Note: This page contains sample records for the topic biomass carbon sequestration from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Biomass Crop Production: Benefits for Soil Quality and Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Research at three locations in the southeastern US is quantifying changes in soil quality and soil carbon storage that occur during production of biomass crops compared with row crops. After three growing seasons, soil quality improved and soil carbon storage increased on plots planted to cottonwood, sycamore, sweetgum with a cover crop, switchgrass, and no-till corn. For tree crops, sequestered belowground carbon was found mainly in stumps and large roots. At the TN site, the coarse woody organic matter storage belowground was 1.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}yr{sup {minus}1}, of which 79% was stumps and large roots and 21% fine roots. Switchgrass at the AL site also stored considerable carbon belowground as coarse roots. Most of the carbon storage occurred mainly in the upper 30 cw although coarse roots were found to depths of greater than 60 cm. Biomass crops contributed to improvements in soil physical quality as well as increasing belowground carbon sequestration. The distribution and extent of carbon sequestration depends on the growth characteristics and age of the individual biomass crop species. Time and increasing crop maturity will determine the potential of these biomass crops to significantly contribute to the overall national goal of increasing carbon sequestration and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Bandaranayake, W.; Bock, B.R.; Houston, A.; Joslin, J.D.; Pettry, D.E.; Schoenholtz, S.; Thornton, F.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Tyler, D.

1999-08-29

2

Carbon Sequestration by Carbonization of Biomass and Forestation: Three Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed the carbon sink project called “Carbon Sequestration by Forestation and Carbonization (CFC),” which involves biomass\\u000a utilization and land conservation by incorporating the products of biomass carbonization into the agents for soil improvement,\\u000a water purification, etc. Our purpose was to demonstrate the potential of the CFC scheme for carbon sequestration, particularly\\u000a carbon storage in soil. Case studies were conducted

Makoto Ogawa; Yasuyuki Okimori; Fumio Takahashi

2006-01-01

3

Carbon sequestration.  

PubMed

Developing technologies to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from annual emissions of 8.6PgCyr-1 from energy, process industry, land-use conversion and soil cultivation is an important issue of the twenty-first century. Of the three options of reducing the global energy use, developing low or no-carbon fuel and sequestering emissions, this manuscript describes processes for carbon (CO2) sequestration and discusses abiotic and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric CO2 into other long-lived global pools including oceanic, pedologic, biotic and geological strata to reduce the net rate of increase in atmospheric CO2. Engineering techniques of CO2 injection in deep ocean, geological strata, old coal mines and oil wells, and saline aquifers along with mineral carbonation of CO2 constitute abiotic techniques. These techniques have a large potential of thousands of Pg, are expensive, have leakage risks and may be available for routine use by 2025 and beyond. In comparison, biotic techniques are natural and cost-effective processes, have numerous ancillary benefits, are immediately applicable but have finite sink capacity. Biotic and abiotic C sequestration options have specific nitches, are complementary, and have potential to mitigate the climate change risks. PMID:17761468

Lal, Rattan

2008-02-27

4

Potential and economic efficiency of carbon sequestration in forest biomass through silvicultural management  

SciTech Connect

This paper has two main objectives: First, to discuss in principle some vital methodological issues which have to be considered when analyzing how preferable measures in forestry are to decrease the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Economic evaluation of the flow of carbon in and out of the atmosphere is discussed, related particularly to two important problems: (1) the determination of the utility of reducing the quantity of CO[sub 2] in the atmosphere at a given point in time; and (2) the intertemporal evaluation of a flow of atmospheric CO[sub 2] reductions. The marginal cost, measured as the change in net present value, is proposed as a proper measure for ranking of alternative projects. Secondly, a case study is reported. The case study is based on forest-level optimization with a model estimating carbon flows related to forest biomass growth and decay, linked to a long-range forest management planning (LFMP) model. Alternative stand treatment schedules are simulated, and the forest management problem is solved by linear programming in a model I type LFMP model for the county of Buskerud, with a forest area of 574,000 ha. The potential for increasing the net carbon sequestration related to timber production by changes in the forest management over a time period of 30 yr is studied. 31 refs., 4 figs.,3 tabs.

Hoen, H.F.; Solberg, B.

1994-08-01

5

Biomass and carbon sequestration of ponderosa pine plantations and native cypress forests in northwest Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast growth tree plantations and secondary forests are considered highly efficient carbon sinks. In northwest Patagonia, more than 2millionha of rangelands are suitable for forestry, and tree plantation or native forest restoration could largely contribute to climate change mitigation. The commonest baseline is the heavily grazed gramineous steppe of Festuca pallescens (St. Yves) Parodi. To assess the carbon sequestration potential

Pablo Laclau

2003-01-01

6

Combined sustainable biomass feedstock combustion, CO 2\\/EOR, and Saline Reservoir Geological Carbon Sequestration in Northern Lower Michigan, USA: Towards negative CO 2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a combined biomass combustion and geological carbon sequestration feasibility study in Northern Lower Michigan, USA related to a proposed solid fuel-fired 600 MW electric power plant, the Wolverine Clean Energy Venture (WCEV), near Rogers City, MI, USA. The biomass feedstock resource assessment, focused on low intensity, high diversity forest and agriculture in the proposed plant

David Barnes; Robert E. Froese; R. G. Mannes; Brian Warner

2011-01-01

7

Growth, productivity, aboveground biomass, and carbon sequestration of pure and mixed native tree plantations in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Costa Rica, reforestation programs with indigenous tree species are a recent activity. Information is still scarce on long-term species performance and silvicultural management to ensure the success of tree plantings, especially for mixed stands. This study aims to estimate growth, aboveground biomass, and carbon sequestration of nine native tree species growing in mixed and pure plantings. The study was

Alvaro Redondo-Brenes; Florencia Montagnini

2006-01-01

8

Biomass Accumulation and Carbon Sequestration in Four Different Aged Casuarina equisetifolia Coastal Shelterbelt Plantations in South China  

PubMed Central

Thousands of kilometers of shelterbelt plantations of Casuarina equisetifolia have been planted to protect the southeast coastline of China. These plantations also play an important role in the regional carbon (C) cycling. In this study, we examined plant biomass increment and C accumulation in four different aged C. equisetifolia plantations in sandy beaches in South China. The C accumulated in the C. equisetifolia plant biomass increased markedly with stand age. The annual rate of C accumulation in the C. equisetifolia plant biomass during 0–3, 3–6, 6–13 and 13–18 years stage was 2.9, 8.2, 4.2 and 1.0 Mg C ha?1 yr?1, respectively. Soil organic C (SOC) at the top 1 m soil layer in these plantations was 17.74, 5.14, 6.93, and 11.87 Mg C ha?1, respectively, with SOC density decreasing with increasing soil depth. Total C storage in the plantation ecosystem averaged 26.57, 38.50, 69.78, and 79.79 Mg C ha?1 in the 3, 6, 13 and 18- yrs plantation, with most of the C accumulated in the aboveground biomass rather than in the belowground root biomass and soil organic C. Though our results suggest that C. equisetifolia plantations have the characteristics of fast growth, high biomass accumulation, and the potential of high C sequestration despite planting in poor soil conditions, the interactive effects of soil condition, natural disturbance, and human policies on the ecosystem health of the plantation need to be further studied to fully realize the ecological and social benefits of the C equisetifolia shelterbelt forests in South China.

Zou, Bi; Guo, Zhihua; Li, Zhian; Zhu, Weixing

2013-01-01

9

Biomass Accumulation and Carbon Sequestration in Four Different Aged Casuarina equisetifolia Coastal Shelterbelt Plantations in South China.  

PubMed

Thousands of kilometers of shelterbelt plantations of Casuarina equisetifolia have been planted to protect the southeast coastline of China. These plantations also play an important role in the regional carbon (C) cycling. In this study, we examined plant biomass increment and C accumulation in four different aged C. equisetifolia plantations in sandy beaches in South China. The C accumulated in the C. equisetifolia plant biomass increased markedly with stand age. The annual rate of C accumulation in the C. equisetifolia plant biomass during 0-3, 3-6, 6-13 and 13-18 years stage was 2.9, 8.2, 4.2 and 1.0 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. Soil organic C (SOC) at the top 1 m soil layer in these plantations was 17.74, 5.14, 6.93, and 11.87 Mg C ha(-1), respectively, with SOC density decreasing with increasing soil depth. Total C storage in the plantation ecosystem averaged 26.57, 38.50, 69.78, and 79.79 Mg C ha(-1) in the 3, 6, 13 and 18- yrs plantation, with most of the C accumulated in the aboveground biomass rather than in the belowground root biomass and soil organic C. Though our results suggest that C. equisetifolia plantations have the characteristics of fast growth, high biomass accumulation, and the potential of high C sequestration despite planting in poor soil conditions, the interactive effects of soil condition, natural disturbance, and human policies on the ecosystem health of the plantation need to be further studied to fully realize the ecological and social benefits of the C equisetifolia shelterbelt forests in South China. PMID:24143236

Wang, Faming; Xu, Xin; Zou, Bi; Guo, Zhihua; Li, Zhian; Zhu, Weixing

2013-10-15

10

Soil carbon sequestration and changes in fungal and bacterial biomass following incorporation of forest residues.  

SciTech Connect

Sequestering carbon (C) in forest soils can benefit site fertility and help offset greenhouse gas emissions. However, identifying soil conditions and forest management practices which best promote C accumulation remains a challenging task. We tested whether soil incorporation of masticated woody residues alters short-term C storage at forested sites in western and southeastern USA. Our hypothesis was that woody residues would preferentially stimulate soil fungal biomass, resulting in improved C use efficiency and greater soil C storage. Harvest slash at loblolly pine sites in South Carolina was masticated (chipped) and either (1) retained on the soil surface, (2) tilled to a soil depth of 40 cm, or (3) tilled using at least twice the mass of organics. At comparative sites in California, live woody fuels in ponderosa pine stands were (1) masticated and surface applied, (2) masticated and tilled, or (3) left untreated. Sites with clayey and sandy soils were compared in each region, with residue additions ranging from 20 to 207 Mg ha_1. Total and active fungal biomass were not strongly affected by residue incorporation despite the high input of organics. Limited response was also found for total and active bacterial biomass. As a consequence, fungal:bacterial (F:B) biomass ratios were similar among treatments at each site. Total soil C was elevated at one California site following residue incorporation, yet was significantly lower compared to surface-applied residues at both loblolly pine sites, presumably due to the oxidative effects of tilling on soil organic matter. The findings demonstrated an inconsequential effect of residue incorporation on fungal and bacterial biomass and suggest a limited potential of such practices to enhance long-term soil C storage in these forests.

Busse, Matt, D.; Sanchez, Felipe G.; Ratcliff, Alice W.; Butnor, John R.; Carter, Emily A.; Powers, Robert F.

2009-01-01

11

Carbon sequestration in soils  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this article is to examine (a) the magnitude of the potential for carbon sequestration in the soil as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere, (b) some of the measures that might be used to achieve this potential, (c) the methods available for estimating carbon sequestration on a farm or regional level, (d) what is needed to achieve international consensus, and (e) additional information needs. This article is not presented as a definitive document but rather as an overview of where scientific opinion converges and where more work is needed. In addition, it aims to provoke discussion of the measures that can increase soil carbon sequestration and the policies that might be used to implement those measures.

Bruce, J.P. [Soil and Water Conservation Society, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Frome, M. [Soil and Water Conservation Society, Washington, DC (United States); Haites, E. [Margaree Consultants, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Janzen, H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta (Canada); Lal, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). School of Natural Resources; Paustian, K. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Natural Resource Ecology Lab.

1999-01-01

12

Carbon sequestration by switchgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), which is partly due to use of fossil fuel, is primarily responsible for global climate warming. Producing and using switchgrass for bioenergy can help reduce atmospheric CO2 buildup by partly replacing use of fossil fuels and by carbon (C) sequestration. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L) is a potential bioenergy crop suited to the southeastern U.S.

Zhiqin Ma

1999-01-01

13

Carbon Sequestration Monitoring Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In its 'Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan 2007' the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Office of Fossil Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) identified as a major objective extended field tests to fully characterize potential carbon dioxide (CO) storage sites and to demonstrate the long-term storage of sequestered carbon (p. 5). Among the challenges in this area are

Carol Frost

2010-01-01

14

Carbon Sequestration in Soil and Biomass Following Afforestation: Experiences from Oak and Norway Spruce Chronosequences in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited knowledge of the contribution of afforested arable land to mitigation of greenhouse effects. In the AFFOREST\\u000a project we evaluated the rate and magnitude of carbon (C) sequestration in biomass and soils following afforestation of cropland.\\u000a Two oak (Quercus robur) and four Norway spruce (Picea abies) afforestation chronosequences (age range 1 to 90 years) were studied with respect

L. Vesterdal; L. Rosenqvist; C. VAN DER SALM; K. Hansen; B.-J. Groenenberg; M.-B. Johansson

15

BIOMINERALIZATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to investigate biogeochemical processes utilizing metal-rich fly ash for carbon sequestration and metal immobilization. Metal-reducing bacteria enriched from fly ash ponds and extreme environments were capable of CO2 conversion into sparingly soluble carbonate minerals using metal-rich fly ash and lactate as an energy source in the presence of different atmospheres (80% N2-20% CO2, 80%

T. J. Phelps; Y. Roh

16

Carbon sequestration potential of tropical homegardens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the premise that tropical homegardens have a special role in carbon (C) sequestration because of their ability for carbon storage in the standing biomass, soil, and t he wood products. In doing so, it analyzes the potential for C storage in homegardens and the role of homegardens in reducing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Lack of reliable

B. M. KUMAR

17

Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves in the Ayeyarwady Delta is one of the most threatened ecosystems, and is rapidly disappearing as in many tropical countries. The deforestation and degradation of mangrove forest in the Ayeryarwady Delta results in the shortage of wood resources and declining of environmental services that have been provided by the mangrove ecosystem. Cyclone Nargis struck the Ayeyarwady Delta on 2 May 2008 with an intensity unprecedented in the history of Myanmar. The overexploitation of mangroves because of local demands for fuel wood and charcoal and the conversion of mangrove forest land into agricultural land or shrimp farms over the past decades have increased the loss of human life and the damage to settlements caused by the Cyclone.The biomass study was conducted in September of 2006 in Bogale Township in the Ayeyarwady Delta and continued monitoring in September of each year from 2007 to 2010. Above and below ground biomass was studied in six years old mangrove plantations of Avicenia marina (Am), Avicenia officinalis (Ao) and Sonneratia apetala (Sa) and a naturally regenerated stand under regeneration improving felling operation (NR: consists of Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera sexangula, and Aegicerus corniculatum) protected for seven years since 2000. These stands were established by small-scale Community Forestry scheme on abandoned paddy fields where natural mangroves once existed. Common allometric equations were developed for biomass estimation by performing regressions between dry weights of trees as dependent variables and biometric parameters such as stem diameter, height and wood density as independent variables. The above and below ground biomass in NR stand (70 Mg ha-1 and 104 Mg ha-1) was the greatest (P < 0.001), and followed by Sa plantation (69 Mg ha-1 and 32 Mg ha-1), Am plantation (25 Mg ha-1 and 27 Mg ha-1) and Ao plantation (21 Mg ha-1 and 26 Mg ha-1). The total carbon stock in biomass was 73 Mg C ha-1 in NR stand, 43 Mg C ha-1 in Sa plantation, 21 Mg C ha-1 in Am plantation and 18 Mg C ha-1 in Ao plantation respectively. The averaged total soil carbon stock up to 1 m soil depth in plantation site was estimated to be 167 ± 58 Mg C ha-1 which was nearly two times higher than that of current paddy fields 85 ± 17 Mg C ha-1. These facts suggest the feasibility of the mangrove plantation and induced natural regeneration as a carbon sequestration tool. The establishment of mangrove plantations appeared to be one measure for reducing the risk of cyclone damage after the Cyclone Nargis. This may reduce future human loss by cyclones and also improve the life of local people by increasing timber resources and environmental services.

Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

2011-12-01

18

Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A

Curtis Oldenburg; Margaret S. Torn

2008-01-01

19

Potential and economic efficiency of carbon sequestration in forest biomass through silvicultural management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has two main objectives: First, to discuss in principle some vital methodological issues which have to be considered when analyzing how preferable measures in forestry are to decrease the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Economic evaluation of the flow of carbon in and out of the atmosphere is discussed, related particularly to two important problems: (1) the

H. F. Hoen; B. Solberg

1994-01-01

20

Carbon Sequestration Monitoring Activities  

SciTech Connect

In its 'Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan 2007' the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Office of Fossil Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) identified as a major objective extended field tests to fully characterize potential carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage sites and to demonstrate the long-term storage of sequestered carbon (p. 5). Among the challenges in this area are 'improved understanding of CO{sub 2} flow and trapping within the reservoir and the development and deployment of technologies such as simulation models and monitoring systems' (p. 20). The University of Wyoming (UW), following consultations with the NETL, the Wyoming State Geological Survey, and the Governor's office, identified potential for geologic sequestration of impure carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in deep reservoirs of the Moxa Arch. The Moxa Arch is a 120-mile long north-south trending anticline plunging beneath the Wyoming Thrust Belt on the north and bounded on the south by the Uinta Mountains. Several oil and gas fields along the Moxa Arch contain accumulations of natural CO{sub 2}. The largest of these is the La Barge Platform, which encompasses approximately 800 square miles. Several formations may be suitable for storage of impure CO{sub 2} gas, foremost among them the Madison Limestone, Bighorn Dolomite, and Nugget Sandstone. This project responded to the challenges described above by preparing a geological site characterization study on the Moxa Arch. The project included four priority research areas: (A) geological characterization of geologic structure of the Arch, the fault, and fracture patterns of the target formations and caprocks, (B) experimental characterization of carbon dioxide-brine-rock reactions that may occur, (C) optimization of geophysical and numerical models necessary for measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV), and (D) a preliminary performance assessment. Research work to accomplish these goals was coordinated by one administrative task under the direction of Dr. Carol Frost, Professor of Geology and Geophysics (Task 1.0), and one task devoted to designing and creating an interdisciplinary, project-specific carbon cyberinfrastructure to support collaborative carbon dioxide sequestration research among University of Wyoming scientists and their collaborators, performed by Jeff Hammerlinck, Director of the Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center at the University of Wyoming (Task 1.5). The results of these tasks are presented in the Introduction and in Chapter 1, respectively.

Carol Frost

2010-11-30

21

Carbon sequestration and biomass energy offset: theoretical, potential and achievable capacities globally, in Europe and the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive literature on the capacity to offset fossil fuel carbon emissions by enhancing terrestrial carbon sinks or biomass energy substitution is confused by different interpretations of the word ‘potential’. This paper presents an overview of these capacities for the world, the EU15 countries and the UK over the next 50–100 years, divided into what are considered: (i) theoretical potential

Melvin G. R. Cannell

2003-01-01

22

BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring,

Susan M. Capalbo

2004-01-01

23

Carbon Sequestration and Land Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storing carbon (C) in soil as organic matter is not only a viable strategy to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, but is vital for improving the quality of soil. This presentation describes (1) C sequestration concepts\\u000a and rationale, (2) relevant management approaches to avoid land degradation and foster C sequestration, and (3) a summary\\u000a of research quantifying soil C sequestration.

Alan J. Franzluebbers; Paul C. Doraiswamy

24

Integrating science, economics and law into policy: The case of carbon sequestration in climate change policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon sequestration, the extraction and storage of carbon from the atmosphere by biomass, could potentially provide a cost-effective means to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. The claims on behalf of carbon sequestration may be inadvertently overstated, however. Several key observations emerge from this study. First, although carbon sequestration studies all report results in terms of dollars per ton, the definition

Kenneth Richards

1997-01-01

25

Biologically Enhanced Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are four trapping mechanisms proposed to play significant roles in the deep geologic sequestration of CO2: i) formation trapping, ii) capillary trapping, iii) solubility trapping, and iv) mineral trapping. Our research has shown that microbial biofilms are capable of enhancing formation trapping, solubility trapping, and mineral trapping under conditions found in brine aquifers targeted for geologic carbon sequestration. We

Robin Gerlach; Andrew C. Mitchell; Lee H. Spangler; Al B. Cunningham

2010-01-01

26

Carbon Sequestration in Mine Residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining of silicate rocks produces as waste a reactive, fine-grained residue that is an ideal feedstock for mineral sequestration of carbon. Natural weathering of Mg-silicate mine tailings is rapid because of the fine grain size, and produces mineral crusts that bind carbon. Stable and radiogenic carbon isotope fingerprinting on the minerals confirms an atmospheric carbon source. In active mines that

G. M. Dipple; G. Southam; I. Power; J. Thom; S. Wilson

2005-01-01

27

Accelerated Sequestration of Terrestrial Plant Biomass in the Deep Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most efficient uses of aboveground agricultural residues to reduce atmospheric CO2 is burial in sites removed from contact with the atmosphere and in which degradation of lignocellulose is inhibited (Strand and Benford 2009). Similarly by burying forest residues greater benefits for atmospheric carbon accrue compared to incineration or bioethanol production. Accessible planetary sites that are most removed from contact with the atmosphere are primarily the deep ocean sediments. Many deep ocean sediment ecologies are acclimated to massive inputs of terrestrial plant biomass. Nonetheless, marine degradation rates of lignocellulose are slower than terrestrial rates (Keil et al. 2010). Additionally, anaerobic conditions are easily achieved in many deep ocean sediments, inhibiting lignocellulose degradation further, while the dominance of sulfate in the water column as electron acceptor prevents the release of methane from methanogenesis to the atmosphere. The potential benefit of massive removal of excess terrestrial biomass to the deep ocean will be estimated and compared to other uses including biochar and BECS. The impact of the biomass on the marine environment will be discussed and potential sequestration sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic compared. Keil, R. G., J. M. Nuwer, et al. (2010). "Burial of agricultural byproducts in the deep sea as a form of carbon sequestration: A preliminary experiment." Marine Chemistry (In Press, online 6 August 2010). Strand, S. E. and G. Benford (2009). "Ocean sequestration of crop residue carbon: recycling fossil fuel carbon back to deep sediments." Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(4): 1000-1007.

Strand, S. E.

2010-12-01

28

Responses of Gmelina arborea, a tropical deciduous tree species, to elevated atmospheric CO2: growth, biomass productivity and carbon sequestration efficacy.  

PubMed

The photosynthetic response of trees to rising CO(2) concentrations largely depends on source-sink relations, in addition to differences in responsiveness by species, genotype, and functional group. Previous studies on elevated CO(2) responses in trees have either doubled the gas concentration (>700 ?mol mol(-1)) or used single large addition of CO(2) (500-600 ?mol mol(-1)). In this study, Gmelina arborea, a fast growing tropical deciduous tree species, was selected to determine the photosynthetic efficiency, growth response and overall source-sink relations under near elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration (460 ?mol mol(-1)). Net photosynthetic rate of Gmelina was ~30% higher in plants grown in elevated CO(2) compared with ambient CO(2)-grown plants. The elevated CO(2) concentration also had significant effect on photochemical and biochemical capacities evidenced by changes in F(V)/F(M), ABS/CSm, ET(0)/CSm and RuBPcase activity. The study also revealed that elevated CO(2) conditions significantly increased absolute growth rate, above ground biomass and carbon sequestration potential in Gmelina which sequestered ~2100 g tree(-1) carbon after 120 days of treatment when compared to ambient CO(2)-grown plants. Our data indicate that young Gmelina could accumulate significant biomass and escape acclimatory down-regulation of photosynthesis due to high source-sink capacity even with an increase of 100 ?mo lmol(-1) CO(2). PMID:21889049

Rasineni, Girish K; Guha, Anirban; Reddy, Attipalli R

2011-07-26

29

Carbon Sequestration Research and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, res...

A. Palmisano A. Wolsky B. Kane D. Reichle G. Hendrey G. Jacobs H. Herzog J. Clarke J. Ekmann J. Houghton J. Hunter-Cevera J. Ogden J. Stringer M. York N. Woodward R. Dahlman R. Judkins R. Socolow S. Benson T. Surles

1999-01-01

30

Soil carbon sequestration in phytoliths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the organic carbon occluded within phytoliths (referred to in this text as ‘PhytOC‘) in carbon sequestration in some soils is examined. The results show that PhytOC can be a substantial component of total organic carbon in soil. PhytOC is highly resistant to decomposition compared to other soil organic carbon components in the soil environments examined accounting for

Jeffrey F Parr; Leigh A Sullivan

2005-01-01

31

Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass as a route for the sequestration of CO 2: Chemical and structural properties of the carbonized products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly functionalized carbonaceous material (hydrochar) was obtained by means of the hydrothermal carbonization (250 °C) of two representative types of biomass, i.e. eucalyptus sawdust and barley straw. This product has a brown colour; it contains around 50–60% of the carbon originally present in the biomass and it is composed of particles that retain the cellular appearance of the raw material.

Marta Sevilla; Juan Antonio Maciá-Agulló; Antonio B. Fuertes

2011-01-01

32

Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial  

Microsoft Academic Search

To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a

N. Zeng

2007-01-01

33

Carbon sequestration via wood burial  

Microsoft Academic Search

To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently

Ning Zeng

2008-01-01

34

Carbon sequestration and land degradation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Storing carbon (C) in soil as organic matter is not only a viable strategy to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, but is vital for improving the quality of soil. This presentation describes (1) C sequestration concepts and rationale, (2) relevant management approaches to avoid land degradation and fo...

35

Soil Carbon Sequestration in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a large land area and diverse ecoregions, there is a considerable potential of terrestrial\\/soil carbon sequestration in India. Of the total land area of 329 million hectares (Mha), 297 Mha is the land area comprising 162 Mha of arable land, 69 Mha of forest and woodland, 11 Mha of permanent pasture, 8 Mha of permanent crops and 58 Mha

R. Lal

2004-01-01

36

Carbon Sequestration: State of the Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Energy has released this report (.pdf format) entitled Carbon Sequestration: State of the Science. Divided into nine sections, the report covers separation and capture of carbon dioxide, carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, ocean sequestration, carbon sequestration in geological formations, and advanced chemical and biological approaches to sequestration. Heavy on high-tech solutions (and low on human restraint), the section entitled Detailed Descriptions of Ecosystems will be of particular interest to ecologists, as it describes how each ecosystem, with assistance from human technology (genetics, etc.), can reach its full potential as a carbon garbage can.

1999-01-01

37

Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

CSiTE, the Department of Energy's research consortium performs fundamental research in support of new methods to enhance carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems in an environmentally acceptable manner. The goal of CSiTE is to discover and characterize links between critical pathways and mechanisms across scales from the molecular to the landscape for creating larger, longer-lasting carbon pools in terrestrial ecosystems. This

G. K. Jacobs; W. M. Post; J. D. Jastrow; R. C. Izaurralde

2002-01-01

38

Carbon sequestration and rangelands: A synthesis of land management and precipitation effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of rangelands can aid in the mitigation of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations via carbon storage in biomass and soil organic matter, a process termed carbon sequestration. Here we provide a review of current knowledge on the effects of land management practices (grazing, nitrogen inputs, and restoration) and precipitation on carbon sequestration in rangelands. Although there was no statistical

J. D. Derner; G. E. Schuman

39

Carbon emissions and sequestration potential of Central African ecosystems.  

