resulting in increased cell growth and the production of ethanol as the principal fermentation product from glucose. These results demonstrate that it is possible to change the fermentation products of an organism, such as E. coli, by the addition of genes encoding appropriate enzymes which form an alternative system for the regeneration of NAD/sup +/.

  10. An integrated database to support research on Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Dunham, G.; Matsuda, Hideo; Michaels, G.; Taylor, R.; Overbeek, R.; Rudd, K.E. ); Ginsburg, A.; Joerg, D.; Kazic, T. . Dept. of Genetics); Hagstrom, R.; Zawada, D. ); Smith, C.; Yoshida, Kaoru )

    1992-01-01

    We have used logic programming to design and implement a prototype database of genomic information for the model bacterial organism Escherichia coli. This report presents the fundamental database primitives that can be used to access and manipulate data relating to the E. coli genome. The present system, combined with a tutorial manual, provides immediate access to the integrated knowledge base for E. coli chromosome data. It also serves as the foundation for development of more user-friendly interfaces that have the same retrieval power and high-level tools to analyze complex chromosome organization.

  11. Sources of Escherichia coli in a Coastal Subtropical Environment

    PubMed Central

    Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Desmarais, Timothy R.; Palmer, Carol J.

    2000-01-01

    Sources of Escherichia coli in a coastal waterway located in Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., were evaluated. The study consisted of an extensive program of field measurements designed to capture spatial and temporal variations in E. coli concentrations as well as experiments conducted under laboratory-controlled conditions. E. coli from environmental samples was enumerated by using a defined substrate technology (Colilert-18). Field sampling tasks included sampling the length of the North Fork to identify the river reach contributing high E. coli levels, autosampler experiments at two locations, and spatially intense sampling efforts at hot spots. Laboratory experiments were designed to simulate tidal conditions within the riverbank soils. The results showed that E. coli entered the river in a large pulse during storm conditions. After the storm, E. coli levels returned to baseline levels and varied in a cyclical pattern which correlated with tidal cycles. The highest concentrations were observed during high tide, whereas the lowest were observed at low tide. This peculiar pattern of E. coli concentrations between storm events was caused by the growth of E. coli within riverbank soils which were subsequently washed in during high tide. Laboratory analysis of soil collected from the riverbanks showed increases of several orders of magnitude in soil E. coli concentrations. The ability of E. coli to multiply in the soil was found to be a function of soil moisture content, presumably due to the ability of E. coli to outcompete predators in relatively dry soil. The importance of soil moisture in regulating the multiplication of E. coli was found to be critical in tidally influenced areas due to periodic wetting and drying of soils in contact with water bodies. Given the potential for growth in such systems, E. coli concentrations can be artificially elevated above that expected from fecal impacts alone. Such results challenge the use of E. coli as a suitable indicator of water quality in tidally influenced areas located within tropical and subtropical environments. PMID:10618229

  12. Slugs: Potential Novel Vectors of Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Sproston, Emma L.; Macrae, M.; Ogden, Iain D.; Wilson, Michael J.; Strachan, Norval J. C.

    2006-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were performed to determine whether slugs could act as novel vectors for pathogen (e.g., Escherichia coli O157) transfer from animal feces to salad vegetables. Escherichia coli O157 was isolated from 0.21% of field slugs from an Aberdeenshire sheep farm. These isolates carried the verocytotoxin genes (vt1 and vt2) and the attaching and effacing gene (eae), suggesting that they are potentially pathogenic to humans. Strain typing using multilocus variable number tandem repeats analysis showed that slug and sheep isolates were indistinguishable. Laboratory experiments using an E. coli mutant resistant to nalidixic acid showed that the ubiquitous slug species Deroceras reticulatum could carry viable E. coli on its external surface for up to 14 days. Slugs that had been fed E. coli shed viable bacteria in their feces with numbers showing a short but statistically significant linear log decline. Further, it was found that E. coli persisted for up to 3 weeks in excreted slug feces, and hence, we conclude that slugs have the potential to act as novel vectors of E. coli O157. PMID:16391036

  13. Genotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Causing Traveler's Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Fulton P.; Medina, Anicia M.; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Sangil, Anna; Gascon, Joaquim; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Vila, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the presence of virulence factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causing traveler's diarrhea. Among 52 ETEC isolates, the most common toxin type was STh, and the most frequent colonization factors (CFs) were CS21, CS6, and CS3. On the other hand, the nonclassical virulence factors EAST1 and EatA were frequently present. PMID:23224092

  14. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is a leading cause of food-borne illness in the United States; however, recent reports have shown that non-O157 STEC serogroups contribute to more illnesses than O157:H7. Illness caused by non-O157 STEC strains are generally less severe than tho...

  15. Nomenclature relating to restriction of modified DNA in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Raleigh, E A; Benner, J; Bloom, F; Braymer, H D; DeCruz, E; Dharmalingam, K; Heitman, J; Noyer Weidner, M; Piekarowicz, A; Kretz, P L

    1991-01-01

    At least three restriction systems that attack DNA containing naturally modified bases have been found in common Escherichia coli K-12 strains. These systems are McrA, McrBC, and Mrr. A brief summary of the genetic and phenotypic properties so far observed in laboratory strains is set forth, together with a proposed nomenclature for describing these properties. PMID:2013582

  16. Transformation in Escherichia coli: cryogenic preservation of competent cells.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, D A

    1977-01-01

    Escherichia coli cells prepared for transformation by treatment with cold 0.1 M CaCl2 remained viable and competent after storage at -82 degrees C in 15% glycerol; thawed-cell samples yielded up to 10(6) transformants per microgram of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid. PMID:334731

  17. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

  18. Escherichia coli antibodies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tabaqchali, S; O'Donoghue, D P; Bettelheim, K A

    1978-01-01

    Sera from 30 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (16 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 14 with ulcerative colitis (UC) were assayed for the presence of antibodies against 159 Escherichia coli O-antigens and compared with sera from 16 matched control subjects. The majority of patients with IBD had agglutinating antibodies to a higher number of Escherichia coli O-antigens and in higher titres than the control group. The number of positive agglutinins was O-33 mean 13.8 in CD, O-26 mean 7.9 for UC, and O-7 mean 1.5 in controls. Eight patients with IBD and arthropathy had antibodies to fewer O-antigens (O-7 mean 3.2). The antibodies were in the IgG and IgM, in titres corresponding to original values. No specific O-serotypes were associated with IBD. Common serotypes, R-plasmid carrying serotypes, and those associated with shigella-like adult diarrhoea were detected. O14 was detected only in five patients and O119 in none. There was no correlation between the number of Escherichia coli agglutinins and the site and severity of the disease or type of therapy. It is suggested that the presence of the high numbers of Escherichia coli antibodies is secondary to the disease process and is unlikely to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, but may play a role in the perpetuation of the disease and in the extraintestinal complications. PMID:344155

  19. armA and Aminoglycoside Resistance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    González-Zorn, Bruno; Teshager, Tirushet; Casas, María; Porrero, María C.; Courvalin, Patrice; Domínguez, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    We report armA in an Escherichia coli pig isolate from Spain. The resistance gene was borne by self-transferable IncN plasmid pMUR050. Molecular analysis of the plasmid and of the armA locus confirmed the spread of this resistance determinant. PMID:15963296

  20. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255 Section 866.3255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255 Section 866.3255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255...

  2. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by titanium dioxide photocatalytic oxidation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Titanium dioxide in the anatase crystalline form was used as a photocatalyst to generate hydroxyl radicals in a flowthrough water reactor. Experiments were performed on pure cultures of Escherichia coli in dechlorinated tap water and a surface water sample to evaluate the disinfe...

  3. Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae: Food poisoning and health effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family Enterobactericeae consists of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore forming bacteria and also includes the food-borne pathogens, Cronobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Yersinia spp. Illness caused by these pathogens is acquired...

  4. Global incidence of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli ST131.

    PubMed

    Peirano, Gisele; Bradford, Patricia A; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Badal, Robert E; Hackel, Meredith; Hoban, Daryl J; Pitout, Johann D D

    2014-11-01

    We characterized Escherichia coli ST131 isolates among 116 carbapenemase-producing strains. Of isolates from 16 countries collected during 2008-2013, 35% belonged to ST131 and were associated with blaKPC, H30 lineage, and virotype C. This study documents worldwide incidents of resistance to "last resort" antimicrobial drugs among a common pathogen in a successful sequence type. PMID:25340464

  5. Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain B2C.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, T P Vipin; Steen, Jason A; Hugenholtz, Philip; Sakellaris, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease around the globe, causing an estimated 380,000 deaths annually. The disease is caused by a wide variety of strains. Here, we report the genome sequence of ETEC strain B2C, which was isolated from an American soldier in Vietnam. PMID:24723709

  6. Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain B2C

    PubMed Central

    Vipin Madhavan, T. P.; Steen, Jason A.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal disease around the globe, causing an estimated 380,000 deaths annually. The disease is caused by a wide variety of strains. Here, we report the genome sequence of ETEC strain B2C, which was isolated from an American soldier in Vietnam. PMID:24723709

  7. Sex and virulence in Escherichia coli: an evolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Thierry; Falush, Daniel; Lan, Ruiting; Colles, Frances; Mensa, Patience; Wieler, Lothar H; Karch, Helge; Reeves, Peter R; Maiden, Martin CJ; Ochman, Howard; Achtman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli cause over 160 million cases of dysentery and one million deaths per year, whereas non-pathogenic E. coli constitute part of the normal intestinal flora of healthy mammals and birds. The evolutionary pathways underlying this dichotomy in bacterial lifestyle were investigated by multilocus sequence typing of a global collection of isolates. Specific pathogen types [enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, K1 and Shigella] have arisen independently and repeatedly in several lineages, whereas other lineages contain only few pathogens. Rates of evolution have accelerated in pathogenic lineages, culminating in highly virulent organisms whose genomic contents are altered frequently by increased rates of homologous recombination; thus, the evolution of virulence is linked to bacterial sex. This long-term pattern of evolution was observed in genes distributed throughout the genome, and thereby is the likely result of episodic selection for strains that can escape the host immune response. PMID:16689791

  8. Maternally acquired genotoxic Escherichia coli alters offspring's intestinal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Payros, Delphine; Secher, Thomas; Boury, Michèle; Brehin, Camille; Ménard, Sandrine; Salvador-Cartier, Christel; Cuevas-Ramos, Gabriel; Watrin, Claude; Marcq, Ingrid; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Dubois, Damien; Bedu, Antoine; Garnier, Fabien; Clermont, Olivier; Denamur, Erick; Plaisancié, Pascale; Theodorou, Vassilia; Fioramonti, Jean; Olier, Maïwenn; Oswald, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal gut is rapidly colonized by a newly dominant group of commensal Escherichia coli strains among which a large proportion produces a genotoxin called colibactin. In order to analyze the short- and long-term effects resulting from such evolution, we developed a rat model mimicking the natural transmission of E. coli from mothers to neonates. Genotoxic and non-genotoxic E. coli strains were equally transmitted to the offspring and stably colonized the gut across generations. DNA damage was only detected in neonates colonized with genotoxic E. coli strains. Signs of genotoxic stress such as anaphase bridges, higher occurrence of crypt fission and accelerated renewal of the mature epithelium were detected at adulthood. In addition, we observed alterations of secretory cell populations and gut epithelial barrier. Our findings illustrate how critical is the genotype of E. coli strains acquired at birth for gut homeostasis at adulthood. PMID:24971581

  9. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples

    PubMed Central

    Morcatti Coura, Fernanda; Diniz, Soraia de Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mussi, Jamili Maria Suhet; Barbosa, Silvia Minharro; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A (P < 0.001) and F (P = 0.018) were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 (P < 0.001) and E (P = 0.002) were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 (P = 0.003) and D (P = 0.017) were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals. PMID:26421310

  10. Using zebra mussels to monitor Escherichia coli in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Selegean, J P; Kusserow, R; Patel, R; Heidtke, T M; Ram, J L

    2001-01-01

    Use of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) as an indicator of previously elevated bacteria concentrations in a watershed was examined. The ability of the zebra mussel to accumulate and purge Escherichia coli over several days was investigated in both laboratory and field experiments. In laboratory experiments, periodic enumeration of E. coli in mussels that had been exposed to a dilute solution of raw sewage demonstrated that (i) maximum concentrations of E. coli are reached within a few hours of exposure to sewage, (ii) the tissue concentration attained is higher than the concentration in the ambient water, and (iii) the E. coli concentrations take several days to return to preexposure concentrations when mussels are subsequently placed in sterile water. In field experiments conducted in southeast Michigan in the Clinton River watershed, brief increases in E. coli concentrations in the water were accompanied by increases in mussel concentrations of E. coli that lasted 2 or 3 d. The ability of mussels to retain and to concentrate E. coli made it possible to detect E. coli in the environment under conditions that conventional monitoring may often miss. Sampling caged mussels in a river and its tributaries may enable watershed managers to reduce the sampling frequency normally required to identify critical E. coli sources, thereby providing a more cost-effective river monitoring strategy for bacterial contamination. PMID:11215649

  11. A rapid BOD sensing system using luminescent recombinants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Kei; Ando, Tomotsugu; Murakami, Yuji; Morita, Yasutaka; Yamamura, Akira; Yokoyama, Kenji; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2003-11-15

    A biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensing system based on bacterial luminescence from recombinant Escherichia coli containing lux A-E genes from Vibrio fischeri has been developed. It was possible to use frozen cells of luminescent recombinants of E. coli as the bacterial reagents for measurement. Steady bioluminescence was observed during the incubation time between 90 and 150 min in the presence of a sole carbon source such as glucose, acetate, L-glutamate and BOD standard solution (GGA solution). This disposable bacterial reagent was applied to measure and detect organic pollution due to biodegradable substances in various wastewaters. The obtained values of this study showed a similar correlation with that of the conventional method for BOD determination (BOD5). Bacterial luminescence that was visualized with an imaging system using a charge coupled device (CCD) camera and a photomulti-counter demonstrated that this method could also be used for multi-sample detection of organic pollution due to biodegradable substances by using a microtiter plate. These results suggested for successful achievement of high-though-put detection of BOD in practical. PMID:14568711

  12. Cloning, expression and bioinformatics analysis of ATP sulfurylase from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Michael L; Abanto, Michel; Quispe, Ruth L; Calderón, Julio; del Valle, Luís J; Talledo, Miguel; Ramírez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Molecular studies of enzymes involved in sulfite oxidation in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans have not yet been developed, especially in the ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) of these acidophilus tiobacilli that have importance in biomining. This enzyme synthesizes ATP and sulfate from adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) and pyrophosphate (PPi), final stage of the sulfite oxidation by these organisms in order to obtain energy. The atpS gene (1674 bp) encoding the ATPS from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 was amplified using PCR, cloned in the pET101-TOPO plasmid, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli obtaining a 63.5 kDa ATPS recombinant protein according to SDS-PAGE analysis. The bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses determined that the ATPS from A. ferrooxidans presents ATP sulfurylase (ATS) and APS kinase (ASK) domains similar to ATPS of Aquifex aeolicus, probably of a more ancestral origin. Enzyme activity towards ATP formation was determined by quantification of ATP formed from E. coli cell extracts, using a bioluminescence assay based on light emission by the luciferase enzyme. Our results demonstrate that the recombinant ATP sulfurylase from A. ferrooxidans presents an enzymatic activity for the formation of ATP and sulfate, and possibly is a bifunctional enzyme due to its high homology to the ASK domain from A. aeolicus and true kinases. PMID:23055613

  13. Lytic bacteriophages reduce Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Sean; Roberts, Cheryl; Handy, Eric; Sharma, Manan

    2013-01-01

    The role of lytic bacteriophages in preventing cross contamination of produce has not been evaluated. A cocktail of three lytic phages specific for E. coli O157:H7 (EcoShield™) or a control (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) was applied to lettuce by either; (1) immersion of lettuce in 500 ml of EcoShield™ 8.3 log PFU/ml or 9.8 log PFU/ml for up to 2 min before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7; (2) spray-application of EcoShield™ (9.3 log PFU/ml) to lettuce after inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 (4.10 CFU/cm2) following exposure to 50 ?g/ml chlorine for 30 sec. After immersion studies, lettuce was spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (2.38 CFU/cm2). Phage-treated, inoculated lettuce pieces were stored at 4°C for and analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 populations for up to 7 d. Immersion of lettuce in 9.8 log PFU/ml EcoShield™ for 2 min significantly (p < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations after 24 h when stored at 4°C compared with controls. Immersion of lettuce in suspensions containing high concentrations of EcoShield™ (9.8 log PFU/ml) resulted in the deposition of high concentrations (7.8 log log PFU/cm2) of bacteriophages on the surface of fresh cut lettuce, potentially contributing to the efficacy of the lytic phages on lettuce. Spraying phages on to inoculated fresh cut lettuce after being washed in hypochlorite solution was significantly more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations (2.22 log CFU/cm2) on day 0 compared with control treatments (4.10 log CFU/cm2). Both immersion and spray treatments provided protection from E. coli O157:H7 contamination on lettuce, but spray application of lytic bacteriophages to lettuce was more effective in immediately reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations fresh cut lettuce. PMID:23819106

  14. Genotypic diversity of Escherichia coli in a dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Son, Insook; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S; Karns, Jeffrey S

    2009-09-01

    Dairy cattle are known reservoirs of pathogenic Escherichia coli, but little is known about the dynamics of E. coli in dairy cows or within the dairy farm environment. This study was conducted to evaluate the diversity and distribution of E. coli strains in a dairy farm using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and to determine the relationships between E. coli isolated from feces and throughout the farm environment. Water from watering troughs, feces from cows, manure composites, milk, and milk filters were collected on December 2005 and December 2006. Isolates were analyzed by PCR for phylogenetic grouping (A, B1, B2, and D) and for the presence of virulence genes associated with enteropathogenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains. Most of the isolates were in groups A (22%) and B1 (64%), while 4% and 11% of the isolates were within groups B2 and D, respectively. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli and enteropathogenic E. coli virulence genes were detected in strains from the feces of three cows and in one manure composite, and E. coli O157:H7 was present in one manure composite. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in 155 unique restriction digestion patterns (RDPs) among 570 isolates. E. coli isolates from water, manure composites, feces, milk, and milk filters grouped into 34, 65, 76, 4, and 6 clusters (identical RDPs), respectively. There was little diversity of isolates within individual fecal samples; however, high diversity was observed between fecal samples. Diversity was high within the water and composite samples. Some RDPs were common to multiple sample types. Although there were common RDPs between the 2005 and 2006 samplings, the E. coli populations were quite distinct between these two sampling times. These results demonstrate a high degree of diversity for E. coli within a dairy farm and that assigning a single environmental isolate to a particular farming operation would require the testing of an impractical number of isolates. PMID:19459756

  15. Experimental Escherichia coli O157:H7 carriage in calves.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C A; Harmon, B G; Zhao, T; Doyle, M P

    1997-01-01

    Nine weaned calves (6 to 8 weeks of age) were given 10(10) CFU of a five-strain mixture of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by oral-gastric intubation. After an initial brief period of pyrexia in three calves and transient mild diarrhea in five calves, calves were clinically normal throughout the 13- to 27-day study. The population of E. coli O157:H7 in the faces decreased dramatically in all calves during the first 2 weeks after inoculation. Thereafter, small populations of E. coli O157:H7 persisted in all calves, where they were detected intermittently in the feces and rumen contents. While withholding food increased fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 by 1 to 2 log10/g in three of four calves previously shedding small populations of E. coli O157:H7, the effect of fasting on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 was variable in calves shedding larger populations. At necropsy, E. coli O157:H7 was not isolated from sites outside the alimentary tract. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from the forestomach or colon of all calves at necropsy. Greater numbers of E. coli O157:H7 were present in the gastrointestinal contents than in the corresponding mucosal sections, and there was no histologic or immunohistochemical evidence of E. coli O157:H7 adhering to the mucosa. In conclusion, under these experimental conditions, E. coli O157:H7 is not pathogenic in weaned calves, and while it does not appear to colonize mucosal surfaces for extended periods, E. coli O157:H7 persists in the contents of the rumen and colon as a source for fecal shedding. PMID:8979335

  16. Abundance of culturable versus viable Escherichia coli in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Servais, Pierre; Prats, Josué; Passerat, Julien; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara

    2009-07-01

    Approved methods traditionally used for Escherichia coli enumeration in waters are culture-based. However, these methods can underestimate the E. coli abundance in aquatic systems because they do not take into account cells that remain viable but have lost the ability to grow in or on culture media. We investigated, in freshwater samples, the abundance of (i) culturable E. coli, enumerated by the most probable number microplate method and (ii) viable E. coli, estimated using a procedure called DVC-FISH, which couples fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and a viability testing technique (direct viable count (DVC)). The ratio of culturable to viable E. coli was close to 1 in highly contaminated waters (samples with a high concentration of culturable E. coli), but decreased drastically for weakly contaminated samples. This indicates a large fraction of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) E. coli in the latter samples. Microcosm experiments showed that some environmental factors, such as nutrient scarcity and solar irradiation, could lead to the presence of a high proportion of VBNC E. coli. PMID:19767865

  17. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E.; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes. PMID:26809117

  18. Genomic characterization of asymptomatic Escherichia coli isolated from the neobladder.

    PubMed

    Sahl, Jason W; Lloyd, Amanda L; Redman, Julia C; Cebula, Thomas A; Wood, David P; Mobley, Harry L T; Rasko, David A

    2011-04-01

    The replacement of the bladder with a neobladder made from ileal tissue is the prescribed treatment in some cases of bladder cancer or trauma. Studies have demonstrated that individuals with an ileal neobladder have recurrent colonization by Escherichia coli and other species that are commonly associated with urinary tract infections; however, pyelonephritis and complicated symptomatic infections with ileal neobladders are relatively rare. This study examines the genomic content of two E. coli isolates from individuals with neobladders using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) with a pan-E. coli/Shigella microarray. Comparisons of the neobladder genome hybridization patterns with reference genomes demonstrate that the neobladder isolates are more similar to the commensal, laboratory-adapted E. coli and a subset of enteroaggregative E. coli than they are to uropathogenic E. coli isolates. Genes identified by CGH as exclusively present in the neobladder isolates among the 30 examined isolates were primarily from large enteric isolate plasmids. Isolations identified a large plasmid in each isolate, and sequencing confirmed similarity to previously identified plasmids of enteric species. Screening, via PCR, of more than 100 isolates of E. coli from environmental, diarrhoeagenic and urinary tract sources did not identify neobladder-specific genes that were widely distributed in these populations. These results taken together demonstrate that the neobladder isolates, while distinct, are genomically more similar to gastrointestinal or commensal E. coli, suggesting why they can colonize the transplanted intestinal tissue but rarely progress to acute pyelonephritis or more severe disease. PMID:21252277

  19. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes. PMID:26809117

  20. Short-term dynamic behavior of Escherichia coli in response to successive glucose pulses on glucose-limited chemostat cultures.

    PubMed

    Sunya, Sirichai; Bideaux, Carine; Molina-Jouve, Carole; Gorret, Nathalie

    2013-04-15

    The effect of repeated glucose perturbations on dynamic behavior of Escherichia coli DPD2085, yciG::LuxCDABE reporter strain, was studied and characterized on a short-time scale using glucose-limited chemostat cultures at dilution rates close to 0.18h(-1). The substrate disturbances were applied on independent steady-state cultures, firstly using a single glucose pulse under different aeration conditions and secondly using repeated glucose pulses under fully aerobic condition. The dynamic responses of E. coli to a single glucose pulse of different intensities (0.25 and 0.6gL(-1)) were significantly similar at macroscopic level, revealing the independency of the macroscopic microbial behavior to the perturbation intensity in the range of tested glucose concentrations. The dynamic responses of E. coli to repeated glucose pulses to simulate fluctuating environments between glucose-limited and glucose-excess conditions were quantified; similar behavior regarding respiration and by-product formations was observed, except for the first perturbation denoted by an overshoot of the specific oxygen uptake rate in the first minutes after the pulse. In addition, transcriptional induction of yciG promoter gene involved in general stress response, ?(S), was monitored through the bioluminescent E. coli strain. This study aims to provide and compare short-term quantitative kinetics data describing the dynamic behavior of E. coli facing repeated transient substrate conditions. PMID:23376621

  1. Evidence that Escherichia coli accumulates glycine betaine from marine sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Ghoul, M; Bernard, T; Cormier, M

    1990-01-01

    Escherichia coli grew faster in autoclaved marine sediment than in seawater alone. When E. coli was cultivated in sediment diluted with minimal medium M63 at 0.6 M NaCl, supplemented or not supplemented with glucose or with seawater, the osmoprotector glycine betaine was accumulated in the cells. The best growth occurred on glucose. Accumulation of glycine betaine was not observed with E. coli was grown in sterile seawater alone. The fact that E. coli grew better in the sediments than in seawater is attributed somewhat to the high content of organic matter in the sediment but mainly to the accumulation of glycine betaine. Thus, osmoprotection should be considered to be an additional factor in bacterial survival in estuarine sediments. PMID:2407188

  2. Effects of green tea on Escherichia coli as a uropathogen.

    PubMed

    Noormandi, Afsaneh; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infections. The development of antibiotic resistance in E. coli is an important problem. Finding alternative antimicrobial agents from plant extracts has received growing interest. Camellia sinensis is a safe, nontoxic, cheap beverage that has been reported to have antimicrobial effects against various pathogenic bacteria including E. coli. Polyphenolic components of green tea ( l? chá) have antibacterial activity. Catechins also have synergistic effect with antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin, levofloxacin, gentamycin, methicillin, naldixic acid, and, especially ciprofloxacin. In this review, all experimental studies that evaluated the effect of green tea on E. coli were collected. Data from in vitro studies on the antimicrobial effects of green tea are promising, but human data are currently lacking. In vivo studies on antibacterial effects of green tea and evaluating the efficacy of its catechins in the treatment of urinary tract infection are needed. PMID:26151004

  3. The different ecological niches of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Siles, Lucia; Sjöling, Åsa

    2016-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a water and food-borne pathogen that infects the small intestine of the human gut and causes diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli adheres to the epithelium by means of colonization factors and secretes two enterotoxins, the heat labile toxin and/or the heat stable toxin that both deregulate ion channels and cause secretory diarrhoea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli as all E. coli, is a versatile organism able to survive and grow in different environments. During transmission and infection, ETEC is exposed to various environmental cues that have an impact on survivability and virulence. The ability to cope with exposure to different stressful habitats is probably shaping the pool of virulent ETEC strains that cause both endemic and epidemic infections. This review will focus on the ecology of ETEC in its different habitats and interactions with other organisms as well as abiotic factors. PMID:26522129

  4. [Escherichia coli 0104:H4: a hybrid pathogen].

    PubMed

    Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Bingen, E

    2012-11-01

    In 2011, an outbreak linked to a entero-haemorrhagic Escherichia coli strain, affecting adults more frequently, occurred in Germany, with 4320 bloody diarrhea cases, 850 cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and 82 deaths. Meanwhile, an epidemic affecting 24 patients took place in Bègle with similar epidemiological characteristics. These two strains were associated with consumption of contaminated seeds fenugreck by a particularly virulent strain belonging to a rare serotype, E. coli serotype O104:H4. This strain is a triple hybrid : it produces a shigatoxin, the adhesion at the gastrointestinal mucosa is related to the presence of fimbriae as enteroaggregants E. coli (ECAA), and has virulence factors of E. coli outer intestinal (EXPEC). In addition, it produced a ß-lactamasetype extended-spectrum CTXM15. PMID:23178142

  5. Escherichia coli control in a surface flow treatment wetland.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, M E; Warner, B G; Slawson, R M

    2006-06-01

    A field experiment showed that numbers of Escherichia coli declined significantly when floating Lemna spp. plants were removed to create open water areas in a typical newly constructed surface flow treatment wetland in southern Ontario. It is suggested that E. coli declined immediately after Lemna removal because the Lemna was shading the water column from penetration by natural UV radiation, it was providing favourable attachment sites for the E. coli, and it was not allowing effective free exchange of oxygen from surface winds to the water column to maintain high enough dissolved oxygen supplies for predator zooplankton populations. Operators of wetland systems must have the specialized skills required to recognize the cause and the appropriate maintenance requirements to maintain efficient operation of such unconventional systems should E. coli numbers increase during the course of operation. PMID:16813013

  6. Influence of antibiotic pressure on bacterial bioluminescence, with emphasis on Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Daghighi, Seyedmojtaba; Sjollema, Jelmer; Harapanahalli, Akshay; Dijkstra, Rene J B; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2015-12-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is used for longitudinal evaluation of bacteria in live animals. Clear relations exist between bacterial numbers and their bioluminescence. However, bioluminescence images of Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, S. aureus Xen36 and Escherichia coli Xen14 grown on tryptone soy agar in Etests demonstrated increased bioluminescence at sub-MICs of different antibiotics. This study aimed to further evaluate the influence of antibiotic pressure on bioluminescence in S. aureus Xen29. Bioluminescence of S. aureus Xen29, grown planktonically in tryptone soy broth, was quantified in the absence and presence of different concentrations of vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin or chloramphenicol and was related to expression of the luxA gene under antibiotic pressure measured using real-time PCR. In the absence of antibiotics, staphylococcal bioluminescence increased over time until a maximum after ca. 6h of growth, and subsequently decreased to the detection threshold after 24h of growth owing to reduced bacterial metabolic activity. Up to MICs of the antibiotics, bioluminescence increased according to a similar pattern up to 6h of growth, but after 24h bioluminescence was higher than in the absence of antibiotics. Contrary to expectations, bioluminescence per organism (CFU) after different growth periods in the absence and at MICs of different antibiotics decreased with increasing expression of luxA. Summarising, antibiotic pressure impacts the relation between CFU and bioluminescence. Under antibiotic pressure, bioluminescence is not controlled by luxA expression but by co-factors impacting the bacterial metabolic activity. This conclusion is of utmost importance when evaluating antibiotic efficacy in live animals using bioluminescent bacterial strains. PMID:26526893

  7. Compilation of DNA sequences of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, Manfred

    1989-01-01

    We have compiled the DNA sequence data for E.coli K12 available from the GENBANK and EMBO databases and over a period of several years independently from the literature. We have introduced all available genetic map data and have arranged the sequences accordingly. As far as possible the overlaps are deleted and a total of 940,449 individual bp is found to be determined till the beginning of 1989. This corresponds to a total of 19.92% of the entire E.coli chromosome consisting of about 4,720 kbp. This number may actually be higher by some extra 2% derived from the sequence of lysogenic bacteriophage lambda and the various insertion sequences. This compilation may be available in machine readable form from one of the international databanks in some future. PMID:2654890

  8. Occurrence of genes encoding enterotoxins in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates

    PubMed Central

    Mirzarazi, Mahsa; Rezatofighi, Seyedeh Elham; Pourmahdi, Mahdi; Mohajeri, Mohamad Reza

    2015-01-01

    To determine the presence of some toxins of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), 138 urinary tract infection (UTI)-causing UPECs were analyzed. The astA , set , sen and cdtB genes were detected in 13 (9.4%), 2 (1.3%), 13 (9.4%) and 0 (0%) of UPEC isolates respectively. The results show that some genes encoding toxins can be transferred from DEC pathotypes to UPECs therefore these isolates can transform into potential diarrhea-causing agents. PMID:26221102

  9. DNA Methylation and Mutator Genes in Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Marinus, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    Mutator strains of Escherichia coli have been used to define mechanisms that account for the high fidelity of chromosome duplication and chromosome stability. Mutant strains defective in post-replicative mismatch repair display a strong mutator phenotype consistent with a role for correction of mismatches arising from replication errors. Inactivation of the gene (dam) encoding DNA adenine methyltransferase results in a mutator phenotype consistent with a role for DNA methylation in strand discrimination during mismatch repair. This review gives a personal perspective on the discovery of dam mutants in E. coli and their relationship to mismatch repair and mutator phenotypes. PMID:20471491

  10. Escherichia coli as a model active colloid: A practical introduction.

    PubMed

    Schwarz-Linek, Jana; Arlt, Jochen; Jepson, Alys; Dawson, Angela; Vissers, Teun; Miroli, Dario; Pilizota, Teuta; Martinez, Vincent A; Poon, Wilson C K

    2016-01-01

    The flagellated bacterium Escherichia coli is increasingly used experimentally as a self-propelled swimmer. To obtain meaningful, quantitative results that are comparable between different laboratories, reproducible protocols are needed to control, 'tune' and monitor the swimming behaviour of these motile cells. We critically review the knowledge needed to do so, explain methods for characterising the colloidal and motile properties of E. coli cells, and propose a protocol for keeping them swimming at constant speed at finite bulk concentrations. In the process of establishing this protocol, we use motility as a high-throughput probe of aspects of cellular physiology via the coupling between swimming speed and the proton motive force. PMID:26310235

  11. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rosano, Germán L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant proteins. Its use as a cell factory is well-established and it has become the most popular expression platform. For this reason, there are many molecular tools and protocols at hand for the high-level production of heterologous proteins, such as a vast catalog of expression plasmids, a great number of engineered strains and many cultivation strategies. We review the different approaches for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in E. coli and discuss recent progress in this ever-growing field. PMID:24860555

  12. Effect of Escherichia coli enterotoxins on macromolecular absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Verma, M; Majumdar, S; Ganguly, N K; Walia, B N

    1994-01-01

    Macromolecular absorption of gliadin, a wheat protein and alpha lactalbumin, a milk protein was evaluated in control and Escherichia coli enterotoxin (heat-stable, heat-labile, and both heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxin) treated mice. The peak concentration of gliadin and lactalbumin was two hours and three hours after their ingestion, respectively. There was also a significant increase (p < 0.01) in the absorption of both the proteins in all the three toxin treated groups compared with the control group. These results suggest that intestinal permeability and macromolecular absorption changes after E coli infection. PMID:7828983

  13. Genes and proteins of Escherichia coli (GenProtEc).

    PubMed

    Riley, M; Space, D B

    1996-01-01

    GenProtEc is a database of Escherichia coli genes and their gene products, classified by type of function and physiological role and with citations to the literature for each. Also present are data on sequence similarities among E.coli proteins with PAM values, percent identity of amino acids, length of alignment and percent aligned. The database is available as a PKZip file by ftp from mbl.edu/pub/ecoli.exe. The program runs under MS-DOS on IMB-compatible machines. GenProtEc can also be accessed through the World Wide Web at URL http://mbl.edu/html/ecoli.html. PMID:8594596

  14. Dexamethazone protects against Escherichia coli induced sickness behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Hanaa-Mansour, A; Hassan, Wedad A; Georgy, Gehan S

    2016-01-01

    Systemic bacterial infection results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome due to the release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in blood that can lead to multiple organ failure, shock, and potentially death. Other impact, LPS exposure produces robust increase in anxiety-like behavior, suppression of locomotor, exploratory activity, and reduced social behavior. The therapeutic use of glucocorticoids in septic shock remains one of the first-aid approaches for their anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of dexamethazone (DEX), the most commonly used corticosteroid, against Escherichia coli (E. coli) immunohistochemical changes and neurobehavioral dysfunction. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; (1) Control group (2) E. coli infected group, where animals received 0.2ml of 24h growth of E. coli suspension in nutrient broth containing approximately 1.8×10(8)cfu/ml i.p for once, 48h before sacrificing (3) DEX (20mg/kg, i.p, 3 days) treated group (4) DEX and E. coli treated group. The results revealed that DEX significantly protected animals against most E. coli-induced behavioral deficits, reduced signs of cognitive impairment. DEX also reduced the LPS-evoked rise in C-reactive protein (CRP), Interferon gamma (IF?), as well as, expression of Caspase-3. In conclusion, DEX provides neuroprotection against E. coli-associated neurobehavioral and immunological changes via its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:26541583

  15. Inactivation of Escherichia coli using atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahata, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ohyama, Ryu-ichiro; Ito, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    An atmospheric-pressure argon (Ar) plasma jet was applied to the inactivation of Escherichia coli. The Ar plasma jet was generated at a frequency of 10 kHz, an applied voltage of 10 kV, and an Ar gas flow rate of 10 L/min at atmospheric pressure. E. coli cells seeded on an agar medium in a Petri dish were inactivated by Ar plasma jet irradiation for 1 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that E. coli cells were killed because their cell wall and membrane were disrupted. To determine the causes of the disruption of the cell wall and membrane of E. coli, we performed the following experiments: the measurement of the surface temperature of an agar medium using a thermograph, the analysis of an emission spectrum of a plasma jet obtained using a multichannel spectrometer, and the determination of the distribution of the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated on an agar medium by plasma jet irradiation using semiquantitative test strips. Moreover, H2O2 solutions of different concentrations were dropped onto an agar medium seeded with E. coli cells to examine the contribution of H2O2 to the death of E. coli. The results of these experiments showed that the cell wall and membrane of E. coli were disrupted by electrons in the plasma jet, as well as by electroneutral excited nitrogen molecules (N2) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals in the periphery of the plasma jet.

  16. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in captive black-footed ferrets.

    PubMed

    Bradley, G A; Orr, K; Reggiardo, C; Glock, R D

    2001-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with genes for heat stabile toxins Sta and STb was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract and multiple visceral organs of three adult and three juvenile black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) that died in a captive breeding colony between 24 May 1998 and 2 July 1998. Similar isolates were obtained from rectal swabs of one adult and one juvenile that were clinically ill. All were fed a diet composed of mink chow, raw rabbit meat, beef liver powder, blood meal and lard. Escherichia coli of the same toxin genotype was isolated from the mixed ration. Clinical signs included sudden death, dehydration, anorexia and diarrhea. Necropsy lesions included acute enteritis with large numbers of rod shaped bacteria microscopically visible on intestinal villi. PMID:11504237

  17. Escherichia coli induces apoptosis and proliferation of mammary cells.

    PubMed

    Long, E; Capuco, A V; Wood, D L; Sonstegard, T; Tomita, G; Paape, M J; Zhao, X

    2001-08-01

    Mammary cell apoptosis and proliferation were assessed after injection of Escherichia coli into the left mammary quarters of six cows. Bacteriological analysis of foremilk samples revealed coliform infection in the injected quarters of four cows. Milk somatic cell counts increased in these quarters and peaked at 24 h after bacterial injection. Body temperature also increased, peaking at 12 h postinjection. The number of apoptotic cells was significantly higher in the mastitic tissue than in the uninfected control. Expression of Bax and interleukin-1beta converting enzyme increased in the mastitic tissue at 24 h and 72 h postinfection, whereas Bcl-2 expression decreased at 24 h but did not differ significantly from the control at 72 h postinfection. Induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9, stromelysin-1 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator was also observed in the mastitic tissue. Moreover, cell proliferation increased in the infected tissue. These results demonstrate that Escherichia coli-induced mastitis promotes apoptosis and cell proliferation. PMID:11526434

  18. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua

    PubMed Central

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H.; Hung, Albert M.; Graves, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism. PMID:26914334

  19. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H; Hung, Albert M; Graves, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism. PMID:26914334

  20. Escherichia coli and Salmonella 2000: the View From Here

    PubMed Central

    Schaechter, Moselio

    2001-01-01

    Five years after the publication of the second edition of the reference book Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology, and on the eve of launching a successor venture, the editors and colleagues examine where we stand in our quest for an understanding of these organisms. The main areas selected for this brief inquiry are genomics, evolution, molecular multifunctionality, functional backups, regulation of gene expression, cell biology, sensing of the environment, and ecology. PMID:11238988

  1. Preparation of procoligenoids from Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, R A; Sciortino, C V; Rieke, L C; Burks, M F; Boesman-Finkelstein, M

    1984-01-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxins from Escherichia coli strains of porcine and human origin polymerize on heating to form high-molecular-weight aggregates, "procoligenoids," analogous to procholeragenoid derived from the cholera enterotoxin. This aggregation is accompanied by loss of biological activity (toxicity). Further heating results in the release of B-subunit oligomers, coligenoids, analogous to choleragenoid. Further studies are needed to determine whether, like procholeragenoid, the procoligenoids are superior antigens in stimulating gut immunity after parenteral administration. Images PMID:6378800

  2. Role of threonine dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli threonine degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, R; Kapoor, V; Newman, E B

    1977-01-01

    Threonine was used as nitrogen source by Escherichia coli K-12 through a pathway beginning with the enzyme threonine dehydrogenase. The 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate formed was converted to glycine, and the glycine was converted to serine, which acted as the actual nitrogen donor. The enzyme formed under anaerobic conditions and known as threonine deaminase (biodegradative) is less widespread than threonine dehydrogenase and may be involved in energy metabolism rather than in threonine degradation per se. PMID:334738

  3. Electric field induced bacterial flocculation of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli 042

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Aloke; Mortensen, Ninell P; Mukherjee, Partha P; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2011-01-01

    A response of the aggregation dynamics of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli under low magnitude steady and oscillating electric fields is presented. The presence of uniform electric fields hampered microbial adhesion and biofilm formation on a transverse glass surface, but instead promoted the formation of flocs. Extremely heterogeneous distribution of live and dead cells was observed among the flocs. Moreover, floc formation was largely observed to be independent of the frequency of alternating electric fields.