PubMed

Joint Implementation under the Climate Change Convention and Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol require a scientific understanding of current carbon stocks, fluxes, and sequestration potential, especially in tropical ecosystems where there are large carbon reservoirs, significant carbon emissions, and large land areas available for reforestation. Central Africa contains 10% of the world's remaining tropical moist forests and has received little attention in carbon studies. In 1980, above-ground carbon stocks in the central African ecosystem were 28.92 Pg and were reduced to 24.79 Pg by 1990. Improved forest management aimed at increasing biomass density could sequester 18.32 Pg of carbon, and over 500,000 km2 formerly forested land will be available by 2050 for reforestation with a capacity to offset 10 Pg carbon. Understanding the spatial distribution of biomass carbon and sequestration potential will be essential for carbon trading initiatives through Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. PMID:11757283

Zhang, Q; Justice, C O

2001-09-01

40

Hurricane impacts on US forest carbon sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent focus has been given to US forests as a sink for increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Current estimates of US forest carbon sequestration average approximately 20 Tg (i.e. 1012 g) year. However, predictions of forest carbon sequestration often do not include the influence of hurricanes on forest carbon storage. Intense hurricanes occur two out of three years across the

Steven G McNulty

2002-01-01

41

Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

SciTech Connect

The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Deliverables for the 7th Quarter reporting period include (1) for the geological efforts: Reports on Technology Needs and Action Plan on the Evaluation of Geological Sinks and Pilot Project Deployment (Deliverables 2 and 3), and Report on the Feasibility of Mineralization Trapping in the Snake River Plain Basin (Deliverable 14); (2) for the terrestrial efforts: Report on the Evaluation of Terrestrial Sinks and a Report of the Best Production Practices for Soil C Sequestration (Deliverables 8 and 15). In addition, the 7th Quarter activities for the Partnership included further development of the proposed activities for the deployment and demonstration phase of the carbon sequestration pilots including geological and terrestrial pilots, expansion of the Partnership to encompass regions and institutions that are complimentary to the steps we have identified, building greater collaborations with industry and stakeholders in the region, contributed to outreach efforts that spanned all partnerships, co-authorship on the Carbon Capture and Separation report, and developed a regional basis to address future energy opportunities in the region. The deliverables and activities are discussed in the following sections and appended to this report. The education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. The public website has been expanded and integrated with the GIS carbon atlas. We have made presentations to stakeholders and policy makers including two tribal sequestration workshops, and made connections to other federal and state agencies concerned with GHG emissions, climate change, and efficient and environmental

Susan M. Capalbo

2005-11-01

42

BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the first performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first Partnership meeting the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Complementary to the efforts on evaluation of sources and sinks is the development of the Big Sky Partnership Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (BSP-CC) and a GIS Road Map for the Partnership. These efforts will put in place a map-based integrated information management system for our Partnership, with transferability to the national carbon sequestration effort. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but other policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long term viability. A series of meetings held in November and December, 2003, have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding the implementation of a market-based setting for soil C credits. These include the impact of existing local, state, and federal permitting issues for terrestrial based carbon sequestration projects, consistency of final protocols and planning standards with national requirements, and alignments of carbon sequestration projects with existing federal and state cost-share programs. Finally, the education and outreach efforts during this performance period have resulted in a comprehensive plan which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. The primary goal of this plan is to increase awareness, understanding, and public acceptance of sequestration efforts and build support for a constituent based network which includes the initial Big Sky Partnership and other local and regional businesses and entities.

Susan M. Capalbo

2004-01-04

43

Terrestrial carbon sequestration potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuel use and land use change that began over 200 years ago are driving the rapid increase in atmospheric content of CO2 and other greenhouse gases that may be impacting on climatic change. Enhanced terrestrial uptake of CO2 over the next 50 to 100 years has been suggested as a way to reclaim the 150 or more Pg carbon

METTING Blaine

44

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

SciTech Connect

The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

Kenneth J. Nemeth

2006-08-30

45

A Sustainability Initiative to Quantify Carbon Sequestration by Campus Trees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over 3,900 trees on a university campus were inventoried by an instructor-led team of geography undergraduates in order to quantify the carbon sequestration associated with biomass growth. The setting of the project is described, together with its logistics, methodology, outcomes, and benefits. This hands-on project provided a team of students…

Cox, Helen M.

2012-01-01

46

BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed in the second quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO2 concentrations. While no key deliverables were due during the third quarter, progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations and in this report. A series of meetings held during the second and third quarters have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding carbon sequestration in this region, the need for a holistic approach to meeting energy demands and economic development potential, and the implementation of government programs or a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. A third Partnership meeting has been planned for August 04 in Idaho Falls; a preliminary agenda is attached.

Susan M. Capalbo

2004-06-30

47

Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

SciTech Connect

The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated has significant potential to sequester large amounts of CO{sub 2}. Simulations conducted to evaluate mineral trapping potential of mafic volcanic rock formations located in the Idaho province suggest that supercritical CO{sub 2} is converted to solid carbonate mineral within a few hundred years and permanently entombs the carbon. Although MMV for this rock type may be challenging, a carefully chosen combination of geophysical and geochemical techniques should allow assessment of the fate of CO{sub 2} in deep basalt hosted aquifers. Terrestrial carbon sequestration relies on land management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO{sub 2} where it is stored in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration can be implemented today and is on the front line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil Carbon (C) on rangelands, and forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Rangelands can store up to an additional 0.05 mt C/ha/yr, while the croplands are on average four times that amount. Estimates of technical potential for soil sequestration within the region in cropland are in the range of 2.0 M mt C/yr over 20 year time horizon. This is equivalent to approximately 7.0 M mt CO{sub 2}e/yr. The forestry sinks are well documented, and the potential in the Big Sky region ranges from 9-15 M mt CO{sub 2} equivalent per year. Value-added benefits include enhanced yields, reduced erosion, and increased wildlife habitat. Thus the terrestrial sinks provide a viable, environmentally beneficial, and relatively low cost sink that is available to sequester C in the current time frame. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological and terrestrial sequestration re

Susan Capalbo

2005-12-31

48

Enhancement of Carbon Sequestration in US Soils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience journal is about the importance of improving land management to increase carbon sequestration in US soils. Improved practices in agriculture, forestry, and land management could be used to increase soil carbon and thereby significantly reduce the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Understanding biological and edaphic processes that increase and retain soil carbon can lead to specific manipulations that enhance soil carbon sequestration. These manipulations, however, will only be suitable for adoption if they are technically feasible over large areas, economically competitive with alternative measures to offset greenhouse gas emissions, and environmentally beneficial. Here we present the elements of an integrated evaluation of soil carbon sequestration methods.

WILFRED M. POST, R. CESAR IZAURRALDE, JULIE D. JASTROW, BRUCE A. McCARL, JAMES E. AMONETTE, VANESSA L. BAILEY, PHILIP M. JARDINE, TRISTRAM O. WEST, and JIZHONG ZHOU (;)

2004-10-01

49

BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies.

Susan M. Capalbo

2005-01-31

50

Plant functional traits and soil carbon sequestration in contrasting biomes.  

PubMed

Plant functional traits control a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes, including soil carbon storage which is a key component of the global carbon cycle. Plant traits regulate net soil carbon storage by controlling carbon assimilation, its transfer and storage in belowground biomass, and its release from soil through respiration, fire and leaching. However, our mechanistic understanding of these processes is incomplete. Here, we present a mechanistic framework, based on the plant traits that drive soil carbon inputs and outputs, for understanding how alteration of vegetation composition will affect soil carbon sequestration under global changes. First, we show direct and indirect plant trait effects on soil carbon input and output through autotrophs and heterotrophs, and through modification of abiotic conditions, which need to be considered to determine the local carbon sequestration potential. Second, we explore how the composition of key plant traits and soil biota related to carbon input, release and storage prevail in different biomes across the globe, and address the biome-specific mechanisms by which plant trait composition may impact on soil carbon sequestration. We propose that a trait-based approach will help to develop strategies to preserve and promote carbon sequestration. PMID:18279352

De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Bardgett, Richard D

2008-02-13

51

Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In such areas soil carbon usually increases at a faster initial rate compared to agricultural land which means that these areas could provide high level of carbon sequestration service in the short term. The approach will be broadened to include assessment of other ecosystem services provided by ACS in Germany which would increase the possibility to adequately compensate farmers for the supply of environmental benefits. Keywords: agroforestry, biomass production, carbon sequestration, ecosystem services, marginal sites

Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.

2012-04-01

52

Carbon sequestration via wood burial.  

PubMed

To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink.It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 +/- 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized.Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

Zeng, Ning

2008-01-03

53

Carbon sequestration research and development  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

1999-12-31

54

Estimating Leakage from Forest Carbon Sequestration Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leakage from forest carbon sequestration—the amount of a program’s direct carbon benefits undermined by carbon releases elsewhere—depends critically on demanders’ ability to substitute non-reserved timber for timber targeted by the program. Analytic, econometric, and sector-level optimization models are combined to estimate leakage from different forest carbon sequestration activities. Empirical estimates for the U.S. show leakage ranges from minimal (<10 percent)

Brian C. Murray; Bruce A. McCarl; Heng-Chi Lee

2004-01-01

55

Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

2008-03-21

56

Challenges and Opportunities for Biochar as Carbon Sequestration Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochar, the charcoal-like product resulting from the pyrolysis of biomass, is a substance capable of carbon sequestration and other benefits including increased fertilizer and water-use efficiency, decreased soil methane and nitrous oxide emissions, and improved habitat for microbial colonization. Optimistic projections suggest a full-fledged biochar regime could potentially sequester 1.8 Gt of carbon dioxide annually. However, critical aspects of this

J. C. Arnott; M. Williams

2010-01-01

57

Regional partnerships lead US carbon sequestration efforts  

SciTech Connect

During the sixth annual conference on carbon capture and sequestration, 7-10 May 2007, a snapshot was given of progress on characterization efforts and field validation tests being carried out through the Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnership Initiative. The initiative is built on the recognition that geographical differences in fossil fuel/energy use and CO{sub 2} storage sinks across North America will dictate approaches to carbon sequestration. The first characterization phase (2003-2005) identified regional opportunities and developed frameworks to validate and deploy technologies. The validation phase (2005-2009) includes 10 enhanced oil recovery/enhanced gas recovery field tests in progress in Alberta and six US states and is applying lessons learned from these operations to sequestration in unmineable coal seams. Storage in saline formations are the focus of 10 field tests, and terrestrial sequestration will be studied in 11 other projects. 1 tab., 3 photos.

NONE

2007-07-01

58

Biomass production and C-sequestration of Gmelina arborea in plantation and agroforestry system in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree based land use systems make a valuable contribution to sequester carbon and improve productivity and nutrient cycling\\u000a within the systems. This study was conducted to determine biomass production, C-sequestration and nitrogen allocation in Gmelina arborea planted as sole and agrisilviculture system on abandoned agricultural land. At 5 years, total stand biomass in agrisilviculture\\u000a system was 14.1 Mg ha?1. Plantations had 35% higher

S. L. Swamy; Sunil Puri

2005-01-01

59

The impact of carbon geological sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although CO2 geological sequestration is the most popular carbon storage method promoted and pilot tested, the economic feasibility and technical risks for commercial scale sequestration projects are rarely mentioned. More significant is that, apart from rhetorical pronouncements, the would-be impact of the operation on climate change is not discussed. This work studies the technical risks, regulatory issues, and economic burden

Xina Xie; Michael J. Economides

2009-01-01

60

Mechanisms of Carbon Sequestration in Soil Aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and crop management practices have a profound impact on carbon (C) sequestration, but the mechanisms of interaction between soil structure and soil organic C (SOC) dynamics are not well understood. Understanding how an aggregate stores and protects SOC is essential to developing proper management practices to enhance SOC sequestration. The objectives of this article are to: (1) describe the

Humberto Blanco-Canqui; Rattan Lal

2004-01-01

61

How to Enhance Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Optimizing crop yields and reducing soil erosion can enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. The influence of management practices on crop residue C and N inputs to the soil, SOC sequestration, and NO3-N leaching potential under irrigated, continuous crop production in northern Texas was e...

62

Measuring Carbon Sequestration in Pasture Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conversion of croplands to pasture can greatly increase sequestration of carbon in soil organic matter, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and helping to reduce the impacts of climate change. The measurement of soil carbon, and its limitations, could impact future carbon credit programs. ...

63

Nitrogen deposition and carbon sequestration in alpine meadows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen deposition experiments were carried out in alpine meadow ecosystems in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau in China, in order to explore the contribution of nitrogen deposition to carbon sequestration in alpine meadows. Two methods were used in this respect. First, we used the allocation of 15N tracer to soil and plant pools. Second, we used increased root biomass observed in the nitrogen-amended

Xingliang Xu; Hua Ouyang; Guangmin Cao; Zhiyong Pei; Caiping Zhou

2004-01-01

64

Trade-based carbon sequestration accounting.  

PubMed

This article describes and illustrates an accounting method to assess and compare "early" carbon sequestration investments and trades on the basis of the number of standardized CO2 emission offset credits they will provide. The "gold standard" for such credits is assumed to be a relatively riskless credit based on a CO2 emission reduction that provides offsets against CO2 emissions on a one-for-one basis. The number of credits associated with carbon sequestration needs to account for time, risk, durability, permanence, additionality, and other factors that future trade regulators will most certainly use to assign "official" credits to sequestration projects. The method that is presented here uses established principles of natural resource accounting and conventional rules of asset valuation to "score" projects. A review of 20 "early" voluntary United States based CO2 offset trades that involve carbon sequestration reveals that the assumptions that buyers, sellers, brokers, and traders are using to characterize the economic potential of their investments and trades vary enormously. The article develops a "universal carbon sequestration credit scoring equation" and uses two of these trades to illustrate the sensitivity of trade outcomes to various assumptions about how future trade auditors are likely to "score" carbon sequestration projects in terms of their "equivalency" with CO2 emission reductions. The article emphasizes the importance of using a standard credit scoring method that accounts for time and risk to assess and compare even unofficial prototype carbon sequestration trades. The scoring method illustrated in this article is a tool that can protect the integrity of carbon sequestration credit trading and can assist buyers and sellers in evaluating the real economic potential of prospective trades. PMID:15453408

King, Dennis M

2004-04-01

65

The leaky sink: persistent obstacles to a forest carbon sequestration program based on individual projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

One strategy for mitigating the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide is to expand the size of the terrestrial carbon sink, particularly forests, essentially using trees as biological scrubbers. Within relevant ranges of carbon abatement targets, augmenting carbon sequestration by protecting and expanding biomass sinks can potentially make large contributions at costs that are comparable or lower than for emission source

Kenneth Richards; Krister Andersson

2001-01-01

66

Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact  

SciTech Connect

Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost-benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO{sub 2}. Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It moderates the problem of global warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

Kula, Erhun, E-mail: erhun.kula@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey); Gunalay, Yavuz, E-mail: yavuz.gunalay@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Business Studies, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

2012-11-15

67

Genome-enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes  

SciTech Connect

The fate of carbon below ground is likely to be a major factor determining the success of carbon sequestration strategies involving plants. Despite their importance, molecular processes controlling belowground C allocation and partitioning are poorly understood. This project is leveraging the Populus trichocarpa genome sequence to discover genes important to C sequestration in plants and soils. The focus is on the identification of genes that provide key control points for the flow and chemical transformations of carbon in roots, concentrating on genes that control the synthesis of chemical forms of carbon that result in slower turnover rates of soil organic matter (i.e., increased recalcitrance). We propose to enhance carbon allocation and partitioning to roots by 1) modifying the auxin signaling pathway, and the invertase family, which controls sucrose metabolism, and by 2) increasing root proliferation through transgenesis with genes known to control fine root proliferation (e.g., ANT), 3) increasing the production of recalcitrant C metabolites by identifying genes controlling secondary C metabolism by a major mQTL-based gene discovery effort, and 4) increasing aboveground productivity by enhancing drought tolerance to achieve maximum C sequestration. This broad, integrated approach is aimed at ultimately enhancing root biomass as well as root detritus longevity, providing the best prospects for significant enhancement of belowground C sequestration.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Zhang, Xinye [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; Basu, Manojit M [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Campbell, Alina S [ORNL; DiFazio, Stephen P [ORNL; Davis, John M [University of Florida; Hinchee, Maud [ORNL; Pinnacchio, Christa [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Meilan, R [Purdue University; Busov, V. [Michigan Technological University; Strauss, S [Oregon State University

2009-01-01

68

Carbon Sequestration under Irrigated Switchgrass Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Innovative strategies to mitigate threats of global climate change warrant evaluation of crops capable of producing high biomass for both energy generation and promotion of soil organic matter through C sequestration. Bioenergy crops have the potential to reduce the rate of atmospheric CO2 enrichmen...

69

Making carbon sequestration a paying proposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased from a preindustrial concentration of about 280 ppm to about 367 ppm at present. The increase has closely followed the increase in CO2 emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Global warming caused by increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the major environmental challenge for the 21st century. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO2 requires multiple mitigation pathways, including reductions in energy consumption, more efficient use of available energy, the application of renewable energy sources, and sequestration. Sequestration is a major tool for managing carbon emissions. In a majority of cases CO2 is viewed as waste to be disposed; however, with advanced technology, carbon sequestration can become a value-added proposition. There are a number of potential opportunities that render sequestration economically viable. In this study, we review these most economically promising opportunities and pathways of carbon sequestration, including reforestation, best agricultural production, housing and furniture, enhanced oil recovery, coalbed methane (CBM), and CO2 hydrates. Many of these terrestrial and geological sequestration opportunities are expected to provide a direct economic benefit over that obtained by merely reducing the atmospheric CO2 loading. Sequestration opportunities in 11 states of the Southeast and South Central United States are discussed. Among the most promising methods for the region include reforestation and CBM. The annual forest carbon sink in this region is estimated to be 76 Tg C/year, which would amount to an expenditure of 11.1-13.9 billion/year. Best management practices could enhance carbon sequestration by 53.9 Tg C/year, accounting for 9.3% of current total annual regional greenhouse gas emission in the next 20 years. Annual carbon storage in housing, furniture, and other wood products in 1998 was estimated to be 13.9 Tg C in the region. Other sequestration options, including the direct injection of CO2 in deep saline aquifers, mineralization, and biomineralization, are not expected to lead to direct economic gain. More detailed studies are needed for assessing the ultimate changes to the environment and the associated indirect cost savings for carbon sequestration.

Han, Fengxiang X.; Lindner, Jeff S.; Wang, Chuji

2007-03-01

70

Making carbon sequestration a paying proposition.  

PubMed

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has increased from a preindustrial concentration of about 280 ppm to about 367 ppm at present. The increase has closely followed the increase in CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Global warming caused by increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the major environmental challenge for the 21st century. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO(2) requires multiple mitigation pathways, including reductions in energy consumption, more efficient use of available energy, the application of renewable energy sources, and sequestration. Sequestration is a major tool for managing carbon emissions. In a majority of cases CO(2) is viewed as waste to be disposed; however, with advanced technology, carbon sequestration can become a value-added proposition. There are a number of potential opportunities that render sequestration economically viable. In this study, we review these most economically promising opportunities and pathways of carbon sequestration, including reforestation, best agricultural production, housing and furniture, enhanced oil recovery, coalbed methane (CBM), and CO(2) hydrates. Many of these terrestrial and geological sequestration opportunities are expected to provide a direct economic benefit over that obtained by merely reducing the atmospheric CO(2) loading. Sequestration opportunities in 11 states of the Southeast and South Central United States are discussed. Among the most promising methods for the region include reforestation and CBM. The annual forest carbon sink in this region is estimated to be 76 Tg C/year, which would amount to an expenditure of $11.1-13.9 billion/year. Best management practices could enhance carbon sequestration by 53.9 Tg C/year, accounting for 9.3% of current total annual regional greenhouse gas emission in the next 20 years. Annual carbon storage in housing, furniture, and other wood products in 1998 was estimated to be 13.9 Tg C in the region. Other sequestration options, including the direct injection of CO(2) in deep saline aquifers, mineralization, and biomineralization, are not expected to lead to direct economic gain. More detailed studies are needed for assessing the ultimate changes to the environment and the associated indirect cost savings for carbon sequestration. PMID:17103136

Han, Fengxiang X; Lindner, Jeff S; Wang, Chuji

2006-11-14

71

The carbon-sequestration potential of municipal wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

The lack of proper wastewater treatment results in production of CO(2) and CH(4) without the opportunity for carbon sequestration and energy recovery, with deleterious effects for global warming. Without extending wastewater treatment to all urban areas worldwide, CO(2) and CH(4) emissions associated with wastewater discharges could reach the equivalent of 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025, with even more dramatic impact in the short-term. The carbon sequestration benefits of wastewater treatment have enormous potential, which adds an energy conservation incentive to upgrading existing facilities to complete wastewater treatment. The potential greenhouse gases discharges which can be converted to a net equivalent CO(2) credit can be as large as 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025 by 2025. Biomass sequestration and biogas conversion energy recovery are the two main strategies for carbon sequestration and emission offset, respectively. The greatest potential for improvement is outside Europe and North America, which have largely completed treatment plant construction. Europe and North America can partially offset their CO(2) emissions and receive benefits through the carbon emission trading system, as established by the Kyoto protocol, by extending existing technologies or subsidizing wastewater treatment plant construction in urban areas lacking treatment. This strategy can help mitigate global warming, in addition to providing a sustainable solution for extending the health, environmental, and humanitarian benefits of proper sanitation. PMID:17923147

Rosso, Diego; Stenstrom, Michael K

2007-10-17

72

Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has been proposed as a key component in technological portfolios for managing anthropogenic climate change,\\u000a since it may provide a faster and cheaper route to significant reductions in atmospheric CO2 concentrations than abating CO2 production. However, CO2 sequestration is not a perfect substitute for CO2 abatement because CO2 may leak back into the atmosphere (thus imposing

Klaus Keller; David McInerney; David F. Bradford

2008-01-01

73

SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION  

SciTech Connect

The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of October 1, 2004--March 31, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Action plans for possible Phase 2 carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are completed, and a proposal was developed and submitted describing how the Partnership may develop and carry out appropriate pilot tests. The content of this report focuses on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period.

Brian McPherson

2005-08-01

74

A management tool for estimating bioenergy production and carbon sequestration in Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens grown as short rotation woody crops in north-west Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes stand level models for estimating biomass yield, total energy and carbon sequestration in Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens plantations, on the basis of measurements made in 131 plots established at the usual range of initial forest densities for southwestern Europe. The timber volume, total aboveground biomass, logging residue biomass, crown biomass, carbon in aboveground biomass and soil

César Pérez-Cruzado; Agustín Merino; Roque Rodríguez-Soalleiro

2011-01-01

75

An Optimal Control Model of Forest Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops an optimal control model of carbon sequestration and energy abatement to explore the potential role of forests in greenhouse gas mitigation. The article shows that if carbon accumulates in the atmosphere, the rental price for carbon sequestration should rise over time. From an empirical model, we find that carbon sequestration is costly, but that landowners can sequester

Brent Sohngen; Robert Mendelsohn

2003-01-01

76

Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Southwest Regional Partnership (SWP) on Carbon Sequestration designed and deployed a medium-scale field pilot test of geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the Aneth oil field. Greater Aneth oil field, Utah's largest oil producer, was discove...

J. Rutledge

2011-01-01

77

Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recognizing the importance of carbon sequestration, the U.S. DOE established the Carbon Sequestration Program in 1997. The Program, which is administered within the Office of Fossil Energy by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, seeks to move seques...

2004-01-01

78

Connecting Carbon Sequestration Science With Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is science ready for carbon sequestration policy? Interest in carbon sequestration as an option for decreasing CO2 emissions, or reducing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, is accelerating in Congress, and legislation is being introduced that includes some form of direct or indirect carbon capture and storage. In many respects carbon sequestration is an ideal opportunity to connect science and engineering directly to policy solutions. For Earth scientists, it involves reservoir characterization using geology and geophysics, multi-phase fluid flow studies, measuring carbon sinks and sources, modeling carbon fluxes between the ocean, land surface, and atmosphere, exploring the long-term behavior of carbon in oceans and forests, and a host of other scientifically interesting topics. For policy makers, the science will need to connect with their questions about long-term reliability of geological reservoirs, environmental protection of ground water resources and human health, ownership of pore space and liability for stored CO2, efficacy of conservation tillage and other land-use practices for carbon storage, accuracy of measuring carbon uptake in trees, plants, and soils, and other issues that matter in a carbon-constrained world where CO2 is tallied and traded by the tonne. Are policy makers well- informed, misinformed, or uninformed about the level of scientific knowledge and uncertainty, for example, regarding the long-term behavior of carbon sequestered in deep saline reservoirs, northern boreal forests, Iowa soils, or in the Southern Ocean? Carbon sequestration is an opportunity for scientists to inform policy makers in real-time, and a chance for policy makers to tap a rich body of knowledge before setting long-term policy.

Folger, P. F.

2007-12-01

79

Assessing The Effectiveness Of Soil Carbon Sequestration In North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil carbon sequestration has been shown to be an important part of a portfolio of carbon sequestration strategies in the U.S. and Canada, and one that can be implemented at relatively low costs. This analysis focuses on the estimate of carbon sequestration in soil as a result of a change from conventional plow tillage (CT) to no-till (NT) in North

A. K. Jain; X. Yang; W. Post

2006-01-01

80

Poverty, Risk and the Adoption of Soil Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore the incentives of low income agricultural producers to adopt soil carbon sequestration, focusing particularly on the impact of risk. A dynamic optimization model of the farm level decision to adopt conservation is then presented, where farmers' optimize over the expected utility of profits from agricultural and carbon sequestration activities. Carbon sequestration adoption impacts on agricultural

Joshua Graff-Zivin; Leslie Lipper

81

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: An Introduction  

SciTech Connect

The success of human and industrial development over the past hundred years has lead to a huge increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission to the atmosphere leading to an unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. This increased CO2 content is believed to be responsible for a significant increase in global temperature over the past several decades. Global-scale climate modeling suggests that this temperature increase will continue at least over the next few hundred years leading to glacial melting, and raising seawater levels. In an attempt to attenuate this possibility, many have proposed the large scale sequestration of CO2 from our atmosphere. This introduction presents a summary of some of the evidence linking increasing atmosphere CO2 concentration to global warming and our efforts to stem this rise though CO2 sequestration.

Oelkers, Dr. Eric [University of Toulouse, France; Cole, David R [ORNL

2008-01-01

82

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-06-01

83

Increasing long term soil carbon sequestration in agriculture and forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial carbon sequestration is fundamental to the global carbon cycle and is being utilised to counter increases in anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Although soil organic carbon dominates the terrestrial carbon cycle in terms of total quantity, the long term sequestration of soil organic carbon in the Holocene was relatively low (<1 % of net primary production). Consequently there is a

Leigh A Sullivan; Jeffrey F Parr

2006-01-01

84

Carbon Sequestration Monitoring Activities, (Final Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In its 'Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan 2007' the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Office of Fossil Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) identified as a major objective extended field tests to fully characterize po...

C. Frost

2010-01-01

85

Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the

Halil Berberoglu

2008-01-01

86

The urgent need for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The danger of global warming has put in question the use of fossil fuels which constitute the most abundant and most reliable energy resource. Meeting the ever growing world demand for cheap energy, while simultaneously achieving the required drastic reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions can only be accomplished by actively preventing carbon dioxide generated in the combustion of fuels from accumulating in the atmosphere, i.e. by sequestration. Sequestration is possible and economically viable and is currently the only realistic solution to the dilemma of CO{sub 2} emissions. The authors have developed a very promising approach that disposes of carbon dioxide by chemically combining it in an exothermic reaction with readily available minerals to form carbonates. The resulting carbonates are stable solids that are known to be environmentally benign and to be stable on geological time scales. This stands in contrast to most other methods that do not appear to fully solve the long term problem.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Jensen, R.; Ziock, H.

1998-09-01

87

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Coal Formations  

SciTech Connect

BP Corporation North America, Inc. (BP) currently operates a nitrogen enhanced recovery project for coal bed methane at the Tiffany Field in the San Juan Basin, Colorado. The project is the largest and most significant of its kind wherein gas is injected into a coal seam to recover methane by competitive adsorption and stripping. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and BP both recognize that this process also holds significant promise for the sequestration of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, while economically enhancing the recovery of methane from coal. BP proposes to conduct a CO2 injection pilot at the tiffany Field to assess CO2 sequestration potential in coal. For its part the INEEL will analyze information from this pilot with the intent to define the Co2 sequestration capacity of coal and its ultimate role in ameliorating the adverse effects of global warming on the nation and the world.

None

2001-09-30

88

Site Characterization and Selection Guidelines for Geological Carbon Sequestration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a key technology pathway to substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the state of California and the western region. Current estimates suggest that the sequestration resource of the state is large, an...

S. J. Friedmann

2007-01-01

89

Carbon sequestration research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (COâ) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual''

Dave Reichle; John Houghton; Bob Kane; Jim Ekmann

1999-01-01

90

Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation  

SciTech Connect

Carbonation of formation minerals converts low viscosity supercritical CO2 injected into deep saline reservoirs for geologic sequestration into an immobile form. Until recently the scientific focus of mineralization reactions with reservoir rocks has been those that follow an aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation mechanism, driven by the sharp reduction in pH that occurs with CO2 partitioning into the aqueous phase. For sedimentary basin formations the kinetics of aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation reactions are sufficiently slow to make the role of mineralization trapping insignificant over a century period. For basaltic saline formations aqueous-phase mineralization progresses at a substantially higher rate, making the role of mineralization trapping significant, if not dominant, over a century period. The overlooked mineralization reactions for both sedimentary and basaltic saline formations, however, are those that occur in liquid or supercritical CO2 phase; where, dissolved water appears to play a catalyst role in the formation of carbonate minerals. A model is proposed in this paper that describes mineral carbonation over sequestration reservoir conditions ranging from dissolved CO2 in aqueous brine to dissolved water in supercritical CO2. The model theory is based on a review of recent experiments directed at understanding the role of water in mineral carbonation reactions of interest in geologic sequestration systems occurring under low water contents.