  4. Electric field induced bacterial flocculation of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli 042

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aloke; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Mukherjee, Partha P.; Retterer, Scott T.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.

    2011-06-01

    A response of the aggregation dynamics of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli under low magnitude steady and oscillating electric fields is presented. The presence of uniform electric fields hampered microbial adhesion and biofilm formation on a transverse glass surface, but instead promoted the formation of flocs. Extremely heterogenous distribution of live and dead cells was observed among the flocs. Moreover, floc formation was largely observed to be independent of the frequency of alternating electric fields.

  5. Kinase replacement by a dehydrogenase for Escherichia coli glycerol utilization.

    PubMed Central

    St Martin, E J; Freedberg, W B; Lin, E C

    1977-01-01

    A mutant of Escherichia coli that employs a glycerol:nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2-oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.6), instead of adenosine 5'-triphosphate:glycerol 3-phosphotransferase (EC 2.7.1.30), as the first enzyme for the dissimilation of glycerol was constructed. This mutant, like the wild-type strain, still cannot grow anaerobically on glycerol without an exogenous hydrogen acceptor. PMID:197059

  6. Genetics of the relB locus in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Diderichsen, B; Fiil, N P; Lavallé, R

    1977-01-01

    A mutant of Escherichia coli with a delayed relaxed phenotype very similar to that of a previously described relB mutant has been obtained using a new selection procedure. The mutation giving rise to this phenotype has been shown to map at 34.5 min and to be 12% cotransducible with man. It is recessive, revertible, and most likely an allele of the relB gene. PMID:326765

  7. Comparison of three types of biochar for removal of Escherichia coli from agricultural runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an infectious type of bacteria that infects over 5,000 people per year in the United States, sometimes leading to death. Since cattle can produce more than 104 Escherichia coli (E. coli) per gram of feces, and biochar is a material with physical prop...

  8. Biomolecular Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the most prevalent Gram-negative biofilm forming medical device associated pathogens, particularly with respect to catheter associated urinary tract infections. In a similar manner to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative biofilm formation is fundamentally determined by a series of steps outlined more fully in this review, namely adhesion, cellular aggregation, and the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix. More specifically this review will explore the biosynthesis and role of pili and flagella in Gram-negative adhesion and accumulation on surfaces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The process of biofilm maturation is compared and contrasted in both species, namely the production of the exopolysaccharides via the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl), pellicle Formation (Pel) and alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose and colonic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the LuxR homologue sdiA; the luxS/autoinducer-II; an autoinducer-III/epinephrine/norepinephrine and indole mediated Quorum sensing systems in enabling Gram-negative bacteria to adapt to their environments. The majority of Gram-negative biofilms consist of polysaccharides of a simple sugar structure (either homo- or heteropolysaccharides) that provide an optimum environment for the survival and maturation of bacteria, allowing them to display increased resistance to antibiotics and predation. PMID:25438014

  9. Shear alters motility of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaei, Mehdi; Jalali, Maryam; Sheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Understanding of locomotion of microorganisms in shear flows drew a wide range of interests in microbial related topics such as biological process including pathogenic infection and biophysical interactions like biofilm formation on engineering surfaces. We employed microfluidics and digital holography microscopy to study motility of E. coli in shear flows. We controlled the shear flow in three different shear rates: 0.28 s-1, 2.8 s-1, and 28 s-1 in a straight channel with the depth of 200 μm. Magnified holograms, recorded at 15 fps with a CCD camera over more than 20 minutes, are analyzed to obtain 3D swimming trajectories and subsequently used to extract shear responses of E.coli. Thousands of 3-D bacterial trajectories are tracked. The change of bacteria swimming characteristics including swimming velocity, reorientation, and dispersion coefficient are computed directly for individual trajectory and ensemble averaged over thousands of realizations. The results show that shear suppresses the bacterial dispersions in bulk but promote dispersions near the surface contrary to those in quiescent flow condition. Ongoing analyses are focusing to quantify effect of shear rates on tumbling frequency and reorientation of cell body, and its implication in locating the hydrodynamic mechanisms for shear enhanced angular scattering. NIH, NSF, GoMRI.

  10. Survival of Escherichia coli on strawberries grown under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Angela Laury; Svoboda, Amanda; Jie, Beatrice; Nonnecke, Gail; Mendonca, Aubrey

    2015-04-01

    Strawberries are soft fruit that are not recommended to have a post-harvest wash due to quality concerns. Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been linked to outbreaks with strawberries but little is known about the survival of E. coli during the growth cycle of strawberries. The survival of E. coli on strawberry plants during growing under greenhouses conditions was evaluated. Soil, leaves, and strawberries (if present) were artificially contaminated with an E. coli surrogate either at the time of planting, first runner removal (4 wk), second runner removal (8 wk), or one week prior to harvest. At harvest E. coli was recovered from the leaves, soil, and strawberries regardless of the contamination time. Time of contamination influenced (P < 0.05) numbers of viable E. coli on the plant. The highest survival of E. coli (P < 0.0001) was detected in soil that was contaminated at planting (4.27 log10 CFU g soil(-1)), whereas, the survival of E. coli was maximal at later contamination times (8 wk and 1 wk prior to harvest) for the leaves (4.40 and 4.68 log10 CFU g leaves(-1)) and strawberries (3.37 and 3.53 log10 CFU strawberry(-1)). Cross contamination from leaves to fruit was observed during this study, with the presence of E. coli on strawberries which had not been present at the time of contamination. These results indicate that good agricultural best practices to avoid contamination are necessary to minimize the risk of contamination of these popular fruit with enteric pathogens. Practices should include soil testing prior to harvest and avoiding contamination of the leaves. PMID:25475285

  11. Escherichia coli heme oxygenase modulates host innate immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Maharshak, Nitsan; Ryu, Hyungjin Sally; Fan, Ting-Jia; Onyiah, Joseph C.; Schulz, Stephanie; Otterbein, Sherrie L.; Wong, Ron; Hansen, Jonathan; Otterbein, Leo E; Carroll, Ian; Plevy, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Induction of mammalian heme oxygenase-1 and exposure of animals to carbon monoxide ameliorates experimental colitis. When enteric bacteria, including Escherichia coli, are exposed to low iron conditions, they express an heme oxygenase-like enzyme, chuS, and metabolize heme into iron, biliverdin and carbon monoxide. Given the abundance of enteric bacteria residing in the intestinal lumen, we hypothesized that commensal intestinal bacteria may be a significant source of carbon monoxide, with the consequence that enteric bacteria expressing chuS and other heme oxygenase -like molecules suppress inflammatory immune responses through release of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide exposed mice have altered enteric bacterial composition and increased E. coli 16S and chuS DNA by real-time PCR. Moreover, severity of experimental colitis correlates with increased E. coli chuS expression in IL-10 deficient mice. To explore functional roles, E. coli were genetically modified to overexpress chuS or the chuS gene was deleted. Co-culture of chuS-overexpressing E. coli with bone marrow derived macrophages results in decreased IL-12 p40 and increased IL-10 secretion compared to wild-type or chuS-deficient E. coli. Mice infected with chuS-overexpressing E. coli have increased levels of hepatic carbon monoxide and decreased serum IL-12 p40 compared to mice infected with chuS-deficient E. coli. Thus, carbon monoxide alters the composition of the commensal intestinal microbiota and expands E. coli populations harboring the chuS gene. These bacteria are capable of attenuating innate immune responses through expression of chuS. Bacterial heme oxygenase -like molecules and bacterial-derived carbon monoxide may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory conditions. PMID:26146866

  12. Expression of the Serratia marcescens lipoproteins gene in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, N; Nakamura, K; Inouye, M

    1981-01-01

    The lipoprotein gene (lpp) of Serratia marcescens was cloned in a lambda phage vector (K. Nakamura and M. Inouye, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 1369-1373, 1980). This lpp gene was recloned in plasmid vectors pBR322 and pSC101. When a lipoprotein-deficient (lpp) mutant of Escherichia coli was transformed with pBR322 carrying the S. marcescens lpp gene, cells became nonleaky for ribonuclease, resistant to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and sensitive to globomycin. The lipoprotein was found exclusively in the outer membrane fraction. These results indicate that the S. marcescens lipoprotein was normally secreted across the cytoplasmic membrane, modified, and assembled in the E. coli outer membrane. The amount of the free-form lipoprotein produced in this system was three times higher than that produced in lpp + C. coli cells, whereas there was no difference in the amount of the bound-form lipoprotein. On the other hand, lpp E. coli cells which harbored pSC101 carrying the S. marcescens lpp gene produced only one-third of the free-form lipoprotein produced in lpp E. coli cells which harbored pSC101 carrying the E. coli lpp gene. One of the major factors causing this difference in efficiency of gene expression between the lpp genes of S. marcescens and E. coli appears to be a deletion mutation at the transcription termination region found in the cloned S. marcescens lpp gene. The functional half-life of the S. marcescens lpp messenger ribonucleic acid in E. coli was found to be found half that of the E. coli lpp messenger ribonucleic acid. Images PMID:7016834

  13. Interaction of Escherichia coli and soil particles in runoff.

    PubMed

    Muirhead, Richard William; Collins, Robert Peter; Bremer, Philip James

    2006-05-01

    A laboratory-scale model system was developed to investigate the transport mechanisms involved in the horizontal movement of bacteria in overland flow across saturated soils. A suspension of Escherichia coli and bromide tracer was added to the model system, and the bromide concentration and number of attached and unattached E. coli cells in the overland flow were measured over time. Analysis of the breakthrough curves indicated that the E. coli and bromide were transported together, presumably by the same mechanism. This implied that the E. coli was transported by advection with the flowing water. Overland-flow transport of E. coli could be significantly reduced if the cells were preattached to large soil particles (> 45 microm). However, when unattached cells were inoculated into the system, the E. coli appeared to attach predominantly to small particles (< 2 microm) and hence remained unattenuated during transport. These results imply that in runoff generated by saturation-excess conditions, bacteria are rapidly transported across the surface and have little opportunity to interact with the soil matrix. PMID:16672484

  14. Proximity-Dependent Inhibition in Escherichia coli Isolates from Cattle?

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Ashish A.; Casavant, N. Carol; Call, Douglas R.; Besser, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel proximity-dependent inhibition phenotype of Escherichia coli that is expressed when strains are cocultured in defined minimal media. When cocultures of “inhibitor” and “target” strains approached a transition between logarithmic and stationary growth, target strain populations rapidly declined >4 log CFU per ml over a 2-h period. Inhibited strains were not affected by exposure to conditioned media from inhibitor and target strain cocultures or when the inhibitor and target strains were incubated in shared media but physically separated by a 0.4-?m-pore-size membrane. There was no evidence of lytic phage or extracellular bacteriocin involvement, unless the latter was only present at effective concentrations within immediate proximity of the inhibited cells. The inhibitory activity observed in this study was effective against a diversity of E. coli strains, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli serotype O157:H7, enterotoxigenic E. coli expressing F5 (K99) and F4 (K88) fimbriae, multidrug-resistant E. coli, and commensal E. coli. The decline in counts of target strains in coculture averaged 4.8 log CFU/ml (95% confidence interval, 4.0 to 5.5) compared to their monoculture counts. Coculture of two inhibitor strains showed mutual immunity to inhibition. These results suggest that proximity-dependent inhibition can be used by bacteria to gain a numerical advantage when populations are entering stationary phase, thus setting the stage for a competitive advantage when growth conditions improve. PMID:21296941

  15. [Pan-genomics analysis of 30 Escherichia coli genomes].

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Qin, Qi-Wei

    2012-06-01

    A pan-genome describes the full complement of genes in species. It is a superset of all the genes in all the individuals of a species, which is composed of a 'core genome' containing genes present in all individuals, and a 'dispensable genome' containing genes present only in some individuals and individual-specific genes. From pan-genome sight, 30 finished genomes from Escherichia coli were employed to analyze their gene and genome compositions and evaluation in this study. The results indicated that the core genes accounted for about 50% of the total number of genes, while about 146 strain-specific genes existed in the each strain tested. The data suggests that the E. coli pan-genome is vast, and unique genes will continue to be identified when more E. coli genomes are sequenced. After analyzing relationships of the gene conservation, GC content and selection pressure in different strains tested, we found that more conserved genes had a nar-row range of GC content, and they also bear more selection pressure. These results will be helpful for better understanding of the evolution profile of E. coli genome, and the dynamic changes of its gene compositions. The E. coli pan-genome pro-vides useful information for prevention and control of the diseases caused by pathogenic E. coli, and also provides a para-digm for the large-scale analysis of pathogenic bacteria genomes. PMID:22698749

  16. Measuring Escherichia coli Gene Expression during Human Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Harry L T

    2016-01-01

    Extraintestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli) evolved by acquisition of pathogenicity islands, phage, plasmids, and DNA segments by horizontal gene transfer. Strains are heterogeneous but virulent uropathogenic isolates more often have specific fimbriae, toxins, and iron receptors than commensal strains. One may ask whether it is the virulence factors alone that are required to establish infection. While these virulence factors clearly contribute strongly to pathogenesis, bacteria must survive by metabolizing nutrients available to them. By constructing mutants in all major metabolic pathways and co-challenging mice transurethrally with each mutant and the wild type strain, we identified which major metabolic pathways are required to infect the urinary tract. We must also ask what else is E. coli doing in vivo? To answer this question, we examined the transcriptome of E. coli CFT073 in the murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI) as well as for E. coli strains collected and analyzed directly from the urine of patients attending either a urology clinic or a university health clinic for symptoms of UTI. Using microarrays and RNA-seq, we measured in vivo gene expression for these uropathogenic E. coli strains, identifying genes upregulated during murine and human UTI. Our findings allow us to propose a new definition of bacterial virulence. PMID:26784237

  17. Bacteriophage cocktail significantly reduces Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Chandi D.; Parks, Adam; Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Woolston, Joelle; Magnone, Joshua; Senecal, Andre; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Foods contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 cause more than 63,000 foodborne illnesses in the United States every year, resulting in a significant economic impact on medical costs and product liabilities. Efforts to reduce contamination with E. coli O157:H7 have largely focused on washing, application of various antibacterial chemicals, and gamma-irradiation, each of which has practical and environmental drawbacks. A relatively recent, environmentally-friendly approach proposed for eliminating or significantly reducing E. coli O157:H7 contamination of foods is the use of lytic bacteriophages as biocontrol agents. We found that EcoShield™, a commercially available preparation composed of three lytic bacteriophages specific for E. coli O157:H7, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the levels of the bacterium in experimentally contaminated beef by ≥ 94% and in lettuce by 87% after a five minute contact time. The reduced levels of bacteria were maintained for at least one week at refrigerated temperatures. However, the one-time application of EcoShield™ did not protect the foods from recontamination with E. coli O157:H7. Our results demonstrate that EcoShield™ is effective in significantly reducing contamination of beef and lettuce with E. coli O157:H7, but does not protect against potential later contamination due to, for example, unsanitary handling of the foods post processing. PMID:23275869

  18. Escherichia coli sequence type 131: epidemiology and challenges in treatment.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Zubair A; Doi, Yohei

    2014-05-01

    Escherichia coli ST131 has emerged as a global epidemic, multidrug-resistant clone of E. coli causing extra-intestinal infections. It is now highly prevalent among fluoroquinolone-resistant and CTX-M ESBL-producing E. coli isolates worldwide. Humans are likely the primary reservoir of ST131. Factors associated with its acquisition include residence in long-term care facilities and recent receipt of antimicrobial agents. E. coli ST131 causes a wide array of infections ranging from cystitis to life-threatening sepsis. Fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are no longer adequate options for empiric therapy when E. coli ST131 is suspected from risk factors and local epidemiology. Expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems are options to treat serious non-ESBL-producing E. coli ST131 infections, while carbapenems are indicated for ESBL-producing infections. There is a growing interest in reevaluating oral agents including fosfomycin and pivmecillinam for less serious infections such as uncomplicated cystitis. PMID:24694052

  19. Biofilm Modifies Expression of Ribonucleotide Reductase Genes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cendra, Maria del Mar; Juárez, Antonio; Torrents, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is an essential enzyme for all living organisms since is the responsible for the last step in the synthesis of the four deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs) necessary for DNA replication and repair. In this work, we have investigated the expression of the three-RNR classes (Ia, Ib and III) during Escherichia coli biofilm formation. We show the temporal and spatial importance of class Ib and III RNRs during this process in two different E. coli wild-type strains, the commensal MG1655 and the enteropathogenic and virulent E2348/69, the prototype for the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). We have established that class Ib RNR, so far considered cryptic, play and important role during biofilm formation. The implication of this RNR class under the specific growth conditions of biofilm formation is discussed. PMID:23050019

  20. Biofilm modifies expression of ribonucleotide reductase genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cendra, Maria del Mar; Juárez, Antonio; Torrents, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is an essential enzyme for all living organisms since is the responsible for the last step in the synthesis of the four deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs) necessary for DNA replication and repair. In this work, we have investigated the expression of the three-RNR classes (Ia, Ib and III) during Escherichia coli biofilm formation. We show the temporal and spatial importance of class Ib and III RNRs during this process in two different E. coli wild-type strains, the commensal MG1655 and the enteropathogenic and virulent E2348/69, the prototype for the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). We have established that class Ib RNR, so far considered cryptic, play and important role during biofilm formation. The implication of this RNR class under the specific growth conditions of biofilm formation is discussed. PMID:23050019

  1. The quantitative and condition-dependent Escherichia coli proteome.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander; Kochanowski, Karl; Vedelaar, Silke; Ahrné, Erik; Volkmer, Benjamin; Callipo, Luciano; Knoops, Kèvin; Bauer, Manuel; Aebersold, Ruedi; Heinemann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Measuring precise concentrations of proteins can provide insights into biological processes. Here we use efficient protein extraction and sample fractionation, as well as state-of-the-art quantitative mass spectrometry techniques to generate a comprehensive, condition-dependent protein-abundance map for Escherichia coli. We measure cellular protein concentrations for 55% of predicted E. coli genes (>2,300 proteins) under 22 different experimental conditions and identify methylation and N-terminal protein acetylations previously not known to be prevalent in bacteria. We uncover system-wide proteome allocation, expression regulation and post-translational adaptations. These data provide a valuable resource for the systems biology and broader E. coli research communities. PMID:26641532

  2. The Escherichia coli transcriptome linked to growth fitness.

    PubMed

    Ying, Bei-Wen; Yama, Kazuma; Kitahara, Kazuki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    A series of Escherichia coli strains with varied genomic sequences were subjected to high-density microarray analyses to elucidate the fitness-correlated transcriptomes. Fitness, which is commonly evaluated by the growth rate during the exponential phase, is not only determined by the genome but is also linked to growth conditions, e.g., temperature. We previously reported genetic and environmental contributions to E. coli transcriptomes and evolutionary transcriptome changes in thermal adaptation. Here, we describe experimental details on how to prepare microarray samples that truly represent the growth fitness of the E. coli cells. A step-by-step record of sample preparation procedures that correspond to growing cells and transcriptome data sets that are deposited at the GEO database (GSE33212, GSE52770, GSE61739) are also provided for reference. PMID:26981347

  3. Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak from sprouted seeds.

    PubMed

    Soon, J M; Seaman, P; Baines, R N

    2013-06-01

    From May to July 2011, one of the largest reported outbreaks of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) and bloody diarrhoea caused by the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 occurred in Germany and France. The hypothetical origin of the outbreak strain was a combined enteroaggregative E. coli and an enterohaemorrhagic E. coli with the ability to resist multi-antibiotics and produce Shiga-toxin 2. The combination of aggregative ability, antibiotic resistance and the production of Shiga-toxin 2 significantly affected the severity of the symptoms presented. Since humans may be the primary reservoir, it is likely that contamination could have occurred through contact with infected individuals. Farm food safety management, and hand hygiene training programmes are crucial to primary production to prevent or reduce risks of contamination. PMID:22898546

  4. Pulsed ultra-violet inactivation spectrum of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Macgregor, S J; Anderson, J G; Woolsey, G A

    2005-08-01

    Inactivation of Escherichia coli is examined using ultra-violet (UV) radiation from a pulsed xenon flashlamp. The light from the discharge has a broadband emission spectrum extending from the UV to the infrared region with a rich UV content. The flashlamp provides high-energy UV output using a small number of short-duration pulses (30 micros). The flashlamp is used with a monochromator to investigate the wavelength sensitivity of E. coli to inactivation by the pulsed UV light. Using 8 nm wide pulses of UV radiation, the most efficient inactivation is found to occur at around 270 nm and no inactivation is observed above 300 nm. A pyroelectric detector allows the energy dose to be determined at each wavelength, and a peak value for E. coli population reduction of 0.43 log per mJ/cm(2) is measured at 270 nm. The results are compared with the published data available for continuous UV light sources. PMID:15993922

  5. Engineering Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 to use starch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To attain a sustainable bioeconomy, fuel, or valuable product, production must use biomass as substrate. Starch is one of the most abundant biomass resources and is present as waste or as a food and agroindustry by-product. Unfortunately, Escherichia coli, one of the most widely used microorganisms in biotechnological processes, cannot use starch as a carbon source. Results We engineered an E. coli strain capable of using starch as a substrate. The genetic design employed the native capability of the bacterium to use maltodextrins as a carbon source plus expression and secretion of its endogenous α-amylase, AmyA, in an adapted background. Biomass production improved using 35% dissolved oxygen and pH 7.2 in a controlled bioreactor. Conclusion The engineered E. coli strain can use starch from the milieu and open the possibility of optimize the process to use agroindustrial wastes to produce biofuels and other valuable chemicals. PMID:24886307

  6. Escherichia coli kgtP encodes an. alpha. -ketoglutarate transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Wongi; Shatkin, A.J. )

    1991-05-01

    The witA gene located between pss and rrnG on the Escherichia coli chromosome encodes a 432-amino acid protein. It is homologous to a human hepatoma glucose transporter and to E. coli membrane proteins that transport citrate (CitA), arabinose (AraE), and xylose (XylE), and, like these carrier proteins, WitA also contains 12 highly hydrophobic putative membrane-spanning regions. Gene disruption mutants constructed in two E. coli strains grew slowly or not at all, depending on genetic background, in M9 minimal medium containing {alpha}-ketoglutarate and uptake of {alpha}-({sup 14}C)ketoglutarate were restored by transformation with plasmids containing witA. These complementation studies indicate that WitA is an {alpha}-ketoglutarate transporter and should be renamed kgtP({alpha}-ketoglutarate permease).

  7. The Escherichia coli transcriptome linked to growth fitness

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Bei-Wen; Yama, Kazuma; Kitahara, Kazuki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    A series of Escherichia coli strains with varied genomic sequences were subjected to high-density microarray analyses to elucidate the fitness-correlated transcriptomes. Fitness, which is commonly evaluated by the growth rate during the exponential phase, is not only determined by the genome but is also linked to growth conditions, e.g., temperature. We previously reported genetic and environmental contributions to E. coli transcriptomes and evolutionary transcriptome changes in thermal adaptation. Here, we describe experimental details on how to prepare microarray samples that truly represent the growth fitness of the E. coli cells. A step-by-step record of sample preparation procedures that correspond to growing cells and transcriptome data sets that are deposited at the GEO database (GSE33212, GSE52770, GSE61739) are also provided for reference.

  8. Functions of the gene products of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, M

    1993-01-01

    A list of currently identified gene products of Escherichia coli is given, together with a bibliography that provides pointers to the literature on each gene product. A scheme to categorize cellular functions is used to classify the gene products of E. coli so far identified. A count shows that the numbers of genes concerned with small-molecule metabolism are on the same order as the numbers concerned with macromolecule biosynthesis and degradation. One large category is the category of tRNAs and their synthetases. Another is the category of transport elements. The categories of cell structure and cellular processes other than metabolism are smaller. Other subjects discussed are the occurrence in the E. coli genome of redundant pairs and groups of genes of identical or closely similar function, as well as variation in the degree of density of genetic information in different parts of the genome. PMID:7508076

  9. Steady-State Chemotaxis in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafri, Yariv; da Silveira, Rava Azeredo

    2008-06-01

    The bacterium E. coli maneuvers itself to regions with high chemoattractant concentrations by performing two stereotypical moves: “runs,” in which it moves in near-straight lines, and “tumbles,” in which it does not advance but changes direction randomly. The duration of each move is stochastic and depends upon the chemoattractant concentration experienced in the recent past. We relate this stochastic behavior to the steady-state density of a bacterium population, and we derive the latter as a function of chemoattractant concentration. In contrast to earlier treatments, here we account for the effects of temporal correlations and variable tumbling durations. A range of behaviors is obtained that depends subtly upon several aspects of the system—memory, correlation, and tumbling stochasticity, in particular.

  10. Preparation of Soluble Proteins from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Purification of human IL-1? is used in this unit as an example of the preparation of a soluble protein from E. coli. Bacteria containing IL-1? are lysed, and IL-1 ? in the resulting supernatant is purified by anion-exchange chromatography, salt precipitation, and cation-exchange chromatography, and then concentrated. Finally, the IL-1 ? protein is applied to a gel-filtration column to separate it from remaining higher- and lower-molecular-weight contaminants, the purified protein is stored frozen or is lyophilized. The purification protocol described is typical for a protein that is expressed in fairly high abundance (i.e., >5% total protein) and accumulates in a soluble state. In addition, the purification procedure serves as an example of how to use classical protein purifications methods, which may also be used in conjunction with the affinity-based methods now more commonly used. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25367009

  11. A Purine Polyribonucleotide Synthetase from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Milanino, Roberto; Chargaff, Erwin

    1973-01-01

    The isolation, from E. coli B, and partial purification of a purine polyribonucleotide synthetase having several unusual properties is described. The enzyme, which seems to be under strict regulation by several nucleoside triphosphates, requires, after removal of internal primer activity, a primer, such as poly(A), poly(U), or a suitable RNA, but acts without a template. It uses purine ribonucleoside triphosphates as precursors. The uptake of adenylic acid, when ATP is offered alone, is highly stimulated by the presence of GTP, in which case both nucleotides are incorporated into mixed polymers; but GTP as the sole precursor is not utilized. CTP has a strongly inhibitory effect. Other unusual features are the high salt concentration, 0.6 M KCl, at which the enzyme is optimally active and evidence of the existence of a relatively heat-stable protein functioning as an activation factor. PMID:4582188

  12. A purine polyribonucleotide synthetase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Milanino, R; Chargaff, E

    1973-09-01

    The isolation, from E. coli B, and partial purification of a purine polyribonucleotide synthetase having several unusual properties is described. The enzyme, which seems to be under strict regulation by several nucleoside triphosphates, requires, after removal of internal primer activity, a primer, such as poly(A), poly(U), or a suitable RNA, but acts without a template. It uses purine ribonucleoside triphosphates as precursors. The uptake of adenylic acid, when ATP is offered alone, is highly stimulated by the presence of GTP, in which case both nucleotides are incorporated into mixed polymers; but GTP as the sole precursor is not utilized. CTP has a strongly inhibitory effect. Other unusual features are the high salt concentration, 0.6 M KCl, at which the enzyme is optimally active and evidence of the existence of a relatively heat-stable protein functioning as an activation factor. PMID:4582188

  13. Preparation of Soluble Proteins from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Purification of human IL-1? is used in this unit as an example of the preparation of soluble proteins from E. coli. Bacteria containing IL-1? are lysed, and IL-1 ? in the resulting supernatant is purified by anion-exchange chromatography, salt precipitation and cation-exchange chromatography, and then concentrated. Finally, the IL-1 ? protein is applied to a gel-filtration column to separate it from remaining higher- and lower-molecular-weight contaminants, the purified protein is stored frozen or is lyophilized. The purification protocol described is typical for a protein that is expressed in fairly high abundance (i.e., >5% total protein) and accumulates in a soluble state. Also, the purification procedure serves as an example of how use classical protein purifications methods which may also be used in conjunction with the affinity-based methods now more commonly used. PMID:25367009

  14. Effect of tannins on the in viro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and in vivo growth of generic Escherichia coli excreted from steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of commercially available chestnut and mimosa tannins in vitro (experiment 1) or in vivo (experiment 2) on the growth or recovery of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or generic fecal E. coli was evaluated. In experiment 1, the mean growth rate of E. coli O157:H7, determined via the measurement o...

  15. Sensitivity testing of a coupled Escherichia coli - Hydrologic catchment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydon, S.; Deletic, A.

    2007-05-01

    SummaryA conceptual model of microbial behaviour in catchments coupled with a standard hydrological model, known as the EG model, has been previously developed and tested for Escherichia coli. Due to the unavailability of pathogen data, E. coli has been used as a pathogen indicator. However, the model uses a broad conceptual approach and therefore should be tested for other microbes in future. This paper presents work done on sensitivity of the EG model, as well as its further refinement. Sensitivity of the model results to all E. coli calibration parameters was carried out. The EG model was then tested for its sensitivity to the number of events used to calibrate the model. The data collected at three different Australian drinking water catchments were used. Of the four parameters in the E. coli component of the EG model, two proved to be insensitive while the other two proved to be important. The sensitive parameters were the coefficients associated with the 'wash-off' functions in the model, while the two insensitive coefficients were associated with the E. coli decay functions in the model. However, the model became more sensitive towards the decay parameters in cleaner catchments. This indicates that the hydrologic aspects of the E. coli transport processes dominate rather than the E. coli decay functions. Apart from one catchment (that was partly urbanised and much smaller than the other two), the model was successfully calibrated using a small number of monitored events. It was concluded that the EG model could be simplified further by not modelling the decay of the pathogen indicator, E. coli.

  16. Global dissemination of a multidrug resistant Escherichia coli clone

    PubMed Central

    Petty, Nicola K.; Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Stanton-Cook, Mitchell; Skippington, Elizabeth; Totsika, Makrina; Forde, Brian M.; Phan, Minh-Duy; Gomes Moriel, Danilo; Peters, Kate M.; Davies, Mark; Rogers, Benjamin A.; Dougan, Gordon; Rodriguez-Baño, Jesús; Pascual, Alvaro; Pitout, Johann D. D.; Upton, Mathew; Paterson, David L.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Schembri, Mark A.; Beatson, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a globally disseminated, multidrug resistant (MDR) clone responsible for a high proportion of urinary tract and bloodstream infections. The rapid emergence and successful spread of E. coli ST131 is strongly associated with several factors, including resistance to fluoroquinolones, high virulence gene content, the possession of the type 1 fimbriae FimH30 allele, and the production of the CTX-M-15 extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL). Here, we used genome sequencing to examine the molecular epidemiology of a collection of E. coli ST131 strains isolated from six distinct geographical locations across the world spanning 2000–2011. The global phylogeny of E. coli ST131, determined from whole-genome sequence data, revealed a single lineage of E. coli ST131 distinct from other extraintestinal E. coli strains within the B2 phylogroup. Three closely related E. coli ST131 sublineages were identified, with little association to geographic origin. The majority of single-nucleotide variants associated with each of the sublineages were due to recombination in regions adjacent to mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The most prevalent sublineage of ST131 strains was characterized by fluoroquinolone resistance, and a distinct virulence factor and MGE profile. Four different variants of the CTX-M ESBL–resistance gene were identified in our ST131 strains, with acquisition of CTX-M-15 representing a defining feature of a discrete but geographically dispersed ST131 sublineage. This study confirms the global dispersal of a single E. coli ST131 clone and demonstrates the role of MGEs and recombination in the evolution of this important MDR pathogen. PMID:24706808

  17. Effective medicinal plants against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang; Lortheeranuwat, Amornrat; Jeeju, Wanpen; Sririrak, Trechada; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Supawita, Thanomjit

    2004-09-01

    The stimulating effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the production of verocytotoxin (VT) by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been claimed. The purpose of this study was to find an alternative, but bioactive medicine for the treatment of this organism. Fifty-eight preparations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 38 medicinal plant species commonly used in Thailand to cure gastrointestinal infections were tested for their antibacterial activity against different strains of Escherichia coli, including 6 strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Escherichia coli O26:H11, Escherichia coli O111:NM, Escherichia coli O22; 5 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine; and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Inhibition of growth was primarily tested by the paper disc agar diffusion method. Among the medicinal plants tested, only 8 species (21.05%) exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Acacia catechu, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava, Punica granatum, Quercus infectoria, Uncaria gambir, and Walsura robusta demonstrated antibacterial activity with inhibition zones ranging from 7 to 17 mm. The greatest inhibition zone against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (RIMD 05091083) was produced from the ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the agar microdilution method and agar dilution method in petri dishes with millipore filter. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Quercus infectoria and aqueous extract of Punica granatum were highly effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 with the best MIC and MBC values of 0.09, 0.78, and 0.19, 0.39 mg/ml, respectively. These plant species may provide alternative but bioactive medicines for the treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. PMID:15261962

  18. Defining the Genome Features of Escherichia albertii, an Emerging Enteropathogen Closely Related to Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ooka, Tadasuke; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Katsura, Keisuke; Seto, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Hideki; Kawano, Kimiko; Tokuoka, Eisuke; Furukawa, Masato; Harada, Seiya; Yoshino, Shuji; Seto, Junji; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Keiji; Murase, Kazunori; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Imuta, Naoko; Nishi, Junichiro; Gomes, Tânia A.; Beutin, Lothar; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia albertii is a recently recognized close relative of Escherichia coli. This emerging enteropathogen possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement, similar to enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EPEC and EHEC). Shiga toxin-producing strains have also been identified. The genomic features of E. albertii, particularly differences from other Escherichia species, have not yet been well clarified. Here, we sequenced the genome of 29 E. albertii strains (3 complete and 26 draft sequences) isolated from multiple sources and performed intraspecies and intragenus genomic comparisons. The sizes of the E. albertii genomes range from 4.5 to 5.1 Mb, smaller than those of E. coli strains. Intraspecies genomic comparisons identified five phylogroups of E. albertii. Intragenus genomic comparison revealed that the possible core genome of E. albertii comprises 3,250 genes, whereas that of the genus Escherichia comprises 1,345 genes. Our analysis further revealed several unique or notable genetic features of E. albertii, including those responsible for known biochemical features and virulence factors and a possibly active second T3SS known as ETT2 (E. coli T3SS 2) that is inactivated in E. coli. Although this organism has been observed to be nonmotile in vitro, genes for flagellar biosynthesis are fully conserved; chemotaxis-related genes have been selectively deleted. Based on these results, we have developed a nested polymerase chain reaction system to directly detect E. albertii. Our data define the genomic features of E. albertii and provide a valuable basis for future studies of this important emerging enteropathogen. PMID:26537224

  19. Defining the Genome Features of Escherichia albertii, an Emerging Enteropathogen Closely Related to Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Tadasuke; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Katsura, Keisuke; Seto, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Hideki; Kawano, Kimiko; Tokuoka, Eisuke; Furukawa, Masato; Harada, Seiya; Yoshino, Shuji; Seto, Junji; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Keiji; Murase, Kazunori; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Imuta, Naoko; Nishi, Junichiro; Gomes, Tânia A; Beutin, Lothar; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    Escherichia albertii is a recently recognized close relative of Escherichia coli. This emerging enteropathogen possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement, similar to enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EPEC and EHEC). Shiga toxin-producing strains have also been identified. The genomic features of E. albertii, particularly differences from other Escherichia species, have not yet been well clarified. Here, we sequenced the genome of 29 E. albertii strains (3 complete and 26 draft sequences) isolated from multiple sources and performed intraspecies and intragenus genomic comparisons. The sizes of the E. albertii genomes range from 4.5 to 5.1 Mb, smaller than those of E. coli strains. Intraspecies genomic comparisons identified five phylogroups of E. albertii. Intragenus genomic comparison revealed that the possible core genome of E. albertii comprises 3,250 genes, whereas that of the genus Escherichia comprises 1,345 genes. Our analysis further revealed several unique or notable genetic features of E. albertii, including those responsible for known biochemical features and virulence factors and a possibly active second T3SS known as ETT2 (E. coli T3SS 2) that is inactivated in E. coli. Although this organism has been observed to be nonmotile in vitro, genes for flagellar biosynthesis are fully conserved; chemotaxis-related genes have been selectively deleted. Based on these results, we have developed a nested polymerase chain reaction system to directly detect E. albertii. Our data define the genomic features of E. albertii and provide a valuable basis for future studies of this important emerging enteropathogen. PMID:26537224

  20. Use of the tna operon as a new molecular target for Escherichia coli detection.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Camilla; Volponi, Giorgio; Picozzi, Claudia; Foschino, Roberto

    2007-10-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR targeting the tnaA gene was studied to detect Escherichia coli and distinguish E. coli from Shigella spp. These microorganisms revealed high similarity in the molecular organization of the tna operon. PMID:17693560

  1. Escherichia coli O157 and other Shiga toxin producting E. coli: detection by immunomagnetic particle-based assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome and are important food-borne pathogens that can contaminate various types of food. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service declared E. coli O157:H7 a...