White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Wurstner, Signe K.

2011-04-01

91

Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state government agencies and universities, five major electric utility companies, seven oil, gas and coal companies, three federal agencies, the Navajo Nation, several NGOs, and the Western Governors Association. This group is continuing its work in the Phase II Validation Program, slated to conclude in 2009.

Brian McPherson

2006-03-31

92

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB)  

SciTech Connect

The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is a diverse partnership covering eleven states involving the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) an interstate compact; regulatory agencies and/or geological surveys from member states; the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); academic institutions; a Native American enterprise; and multiple entities from the private sector. Figure 1 shows the team structure for the partnership. In addition to the Technical Team, the Technology Coalition, an alliance of auxiliary participants, in the project lends yet more strength and support to the project. The Technology Coalition, with its diverse representation of various sectors, is integral to the technical information transfer, outreach, and public perception activities of the partnership. The Technology Coalition members, shown in Figure 2, also provide a breadth of knowledge and capabilities in the multiplicity of technologies needed to assure a successful outcome to the project and serve as an extremely important asset to the partnership. The eleven states comprising the multi-state region are: Alabama; Arkansas; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Mississippi; North Carolina; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; and Virginia. The states making up the SECARB area are illustrated in Figure 3. The primary objectives of the SECARB project include: (1) Supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program by promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. This requires the development of relevant data to reduce the uncertainties and risks that are barriers to sequestration, especially for geologic storage in the SECARB region. Information and knowledge are the keys to establishing a regional carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage industry with public acceptance. (2) Supporting the President's Global Climate Change Initiative with the goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by 2012. A corollary to the first objective, this objective requires the development of a broad awareness across government, industry, and the general public of sequestration issues and establishment of the technological and legal frameworks necessary to achieve the President's goal. The information developed by the SECARB team will play a vital role in achieving the President's goal for the southeastern region of the United States. (3) Evaluating options and potential opportunities for regional CO{sub 2} sequestration. This requires characterization of the region regarding the presence and location of sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), primarily CO{sub 2}, the presence and location of potential carbon sinks and geological parameters, geographical features and environmental concerns, demographics, state and interstate regulations, and existing infrastructure.

Kenneth J. Nemeth

2005-09-30

93

Forest soils and carbon sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils in equilibrium with a natural forest ecosystem have high carbon (C) density. The ratio of soil:vegetation C density increases with latitude. Land use change, particularly conversion to agricultural ecosystems, depletes the soil C stock. Thus, degraded agricultural soils have lower soil organic carbon (SOC) stock than their potential capacity. Consequently, afforestation of agricultural soils and management of forest plantations

R. Lal

2005-01-01

94

MIDWEST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (MRCSP)  

SciTech Connect

This is the first semiannual report for Phase I of the Midwest Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The project consists of nine tasks to be conducted over a two year period that started in October 2003. The makeup of the MRCSP and objectives are described. Progress on each of the active Tasks is also described and where possible, for those Tasks at some point of completion, a summary of results is presented.

David Ball; Judith Bradbury; Rattan Lal; Larry Wickstrom; Neeraj Gupta; Robert Burns; Bob Dahowski

2004-04-30

95

Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of April 1, 2005-September 30, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. While Phase 2 planning is well under way, the content of this report focuses exclusively on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period. Progress during this period was focused in the three areas: geological carbon storage capacity in New Mexico, terrestrial sequestration capacity for the project area, and the Integrated Assessment Model efforts. The geologic storage capacity of New Mexico was analyzed and Blanco Mesaverde (which extends into Colorado) and Basin Dakota Pools were chosen as top two choices for the further analysis for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the system dynamics model preliminary analysis. Terrestrial sequestration capacity analysis showed that the four states analyzed thus far (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) have relatively limited potential to sequester carbon in terrestrial systems, mainly due to the aridity of these areas, but the large land area offered could make up for the limited capacity per hectare. Best opportunities were thought to be in eastern Colorado/New Mexico. The Integrated Assessment team expanded the initial test case model to include all New Mexico sinks and sources in a new, revised prototype model in 2005. The allocation mechanism, or ''String of Pearls'' concept, utilizes potential pipeline routes as the links between all combinations of the source to various sinks. This technique lays the groundwork for future, additional ''String of Pearls'' analyses throughout the SW Partnership and other regions as well.

Brian McPherson

2006-04-01

96

Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter a general forest monitoring program was conducted to measure treatment effects on above ground and below ground carbon C and Nitrogen (N) pools for the tree planting areas. Detailed studies to address specific questions pertaining to Carbon cycling was initiated with the development of plots to examine the influence of mycorrhizae, spoil chemical and mineralogical properties, and use of amendment on forest establishment and carbon sequestration. Efforts continued during this period to examine decomposition and heterotrophic respiration on C cycling in the reforestation plots. Projected climate change resulting from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide has given rise to various strategies to sequester carbon in various terrestrial ecosystems. Reclaimed surface mine soils present one such potential carbon sink where traditional reclamation objectives can complement carbon sequestration. New plantings required the modification and design and installation on monitoring equipment. Maintenance and data monitoring on past and present installations are a continuing operation. The Department of Mining Engineering continued the collection of penetration resistance, penetration depth, and bulk density on both old and new treatment areas. Data processing and analysis is in process for these variables. Project scientists and graduate students continue to present results at scientific meetings, tours and field days presentations of the research areas are being conducted on a request basis.

Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

2005-10-02

97

Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Initiatives review meeting. Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

A total of 32 papers were presented at the review meeting in sessions entitled: updates on regional characterization activities; CO{sub 2} sequestration with EOR; CO{sub 2} sequestration in saline formations I and II; and terrestrial carbon sequestration field projects. In addition are five introductory papers. These are all available on the website in slide/overview/viewgraph form.

NONE

2006-07-01

98

Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Challenges of Mitigation Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of our effort to developing meaningful mitigation plans for geologic carbon sequestration. The Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, is assembling science and engineering plans for a commercial-scale geologic sequestration test that will include extensive monitoring and analysis of the fate of injected CO2. Among the principal objectives of the test are to develop effective monitoring methods and risk assessment frameworks for deep injection and sequestration. Effective mitigation plans are an absolutely critical component of commercial-scale geologic carbon sequestration. One fundamental aspect of mitigation engineering design is immediate reduction of reservoir pressure. We developed numerical models of multiphase injection and flow to evaluate pressure reduction as a primary mitigation tool. Model results forecast optimum density and placement of injection and observation wells. Simulation results also suggest that it may be best to engineer observation wells for quick conversion to production (pumping) wells to facilitate immediate pressure reduction, if needed. Results of our reservoir models suggest that immediate pressure reduction will stem geomechanical deformation, stem and/or close crack/fracture growths, shut down "piston-flow" displacement of brines into unintended reservoirs, slow leakage through wellbores, slow leakage of CO2 through faults, and even induce closure of faults. Much like injection wells, the distribution of such observation-pressure-reduction (OPR) wells is critical. Reservoir model results also suggest that OPR wells can be converted to injection wells to maximize capacity and control reservoir pressure. For example, as one portion of the reservoir "fills" and pressure control becomes problematic, the injection well can be converted to an OPR well, and the next well in the series (whether linear or in a grid design) can become the injection well. Finally, simulations suggest that many sites may require water production to create space for injected CO2 and facilitate pressure control. Injection and sequestration in deep saline reservoirs below oil fields is an attractive option for many reasons, among which is the possibility of re-injecting the produced water into existing saltwater disposal wells in shallower formations.

McPherson, B.; Thorne, D.

2008-12-01

99

An Index-Based Approach to Assessing Recalcitrance and Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Engineered Black Carbons (Biochars)  

SciTech Connect

The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R{sub 50}, for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R{sub 50} is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R{sub 50}, with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R{sub 50} and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R{sub 50} is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R{sub 50} {>=} 0.70), Class B (0.50 {<=} R{sub 50} < 0.70) or Class C (R{sub 50} < 0.50) recalcitrance/carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, while Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R{sub 50}, to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

Harvey, Omar R.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E.; Herbert, Bruce

2012-01-10

100

Carbon Sequestration in Agriculture: EU and US Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

summaryCarbon Sequestration in Agriculture: EU and US Perspectives<\\/title>Both the European Union and the United States are defining the role that agricultural soil sequestration of carbon will play in their overall strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These decisions have important ramifications, as recent research indicates that soil sequestration of carbon may have the potential to reduce the need for reductions

Linda M. Young; Alfons Weersink; Murray Fulton; B. James Deaton

2007-01-01

101

Engineering economic analysis of biomass IGCC with carbon capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of biomass energy technologies with carbon capture and sequestration could yield useful energy products and negative net atmospheric carbon emissions. We survey the methods of integrating biomass technologies with carbon dioxide capture, and model an IGCC electric power system in detail. Our engineering process model, based on analysis and operational results of the Battelle\\/Future Energy Resources Corporation gasifier technology,

James S. Rhodes; David W. Keith

2005-01-01

102

On leakage and seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologic carbon sequestration is one strategy for reducing the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (COâ ) concentrations (IEA, 1997; Reichle, 2000). As used here, the term geologic carbon sequestration refers to the direct injection of supercritical COâ deep into subsurface target formations. These target formations will typically be either depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or brine-filled permeable

C. M. Oldenburg; A. J. A. Unger; R. P. Hepple; P. D. Jordan

2002-01-01

103

Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan, March 12, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alongside improved efficiency and low carbon fuels, carbon sequestration is a third option for greenhouse gas mitigation. It entails the capture and storage of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. Th...

2003-01-01

104

WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

2004-01-01

105

The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP)  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes the Phase I research conducted by the Midwest regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The Phase I effort began in October 2003 and the project period ended on September 31, 2005. The MRCSP is a public/private partnership led by Battelle with the mission of identifying the technical, economic, and social issues associated with implementation of carbon sequestration technologies in its seven state geographic region (Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) and identifying viable pathways for their deployment. It is one of seven partnerships that together span most of the U.S. and parts of Canada that comprise the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Regional Carbon Sequestration Program led by DOE's national Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The MRCSP Phase I research was carried out under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41981. The total value of Phase I was $3,513,513 of which the DOE share was $2,410,967 or 68.62%. The remainder of the cost share was provided in varying amounts by the rest of the 38 members of MRCSP's Phase I project. The next largest cost sharing participant to DOE in Phase I was the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OCDO). OCDO's contribution was $100,000 and was contributed under Grant Agreement No. CDO/D-02-17. In this report, the MRCSP's research shows that the seven state MRCSP region is a major contributor to the U. S. economy and also to total emissions of CO2, the most significant of the greenhouse gases thought to contribute to global climate change. But, the research has also shown that the region has substantial resources for sequestering carbon, both in deep geological reservoirs (geological sequestration) and through improved agricultural and land management practices (terrestrial sequestration). Geological reservoirs, especially deep saline reservoirs, offer the potential to permanently store CO2 for literally 100s of years even if all the CO2 emissions from the region's large point sources were stored there, an unlikely scenario under any set of national carbon emission mitigation strategies. The terrestrial sequestration opportunities in the region have the biophysical potential to sequester up to 20% of annual emissions from the region's large point sources of CO2. This report describes the assumptions made and methods employed to arrive at the results leading to these conclusions. It also describes the results of analyses of regulatory issues in the region affecting the potential for deployment of sequestration technologies. Finally, it describes the public outreach and education efforts carried out in Phase I including the creation of a web site dedicated to the MRCSP at www.mrcsp.org.

James J. Dooley; Robert Dahowski; Casie Davidson

2005-12-01

106

Challenges and Opportunities for Biochar as Carbon Sequestration Regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar, the charcoal-like product resulting from the pyrolysis of biomass, is a substance capable of carbon sequestration and other benefits including increased fertilizer and water-use efficiency, decreased soil methane and nitrous oxide emissions, and improved habitat for microbial colonization. Optimistic projections suggest a full-fledged biochar regime could potentially sequester 1.8 Gt of carbon dioxide annually. However, critical aspects of this proposed regime are still unresolved, such as the method and costs of applying biochar to soil at scale. Our preliminary research of these costs suggests the application of biochar to soil at scale is a significant cost component of the overall regime. In our analysis of a broadcast application technique at saturation rates of 5.6-110 t ha-1 (2.5-50 tons/acre), a respective cost per hectare ranges between 30-300. Analysis of another proposed technique called trench-and-fill yielded more expensive results: at saturation rates of between 11-170 t ha-1 (5-75 tons/acre), with trenches 0.6 m deep (2 ft), a respective cost per hectare of applied biochar is between 30-400. Provided these preliminary findings, we find further research into application methods and their costs are needed in order for biochar to become a practical and significant carbon sequestration strategy

Arnott, J. C.; Williams, M.

2010-12-01

107

SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHP (SECARB)  

SciTech Connect

The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first 18-months of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (fifth and sixth project quarters) of the project (October 1, 2004-March 31, 2005) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, no changes occurred during the fifth or sixth quarters of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, refinements have been made to the general mapping and screening of sources and sinks. Integration and geographical information systems (GIS) mapping is ongoing. Characterization during this period was focused on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB continues to expand upon its assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has used results of a survey and focus group meeting to refine approaches that are being taken to educate and involve the public. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB has evaluated findings from work performed during the first 18-months. The focus of the project team has shifted from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team is developing an integrated approach to implementing the most promising opportunities and in setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. Milestones completed during the fifth and sixth project quarters included: (1) Q1-FY05--Assess safety, regulatory and permitting issues; and (2) Q2-FY05--Finalize inventory of major sources/sinks and refine GIS algorithms.

Kenneth J. Nemeth

2005-04-01

108

Carbon dioxide sequestration in cement kiln dust through mineral carbonation  

SciTech Connect

Carbon sequestration through the formation of carbonates is a potential means to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Alkaline industrial solid wastes typically have high mass fractions of reactive oxides that may not require preprocessing, making them an attractive source material for mineral carbonation. The degree of mineral carbonation achievable in cement kiln dust (CKD) under ambient temperatures and pressures was examined through a series of batch and column experiments. The overall extent and potential mechanisms and rate behavior of the carbonation process were assessed through a complementary set of analytical and empirical methods, including mass change, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The carbonation reactions were carried out primarily through the reaction of CO{sub 2} with Ca(OH){sub 2}, and CaCO{sub 3} was observed as the predominant carbonation product. A sequestration extent of over 60% was observed within 8 h of reaction without any modifications to the waste. Sequestration appears to follow unreacted core model theory where reaction kinetics are controlled by a first-order rate constant at early times; however, as carbonation progresses, the kinetics of the reaction are attenuated by the extent of the reaction due to diffusion control, with the extent of conversion never reaching completion. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Deborah N. Huntzinger; John S. Gierke; S. Komar Kawatra; Timothy C. Eisele; Lawrence L. Sutter [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2009-03-15

109

Carbon dioxide sequestration in cement kiln dust through mineral carbonation.  

PubMed

Carbon sequestration through the formation of carbonates is a potential means to reduce CO2 emissions. Alkaline industrial solid wastes typically have high mass fractions of reactive oxides that may not require preprocessing, making them an attractive source material for mineral carbonation The degree of mineral carbonation achievable in cement kiln dust (CKD) underambienttemperatures and pressures was examined through a series of batch and column experiments. The overall extent and potential mechanisms and rate behavior of the carbonation process were assessed through a complementary set of analytical and empirical methods, including mass change, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The carbonation reactions were carried out primarily through the reaction of CO2 with Ca(OH)2, and CaCO3 was observed as the predominant carbonation product. A sequestration extent of over 60% was observed within 8 h of reaction without any modifications to the waste. Sequestration appears to follow unreacted core model theory where reaction kinetics are controlled by a first-order rate constant at early times; however, as carbonation progresses, the kinetics of the reaction are attenuated by the extent of the reaction due to diffusion control, with the extent of conversion never reaching completion. PMID:19368202

Huntzinger, Deborah N; Gierke, John S; Kawatra, S Komar; Eisele, Timothy C; Sutter, Lawrence L

2009-03-15

110

CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS  

SciTech Connect

An area planted in 2004 on Bent Mountain in Pike County was shifted to the Department of Energy project to centralize an area to become a demonstration site. An additional 98.3 acres were planted on Peabody lands in western Kentucky and Bent Mountain to bring the total area under study by this project to 556.5 acres as indicated in Table 2. Major efforts this quarter include the implementation of new plots that will examine the influence of differing geologic material on tree growth and survival, water quality and quantity and carbon sequestration. Normal monitoring and maintenance was conducted and additional instrumentation was installed to monitor the new areas planted.

Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

2005-06-22

111

Black carbon sequestration as an alternative to bioenergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most policy and much research concerning the application of biomass to reduce global warming gas emissions has concentrated either on increasing the Earth's reservoir of biomass or on substituting biomass for fossil fuels, with or without CO2 sequestration. Suggested approaches entail varied risks of impermanence, delay, high costs, and unknowable side-effects. An under-researched alternative approach is to extract from biomass

Malcolm Fowles

2007-01-01

112

Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon sequestration strategies highlight tree plantations without considering their full environmental consequences. We combined field research, synthesis of more than 600 observations, and climate and economic modeling to document substantial losses in stream flow, and increased soil salinization and acidification, with afforestation. Plantations decreased stream flow by 227 millimeters per year globally (52%), with 13% of streams drying completely for

Robert B. Jackson; Esteban G. Jobbagy; Roni Avissar; Somnath Baidya Roy; Damian J. Barrett; Charles W. Cook; Kathleen A. Farley; David C. le Maitre; Bruce A. McCarl; Brian C. Murray

2005-01-01

113

Negative emissions from BioEnergy use, carbon capture and sequestration (BECS)—the case of biomass production by sustainable forest management from semi-natural temperate forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we show how nature oriented forestry measures in a typical temperate forest type in combination with bioenergy systems could lead to continuous and permanent removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. We employ a forest growth model suited for modeling uneven-aged mixed temperate stands and analyze the interaction with biomass energy systems that allow for CO2 removal and

Florian Kraxner; Sten Nilsson; Michael Obersteiner

2003-01-01

114

A Brief Overview of Carbon Sequestration Economics and Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of the issues and challenges involved in analyzing the costs and program design for carbon sequestration. The first section examines some of the pitfalls of comparing the results of carbon sequestration cost studies and suggests some simple ways in which analysts could make their results more useful. The pitfalls in comparing studies include different definitions

Kenneth R. Richards

2004-01-01

115

Carbon sequestration and its potential in agricultural soils of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural soils hold potential for the expansion of carbon sequestration. With this in mind, we investigated changes in the soil organic carbon (SOC) on the basis of an analysis of data sets extracted from 146 publications and further projected the SOC sequestration potential in China's cropland. Our results suggest that a significant increase in the SOC occurred in east and

Wenjuan Sun; Yao Huang; Wen Zhang; Yongqiang Yu

2010-01-01

116

HOW TO HARVEST TREES WHILE MAXIMIZING CARBON SEQUESTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The expected result of this project is a methodology to increase carbon sequestration through forest management and policy analysis. The decision analysis model will demonstrate tradeoffs between carbon storage and net present value through a joint productions possibilities c...

117

Measurement guidelines for the sequestration of forest carbon  

Treesearch

Description: Measurement guidelines for forest carbon sequestration were developed to ... or for registering carbon dioxide reductions using the U.S. Department of Energy ... During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.

118

Modeling carbon sequestration in afforestation, agroforestry and forest management projects: the CO2FIX V.2 approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the Version 2 of the CO2FIX (CO2FIX V.2) model, a user-friendly tool for dynamically estimating the carbon sequestration potential of forest management, agroforesty and afforestation projects. CO2FIX V.2 is a multi-cohort ecosystem-level model based on carbon accounting of forest stands, including forest biomass, soils and products. Carbon stored in living biomass is estimated with a forest cohort

Omar R. Maseraa; J. F. Garza-Caligaris; M. Kanninen; T. Karjalainen; J. Liski; G. J. Nabuurs; A. Pussinen; B. H. J. de Jong; G. M. J. Mohren

2003-01-01

119

Investigations into Wetland Carbon Sequestration as Remediation for Global Warming  

SciTech Connect

Wetlands can potentially sequester vast amounts of carbon. However, over 50% of wetlands globally have been degraded or lost. Restoration of wetland systems may therefore result in increased sequestration of carbon. Preliminary results of our investigations into atmospheric carbon sequestration by restored coastal wetlands indicate that carbon can be sequestered in substantial quantities in the first 2-50 years after restoration of natural hydrology and sediment accretion processes.

Thom, Ronald M.; Blanton, Susan L.; Borde, Amy B.; Williams, Greg D.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Huesemann, Michael H.; KW Nehring and SE Brauning

2002-01-01

120

SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (SECARB)  

SciTech Connect

The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first year of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (third and fourth quarter) of the project (April 1--September 30, 2004) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, Texas and Virginia were added during the second quarter of the project and no geographical changes occurred during the third or fourth quarter of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, general mapping and screening of sources and sinks has been completed, with integration and Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping ongoing. The first step focused on the macro level characterization of the region. Subsequent characterization will focus on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB has completed a preliminary assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has conducted a survey and focus group meeting to gain insight into approaches that will be taken to educate and involve the public. Task 5.0 and 6.0 will be implemented beginning October 1, 2004. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB will evaluate findings from work performed during the first year and shift the focus of the project team from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team will develop an integrated approach to implementing and setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. During this semiannual period special attention was provided to Texas and Virginia, which were added to the SECARB region, to ensure a smooth integration of activities with the other 9 states. Milestones completed and submitted during the third and fourth quarter included: Q3-FY04--Complete initial development of plans for GIS; and Q4-FYO4--Complete preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues.

Kenneth J. Nemeth

2004-09-01

121

Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid  

SciTech Connect

The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine and 84% conversion of olivine to the carbonate in 6 hours. The results from the current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be improved by pretreatment of the mineral, catalysis of the reaction, or some combination of the two. Future tests are intended to examine a broader pressure/temperature regime, various pretreatment options, as well as other mineral groups.

O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

2000-01-01

122

Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands  

SciTech Connect

The first quarter of 2004 was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During the first year of this project there was not available mine land to plant in the Hazard area, so 107 acres were planted in the Martin County mine location. This year 120 acres were planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres were planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. Additional sets of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for carbon sequestration demonstrations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on the newly established areas as well as continual measurements of the first year's plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 seedlings. During the second quarter of this year monitoring systems were established for all the new research areas. Weather data pertinent to the research as well as hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas. Studies established to assess specific questions pertaining to carbon flux and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals are being quantified. Experimental practices initiated with this research project will eventually allow for the planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and allow mountain top removal areas to be constructed with loose spoil with no grading of the final layers of rooting material when establishing trees for the final land use designation. Monitoring systems have been installed to measure treatment effects on both above and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools in the planting areas. Soil and tissue samples were collected from both years planting and analyses were conducted in the laboratory. Examination of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots continued during the reporting period. Entire planted trees were extracted from the study area to evaluate carbon accumulation as a function of time on the mine sites. These trees were extracted and separated into the following components: foliage, stems, branches, and roots. Each component was evaluated to determine the contribution of each to the total sequestration value. The fourth quarter of the year was devoted to analyzing the first two years tree planting activities and the evaluation of the results. These analyses included the species success at each of the sites and quantifying the data for future year determination of research levels. Additional detailed studies have been planned to further quantify total carbon storage accumulation on the study areas. At least 124 acres of new plantings will be established in 2005 to bring the total to 500 acres or more in the study area across the state of Kentucky.

Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Bon Jun Koo; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

2004-11-30

123

Integrating science, economics and law into policy: The case of carbon sequestration in climate change policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon sequestration, the extraction and storage of carbon from the atmosphere by biomass, could potentially provide a cost-effective means to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. The claims on behalf of carbon sequestration may be inadvertently overstated, however. Several key observations emerge from this study. First, although carbon sequestration studies all report results in terms of dollars per ton, the definition of that term varies significantly, meaning that the results of various analyses can not be meaningfully compared. Second, when carbon sequestration is included in an energy-economy model of climate change policy, it appears that carbon sequestration could play a major, if not dominant role in a national carbon emission abatement program, reducing costs of emissions stabilization by as much as 80 percent, saving tens of billions of dollars per year. However, the results are very dependant upon landowners' perceived risk. Studies may also have overstated the potential for carbon sequestration because they have not considered the implementation process. This study demonstrates that three factors will reduce the cost-effectiveness of carbon sequestration. First, the implementation costs associated with measurement and governance of the government-private sector relation are higher than in the case of carbon source control. Second, legal constraints limit the range of instruments that the government can use to induce private landowners to expand their carbon sinks. The government will likely have to pay private parties to expand their sinks, or undertake direct government production. In either case, additional revenues will be required, introducing social costs associated with excess burden. Third, because of the very long time involved in developing carbon sinks (up to several decades) the government may not be able to make credible commitments against exactions of one type or another that would effectively reduce the value of private sector investments in carbon sinks. Consequently, the private sector will increase the rate of return required for participation, increasing the cost of this option. Carbon sequestration can still be a major factor in a national carbon emission abatement program. However, because of the interplay of science, economics and law, the most commonly prescribed environmental policy instruments--marketable allowance and taxes--have little or no direct role to play in the implementation process.

Richards, Kenneth

124

CARBON SEQUESTRATION OF SURFACE MINE LANDS  

SciTech Connect

The January-March 2004 Quarter was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During year one of this project there was no available mine land to plant in the Hazard area so 107 acres were planted in the Martin county mine location. This year 120 acres was planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres was planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. An additional set of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for special carbon sequestration determinations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on two newly established areas as well as confirmed measurements on the first years plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 tree seedlings.

Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

2004-05-19

125

Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Enhances Carbon Sequestration of Dryland Soil Microbial Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are found in many terrestrial environments, forming substantial biomass in dryland areas of the Earth; they play a key role in carbon and nitrogen cycling in these drylands where vascular vegetation is sparse and soil nutrient content poor. Metabolic activity of BSC is principally dependent on moisture availability, but also on temperature and light conditions. Less understood is how these communities would respond to elevated levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. We will report on the results of elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 and wetting treatments on carbon fluxes (photosynthesis and respiration) of cyanobacterial BSC from Kalahari Sands, using several newly designed dynamic gas exchange chambers (DGECs), in which the internal atmosphere was controlled. CO2 flux was monitored during controlled laboratory experiments in two phases under simulated rainfall events (2 & 5 mm plus control with no wetting, with three replicates of each) each lasting 3 days with a dry period in between. In phase 1, crusts were subjected to an atmosphere of 392 ppm CO2 (representing ambient level) in dry air; in phase 2, the CO2 concentration was 801 ppm (approximately twice the ambient level). Results showed that in both phases, there was a significant efflux (respiration) of CO2 immediately after the wetting treatments, followed by a substantial influx (sequestration) of CO2. The total carbon sequestrated was significantly higher than the controls in higher wetting and CO2 levels. There was an order of magnitude increase in C sequestration with 2 mm wetting treatment, and a threefold increase of C sequestration with 5 mm wetting treatment, when comparing results from elevated CO2 levels with results from ambient CO2 levels. These results reinforce the importance of BSCs as they are capable of fixing carbon in changing environmental conditions (short, erratic simulated rainfall events and rising CO2 levels) without any additional nutrient inputs, and would therefore play even greater roles in future global carbon budgets.

Lane, Richard; Menon, Manoj; McQuaid, Jim; Dougill, Andy; Adams, David; Thomas, Andrew; Hoon, Steve

2013-04-01

126

An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California  

SciTech Connect

As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.

Cameron Downey; John Clinkenbeard

2005-10-01

127

The nuts and bolts of carbon sequestration in forests  

EPA Science Inventory

The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading as an incentive for conserving private forest lands. The presentation addresses carbon sequestration in forests and its significance for global warming. Carbon inventories, specifically in the are...