  2. Diarrhea, bacteremia and multiorgan dysfunction due to an extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strain with enteropathogenic E. coli genes

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Robert; Nisa, Shahista; Hazen, Tracy H.; Horneman, Amy; Amoroso, Anthony; Rasko, David A.; Donnenberg, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old man with well-controlled HIV had severe diarrhea for 3 weeks and developed multiorgan dysfunction and bacteremia due to Escherichia coli. The genome of the patient's isolate had features characteristic of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and genes distantly related to those defining enteropathogenic E. coli. PMID:26410828

  3. Recent Advances in Understanding Enteric Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Croxen, Matthew A.; Law, Robyn J.; Scholz, Roland; Keeney, Kristie M.; Wlodarska, Marta

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Although Escherichia coli can be an innocuous resident of the gastrointestinal tract, it also has the pathogenic capacity to cause significant diarrheal and extraintestinal diseases. Pathogenic variants of E. coli (pathovars or pathotypes) cause much morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consequently, pathogenic E. coli is widely studied in humans, animals, food, and the environment. While there are many common features that these pathotypes employ to colonize the intestinal mucosa and cause disease, the course, onset, and complications vary significantly. Outbreaks are common in developed and developing countries, and they sometimes have fatal consequences. Many of these pathotypes are a major public health concern as they have low infectious doses and are transmitted through ubiquitous mediums, including food and water. The seriousness of pathogenic E. coli is exemplified by dedicated national and international surveillance programs that monitor and track outbreaks; unfortunately, this surveillance is often lacking in developing countries. While not all pathotypes carry the same public health profile, they all carry an enormous potential to cause disease and continue to present challenges to human health. This comprehensive review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal pathotypes of E. coli. PMID:24092857

  4. Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli Serotypes from Cochin Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Divya P.; Durairaj, Srinivasan; Abdulla, Mohamed Hatha

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at detecting the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant serotypes of Escherichia coli in Cochin estuary, India. E. coli strains were isolated during the period January 2010–December 2011 from five different stations set at Cochin estuary. Water samples from five different stations in Cochin estuary were collected on a monthly basis for a period of two years. Isolates were serotyped, antibiogram-phenotyped for twelve antimicrobial agents, and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction for uid gene that codes for β-D-glucuronidase. These E. coli strains from Cochin estuary were tested against twelve antibiotics to determine the prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance among them. The results revealed that more than 53.33% of the isolates were multiple antibiotic resistant. Thirteen isolates showed resistance to sulphonamides and two of them contained the sul 1 gene. Class 1 integrons were detected in two E. coli strains which were resistant to more than seven antibiotics. In the present study, O serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity, and polymerase chain reaction were employed with the purpose of establishing the present distribution of multiple antibiotic-resistant serotypes, associated with E. coli isolated from different parts of Cochin estuary. PMID:23008708

  5. Canine feces as a reservoir of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J R; Stell, A L; Delavari, P

    2001-03-01

    To test the canine reservoir hypothesis of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), 63 environmental canine fecal deposits were evaluated for the presence of ExPEC by a combination of selective culturing, extended virulence genotyping, hemagglutination testing, O serotyping, and PCR-based phylotyping. Overall, 30% of canine fecal samples (56% of those that yielded viable E. coli) contained papG-positive E. coli, usually as the predominant E. coli strain and always possessing papG allele III (which encodes variant III of the P-fimbrial adhesin molecule PapG). Multiple other virulence-associated genes typical of human ExPEC were prevalent among the canine fecal isolates. According to serotyping, virulence genotyping, and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, over 50% of papG-positive fecal E. coli could be directly correlated with specific human clinical isolates from patients with cystitis, pyelonephritis, bacteremia, or meningitis, including archetypal human ExPEC strains 536, CP9, and RS218. Five canine fecal isolates and (clonally related) archetypal human pyelonephritis isolate 536 were found to share a novel allele of papA (which encodes the P-fimbrial structural subunit PapA). These data confirm that ExPEC representing known virulent clones are highly prevalent in canine feces, which consequently may provide a reservoir of ExPEC for acquisition by humans. PMID:11179292

  6. Parallel evolution of virulence in pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reid, S D; Herbelin, C J; Bumbaugh, A C; Selander, R K; Whittam, T S

    2000-07-01

    The mechanisms underlying the evolution and emergence of new bacterial pathogens are not well understood. To elucidate the evolution of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, here we sequenced seven housekeeping genes to build a phylogenetic tree and trace the history of the acquisition of virulence genes. Compatibility analysis indicates that more than 70% of the informative sites agree with a single phylogeny, suggesting that recombination has not completely obscured the remnants of ancestral chromosomes. On the basis of the rate of synonymous substitution for E. coli and Salmonella enterica (4.7 x 10(-9) per site per year), the radiation of clones began about 9 million years ago and the highly virulent pathogen responsible for epidemics of food poisoning, E. coli O157:H7, separated from a common ancestor of E. coli K-12 as long as 4.5 million years ago. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that old lineages of E. coli have acquired the same virulence factors in parallel, including a pathogenicity island involved in intestinal adhesion, a plasmid-borne haemolysin, and phage-encoded Shiga toxins. Such parallel evolution indicates that natural selection has favoured an ordered acquisition of genes and the progressive build-up of molecular mechanisms that increase virulence. PMID:10894541

  7. Locating Escherichia coli contamination in a rural South Carolina watershed.

    PubMed

    Kloot, Robin W

    2007-06-01

    One of the problems associated with the use of ambient water quality standards in surface water regulation is the difficulty of identifying and regulating nonpoint source pollution, making such standards unenforceable, especially at the local level. We used the Escherichia coli indicator to locate the most contaminated reaches in rural South Carolina's Bush River watershed (297 km(2), 186 stream-km). We divided the watershed into 20 smaller reaches and sampled each reach multiple times, but restricted each sampling round to one day. We located four low order creek reaches, representing just nine stream-km, where we observed geometric mean E. coli densities of over 1250 E. coli/100 mL; in each case, the source of the contamination (riparian grazing of cattle) was easily identifiable. On the Bush River itself, we observed a step change in one reach where geometric means increased from 106 E. coli/100 mL to 565 E. coli/100 mL over the reach's 10 km length. In this case, the sources of contamination were not as obvious as in the lower order streams; in this case, more advanced Microbial Source Tracking techniques will be required to identify the sources. Nevertheless, this sampling protocol helped locate polluted reaches and provided decision-makers with reasonable justifications for concrete action in deciding where (or where not) to install conservation practices and where more sophisticated (and expensive) MST techniques were warranted. PMID:16814453

  8. Escherichia coli ST131, an Intriguing Clonal Group

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Xavier; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2008, a previously unknown Escherichia coli clonal group, sequence type 131 (ST131), was identified on three continents. Today, ST131 is the predominant E. coli lineage among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolates worldwide. Retrospective studies have suggested that it may originally have risen to prominence as early as 2003. Unlike other classical group B2 ExPEC isolates, ST131 isolates are commonly reported to produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases, such as CTX-M-15, and almost all are resistant to fluoroquinolones. Moreover, ST131 E. coli isolates are considered to be truly pathogenic, due to the spectrum of infections they cause in both community and hospital settings and the large number of virulence-associated genes they contain. ST131 isolates therefore seem to contradict the widely held view that high levels of antimicrobial resistance are necessarily associated with a fitness cost leading to a decrease in pathogenesis. Six years after the first description of E. coli ST131, this review outlines the principal traits of ST131 clonal group isolates, based on the growing body of published data, and highlights what is currently known and what we need to find out to provide public health authorities with better information to help combat ST131. PMID:24982321

  9. Unusual "flesh-eating" strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Hila; Samra, Zmira; Paul, Michal; Madar-Shapiro, Liora; Cohen, Jonathan; Pitlik, Silvio; Bishara, Jihad

    2012-12-01

    Monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis (type II) is typically caused by group A streptococcus alone or in combination with Staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli has been isolated from polymicrobial or Fournier's gangrene but has rarely been reported in monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of seven cases of monomicrobial E. coli necrotizing fasciitis and/or severe soft tissue infection diagnosed at a single institution during an 18-month period. Four isolates from three patients and two isolates from two patients with type I polymicrobial severe soft tissue infection (controls) were assayed by the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for fingerprinting and PCR amplification of primers in order to detect cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 and 2 (cnf1 and cnf2) genes. All patients had some type of immune suppression. The limb was the most commonly involved organ. In all cases, E. coli was isolated as a monomicrobial pathogen from blood, fascia, or both. All patients died during hospitalization, three within the first 48 h. The RAPD amplification assay showed a high degree of genetic diversity among the "flesh-eating" strains and controls. The cnf1 toxin gene was identified in two out of three cases, but not in the controls. cnf2 was not detected in any of the patients. E. coli may be responsible for life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis. Further research is needed to reveal relevant risk factors, reservoirs, and modes of transmission of cnf1 E. coli. PMID:23035196

  10. Unusual “Flesh-Eating” Strains of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shaked, Hila; Samra, Zmira; Paul, Michal; Madar-Shapiro, Liora; Cohen, Jonathan; Pitlik, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    Monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis (type II) is typically caused by group A streptococcus alone or in combination with Staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli has been isolated from polymicrobial or Fournier's gangrene but has rarely been reported in monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of seven cases of monomicrobial E. coli necrotizing fasciitis and/or severe soft tissue infection diagnosed at a single institution during an 18-month period. Four isolates from three patients and two isolates from two patients with type I polymicrobial severe soft tissue infection (controls) were assayed by the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for fingerprinting and PCR amplification of primers in order to detect cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 and 2 (cnf1 and cnf2) genes. All patients had some type of immune suppression. The limb was the most commonly involved organ. In all cases, E. coli was isolated as a monomicrobial pathogen from blood, fascia, or both. All patients died during hospitalization, three within the first 48 h. The RAPD amplification assay showed a high degree of genetic diversity among the “flesh-eating” strains and controls. The cnf1 toxin gene was identified in two out of three cases, but not in the controls. cnf2 was not detected in any of the patients. E. coli may be responsible for life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis. Further research is needed to reveal relevant risk factors, reservoirs, and modes of transmission of cnf1 E. coli. PMID:23035196

  11. Attachment of Escherichia coli and enterococci to particles in runoff.

    PubMed

    Soupir, Michelle L; Mostaghimi, Saied; Dillaha, Theo

    2010-01-01

    Association of Escherichia coli and enterococci with particulates present in runoff from erodible soils has important implications for modeling the fate and transport of bacteria from agricultural sources and in the selection of management practices to reduce bacterial movement to surface waters. Three soils with different textures were collected from the Ap horizon (silty loam, silty clay loam, and loamy fine sand), placed in portable box plots, treated with standard cowpats, and placed under a rainfall simulator. Rainfall was applied to the plots until saturation-excess flow occurred for 30 min, and samples were collected 10, 20, and 30 min after initiation of the runoff event. The attachment of E. coli and enterococci to particles present in runoff was determined by a screen filtration and centrifugation procedure. Percentage of E. coli and enterococci attached to particulates in runoff ranged from 28 to 49%, with few statistically significant differences in attachment among the three soils. Similar partitioning release patterns were observed between E. coli and enterococci from the silty loam (r = 0.57) and silty clay loam soils (r = 0.60). At least 60% of all attached E. coli and enterococci were associated particles within an 8- to 62-microm particle size category. The results indicate that the majority of fecal bacteria attach to and are transported with manure colloids in sediment-laden flow regardless of the soil texture. PMID:20400597

  12. Fimbriation and curliation in Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Sonja J.; Ritchie, Jennifer M.; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes, particularly E. coli O157:H7, possess a variety of fimbrial and afimbrial adhesins which have emerged as important contributors to intestinal colonization. E. coli O157:H7 possesses two chromosomal operons encoding long polar fimbriae (Lpf), which have been found to influence adherence in vitro and colonization in vivo. In a recent Infection and Immunity paper, we further explored the role of Lpf in E. coli O157:H7 intestinal colonization by using the infant rabbit model of STEC infection. We found that an E. coli O157:H7 Lpf-deficient mutant was outcompeted in the rabbit intestine by its parental strain, which may suggest that Lpf contributes to colonization. In contrast, the Lpf-deficient mutant showed an increased adherence to cultured intestinal epithelial cells, and we discovered that this strain overexpressed curli fibers. In this addendum article, we provide a continued perspective on the predicted roles of Lpf and curli, both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:22614704

  13. The Genetic Basis of Escherichia coli Pathoadaptation to Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miskinyte, Migla; Sousa, Ana; Ramiro, Ricardo S.; de Sousa, Jorge A. Moura; Kotlinowski, Jerzy; Caramalho, Iris; Magalhães, Sara; Soares, Miguel P.; Gordo, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Antagonistic interactions are likely important driving forces of the evolutionary process underlying bacterial genome complexity and diversity. We hypothesized that the ability of evolved bacteria to escape specific components of host innate immunity, such as phagocytosis and killing by macrophages (M?), is a critical trait relevant in the acquisition of bacterial virulence. Here, we used a combination of experimental evolution, phenotypic characterization, genome sequencing and mathematical modeling to address how fast, and through how many adaptive steps, a commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) acquire this virulence trait. We show that when maintained in vitro under the selective pressure of host M? commensal E. coli can evolve, in less than 500 generations, virulent clones that escape phagocytosis and M? killing in vitro, while increasing their pathogenicity in vivo, as assessed in mice. This pathoadaptive process is driven by a mechanism involving the insertion of a single transposable element into the promoter region of the E. coli yrfF gene. Moreover, transposition of the IS186 element into the promoter of Lon gene, encoding an ATP-dependent serine protease, is likely to accelerate this pathoadaptive process. Competition between clones carrying distinct beneficial mutations dominates the dynamics of the pathoadaptive process, as suggested from a mathematical model, which reproduces the observed experimental dynamics of E. coli evolution towards virulence. In conclusion, we reveal a molecular mechanism explaining how a specific component of host innate immunity can modulate microbial evolution towards pathogenicity. PMID:24348252

  14. The Escherichia coli Proteome: Past, Present, and Future Prospects†

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mee-Jung; Lee, Sang Yup

    2006-01-01

    Proteomics has emerged as an indispensable methodology for large-scale protein analysis in functional genomics. The Escherichia coli proteome has been extensively studied and is well defined in terms of biochemical, biological, and biotechnological data. Even before the entire E. coli proteome was fully elucidated, the largest available data set had been integrated to decipher regulatory circuits and metabolic pathways, providing valuable insights into global cellular physiology and the development of metabolic and cellular engineering strategies. With the recent advent of advanced proteomic technologies, the E. coli proteome has been used for the validation of new technologies and methodologies such as sample prefractionation, protein enrichment, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, protein detection, mass spectrometry (MS), combinatorial assays with n-dimensional chromatographies and MS, and image analysis software. These important technologies will not only provide a great amount of additional information on the E. coli proteome but also synergistically contribute to other proteomic studies. Here, we review the past development and current status of E. coli proteome research in terms of its biological, biotechnological, and methodological significance and suggest future prospects. PMID:16760308

  15. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: detection and characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli strains that produce Shiga toxins, referred to as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) or verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) are important food-borne pathogens that cause hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). E. coli O157:H7 is a common cause of STEC infection; ho...

  16. Role of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Uropathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Boll, Erik J.; Struve, Carsten; Boisen, Nadia; Olesen, Bente; Stahlhut, Steen G.

    2013-01-01

    A multiresistant clonal Escherichia coli O78:H10 strain qualifying molecularly as enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) was recently shown to be the cause of a community-acquired outbreak of urinary tract infection (UTI) in greater Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1991. This marks the first time EAEC has been associated with an extraintestinal disease outbreak. Importantly, the outbreak isolates were recovered from the urine of patients with symptomatic UTI, strongly implying urovirulence. Here, we sought to determine the uropathogenic properties of the Copenhagen outbreak strain and whether these properties are conferred by the EAEC-specific virulence factors. We demonstrated that through expression of aggregative adherence fimbriae, the principal adhesins of EAEC, the outbreak strain exhibited pronouncedly increased adherence to human bladder epithelial cells compared to prototype uropathogenic strains. Moreover, the strain was able to produce distinct biofilms on abiotic surfaces, including urethral catheters. These findings suggest that EAEC-specific virulence factors increase uropathogenicity and may have played a significant role in the ability of the strain to cause a community-acquired outbreak of UTI. Thus, inclusion of EAEC-specific virulence factors is warranted in future detection and characterization of uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23357383

  17. Isolation of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from lettuce samples in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Somayeh; Salmanzadeh-Ahrabi, Siavosh; Aslani, Mohammad-Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to find the isolation rate of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) from lettuce samples collected in Tehran. Background During the last decade, the prevalence of infectious diarrheal diseases due to consumption of contaminated food especially raw vegetable has been increasingly reported. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains are an important group of diarrheagenic E. coli that can cause infant diarrhea especially in the developing world. Material and Methods One hundred lettuce samples collected in Tehran were transported to the laboratory, homogenized by a stomacher in EC broth containing cefixime, and cultured on MacConkey agar plates. Bacterial DNA was extracted by boiling method and PCR was performed using three pairs of primers targeting stx1, stx2 and eaeA genes. Results Screening of 100 lettuce samples by PCR showed four samples were positive for the presence of EPEC. Conclusion This study suggests contamination of the lettuce by the EPEC and its possible role as the source of infection in this region. PMID:25436096

  18. Widespread antibiotic resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella species

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghabadi, Azam Fatahi; Ajami, Ali; Fadaei, Reza; Zandieh, Masoud; Heidari, Elham; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Ataei, Behrooz; Hoseini, Shervin Ghaffari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance of enteric pathogens particularly Shigella species, is a critical world-wide problem and monitoring their resistant pattern is essential, because the choice of antibiotics is absolutely dependent on regional antibiotic susceptibility patterns. During summer 2013, an unusual increase in number of diarrheal diseases was noticed in Isfahan, a central province of Iran. Therefore, the antibiotic resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella species isolated were evaluated. Materials and Methods: According to the guideline on National Surveillance System for Foodborn Diseases, random samples from patients with acute diarrhea were examined in local laboratories of health centers and samples suspicious of Shigella spp. were further assessed in referral laboratory. Isolated pathogens were identified by standard biochemical and serologic tests and antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out by disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 1086 specimens were obtained and 58 samples suspicious of Shigella were specifically evaluated. The most prevalent isolated pathogen was Shigella sonnei (26/58) followed by E. coli (25/58) and Shigella flexneri (3/58). A large number of isolated bacteria were resistant to co-trimoxazole (Shigella spp: 100%, E. coli: 80%), azithromycin (Shigella spp: 70.4%, E. coli: 44.0%), ceftriaxone (Shigella spp: 88.9%, E. coli: 56.0%) and cefixime (Shigella spp: 85.2%, E. coli: 68.0%). About88.3% of S. sonnei isolates, one S. flexneri isolate, and 56% of E. coli strains were resistant to at least three antibiotic classes (multidrug resistant). Conclusion: Due to high levels of resistance to recommended and commonly used antibiotics for diarrhea, continuous monitoring of antibiotic resistance seems essential for determining best options of empirical therapy. PMID:25002896

  19. Quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli from Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is under-documented and commensal Escherichia coli can be used as indicator organisms to study the resistance in the community. We sought to determine the prevalence of resistance to broad-spectrum antimicrobials with particular focus on the quinolones, which have recently been introduced in parts of Africa, including Ghana. Results Forty (13.7%) of 293 E. coli isolates evaluated were nalidixic acid-resistant. Thirteen (52%) of 2006 and 2007 isolates and 10 (66.7%) of 2008 isolates were also resistant to ciprofloxacin. All but one of the quinolone-resistant isolates were resistant to three or more other antimicrobial classes. Sequencing the quinolone-resistance determining regions of gyrA and parC, which encode quinolone targets, revealed that 28 quinolone-resistant E. coli harboured a substitution at position 83 of the gyrA gene product and 20 of these isolates had other gyrA and/or parC substitutions. Horizontally-acquired quinolone-resistance genes qnrB1, qnrB2, qnrS1 or qepA were detected in 12 of the isolates. In spite of considerable overall diversity among E. coli from Ghana, as evaluated by multilocus sequence typing, 15 quinolone-resistant E. coli belonged to sequence type complex 10. Five of these isolates carried qnrS1 alleles. Conclusions Quinolone-resistant E. coli are commonly present in the faecal flora of Accra residents. The isolates have evolved resistance through multiple mechanisms and belong to very few lineages, suggesting clonal expansion. Containment strategies to limit the spread of quinolone-resistant E. coli need to be deployed to conserve quinolone effectiveness and promote alternatives to their use. PMID:21352598

  20. Strategies for the production of recombinant protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Gopal Jee; Kumar, Awanish

    2013-08-01

    In the recent past years, a large number of proteins have been expressed in Escherichia coli with high productivity due to rapid development of genetic engineering technologies. There are many hosts used for the production of recombinant protein but the preferred choice is E. coli due to its easier culture, short life cycle, well-known genetics, and easy genetic manipulation. We often face a problem in the expression of foreign genes in E. coli. Soluble recombinant protein is a prerequisite for structural, functional and biochemical studies of a protein. Researchers often face problems producing soluble recombinant proteins for over-expression, mainly the expression and solubility of heterologous proteins. There is no universal strategy to solve these problems but there are a few methods that can improve the level of expression, non-expression, or less expression of the gene of interest in E. coli. This review addresses these issues properly. Five levels of strategies can be used to increase the expression and solubility of over-expressed protein; (1) changing the vector, (2) changing the host, (3) changing the culture parameters of the recombinant host strain, (4) co-expression of other genes and (5) changing the gene sequences, which may help increase expression and the proper folding of desired protein. Here we present the resources available for the expression of a gene in E. coli to get a substantial amount of good quality recombinant protein. The resources include different strains of E. coli, different E. coli expression vectors, different physical and chemical agents and the co expression of chaperone interacting proteins. Perhaps it would be the solutions to such problems that will finally lead to the maturity of the application of recombinant proteins. The proposed solutions to such problems will finally lead to the maturity of the application of recombinant proteins. PMID:23897421

  1. Effect of bile on growth, peritoneal absorption, and blood clearance of Escherichia coli in E coli peritonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, R.; Schalen, C.; Tranberg, K.G. )

    1991-06-01

    The effect of intraperitoneal bile on growth, peritoneal absorption, and clearance of Escherichia coli was determined in E coli peritonitis in the rat. In E coli peritonitis, intraperitoneal bacterial counts gradually decreased, whereas they increased (after 2 hours) with subsequent development of bacteremia in E coli plus bile peritonitis. After an intraperitoneal injection of labeled bacteria, blood radioactivity was only initially lower in E coli plus bile peritonitis compared with E coli peritonitis. Clearance from blood was lower in E coli plus bile peritonitis than in E coli peritonitis. Organ localization was similar in E coli peritonitis and E coli plus bile peritonitis with decreased splenic, increased pulmonary, and unchanged hepatic uptakes compared with controls. Impaired peritoneal absorption of bacteria, together with impaired local host defense, is likely to enhance the noxious effect of bile in E coli peritonitis.

  2. A putative, novel coli surface antigen 8B (CS8B) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Samuel M; Boinett, Christine J; Madé, Laure F; Ouko, Tom T; Fèvre, Eric M; Thomson, Nicholas R; Kariuki, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains harbor multiple fimbriae and pili to mediate host colonization, including the type IVb pilus, colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III). Not all colonization factors are well characterized or known in toxin positive ETEC isolates, which may have an impact identifying ETEC isolates based on molecular screening of these biomarkers. We describe a novel coli surface antigen (CS) 8 subtype B (CS8B), a family of CFA/III pilus, in a toxin producing ETEC isolate from a Kenyan collection. In highlighting the existence of this putative CS, we provide the sequence and specific primers, which can be used alongside other ETEC primers previously described. PMID:26187892

  3. Understanding the role of agricultural practices in the potential colonization and contamination by Escherichia coli in the rhizospheres of fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Habteselassie, Mussie Y; Bischoff, Marianne; Applegate, Bruce; Reuhs, Bradley; Turco, Ronald F

    2010-11-01

    To better protect consumers from exposure to produce contaminated with Escherichia coli, the potential transfer of E. coli from manure or irrigation water to plants must be better understood. We used E. coli strains expressing bioluminescence (E. coli O157:H7 lux) or multiantibiotic resistance (E. coli²(+)) in this study. These marked strains enabled us to visualize in situ rhizosphere colonization and metabolic activity and to track the occurrence and survival of E. coli in soil, rhizosphere, and phyllosphere. When radish and lettuce seeds were treated with E. coli O157:H7 lux and grown in an agar-based growth system, rapid bacterial colonization of the germinating seedlings and high levels of microbial activity were seen. Introduction of E. coli²(+) to soil via manure or via manure in irrigation water showed that E. coli could establish itself in the lettuce rhizosphere. Regardless of introduction method, 15 days subsequent to its establishment in the rhizosphere, E. coli²(+) was detected on the phyllosphere of lettuce at an average number of 2.5 log CFU/g. When E. coli²(+) was introduced 17 and 32 days postseeding to untreated soil (rather than the plant surface) via irrigation, it was detected at low levels (1.4 log CFU/g) on the lettuce phyllosphere 10 days later. While E. coli²(+) persisted in the bulk and rhizosphere soil throughout the study period (day 41), it was not detected on the external portions of the phyllosphere after 27 days. Overall, we find that E. coli is mobile in the plant system and responds to the rhizosphere like other bacteria. PMID:21219711

  4. Persistent Colonization of Sheep by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Other E. coli Pathotypes

    PubMed Central

    Cornick, N. A.; Booher, S. L.; Casey, T. A.; Moon, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of food-borne illness in humans. Ruminants appear to be more frequently colonized by STEC than are other animals, but the reason(s) for this is unknown. We compared the frequency, magnitude, duration, and transmissibility of colonization of sheep by E. coli O157:H7 to that by other pathotypes of E. coli. Young adult sheep were simultaneously inoculated with a cocktail consisting of two strains of E. coli O157:H7, two strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and one strain of enteropathogenic E. coli. Both STEC strains and ETEC 2041 were given at either 107 or 1010 CFU/strain/animal. The other strains were given only at 1010 CFU/strain. We found no consistent differences among pathotypes in the frequency, magnitude, and transmissibility of colonization. However, the STEC strains tended to persist to 2 weeks and 2 months postinoculation more frequently than did the other pathotypes. The tendency for persistence of the STEC strains was apparent following an inoculation dose of either 107 or 1010 CFU. One of the ETEC strains also persisted when inoculated at 1010 CFU. However, in contrast to the STEC strains, it did not persist when inoculated at 107 CFU. These results support the hypothesis that STEC is better adapted to persist in the alimentary tracts of sheep than are other pathotypes of E. coli. PMID:11055945

  5. Persistent colonization of sheep by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other E. coli pathotypes.

    PubMed

    Cornick, N A; Booher, S L; Casey, T A; Moon, H W

    2000-11-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of food-borne illness in humans. Ruminants appear to be more frequently colonized by STEC than are other animals, but the reason(s) for this is unknown. We compared the frequency, magnitude, duration, and transmissibility of colonization of sheep by E. coli O157:H7 to that by other pathotypes of E. coli. Young adult sheep were simultaneously inoculated with a cocktail consisting of two strains of E. coli O157:H7, two strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and one strain of enteropathogenic E. coli. Both STEC strains and ETEC 2041 were given at either 10(7) or 10(10) CFU/strain/animal. The other strains were given only at 10(10) CFU/strain. We found no consistent differences among pathotypes in the frequency, magnitude, and transmissibility of colonization. However, the STEC strains tended to persist to 2 weeks and 2 months postinoculation more frequently than did the other pathotypes. The tendency for persistence of the STEC strains was apparent following an inoculation dose of either 10(7) or 10(10) CFU. One of the ETEC strains also persisted when inoculated at 10(10) CFU. However, in contrast to the STEC strains, it did not persist when inoculated at 10(7) CFU. These results support the hypothesis that STEC is better adapted to persist in the alimentary tracts of sheep than are other pathotypes of E. coli. PMID:11055945

  6. coliBASE: an online database for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Roy R; Khan, Arshad M; Pallen, Mark J

    2004-01-01

    We have constructed coliBASE, a database for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella comparative genomics available online at http://colibase. bham.ac.uk. Unlike other E.coli databases, which focus on the laboratory model strain K12, coliBASE is intended to reflect the full diversity of E.coli and its relatives. The database contains comparative data including whole genome alignments and lists of putative orthologous genes, together with numerous analytical tools and links to existing online resources. The data are stored in a relational database, accessible by a number of user-friendly search methods and graphical browsers. The database schema is generic and can easily be applied to other bacterial genomes. Two such databases, CampyDB (for the analysis of Campylobacter spp.) and ClostriDB (for Clostridium spp.) are also available at http://campy.bham.ac.uk and http://clostri. bham.ac.uk, respectively. An example of the power of E.coli comparative analyses such as those available through coliBASE is presented. PMID:14681417

  7. Development of functionalised polyelectrolyte capsules using filamentous Escherichia coli cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli is one of the best studied microorganisms and finds multiple applications especially as tool in the heterologous production of interesting proteins of other organisms. The heterologous expression of special surface (S-) layer proteins caused the formation of extremely long E. coli cells which leave transparent tubes when they divide into single E. coli cells. Such natural structures are of high value as bio-templates for the development of bio-inorganic composites for many applications. In this study we used genetically modified filamentous Escherichia coli cells as template for the design of polyelectrolyte tubes that can be used as carrier for functional molecules or particles. Diversity of structures of biogenic materials has the potential to be used to construct inorganic or polymeric superior hybrid materials that reflect the form of the bio-template. Such bio-inspired materials are of great interest in diverse scientific fields like Biology, Chemistry and Material Science and can find application for the construction of functional materials or the bio-inspired synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. Results Genetically modified filamentous E. coli cells were fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde and coated with alternating six layers of the polyanion polyelectrolyte poly(sodium-4styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and polycation polyelectrolyte poly(allylamine-hydrochloride) (PAH). Afterwards we dissolved the E. coli cells with 1.2% sodium hypochlorite, thus obtaining hollow polyelectrolyte tubes of 0.7 μm in diameter and 5–50 μm in length. For functionalisation the polyelectrolyte tubes were coated with S-layer protein polymers followed by metallisation with Pd(0) particles. These assemblies were analysed with light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Conclusion The thus constructed new material offers possibilities for diverse applications like novel catalysts or metal nanowires for electrical devices. The novelty of this work is the use of filamentous E. coli templates and the use of S-layer proteins in a new material construct. PMID:23259586

  8. Microcin 25, a novel antimicrobial peptide produced by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Salomón, R A; Farías, R N

    1992-01-01

    Microcin 25, a peptide antibiotic excreted by an Escherichia coli strain isolated from human feces, was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Composition analysis and data from gel filtration indicated that microcin 25 may contain 20 amino acid residues. It has a blocked amino-terminal end. Microcin synthesis and immunity are plasmid determined, and the antibiotic was produced in minimal medium when the cultures entered the stationary phase of growth. The peptide appears to interfere with cell division, since susceptible cells filamented when exposed to it. This response does not seem to be mediated by the SOS system. Images PMID:1429464

  9. Metal ion content of Escherichia coli versus cell age.

    PubMed Central

    Kung, F C; Raymond, J; Glaser, D A

    1976-01-01

    The potassium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc ion content of cells in exponential and synchronously growing cultures of Escherichia coli B/r was determined with an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Cellular potassium, calcium, and magnesium content increased smoothly during the cell cycle, but cellular zinc showed a steplike increase about 10 to 15 min after cell division in a culture having a doubling time of 47 min. The possible role of cellular zinc in the control of cell division is discussed. PMID:780340

  10. Expression and purification of Zantedeschia aethiopica agglutinin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling; Liu, Xue-Fen; Hu, Ling-Chuan; Zhou, Yin; Sun, Xiao-Fen; Tang, Ke-Xuan

    2009-03-01

    Recombinant Zantedeschia aethiopica agglutinin (ZAA) was expressed in Escherichia coli as N-terminal His-tagged fusion. After induction with isopropylthio-beta-D-galactoside (IPTG), the recombinant ZAA was purified by metal-affinity chromatography. The purified ZAA protein was applied in anti-fungal assay and the result showed that recombinant ZAA had anti-fungal activity towards leaf mold (Fulvia fulva), one of the most serious phytopathogenic fungi causing significant yield loss of crops. This study suggests that ZAA could be an effective candidate in genetic engineering of plants for the control of leaf mold. PMID:18080841

  11. Structure of the Escherichia coli S10 ribosomal protein operon.

    PubMed Central

    Zurawski, G; Zurawski, S M

    1985-01-01

    The complete structure of the Escherichia coli S10 ribosomal protein operon is presented. Based on the DNA sequence, the deduced order of the 11 genes in the operon is rpsJ, rplC, rplD, rplW, rplB, rpsS, rplV, rpsC, rplP, rpmC, rpsQ. The estimated transcribed length of the operon is 5181 base pairs. Putative sequences involved in ribosome binding are discussed. The DNA sequence data corrects several errors in previously determined protein sequence data. PMID:3892488

  12. Rapid and Simple Determination of the Escherichia coli Phylogenetic Group

    PubMed Central

    Clermont, Olivier; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Bingen, Edouard

    2000-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis has shown that Escherichia coli is composed of four main phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) and that virulent extra-intestinal strains mainly belong to groups B2 and D. Actually, phylogenetic groups can be determined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis or ribotyping, both of which are complex, time-consuming techniques. We describe a simple and rapid phylogenetic grouping technique based on triplex PCR. The method, which uses a combination of two genes (chuA and yjaA) and an anonymous DNA fragment, was tested with 230 strains and showed excellent correlation with reference methods. PMID:11010916

  13. Determinants that increase the serum resistance of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, P W; Robinson, M K

    1980-01-01

    The rfb locus, determining biosynthesis of O8-specific lipopolysaccharide side chains, was transferred to a rough mutant of Escherichia coli; recombinants producing a complete lipopolysaccharide were more resistant to the complement-mediated bactericidal action of human serum than the rough recipient. Inheritance of the his-linked genes for K27 antigen production did not alter the response to serum. The serum resistance of strains carrying O8 side chains, but not of strains with incomplete lipopolysaccharides, was further increased by inheritance of plasmids R1 and NR1.20 PMID:6995340

  14. DNA probes for identification of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, T A; Toledo, M R; Trabulsi, L R; Wood, P K; Morris, J G

    1987-01-01

    Eighty-one Escherichia coli strains belonging to all known invasive O serogroups were tested with two distinct invasiveness probes (pMR17 and pSF55). All 54 Sereny test-positive strains and 5 strains that lost Sereny positivity during storage hybridized with both probes. Probe-positive strains carried a 120- to 140-megadalton plasmid, did not produce lysine decarboxylase, and, with the exception of certain serotypes, were nonmotile. Motile strains of serotype O144:H25 were for the first time characterized as invasive by hybridization with the probes. PMID:3312292

  15. Origin and Dissemination of Antimicrobial Resistance among Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Lisa K; Li, Ganwu; Logue, Catherine M

    2015-10-01

    Antimicrobial agents of various types have important bearing on the outcomes of microbial infections. These agents may be bacteriostatic or -cidal, exert their impact via various means, originate from a living organism or a laboratory, and appropriately be used in or on living tissue or not. Though the primary focus of this chapter is on resistance to the antimicrobial agents used to treat uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC)-caused urinary tract infections (UTIs), some attention will be given to UPEC's resistance to silver-containing antiseptics, which may be incorporated into catheters to prevent foreign body-associated UTIs. PMID:26542043

  16. Activity of penicillin-binding protein 3 from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Pisabarro, A G; Prats, R; Váquez, D; Rodríguez-Tébar, A

    1986-01-01

    The activity of penicillin-binding protein 3 of Escherichia coli has been studied both in vivo and in ether-permeabilized cells. The peptidoglycan transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding protein 3 appears to use either nascent or exogenously added UDP-N-acetylmuramyl tripeptide-derived substrates as acceptors. By means of a defilamentation system which elicited the activity of penicillin-binding protein 3 in vivo, the structure of peptidoglycan made by this enzyme has been elucidated. This peptidoglycan, very probably of septal location, contained increased amounts of cross-linked peptidoglycan as well as a higher ratio of tripeptide-containing cross-linked subunits. Images PMID:3531167

  17. Polyserositis and Meningitis Associated with Escherichia coli Infection of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, I. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two piglets which had a history of anorexia and weakness were examined pre and postmortem. Other piglets in the same herd had died within 24 hours of the onset of similar signs. The two piglets examined had a fibrinous polyserositis. Grossly, the pleura, peritoneum and joints were affected and an acute meningitis was noted on microscopic examination of the brains. Pure cultures of Escherichia coli were recovered from all but one of the organs and exudates cultured. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:7018661

  18. Growth kinetics of Colpoda steinii on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Drake, J F; Tsuchiya, H M

    1977-01-01

    Colpoda steinii was grown in two-stage continuous cultures with Escherichia coli as prey species. The concentration of prey and the ciliate mean cell volume, dry weight, and number per milliliter were determined at known growth rates. Steady states were reached in the second-stage continuous cultures at all growth rates. Although changes occurred in mean cell size of the ciliates and in the number per milliliter at various growth rates, the yield of protozoan biomass per unit of prey consumed was constant at all growth rates. The data were compared with several equations proposed to describe the kinetics of protozoan growth as a function of prey density. PMID:407843

  19. Toxic megacolon complicating Escherichia coli O157 infection.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Deepa M; Vetrivel, Shanmu; McElroy, Jack; Pai, Pearl; Koerner, Roland J

    2006-04-01

    Toxic megacolon is a well known complication in inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. The development of toxic megacolon as a complication of infectious colitis is rare. However it is recognised as a complication of enteric infections caused by Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, Salmonella species, Cytomegalovirus and amoebae. We describe a case of necrotising haemorrhagic ileo-colitis in a previously fit and healthy young adult female caused by Escherichia coli O157 where toxic megacolon developed as a complication along with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). PMID:16126276

  20. Transcriptional regulation of cell division genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dewar, S J; Kagan-Zur, V; Begg, K J; Donachie, W D

    1989-10-01

    The complete Escherichia coli ftsQ coding sequence, together with part of the ftsA coding sequence, has been cloned upstream of the lacZ open reading frame in a lambda-vector (lambda JFL100). Cells which are lysogenic for lambda JFL100 transcribe the cloned lacZ from promoter(s) within the ftsQ and ftsA sequences. The level of beta-galactosidase produced is dependent on growth rate (and/or cell size) and is derepressed in an ftsA-deficient mutant. Transcription during the cell cycle is restricted to the time of cell division. PMID:2515414

  1. Nanomechanical motion of Escherichia coli adhered to a surface

    PubMed Central

    Lissandrello, C.; Inci, F.; Francom, M.; Paul, M. R.; Demirci, U.; Ekinci, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Nanomechanical motion of bacteria adhered to a chemically functionalized silicon surface is studied by means of a microcantilever. A non-specific binding agent is used to attach Escherichia coli (E. coli) to the surface of a silicon microcantilever. The microcantilever is kept in a liquid medium, and its nanomechanical fluctuations are monitored using an optical displacement transducer. The motion of the bacteria couples efficiently to the microcantilever well below its resonance frequency, causing a measurable increase in the microcantilever fluctuations. In the time domain, the fluctuations exhibit large-amplitude low-frequency oscillations. In corresponding frequency-domain measurements, it is observed that the mechanical energy is focused at low frequencies with a 1/f?-type power law. A basic physical model is used for explaining the observed spectral distribution of the mechanical energy. These results lay the groundwork for understanding the motion of microorganisms adhered to surfaces and for developing micromechanical sensors for bacteria. PMID:25316924

  2. Global Analysis of Extracytoplasmic Stress Signaling in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bury-Moné, Stéphanie; Nomane, Yanoura; Reymond, Nancie; Barbet, Romain; Jacquet, Eric; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Jacq, Annick; Bouloc, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The Bae, Cpx, Psp, Rcs, and ?E pathways constitute the Escherichia coli signaling systems that detect and respond to alterations of the bacterial envelope. Contributions of these systems to stress response have previously been examined individually; however, the possible interconnections between these pathways are unknown. Here we investigate the dynamics between the five stress response pathways by determining the specificities of each system with respect to signal-inducing conditions, and monitoring global transcriptional changes in response to transient overexpression of each of the effectors. Our studies show that different extracytoplasmic stress conditions elicit a combined response of these pathways. Involvement of the five pathways in the various tested stress conditions is explained by our unexpected finding that transcriptional responses induced by the individual systems show little overlap. The extracytoplasmic stress signaling pathways in E. coli thus regulate mainly complementary functions whose discrete contributions are integrated to mount the full adaptive response. PMID:19763168

  3. Improved generation of recombinant baculovirus genomes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Airenne, Kari J.; Peltomaa, Erik; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Laitinen, Olli H.; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2003-01-01

    An improved method for the generation of recombinant baculoviruses by Tn7-mediated transposition is described. The method is based on the modified donor vector (pBVboost) and an improved selection scheme of the baculovirus bacmids in Escherichia coli with a mutated SacB gene. Recombinant bacmids can be generated at a frequency of ?107/µg of donor vector with a negligible background. This easy-to-use and efficient pBVboost system provides the basis for a high-throughput generation of recombinant baculoviruses as well as a more convenient way to produce single viruses. The introduced selection scheme is also useful for the construction of other vectors by transposition in E.coli. PMID:12930975

  4. The diversity of lysine-acetylated proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yu, Byung Jo; Kim, Jung Ae; Moon, Jeong Hee; Ryu, Seong Eon; Pan, Jae-Gu

    2008-09-01

    Acetylation of lysine residues in proteins is a reversible and highly regulated posttranslational modification. However, it has not been systematically studied in prokaryotes. By affinity immunoseparation using an anti-acetyllysine antibody together with nano-HPLC/MS/MS, we identified 125 lysineacetylated sites in 85 proteins among proteins derived from Escherichia coli. The lysine-acetylated proteins identified are involved in diverse cellular functions including protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, the TCA cycle, nucleotide and amino acid metabolism, chaperones, and transcription. Interestingly, we found a higher level of acetylation during the stationary phase than in the exponential phase; proteins acetylated during the stationary phase were immediately deacetylated when the cells were transferred to fresh LB culture medium. These results demonstrate that lysine acetylation is abundant in E. coli and might be involved in modifying or regulating the activities of various enzymes involved in critical metabolic processes and the synthesis of building blocks in response to environmental changes. PMID:18852508

  5. Purification of recombinant ovalbumin from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Singh, Anupam; Panda, Amulya K

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant ovalbumin expressed in bacterial host is essentially free from post-translational modifications and can be useful in understanding the structure-function relationship of the protein. In this study, ovalbumin was expressed in Escherichia coli in the form of inclusion bodies. Ovalbumin inclusion bodies were solubilized using urea and refolded by decreasing the urea concentration by dilution. Refolded protein was purified by anion exchange chromatography. Overall recovery of purified recombinant ovalbumin from inclusion bodies was about 30% with 98% purity. Purified recombinant ovalbumin was characterized by mass spectrometry, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. Recombinant ovalbumin was shown to be resistant to trypsin using protease resistance assay. This indicated proper refolding of ovalbumin from inclusion bodies of E. coli. This method provides a simple way of producing ovalbumin free of post-translational modifications. PMID:26390939

  6. EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology

    PubMed Central

    Keseler, Ingrid M.; Collado-Vides, Julio; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; Bonavides-Martinez, César; Paley, Suzanne; Krummenacker, Markus; Altman, Tomer; Kaipa, Pallavi; Spaulding, Aaron; Pacheco, John; Latendresse, Mario; Fulcher, Carol; Sarker, Malabika; Shearer, Alexander G.; Mackie, Amanda; Paulsen, Ian; Gunsalus, Robert P.; Karp, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    EcoCyc (http://EcoCyc.org) is a comprehensive model organism database for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. From the scientific literature, EcoCyc captures the functions of individual E. coli gene products; their regulation at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and protein level; and their organization into operons, complexes and pathways. EcoCyc users can search and browse the information in multiple ways. Recent improvements to the EcoCyc Web interface include combined gene/protein pages and a Regulation Summary Diagram displaying a graphical overview of all known regulatory inputs to gene expression and protein activity. The graphical representation of signal transduction pathways has been updated, and the cellular and regulatory overviews were enhanced with new functionality. A specialized undergraduate teaching resource using EcoCyc is being developed. PMID:21097882

  7. Transduction of plasmid determinants in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ubelaker, M H; Rosenblum, E D

    1978-01-01

    Buoyant density analysis of transducing lysates derived from Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli indicated that phage particles bearing plasmid determinants contain a quantity of DNA equivalent to that found in the lytic particles. Transducing particles that bear plasmid determinants smaller than viral DNA must therefore contain a quantity of DNA in excess of a single plasmid genome. In the E. coli P1vir system, a dependence upon host-mediated recombination for the transduction of small plasmids, but not for large R factors or chromosomal genes, was observed. However, no evidence for the involvement of such functions in the transduction of S. aureus plasmids was obtained. Although the origin of the additional DNA in plasmid transducing particles has not been identified, circumstantial evidence has been presented in the staphylococcal system indicating that transducing particles carrying a small tetracycline plasmid are not formed by the wrapping of multiple copies of this plasmid DNA. PMID:342503

  8. Engineering Escherichia coli Cell Factories for n-Butanol Production.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongjun; Zhao, Chunhua; Zhang, Tianrui; Lin, Zhao; Li, Yin; Zhang, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    : The production of n-butanol, as a widely applied solvent and potential fuel, is attracting much attention. The fermentative production of butanol coupled with the production of acetone and ethanol by Clostridium (ABE fermentation) was once one of the oldest biotechnological processes, ranking second in scale behind ethanol fermentation. However, there remain problems with butanol production by Clostridium, especially the difficulty in genetically manipulating clostridial strains. In recent years, many efforts have been made to produce butanol using non-native strains. Until now, the most advanced effort was the engineering of the user-friendly and widely studied Escherichia coli for butanol production. This paper reviews the current progress and problems relating to butanol production by engineered E. coli in terms of prediction using mathematical models, pathway construction, novel enzyme replacement, butanol toxicity, and tolerance engineering strategies. PMID:25662903

  9. Expression of a proline-enriched protein in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, T.T.; Cooney, C.L.; Gomez, R.F.

    1982-03-01

    The feasibility of expressing repeated synthetic codons in bacterial cells was demonstrated by showing that repeated codons for proline were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant DNA technology was used to clone synthetic polydeoxyguanylate: polydeoxycytidylate into the PstI site of plasmid pBR322. Recombinant plasmid pGC139 was shown by means of HaeIII restriction digestion to contain approximately 41 cloned base pairs; the cloned sequence was expressed as a fusion to an ampicillinase protein. The resulting protein, enriched in proline, was expressed from plasmid in pGC139 in E. coli maxicells. Extension of this technology could lead to improvement in the production of amino acids and to nutritional enrichment of single-cell protein. (Refs. 12).

  10. Genetic engineering of Escherichia coli for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiangang; Khosla, Chaitan

    2010-01-01

    In order to mitigate climate change without adversely affecting global energy supply, there is growing interest in the possibility of producing transportation fuels from renewable sources via microbial fermentation. Central to this challenge is the design of biocatalysts that can efficiently convert cheap lignocellulosic raw materials into liquid fuels. Owing to the wealth of genetic and metabolic knowledge associated with Escherichia coli, this bacterium is the most convenient starting point for engineering microbial catalysts for biofuel production. Here, we review the range of liquid fuels that can be produced in E. coli and discuss the underlying biochemistry that enables these metabolic products. The fundamental and technological challenges encountered in the development of efficient fermentation processes for biofuel production are highlighted. The example of biodiesel is a particularly illustrative case study and is therefore discussed in detail. PMID:20822440

  11. Allostery and cooperativity in Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz, Evan R

    2012-03-15

    The allosteric enzyme aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from Escherichia coli has been the subject of investigations for approximately 50 years. This enzyme controls the rate of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis by feedback inhibition, and helps to balance the pyrimidine and purine pools by competitive allosteric activation by ATP. The catalytic and regulatory components of the dodecameric enzyme can be separated and studied independently. Many of the properties of the enzyme follow the Monod, Wyman Changeux model of allosteric control thus E. coli ATCase has become the textbook example. This review will highlight kinetic, biophysical, and structural studies which have provided a molecular level understanding of how the allosteric nature of this enzyme regulates pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. PMID:22198283

  12. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of RraB from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hui; Liu, Huihui; Wang, Hong; Teng, Maikun; Li, Xu

    2013-01-01

    RraB, an inhibitor of the essential endoribonuclease RNE in Escherichia coli, is essential in regulating the abundance of RNA by directly interacting with RNE. In this study, RraB from E. coli was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.59, b = 58.34, c = 156.95?Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.9?Å. Analysis of the native Patterson map revealed a peak of ?37% the height of the origin peak in the ? = 0.5 Harker section, suggesting twofold noncrystallographic symmetry parallel to the b crystallographic axis. The Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were estimated to be 4.09?Å3?Da?1 and 69.94%, respectively, assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:24192366

  13. Continuous-sterilization system that uses photosemiconductor powders. [Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, T.; Tomoda, R.; Nakajima, T.; Nakamura, N.; Komine, T.

    1988-06-01

    We report a novel photochemical sterilization system in which Escherichia coli cells were sterilized with photosemiconductor powders (titanium oxide). For sterilization that could be used in practice, it was necessary to separate the TiO/sub 2/ powders from the cell suspension. Therefore, semiconductor powders were immobilized on acetylcellulose membranes. We constructed a continuous-sterilization system consisting of TiO/sub 2/-immobilized acetylcellulose membrane reactor, a mercury lamp, and a masterflex pump. As a result, under the various sterilization conditions examined, E.coli (10/sup 2/ cells per ml) was sterilized to < 1% survival when the cell suspension flowed in this system at a mean residence time of 16.0 min under irradiation (1800 microeinsteins/m/sup 2/ per s). We found that this system was reusable.

  14. Impact of cranberry on Escherichia coli cellular surface characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Brandy J.; Malanoski, Anthony P.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2008-12-19

    The anti-adhesive effects of cranberry have been attributed to both interactions of its components with the surface of bacterial cells and to inhibition of p-fimbriae expression. Previous reports also suggested that the presence of cranberry juice changed the Gram stain characteristics of Escherichia coli. Here, we show that the morphology of E. coli is changed when grown in the presence of juice or extract from Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry). Gene expression analysis indicates the down regulation of flagellar basal body rod and motor proteins. Consistent with this finding and previous reports, the SEM images indicate a decrease in the visible p-fimbriae. The iodine used in Gram-staining protocols was found to interact differently with the bacterial membrane when cells were cultured in spiked media. Slight alterations in the Gram stain protocol demonstrated that culturing in the presence of cranberry juice does not change the Gram stain characteristics contradicting other reports.

  15. Accumulation of Escherichia coli by the Northern quahaug.

    PubMed

    Cabelli, V J; Heffernan, W P

    1970-02-01

    The uptake of Escherichia coli by the quahaug, Mercenaria mercenaria, was studied to obtain an insight into the environmental parameters significant to the accumulation of bacterial pathogens by shellfish growing in polluted waters and into the kinetics of the uptake process. Experimental uptake was achieved by placing the animals in a flowing water system in which the contamination level of the water and its temperature and salinity could be controlled. Data from periodic assays of individual animals suggested that accumulation of the bacteria by the quahaug proceeds to an equilibrium level which is a function of E. coli content of the water and its overall particulate matter. Accumulation takes place in the digestive gland and, to a lesser extent, in the siphon of the animal. PMID:4908527

  16. Genetic characterization of moaB mutants of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kozmin, Stanislav G.; Schaaper, Roel M.

    2013-01-01

    The moaABCDE operon of Escherichia coli encodes enzymes essential for the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco). However, the role of the moaB gene within this operon has remained enigmatic. Here, we have investigated the effect of moaB defects on two phenotypes diagnostic for Moco-deficiency: chlorate-resistance and sensitivity to the base analog 6-N-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP). We found that transposon insertions in moaB caused partial Moco-deficiency associated with chlorate-resistance, but not for HAP-sensitivity. On the other hand, in-frame deletions of moaB, or moaB overexpression, had no effect on either phenotype. Our combined data are consistent with the lack of any role for MoaB in Moco biosynthesis in E. coli. PMID:23680484

  17. Genetic characterization of moaB mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kozmin, Stanislav G; Schaaper, Roel M

    2013-09-01

    The moaABCDE operon of Escherichia coli encodes enzymes essential for the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco). However, the role of the moaB gene within this operon has remained enigmatic. Here, we have investigated the effect of moaB defects on two phenotypes diagnostic for Moco-deficiency: chlorate-resistance and sensitivity to the base analog 6-N-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP). We found that transposon insertions in moaB caused partial Moco-deficiency associated with chlorate-resistance, but not for HAP-sensitivity. On the other hand, in-frame deletions of moaB, or moaB overexpression, had no effect on either phenotype. Our combined data are consistent with the lack of any role for MoaB in Moco biosynthesis in E. coli. PMID:23680484

  18. Serological response to Escherichia coli pili in pyelonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Rene, P; Silverblatt, F J

    1982-01-01

    The serological response to Escherichia coli pili was studied in 4 adult male patients with pyelonephritis and in 11 uninfected controls. Antibody to the specific pilus antigen of the infecting strain of each patient was measured with indirect immune electron microscopy. Antibody to a cross-reacting antigen of the type 1 pili of heterologous E. coli 346 was quantitated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Few antipilus antibodies were found in the serum of control patients with either technique. All pyelonephrine patients developed an increase in specific antipilus antibodies belonging to the immunoglobulins classes G, A, and M. Antibodies to the cross-reacting type 1 pilus antigen were found in the serum of three of the four patients and were predominantly immunoglobulin G. Few or no antipilus antibodies were present in the urine of infected or control patients. These results suggest that a serological response to the pill of infecting organisms develops after pyelonephritis. Images PMID:6126436

  19. Mounting of Escherichia coli spheroplasts for AFM imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Claretta J; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Allison, David P; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2005-11-01

    The cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the location of numerous, chemically specific transporters and recognition elements. Investigation of this membrane in vivo by atomic force microscopy (AFM) requires removal of the cell wall and stable immobilization of the spheroplast. AFM images demonstrate that spheroplasts can be secured with warm gelatin applied to the mica substrate just before the addition of a spheroplast suspension. The resulting preparation can be repeatedly imaged by AFM over the course of several hours. Confocal fluorescence imaging confirms the association of the spheroplasts with the gelatin layer. Gelatin molecules are known to reorder into a network after heating. Entrapment within this gelatin network is believed to be responsible for the immobilization of spheroplasts on mica.

  20. Cellulosic hydrolysate toxicity and tolerance mechanisms in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Tirzah Y; Sandoval, Nicholas R; Gill, Ryan T

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable production of biofuels will require the efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. A key barrier involves the creation of growth-inhibitory compounds by chemical pretreatment steps, which ultimately reduce the efficiency of fermentative microbial biocatalysts. The primary toxins include organic acids, furan derivatives, and phenolic compounds. Weak acids enter the cell and dissociate, resulting in a drop in intracellular pH as well as various anion-specific effects on metabolism. Furan derivatives, dehydration products of hexose and pentose sugars, have been shown to hinder fermentative enzyme function. Phenolic compounds, formed from lignin, can disrupt membranes and are hypothesized to interfere with the function of intracellular hydrophobic targets. This review covers mechanisms of toxicity and tolerance for these compounds with a specific focus on the important industrial organism Escherichia coli. Recent efforts to engineer E. coli for improved tolerance to these toxins are also discussed. PMID:19832972

  1. The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Blattner, F R; Plunkett, G; Bloch, C A; Perna, N T; Burland, V; Riley, M; Collado-Vides, J; Glasner, J D; Rode, C K; Mayhew, G F; Gregor, J; Davis, N W; Kirkpatrick, H A; Goeden, M A; Rose, D J; Mau, B; Shao, Y

    1997-09-01

    The 4,639,221-base pair sequence of Escherichia coli K-12 is presented. Of 4288 protein-coding genes annotated, 38 percent have no attributed function. Comparison with five other sequenced microbes reveals ubiquitous as well as narrowly distributed gene families; many families of similar genes within E. coli are also evident. The largest family of paralogous proteins contains 80 ABC transporters. The genome as a whole is strikingly organized with respect to the local direction of replication; guanines, oligonucleotides possibly related to replication and recombination, and most genes are so oriented. The genome also contains insertion sequence (IS) elements, phage remnants, and many other patches of unusual composition indicating genome plasticity through horizontal transfer. PMID:9278503

  2. Characterization and expression of the Escherichia coli Mrr restriction system.

    PubMed Central

    Waite-Rees, P A; Keating, C J; Moran, L S; Slatko, B E; Hornstra, L J; Benner, J S

    1991-01-01

    The mrr gene of Escherichia coli K-12 is involved in the acceptance of foreign DNA which is modified. The introduction of plasmids carrying the HincII, HpaI, and TaqI R and M genes is severely restricted in E. coli strains that are Mrr+. A 2-kb EcoRI fragment from the plasmid pBg3 (B. Sain and N. E. Murray, Mol. Gen. Genet. 180:35-46, 1980) was cloned. The resulting plasmid restores Mrr function to mrr strains of E. coli. The boundaries of the mrr gene were determined from an analysis of subclones, and plasmids with a functional mrr gene produce a polypeptide of 33.5 kDa. The nucleotide sequence of the entire fragment was determined; in addition to mrr, it includes two open reading frames, one of which encodes part of the hsdR. By using Southern blot analysis, E. coli RR1 and HB101 were found to lack the region containing mrr. The acceptance of various cloned methylases in E. coli containing the cloned mrr gene was tested. Plasmid constructs containing the AccI, CviRI, HincII, Hinfl (HhaII), HpaI, NlaIII, PstI, and TaqI N6-adenine methylases and SssI and HhaI C5-cytosine methylases were found to be restricted. Plasmid constructs containing 16 other adenine methylases and 12 cytosine methylases were not restricted. No simple consensus sequence causing restriction has been determined. The Mrr protein has been overproduced, an antibody has been prepared, and the expression of mrr under various conditions has been examined. The use of mrr strains of E. coli is suggested for the cloning of N6-adenine and C5-cytosine methyl-containing DNA. Images PMID:1650347

  3. Widespread protein sequence similarities: origins of Escherichia coli genes.

    PubMed Central

    Labedan, B; Riley, M

    1995-01-01

    To learn more about the evolutionary origins of Escherichia coli genes, we surveyed systematically for extended sequence similarities among the 1,264 amino acid sequences encoded by chromosomal genes of E. coli K-12 in SwissProt release 26 by using the FASTA program and imposing the following criteria: (i) alignment of segments at least 100 amino acids long and (ii) at least 20% amino acid identity. Altogether, 624 extended alignments meeting the two criteria were identified, corresponding to 577 protein sequences (45.6% of the 1,264 E. coli protein sequences) that had an extended alignment with at least one other E. coli protein sequence. To exclude alignments of questionable biological significance, we imposed a high threshold on the number of gaps allowed in each of the 624 extended alignments, giving us a subset of 464 proteins. The population of 464 alignments has the following characteristics expressed as median values of the group: 254 amino acids in the alignment, representing 86% of the length of the protein, 33% of the amino acids in the alignment being identical, and 1.1 gaps introduced per 100 amino acids of alignment. Where functions are known, nearly all pairs consist of functionally related proteins. This implies that the sequence similarity we detected has biological meaning and did not arise by chance. That a major fraction of E. coli proteins form extended alignments strongly suggests the predominance of duplication and divergence of ancestral genes in the evolution of E. coli genes. The range of degrees of similarity shows that some genes originated more recently than others. There is no evidence of genome doubling in the past, since map distances between genes of sequence-related proteins show no coherent pattern of favored separations. PMID:7883716

  4. Phylogenetic and genomic diversity of human bacteremic Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Jaureguy, Françoise; Landraud, Luce; Passet, Virginie; Diancourt, Laure; Frapy, Eric; Guigon, Ghislaine; Carbonnelle, Etienne; Lortholary, Olivier; Clermont, Olivier; Denamur, Erick; Picard, Bertrand; Nassif, Xavier; Brisse, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    Background Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains represent a huge public health burden. Knowledge of their clonal diversity and of the association of clones with genomic content and clinical features is a prerequisite to recognize strains with a high invasive potential. In order to provide an unbiased view of the diversity of E. coli strains responsible for bacteremia, we studied 161 consecutive isolates from patients with positive blood culture obtained during one year in two French university hospitals. We collected precise clinical information, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data and virulence gene content for all isolates. A subset representative of the clonal diversity was subjected to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) using 2,324 amplicons from the flexible gene pool of E. coli. Results Recombination-insensitive phylogenetic analysis of MLST data in combination with the ECOR collection revealed that bacteremic E. coli isolates were highly diverse and distributed into five major lineages, corresponding to the classical E. coli phylogroups (A+B1, B2, D and E) and group F, which comprises strains previously assigned to D. Compared to other strains of phylogenetic group B2, strains belonging to MLST-derived clonal complexes (CCs) CC1 and CC4 were associated (P < 0.05) with a urinary origin. In contrast, no CC appeared associated with severe sepsis or unfavorable outcome of the bacteremia. CGH analysis revealed genomic characteristics of the distinct CCs and identified genomic regions associated with CC1 and/or CC4. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that human bacteremia strains distribute over the entire span of E. coli phylogenetic diversity and that CCs represent important phylogenetic units for pathogenesis and comparative genomics. PMID:19036134

  5. Production of itaconic acid using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shusuke; Chin, Taejun; Hiratsuka, Ken; Aso, Yuji; Tanaka, Yasutomo; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ohara, Hitomi

    2014-01-01

    An Escherichia coli system was engineered for the heterologous production of itaconic acid via the expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase gene (cad), and then maximal itaconic acid levels produced by engineered E. coli were evaluated. Expression of cad in E. coli grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium without glucose in a test tube resulted in 0.07 g/L itaconic acid production after 78 h at 20°C. To increase itaconic acid production, E. coli recombinants were constructed by inactivating the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (icd) and/or the isocitrate lyase gene (aceA). Expression of cad and inactivation of icd resulted in 0.35 g/L itaconic acid production after 78 h, whereas aceA inactivation had no effect on itaconic acid production. The intracellular itaconate concentration in the Δicd strain was higher than that in the cad-expressing strain without icd inactivation, which suggests that the extracellular secretion of itaconate in E. coli is the rate-determining step during itaconic acid production. pH-stat cultivation using the cad-expressing Δicd strain in LB medium with 3% glucose in a jar fermenter resulted in 1.71 g/L itaconic acid production after 97 h at 28°C. To further increase itaconic acid production, the aconitase B gene (acnB) was overexpressed in the cad-expressing Δicd strain. Simultaneous overexpression of acnB with the expression of cad in the Δicd strain led to 4.34 g/L itaconic acid production after 105 h. Our findings indicate that icd inactivation and acnB overexpression considerably enhance itaconic acid production in cad-expressing E. coli. PMID:25420424

  6. Genomic anatomy of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Eppinger, Mark; Mammel, Mark K.; Leclerc, Joseph E.; Ravel, Jacques; Cebula, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid emergence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from an unknown strain in 1982 to the dominant hemorrhagic E. coli serotype in the United States and the cause of widespread outbreaks of human food-borne illness highlights a need to evaluate critically the extent to which genomic plasticity of this important enteric pathogen contributes to its pathogenic potential and its evolution as well as its adaptation in different ecological niches. Aimed at a better understanding of the evolution of the E. coli O157:H7 pathogenome, the present study presents the high-quality sequencing and comparative phylogenomic analysis of a comprehensive panel of 25 E. coli O157:H7 strains associated with three nearly simultaneous food-borne outbreaks of human disease in the United States. Here we present a population genetic analysis of more than 200 related strains recovered from patients, contaminated produce, and zoonotic sources. High-resolution phylogenomic approaches allow the dynamics of pathogenome evolution to be followed at a high level of phylogenetic accuracy and resolution. SNP discovery and study of genome architecture and prophage content identified numerous biomarkers to assess the extent of genetic diversity within a set of clinical and environmental strains. A total of 1,225 SNPs were identified in the present study and are now available for typing of the E. coli O157:H7 lineage. These data should prove useful for the development of a refined phylogenomic framework for forensic, diagnostic, and epidemiological studies to define better risk in response to novel and emerging E. coli O157:H7 resistance and virulence phenotypes. PMID:22135463

  7. Genomic anatomy of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Eppinger, Mark; Mammel, Mark K; Leclerc, Joseph E; Ravel, Jacques; Cebula, Thomas A

    2011-12-13

    The rapid emergence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from an unknown strain in 1982 to the dominant hemorrhagic E. coli serotype in the United States and the cause of widespread outbreaks of human food-borne illness highlights a need to evaluate critically the extent to which genomic plasticity of this important enteric pathogen contributes to its pathogenic potential and its evolution as well as its adaptation in different ecological niches. Aimed at a better understanding of the evolution of the E. coli O157:H7 pathogenome, the present study presents the high-quality sequencing and comparative phylogenomic analysis of a comprehensive panel of 25 E. coli O157:H7 strains associated with three nearly simultaneous food-borne outbreaks of human disease in the United States. Here we present a population genetic analysis of more than 200 related strains recovered from patients, contaminated produce, and zoonotic sources. High-resolution phylogenomic approaches allow the dynamics of pathogenome evolution to be followed at a high level of phylogenetic accuracy and resolution. SNP discovery and study of genome architecture and prophage content identified numerous biomarkers to assess the extent of genetic diversity within a set of clinical and environmental strains. A total of 1,225 SNPs were identified in the present study and are now available for typing of the E. coli O157:H7 lineage. These data should prove useful for the development of a refined phylogenomic framework for forensic, diagnostic, and epidemiological studies to define better risk in response to novel and emerging E. coli O157:H7 resistance and virulence phenotypes. PMID:22135463

  8. Deactivation of Escherichia coli by the plasma needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sladek, R. E. J.; Stoffels, E.

    2005-06-01

    In this paper we present a parameter study on deactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) by means of a non-thermal plasma (plasma needle). The plasma needle is a small-sized (1 mm) atmospheric glow sustained by radio-frequency excitation. This plasma will be used to disinfect heat-sensitive objects; one of the intended applications is in vivo deactivation of dental bacteria: destruction of plaque and treatment of caries. We use E. coli films plated on agar dishes as a model system to optimize the conditions for bacterial destruction. Plasma power, treatment time and needle-to-sample distance are varied. Plasma treatment of E. coli films results in formation of a bacteria-free void with a size up to 12 mm. 104-105 colony forming units are already destroyed after 10 s of treatment. Prolongation of treatment time and usage of high powers do not significantly improve the destruction efficiency: short exposure at low plasma power is sufficient. Furthermore, we study the effects of temperature increase on the survival of E. coli and compare it with thermal effects of the plasma. The population of E. coli heated in a warm water bath starts to decrease at temperatures above 40°C. Sample temperature during plasma treatment has been monitored. The temperature can reach up to 60°C at high plasma powers and short needle-to-sample distances. However, thermal effects cannot account for bacterial destruction at low power conditions. For safe and efficient in vivo disinfection, the sample temperature should be kept low. Thus, plasma power and treatment time should not exceed 150 mW and 60 s, respectively.

  9. Putative temporal variability of Escherichia coli ribotypes from yearling steers.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, M B; Hartel, P G; Olexa, T J; Stuedemann, J A

    2003-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a ubiquitous component of the intestinal microflora of warm-blooded animals, and is an indicator of fecal contamination of surface waters. Ribotype profiling of E. coli is one of several genotypic methods that has been developed to determine the host origin of fecal bacteria. Like most genotypic methods of source tracking, ribotyping requires a host origin database to identify environmental isolates. To determine the extent of temporal variability of ribotypes and its effect on a host origin database, E. coli isolates were obtained from fecal samples of two herds of Black Angus steers at a long-term experimental site at four sampling times from October 1999 to July 2000. Fecal samples were taken from six randomly chosen steers at each time. At a similarity index of 90% as calculated by unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA), 240 ribotypes were identified from 451 E. coli isolates. Only 20 ribotypes (8.3%), comprising 33% of the total isolates, were shared among sampling times and were considered resident ribotypes. Two of the twenty resident ribotypes appeared at three sampling times, and the remaining eighteen appeared at two. The majority of the ribotypes, therefore, were transient and unique to each sampling time and steer. Both the apparent turnover of E. coli ribotypes and a clonal diversity index of 0.97 (indicative of extensive ribotype variability) suggest the necessity of ribotyping a large number E. coli isolates per host to establish a host origin database that is independent of temporal variability, or complete enough to be effective. PMID:12549570

  10. Modeling Escherichia coli removal in constructed wetlands under pulse loading.

    PubMed

    Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Adhikari, Umesh; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Harrigan, Timothy; Reinhold, Dawn M

    2014-03-01

    Manure-borne pathogens are a threat to water quality and have resulted in disease outbreaks globally. Land application of livestock manure to croplands may result in pathogen transport through surface runoff and tile drains, eventually entering water bodies such as rivers and wetlands. The goal of this study was to develop a robust model for estimating the pathogen removal in surface flow wetlands under pulse loading conditions. A new modeling approach was used to describe Escherichia coli removal in pulse-loaded constructed wetlands using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS). Several ANFIS models were developed and validated using experimental data under pulse loading over two seasons (winter and summer). In addition to ANFIS, a mechanistic fecal coliform removal model was validated using the same sets of experimental data. The results showed that the ANFIS model significantly improved the ability to describe the dynamics of E. coli removal under pulse loading. The mechanistic model performed poorly as demonstrated by lower coefficient of determination and higher root mean squared error compared to the ANFIS models. The E. coli concentrations corresponding to the inflection points on the tracer study were keys to improving the predictability of the E. coli removal model. PMID:24231031

  11. Extracellular superoxide provokes glutathione efflux from Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Galina V; Muzyka, Nadezda G; Ushakov, Vadim Y; Tyulenev, Aleksey V; Oktyabrsky, Oleg N

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate a possible relationship between transmembrane cycling of glutathione and changes in levels of external superoxide. Exposure of growing Escherichia coli to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by xanthine and xanthine oxidase (XO) stimulates reversible glutathione (GSH) efflux from the cells that is considerably lowered under phosphate starvation. This GSH efflux is prevented by exogenous SOD, partially inhibited by catalase, and is not dependent on the GSH exporter CydDC. The ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) deficiency completely prevents a return of GSH to the cytoplasm. In contrast to wild-type E. coli, mutants devoid of GGT and glutathione reductase (GOR) show enhanced accumulation of oxidized glutathione in the medium after exposure to xanthine and XO. Under these conditions, sodC, ggt and especially gshA mutants reveal more intensive and prolonged inhibition of growth than wild-type cells. Treatment with XO does not influence E. coli viability, but somewhat increases the number of cells with lost membrane potential. In summary, data obtained here indicate that transmembrane cycling of GSH may be involved in E. coli protection against extracellular ROS and may promote rapid growth recovery. PMID:26257303

  12. Magnetically-Actuated Escherichia coli System for Micro Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauback, S.; Brown, E.; Pérez-Guzman, L.; Peace, C.; Pierce, C.; Lower, B. H.; Lower, S. K.; Sooryakumar, R.

    2015-03-01

    Technologies that control matter at the nano- and micro-scale are crucial for developing new engineered materials and devices. While the more traditional approaches for such manipulations often depend on lithographic fabrication, they can be expanded upon by taking advantage of the biological systems within a living cell which also operate on the nano- and micro- scale. In this study, a system is being developed to functionalize a targeted location on the surface of a chip with the protein AmCyan from transformed Escherichia coli cells. Using established methods in molecular biology where a plasmid with the amcyan gene sequence is inserted into the cell, E. coli are engineered to express the AmCyan protein on their outer surface. In order to transport the cells to the targeted location, the transformed E. coli are labeled with superparamagnetic micro-beads which exert directed forces on the cells in an external field. Preliminary results of the protein expression on E. coli, the transport of the cell through weak magnetic fields to targeted locations and the potential to transfer protein from the cell to the chip surface will be presented.

  13. Characterization of a second lysine decarboxylase isolated from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Y; Kojima, H; Tanaka, T; Takatsuka, Y; Kamio, Y

    1997-01-01

    We report here on the existence of a new gene for lysine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli K-12. The hybridization experiments with a cadA probe at low stringency showed that the homologous region of cadA was located in lambda Kohara phage clone 6F5 at 4.7 min on the E. coli chromosome. We cloned the 5.0-kb HindIII fragment of this phage clone and sequenced the homologous region of cadA. This region contained a 2,139-nucleotide open reading frame encoding a 713-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 80,589. Overexpression of the protein and determination of its N-terminal amino acid sequence defined the translational start site of this gene. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69.4% identity to that of lysine decarboxylase encoded by cadA at 93.7 min on the E. coli chromosome. In addition, the level of lysine decarboxylase activity increased in strains carrying multiple copies of the gene. Therefore, the gene encoding this lysine decarboxylase was designated Idc. Analysis of the lysine decarboxylase activity of strains containing cadA, ldc, or cadA ldc mutations indicated that ldc was weakly expressed under various conditions but is a functional gene in E. coli. PMID:9226257

  14. Genotyping of Escherichia coli from environmental and animal samples.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James; Hohn, Christina; Hornor, Sally; Frana, Mark; Denver, Mary; Joerger, Rolf

    2007-08-01

    The triplex PCR of Clermont et al. [Clermont, O., Bonacorsi, S., Bingen, E., 2000. Rapid and simple determination of the Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 4555-4558.] was used to genotype E. coli isolates from the Mid-Atlantic region of the USA, obtained from freshwater, animal internal organs, and feces. Of 445 isolates subjected to genotyping, 118 isolates (26%) were genotype A, 111 (25%) genotype D, 140 (31%) genotype B1, and 76 (17%) genotype B2. All four genotypes were present in three sets of freshwater stream samples. When isolates from chicken cecal ingesta, cecal mucosa, and tracheal mucosa were screened, there was selective distribution of genotypes in these organs. Genotype D was rarely encountered in feces, milk, and intestinal tissues of dairy cows, while all four genotypes were represented in goose feces. Isolates from the feces of zoo animals reared in the US demonstrated a predominance of genotype B1. Thirty-six of the A isolates in our overall collection were subgenotype A(0), in which none of the three amplicons are observed; confirmation that these isolates were E. coli was done using an ancillary lacZ PCR assay. We conclude that the genotyping triplex PCR assay, used in combination with traditional culture methods, can be useful in categorizing E. coli from environmental and veterinary sources in the Mid-Atlantic region of the USA. PMID:17521755

  15. Persistence of colicinogenic Escherichia coli in the mouse gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The ability of a bacterial strain to competitively exclude or displace other strains can be attributed to the production of narrow spectrum antimicrobials, the bacteriocins. In an attempt to evaluate the importance of bacteriocin production for Escherichia coli strain residence in the gastrointestinal tract, a murine model experimental evolution study was undertaken. Results Six colicin-producing, yet otherwise isogenic, E. coli strains were administered and established in the large intestine of streptomycin-treated mice. The strains' persistence, population density, and doubling time were monitored over a period of 112 days. Early in the experiment only minor differences in population density between the various colicin-producing and the non-producing control strains were detected. However, over time, the density of the control strains plummeted, while that of the colicin-producing strains remained significantly higher (F(7,66) = 2.317; P < 0.0008). Conclusion The data presented here support prior claims that bacteriocin production may play a significant role in the colonization of E. coli in the gastrointestinal tract. Further, this study suggests that the ability to produce bacteriocins may prove to be a critical factor in determining the success of establishing probiotic E. coli in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. PMID:19674447

  16. A stochastic killing system for biological containment of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Klemm, P; Jensen, L B; Molin, S

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria with a stochastic conditional lethal containment system have been constructed. The invertible switch promoter located upstream of the fimA gene from Escherichia coli was inserted as expression cassette in front of the lethal gef gene deleted of its own natural promoter. The resulting fusion was placed on a plasmid and transformed to E. coli. The phenotype connected with the presence of such a plasmid was to reduce the population growth rate with increasing significance as the cell growth rate was reduced. In very fast growing cells, there was no measurable effect on growth rate. When a culture of E. coli harboring the plasmid comprising the containment system is left as stationary cells in suspension without nutrients, viability drops exponentially over a period of several days, in contrast to the control cells, which maintain viability nearly unaffected during the same period of time. Similar results were obtained with a strain in which the killing cassette was inserted in the chromosome. In competition with noncontained cells during growth, the contained cells are always outcompeted. Stochastic killing obtained by the fim-gef fusion is at present relevant only as a containment approach for E. coli, but the model may be mimicked in other organisms by using species-specific stochastic expression systems. PMID:7574584

  17. CRISPR-Cas Functional Module Exchange in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Almendros, Cristóbal; Mojica, Francisco J. M.; Díez-Villaseñor, César; Guzmán, Noemí M.; García-Martínez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (cas) genes constitute the CRISPR-Cas systems found in the Bacteria and Archaea domains. At least in some strains they provide an efficient barrier against transmissible genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses. Two CRISPR-Cas systems have been identified in Escherichia coli, pertaining to subtypes I-E (cas-E genes) and I-F (cas-F genes), respectively. In order to unveil the evolutionary dynamics of such systems, we analyzed the sequence variations in the CRISPR-Cas loci of a collection of 131 E. coli strains. Our results show that the strain grouping inferred from these CRISPR data slightly differs from the phylogeny of the species, suggesting the occurrence of recombinational events between CRISPR arrays. Moreover, we determined that the primary cas-E genes of E. coli were altogether replaced with a substantially different variant in a minor group of strains that include K-12. Insertion elements play an important role in this variability. This result underlines the interchange capacity of CRISPR-Cas constituents and hints that at least some functional aspects documented for the K-12 system may not apply to the vast majority of E. coli strains. PMID:24473126

  18. Enzootic Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection in Laboratory Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Ellen M.; Parry, Nicola M. A.; Madden, Carolyn M.; García, Alexis; Morgan, Peter B.; Astrofsky, Keith M.; Fox, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is the most important cause of persistent diarrhea in children, particularly in developing countries. Animals serve as pathogenic E. coli reservoirs, and compelling evidence for cross-species EPEC transmission exists. In this report, enzootic EPEC infection associated with up to 10.5% diarrhea-associated morbidity in a large laboratory Dutch Belted rabbit colony was investigated. These rabbits were obtained from a commercial vendor and had acute diarrhea following shipment. Fecal culture of 20 rabbits yielded 48 E. coli isolates, 83% of which were eae positive. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) and serologic analysis identified a single disease-associated EPEC O145:H2 strain. In sampled rabbits, EPEC-positive culture and the presence of diarrhea were significantly associated. This strain displayed a localized adherence-like HEp-2 cell adherence pattern, as seen in diarrheic human infant EPEC isolates. Treatment was instituted with the fluoroquinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin, to which all isolates were susceptible. Preshipment parenteral enrofloxacin administration reduced diarrhea-associated morbidity 22-fold and mortality 12-fold in subsequent deliveries. This report emphasizes the zoonotic potential of animal EPEC strains and the need for virulence determinant-based screening of E. coli isolates from diarrheic animals. PMID:22573597

  19. Escherichia coli from clinical mastitis: serotypes and virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, José Benedito C; Zanardo, Larissa G; Galvão, Newton N; Carvalho, Isabel A; Nero, Luis Augusto; Moreira, Maria Aparecida S

    2011-11-01

    In the current study, the virulence factors in Escherichia coli isolates from bovine mastitis were investigated, and the connection between these factors and infection was evaluated using phenotypic and genotypic analyses. Twenty-seven E. coli isolates were analyzed, and 2 were shown to produce verotoxin. All isolates had the ability to produce biofilms, although at different levels. One isolate was found to be sensitive to the bactericidal activity of bovine serum, 11 were intermediate, and 15 were resistant. Some isolates showed resistance to trimethoprim sulfa (9) and ampicillin (4), intermediate resistance to neomycin (1) and trimethoprim sulfa (5), and simultaneous resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim sulfa (4). The fimH gene was found in all isolates and was associated with other virulence markers: pap (1), stb (8), cs31a (3), stb and vt2 (2), cs31a and stb (3), east1 and kps (1), stb and east1 (1), cs31a and east1 (1), and cs31a, stb, pap, and iucD (1). Serogroups were determined for 3 isolates: O93:H4, O83:H19, and O15:H11. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 23 isolates belonged to group A and 4 belonged to B1. The findings revealed that these E. coli isolates are opportunistic pathogens with different virulence factors. The results indicate that the pathogenicity route of E. coli in bovine mastitis is not a consequence of 1 specific virulence factor. PMID:22362795

  20. Low intensity infrared laser induces filamentation in Escherichia coli cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Presta, G. A.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.