128

Root biomass responses to elevated CO2 limit soil C sequestration in managed grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels and increasing nitrogen deposition both stimulate plant production in terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, nitrogen deposition could alleviate an increasing nitrogen limitation experienced by plants exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations. However, an increased rate of C flux through the soil compartment as a consequence of elevated CO2 concentrations has been suggested to limit C sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, questioning the potential for terrestrial C uptake to mitigate the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Our study used data from 69 published studies to investigate whether CO2 elevation and/or nitrogen fertilization could induce an increased carbon storage in grasslands, and considered the influence of management practices involving biomass removal or irrigation on the elevated CO2 effects. Our results confirmed a positive effect of elevated CO2 levels and nitrogen fertilization on plant growth, but revealed that N availability is essential for the increased C influx under elevated CO2 to propagate into belowground C pools. However, moderate nutrient additions also promoted decomposition processes in elevated CO2, reducing the potential for increased soil C storage. An important role in the soil carbon response to elevated CO2 was attributed to the root response, since there was a lower potential for increases in soil C content when root biomass was more responsive to CO2 elevation. Future elevated CO2 concentrations and increasing N deposition might thus increase C storage in plant biomass, but the potential for increased soil C storage is limited.

Sillen, W. M. A.; Dieleman, W. I. J.

2012-01-01

129

Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO2 emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO2 emission nor in stabilized carbon would entirely reflect the earthworms’ contribution to net carbon sequestration. We show how two widespread earthworm invaders affect net carbon sequestration through impacts on the balance of carbon mineralization and carbon stabilization. Earthworms accelerate carbon activation and induce unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with carbon mineralization, which generates an earthworm-mediated ‘carbon trap’. We introduce the new concept of sequestration quotient to quantify the unequal processes. The patterns of CO2 emission and net carbon sequestration are predictable by comparing sequestration quotient values between treatments with and without earthworms. This study clarifies an ecological mechanism by which earthworms may regulate the terrestrial carbon sink.

Zhang, Weixin; Hendrix, Paul F.; Dame, Lauren E.; Burke, Roger A.; Wu, Jianping; Neher, Deborah A.; Li, Jianxiong; Shao, Yuanhu; Fu, Shenglei

2013-10-01

130

Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of irradiance and CO2 concentration. Kinetic models were successfully developed based on the Monod model and on a novel scaling analysis employing the CO2 consumption half-time as the time scale. Finally, the growth and hydrogen production of Anabaena variabilis have been compared in a flat panel photobioreactor using three different nutrient media under otherwise similar conditions. Light to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency for Allen-Arnon medium was superior by a factor of 5.5 to both BG-11 and BG-11o media. This was attributed to the presence of vanadium and larger heterocyst frequency observed in the Allen-Arnon medium.

Berberoglu, Halil

131

Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed mine soils (RMS). Experimental sites characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoil were identified. These sites are owned ...

M. K. Shukla R. Lal

2004-01-01

132

Carbon Capture and Sequestration: A Regulatory Gap Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Though a potentially significant climate change mitigation strategy, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) remains mired in demonstration and development rather than proceeding to full-scale commercialization. Prior studies have suggested numerous reason...

H. Tanana J. Ruple K. Uchitel L. Davies

2012-01-01

133

Engineering carbon materials from the hydrothermal carbonization process of biomass.  

PubMed

Energy shortage, environmental crisis, and developing customer demands have driven people to find facile, low-cost, environmentally friendly, and nontoxic routes to produce novel functional materials that can be commercialized in the near future. Amongst various techniques, the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process of biomass (either of isolated carbohydrates or crude plants) is a promising candidate for the synthesis of novel carbon-based materials with a wide variety of potential applications. In this Review, we will discuss various synthetic routes towards such novel carbon-based materials or composites via the HTC process of biomass. Furthermore, factors that influence the carbonization process will be analyzed and the special chemical/physical properties of the final products will be discussed. Despite the lack of a clear mechanism, these novel carbonaceous materials have already shown promising applications in many fields such as carbon fixation, water purification, fuel cell catalysis, energy storage, CO(2) sequestration, bioimaging, drug delivery, and gas sensors. Some of the most promising examples will also be discussed here, demonstrating that the HTC process can rationally design a rich family of carbonaceous and hybrid functional carbon materials with important applications in a sustainable fashion. PMID:20217791

Hu, Bo; Wang, Kan; Wu, Liheng; Yu, Shu-Hong; Antonietti, Markus; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

2010-02-16

134

Geographical variations in the effectiveness and side effects of deep ocean carbon sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NW Pacific is the most effective and least damaging locale for sequestrationCarbon sequestration reduces the natural invasion from the atmosphereSequestration efficiency scales with climate sensitivity and total emissions

Andy Ridgwell; Thomas J. Rodengen; Karen E. Kohfeld

2011-01-01

135

Sequestration and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide on graphene edges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The versatility of carbon nanostructures makes them attractive as possible catalytic materials, as they can be synthesized in various shapes and chemically modified by doping, functionalization, and the creation of defects in the nanostructure. In this work, we consider the carbon-mediated partial sequestration and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO), an important problem in environmental chemistry and energy conversion. Using

Sujata Paul; Erik E. Santiso; Marco B. Nardelli

2008-01-01

136

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undisturbed grasslands can sequester significant quantities of organic carbon (OC) in soils. Irrigation and fertilization enhance CO2 sequestration in managed turfgrass ecosystems but can also increase emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). To better understand the GHG balance of urban turf, we measured OC sequestration rates and emission of N2O (a GHG ˜ 300 times more effective than CO2) in Southern California, USA. We also estimated CO2 emissions generated by fuel combustion, fertilizer production, and irrigation. We show that turf emits significant quantities of N2O (0.1-0.3 g N m-2 yr-1) associated with frequent fertilization. In ornamental lawns this is offset by OC sequestration (140 g C m-2 yr-1), while in athletic fields, there is no OC sequestration because of frequent surface restoration. Large indirect emissions of CO2 associated with turfgrass management make it clear that OC sequestration by turfgrass cannot mitigate GHG emissions in cities.

Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I.

2010-01-01

137

Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

2005-07-31

138

Trading water for carbon with biological carbon sequestration.  

PubMed

Carbon sequestration strategies highlight tree plantations without considering their full environmental consequences. We combined field research, synthesis of more than 600 observations, and climate and economic modeling to document substantial losses in stream flow, and increased soil salinization and acidification, with afforestation. Plantations decreased stream flow by 227 millimeters per year globally (52%), with 13% of streams drying completely for at least 1 year. Regional modeling of U.S. plantation scenarios suggests that climate feedbacks are unlikely to offset such water losses and could exacerbate them. Plantations can help control groundwater recharge and upwelling but reduce stream flow and salinize and acidify some soils. PMID:16373572

Jackson, Robert B; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Avissar, Roni; Roy, Somnath Baidya; Barrett, Damian J; Cook, Charles W; Farley, Kathleen A; le Maitre, David C; McCarl, Bruce A; Murray, Brian C

2005-12-23

139

Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon sequestration strategies highlight tree plantations without considering their full environmental consequences. We combined field research, synthesis of more than 600 observations, and climate and economic modeling to document substantial losses in stream flow, and increased soil salinization and acidification, with afforestation. Plantations decreased stream flow by 227 millimeters per year globally (52%), with 13% of streams drying completely for at least 1 year. Regional modeling of U.S. plantation scenarios suggests that climate feedbacks are unlikely to offset such water losses and could exacerbate them. Plantations can help control groundwater recharge and upwelling but reduce stream flow and salinize and acidify some soils.

Jackson, Robert B.; Jobbágy, Esteban G.; Avissar, Roni; Roy, Somnath Baidya; Barrett, Damian J.; Cook, Charles W.; Farley, Kathleen A.; le Maitre, David C.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Murray, Brian C.

2005-12-01

140

Final Report - "CO2 Sequestration in Cell Biomass of Chlorobium Thiosulfatophilum"  

SciTech Connect

World carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have increased at a rate of about 3 percent per year during the last 40 years to over 24 billion tons today. While a number of methods have been proposed and are under study for dealing with the carbon dioxide problem, all have advantages as well as disadvantages which limit their application. The anaerobic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum uses hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide to produce elemental sulfur and cell biomass. The overall objective of this project is to develop a commercial process for the biological sequestration of carbon dioxide and simultaneous conversion of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. The Phase I study successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of utilizing this bacterium for carbon dioxide sequestration and hydrogen sulfide conversion to elemental sulfur by utilizing the bacterium in continuous reactor studies. Phase II studies involved an advanced research and development to develop the engineering and scale-up parameters for commercialization of the technology. Tasks include culture isolation and optimization studies, further continuous reactor studies, light delivery systems, high pressure studies, process scale-up, a market analysis and economic projections. A number of anaerobic and aerobic microorgansims, both non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic, were examined to find those with the fastest rates for detailed study to continuous culture experiments. C. thiosulfatophilum was selected for study to anaerobically produce sulfur and Thiomicrospira crunogena waws selected for study to produce sulfate non-photosynthetically. Optimal conditions for growth, H2S and CO2 comparison, supplying light and separating sulfur were defined. The design and economic projections show that light supply for photosynthetic reactions is far too expensive, even when solar systems are considered. However, the aerobic non-photosynthetic reaction to produce sulfate with T. crunogena produces a reasonable return when treating a sour gas stream of 120 million SCFD containing 2.5 percent H2S. In this case, the primary source of revenue is from desulfurization of the gas stream. While the technology has significant application in sequestering carbon dioxide in cell biomass or single cell proten (SCP), perhaps the most immediate application is in desulfurizing LGNG or other gas streams. This biological approach is a viable economical alternative to existing hydrogen sulfide removal technology, and is not sensitive to the presence of hydrocarbons which act as catalyst poisons.

James L. Gaddy, PhD; Ching-Whan Ko, PhD

2009-05-04

141

High resolution modeling of direct ocean carbon sequestration  

SciTech Connect

This work has followed two themes: (1) Developing and using the adjoint of the MIT ocean biogeochemistry model to examine the efficiency of carbon sequestration in a global configuration. We have demonstrated the power of the adjoint method for systematic ocean model sensitivity studies. We have shown that the relative efficiency of carbon sequestration in the Atlantic and Pacific basins changes with the period of interest. For decadal to centennial scales, the Pacific is more efficient. On longer timescales the Atlantic is more efficient . (2) We have developed and applied a high-resolution, North Atlantic circulation and tracer model to investigate the role of the mesoscale in controlling sequestration efficiency. We show that the mesoscale eddy field, and its explicit representation, significantly affects the estimated sequestration efficiency for local sources on the Eastern US seaboard.

Michael Follows; John Marshall

2004-04-22

142

The ecological and economic potential of carbon sequestration in forests: examples from South America.  

PubMed

Costs of reforestation projects determine their competitiveness with alternative measures to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We quantify carbon sequestration in above-ground biomass and soils of plantation forests and secondary forests in two countries in South America-Ecuador and Argentina-and calculate costs of temporary carbon sequestration. Costs per temporary certified emission reduction unit vary between 0.1 and 2.7 USD Mg(-1) CO2 and mainly depend on opportunity costs, site suitability, discount rates, and certification costs. In Ecuador, secondary forests are a feasible and cost-efficient alternative, whereas in Argentina reforestation on highly suitable land is relatively cheap. Our results can be used to design cost-effective sink projects and to negotiate fair carbon prices for landowners. PMID:16042281

de Koning, Free; Olschewski, Roland; Veldkamp, Edzo; Benítez, Pablo; López-Ulloa, Magdalena; Schlichter, Tomás; de Urquiza, Mercedes

2005-05-01

143

[Carbon sequestration of young Robinia pseudoacacia plantation in Loess Plateau].  

PubMed

In order to understand the carbon sequestration of ecological forests in Loess Plateau, a comparative study was made on the organic carbon density (OCD) of soil, litter, and plant organs in an 8-year-old Robinia pseudoacacia plantation and nearby barren land. Comparing with the barren land, the young R. pseudoacacia plantation had a decrease (0.26 kg x m(-2)) of soil OCD, but the OCD in its litter, root system, and aboveground organs increased by 121.1%, 202.0%, and 656. 7%, respectively, with a total carbon sequestration increased by 3.3% annually, which illustrated that R. pseudoacacia afforestation on Loess Plateau had an obvious positive effect on carbon sequestration. PMID:20353056

Zhang, Jing-qun; Su, Yin-quan; Kang, Yong-xiang; Xu, Xi-ming; Qin, Yue

2009-12-01

144

Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a study of the potential for carbon sequestration in degraded mine lands, we have found that based on laboratory and field experiments, fly ash and biosolid amendments can increase soil carbon. Although it appears that geochemistry plays a large part in this effect, it is not clear if there is also an effect on the microbial community

A. V. Palumbo; L. S. Fisher; J. R. Tarver; W. L. Daniels; Z. Yang; S. M. Tiquia; L. Wu; J. Z. Zhou; J. E. Amonette

145

Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.  

PubMed

Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974

Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

2012-06-15

146

Carbon dioxide sequestration by ex-situ mineral carbonation  

SciTech Connect

The process developed for carbon dioxide sequestration utilizes a slurry of water mixed with olivine- forsterite end member (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), which is reacted with supercritical CO{sub 2} to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). Carbon dioxide is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid, which likely dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. The H{sup +} hydrolyzes the silicate mineral, freeing the cation (Mg{sup 2+}), which reacts with the HCO{sub 3}{sup -} to form the solid carbonate. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural mineral, have demonstrated that the kinetics of the reaction are slow at ambient temperature (22 degrees C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 7.4 MPa). However, at elevated temperature and pressure, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant conversion to the carbonate occurs. Extent of reaction is roughly 90% within 24 h, at 185 degrees C and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 11.6 MPa. Current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be improved by pretreatment of the mineral, catalysis of the reaction, and/or solution modification. Subsequent tests are intended to examine these options, as well as other mineral groups.

O'Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Turner, P.C.; and Walters, R.P.