    2011-10-01

    Low intensity continuous wave and pulsed emission modes laser is used in treating many diseases and the resulting biostimulative effect on tissues has been described, yet the photobiological basis is not well understood. The aim of this wok was to evaluate, using bacterial filamentation assay, effects of laser on Escherichia coli cultures in exponential and stationary growth phase. E. coli cultures, proficient and deficient on DNA repair, in exponential and stationary growth phase, were exposed to low intensity infrared laser, aliquots were spread onto microscopic slides, stained by Gram method, visualized by optical microscopy, photographed and percentage of bacterial filamentation were determined. Low intensity infrared laser with therapeutic fluencies and different emission modes can induce bacterial filamentation in cultures of E. coli wild type, fpg/ mutM, endonuclease III and exonuclease III mutants in exponential and stationary growth phase. This study showed induction of bacterial, filamentation in E. coli cultures expose to low intensity infrared laser and attention to laser therapy protocols, which should take into account fluencies, wavelengths, tissue conditions, and genetic characteristics of cells before beginning treatment.

  1. Direct cadaverine production from cellobiose using ?-glucosidase displaying Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the one-step production of cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) from cellobiose using an Escherichia coli strain displaying ?-glucosidase (BGL) on its cell surface. L-lysine decarboxylase (CadA) derived from E. coli and BGL from Thermobifida fusca YX (Tfu0937) fused to the anchor protein Blc from E. coli were co-expressed using E. coli as a host. The expression of CadA was confirmed by Western blotting and BGL activity on the cell surface was evaluated using pNPG as a substrate. Growth on cellobiose as the sole carbon source was also achieved. The OD600 value of the BGL and CadA co-expressing strain was 8.0 after 48 h cultivation, which is higher than that obtained by growth on glucose (5.4 after 48 h cultivation). The engineered strain produced cadaverine from cellobiose more effectively than from glucose: 6.1 mM after 48 h from 28 g/L of consumed cellobiose, vs. 3.3 mM from 20 g/L of consumed glucose. PMID:24206923

  2. Suppression of bladder epithelial cytokine responses by uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hunstad, David A; Justice, Sheryl S; Hung, Chia S; Lauer, Scott R; Hultgren, Scott J

    2005-07-01

    Urinary tract infections are most commonly caused by uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC), which invade superficial bladder epithelial cells via a type 1 pilus-dependent mechanism. Inside these epithelial cells, UPEC organisms multiply to high numbers to form intracellular bacterial communities, allowing them to avoid immune detection. Bladder epithelial cells produce interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in response to laboratory strains of E. coli in vitro. We investigated the ability of UPEC to alter epithelial cytokine signaling by examining the in vitro responses of bladder epithelial cell lines to the cystitis strains UTI89 and NU14. The cystitis strains induced significantly less IL-6 than did the laboratory E. coli strain MG1655 from 5637 and T24 bladder epithelial cells. The cystitis strains also suppressed epithelial cytokine responses to exogenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to laboratory E. coli. We found that insertional mutations in the rfa and rfb operons and in the surA gene all abolished the ability of UTI89 to suppress cytokine induction. The rfa and rfb operons encode LPS biosynthetic genes, while surA encodes a periplasmic cis-trans prolyl isomerase important in the biogenesis of outer membrane proteins. We conclude that, in this in vitro model system, cystitis strains of UPEC have genes encoding factors that suppress proinflammatory cytokine production by bladder epithelial cells. PMID:15972487

  3. Sources of variation of Escherichia coli concentrations in bivalve molluscs.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Silk, R

    2013-03-01

    Bivalve molluscs can concentrate contaminants, including pathogenic microorganisms, from the water column during their normal filter-feeding activity. In the European Union, the risk of human and animal faecal contamination in bivalves is estimated by determining the concentration of Escherichia coli in time-series samples from production areas. A structured field study was undertaken to determine the extent to which such concentrations varied between sites, sampling occasions and shellfish species and to determine the residual variability of the method. E. coli was enumerated in three species of bivalve mollusc (Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus spp. and Pecten maximus) co-located in each of three geographically separate commercial shellfisheries. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). This showed that the effects of site, sampling occasion, species and site/sampling occasion interaction were all significant. The proportion of variation due to site was markedly greater than that due to other factors. Post-ANOVA analysis showed that the concentration of E. coli in P. maximus was significantly higher than in the other two species. Mytilus spp. and C. gigas exhibited comparable levels of E. coli. The observed standard deviation of the most probable number method in the study was 0.33 log(10). PMID:23428551

  4. Translocation and thermal inactivation of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli in non-intact beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared translocation of genetically-marked strains of serotype O157:H7 Escherichia coli (ECOH) to non-O157:H7 Shiga-Toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) following blade tenderization of beef subprimals and the subsequent lethality of these pathogens following cooking of steaks prepared from ...

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SHEDDING OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND SALMONELLA SPP. IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal samples were obtained in replicate from lactating (LAC; n = 60) and non-lactating (NLAC; n = 60) Holstein cows to determine the influence of time of day (AM vs PM), parity, and lactation phase [ 60 d in milk (DIM)] on shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), Escherichia coli (EC),...

  6. Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Secretes Plasmid Encoded Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Rita C.; Melo, Keyde C. M.; Rossato, Sarita S.; Barbosa, Camila M.; Corrêa, Lívia M.; Elias, Waldir P.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmid encoded toxin (Pet) is a serine protease originally described in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) prototype strain 042 whose entire characterization was essentially obtained from studies performed with the purified toxin. Here we show that Pet is not exclusive to EAEC. Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strains, isolated from diarrhea cases, express Pet and its detection in supernatants of infected HEp-2 cells coincides with the appearance of cell damage, which, in turn, were similar to those described with purified Pet. Pet secretion and the cytotoxic effects are time and culture medium dependent. In presence of DMEM supplemented with tryptone cell rounding and detachment were observed after just 5 h of incubation with the bacteria. In the absence of tryptone, the cytotoxic effects were detected only after 24 h of infection. We also show that, in addition to the prototype EAEC, other pet+ EAEC strains, also isolated from diarrhea cases, induce cellular damage in the same degree as the aEPEC. The cytotoxic effects of EAEC and aEPEC strains were significantly reduced in the presence of a serine protease inhibitor or anti-Pet IgG serum. Our results show a common aspect between the aEPEC and EAEC and provide the first evidence pointing to a role of Pet in aEPEC pathogenesis. PMID:24949475

  7. DNA-damaging activity of patulin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K S; Röschenthaler, R J

    1986-01-01

    At a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml, patulin caused single-strand DNA breaks in living cells of Escherichia coli. At 50 micrograms/ml, double-strand breaks were observed also. Single-strand breaks were repaired in the presence of 10 micrograms of patulin per ml within 90 min when the cells were incubated at 37 degrees C in M9-salts solution without a carbon source. The same concentration also induced temperature-sensitive lambda prophage and a prophage of Bacillus megaterium. When an in vitro system with permeabilized Escherichia coli cells was used, patulin at 10 micrograms/ml induced DNA repair synthesis and inhibited DNA replication. The in vivo occurrence of DNA strand breaks and DNA repair correlated with the in vitro induction of repair synthesis. In vitro the RNA synthesis was less affected, and overall protein synthesis was not inhibited at 10 micrograms/ml. Only at higher concentrations (250 to 500 micrograms/ml) was inhibition of in vitro protein synthesis observed. Thus, patulin must be regarded as a mycotoxin with selective DNA-damaging activity. PMID:2431653

  8. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of cystatin against selected strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Szpak, Maciej; Trziszka, Tadeusz; Polanowski, Antoni; Gburek, Jakub; Go??b, Krzysztof; Juszczy?ska, Katarzyna; Janik, Paulina; Malicki, Adam; Szyplik, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the antibacterial activity of hen egg white cystatin against selected Escherichia coli strains. We used a monomeric solution of hen egg white cystatin in bovine serum albumin (BSA) with added phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and three test strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 23811, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The effect of cystatin against the tested strains was determined on the basis of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and survival curves of the microorganisms in a cystatin-containing environment during incubation at various temperatures. Our study confirmed the activity of cystatin against the analyzed Escherichia coli strains. taining environment, as compared to control samples incubated in a ovocystatin-deficient medium. Depending on the incubation temperature (20 degrees C or 37 degrees C) the reduction persisted up to 12 hours after incubation. PMID:25403072

  9. Research on killing Escherichia Coli by reactive oxygen species based on strong ionization discharging plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. J.; Tian, Y. P.; Li, R. H.; Gao, J. Y.; Cai, L. J.; Zhang, Z. T.

    2013-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species solution produced by strong ionization discharging plasma was used to kill Escherichia coli by spraying. Several effect factors such as pH value, solution temperature, spraying time and exposure time were observed in this study, and their effects on killing rate of Escherichia coli were discussed and analysed. Results show that the treating efficiency of ROS solution for Escherichia coli is higher in alkaline solution than that in acid solution. The killing rate of Escherichia coli increases while the spraying time and exposure time are longer and the temperature is lower. The effects of different factors on killing rate of Escherichia coli are as follows: spraying time > pH value > exposure time > solution temperature.

  10. Significant Escherichia coli attenuation by vegetative buffers on annual grasslands.

    PubMed

    Tate, Kenneth W; Atwill, Edward R; Bartolome, James W; Nader, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the retention efficiency of vegetative buffers for Escherichia coli deposited on grasslands in cattle fecal deposits and subject to natural rainfall-runoff conditions. The study was conducted on annual grasslands in California's northern Sierra Nevada foothills, a region with a distinct wet-dry season Mediterranean climate. We used 48, 2.0- by 3.0-m runoff plots to examine the efficacy of 0.1-, 1.1-, and 2.1-m buffers at three land slopes (5, 20, and 35%) and four dry vegetation matter levels (225, 560, 900, and 4500 kg/ha) across 27 rainfall-runoff events during two rainfall seasons. Buffer width treatments were implemented by placement of cattle fecal material containing known loads of E. coli 0.1, 1.1, or 2.1 m upslope of the plot runoff collector. Mean total runoff to total rainfall ratio per plot ranged from 0.014:1 to 0.019:1 and reflected the high infiltration capacity of these soils. Approximately 94.8 to 99.995% of total E. coli load applied to each plot appears to be either retained in the fecal pat and/or attenuated within 0.1 m downslope of the fecal pat, irrespective of the presence of a wider vegetated buffer. Relative to a 0.1-m buffer, we found 0.3 to 3.1 log10 reduction in E. coli discharge per additional meter of vegetative buffer across the range of residual dry vegetation matter levels, land slope, and rainfall and runoff conditions experienced during this project. Buffer efficiency was significantly reduced as runoff increased. These results support the assertion that grassland buffers are an effective method for reducing animal agricultural inputs of waterborne E. coli into surface waters. PMID:16585622

  11. Genomic and Phenomic Study of Mammary Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Shlomo E.; Heller, Elimelech D.; Sela, Shlomo; Elad, Daniel; Edery, Nir; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a major etiological agent of intra-mammary infections (IMI) in cows, leading to acute mastitis and causing great economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Particular strains cause persistent IMI, leading to recurrent mastitis. Virulence factors of mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC) involved pathogenesis of mastitis as well as those differentiating strains causing acute or persistent mastitis are largely unknown. This study aimed to identify virulence markers in MPEC through whole genome and phenome comparative analysis. MPEC strains causing acute (VL2874 and P4) or persistent (VL2732) mastitis were compared to an environmental strain (K71) and to the genomes of strains representing different E. coli pathotypes. Intra-mammary challenge in mice confirmed experimentally that the strains studied here have different pathogenic potential, and that the environmental strain K71 is non-pathogenic in the mammary gland. Analysis of whole genome sequences and predicted proteomes revealed high similarity among MPEC, whereas MPEC significantly differed from the non-mammary pathogenic strain K71, and from E. coli genomes from other pathotypes. Functional features identified in MPEC genomes and lacking in the non-mammary pathogenic strain were associated with synthesis of lipopolysaccharide and other membrane antigens, ferric-dicitrate iron acquisition and sugars metabolism. Features associated with cytotoxicity or intra-cellular survival were found specifically in the genomes of strains from severe and acute (VL2874) or persistent (VL2732) mastitis, respectively. MPEC genomes were relatively similar to strain K-12, which was subsequently shown here to be possibly pathogenic in the mammary gland. Phenome analysis showed that the persistent MPEC was the most versatile in terms of nutrients metabolized and acute MPEC the least. Among phenotypes unique to MPEC compared to the non-mammary pathogenic strain were uric acid and D-serine metabolism. This study reveals virulence factors and phenotypic characteristics of MPEC that may play a role in pathogenesis of E. coli mastitis. PMID:26327312

  12. Redesigning Escherichia coli Metabolism for Anaerobic Production of Isobutanol?†

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Cong T.; Li, Johnny; Blanch, Harvey W.; Clark, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation enables the production of reduced metabolites, such as the biofuels ethanol and butanol, from fermentable sugars. This work demonstrates a general approach for designing and constructing a production host that uses a heterologous pathway as an obligately fermentative pathway to produce reduced metabolites, specifically, the biofuel isobutanol. Elementary mode analysis was applied to design an Escherichia coli strain optimized for isobutanol production under strictly anaerobic conditions. The central metabolism of E. coli was decomposed into 38,219 functional, unique, and elementary modes (EMs). The model predictions revealed that during anaerobic growth E. coli cannot produce isobutanol as the sole fermentative product. By deleting 7 chromosomal genes, the total 38,219 EMs were constrained to 12 EMs, 6 of which can produce high yields of isobutanol in a range from 0.29 to 0.41 g isobutanol/g glucose under anaerobic conditions. The remaining 6 EMs rely primarily on the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC) and are typically inhibited under anaerobic conditions. The redesigned E. coli strain was constrained to employ the anaerobic isobutanol pathways through deletion of 7 chromosomal genes, addition of 2 heterologous genes, and overexpression of 5 genes. Here we present the design, construction, and characterization of an isobutanol-producing E. coli strain to illustrate the approach. The model predictions are evaluated in relation to experimental data and strategies proposed to improve anaerobic isobutanol production. We also show that the endogenous alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase AdhE is the key enzyme responsible for the production of isobutanol and ethanol under anaerobic conditions. The glycolytic flux can be controlled to regulate the ratio of isobutanol to ethanol production. PMID:21642415

  13. Codon Optimisation Is Key for Pernisine Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Šnajder, Marko; Mihelič, Marko; Turk, Dušan; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    Background Pernisine is an extracellular serine protease from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1. Low yields from the natural host and expression problems in heterologous hosts have limited the potential applications of pernisine in industry. Methodology/ Principal Findings The challenges of pernisine overexpression in Escherichia coli were overcome by codon preference optimisation and de-novo DNA synthesis. The following forms of the pernisine gene were cloned into the pMCSGx series of vectors and expressed in E. coli cells: wild-type (pernisinewt), codon-optimised (pernisineco), and codon-optimised with a S355A mutation of a predicted active site (pernisineS355Aco). The fusion-tagged pernisines were purified using fast protein liquid chromatography equipped with Ni2+ chelate and gel filtration chromatography columns. The identities of the resultant proteins were confirmed with N-terminal sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and immunodetection. Pernisinewt was not expressed in E. coli at detectable levels, while pernisineco and pernisineS355Aco were expressed and purified as 55-kDa proforms with yields of around 10 mg per litre E. coli culture. After heat activation of purified pernisine, the proteolytic activity of the mature pernisineco was confirmed using zymography, at a molecular weight of 36 kDa, while the mutant pernisineS355Aco remained inactive. Enzymatic performances of pernisine evaluated under different temperatures and pHs demonstrate that the optimal enzymatic activity of the recombinant pernisine is ca. 100°C and pH 7.0, respectively. Conclusions/ Significance These data demonstrate that codon optimisation is crucial for pernisine overexpression in E. coli, and that the proposed catalytic Ser355 has an important role in pernisine activity, but not in its activation process. Pernisine is activated by autoproteolytical cleavage of its N-terminal proregion. We have also confirmed that the recombinant pernisine retains the characteristics of native pernisine, as a calcium modulated thermostable serine protease. PMID:25856104

  14. Nucleotide sequence of an Escherichia coli chromosomal hemolysin.

    PubMed Central

    Felmlee, T; Pellett, S; Welch, R A

    1985-01-01

    We determined the DNA sequence of an 8,211-base-pair region encompassing the chromosomal hemolysin, molecularly cloned from an O4 serotype strain of Escherichia coli. All four hemolysin cistrons (transcriptional order, C, A, B, and D) were encoded on the same DNA strand, and their predicted molecular masses were, respectively, 19.7, 109.8, 79.9, and 54.6 kilodaltons. The identification of pSF4000-encoded polypeptides in E. coli minicells corroborated the assignment of the predicted polypeptides for hlyC, hlyA, and hlyD. However, based on the minicell results, two polypeptides appeared to be encoded on the hlyB region, one similar in size to the predicted molecular mass of 79.9 kilodaltons, and the other a smaller 46-kilodalton polypeptide. The four hemolysin gene displayed similar codon usage, which is atypical for E. coli. This reflects the low guanine-plus-cytosine content (40.2%) of the hemolysin DNA sequence and suggests the non-E. coli origin of the hemolysin determinant. In vitro-derived deletions of the hemolysin recombinant plasmid pSF4000 indicated that a region between 433 and 301 base pairs upstream of the putative start of hlyC is necessary for hemolysin synthesis. Based on the DNA sequence, a stem-loop transcription terminator-like structure (a 16-base-pair stem followed by seven uridylates) in the mRNA was predicted distal to the C-terminal end of hlyA. A model for the general transcriptional organization of the E. coli hemolysin determinant is presented. Images PMID:3891743

  15. F'-plasmid transfer from Escherichia coli to Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Mergeay, M; Gerits, J

    1978-01-01

    Various F' plasmids of Escherichia coli K-12 could be transferred into mutants of the soil strain 6.2, classified herein as a Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype IV. This strain was previously found to receive Flac plasmid (N. Datta and R.W. Hedges, J. Gen Microbiol. 70:453-460, 1972). ilv, leu, met, arg, and his auxotrophs were complemented by plasmids carrying isofunctional genes; trp mutants were not complemented or were very poorly complemented. The frequency of transfer was 10(-5). Subsequent transfer into other P. fluorescens recipients was of the same order of magnitude. Some transconjugants were unable to act as donors, and these did not lose the received information if subcultured on nonselective media. Use of F' plasmids helped to discriminate metabolic blocks in P. fluorescens. In particular, metA, metB, and argH mutants were so distinguished. In addition, F131 plasmid carrying the his operon and a supD mutation could partially relieve the auxotrophy of thr, ilv, and metA13 mutants, suggesting functional expression of E. coli tRNA in P. fluorescens. In P. fluorescens metA Rifr mutants carrying the F110 plasmid, which carried the E. coli metA gene and the E. coli rifs allele, sensitivity to rifampin was found to be dominant at least temporarily over resistance. This suggests interaction of E. coli and P. fluorescens subunits of RNA polymerase. his mutations were also complemented by composite P plasmids containing the his-nif region of Klebsiella pneumoniae (plasmids FN68 and RP41). nif expression could be detected by acetylene reduction in some his+ transconjugants. The frequency of transfer of these P plasmids was 5 X 10(-4). PMID:97267

  16. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Ryan G.; Zheng, Jinshui; Garcia-Hernandez, Rigoberto; Ruan, Lifang; Gänzle, Michael G.; McMullen, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR). This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli. PMID:26441869

  17. Characteristics of human intestinal Escherichia coli with changing environments.

    PubMed

    Skurnik, David; Bonnet, Daniel; Bernède-Bauduin, Claire; Michel, Rémy; Guette, Christian; Becker, Jean-Marie; Balaire, Corinne; Chau, Françoise; Mohler, Jacqueline; Jarlier, Vincent; Boutin, Jean-Paul; Moreau, Brigitte; Guillemot, Didier; Denamur, Erick; Andremont, Antoine; Ruimy, Raymond

    2008-08-01

    To investigate if the characteristics of human intestinal Escherichia coli are changing with the environment of the host, we studied intestinal E. coli from subjects having recently migrated from a temperate to a tropical area. We determined the phylogenetic group, the prevalence of the antibiotic resistance, the presence of integrons and the strain diversity in faecal isolates from 25 subjects originally from metropolitan France and expatriated to French Guyana. These characteristics were compared with those of 25 previously studied Wayampi Amerindian natives of French Guyana and from 25 metropolitan French residents. The three groups of subjects were matched for age and sex, had not taken antibiotics for at least 1 month, nor had been hospitalized within the past year. In all, the characteristics of intestinal E. coli from Expatriates were intermediate between those found in residents from metropolitan France and those found in natives of French Guyana. Prevalence of carriage of resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Expatriates was intermediate between French residents and Wayampi as were the prevalence of integrons in E. coli (12.3% versus 16.3% and 7.8% respectively), and the intra-host diversity of E. coli (2.3 strains/subject versus 1.9 and 3.1, respectively); lastly, in Expatriates, the prevalence of carriage of phylogenetic group B2 strains was lower than in French residents (16% versus 56%, P = 0.005), while carriage of phylogenetic group A strains was lower than in Wayampi (56% versus 88%, P = 0.03). Our results suggest that the composition of the commensal intestinal flora of humans is not static but changes dynamically in response to new environmental conditions. PMID:18459976

  18. 40 CFR 180.1301 - Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific bacteriophages; temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1301 Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific... Escherichia coli O157:H7, sequence negative for shiga toxins I and II, and grown on atoxigenic host...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1301 - Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific bacteriophages; temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1301 Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific... Escherichia coli O157:H7, sequence negative for shiga toxins I and II, and grown on atoxigenic host...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1301 - Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific bacteriophages; temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1301 Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific... Escherichia coli O157:H7, sequence negative for shiga toxins I and II, and grown on atoxigenic host...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1301 - Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific bacteriophages; temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1301 Escherichia coli O157:H7 specific... Escherichia coli O157:H7, sequence negative for shiga toxins I and II, and grown on atoxigenic host...

  2. Validating tyrosinase homologue melA as a photoacoustic reporter gene for imaging Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Paproski, Robert J; Li, Yan; Barber, Quinn; Lewis, John D; Campbell, Robert E; Zemp, Roger

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pathogenic processes for infectious bacteria, appropriate research tools are required for replicating and characterizing infections. Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have primarily been used to image infections in animal models, but optical scattering in tissue significantly limits imaging depth and resolution. Photoacoustic imaging, which has improved depth-to-resolution ratio compared to conventional optical imaging, could be useful for visualizing melA-expressing bacteria since melA is a bacterial tyrosinase homologue which produces melanin. Escherichia coli-expressing melA was visibly dark in liquid culture. When melA-expressing bacteria in tubes were imaged with a VisualSonics Vevo LAZR system, the signal-to-noise ratio of a 9×dilution sample was 55, suggesting that ?20 bacteria cells could be detected with our system. Multispectral (680, 700, 750, 800, 850, and 900 nm) analysis of the photoacoustic signal allowed unmixing of melA-expressing bacteria from blood. To compare photoacoustic reporter gene melA (using Vevo system) with luminescent and fluorescent reporter gene Nano-lantern (using Bruker Xtreme In-Vivo system), tubes of bacteria expressing melA or Nano-lantern were submerged 10 mm in 1% Intralipid, spaced between <1 and 20 mm apart from each other, and imaged with the appropriate imaging modality. Photoacoustic imaging could resolve the two tubes of melA-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were less than 1 mm from each other, while bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging could not resolve the two tubes of Nano-lantern-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were spaced 10 mm from each other. After injecting 100-?L of melA-expressing bacteria in the back flank of a chicken embryo, photoacoustic imaging allowed visualization of melA-expressing bacteria up to 10-mm deep into the embryo. Photoacoustic signal from melA could also be separated from deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin signal observed within the embryo and chorioallantoic membrane. Our results suggest that melA is a useful photoacoustic reporter gene for visualizing bacteria, and further work incorporating photoacoustic reporters into infectious bacterial strains is warranted. PMID:26502231

  3. Validating tyrosinase homologue melA as a photoacoustic reporter gene for imaging Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paproski, Robert J.; Li, Yan; Barber, Quinn; Lewis, John D.; Campbell, Robert E.; Zemp, Roger

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pathogenic processes for infectious bacteria, appropriate research tools are required for replicating and characterizing infections. Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have primarily been used to image infections in animal models, but optical scattering in tissue significantly limits imaging depth and resolution. Photoacoustic imaging, which has improved depth-to-resolution ratio compared to conventional optical imaging, could be useful for visualizing melA-expressing bacteria since melA is a bacterial tyrosinase homologue which produces melanin. Escherichia coli-expressing melA was visibly dark in liquid culture. When melA-expressing bacteria in tubes were imaged with a VisualSonics Vevo LAZR system, the signal-to-noise ratio of a 9× dilution sample was 55, suggesting that ˜20 bacteria cells could be detected with our system. Multispectral (680, 700, 750, 800, 850, and 900 nm) analysis of the photoacoustic signal allowed unmixing of melA-expressing bacteria from blood. To compare photoacoustic reporter gene melA (using Vevo system) with luminescent and fluorescent reporter gene Nano-lantern (using Bruker Xtreme In-Vivo system), tubes of bacteria expressing melA or Nano-lantern were submerged 10 mm in 1% Intralipid, spaced between <1 and 20 mm apart from each other, and imaged with the appropriate imaging modality. Photoacoustic imaging could resolve the two tubes of melA-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were less than 1 mm from each other, while bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging could not resolve the two tubes of Nano-lantern-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were spaced 10 mm from each other. After injecting 100-μL of melA-expressing bacteria in the back flank of a chicken embryo, photoacoustic imaging allowed visualization of melA-expressing bacteria up to 10-mm deep into the embryo. Photoacoustic signal from melA could also be separated from deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin signal observed within the embryo and chorioallantoic membrane. Our results suggest that melA is a useful photoacoustic reporter gene for visualizing bacteria, and further work incorporating photoacoustic reporters into infectious bacterial strains is warranted.

  4. Escherichia coli bioreporters for the detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Lalush, Chaim; Rosen, Rachel; Bachar, Neta; Moskovitz, Yaara; Belkin, Shimshon

    2014-01-01

    The primary explosive found in most land mines, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT), is often accompanied by 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) impurities. The latter two compounds, being more volatile, have been reported to slowly leak through land mine covers and permeate the soil under which they are located, thus serving as potential indicators for buried land mines. We report on the construction of genetically engineered Escherichia coli bioreporter strains for the detection of these compounds, based on a genetic fusion between two gene promoters, yqjF and ybiJ, to either the green fluorescent protein gene GFPmut2 or to Photorhabdus luminescens bioluminescence luxCDABE genes. These two gene promoters were identified by exposing to 2,4-DNT a comprehensive library of about 2,000 E. coli reporter strains, each harboring a different E. coli gene promoter controlling a fluorescent protein reporter gene. Both reporter strains detected 2,4-DNT in an aqueous solution as well as in vapor form or when buried in soil. Performance of the yqjF-based sensor was significantly improved in terms of detection threshold, response time, and signal intensity, following two rounds of random mutagenesis in the promoter region. Both yqjF-based and ybiJ-based reporters were also induced by 2,4,6-TNT and 1,3-DNB. It was further demonstrated that both 2,4,6-TNT and 2,4-DNT are metabolized by E. coli and that the actual induction of both yqjF and ybiJ is caused by yet unidentified degradation products. This is the first demonstration of an E. coli whole-cell sensor strain for 2,4-DNT and 2,4,6-TNT, constructed using its own endogenous sensing elements. PMID:23615740

  5. Identification of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Strains from Avian Organic Fertilizers

    PubMed Central

    Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P.; Nishio, Erick K.; Kobayashi, Renata K. T.; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections. PMID:25170683

  6. Escherichia coli bacteria detection by using graphene-based biosensor.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Elnaz; Buntat, Zolkafle; Afroozeh, Abdolkarim; Zeinalinezhad, Alireza; Nikoukar, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Graphene is an allotrope of carbon with two-dimensional (2D) monolayer honeycombs. A larger detection area and higher sensitivity can be provided by graphene-based nanosenor because of its 2D structure. In addition, owing to its special characteristics, including electrical, optical and physical properties, graphene is known as a more suitable candidate compared to other materials used in the sensor application. A novel model employing a field-effect transistor structure using graphene is proposed and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of graphene are employed to model the sensing mechanism. This biosensor can detect Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, providing high levels of sensitivity. It is observed that the graphene device experiences a drastic increase in conductance when exposed to E. coli bacteria at 0-10(5) cfu/ml concentration. The simple, fast response and high sensitivity of this nanoelectronic biosensor make it a suitable device in screening and functional studies of antibacterial drugs and an ideal high-throughput platform which can detect any pathogenic bacteria. Artificial neural network and support vector regression algorithms have also been used to provide other models for the I-V characteristic. A satisfactory agreement has been presented by comparison between the proposed models with the experimental data. PMID:26435280

  7. rhs gene family of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Sadosky, A B; Davidson, A; Lin, R J; Hill, C W

    1989-01-01

    Two additional members of a novel Escherichia coli gene family, the rhs genes, have been cloned and characterized. The structures of these loci, rhsC and rhsD, have been compared with those of rhsA and rhsB. All four loci contain a homologous 3.7-kilobase-pair core. Sequence comparison of the first 300 nucleotides of the cores showed that rhsA, rhsB, and rhsC are closely related, with only 1 to 2% sequence divergence, whereas rhsD is 18% divergent from the others. The beginning of the core coincides with the initiation of an open reading frame that extends beyond the 300 nucleotides compared. Whether a protein product is produced from this open reading frame has not been established. However, nucleotide substitutions which differentiate the cores have highly conservative effects on the predicted protein products; this suggests that products are made from the open reading frame and are under severe selection. The four rhs loci have been placed on both the genetic and restriction maps of E. coli K-12. A fifth rhs locus remains to be characterized. In terms of size, number, and sequence conservation, the rhs genes make up one of the most significant repetitions in E. coli, comparable to the rRNA operons. PMID:2644231

  8. Indole Can Act as an Extracellular Signal in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dandan; Ding, Xuedong; Rather, Philip N.

    2001-01-01

    Previous work has shown that lacZ fusions to the cysK, astD, tnaB, and gabT genes in Escherichia coli are activated by self-produced extracellular signals. Using a combination of ethyl acetate extraction, reversed-phase C18 chromatography, and thin-layer chromatography, we have purified an extracellular activating signal from E. coli supernatants. Mass spectrometry revealed a molecule with an m/z peak of 117, consistent with indole. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the purified E. coli factor and synthetic indole revealed identical profiles. Using synthetic indole, a dose-dependent activation was observed with lacZ fusions to the gabT, astD, and tnaB genes. However, cysK::lacZ and several control fusions were not significantly activated by indole. Conditioned medium prepared from a tnaA (tryptophanase) mutant, deficient in indole production, supported 26 to 41% lower activation of the gabT and astD fusions. The residual level of activation may be due to a second activating signal. Activation of the tnaB::lacZ fusion was reduced by greater than 70% in conditioned medium from a tnaA mutant. PMID:11418561

  9. Characterization of the YdeO Regulon in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Yuki; Oshima, Taku; Ishihama, Akira; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Enterobacteria are able to survive under stressful conditions within animals, such as acidic conditions in the stomach, bile salts during transfer to the intestine and anaerobic conditions within the intestine. The glutamate-dependent (GAD) system plays a major role in acid resistance in Escherichia coli, and expression of the GAD system is controlled by the regulatory cascade consisting of EvgAS > YdeO > GadE. To understand the YdeO regulon in vivo, we used ChIP-chip to interrogate the E. coli genome for candidate YdeO binding sites. All of the seven operons identified by ChIP-chip as being potentially regulated by YdeO were confirmed as being under the direct control of YdeO using RT-qPCR, EMSA, DNaseI-footprinting and reporter assays. Within this YdeO regulon, we identified four stress-response transcription factors, DctR, NhaR, GadE, and GadW and enzymes for anaerobic respiration. Both GadE and GadW are involved in regulation of the GAD system and NhaR is an activator for the sodium/proton antiporter gene. In conjunction with co-transcribed Slp, DctR is involved in protection against metabolic endoproducts under acidic conditions. Taken all together, we suggest that YdeO is a key regulator of E. coli survival in both acidic and anaerobic conditions. PMID:25375160

  10. Escherichia coli lipoprotein binds human plasminogen via an intramolecular domain

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Tammy; Gaultney, Robert A.; Floden, Angela M.; Brissette, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli lipoprotein (Lpp) is a major cellular component that exists in two distinct states, bound-form and free-form. Bound-form Lpp is known to interact with the periplasmic bacterial cell wall, while free-form Lpp is localized to the bacterial cell surface. A function for surface-exposed Lpp has yet to be determined. We hypothesized that the presence of C-terminal lysinses in the surface-exposed region of Lpp would facilitate binding to the host zymogen plasminogen (Plg), a protease commandeered by a number of clinically important bacteria. Recombinant Lpp was synthesized and the binding of Lpp to Plg, the effect of various inhibitors on this binding, and the effects of various mutations of Lpp on Lpp–Plg interactions were examined. Additionally, the ability of Lpp-bound Plg to be converted to active plasmin was analyzed. We determined that Lpp binds Plg via an atypical domain located near the center of mature Lpp that may not be exposed on the surface of intact E. coli according to the current localization model. Finally, we found that Plg bound by Lpp can be converted to active plasmin. While the consequences of Lpp binding Plg are unclear, these results prompt further investigation of the ability of surface exposed Lpp to interact with host molecules such as extracellular matrix components and complement regulators, and the role of these interactions in infections caused by E. coli and other bacteria. PMID:26500634

  11. Microaerobic Conversion of Glycerol to Ethanol in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Matthew S.; Li, Mai; Black, Ryan W.; Le, Thao Q.; Puthli, Sharon; Campbell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol has become a desirable feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals due to its availability and low price, but many barriers to commercialization remain. Previous investigators have made significant improvements in the yield of ethanol from glycerol. We have developed a fermentation process for the efficient microaerobic conversion of glycerol to ethanol by Escherichia coli that presents solutions to several other barriers to commercialization: rate, titer, specific productivity, use of inducers, use of antibiotics, and safety. To increase the rate, titer, and specific productivity to commercially relevant levels, we constructed a plasmid that overexpressed glycerol uptake genes dhaKLM, gldA, and glpK, as well as the ethanol pathway gene adhE. To eliminate the cost of inducers and antibiotics from the fermentation, we used the adhE and icd promoters from E. coli in our plasmid, and we implemented glycerol addiction to retain the plasmid. To address the safety issue of off-gas flammability, we optimized the fermentation process with reduced-oxygen sparge gas to ensure that the off-gas remained nonflammable. These advances represent significant progress toward the commercialization of an E. coli-based glycerol-to-ethanol process. PMID:24584248

  12. Nascentome Analysis Uncovers Futile Protein Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Koreaki; Chadani, Yuhei; Nakamori, Kenta; Chiba, Shinobu; Akiyama, Yoshinori; Abo, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Although co-translational biological processes attract much attention, no general and easy method has been available to detect cellular nascent polypeptide chains, which we propose to call collectively a “nascentome.” We developed a method to selectively detect polypeptide portions of cellular polypeptidyl-tRNAs and used it to study the generality of the quality control reactions that rescue dead-end translation complexes. To detect nascent polypeptides, having their growing ends covalently attached to a tRNA, cellular extracts are separated by SDS-PAGE in two dimensions, first with the peptidyl-tRNA ester bonds preserved and subsequently after their in-gel cleavage. Pulse-labeled nascent polypeptides of Escherichia coli form a characteristic line below the main diagonal line, because each of them had contained a tRNA of nearly uniform size in the first-dimension electrophoresis but not in the second-dimension. The detection of nascent polypeptides, separately from any translation-completed polypeptides or degradation products thereof, allows us to follow their fates to gain deeper insights into protein biogenesis and quality control pathways. It was revealed that polypeptidyl-tRNAs were significantly stabilized in E. coli upon dysfunction of the tmRNA-ArfA ribosome-rescuing system, whose function had only been studied previously using model constructs. Our results suggest that E. coli cells are intrinsically producing aberrant translation products, which are normally eliminated by the ribosome-rescuing mechanisms. PMID:22162769

  13. Colibri: a functional data base for the Escherichia coli genome.

    PubMed Central

    Médigue, C; Viari, A; Hénaut, A; Danchin, A

    1993-01-01

    Several data libraries have been created to organize all the data obtained worldwide about the Escherichia coli genome. Because the known data now amount to more than 40% of the whole genome sequence, it has become necessary to organize the data in such a way that appropriate procedures can associate knowledge produced by experiments about each gene to its position on the chromosome and its relation to other relevant genes, for example. In addition, global properties of genes, affected by the introduction of new entries, should be present as appropriate description fields. A data base, implemented on Macintosh by using the data base management system 4th Dimension, is described. It is constructed around a core constituted by known contigs of E. coli sequences and links data collected in general libraries (unmodified) to data associated with evolving knowledge (with modifiable fields). Biologically significant results obtained through the coupling of appropriate procedures (learning or statistical data analysis) are presented. The data base is available through a 4th Dimension runtime and through FTP on Internet. It has been regularly updated and will be systematically linked to other E. coli data bases (M. Kroger, R. Wahl, G. Schachtel, and P. Rice, Nucleic Acids Res. 20(Suppl.):2119-2144, 1992; K. E. Rudd, W. Miller, C. Werner, J. Ostell, C. Tolstoshev, and S. G. Satterfield, Nucleic Acids Res. 19:637-647, 1991) in the near future. Images PMID:8246843

  14. Thermal impulse response and the temperature preference of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, William

    2010-03-01

    From a broad perspective, exposure to environmental temperature changes is a universal condition of living organisms. Escherichia coli is a powerful model system to study how a biochemical network measures and processes thermal information to produce adaptive changes in behavior. E. coli performs thermotaxis, directing its movements to a preferred temperature in spatial thermal gradients. How does the system perform thermotaxis? Where biologically is this analog value of thermal preference stored? Previous studies using populations of cells have shown that E.coli accumulate in spatial thermal gradients, but these experiments did not cleanly separate thermal responses from chemotactic responses. Here we have isolated the thermal behavior by studying the thermal impulse response of single, tethered cells. The motor output of cells was measured in response to small, impulsive increases in temperature, delivered by an infrared laser, over a range of ambient temperature (23 to 43 degrees C). The thermal impulse response at temperatures < 31 degrees C is similar to the chemotactic impulse response: both follow a similar time course, share the same directionality, and show biphasic characteristics. At temperatures > 31 degrees C, some cells show an inverted response, switching from warm- to cold-seeking behavior. The fraction of inverted responses increases nonlinearly with temperature, switching steeply at the preferred temperature of 37 degrees C.

  15. Changes in Escherichia coli transcriptome during acclimatization at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Polissi, Alessandra; De Laurentis, Walter; Zangrossi, Sandro; Briani, Federica; Longhi, Vera; Pesole, Graziano; Dehò, Gianni

    2003-10-01

    Upon cold shock Escherichia coli transiently stops growing and adapts to the new temperature (acclimatization phase). The major physiological effects of cold temperature are a decrease in membrane fluidity and the stabilization of secondary structures of RNA and DNA, which may affect the efficiencies of translation, transcription, and replication. Specific proteins are transiently induced in the acclimatization phase. mRNA stabilization and increased translatability play a major role in this phenomenon. Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) is one of the cold-induced proteins and is essential for E. coli growth at low temperatures. We investigated the global changes in mRNA abundance during cold adaptation both in wild type E. coli MG1655 and in a PNPase-deficient mutant. We observed a twofold or greater variation in the relative mRNA abundance of 20 genes upon cold shock, notably the cold-inducible subset of csp genes and genes not previously associated with cold shock response, among these, the extracytoplasmic stress response regulators rpoE and rseA, and eight genes with unknown function. Interestingly, we found that PNPase both negatively and positively modulated the transcript abundance of some of these genes, thus suggesting a complex role of PNPase in controlling cold adaptation. PMID:14527658

  16. Improving alkane synthesis in Escherichia coli via metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuejiao; Yu, Haiying; Zhu, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy security and global petroleum supply have made the production of renewable biofuels an industrial imperative. The ideal biofuels are n-alkanes in that they are chemically and structurally identical to the fossil fuels and can "drop in" to the transportation infrastructure. In this work, an Escherichia coli strain that produces n-alkanes was constructed by heterologous expression of acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (AAR) and aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (ADO) from Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942. The accumulation of alkanes ranged from 3.1 to 24.0 mg/L using different expressing strategies. Deletion of yqhD, an inherent aldehyde reductase in E. coli, or overexpression of fadR, an activator for fatty acid biosynthesis, exhibited a nearly twofold increase in alkane titers, respectively. Combining yqhD deletion and fadR overexpression resulted in a production titer of 255.6 mg/L in E. coli, and heptadecene was the most abundant product. PMID:26476644

  17. K antigen and serum sensitivity of rough Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Opal, S; Cross, A; Gemski, P

    1982-01-01

    We prepared bacterial hybrids which express both K1 and K27 antigens and examined the relative contributions of these capsules to serum resistance. Escherichia coli Hfr strain F639 (rough, K27+, serum sensitive) was conjugated with E. coli recipient strain E412 (rough, K1+, His- Trp- Strr, serum resistant). Transconjugants which inherited both the his and trp linked genes for K27 antigen synthesis were analyzed. These hybrids retained and expressed the K1 antigen since the K1 locus is nonallelic with K27 gene loci. Hybrid strains which express both K1 and K27 antigens exhibit serum resistance, but not at the level of the K1+ parental strain. An isogenic K1 derivative of a hybrid which expressed only K27 antigen was serum sensitive (greater than 99% kill, 60 min). These findings indicate that the presence of the K1 capsular antigen can protect some rough strains of E. coli from serum bactericidal activity, whereas K27 and perhaps other K antigens fail to provide such a protective effect. PMID:6752031

  18. Metabolomic and transcriptomic stress response of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jozefczuk, Szymon; Klie, Sebastian; Catchpole, Gareth; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Cuadros-Inostroza, Alvaro; Steinhauser, Dirk; Selbig, Joachim; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2010-01-01

    Environmental fluctuations lead to a rapid adjustment of the physiology of Escherichia coli, necessitating changes on every level of the underlying cellular and molecular network. Thus far, the majority of global analyses of E. coli stress responses have been limited to just one level, gene expression. Here, we incorporate the metabolite composition together with gene expression data to provide a more comprehensive insight on system level stress adjustments by describing detailed time-resolved E. coli response to five different perturbations (cold, heat, oxidative stress, lactose diauxie, and stationary phase). The metabolite response is more specific as compared with the general response observed on the transcript level and is reflected by much higher specificity during the early stress adaptation phase and when comparing the stationary phase response to other perturbations. Despite these differences, the response on both levels still follows the same dynamics and general strategy of energy conservation as reflected by rapid decrease of central carbon metabolism intermediates coinciding with downregulation of genes related to cell growth. Application of co-clustering and canonical correlation analysis on combined metabolite and transcript data identified a number of significant condition-dependent associations between metabolites and transcripts. The results confirm and extend existing models about co-regulation between gene expression and metabolites demonstrating the power of integrated systems oriented analysis. PMID:20461071

  19. Aggregation of ALS mutant superoxide dismutase expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Leinweber, Barbara; Barofsky, Elisabeth; Barofsky, Douglas F; Ermilov, Vladimir; Nylin, Keith; Beckman, Joseph S

    2004-04-01

    Although large amounts of wild-type human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) are easily expressed in Escherichia coli, the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated mutants have a strong propensity to aggregate into inclusion bodies. The alanine to valine mutation at the fourth codon (A4V) is responsible for a rapidly progressive disease course and is particularly prone to aggregation when expressed in E. coli. We found that A4V SOD remained soluble when expressed at 18 degrees C, but >95% A4V SOD aggregated in inclusion bodies when expressed at 23 degrees C or above. The SOD aggregates dissolved with 4 M urea, suggesting that intermolecular hydrophobic interactions were predominantly responsible for making SOD insoluble. Many of the urea-solubilized subunits were cross-linked via disulfide bridges. Fully active mutant SOD could be produced by dialyzing urea away in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol and subsequently adding copper plus zinc, providing a fast procedure for purifying hundreds of milligrams of protein. Extensive rinsing removed most contaminating E. coli proteins from A4V SOD inclusion bodies except for a 37 kDa protein identified as outer membrane protein F using MALDI ToF/ToF mass spectrometry. Our results indicate that metal-deficient ALS-mutant SOD folds into stable apo conformation able to rebind metals. At high protein concentrations, SOD forms aggregates through hydrophobic interactions between subunits that seem to act as a kinetic snare to entrap additional proteins. PMID:15019975

  20. Escherichia coli K-12: a cooperatively developed annotation snapshot—2005

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Monica; Abe, Takashi; Arnaud, Martha B.; Berlyn, Mary K.B.; Blattner, Frederick R.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Glasner, Jeremy D.; Horiuchi, Takashi; Keseler, Ingrid M.; Kosuge, Takehide; Mori, Hirotada; Perna, Nicole T.; Plunkett, Guy; Rudd, Kenneth E.; Serres, Margrethe H.; Thomas, Gavin H.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Wishart, David; Wanner, Barry L.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this group project has been to coordinate and bring up-to-date information on all genes of Escherichia coli K-12. Annotation of the genome of an organism entails identification of genes, the boundaries of genes in terms of precise start and end sites, and description of the gene products. Known and predicted functions were assigned to each gene product on the basis of experimental evidence or sequence analysis. Since both kinds of evidence are constantly expanding, no annotation is complete at any moment in time. This is a snapshot analysis based on the most recent genome sequences of two E.coli K-12 bacteria. An accurate and up-to-date description of E.coli K-12 genes is of particular importance to the scientific community because experimentally determined properties of its gene products provide fundamental information for annotation of innumerable genes of other organisms. Availability of the complete genome sequence of two K-12 strains allows comparison of their genotypes and mutant status of alleles. PMID:16397293

  1. 2DBase: 2D-PAGE database of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Vijayendran, Chandran; Burgemeister, Sebastian; Friehs, Karl; Niehaus, Karsten; Flaschel, Erwin

    2007-11-23

    We present a web-based integrated proteome database, termed 2DBase of Escherichia coli which was designed to store, compare, analyse, and retrieve various information obtained by 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The main objectives of this database are (1) to provide the features for query and data-mining applications to access the stored proteomics data (2) to efficiently compare the specific protein spots present in the comparable proteome maps and (3) to analyse the data with the integrated classification for cellular functions of gene products of E. coli. This database currently contains 12 gels consisting of 1185 protein spots information in which 723 proteins were identified and annotated. Individual protein spots in the existing gels can be displayed, queried, analyzed, and compared in a tabular format based on various functional categories enabling quick and subsequent analyses. Our database satisfies the requirement to be a federated 2-DE database by accomplishing various tasks through a web interface providing access to a relational database system. The 2DBase of E. coli database can be accessed at http://2dbase.techfak.uni-bielefeld.de/. PMID:17904107

  2. Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in estuarine environments.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, M W; Kator, H

    1988-01-01

    Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in estuarine waters was compared over a variety of seasonal temperatures during in situ exposure in diffusion chambers. Sublethal stress was measured by both selective-versus-resuscitative enumeration procedures and an electrochemical detection method. E. coli and Salmonella spp. test suspensions, prepared to minimize sublethal injury, were exposed in a shallow tidal creek and at a site 7.1 km further downriver. Bacterial die-off and sublethal stress in filtered estuarine water were inversely related to water temperature. Salmonella spp. populations exhibited significantly less die-off and stress than did E. coli at water temperatures of less than 10 degrees C. Although the most pronounced reductions (ca. 3 log units) in test bacteria occurred during seasonally warm temperatures in the presence of the autochthonous microbiota, 10(2) to 10(4) test cells per ml remained after 2 weeks of exposure to temperatures of greater than 15 degrees C. Reductions in test bacteria were associated with increases in the densities of microflagellates and plaque-forming microorganisms. These studies demonstrated the survival potential of enteric bacteria in estuarine waters and showed that survival was a function of interacting biological and physical factors. PMID:3066291

  3. Identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from avian organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P; Nishio, Erick K; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-09-01

    The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections. PMID:25170683

  4. Comprehensive Mapping of the Escherichia coli Flagellar Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Devon M.; Bonocora, Richard P.; Wade, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Flagellar synthesis is a highly regulated process in all motile bacteria. In Escherichia coli and related species, the transcription factor FlhDC is the master regulator of a multi-tiered transcription network. FlhDC activates transcription of a number of genes, including some flagellar genes and the gene encoding the alternative Sigma factor FliA. Genes whose expression is required late in flagellar assembly are primarily transcribed by FliA, imparting temporal regulation of transcription and coupling expression to flagellar assembly. In this study, we use ChIP-seq and RNA-seq to comprehensively map the E. coli FlhDC and FliA regulons. We define a surprisingly restricted FlhDC regulon, including two novel regulated targets and two binding sites not associated with detectable regulation of surrounding genes. In contrast, we greatly expand the known FliA regulon. Surprisingly, 30 of the 52 FliA binding sites are located inside genes. Two of these intragenic promoters are associated with detectable noncoding RNAs, while the others either produce highly unstable RNAs or are inactive under these conditions. Together, our data redefine the E. coli flagellar regulatory network, and provide new insight into the temporal orchestration of gene expression that coordinates the flagellar assembly process. PMID:25275371

  5. Identification of phosphatidylserylglutamate: a novel minor lipid in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Teresa A.; Raetz, Christian R. H.; Richardson, Travis; Kordestani, Reza; Son, Jennifer D.; Rose, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry have facilitated the identification of novel lipid structures. In this work, we fractionated the lipids of Escherichia coli B and analyzed the fractions using negative-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to reveal unknown lipid structures. Analysis of a fraction eluting with high salt from DEAE cellulose revealed a series of ions not corresponding to any of the known lipids of E. coli. The ions, with m/z 861.5, 875.5, 887.5, 889.5, and 915.5, were analyzed using collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and yielded related fragmentation patterns consistent with a novel diacylated glycerophospholipid. Product ions arising by neutral loss of 216 mass units were observed with all of the unknowns. A corresponding negative product ion was also observed at m/z 215.0. Additional ions at m/z 197.0, 171.0, 146.0, and 128.0 were used to propose the novel structure phosphatidylserylglutamate (PSE). The hypothesized structure was confirmed by comparison with the MS/MS spectrum of a synthetic standard. Normal phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis further showed that the endogenous PSE and synthetic PSE eluted with the same retention times. PSE was also observed in the equivalent anion exchange fractions of total lipids extracted from the wild-type E. coli K-12 strain MG1655. PMID:19096047

  6. Structural interconversions modulate activity of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Ando, Nozomi; Brignole, Edward J; Zimanyi, Christina M; Funk, Michael A; Yokoyama, Kenichi; Asturias, Francisco J; Stubbe, Joanne; Drennan, Catherine L

    2011-12-27

    Essential for DNA biosynthesis and repair, ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) convert ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides via radical-based chemistry. Although long known that allosteric regulation of RNR activity is vital for cell health, the molecular basis of this regulation has been enigmatic, largely due to a lack of structural information about how the catalytic subunit (?(2)) and the radical-generation subunit (?(2)) interact. Here we present the first structure of a complex between ?(2) and ?(2) subunits for the prototypic RNR from Escherichia coli. Using four techniques (small-angle X-ray scattering, X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, and analytical ultracentrifugation), we describe an unprecedented ?(4)?(4) ring-like structure in the presence of the negative activity effector dATP and provide structural support for an active ?(2)?(2) configuration. We demonstrate that, under physiological conditions, E. coli RNR exists as a mixture of transient ?(2)?(2) and ?(4)?(4) species whose distributions are modulated by allosteric effectors. We further show that this interconversion between ?(2)?(2) and ?(4)?(4) entails dramatic subunit rearrangements, providing a stunning molecular explanation for the allosteric regulation of RNR activity in E. coli. PMID:22160671

  7. Structural interconversions modulate activity of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Nozomi; Brignole, Edward J.; Zimanyi, Christina M.; Funk, Michael A.; Yokoyama, Kenichi; Asturias, Francisco J.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Essential for DNA biosynthesis and repair, ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) convert ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides via radical-based chemistry. Although long known that allosteric regulation of RNR activity is vital for cell health, the molecular basis of this regulation has been enigmatic, largely due to a lack of structural information about how the catalytic subunit (?2) and the radical-generation subunit (?2) interact. Here we present the first structure of a complex between ?2 and ?2 subunits for the prototypic RNR from Escherichia coli. Using four techniques (small-angle X-ray scattering, X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, and analytical ultracentrifugation), we describe an unprecedented ?4?4 ring-like structure in the presence of the negative activity effector dATP and provide structural support for an active ?2?2 configuration. We demonstrate that, under physiological conditions, E. coli RNR exists as a mixture of transient ?2?2 and ?4?4 species whose distributions are modulated by allosteric effectors. We further show that this interconversion between ?2?2 and ?4?4 entails dramatic subunit rearrangements, providing a stunning molecular explanation for the allosteric regulation of RNR activity in E. coli. PMID:22160671

  8. Rapid Method for Escherichia coli in the Cuyahoga River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Amie M.G.

    2007-01-01

    This study is a continuation of a previous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project in cooperation with the National Park Service at Cuyahoga Valley National Park in Brecksville, Ohio. A rapid (1-hour) method for detecting Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water was tested and compared to the standard (24-hour) method for determining E. coli concentrations. Environmental data were collected to determine turbidity, rainfall, and streamflow at the time of sampling. In the previous study (2004-5), data collected were used to develop predictive models to determine recreational water quality in the river at two sites within the park. Data collected during this continued study (2006) were used to test these models. At Jaite, a centrally located site within the park, the model correctly predicted exceedances or nonexceedances of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency maximum for recreational water quality in 80 percent of samples. At Old Portage, a site near the upstream boundary of the park, the model correctly predicted recreational water quality in 58 percent of samples. All of the data collected in 2004-6 will be used to develop more accurate models for use in future studies. Analysis and discussion of model results are scheduled to be included in an upcoming USGS Scientific Investigations Report.

  9. Proteome reallocation in Escherichia coli with increasing specific growth rate.

    PubMed

    Peebo, Karl; Valgepea, Kaspar; Maser, Andres; Nahku, Ranno; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-04-01

    Cells usually respond to changing growth conditions with a change in the specific growth rate (?) and adjustment of their proteome to adapt and maintain metabolic efficiency. Description of the principles behind proteome resource allocation is important for understanding metabolic regulation in response to changing ?. Thus, we analysed the proteome resource allocation dynamics of Escherichia coli into different metabolic processes in response to changing ?. E. coli was grown on minimal and defined rich media in steady state continuous cultures at different ? and characterised combining two LC-MS/MS-based proteomics methods: stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and intensity based label-free absolute quantification. We detected slowly growing cells investing more proteome resources in energy generation and carbohydrate transport and metabolism whereas for achieving faster growth cells needed to devote most resources to translation and processes closely related to the protein synthesis pipeline. Furthermore, down-regulation of energy generation and carbohydrate metabolism proteins with faster growth displayed very similar expression dynamics with the global transcriptional regulator CRP (cyclic AMP receptor protein), pointing to a dominant protein resource allocating role of this protein. Our data also suggest that acetate overflow may be the result of global proteome resource optimisation as cells saved proteome resources by switching from fully respiratory to respiro-fermentative growth. The presented results give a quantitative overview of how E. coli adjusts its proteome to achieve faster growth and in future could contribute to the design of more efficient cell factories through proteome optimisation. PMID:25712329

  10. The D-allose operon of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C; Song, S; Park, C

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 can utilize D-allose, an all-cis hexose, as a sole carbon source. The operon responsible for D-allose metabolism was localized at 92.8 min of the E. coli linkage map. It consists of six genes, alsRBACEK, which are inducible by D-allose and are under the control of the repressor gene alsR. This operon is also subject to catabolite repression. Three genes, alsB, alsA, and alsC, appear to be necessary for transport of D-allose. D-Allose-binding protein, encoded by alsB, is a periplasmic protein that has an affinity for D-allose, with a Kd of 0.33 microM. As was found for other binding-protein-mediated ABC transporters, the allose transport system includes an ATP-binding component (AlsA) and a transmembrane protein (AlsC). It was found that AlsE (a putative D-allulose-6-phosphate 3-epimerase), but not AlsK (a putative D-allose kinase), is necessary for allose metabolism. During this study, we observed that the D-allose transporter is partially responsible for the low-affinity transport of D-ribose and that strain W3110, an E. coli prototroph, has a defect in the transport of D-allose mediated by the allose permease. PMID:9401019

  11. Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli for the Production of Xylonate

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yujin; Xian, Mo; Zou, Huibin; Zhang, Haibo

    2013-01-01

    Xylonate is a valuable chemical for versatile applications. Although the chemical synthesis route and microbial conversion pathway were established decades ago, no commercial production of xylonate has been obtained so far. In this study, the industrially important microorganism Escherichia coli was engineered to produce xylonate from xylose. Through the coexpression of a xylose dehydrogenase (xdh) and a xylonolactonase (xylC) from Caulobacter crescentus, the recombinant strain could convert 1 g/L xylose to 0.84 g/L xylonate and 0.10 g/L xylonolactone after being induced for 12 h. Furthermore, the competitive pathway for xylose catabolism in E. coli was blocked by disrupting two genes (xylA and xylB) encoding xylose isomerase and xylulose kinase. Under fed-batch conditions, the finally engineered strain produced up to 27.3 g/L xylonate and 1.7 g/L xylonolactone from 30 g/L xylose, about 88% of the theoretical yield. These results suggest that the engineered E. coli strain has a promising perspective for large-scale production of xylonate. PMID:23861757

  12. Characterization of lambda Escherichia coli hybrids carrying chemotaxis genes.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, M; Matsumura, P; Hilmen, M; Simon, M

    1977-01-01

    Molecular cloning techniques were used to construct hybrid Escherichia coli lambda phage and isolate Col E1 factors that carried the cheB region of the E. coli genome. The products of these genes were examined by using a series of deletions in the phage to stimulate specific polypeptide synthesis in ultraviolet-irradiated cells and by using Col factor to program protein synthesis in minicells. Seven flagellar related polypeptides were synthesized. Three of these with apparent molecular weights of 38,000, 28,000, and 8,000 were associated with the cheB region; three polypeptides 63,000, 61,000, and 60,000 were associated with the region that maps between cheB and cheA. These bands were referred to as the triplet group. We suggest that these polypeptides are the same as the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein described by Kort et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:3939-3943, 1975). Another polypeptide with a molecular weight of 12,000 is associated with the cheA region which also produces at least three gene products. We conclude that the cheA-cheB region in E. coli is complex. Further genetic and biochemical analyses are required to describe all of these products. Images PMID:233725

  13. Dissecting the Escherichia coli periplasmic chaperone network using differential proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Vertommen, Didier; Silhavy, Thomas J.; Collet, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    ?-barrel proteins, or outer membrane proteins (OMPs), perform many essential functions in Gram-negative bacteria, but questions remain about the mechanism by which they are assembled into the outer membrane (OM). In Escherichia coli, ?-barrels are escorted across the periplasm by chaperones, most notably SurA and Skp. However, the contributions of these two chaperones to the assembly of the OM proteome remained unclear. We used differential proteomics to determine how the elimination of Skp and SurA affects the assembly of many OMPs. We have shown that removal of Skp has no impact on the levels of the 63 identified OM proteins. However, depletion of SurA in the skp strain has a marked impact on the OM proteome, diminishing the levels of almost all ?-barrel proteins. Our results are consistent with a model in which SurA plays a primary chaperone role in E. coli. Furthermore, they suggest that while no OMPs prefer the Skp chaperone pathway in wild-type cells, most can use Skp efficiently when SurA is absent. Our data, which provide a unique glimpse into the protein content of the non-viable surA skp mutant, clarify the roles of the periplasmic chaperones in E. coli. PMID:22589188

  14. Identification of F11 fimbriae on chicken Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, J F; Hendriks, J H; Gladigau, I; Willems, H M; Storm, P K; de Graaf, F K

    1993-01-01

    Fimbriae were purified from Escherichia coli strains isolated from chickens with septicemia or colibacillosis. When grown on solid media, these strains expressed fimbriae with an apparent subunit molecular mass of 18 kDa. Morphological, biochemical, serological, functional, and molecular characterization revealed that these 18-kDa fimbriae are identical to F11 fimbriae, which were previously found to be involved in the pathogenesis of human urinary tract infection. Screening of a large strain collection showed that 78% of chicken E. coli strains expressed F11 fimbriae, whereas this percentage increased to 96% when the only strains taken into account were those with the serotypes most commonly encountered in avian colibacillosis (O1:K1, O2:K1, O35, and O78:K80). The prevalence of F11 fimbrial expression appeared to be independent of the country of isolation of the strains, except for the United States, where the prevalence seemed higher. Expression of F11 fimbriae by chicken E. coli strains could not be correlated with adherence to chicken tracheal or pharyngeal cells. Images PMID:8094382

  15. Quantification of persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in contrasting soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 in the environment is a major concern to vegetable and fruit growers where farms and livestock production are in close proximity. The objectives were to determine the effects of preplant fumigation treatment on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in two ...

  16. Diet, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and cattle: A review after 10 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli are commensal bacteria that can account for up to 1% of the bacterial population of the gut. Ruminant animals are reservoirs of the pathogenic bacteria E. coli O157:H7, and approximately 30% of feedlot cattle shed E. coli O157:H7. Feedlot and high-producing dairy cattle are fed hi...

  17. Detection of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in Fecal Samples in Meat Goats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Ray; Madden, Uford; Brooks-Walter, Alexis

    2004-01-01

    Studies have reported the isolation of Escherichia coli (E. coli)O157:H7 from pork, lamb and poultry products, and from other animals including deer, horses, dogs, birds and humans. There is limited or no information on the presence of the organism in goats. The objectives of this study were to determine if E. coli O157:H7 was naturally occurring…

  18. Comparison of whole genome sequences from human and non-human Escherichia coli O26 strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 is the second leading E. coli serogroup responsible for human illness outbreaks behind E. coli O157:H7. Recent outbreaks have been linked to emerging pathogenic O26:H11 strains harboring stx2 only. Cattle have been recognized as an important reserv...

  19. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance to enrofloxacin in uropathogenic Escherichia coli in dog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) urinary tract infections (UTIs) are becoming a serious problem both for pets and humans (zoonosis) due to the close contact and to the increasing resistance to antibiotics. Canine E. coli represents a good experimental model useful to study this pathology. Moreover, as des...

  20. A glimpse of Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in soils from eastern China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is an important food-borne pathogen, which continues to be a major public health concern worldwide. It is known that E. coli O157:H7 survive in soil environment might result in the contamination of fresh produce or water source. To investigate how the soils...

  1. Dietary interactions and interventions affecting Escherichia coli 0157 colonization and shedding in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157 is an important foodborne pathogen affecting human health and the beef cattle industry. Contamination of carcasses at slaughter is correlated to the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle feces. Many associations have been made between dietary factors and E. coli O157 prevalenc...

  2. SURVIVAL OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 IN SOIL AND ON LETTUCE AFTER FUMIGATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term persistence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 in soil and in the rhizosphere of many crops is relatively unknown. Many groups have voiced concerns about the safety of land application of manure and the potential for food and water contamination by E. coli O157:H7 from agricultural runo...

  3. SENSITIVE DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 BY THE USE OF IMMUNOMAGNETIC AND FLUORESCENT BEADS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To meet the needs of food safety, a rapid and sensitive fluorescent sandwich method for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef was developed. Immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) coated with anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibodies were used to capture and concentrate E. coli O157:H7 present in gro...

  4. Detection of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in Fecal Samples in Meat Goats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Ray; Madden, Uford; Brooks-Walter, Alexis

    2004-01-01

    Studies have reported the isolation of Escherichia coli (E. coli)O157:H7 from pork, lamb and poultry products, and from other animals including deer, horses, dogs, birds and humans. There is limited or no information on the presence of the organism in goats. The objectives of this study were to determine if E. coli O157:H7 was naturally occurring…

  5. Proteomic differences between Escherichia coli strains that cause transient versus persistent intramammary infections [abstract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli is a leading cause of bacterial mastitis in dairy cattle. Typically this infection is transient in nature and lasts 2-3 days. However, in a minority of cases, E. coli can cause a persistent intramammary infection. The mechanisms that enable certain strains of E. coli to cause a p...

  6. A homolog of an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, C. M.; White, F. F.; Heaton, L. A.; Guikema, J. A.; Leach, J. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae gene with sequence similarity to an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene (phoS) produces a periplasmic protein of apparent M(r) 35,000 when expressed in E. coli. Amino terminal sequencing revealed that a signal peptide is removed during transport to the periplasm in E. coli.

  7. Diet, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, and cattle, a review after 10 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli are commensal bacteria that can account for up to 1% of the bacterial population of the gut. Ruminant animals are reservoirs of the pathogenic bacteria E. coli strain O157:H7 and approximately 30% of feedlot cattle shed E. coli O157:H7. Feedlot and high-producing dairy cattle are ...

  8. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 strains in agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 serogroups are known to cause serious diseases in human. However, research on the persistence of E. coli non-O157 serogroups in preharvest environment is limited. In the current study, we compared the survival behavior of E. coli O157 to that ...

  9. Mouse in vivo neutralization of Escherichia coli Shiga toxin 2 with monoclonal antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) food contaminations pose serious health and food safety concerns, and have been the subject of massive food recalls. Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-producing E. coli has been identified as the major cause of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), the most severe di...

  10. Escherichia coli O157:H7, diet, and fecal microbiome in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, such as E. coli O157:H7, are foodborne zoonotic pathogens that can cause severe illness and death in humans. The gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals has been identified as a primary habitat for E. coli O157:H7, and in cattle the terminal gastrointestinal tra...

  11. Diet, fecal microbiome and Escherichia coli O157:H7 shedding in beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, such as E. coli O157:H7, are foodborne zoonotic pathogens that can cause severe illness and death in humans. The gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals has been identified as a primary habitat for E. coli O157:H7, and in cattle the terminal gastrointestinal tra...

  12. Antibacterial Mode of Action of Cinnamomum verum Bark Essential Oil, Alone and in Combination with Piperacillin, Against a Multi-Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strain.

    PubMed

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Krishnan, Thiba; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of the cinnamon bark essential oil (CB), when used singly and also in combination with piperacillin, for its antimicrobial and synergistic activity against beta-lactamase TEM-1 plasmid-conferred Escherichia coli J53 R1. Viable count of this combination showed a complete killing profile at 20 h and further confirmed its synergistic effect by reducing the bacteria cell numbers. Analysis on the stability of treated cultures for cell membrane permeability by CB when tested against sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed that the bacterial cell membrane was disrupted by the essential oils. Scanning electron microscopy observation and bacterial surface charge measurement also revealed that CB causes irreversible membrane damage and reduces the bacterial surface charge. In addition, bioluminescence expression of Escherichia coli [pSB1075] and E. coli [pSB401] by CB showed reduction, indicating the possibility of the presence of quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. Gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry of the essential oil of Cinnamomum verum showed that trans-cinnamaldehyde (72.81%), benzyl alcohol (12.5%), and eugenol (6.57%) were the major components in the essential oil. From this study, CB has the potential to reverse E. coli J53 R1 resistance to piperacillin through two pathways; modification in the permeability of the outer membrane or bacterial QS inhibition. PMID:25381741

  13. Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 reduces growth, Shiga toxin expression, release and thus cytotoxicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Mashkoor; Guenther, Sebastian; Schierack, Peter; Tedin, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H

    2015-01-01

    Due to increased release or production of Shiga toxin by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) after exposure to antimicrobial agents, the role of antimicrobial agents in EHEC mediated infections remains controversial. Probiotics are therefore rapidly gaining interest as an alternate therapeutic option. The well-known probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) was tested in vitro to determine its probiotic effects on growth, Shiga toxin (Stx) gene expression, Stx amount and associated cytotoxicity on the most important EHEC strains of serotype O104:H4 and O157:H7. Following co-culture of EcN:EHEC in broth for 4 and 24 h, the probiotic effects on EHEC growth, toxin gene expression, Stx amount and cytotoxicity were determined using quantitative real time-PCR, Stx-ELISA and Vero cytotoxicity assays. Probiotic EcN strongly reduced EHEC numbers (cfu) of O104:H4 up to (68%) and O157:H7 to (72.2%) (p<0.05) in LB broth medium whereas the non-probiotic E. coli strain MG1655 had no effect on EHEC growth. The level of stx expression was significantly down-regulated, particularly for the stx2a gene. The stx down-regulation in EcN co-culture was not due to reduced numbers of EHEC. A significant inhibition in Stx amounts and cytotoxicity were also observed in sterile supernatants of EcN:EHEC co-cultures. These findings indicate that probiotic EcN displays strong inhibitory effects on growth, Shiga toxin gene expression, amount and cytotoxicity of EHEC strains. Thus, EcN may be considered as a putative therapeutic candidate, in particular against EHEC O104:H4 and O157:H7. PMID:25465158

  14. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Other E. coli Strains Share Physiological Properties Associated with Intestinal Colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli isolates(72 commensal and 10 O157:H7 isolates) were compared with regard to physiological and growth parameters related to their ability to survive and persist in the gastrointestinal tract and found to be similar. We propose that in nonhuman hosts E. coli O157:H7 strains function ...

  15. Escherichia coli capsule bacteriophages. IV. Primary structure of the bacteriophage 29 receptor, the E. coli serotype 29 capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Y M; Fehmel, F; Frank, N; Stirm, S

    1975-01-01

    Using periodate oxidation, methylation analysis, characterization of oligosaccharides by Smith degradation or partial acid hydrolysis, as well as proton magnetic resonance, the primary structure of the Escherichia coli serotype 29 capsular polysaccharide (the receptor of E. coli K phage 29) was reinvestigated. The polymer was found to consist of hexasaccharide repeating units of the following structure: (see article). Images PMID:169391

  16. Escherichia coli and the Emergence of Molecular Biology.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, Agnes

    2011-12-01

    The creation of the "Phage group" by M. Delbrück, S. E. Luria, and A. D. Hershey in 1940 at Cold Spring Harbor played a crucial role in the development of molecular biology. In the 1940s, working with Escherichia coli and its viruses, Luria and Delbrück discovered the spontaneous nature of bacterial mutations and Hershey described recombination in bacteriophages and demonstrated with M. Chase that the genetic material that infects bacteria is DNA. At the same time, S. Benzer defined the structure of a functional genetic unit and J. Lederberg and E. Tatum discovered sexual recombination between bacteria. Some years later, Lederberg's group discovered extrachromosomal particles, the plasmids, and a novel way of genetic transfer through bacteriophages, called transduction. In 1949, at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, A. Lwoff uncovered the mechanism of lysogeny. Shortly afterwards, F. Jacob and E. Wollman unraveled the mechanism of the sexual process in E. coli and established the circularity of the bacterial chromosome. In the 1960s, J. Monod and F. Jacob, by genetic analysis of the E. coli lactose system, proposed the operon model for gene regulation and introduced the concept of messenger RNA. The elucidation of the double helix structure of DNA in 1953 by F. Crick and J. Watson had major consequences: the establishment of the copying mechanism (Meselson and Stahl), the discovery of the nature of the genetic code (S. Brenner) leading to its deciphering. E. coli and its phages were instrumental in the development of recombinant DNA technology based on the discovery of the restriction-modification system by W. Arber. PMID:26442505

  17. An end-joining repair mechanism in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chayot, Romain; Montagne, Benjamin; Mazel, Didier; Ricchetti, Miria

    2010-01-01

    Bridging broken DNA ends via nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) contributes to the evolution and stability of eukaryote genomes. Although some bacteria possess a simplified NHEJ mechanism, the human commensal Escherichia coli is thought to rely exclusively on homology-directed mechanisms to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We show here that laboratory and pathogenic E. coli strains possess a distinct end-joining activity that repairs DSBs and generates genome rearrangements. This mechanism, named alternative end-joining (A-EJ), does not rely on the key NHEJ proteins Ku and Ligase-D which are absent in E. coli. Differently from classical NHEJ, A-EJ is characterized by extensive end-resection largely due to RecBCD, by overwhelming usage of microhomology and extremely rare DNA synthesis. We also show that A-EJ is dependent on the essential Ligase-A and independent on Ligase-B. Importantly, mutagenic repair requires a functional Ligase-A. Although generally mutagenic, accurate A-EJ also occurs and is frequent in some pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, we show the acquisition of an antibiotic-resistance gene via A-EJ, refuting the notion that bacteria gain exogenous sequences only by recombination-dependent mechanisms. This finding demonstrates that E. coli can integrate unrelated, nonhomologous exogenous sequences by end-joining and it provides an alternative strategy for horizontal gene transfer in the bacterial genome. Thus, A-EJ contributes to bacterial genome evolution and adaptation to environmental challenges. Interestingly, the key features of A-EJ also appear in A-NHEJ, an alternative end-joining mechanism implicated in chromosomal translocations associated with human malignancies, and we propose that this mutagenic repair might have originated in bacteria. PMID:20133858

  18. Production of bioactive chicken follistatin315 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Beum; Choi, Rocky; Park, Sung Kwon; Kim, Yong Soo

    2014-12-01

    Follistatin (FST) binds to myostatin (MSTN), a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Inhibition of MSTN activity by FST treatment has shown to enhance muscle growth as well as ameliorate symptoms of muscular dystrophy in animal models, illustrating the potential of FST as an agent to enhance muscle growth in animal agriculture or to treat muscle wasting conditions or disease in humans. Therefore, we designed a study to produce biologically active recombinant chicken FST315 (chFST315) in an Escherichia coli host. Since FST contains multiple intramolecular disulfide bonds, we expressed chFST315 protein in either a system that utilizes a periplasmic expression strategy, or a genetically modified E. coli system (SHuffle strain) that is capable of disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm. Periplasmic expression of chFST315 using the pMAL-p5x vector system, which was designed to express maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion protein, failed to produce a soluble recombinant protein. However, cytoplasmic expression of chFST315 using pMAL-c5x vector in SHuffle E. coli strain resulted in a soluble expression of the recombinant protein (MBP-chFST315). Combination of heparin and amylose resin affinity chromatography yielded about 6 mg/L purified MBP-chFST315. The purified MBP-chFST315 showed binding affinity to MSTN and activin in a pull-down assay, as well as inhibited MSTN and activin activity in an in vitro reporter gene assay. In conclusion, results of the study demonstrate that for the first time a recombinant, biologically active FST molecule can be produced in a soluble form in E. coli. The ability to produce FST in a cost-effective system is expected to allow us to investigate the potentials of FST as an agent to improve skeletal muscle growth of meat producing animals via suppression of MSTN. PMID:25411099

  19. Source and regulation of flux variability in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic responses are essential for the adaptation of microorganisms to changing environmental conditions. The repertoire of flux responses that the metabolic network can display in different external conditions may be quantified applying flux variability analysis to genome-scale metabolic reconstructions. Results A procedure is developed to classify and quantify the sources of flux variability. We apply the procedure to the latest Escherichia coli metabolic reconstruction, in glucose minimal medium, with an additional constraint to account for the mechanism coordinating carbon and nitrogen utilization mediated by ?-ketoglutarate. Flux variability can be decomposed into three components: internal, external and growth variability. Unexpectedly, growth variability is the only significant component of flux variability in the physiological ranges of glucose, oxygen and ammonia uptake rates. To obtain substantial increases in metabolic flexibility, E. coli must decrease growth rate to suboptimal values. This growth-flexibility trade-off gives a straightforward interpretation to recent work showing that most overall cell-to-cell flux variability in a population of E. coli can be attained sampling a small number of enzymes most likely to constrain cell growth. Importantly, it provides an explanation for the global reorganization occurring in metabolic networks during adaptations to environmental challenges. The calculations were repeated with a pathogenic strain and an old reconstruction of the commensal strain, having less than 50% of the reactions of the latest reconstruction, obtaining the same general conclusions. Conclusions In E. coli growing on glucose, growth variability is the only significant component of flux variability for all physiological conditions explored. Increasing flux variability requires reducing growth to suboptimal values. The growth-flexibility trade-off operates in physiological and evolutionary adaptations, and provides an explanation for the global reorganization occurring during adaptations to environmental challenges. The results obtained do not rely on the knowledge of kinetic and regulatory details of the system and are highly robust to incomplete or incorrect knowledge of the reaction network. PMID:24927772

  20. A structural view of the dissociation of Escherichia coli tryptophanase.

    PubMed

    Green, Keren; Qasim, Nasrin; Gdaelvsky, Garik; Kogan, Anna; Goldgur, Yehuda; Parola, Abraham H; Lotan, Ofra; Almog, Orna

    2015-12-01

    Tryptophanase (Trpase) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent homotetrameric enzyme which catalyzes the degradation of L-tryptophan. Trpase is also known for its cold lability, which is a reversible loss of activity at low temperature (2°C) that is associated with the dissociation of the tetramer. Escherichia coli Trpase dissociates into dimers, while Proteus vulgaris Trpase dissociates into monomers. As such, this enzyme is an appropriate model to study the protein-protein interactions and quaternary structure of proteins. The aim of the present study was to understand the differences in the mode of dissociation between the E. coli and P. vulgaris Trpases. In particular, the effect of mutations along the molecular axes of homotetrameric Trpase on its dissociation was studied. To answer this question, two groups of mutants of the E. coli enzyme were created to resemble the amino-acid sequence of P. vulgaris Trpase. In one group, residues 15 and 59 that are located along the molecular axis R (also termed the noncatalytic axis) were mutated. The second group included a mutation at position 298, located along the molecular axis Q (also termed the catalytic axis). Replacing amino-acid residues along the R axis resulted in dissociation of the tetramers into monomers, similar to the P. vulgaris Trpase, while replacing amino-acid residues along the Q axis resulted in dissociation into dimers only. The crystal structure of the V59M mutant of E. coli Trpase was also determined in its apo form and was found to be similar to that of the wild type. This study suggests that in E. coli Trpase hydrophobic interactions along the R axis hold the two monomers together more strongly, preventing the dissociation of the dimers into monomers. Mutation of position 298 along the Q axis to a charged residue resulted in tetramers that are less susceptible to dissociation. Thus, the results indicate that dissociation of E. coli Trpase into dimers occurs along the molecular Q axis. PMID:26627645

  1. SILAC-based comparative analysis of pathogenic Escherichia coli secretomes.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Anders; Borch, Jonas; Krogh, Thøger Jensen; Hjernø, Karin; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    Comparative studies of pathogenic bacteria and their non-pathogenic counterparts has led to the discovery of important virulence factors thereby generating insight into mechanisms of pathogenesis. Protein-based antigens for vaccine development are primarily selected among unique virulence-related factors produced by the pathogen of interest. However, recent work indicates that proteins that are not unique to the pathogen but instead selectively expressed compared to its non-pathogenic counterpart could also be vaccine candidates or targets for drug development. Modern methods in quantitative proteome analysis have the potential to discover both classes of proteins and hence form an important tool for discovering therapeutic targets. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are pathogenic variants of E. coli which cause intestinal disease in humans. AIEC is associated with Crohn's disease (CD), a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract whereas ETEC is the major cause of human diarrhea which affects hundreds of millions annually. In spite of the disease burden associated with these pathogens, effective vaccines conferring long-term protection are still needed. In order to identify proteins with therapeutic potential, we have used mass spectrometry-based Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) quantitative proteomics method which allows us to compare the proteomes of pathogenic strains to commensal E. coli. In this study, we grew the pathogenic strains ETEC H10407, AIEC LF82 and the non-pathogenic reference strain E. coli K-12 MG1655 in parallel and used SILAC to compare protein levels in OMVs and culture supernatant. We have identified well-known virulence factors from both AIEC and ETEC, thus validating our experimental approach. In addition we find proteins that are not unique to the pathogenic strains but expressed at levels different from the commensal strain, including the colonization factor YghJ and the surface adhesin antigen 43, which is involved in pathogenesis of other Gram-negative bacteria. The described method provides a framework for further understanding E. coli pathogenesis but can also be applied to interrogate relative protein expression levels of other pathogens that have non-pathogenic counterparts thereby facilitating the discovery of new vaccine targets. PMID:26143086

  2. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Other E. coli Strains Share Physiological Properties Associated with Intestinal Colonization? †

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Lisa; Durso, Lisa; Conway, Tyrell; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

    2009-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates (72 commensal and 10 O157:H7 isolates) were compared with regard to physiological and growth parameters related to their ability to survive and persist in the gastrointestinal tract and found to be similar. We propose that nonhuman hosts in E. coli O157:H7 strains function similarly to other E. coli strains in regard to attributes relevant to gastrointestinal colonization. PMID:19411408

  3. Molecular Epidemiological and Phylogenetic Associations of Two Novel Putative Virulence Genes, iha and iroNE. coli, among Escherichia coli Isolates from Patients with Urosepsis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, James R.; Russo, Thomas A.; Tarr, Phillip I.; Carlino, Ulrike; Bilge, Sima S.; Vary, James C.; Stell, Adam L.

    2000-01-01

    Two novel putative Escherichia coli virulence genes, iha and iroN from E. coli (iroNE. coli), were detected in 55 and 39%, respectively, of 67 E. coli isolates from patients with urosepsis. iha and iroNE. coli exhibited divergent associations with other putative virulence genes, phylogenetic markers, host characteristics, and antimicrobial resistance. PMID:10769012

  4. Detergent (sodium dodecyl sulfate) shock proteins in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Adamowicz, M.; Kelley, P.M.; Nickerson, K.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The protein composition of Escherichia coli W3110 grown in the presence and absence of 5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In SDS-grown cells, at least 4 proteins were turned on, 13 were turned off, 15 were elevated, and 15 were depressed. The 19 unique and elevated SDS-induced spots constituted 7.91% of the total 35S-labeled protein. There was no apparent overlap between these 19 detergent (SDS) stress proteins and those of other known bacterial stress responses. The detergent stress stimulon is a distinct and independent stimulon. Its physiological relevance probably derives from the presence of bile salts in animal gastrointestinal tracts.

  5. Parallel Mapping of Antibiotic Resistance Alleles in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sophie J; Mansell, Thomas J; Mortazavi, Pooneh; Knight, Rob; Gill, Ryan T

    2016-01-01

    Chemical genomics expands our understanding of microbial tolerance to inhibitory chemicals, but its scope is often limited by the throughput of genome-scale library construction and genotype-phenotype mapping. Here we report a method for rapid, parallel, and deep characterization of the response to antibiotics in Escherichia coli using a barcoded genome-scale library, next-generation sequencing, and streamlined bioinformatics software. The method provides quantitative growth data (over 200,000 measurements) and identifies contributing antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility alleles. Using multivariate analysis, we also find that subtle differences in the population responses resonate across multiple levels of functional hierarchy. Finally, we use machine learning to identify a unique allelic and proteomic fingerprint for each antibiotic. The method can be broadly applied to tolerance for any chemical from toxic metabolites to next-generation biofuels and antibiotics. PMID:26771672

  6. Sensitivity of Escherichia coli to cephaloridine at different growth rates.

    PubMed Central

    Mathys, E; Van Gool, A

    1979-01-01

    Steady-state populations of Escherichia coli B/r were treated with cephaloridine at minimal inhibitory concentrations. The antibiotic sensitivity of the cells and the localization of spheroplast emergence along the cell surface were examined as a function of cell length and growth rate. In fast-growing populations (greater than 1 division per h) the sites of cephaloridine interaction occurred preferentially at the cell pole in the smaller cells and at the cell center in dividing cells. At decreasing growth rates the cells became more resistant to cephaloridine, and a gradual shift from the cell pole toward the cell center was observed for the sphere position. A similar growth rate-dependent change in localization was found for sucrose-induced plasmolysis vacuoles. PMID:35527

  7. Plasmolysis during the division cycle of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Olijhoek, A J; Van Eden, C G; Trueba, F J; Pas, E; Nanninga, N

    1982-01-01

    Cells of Escherichia coli were plasmolyzed with sucrose. They were classified according to length by way of electron micrographs taken from samples prepared by agar filtration. The percentage of plasmolyzed cells increased about two- and threefold between mean cell sizes of newborn and separating cells. However, dividing cells were less frequently plasmolyzed than nondividing cells of the same length class. Analysis of cell halves (prospective daughters) in dividing cells showed that they behaved as independent cellular units with respect to plasmolysis. The results indicate that compressibility of the protoplast (given a certain plasmolysis space) is inversely related to cell size. That a dividing cell does not react as one osmotic compartment to osmotic stress may suggest that cell size-dependent strength of the cell membrane-cell wall association, rather than variation in turgor, plays a role during the cell division cycle. Images PMID:6749814

  8. Programming a Pavlovian-like conditioning circuit in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haoqian; Lin, Min; Shi, Handuo; Ji, Weiyue; Huang, Longwen; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Shen, Shan; Gao, Rencheng; Wu, Shuke; Tian, Chengzhe; Yang, Zhenglin; Zhang, Guosheng; He, Siheng; Wang, Hao; Saw, Tiffany; Chen, Yiwei; Ouyang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic genetic circuits are programmed in living cells to perform predetermined cellular functions. However, designing higher-order genetic circuits for sophisticated cellular activities remains a substantial challenge. Here we program a genetic circuit that executes Pavlovian-like conditioning, an archetypical sequential-logic function, in Escherichia coli. The circuit design is first specified by the subfunctions that are necessary for the single simultaneous conditioning, and is further genetically implemented using four function modules. During this process, quantitative analysis is applied to the optimization of the modules and fine-tuning of the interconnections. Analogous to classical Pavlovian conditioning, the resultant circuit enables the cells to respond to a certain stimulus only after a conditioning process. We show that, although the conditioning is digital in single cells, a dynamically progressive conditioning process emerges at the population level. This circuit, together with its rational design strategy, is a key step towards the implementation of more sophisticated cellular computing.

  9. Structure of the Cyclomodulin Cif from Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Y.; Jubelin, G; Taieb, F; Nougayrède, J; Oswald, E; Stebbins, C

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens have evolved a sophisticated arsenal of virulence factors to modulate host cell biology. Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) use a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) to inject microbial proteins into host cells. The T3SS effector cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) produced by EPEC and EHEC is able to block host eukaryotic cell-cycle progression. We present here a crystal structure of Cif, revealing it to be a divergent member of the superfamily of enzymes including cysteine proteases and acetyltransferases that share a common catalytic triad. Mutation of these conserved active site residues abolishes the ability of Cif to block cell-cycle progression. Finally, we demonstrate that irreversible cysteine protease inhibitors do not abolish the Cif cytopathic effect, suggesting that another enzymatic activity may underlie the biological activity of this virulence factor.

  10. Nucleoside triphosphate pools in synchronous cultures of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Huzyk, L; Clark, D J

    1971-10-01

    Endogenous nucleoside triphosphate pools in synchronized cultures of Escherichia coli B/r/1 oscillate as a function of age. Purine nucleoside triphosphates show a gradual 50% increase from zero age to the time of subsequent division, immediately prior to division. In contrast, pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates undergo a dramatic change of about 50% in the first half of the generation at a time coincident with the termination of a round of deoxyribonucleic acid replication. A 50 to 70% increase starts at the initiation of the next round of deoxyribonucleic acid replication and continues until cell division, in parallel with the purine nucleotides. The fluctuation of pyrimidines between zero age and the middle of the division cycle suggests a functional relationship for pyrimidine metabolism and the regulation of cell division. PMID:4941576

  11. Membrane protein production in Escherichia coli cell-free lysates.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Erik; Hein, Christopher; Dötsch, Volker; Bernhard, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Cell-free protein production has become a core technology in the rapidly spreading field of synthetic biology. In particular the synthesis of membrane proteins, highly problematic proteins in conventional cellular production systems, is an ideal application for cell-free expression. A large variety of artificial as well as natural environments for the optimal co-translational folding and stabilization of membrane proteins can rationally be designed. The high success rate of cell-free membrane protein production allows to focus on individually selected targets and to modulate their functional and structural properties with appropriate supplements. The efficiency and robustness of lysates from Escherichia coli strains allow a wide diversity of applications and we summarize current strategies for the successful production of high quality membrane protein samples. PMID:25937121

  12. Silencing of Escherichia coli bgl promoter by flanking sequence elements.

    PubMed Central

    Schnetz, K

    1995-01-01

    Silencing of a transcriptional unit by flanking sequence elements has so far only been described for eukaryotic systems. Here, a similar system is described in bacteria. The Escherichia coli bgl operon (beta-glucoside utilization) is normally cryptic due to very low promoter activity. However, low activity is not attributable to the quality of the promoter itself but is caused by its chromosomal context. The bgl promoter is perfectly active when tested outside of its normal context of a stretch of a few hundred base pairs. In addition, other promoters become inactivated when placed into the bgl region. Both the deletion of an upstream sequence element and the replacement of sequences located downstream result in promoter de-repression, demonstrating that silencing of promoters within this stretch of DNA in vivo is an active process brought about by the combined action of upstream and downstream chromosomal elements. Images PMID:7781607

  13. Selection and Neutrality in Lactose Operons of Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Dean, A. M.

    1989-01-01

    The kinetics of the permeases and ?-galactosidases of six lactose operons which had been transduced into a common genetic background from natural isolates of Escherichia coli were investigated. The fitnesses conferred by the operons were determined using chemostat competition experiments in which lactose was the sole growth-limiting factor. The cell wall is demonstrated to impose a resistance to the diffusion of galactosides at low substrate concentrations. A steady state model of the flux of lactose through the metabolic pathway (diffusion, uptake and hydrolysis) is shown to be proportional to fitness. This metabolic model is used to explain why an approximately twofold range in activity among the permease alleles confers a 13% range in fitness, whereas a similar range in activity among alleles of the ?-galactosidase confers a 0.5% range in fitness. This metabolic model implies that selection need not be maximized when a resource is scarce. PMID:2513251

  14. Chromosomal directionality of DNA mismatch repair in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hasan, A M Mahedi; Leach, David R F

    2015-07-28

    Defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) result in elevated mutagenesis and in cancer predisposition. This disease burden arises because MMR is required to correct errors made in the copying of DNA. MMR is bidirectional at the level of DNA strand polarity as it operates equally well in the 5' to 3' and the 3' to 5' directions. However, the directionality of MMR with respect to the chromosome, which comprises parental DNA strands of opposite polarity, has been unknown. Here, we show that MMR in Escherichia coli is unidirectional with respect to the chromosome. Our data demonstrate that, following the recognition of a 3-bp insertion-deletion loop mismatch, the MMR machinery searches for the first hemimethylated GATC site located on its origin-distal side, toward the replication fork, and that resection then proceeds back toward the mismatch and away from the replication fork. This study provides support for a tight coupling between MMR and DNA replication. PMID:26170312

  15. Parallel Mapping of Antibiotic Resistance Alleles in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Pooneh; Knight, Rob; Gill, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical genomics expands our understanding of microbial tolerance to inhibitory chemicals, but its scope is often limited by the throughput of genome-scale library construction and genotype-phenotype mapping. Here we report a method for rapid, parallel, and deep characterization of the response to antibiotics in Escherichia coli using a barcoded genome-scale library, next-generation sequencing, and streamlined bioinformatics software. The method provides quantitative growth data (over 200,000 measurements) and identifies contributing antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility alleles. Using multivariate analysis, we also find that subtle differences in the population responses resonate across multiple levels of functional hierarchy. Finally, we use machine learning to identify a unique allelic and proteomic fingerprint for each antibiotic. The method can be broadly applied to tolerance for any chemical from toxic metabolites to next-generation biofuels and antibiotics. PMID:26771672

  16. Intermediates in bacteriophage Mu lysogenization of Escherichia coli him hosts.

    PubMed Central

    Bourret, R B; Fox, M S

    1988-01-01

    Characterization of a putative intermediate in the Mu lysogenization pathway is possible in a variant Escherichia coli himD strain which exhibits greatly diminished lysogen formation. In this strain, most infecting Mu genomes form stable, transcribable, nonreplicating structures. Many of these genomes can be mobilized to form lysogens by a second Mu infection, which can be delayed by at least 100 min. This intermediate structure can be formed in the absence of Mu A or B function. We suggest that the inferred intermediate could be the previously reported protein-linked circular form of the Mu genome. Providing Mu B function from a plasmid enhances Mu lysogenization in this him strain, and the enhancement is much greater when both Mu A and B functions are provided. PMID:2965143

  17. Dissection and engineering of the Escherichia coli formate hydrogenlyase complex.

    PubMed

    McDowall, Jennifer S; Hjersing, M Charlotte; Palmer, Tracy; Sargent, Frank

    2015-10-01

    The Escherichia coli formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex is produced under fermentative conditions and couples formate oxidation to hydrogen production. In this work, the architecture of FHL has been probed by analysing affinity-tagged complexes from various genetic backgrounds. In a successful attempt to stabilize the complex, a strain encoding a fusion between FdhF and HycB has been engineered and characterised. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis of the hycG gene was performed, which is predicted to encode a hydrogenase subunit important for regulating sensitivity to oxygen. This work helps to define the core components of FHL and provides solutions to improving the stability of the enzyme. PMID:26358294

  18. Failed escape: solid surfaces prevent tumbling of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Molaei, Mehdi; Barry, Michael; Stocker, Roman; Sheng, Jian

    2014-08-01

    Understanding how bacteria move close to surfaces is crucial for a broad range of microbial processes including biofilm formation, bacterial dispersion, and pathogenic infections. We used digital holographic microscopy to capture a large number (>10(3)) of three-dimensional Escherichia coli trajectories near and far from a surface. We found that within 20???m from a surface tumbles are suppressed by 50% and reorientations are largely confined to surface-parallel directions, preventing escape of bacteria from the near-surface region. A hydrodynamic model indicates that the tumble suppression is likely due to a surface-induced reduction in the hydrodynamic force responsible for the flagellar unbundling that causes tumbling. These findings imply that tumbling does not provide an effective means to escape trapping near surfaces. PMID:25148353

  19. Evidence of histidine phosphorylation in isocitrate lyase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Roberston, E.F.; Hoyt, J.C.; Reeves, H.C.

    1987-05-01

    Escherichia coli isocitrate lyase can be phosphorylated in vitro in an ATP-dependent reaction. Partially purified extracts were incubated with ..gamma..-/sup 32/P-ATP and analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by a Western blot and autoradiography. Radioactivity was associated with the lyase only when blotting was performed under alkaline conditions. This suggests that phosphate groups are attached to the lyase via an acid-labile P-N bond rather than a more stable P-O bond. Treatment of the lyase with diethyl pyrocarbonate, a histidine modifying agent, blocks incorporation of /sup 32/P-phosphate. Treatment with phosphoramidate, a histidine phosphorylating agent, alters the isoelectric point of the lyase suggesting that the enzyme can be phosphorylated at histidine residues. Loss of catalytic activity after treatment with potato acid phosphatase indicates that isocitrate lyase activity may be modulated by phosphorylation.

  20. Nucleotide phosphotransferase of Escherichia coli: purification by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Brunngraber, E F; Chargaff, E

    1977-01-01

    Improved extraction and purification procedures permit the isolation from Escherichia coli W cells of much larger quantities and of more highly purified preparations of nucleotide phosphotransferase. Of various affinity resins tested for efficiency of purification, columns of agarose/5'-AMP (AGAMP), type 3, proved the best. In this way a 300- to 450-fold purification of the enzyme was achieved in a few steps. The enzyme, which, as reported before, transfers organically bound phosphate to the 2' or 3' hydroxyls of nucleosides and nucleotides, was tested in its behavior toward a series of ribonucleosidonucleotides, namely, CpC, ApA, CpA, and ApC. All were phosphate acceptors, but a detailed comparative study of adenosine and cytidine, 5'-AMP and 5'-CMP, and ApA and ApC revealed peculiar specificities in the relative distribution of the phosphorylated products. PMID:198775

  1. Binding of lysozyme to common pili of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, J C; Ou, J T

    1979-01-01

    Common pili from Escherichia coli were found to bind hen egg white lysozyme. The binding was highly dependent on ionic strength, and the maximum binding occurred near an ionic strength of 0.02. The pili were aggregated by lysozyme, and this process could be followed by optical turbidity, electron microscopy, and coprecipitation. Near the maximum saturation of binding, one lysozyme molecule was bound by two pilus protein subunits. Electron micrographs of this aggregate indicated that they were paracrystalline structures. Piliated bacteria were more readily agglutinated by lysozyme than were nonpiliated bacteria. Since lysozyme is considered to be an antibacterial humoral factor and since pili are considered to be a colonization factor, the binding of lysozyme may represent an important bacterium-host interaction Images PMID:378948

  2. Collective THz dynamics in living Escherichia coli cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastiani, F.; Orecchini, A.; Paciaroni, A.; Jasnin, M.; Zaccai, G.; Moulin, M.; Haertlein, M.; De Francesco, A.; Petrillo, C.; Sacchetti, F.

    2013-10-01

    We have employed neutron Brillouin spectroscopy to study coherent collective density fluctuations in the biological macromolecular components of living Escherichia coli cells. To highlight the contribution of the macromolecular material alone, a suitably prepared mixture of light and heavy water was exploited to cancel the scattering length of intracellular water. The present results indicate that the cellular biomaterial sustains THz coherent density fluctuations, characterised by a propagating mode travelling at about 3600 m/s and by a localised mode at energies between 4 and 7 meV. A comparison with both hydration water and simpler biomolecules, such as proteins or DNA, brings further support to the idea that the dynamical coupling between biomolecular structures and biological water provides the delicate dynamical adaptation needed to achieve a full biological functionality. Finally, the behaviour of the damping factors of the observed collective modes strengthens the dynamical similarity of biological systems with glass-forming materials.

  3. Expanding the genetic code of Escherichia coli with phosphoserine.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Sung; Hohn, Michael J; Umehara, Takuya; Guo, Li-Tao; Osborne, Edith M; Benner, Jack; Noren, Christopher J; Rinehart, Jesse; Söll, Dieter

    2011-08-26

    O-Phosphoserine (Sep), the most abundant phosphoamino acid in the eukaryotic phosphoproteome, is not encoded in the genetic code, but synthesized posttranslationally. Here, we present an engineered system for specific cotranslational Sep incorporation (directed by UAG) into any desired position in a protein by an Escherichia coli strain that harbors a Sep-accepting transfer RNA (tRNA(Sep)), its cognate Sep-tRNA synthetase (SepRS), and an engineered EF-Tu (EF-Sep). Expanding the genetic code rested on reengineering EF-Tu to relax its quality-control function and permit Sep-tRNA(Sep) binding. To test our system, we synthesized the activated form of human mitogen-activated ERK activating kinase 1 (MEK1) with either one or two Sep residues cotranslationally inserted in their canonical positions (Sep(218), Sep(222)). This system has general utility in protein engineering, molecular biology, and disease research. PMID:21868676

  4. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Epigenetically Manipulate Host Cell Death Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengguo; Wang, Ming; Eisel, Florian; Tchatalbachev, Svetlin; Chakraborty, Trinad; Meinhardt, Andreas; Bhushan, Sudhanshu

    2016-04-01

    Urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) pathovars belong to the most frequent infections in human. It is well established that UPEC can subvert innate immune responses, but the role of UPEC in interfering with host cell death pathways is not known. Here, we show that UPEC abrogates activation of the host cell prosurvival protein kinase B signaling pathway, which results in the activation of mammalian forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors. Although FOXOs were localized in the nucleus and showed increased DNA-binding activity, no change in the expression levels of FOXO target genes were observed. UPEC can suppress BIM expression induced by LY249002, which results in attenuation of caspase 3 activation and blockage of apoptosis. Mechanistically, BIM expression appears to be epigenetically silenced by a decrease in histone 4 acetylation at the BIM promoter site. Taken together, these results suggest that UPEC can epigenetically silence BIM expression, a molecular switch that prevents apoptosis. PMID:26621912

  5. Overflow metabolism in Escherichia coli results from efficient proteome allocation.

    PubMed

    Basan, Markus; Hui, Sheng; Okano, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Zhongge; Shen, Yang; Williamson, James R; Hwa, Terence

    2015-12-01

    Overflow metabolism refers to the seemingly wasteful strategy in which cells use fermentation instead of the more efficient respiration to generate energy, despite the availability of oxygen. Known as the Warburg effect in the context of cancer growth, this phenomenon occurs ubiquitously for fast-growing cells, including bacteria, fungi and mammalian cells, but its origin has remained unclear despite decades of research. Here we study metabolic overflow in Escherichia coli, and show that it is a global physiological response used to cope with changing proteomic demands of energy biogenesis and biomass synthesis under different growth conditions. A simple model of proteomic resource allocation can quantitatively account for all of the observed behaviours, and accurately predict responses to new perturbations. The key hypothesis of the model, that the proteome cost of energy biogenesis by respiration exceeds that by fermentation, is quantitatively confirmed by direct measurement of protein abundances via quantitative mass spectrometry. PMID:26632588

  6. Metabolism of 6-aminonicotinic acid in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, J R; Pearcy, S C; Gholson, R K

    1977-01-01

    A late-log-phase culture of an Escherichia coli nadB pncA double mutant took up 6-[7-14C]aminonicotinic acid and excreted 6-[14C]aminonicotinamide. This mutant also accumulated intracellularly several radioactive compounds which have been tentatively identified as 6-amino analogs of compounds in the pyridine nucleotide cycle. It is concluded that 6-aminonicotinamide and 6-aminonicotinic acid probably exert at least a portion of their bacteriostatic effects by being metabolized, by the enzymes of the pyridine nucleotide cycle, to 6-aminonicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and 6-aminonicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These compounds are not electron acceptors and are known inhibitors of some pyridine nucleotide-linked dehydrogenases. PMID:19420

  7. Mutations determining generalized resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Thorbjarnardóttir, S H; Magnúsdóttir, R A; Eggertsson, G

    1978-04-25

    Mutations conferring resistance to low levels of kanamycin in Escherichia coli have been mapped at 3 locations: the unc locus (min. 83), a locus we have designated kanA (MIN. 72), close to strA (rpsL), and a locus at min. 86.5 previously discovered by Plate (1976) that we have designated ecfB. The unc and ecfB mutations are associated with defects in energy metabolism, while mutations at kanA may be in the gene coding for ribosomal protein S12 (rpsL). The three types of mutations cause cross resistance to a number of different aminoglycoside antibiotics and the effects of the mutations are cumulative in combination. PMID:353502

  8. Cervical epidural abscess following an Escherichia coli urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Shane C; Baker, Joseph F; Ellanti, Prasad; Synnott, Keith

    2014-01-01

    A previously healthy 64-year-old man developed an Escherichia coli spinal epidural abscess (SEA) isolated to the cervical vertebrae posturinary tract infection 9?days previously. He subsequently underwent emergent surgical decompression followed by a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotics. He is symptom free at 1-year follow-up. SEA is an uncommon condition. Even with modern surgical techniques and antimicrobial agents, the mortality remains significant. Intravenous drug use, spinal procedures and medical conditions such as diabetes, Crohn's disease and chronic renal failure are all known risk factors for SEA and the majority of cases are associated with at least one of these risk factors. The case report highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for this condition even in patients without established risk factors who present with red flag symptoms: back pain, fever and neurological deficit, as the consequences of a delayed diagnosis can be severe. PMID:24473426

  9. The effect of spatial structure on adaptation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Perfeito, Lilia; Pereira, M Inês; Campos, Paulo R A; Gordo, Isabel

    2008-02-23

    Populations of organisms are generally organized in a given spatial structure. However, the vast majority of population genetic studies are based on populations in which every individual competes globally. Here we use experimental evolution in Escherichia coli to directly test a recently made prediction that spatial structure slows down adaptation and that this cost increases with the mutation rate. This was studied by comparing populations of different mutation rates adapting to a liquid (unstructured) medium with populations that evolved in a Petri dish on solid (structured) medium. We find that mutators adapt faster to both environments and that adaptation is slower if there is spatial structure. We observed no significant difference in the cost of structure between mutator and wild-type populations, which suggests that clonal interference is intense in both genetic backgrounds. PMID:18029298

  10. Covert Operations of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli within the Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Jean M.; Eto, Danelle S.; Mulvey, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Entry into host cells is required for many bacterial pathogens to effectively disseminate within a host, avoid immune detection and cause disease. In recent years, many ostensibly extracellular bacteria have been shown to act as opportunistic intracellular pathogens. Among these are strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the primary causative agents of urinary tract infections (UTIs). UPEC are able to transiently invade, survive and multiply within the host cells and tissues constituting the urinary tract. Invasion of host cells by UPEC is promoted independently by distinct virulence factors, including cytotoxic necrotizing factor, Afa/Dr adhesins, and type 1 pili. Here we review the diverse mechanisms and consequences of host cell invasion by UPEC, focusing also on the impact of these processes on the persistence and recurrence of UTIs. PMID:15569242

  11. Engineering Escherichia coli to synthesize free fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Lennen, Rebecca M.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid metabolism has received significant attention as a route for producing high-energy density, liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleochemicals from renewable feedstocks. If microbes can be engineered to produce these compounds at yields that approach the theoretical limits of 0.3–0.4 g/g glucose, then processes can be developed to replace current petrochemical technologies. Here, we review recent metabolic engineering efforts to maximize production of free fatty acids (FFA) in Escherichia coli, the first step towards production of downstream products. To date, metabolic engineers have succeeded in achieving higher yields of FFA than any downstream products. Regulation of fatty acid metabolism and the physiological effects of fatty acid production will also be reviewed from the perspective of identifying future engineering targets. PMID:23102412

  12. Colicin V production by clinical isolates of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, D L; Falkiner, F R; Hardy, K G

    1981-01-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli isolated from random fecal samples, urines of hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients who had urinary tract infections, and blood of patients with septicemia were examined for colicin V production. The percentage of ColV+ strains isolated from blood (31.6%) or from urines of hospitalized patients with urinary tract infections (26.2%) was significantly greater (P less than 0.01) than the percentage isolated from feces (13.6%). The colicin V immunity determinant of ColV,I-K94 conferred immunity to 26% of the type V colicins produced by clinical isolates. Of the ColV+ strains studied, 63.6% produced at least one other type of colicin. PMID:7012013

  13. Regulation of Phospholipid Synthesis in Escherichia coli by Guanosine Tetraphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Merlie, John P.; Pizer, Lewis I.

    1973-01-01

    Phospholipid synthesis has been reported to be subject to stringent control in Escherichia coli. We present evidence that demonstrates a strict correlation between guanosine tetraphosphate accumulation and inhibition of phospholipid synthesis. In vivo experiments designed to examine the pattern of phospholipid labeling with 32P-inorganic phosphate and 32P-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate suggest that regulation must occur at the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase step. Assay of phospholipid synthesis by cell-free extracts and semipurified preparations revealed that guanosine tetraphosphate inhibits at least two enzymes specific for the biosynthetic pathway, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase as well as sn-glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatidyl transferase. These findings provide a biochemical basis for the stringent control of lipid synthesis as well as regulation of steady-state levels of phospholipid in growing cells. Images PMID:4583220

  14. High-resolution structure of the Escherichia coli ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Noeske, Jonas; Wasserman, Michael R.; Terry, Daniel S.; Altman, Roger B.; Blanchard, Scott C.; Cate, Jamie H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis by the ribosome is highly dependent on the ionic conditions in the cellular environment, but the roles of ribosome solvation remain poorly understood. Moreover, the function of modifications to ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins are unclear. Here we present the structure of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome to 2.4 Å resolution. The structure reveals details of the ribosomal subunit interface that are conserved in all domains of life, and suggest how solvation contributes to ribosome integrity and function. The structure also suggests how the conformation of ribosomal protein uS12 likely impacts its contribution to messenger RNA decoding. This structure helps to explain the phylogenetic conservation of key elements of the ribosome, including posttranscriptional and posttranslational modifications and should serve as a basis for future antibiotic development. PMID:25775265

  15. Phenotypic bistability in Escherichia coli's central carbon metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kotte, Oliver; Volkmer, Benjamin; Radzikowski, Jakub L; Heinemann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations in intracellular molecule abundance can lead to distinct, coexisting phenotypes in isogenic populations. Although metabolism continuously adapts to unpredictable environmental changes, and although bistability was found in certain substrate-uptake pathways, central carbon metabolism is thought to operate deterministically. Here, we combine experiment and theory to demonstrate that a clonal Escherichia coli population splits into two stochastically generated phenotypic subpopulations after glucose-gluconeogenic substrate shifts. Most cells refrain from growth, entering a dormant persister state that manifests as a lag phase in the population growth curve. The subpopulation-generating mechanism resides at the metabolic core, overarches the metabolic and transcriptional networks, and only allows the growth of cells initially achieving sufficiently high gluconeogenic flux. Thus, central metabolism does not ensure the gluconeogenic growth of individual cells, but uses a population-level adaptation resulting in responsive diversification upon nutrient changes. PMID:24987115

  16. Lipid dependence of diacylglycerol kinase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bohnenberger, E; Sandermann, H

    1983-05-16

    Diacylglycerol kinase apoprotein was purified from membranes of Escherichia coli K 12. The protein was catalytically inactive, but regained activity upon recombination with phospholipids, certain neutral lipids, or fatty acids. Activation proceeded with positive cooperativity and was independent of the exact chemical structure, bilayer arrangement or electrical charge of the lipid. The apoprotein was activated by lysophosphatidylethanolamine but not by lysophosphatidylcholine. 1-Monooleoylglycerol was an effective activator and substrate at the same time. The fluidity and the polarity of lipids appeared to be generally important for activation. Lipid polarity was estimated by a triacylglycerol/phosphatidylcholine-partitioning procedure. All lipids showing preferential association with triacylglycerol failed to activate the kinase apoprotein even in the presence of detergent. It is concluded that a defined hydrophilic/lipophilic balance of the lipid was required for the formation of a functional lipoprotein complex. PMID:6303781

  17. Effects of quinolones on nucleoid segregation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Georgopapadakou, N H; Bertasso, A

    1991-01-01

    The effects of quinolone antibiotics on nucleoid segregation in growing Escherichia coli were examined by using fleroxacin (Ro 23-6240, AM 833) as a prototype compound. At levels that were close to its MIC and induced growth arrest and filamentation, fleroxacin caused large nucleoids to appear in midcell, suggesting inhibition of nucleoid segregation. With increasing fleroxacin concentrations, nucleoids became progressively smaller, suggesting inhibition of DNA replication. Removal of fleroxacin restored normal cell and nucleoid morphology in filaments with large nucleoids but not in filaments with small nucleoids. The results are consistent with inhibition of chromosome decatenation at low quinolone concentrations (bacteriostatic effect) and DNA supercoiling at high concentrations (bactericidal effect). Images PMID:1810201

  18. Glutathione production by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing bifunctional glutathione synthetase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is an important bioactive substance applied widely in pharmaceutical and food industries. Due to the strong product inhibition in the GSH biosynthetic pathway, high levels of intracellular content, yield and productivity of GSH are difficult to achieve. Recently, a novel bifunctional GSH synthetase was identified to be less sensitive to GSH. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing gshF encoding the bifunctional glutathione synthetase of Streptococcus thermophilus was constructed for GSH production. In this study, efficient GSH production using this engineered strain was investigated. The cultivation process was optimized by controlling dissolved oxygen (DO), amino acid addition and glucose feeding. 36.8 mM (11.3 g/L) GSH were formed at a productivity of 2.06 mM/h when the amino acid precursors (75 mM each) were added and glucose was supplied as the sole carbon and energy source. PMID:26586402

  19. Theoretical Prediction of Disrupted Min Oscillation in Flattened Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Jeff B.; Zeto, Rene W.; Roundy, David

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of the Min-protein system help Escherichia coli regulate the process of cell division by identifying the center of the cell. While this system exhibits robust bipolar oscillations in wild-type cell shapes, recent experiments have shown that when the cells are mechanically deformed into wide, flattened out, irregular shapes, the spatial regularity of these oscillations breaks down. We employ widely used stochastic and deterministic models of the Min system to simulate cells with flattened shapes. The deterministic model predicts strong bipolar oscillations, in contradiction with the experimentally observed behavior, while the stochastic model, which is based on the same reaction-diffusion equations, predicts more spatially irregular oscillations. We further report simulations of flattened but more symmetric shapes, which suggest that the flattening and lateral expansion may contribute as much to the irregular oscillation behavior as the asymmetry of the cell shapes. PMID:26457805

  20. De novo biosynthesis of Gastrodin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yanfen; Yin, Hua; Bi, Huiping; Zhuang, Yibin; Liu, Tao; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-05-01

    Gastrodin, a phenolic glycoside, is the key ingredient of Gastrodia elata, a notable herbal plant that has been used to treat various conditions in oriental countries for centuries. Gastrodin is extensively used clinically for its sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties in China. Gastrodin is usually produced by plant extraction or chemical synthesis, which has many disadvantages. Herein, we report unprecedented microbial synthesis of gastrodin via an artificial pathway. A Nocardia carboxylic acid reductase, endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases and a Rhodiola glycosyltransferase UGT73B6 transformed 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, an intermediate of ubiquinone biosynthesis, into gastrodin in Escherichia coli. Pathway genes were overexpressed to enhance metabolic flux toward precursor 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol. Furthermore, the catalytic properties of the UGT73B6 toward phenolic alcohols were improved through directed evolution. The finally engineered strain produced 545mgl(-1) gastrodin in 48h. This work creates a new route to produce gastrodin, instead of plant extractions and chemical synthesis. PMID:26804288

  1. GLYCOLIC ACID OXIDATION BY ESCHERICHIA COLI ADAPTED TO GLYCOLATE.

    PubMed

    FURUYA, A; HAYASHI, J A

    1963-05-01

    Furuya, Akira (University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago) and James A. Hayashi. Glycolic acid oxidation by Escherichia coli adapted to glycolate. J. Bacteriol. 85:1124-1131. 1963.-A procedure is described for extraction and partial purification of glycolic acid oxidase from Escherichia coli adapted to grow on glycolate as the sole carbon source. Enzyme activity was assayed by oxygen uptake and by reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol. Glyoxylic acid was the product of glycolate oxidation by the enzyme. Enzyme activity, which diminishes rapidly on storage, shows a maximum at pH 6 to 7. We were unable to show any cofactor requirement. Compounds which inhibited glycolate oxidation and their order of inhibitory activity were: p-hydroxymercuribenzoate > sodium azide > iodoacetate and o-phenanthroline > ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Tests of enzyme specificity showed that the following compounds were oxidized, but at different rates: glycolate, d-lactate, l-lactate, dl-alpha-hydroxybutyrate, dl-malate, and dl-glycerate. Citrate, tartrate, and dl-beta-hydroxybutyrate were not oxidized. Potassium cyanide stimulated oxygen uptake when glycolate and lactate were oxidized. Whether the oxidations were due to different oxidases or to a single oxidase with a wide range of specificities was tested by observing the oxidation of glycolate, d-lactate, and l-lactate under various conditions. Ammonium sulfate fractionation of a crude extract did not change the relative ability to oxidize the three acids. However, the three oxidative capacities diminished at different rates during storage at 0 C for 6 days. The partially purified glycolic oxidase preparations were probably mixtures of several different oxidases. PMID:14044004

  2. ORIGIN AND PROPERTIES OF NATURALLY OCCURRING HAPTEN FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, R. L.; Finkelstein, R. A.; Haskins, W. T.; Landy, M.; Milner, K. C.; Ribi, E.; Stashak, P. W.

    1964-01-01

    Anacker, R. L. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Mont.), R. A. Finkelstein, W. T. Haskins, M. Landy, K. C. Milner, E. Ribi, and P. W. Stashak. Origin and properties of naturally occurring hapten from Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:1705–1720. 1964.—Haptens found in preparations of endotoxin and in fractions of disrupted cells, particularly one termed “native hapten,” which appeared to be associated with the protoplasm of cells rather than with cell walls, have been further investigated with a view to establishing their origin and composition as well as their host-reactive properties. For this purpose, cells from a smooth strain of Escherichia coli O111:B4 were either extracted directly or disrupted and separated into cell-wall and protoplasmic fractions. Haptens were obtained by gel filtration of endotoxins, by trichloroacetic acid extraction of protoplasm, and by a mild acid hydrolysis of endotoxin. Several lines of evidence indicated that native hapten originated in the protoplasm rather than by autolysis or degradation of cell-wall endotoxin during procedures employed in disruption. In gel diffusion and quantitative precipitin tests, no hapten was identical with endotoxin, but native hapten was serologically the most complex of the haptens and precipitated the most antibody. Native and acid haptens, on a weight basis, fixed about 1% of the quantity of complement fixed by homologous endotoxin. Haptens did not stimulate the production of antibodies in mice or rabbits and did not elicit endotoxic host reactions. Chemically, native hapten differed from endotoxin and from acid hapten in that it lacked phosphorus, heptose, long-chain fatty acids, and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate. These substances did not appear to be determinants of antigenic specificity, but they may provide necessary bonds for assembling hapten-like units into fully antigenic and toxic macromolecules. Images PMID:14240961

  3. Bloody coli: a Gene Cocktail in Escherichia coli O104:H4

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Fernando; Tobes, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A recent study published in mBio [Y. H. Grad et al., mBio 4(1):e00452-12, 2013] indicates that a rapid introgressive evolution has occurred in Escherichia coli O104:H4 by sequential acquisition of foreign genetic material involving pathogenicity traits. O104 genetic promiscuity cannot be readily explained by high population sizes. However, extensive interactions leading to cumulative assemblies of pathogenicity genes might be assured by small K-strategist populations exploiting particular intestinal niches. Next-generation sequencing technologies will be critical to detect particular “gene cocktails” as potentially pathogenic ensembles and to predict the risk of future outbreaks. PMID:23422408

  4. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, a heterogenous, underestimated and under-diagnosed E. coli pathotype in Iran.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Anis; Aslani, Mohammad Mehdi; Bouzari, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    The main features of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) pathogenesis include attachment of bacteria to the intestinal mucosa, production of various toxins and cytotoxins, and stimulation of mucosal inflammation. 'Virulence' genes encode these features. Comparison of different EAEC isolates has shown that the virulence gene content of these isolates varies considerably. The heterogeneity of EAEC strains was concluded from the results obtained from the volunteer as well as other studies. Although the underlying mechanism behind the apparent increase in O104:H4 virulence is not known, several bacterial factors have been implicated. In this review, the known virulence factors involved in pathogenesis of EAEC pathotype are summarized. PMID:24834248

  5. Transformation of serum-susceptible Escherichia coli O111 with p16Slux plasmid to allow for real-time monitoring of complement-based inactivation of bacterial growth in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Maye, S; Stanton, C; Fitzgerald, G F; Kelly, P M

    2016-01-01

    Complement activity has only recently been characterized in raw bovine milk. However, the activity of this component of the innate immune system was found to diminish as milk was subjected to heat or partitioning during cream separation. Detection of complement in milk relies on a bactericidal assay. This assay exploits the specific growth susceptibility of Escherichia coli O111 to the presence of complement. Practical application of the assay was demonstrated when a reduction in complement activity was recorded in the case of pasteurized and reduced-fat milks. This presented an opportunity to improve the functionality of the bactericidal assay by incorporating bioluminescence capability into the target organism. Following some adaptation, the strain was transformed by correctly integrating the p16Slux plasmid. Growth properties of the transformed strain of E. coli O111 were unaffected by the modification. The efficacy of the strain adaptation was correlated using the LINEST function analysis [r=0.966; standard error of prediction (SEy)=0.957] bioluminescence with that of bactericidal assay total plate counts within the range of 7.5 to 9.2 log cfu/mL using a combination of raw and processed milk samples. Importantly, the transformed E. coli O111 p16Slux strain could be identified in milk and broth samples using bioluminescence measurement, thus enabling the bactericidal assay-viability test to be monitored in real time throughout incubation. PMID:26585477

  6. Detection & characterization of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) & enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in poultry birds with diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, T.K.; Roychoudhury, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Wani, S.A.; Hussain, I.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives Limited information is available on shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in animals and birds from India. An outbreak of acute diarrhoea in poultry birds at Aizawl, Mizoram was investigated for detection and characterization of STEC and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Methods E. coli was isolated and identified from rectal swabs, intestinal contents, heart blood and spleen of 19 poultry birds that died due to acute diarrhoea during the outbreak. Phenotypic characterization was done by standard bacteriological and biochemical techniques. All the isolates were serotyped based on their somatic antigens. Virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA) were detected by multiplex PCR assay. Results A total of 42 E. coli isolates were obtained, of which 24 belonged to 3 serogroups (O64, O89 and O91) and the remaining 18 were untypable (UT). Altogether, 14 (33.33%) isolates carried at least 1 virulence gene, of which 10 (23.81%) and 4 (9.52%) were recorded as STEC and EPEC, respectively. Of the 10 STEC isolates, one carried only stx2, one carried stx2 and hlyA, four carried stx1, stx2 and hlyA, two carried stx1, eaeA and hlyA genes and two carried stx1 and eaeA. Of the four EPEC isolates, two carried eaeA and hlyA, one carried only eaeA gene and 1 carried only hlyA gene. Interpretation & conclusions This is the first report on the involvement of STEC in poultry in India. PMID:21623041

  7. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuyu; Chouliara, Eirini; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate) supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used. PMID:18817575

  8. Survival and alteration of the plasmid-containing microorganism Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7 introduced into manmade closed aquatic microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyandin, A. N.; Lobova, T. I.; Popova, L. Yu.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    It has been demonstrated that the transgenic microorganism Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7 (Ap rLux +) can exist for a long time at an elevated concentration of mineral salts. The microorganism was introduced into microcosms with sterile brackish water (salinity variable from 21 to 22 gl -1) taken from Lake Shira (Khakasia, Russia). The survival of the microorganism was estimated both by measuring the growth of the colonies on solid nutrient media and by the bioluminescence exhibited by the transgenic strain in samples from the microcosms and in the enrichment culture with the added selective factor - ampicillin (50 ?g/ml). In the enrichment culture, the bioluminescent signal was registered through the 160-day experiment. It has been shown that in the closed microcosms with brackish water the E. coli strain becomes heterogeneous in its ampicillin resistance. The populations of the transgenic strain were mainly represented by isolates able to persist in the medium containing 50 ?g/ml, but there were also the cells (about 10%) with the threshold of ampicillin resistance not more than 0.05 ?g/ml. Thus, it was shown that in the microcosms with brackish water and in the absence of the selective factor the transgenic strain survives and retails the recombinant plasmid.

  9. Survival and alteration of the plasmid-containing microorganism Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7 introduced into manmade closed aquatic microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyandin, A.; Lobova, T.; Popova, L.; Pechurkin, N.

    It has been found out whether the transgenic microorganism Escherichia coli Z905/pPHL7 (Aprlux+) can exist for a long time at an elevated concentration of mineral salts. The microorganism was introduced into microcosms with the sterile brackish water taken from Lake Shira. The survival of the microorganism was estimated both by measuring the growth of the colonies on solid nutrient media and by the bioluminescence exhibited by the transgenic strain in the samples of the microcosms and in the enrichment culture with the added selective factor - ampicillin (50 ?g/ml). In the enrichment culture the bioluminescent signal was registered through the 160-day experiment. It has been shown that in the closed microcosms with the brackish water the E. coli strain becomes heterogeneous in its ampicillin resistance. The populations of the transgenic strain were mainly represented by the isolates able to persist in the medium with 50 ?g/ml, but there were also the cells (about 1%) with the threshold of ampicillin resistance not more than 0.05 ?g/ml. Thus, it has been recorded that in the microcosms with the brackish water and in the absence of the selective factor the transgenic strain survives and retains the recombinant plasmid.

  10. Relative effects of bacterial and protozoan predators on survival of Escherichia coli in estuarine water samples.

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, J; McMeekin, T A

    1980-01-01

    The relative effect of protozoan and bacterial predators on the survival of Escherichia coli in estuarine water samples was examined. Predacious protozoa exerted their major influence on E. coli destruction during the first 2 days of a 10-day-decline period. Inhibition of protozoa after day 2 had little effect on E. coli survival. Bacterial predators also contributed to E. coli destruction but in natural estuarine water samples were maintained at lower levels due to "grazing" by predacious protozoa. PMID:7004353

  11. Effect of Phosphorus on Survival of Escherichia coli in Drinking Water Biofilms▿

    PubMed Central

    Juhna, Talis; Birzniece, Dagne; Rubulis, Janis

    2007-01-01

    The effect of phosphorus addition on survival of Escherichia coli in an experimental drinking water distribution system was investigated. Higher phosphorus concentrations prolonged the survival of culturable E. coli in water and biofilms. Although phosphorus addition did not affect viable but not culturable (VBNC) E. coli in biofilms, these structures could act as a reservoir of VBNC forms of E. coli in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:17416695

  12. Tellurite-exposed Escherichia coli exhibits increased intracellular ?-ketoglutarate.

    PubMed

    Reinoso, Claudia A; Auger, Christopher; Appanna, Vasu D; Vásquez, Claudio C

    2012-05-18

    The tellurium oxyanion tellurite is toxic to most organisms because of its ability to generate oxidative stress. However, the detailed mechanism(s) how this toxicant interferes with cellular processes have yet to be fully understood. As part of our effort to decipher the molecular interactions of tellurite with living systems, we have evaluated the global metabolism of ?-ketoglutarate a known antioxidant in Escherichia coli. Tellurite-exposed cells displayed reduced activity of the KG dehydrogenase complex (KGDHc), resulting in increased intracellular KG content. This complex's reduced activity seems to be due to decreased transcription in the stressed cells of sucA, a gene that encodes the E1 component of KGDHc. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the increase in total reactive oxygen species and superoxide observed upon tellurite exposure was more evident in wild type cells than in E. coli with impaired KGDHc activity. These results indicate that KG may be playing a pivotal role in combating tellurite-mediated oxidative damage. PMID:22542626

  13. Sonolysis of Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Tandiono, Tandiono; Ow, Dave Siak-Wei; Driessen, Leonie; Chin, Cara Sze-Hui; Klaseboer, Evert; Choo, Andre Boon-Hwa; Ohl, Siew-Wan; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2012-02-21

    We report on an efficient ultrasound based technique for lysing Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris with oscillating cavitation bubbles in an integrated microfluidic system. The system consists of a meandering microfluidic channel and four piezoelectric transducers mounted on a glass substrate, with the ultrasound exposure and gas pressure regulated by an automatic control system. Controlled lysis of bacterial and yeast cells expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP) is studied with high-speed photography and fluorescence microscopy, and quantified with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and fluorescence intensity. The effectiveness of cell lysis correlates with the duration of ultrasound exposure. Complete lysis can be achieved within one second of ultrasound exposure with a temperature increase of less than 3.3 °C. The rod-shaped E. coli bacteria are disrupted into small fragments in less than 0.4 seconds, while the more robust elliptical P. pastoris yeast cells require around 1.0 second for complete lysis. Fluorescence intensity measurements and qRT-PCR analysis show that functionality of GFP and genomic DNA for downstream analytical assays is maintained. PMID:22183135

  14. Consequences of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection for the vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Bielaszewska, Martina; Karch, Helge

    2005-08-01

    Microvascular endothelial damage underlies the pathological changes in haemorrhagic colitis and the haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) caused by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Shiga toxins (Stxs) are presently the best characterised EHEC virulence factors that can cause the microvascular endothelium injury. Stxs are released by EHEC in the intestine, absorbed across the gut epithelium into the circulation, and transported to small vessel endothelial cells. Then, they presumably injure the host cell by inhibiting protein synthesis, stimulating prothrombotic messages, or inducing apoptosis. The net result is a multi-organ thrombotic process. Moreover, Stxs stimulate a variety of non-endothelial cells to produce and secrete inflammatory mediators (cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules) which could potentiate the effects of Stxs on endothelial cells. The association of HUS with Stx-negative E. coli strains stimulated intensive research on putative non-Stx virulence factors, which might also contribute to the pathogenesis of HUS and haemorrhagic colitis. Based on current data, cytolethal distending toxin, EHEC haemolysin, and subtilase cytotoxin might be such candidates. PMID:16113820

  15. Dynamic metabolomic responses of Escherichia coli to nicotine stress.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lijian; Chen, Juanjuan; Zou, Jianding; Zhang, Limin; Ye, Yangfang

    2014-08-01

    Previously, we reported the metabolic responses of Pseudomonas sp. strain HF-1, a nicotine-degrading bacterium, to nicotine stress. However, the metabolic effects of nicotine on non-nicotine-degrading bacteria that dominate the environment are still unclear. Here, we have used nuclear magnetic resonance based metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis methods to comprehensively analyze the metabolic changes in nicotine-treated Escherichia coli. Our results showed that nicotine caused the changes of energy-related metabolism that we believe are due to enhanced glycolysis and mixed acid fermentation as well as inhibited tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. Furthermore, nicotine resulted in the alteration of choline metabolism with a decreased synthesis of betaine but an increased production of dimethylamine. Moreover, nicotine caused a decrease in amino acid concentration and an alteration of nucleotide synthesis. We hypothesize that these changes caused the decrease in bacterial cell density observed in the experiment. These findings provide a comprehensive insight into the metabolic response of E. coli to nicotine stress. Our study highlights the value of metabolomics in elucidating the metabolic mechanisms of nicotine action. PMID:25093750

  16. Release factor one is nonessential in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David B F; Wang, Chong; Xu, Jianfeng; Schultz, Matthew D; Schmitz, Robert J; Ecker, Joseph R; Wang, Lei

    2012-08-17

    Recoding a stop codon to an amino acid may afford orthogonal genetic systems for biosynthesizing new protein and organism properties. Although reassignment of stop codons has been found in extant organisms, a model organism is lacking to investigate the reassignment process and to direct code evolution. Complete reassignment of a stop codon is precluded by release factors (RFs), which recognize stop codons to terminate translation. Here we discovered that RF1 could be unconditionally knocked out from various Escherichia coli stains, demonstrating that the reportedly essential RF1 is generally dispensable for the E. coli species. The apparent essentiality of RF1 was found to be caused by the inefficiency of a mutant RF2 in terminating all UAA stop codons; a wild type RF2 was sufficient for RF1 knockout. The RF1-knockout strains were autonomous and unambiguously reassigned UAG to encode natural or unnatural amino acids (Uaas) at multiple sites, affording a previously unavailable model for studying code evolution and a unique host for exploiting Uaas to evolve new biological functions. PMID:22662873

  17. Rapid turnover of mannitol-1-phosphate in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, H; Pearce, S M; Hardy, C M; Jacomb, P A

    1984-01-01

    The phosphate moiety of D-mannitol-1-phosphate in Escherichia coli is subject to rapid turnover and is in close equilibrium with Pi and the phosphorus of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. These three compounds account for the bulk of 32P label found in cells after several minutes of uptake of 32Pi and mannitol-1-phosphate represents some 30% of this label. Mannitol-1-phosphate occurs in E. coli grown on a variety of carbon sources, in the absence of D-mannitol, and is synthesized de novo even in mutants lacking mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase. The mannitol moiety of mannitol-1-phosphate was not affected during the total chase of the P moiety, which exchanged with a half-life of about 30 s. These findings suggest that the rapid equilibration of the phosphorus is a function of an enzyme, possibly a component of the phosphotransferase system, capable of forming a complex that allows the exchange of the phosphate without the equilibration of the mannitol moiety with free mannitol. PMID:6425270

  18. Pattern Formation of Bacterial Colonies by Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokita, Rie; Katoh, Takaki; Maeda, Yusuke; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Sano, Masaki; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2009-07-01

    We have studied the morphological diversity and change in bacterial colonies, using the bacterial species Escherichia coli, as a function of both agar concentration Ca and nutrient concentration Cn. We observed various colony patterns, classified them into four types by pattern characteristics and established a morphological diagram by dividing it into four regions. They are regions A [diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA)-like], B (Eden-like), C (concentric-ring), and D (fluid-spreading). In particular, we have observed a concentric-ring colony growth for E. coli. We focused on the periodic growth in region C and obtained the following results: (i) A colony grows cyclically with the growing front repeating an advance (migration phase) and a momentary rest (consolidation phase) alternately. (ii) The growth width L and the bulge width W in one cycle decrease asymptotically to certain values, when Ca is increased. (iii) L does not depend on Cn, while W is an increasing function of Cn. Plausible mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results, by comparing them with those obtained for other bacterial species such as Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus subtilis.

  19. Dissecting Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Biogenesis Using Differential Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Martorana, Alessandra M.; Motta, Sara; Di Silvestre, Dario; Falchi, Federica; Dehò, Gianni; Mauri, Pierluigi; Sperandeo, Paola; Polissi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is a complex multi-layered structure comprising an inner cytoplasmic membrane and an additional asymmetric lipid bilayer, the outer membrane, which functions as a selective permeability barrier and is essential for viability. Lipopolysaccharide, an essential glycolipid located in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane, greatly contributes to the peculiar properties exhibited by the outer membrane. This complex molecule is transported to the cell surface by a molecular machine composed of seven essential proteins LptABCDEFG that form a transenvelope complex and function as a single device. While advances in understanding the mechanisms that govern the biogenesis of the cell envelope have been recently made, only few studies are available on how bacterial cells respond to severe envelope biogenesis defects on a global scale. Here we report the use of differential proteomics based on Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) to investigate how Escherichia coli cells respond to a block of lipopolysaccharide transport to the outer membrane. We analysed the envelope proteome of a lptC conditional mutant grown under permissive and non permissive conditions and identified 123 proteins whose level is modulated upon LptC depletion. Most such proteins belong to pathways implicated in cell envelope biogenesis, peptidoglycan remodelling, cell division and protein folding. Overall these data contribute to our understanding on how E. coli cells respond to LPS transport defects to restore outer membrane functionality. PMID:24967819

  20. Structure of CFA/I fimbriae from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong-Fu; Poole, Steven; Nishio, Kazuya; Jang, Ken; Rasulova, Fatima; McVeigh, Annette; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di; Bullitt, Esther

    2009-10-21

    Adhesion pili (fimbriae) play a critical role in initiating the events that lead to intestinal colonization and diarrheal disease by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), an E. coli pathotype that inflicts an enormous global disease burden. We elucidate atomic structures of an ETEC major pilin subunit, CfaB, from colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) fimbriae. These data are used to construct models for 2 morphological forms of CFA/I fimbriae that are both observed in vivo: the helical filament into which it is typically assembled, and an extended, unwound conformation. Modeling and corroborative mutational data indicate that proline isomerization is involved in the conversion between these helical and extended forms. Our findings affirm the strong structural similarities seen between class 5 fimbriae (from bacteria primarily causing gastrointestinal disease) and class 1 pili (from bacteria that cause urinary, respiratory, and other infections) in the absence of significant primary sequence similarity. They also suggest that morphological and biochemical differences between fimbrial types, regardless of class, provide structural specialization that facilitates survival of each bacterial pathotype in its preferred host microenvironment. Last, we present structural evidence for bacterial use of antigenic variation to evade host immune responses, in that residues occupying the predicted surface-exposed face of CfaB and related class 5 pilins show much higher genetic sequence variability than the remainder of the pilin protein.

  1. Molecular analysis of the Escherichia coli recO gene.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, P T; Lovett, S T; Gilson, L E; Kolodner, R

    1989-01-01

    The plasmid pLC7-47, which contains lep, rnc, and era, was found to complement the UV-sensitive and recombination-deficient phenotypes caused by the recO1504::Tn5 mutation. Southern blotting analysis demonstrated that pLC7-47 contained a segment of Escherichia coli DNA that covered the region of the E. coli chromosome containing the recO1504::Tn5 mutation. A combination of deletion mapping and insertional mutagenesis localized the recO-complementing region to an approximately 1-kilobase region of a 1.6-kilobase BamHI fragment. The DNA sequence of the 1.6-kilobase BamHI fragment was determined and contained part of era and a 726-base-pair recO open reading frame. The recO open reading frame contained three possible translation start codons and could potentially encode a polypeptide of Mr 26,000. Computer analysis indicated that the putative RecO protein had suboptimal codon usage and did not show significant homology with previously identified proteins whose sequences were present in protein data bases. A combination of primary sequence analysis and secondary structure predictions suggested that recO contains a mononucleotide-binding fold. Images PMID:2544549

  2. Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase expression is cell cycle regulated.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Fuchs, J A

    1992-10-01

    The expression of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase in Escherichia coli was investigated in cultures synchronized by obtaining the smallest cells in a population after sucrose gradient centrifugation. Specific activity of ribonucleotide reductase and DNA initiation were found to increase in parallel, periodically as a function of the cell cycle. The expression of nrd was also determined in cells synchronized by periodic repeated doubling in a phosphate limited medium. Antibodies directed against the B2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase were raised in a rabbit and purified. Immunoprecipitation of the B2 subunit and RNA-DNA dot blot hybridization assays were developed and employed to determine the expression of ribonucleotide reductase translational and transcriptional products during the cell cycle. Both of nrd-mRNA and B2 subunit expression were found to increase each generation at approximately the same time DNA synthesis was initiated and then to decrease back to the basal level shortly after DNA initiation. These results provided evidence of cell cycle dependent regulation of ribonucleotide reductase in E. coli. When the upstream regulatory region of nrd was fused to a promoterless lacZ gene on a single copy plasmid, lac-mRNA and beta-galactosidase were found to be synthesized in parallel to nrd expression from the chromosomal operon. When nrd sequences surrounding the promoter were removed from this construct, lac-mRNA and beta-galactosidase synthesis were no longer cell cycle regulated. PMID:1384814

  3. Structure and Biochemical Activities of Escherichia coli MgsA

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Asher N.; George, Nicholas P.; Marceau, Aimee H.; Cox, Michael M.; Keck, James L.

    2012-02-27

    Bacterial 'maintenance of genome stability protein A' (MgsA) and related eukaryotic enzymes play important roles in cellular responses to stalled DNA replication processes. Sequence information identifies MgsA enzymes as members of the clamp loader clade of AAA{sup +} proteins, but structural information defining the family has been limited. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of Escherichia coli MgsA is described, revealing a homotetrameric arrangement for the protein that distinguishes it from other clamp loader clade AAA{sup +} proteins. Each MgsA protomer is composed of three elements as follows: ATP-binding and helical lid domains (conserved among AAA{sup +} proteins) and a tetramerization domain. Although the tetramerization domains bury the greatest amount of surface area in the MgsA oligomer, each of the domains participates in oligomerization to form a highly intertwined quaternary structure. Phosphate is bound at each AAA{sup +} ATP-binding site, but the active sites do not appear to be in a catalytically competent conformation due to displacement of Arg finger residues. E. coli MgsA is also shown to form a complex with the single-stranded DNA-binding protein through co-purification and biochemical studies. MgsA DNA-dependent ATPase activity is inhibited by single-stranded DNA-binding protein. Together, these structural and biochemical observations provide insights into the mechanisms of MgsA family AAA{sup +} proteins.

  4. Determining straining of Escherichia coli from breakthrough curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foppen, J. W. A.; Mporokoso, A.; Schijven, J. F.

    2005-02-01

    Though coliform bacteria are used world wide as an indication of faecal pollution, the parameters determining the transport of Escherichia coli in aquifers are relatively unknown, especially for the period after the clean bed collision phase brought about by prolonged infiltration of waste water. In this research, the breakthrough curves of E. coli after total flushing of 50-200 pore volumes were studied for various influent concentrations in various sediments at different pore water flow velocities. The results indicated that straining in Dead End Pores (DEPs) was an important process that dominated bacteria breakthrough in fine-grained sediment (0.06-0.2 mm). The filling of the DEP space with bacteria took 5-65 pore volumes and was dependent on concentration. Column breakthrough curves were modelled and from this the DEP volumes were determined. These volumes (0.21-0.35% of total column volume) corresponded well with values calculated with a formula based on purely geometrical considerations and also with values calculated with a pore size density function. For this function the so-called Van Genuchten parameters of the sediments used in the experiments were determined. The results indicate that straining might be a dominant process affecting colloid transport in the natural environment and therefore it is concluded that proper knowledge of the pore size distribution is crucial to an understanding of the retention of bacteria.

  5. Kinetics of ethanol production by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, L.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B. Lund Inst. of Tech. )

    1995-02-20

    The fermentation kinetics for separate as well as simultaneous glucose and xylose fermentation with recombinant ethanologenic Escherichia coli KO11 are presented. Glucose and xylose were consumed simultaneously and exhibited mutual inhibition. The glucose exhibited 15 times stronger inhibition in xylose fermentation than vice versa. The fermentation of condensate from steam-pretreated willow (Salix) was investigated. The kinetics were studied in detoxified as well as in nondetoxified condensate. The fermentation of the condensate followed two phases: first the glucose and some of the pentoses (xylose in addition to small amounts of arabinose) were fermented simultaneously, and then the remaining part of the pentoses were fermented. The rate of the first phase was independent of the detoxification method used, whereas the rate of the second phase was found to be strongly dependent. When the condensate was detoxified with overliming in combination with sulfite, which was the best detoxification method investigated, the sugars in the condensate, 9 g/L, were fermented in 11 h. The same fermentation took 150 h in nondetoxified condensate. The experimental data were used to develop an empirical model, describing the batch fermentation of recombinant E. coli KO11 in the condensate. The model is based on Monod kinetics including substrate and product inhibition and the sum of the inhibition exerted by the rest of the inhibitors, lumped together.

  6. Proteomic Adaptations to Starvation Prepare Escherichia coli for Disinfection Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhe; Nandakumar, Renu; Nickerson, Kenneth; Li, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Despite the low nutrient level and constant presence of secondary disinfectants, bacterial re-growth still occurs in drinking water distribution systems. The molecular mechanisms that starved bacteria use to survive low-level chlorine-based disinfectants are not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate these molecular mechanisms at the protein level that prepare starved cells for disinfection tolerance. Two commonly used secondary disinfectants chlorine and monochloramine, both at 1 mg/L, were used in this study. The proteomes of normal and starved Escherichia coli (K12 MG1655) cells were studied using quantitative proteomics. Over 60-min disinfection, starved cells showed significantly higher disinfection tolerance than normal cells based on the inactivation curves for both chlorine and monochloramine. Proteomic analyses suggest that starvation may prepare cells for the oxidative stress that chlorine-based disinfection will cause by affecting glutathione metabolism. In addition, proteins involved in stress regulation and stress responses were among the ones up-regulated under both starvation and chlorine/monochloramine disinfection. By comparing the fold changes under different conditions, it is suggested that starvation prepares E. coli for disinfection tolerance by increasing the expression of enzymes that can help cells survive chlorine/monochloramine disinfection. Protein co-expression analyses show that proteins in glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway that were up-regulated under starvation are also involved in disinfection tolerance. Finally, the production and detoxification of methylglyoxal may be involved in the chlorine-based disinfection and cell defense mechanisms. PMID:25463932

  7. Improvements In Ethanologenic Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Oxytoca

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David Nunn

    2010-09-30

    The current Verenium cellulosic ethanol process is based on the dilute-acid pretreatment of a biomass feedstock, followed by a two-stage fermentation of the pentose sugar-containing hydrolysate by a genetically modified ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain and a separate simultaneous saccharification-fermentation (SSF) of the cellulosic fraction by a genetically modified ethanologenic Klebsiella oxytoca strain and a fungal enzyme cocktail. In order to reduce unit operations and produce a fermentation beer with higher ethanol concentrations to reduce distillation costs, we have proposed to develop a simultaneous saccharification co-fermentation (SScF) process, where the fermentation of the pentose-containing hydrolysate and cellulosic fraction occurs within the same fermentation vessel. In order to accomplish this goal, improvements in the ethanologens must be made to address a number of issues that arise, including improved hydrolysate tolerance, co-fermentation of the pentose and hexose sugars and increased ethanol tolerance. Using a variety of approaches, including transcriptomics, strain adaptation, metagenomics and directed evolution, this work describes the efforts of a team of scientists from Verenium, University of Florida, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Genomatica to improve the E. coli and K. oxytoca ethanologens to meet these requirements.

  8. Beneficial knockouts in Escherichia coli for producing hydrogen from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kien Trung; Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez-Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K

    2015-03-01

    Glycerol is an inexpensive and abundant source for biofuel production on a large scale. Escherichia coli is a robust bacterium for producing hydrogen; however, its hydrogen productivity from glycerol is low. In this study, we conducted random transposon mutagenesis to identify uncharacterized genes whose inactivation is beneficial for hydrogen production from glycerol. Through screening, four mutant strains were found that are able to have from 1.3- to 1.6-fold higher hydrogen productivity (?mol H2/mg protein) than that of their parent strain (p?coli, AroM is predicted to be involved in the shikimate pathway, GatZ is tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase 2 which converts dihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1,6-biphosphate, and YcgR acts as a molecular brake limiting the swimming speed and ATP consumption. So far, the function of YfgI in general and in hydrogen production in particular remains unknown. PMID:25567513

  9. Transcription Factors in Escherichia coli Prefer the Holo Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Balderas-Martínez, Yalbi Itzel; Savageau, Michael; Salgado, Heladia; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2013-01-01

    The transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli K-12 is among the best studied gene networks of any living cell. Transcription factors bind to DNA either with their effector bound (holo conformation), or as a free protein (apo conformation) regulating transcription initiation. By using RegulonDB, the functional conformations (holo or apo) of transcription factors, and their mode of regulation (activator, repressor, or dual) were exhaustively analyzed. We report a striking discovery in the architecture of the regulatory network, finding a strong under-representation of the apo conformation (without allosteric metabolite) of transcription factors when binding to their DNA sites to activate transcription. This observation is supported at the level of individual regulatory interactions on promoters, even if we exclude the promoters regulated by global transcription factors, where three-quarters of the known promoters are regulated by a transcription factor in holo conformation. This genome-scale analysis enables us to ask what are the implications of these observations for the physiology and for our understanding of the ecology of E. coli. We discuss these ideas within the framework of the demand theory of gene regulation. PMID:23776535

  10. Outbreaks of virulent diarrheagenic Escherichia coli - are we in control?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most virulent diarrheagenic E. coli known to date. They can be spread with alarming ease via food as exemplified by a large sprout-borne outbreak of STEC O104:H4 in 2011 that was centered in northern Germany and affected several countries. Effective control of such outbreaks is an important public health task and necessitates early outbreak detection, fast identification of the outbreak vehicle and immediate removal of the suspected food from the market, flanked by consumer advice and measures to prevent secondary spread. In our view, opportunities to improve control of STEC outbreaks lie in early clinical suspicion for STEC infection, timely diagnosis of all STEC at the serotype-level and integrating molecular subtyping information into surveillance systems. Furthermore, conducting analytical studies that supplement patients' imperfect food history recall and performing, as an investigative element, product tracebacks, are pivotal but underutilized tools for successful epidemiologic identification of the suspected vehicle in foodborne outbreaks. As a corollary, these tools are amenable to tailor microbiological testing of suspected food. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/12 PMID:22300479

  11. Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Mat-Jan, F.; Alam, K.Y.; Clark, D.P. )

    1989-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative NAD-linked lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) have been isolated. These mutants showed no growth defects under anaerobic conditions unless present together with a defect in pyruvate formate lyase (pfl). Double mutants (pfl ldh) were unable to grow anaerobically on glucose or other sugars even when supplemented with acetate, whereas pfl mutants can do so. The ldh mutation was found to map at 30.5 min on the E. coli chromosome. The ldh mutant FMJ39 showed no detectable lactate dehydrogenase activity and produced no lactic acid from glucose under anaerobic conditions as estimated by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. We also found that in wild-type strains the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase was conjointly induced by anaerobic conditions and an acidic pH. Despite previous findings that phosphate concentrations affect the proportion of lactic acid produced during fermentation, we were unable to find any intrinsic effect of phosphate on lactate dehydrogenase activity, apart from the buffering effect of this ion.

  12. Six widespread bacterial clones among Escherichia coli K1 isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Achtman, M; Mercer, A; Kusecek, B; Pohl, A; Heuzenroeder, M; Aaronson, W; Sutton, A; Silver, R P

    1983-01-01

    Variable properties among Escherichia coli isolates include serotype, electrophoretic migration of major outer membrane proteins, metabolic properties, production of hemolysin or colicin or both, and plasmid content. These characteristics were compared in E. coli strains of capsular types K1, K5, K92, and K100 and in non-encapsulated isolates. The 234 bacterial strains from the United States and Europe which we studied had been isolated from healthy or diseased individuals recently or as long ago as 1941. Regardless of source, most O7:K1, O16:K1, and O75:K100 isolates could be assigned to three unique, serotype-specific groups, which were interpreted as representing three bacterial clones. Two bacterial (sub)clones each were discerned among the O18:K1 and O18:K5 isolates, and two further, distinct clones were discerned among the O1:K1 isolates. The implications of these results for epidemiological analyses and for virulence are discussed. Images PMID:6218094

  13. Recombinant expression of hydroxylated human collagen in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rutschmann, Christoph; Baumann, Stephan; Cabalzar, Jürg; Luther, Kelvin B; Hennet, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and thereby a structural protein of considerable biotechnological interest. The complex maturation process of collagen, including essential post-translational modifications such as prolyl and lysyl hydroxylation, has precluded large-scale production of recombinant collagen featuring the biophysical properties of endogenous collagen. The characterization of new prolyl and lysyl hydroxylase genes encoded by the giant virus mimivirus reveals a method for production of hydroxylated collagen. The coexpression of a human collagen type III construct together with mimivirus prolyl and lysyl hydroxylases in Escherichia coli yielded up to 90 mg of hydroxylated collagen per liter culture. The respective levels of prolyl and lysyl hydroxylation reaching 25 % and 26 % were similar to the hydroxylation levels of native human collagen type III. The distribution of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine along recombinant collagen was also similar to that of native collagen as determined by mass spectrometric analysis of tryptic peptides. The triple helix signature of recombinant hydroxylated collagen was confirmed by circular dichroism, which also showed that hydroxylation increased the thermal stability of the recombinant collagen construct. Recombinant hydroxylated collagen produced in E. coli supported the growth of human umbilical endothelial cells, underlining the biocompatibility of the recombinant protein as extracellular matrix. The high yield of recombinant protein expression and the extensive level of prolyl and lysyl hydroxylation achieved indicate that recombinant hydroxylated collagen can be produced at large scale for biomaterials engineering in the context of biomedical applications. PMID:24362857

  14. Expression and purification of soluble monomeric streptavidin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Demonte, Daniel; Dundas, Christopher M; Park, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported the engineering of monomeric streptavidin (mSA) for use in monomeric detection of biotinylated ligands. Although mSA can be expressed functionally on the surface of mammalian cells and yeast, the molecule does not fold correctly when expressed in Escherichia coli. Refolding from inclusion bodies is cumbersome and yields a limited amount of purified protein. Improving the final yield should facilitate its use in biotechnology. We tested the expression and purification of mSA fused to GST, MBP, thioredoxin, and sumo tags to simplify its purification and improve the yield. The fusion proteins can be expressed solubly in E. coli and increase the yield by more than 20-fold. Unmodified mSA can be obtained by proteolytically removing the fusion tag. Purified mSA can be immobilized on a solid matrix to purify biotinylated ligands. Together, expressing mSA as a fusion with a solubilization tag vastly simplifies its preparation and increases its usability in biotechnology. PMID:24691867

  15. Composite analysis for Escherichia coli at coastal beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertke, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    At some coastal beaches, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria can differ substantially between multiple points at the same beach at the same time. Because of this spatial variability, the recreational water quality at beaches is sometimes determined by stratifying a beach into several areas and collecting a sample from each area to analyze for the concentration of fecal-indicator bacteria. The average concentration of bacteria from those points is often used to compare to the recreational standard for advisory postings. Alternatively, if funds are limited, a single sample is collected to represent the beach. Compositing the samples collected from each section of the beach may yield equally accurate data as averaging concentrations from multiple points, at a reduced cost. In the study described herein, water samples were collected at multiple points from three Lake Erie beaches and analyzed for Escherichia coli on modified mTEC agar (EPA Method 1603). From the multiple-point samples, a composite sample (n = 116) was formed at each beach by combining equal aliquots of well-mixed water from each point. Results from this study indicate that E. coli concentrations from the arithmetic average of multiple-point samples and from composited samples are not significantly different (t = 1.59, p = 0.1139) and yield similar measures of recreational water quality; additionally, composite samples could result in a significant cost savings.

  16. Direct DNA Lesion Reversal and Excision Repair in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Couvé, Sophie; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Fedorova, Olga S; Ramanculov, Erlan M; Laval, Jacques; Saparbaev, Murat

    2013-02-01

    Cellular DNA is constantly challenged by various endogenous and exogenous genotoxic factors that inevitably lead to DNA damage: structural and chemical modifications of primary DNA sequence. These DNA lesions are either cytotoxic, because they block DNA replication and transcription, or mutagenic due to the miscoding nature of the DNA modifications, or both, and are believed to contribute to cell lethality and mutagenesis. Studies on DNA repair in Escherichia coli spearheaded formulation of principal strategies to counteract DNA damage and mutagenesis, such as: direct lesion reversal, DNA excision repair, mismatch and recombinational repair and genotoxic stress signalling pathways. These DNA repair pathways are universal among cellular organisms. Mechanistic principles used for each repair strategies are fundamentally different. Direct lesion reversal removes DNA damage without need for excision and de novo DNA synthesis, whereas DNA excision repair that includes pathways such as base excision, nucleotide excision, alternative excision and mismatch repair, proceeds through phosphodiester bond breakage, de novo DNA synthesis and ligation. Cell signalling systems, such as adaptive and oxidative stress responses, although not DNA repair pathways per se, are nevertheless essential to counteract DNA damage and mutagenesis. The present review focuses on the nature of DNA damage, direct lesion reversal, DNA excision repair pathways and adaptive and oxidative stress responses in E. coli. PMID:26442931

  17. Microbial Synthesis of Myrcene by Metabolically Engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Eom, Jin-Hee; Um, Youngsoon; Kim, Yunje; Woo, Han Min

    2015-05-13

    Myrcene, a monoterpene (C10), has gathered attention as a starting material for high-value compounds, such as geraniol/linalool and (-)-menthol. Metabolic engineering has been successfully applied to produce monoterpenes, such as pinene and limonene, at high levels in microbial hosts. However, microbial synthesis of myrcene has not yet been reported. Thus, we metabolically engineered Escherichia coli for production of myrcene by introducing a heterologous mevalonate pathway and overexpressing tailoring enzymes, such as geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS) and myrcene synthase (MS). Although MSs have broad ranges of functionality for producing various monoterpenes, our engineered E. coli strains harboring MS from Quercus ilex L. produced only myrcene (1.67 ± 0.029 mg/L). Subsequent engineering resulted in higher production of myrcene by optimizing the levels of GPPS in amino-acid-enriched (EZ-rich) defined medium, where glycerol as a carbon source was used. The production level of myrcene (58.19 ± 12.13 mg/L) was enhanced by 34-fold using in situ two-phase extraction to eliminate cellular toxicity and the evaporation of myrcene. PMID:25909988

  18. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hebbelstrup Jensen, Betina; Olsen, Katharina E P; Struve, Carsten; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Petersen, Andreas Munk

    2014-07-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) represents a heterogeneous group of E. coli strains. The pathogenicity and clinical relevance of these bacteria are still controversial. In this review, we describe the clinical significance of EAEC regarding patterns of infection in humans, transmission, reservoirs, and symptoms. Manifestations associated with EAEC infection include watery diarrhea, mucoid diarrhea, low-grade fever, nausea, tenesmus, and borborygmi. In early studies, EAEC was considered to be an opportunistic pathogen associated with diarrhea in HIV patients and in malnourished children in developing countries. In recent studies, associations with traveler's diarrhea, the occurrence of diarrhea cases in industrialized countries, and outbreaks of diarrhea in Europe and Asia have been reported. In the spring of 2011, a large outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and hemorrhagic colitis occurred in Germany due to an EAEC O104:H4 strain, causing 54 deaths and 855 cases of HUS. This strain produces the potent Shiga toxin along with the aggregative fimbriae. An outbreak of urinary tract infection associated with EAEC in Copenhagen, Denmark, occurred in 1991; this involved extensive production of biofilm, an important characteristic of the pathogenicity of EAEC. However, the heterogeneity of EAEC continues to complicate diagnostics and also our understanding of pathogenicity. PMID:24982324

  19. Public Health Microbiology of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Alfredo; Scavia, Gaia; Morabito, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are the only pathogenic group of E. coli that has a definite zoonotic origin, with ruminants and, in particular, cattle being recognized as the major reservoir. Most human STEC infections are food borne, but the routes of transmission include direct contact with animals and a variety of environment-related exposures. Therefore, STEC public health microbiology spans the fields of medical, veterinary, food, water, and environmental microbiology, requiring a "One Health" perspective and laboratory scientists with the ability to work effectively across disciplines. Public health microbiology laboratories play a central role in the surveillance of STEC infections, as well as in the preparedness for responding to outbreaks and in providing scientific evidence for the implementation of prevention and control measures. This article reviews (i) how the integration of surveillance of STEC infections and monitoring of these pathogens in animal reservoirs and potential food vehicles may contribute to their control; (ii) the role of reference laboratories, in both the public health and veterinary and food sectors; and (iii) the public health perspectives, including those related to regulatory issues in both the European Union and the United States. PMID:26104435

  20. Escherichia coli?ClbS is a colibactin resistance protein.

    PubMed

    Bossuet-Greif, Nadège; Dubois, Damien; Petit, Claude; Tronnet, Sophie; Martin, Patricia; Bonnet, Richard; Oswald, Eric; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    The genomic pks island codes for the biosynthetic machinery that produces colibactin, a peptide-polyketide metabolite. Colibactin is a genotoxin that contributes to the virulence of extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli and promotes colorectal cancer. In this work, we examined whether the pks-encoded clbS gene of unknown function could participate in the self-protection of E. coli-producing colibactin. A clbS mutant was not impaired in the ability to inflict DNA damage in HeLa cells, but the bacteria activated the SOS response and ceased to replicate. This autotoxicity phenotype was markedly enhanced in a clbS?uvrB double mutant inactivated for DNA repair by nucleotide excision but was suppressed in a clbS?clbA double mutant unable to produce colibactin. In addition, ectopic expression of clbS protected infected HeLa cells from colibactin. Thus, ClbS is a resistance protein blocking the genotoxicity of colibactin both in the procaryotic and the eucaryotic cells. PMID:26560421