2000-01-01

147

Tree biomass and carbon stock of a community?managed mangrove forest in Bohol, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove plays a significant role in climate change mitigation particularly in carbon absorption and minimizing the detrimental impacts of sea level rise, salt-water intrusion and tidal surges. In Bohol Province, Philippines, a small coastal island community known as Banacon is one of the successful cases in mangrove reforestation. Recognizing the site's potential for a carbon sequestration project, a biomass and

Leni D. Camacho; Dixon T. Gevaña; Antonio P. Carandang; Sofronio C. Camacho; Edwin A. Combalicer; Lucrecio L. Rebugio; Yeo-Chang Youn

2011-01-01

148

Sequestration and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide on graphene edges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The versatility of carbon nanostructures makes them attractive as possible catalytic materials, as they can be synthesized in various shapes and chemically modified by doping, functionalization, and the creation of defects in the nanostructure. In this work, we consider the carbon-mediated partial sequestration and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO), an important problem in environmental chemistry and energy conversion. Using first principle calculations we study the key reactions of CO with carbon nanostructures, where the active sites can be regenerated by the deposition of carbon decomposed from the reactant (CO) to make the reactions self sustained. Carbon-mediated CO sequestration produces half of the CO2 compared to the direct oxidation of CO, which is used in the cleaning of automobile gas. Furthermore, the carbon-mediated oxidation of CO to CO2 is selectively favored when hydrogen is present, and could be used to purify hydrogen for use in fuel cells.

Paul, Sujata; Santiso, Erik E.; Nardelli, Marco B.

2008-10-01

149

Stuffing Carbon Away: Mechanisms of Carbon Sequestration in Soils  

SciTech Connect

Soils offer the potential to sequester large quantities of carbon from the atmosphere for decades to millennia and so may ameliorate the anthropogenic influence of fossil fuel release. However changes in climate can drastically affect the soil's ability to store carbon through changes mineralogy on time scales of human interest. It is essential to understand the major controls on soil carbon dynamics before we attempt to manage sequestration to control atmospheric CO{sub 2} buildup. Models of the terrestrial carbon cycle often use clay content to parameterize soil carbon turnover. Evidence from volcanic soils suggests that soil mineralogy is a major control on a soil's ability to store carbon, because different types of minerals have widely varying abilities to physically and chemically isolate soil organic matter from decomposition, however volcanic soils represent only a small percentage of the earth's soils. The relationship between precipitation and soil carbon storage is also complex and poorly constrained. Significantly, precipitation changes predicted as a result of atmospheric CO{sub 2} doubling include increased rainfall throughout California. We utilized {sup 14}C, {delta}{sup 13}C, and the total organic carbon, iron, and aluminum contents to address the question of the importance of mineralogy and climate on carbon storage in soils formed on a globally representative parent material. The California coastal terraces, formed over the last 500 thousand years as a result of tectonic uplift and sea level change, provide a natural laboratory to examine the effect of mineralogy and climate on carbon storage. We have focused on two terraces sequences, one near Eureka and one near Santa Cruz. Within each set of terraces only soil mineral development varies; all other variables are constant (rainfall, plant systems, and soil parent material, and land management). Annual precipitation at Eureka is twice that at Santa Cruz, allowing us to examine its role in the transport of organic carbon to deeper horizons. The objective of the study is to improve the understanding of soil carbon storage and derive a set of proxies for organic carbon turnover for terrestrial carbon cycle models.

Reimer, P J; Masiello, C A; Southon, J R; Trumbore, S E; Harden, J W; White, A F; Chadwick, O A; Torn, M S

2003-01-24

150

A national look at carbon capture and storage—National carbon sequestration database and geographical information system (NatCarb)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy’s Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are responsible for generating geospatial data for the maps displayed in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada. Key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential storage sites, transportation, land use, etc.) are required for the Atlas, and for efficient implementation of carbon sequestration on a national and regional

Timothy R. Carr; Asif Iqbal; Nick Callaghan; Dana-Adkins-Heljeson; Kurt Look; Shawn Saving; Ken Nelson

2009-01-01

151

Soil carbon sequestration in mixed farming landscapes: Insights from the Lachlan soil carbon project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for soil carbon sequestration to play a significant role in meeting Australia’s greenhouse reduction targets has attracted widespread interest. Despite this interest, the economic scope for soil carbon sequestration remains poorly understood and the practical approaches that could be used to capture any opportunities have not been explored. In this paper we present preliminary results on a pilot

Leonie J. Pearson; Jason Crean; Warwick Badgery; Brian Murphy; Andrew Rawson; Tim Capon; Andrew Reeson

2012-01-01

152

Peatland geoengineering: an alternative approach to terrestrial carbon sequestration.  

PubMed

Terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems contribute almost equally to the sequestration of ca 50 per cent of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions, and already play a role in minimizing our impact on Earth's climate. On land, the majority of the sequestered carbon enters soil carbon stores. Almost one-third of that soil carbon can be found in peatlands, an area covering just 2-3% of the Earth's landmass. Peatlands are thus well established as powerful agents of carbon capture and storage; the preservation of archaeological artefacts, such as ancient bog bodies, further attest to their exceptional preservative properties. Peatlands have higher carbon storage densities per unit ecosystem area than either the oceans or dry terrestrial systems. However, despite attempts over a number of years at enhancing carbon capture in the oceans or in land-based afforestation schemes, no attempt has yet been made to optimize peatland carbon storage capacity or even to harness peatlands to store externally captured carbon. Recent studies suggest that peatland carbon sequestration is due to the inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds that create an 'enzymic latch' on decomposition. Here, we propose to harness that mechanism in a series of peatland geoengineering strategies whereby molecular, biogeochemical, agronomical and afforestation approaches increase carbon capture and long-term sequestration in peat-forming terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:22869805

Freeman, Christopher; Fenner, Nathalie; Shirsat, Anil H

2012-09-13

153

Carbon monoxide from biomass burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning perturbs the atmospheric composition on both regional and global scales. Amongst others, carbon monoxide (CO) is emitted by fires, which is detectable globally by satellites and therefore suited to investigate the impact of biomass burning on the atmospheric composition. We intend to estimate the magnitude, trend and variability of biomass burning CO using an inverse modeling framework, with measurements from both surface stations and satellite observations. Measurements from two satellite instruments will be used to optimize the CO sources: the MOPITT instrument, sensitive to CO in the middle troposphere, and SCIAMACHY, which is more sensitive close to the Earth's surface where the emissions take place. A first step is to simulate the CO concentrations with a global atmospheric chemistry transport model (TM5) forward in time, given an inventory of CO emissions. The concentration fields are compared to the observed fields from SCIAMACHY and MOPITT.

Hooghiemstra, P. B.; Krol, M. C.; Houweling, S.; de Laat, J.

2009-04-01

154

Hydrothermal carbonization of lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermochemical conversion process to convert lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products. HTC processes were studied using two different biomass feedstocks: corn stalk and Tamarix ramosissima. The treatment brought an increase of the higher heating values up to 29.2 and 28.4 MJ/kg for corn stalk and T. ramosissima, respectively, corresponding to an increase of 66.8% and 58.3% as compared to those for the raw materials. The resulting lignite-like solid products contained mainly lignin with a high degree of aromatization and a large amount of oxygen-containing groups. Liquid products extracted with ethyl acetate were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified degradation products were phenolic compounds and furan derivatives, which may be desirable feedstocks for biodiesel and chemical production. Based on these results, HTC is considered to be a potential treatment in a lignocellulosic biomass refinery. PMID:22698445

Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

2012-05-22

155

Simultaneous leaching and carbon sequestration in constrained aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The behavior of metal ions' leaching and precipitated mineral phases of metal-rich fly ash (FA) was examined in order to evaluate microbial impacts on carbon sequestration and metal immobilization. The leaching solutions consisted of aerobic deionized water (DW) and artificial eutrophic water (AEW) that was anaerobic, organic- and mineral-rich, and higher salinity as is typical of bottom water in eutrophic algae ponds. The Fe- and Ca-rich FAs were predominantly composed of quartz, mullite, portlandite, calcite, hannebachite, maghemite, and hematite. After 86 days, only Fe and Ca contents exhibited a decrease in leaching solutions while other major and trace elements showed increasing or steady trends in preference to the type of FA and leaching solution. Ca-rich FA showed strong carbon sequestration efficiency ranging up to 32.3 g CO(2)/kg FA after 86 days, corresponding to almost 65% of biotic carbon sequestration potential under some conditions. Variations in the properties of FAs such as chemical compositions, mineral constituents as well as the type of leaching solution impacted CO(2) capture. Even though the relative amount of calcite increased sixfold in the AEW and the relative amount of mineral phase reached 37.3 wt% using Ca-rich FA for 86 days, chemical sequestration did not accomplish simultaneous precipitation and sequestration of several heavy metals. PMID:21246259

Moon, Ji-Won; Cho, Kyu-Seong; Moberly, James G; Roh, Yul; Phelps, Tommy J

2011-01-19

156

Carbon sequestration: An underexploited environmental benefit of agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry has importance as a carbon sequestration strategy because of carbon storage potential in its multiple plant species\\u000a and soil as well as its applicability in agricultural lands and in reforestation. The potential seems to be substantial; but\\u000a it has not been even adequately recognized, let alone exploited. Proper design and management of agroforestry practices can\\u000a make them effective carbon

F. Montagnini; P. K. R. Nair

2004-01-01

157

Ecosystem Services under Benefit and Cost Uncertainty: An Application to Soil Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benefit and cost uncertainty in provisioning of ecosystem services are investigated in the context of soil carbon sequestration. Multiple parcel-level carbon sequestration options are considered. Uncertainty has been a widely stated reason for not including soil carbon sequestration in the portfolio of greenhouse gases reduction measures. Biophysical simulation models are used to generate a distribution of resulting environmental benefits. An

Sergey S. Rabotyagov

2010-01-01

158

Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct aqueous mineral carbonation  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide sequestration by an ex-situ, direct aqueous mineral carbonation process has been investigated over the past two years. This process was conceived to minimize the steps in the conversion of gaseous CO2 to a stable solid. This meant combining two separate reactions, mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation, into a single unit operation. It was recognized that the conditions favorable for one of these reactions could be detrimental to the other. However, the benefits for a combined aqueous process, in process efficiency and ultimately economics, justified the investigation. The process utilizes a slurry of water, dissolved CO2, and a magnesium silicate mineral, such as olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. These minerals were selected as the reactants of choice for two reasons: (1) significant abundance in nature; and (2) high molar ratio of the alkaline earth oxides (CaO, MgO) within the minerals. Because it is the alkaline earth oxide that combines with CO2 to form the solid carbonate, those minerals with the highest ratio of these oxides are most favored. Optimum results have been achieved using heat pretreated serpentine feed material, sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride additions to the solution, and high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2). Specific conditions include: 155?C; PCO2=185 atm; 15% solids. Under these conditions, 78% conversion of the silicate to the carbonate was achieved in 30 minutes. Future studies are intended to investigate various mineral pretreatment options, the carbonation solution characteristics, alternative reactants, scale-up to a continuous process, geochemical modeling, and process economics.

O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

2000-01-01

159

[Fungal and bacterial biomass as indicators of soil C sequestration in savannas soils substituted by pine plantations].  

PubMed

A transformation of any natural ecosystem to an agricultural or forest system leads to an important soil modification, not only in the total carbon pool, but also in the carbon associated to the microbial biomass. This way, carbon quantification on soil quality is important for the determination of impacts of agricultural practices and land use changes. The aim of this study was to the determine, through the selective inhibition technique, the fungal and bacterial biomass, and fungal-to-bacterial ratio (F:B) in pine plantations (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis), to establish if these parameters are sensible indicators of changes in the carbon content in Uverito soils (Venezuela). Furthermore, the inhibitor additivity ratio (IAR) and total combined inhibition (TCI) were carried out to determine if the antibiotics caused non-target inhibition. The quantification of fungal and bacterial biomass was carried out by using of cyloheximide as fungal inhibitor, and streptomycin and chloranphenicol as specific bacterial inhibitors. This research evidences that this land use change exerted a significant effect on soil microbial biomass, and shows that in pine plantations there is a dominance of the fungal component, in contrast to the native savanna, in which the bacterial biomass dominates. The substitution of native savanna by pine plantation in Uverito promotes a major soil carbon sequestration. The values of the inhibitor additivity ratio (IAR) as for native savanna as pine system, were both >1.0. The total combined inhibition (TCI) was smaller in the pine systems, from which it is possible to infer that a high proportion of microbial biomass was affected by the combination of the inhibitors. PMID:20737850

Zabala, Magalis; Gómez, Yrma

2010-09-01

160

Role of Biofilms in Geological Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologic sequestration of CO2 involves injection into underground formations including oil beds, deep un-minable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers with temperature and pressure conditions such that CO2 will likely be in the supercritical state. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is only slightly soluble in water (approximately 4%) and it is therefore likely that two fluid phases will develop in the subsurface,

Robin Gerlach; Andrew C. Mitchell; Lee H. Spangler; Al B. Cunningham

2010-01-01

161

CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS  

SciTech Connect

The October-December Quarter was dedicated to analyzing the first two years tree planting activities and evaluation of the results. This included the analyses of the species success at each of the sites and quantifying the data for future year determination of research levels. Additional detailed studies have been planned to further quantify total carbon storage accumulation on the research areas. At least 124 acres of new plantings will be established in 2005 to bring the total to 500 acres or more in the study area across the state of Kentucky. During the first 2 years of activities, 172,000 tree seedlings were planted on 257 acres in eastern Kentucky and 77,520 seedlings were planted on 119 acres in western Kentucky. The quantities of each species was discussed in the first Annual Report. A monitoring program was implemented to measure treatment effects on above and below ground C and nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes. A sampling strategy was devised that will allow for statistical comparisons of the various species within planting conditions and sites. Seedling heights and diameters are measured for initial status and re-measured on an annual basis. Leaves were harvested and leaf area measurements were performed. They were then dried and weighed and analyzed for C and N. Whole trees were removed to determine biomass levels and to evaluate C and N levels in all components of the trees. Clip plots were taken to determine herbaceous production and litter was collected in baskets and gathered each month to quantify C & N levels. Soil samples were collected to determine the chemical and mineralogical characterization of each area. The physical attributes of the soils are also being determined to provide information on the relative level of compaction. Hydrology and water quality monitoring is being conducted on all areas. Weather data is also being recorded that measures precipitation values, temperature, relative humidity wind speed and direction and solar radiation. Detailed studies to address specific questions pertaining to carbon flux are continuing.

Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

2005-02-25

162

Climate change and terrestrial carbon sequestration in Central Asia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The topic of terrestrial carbon sequestration in Central Asia is extremely relevant and timely due to the increasing problem of land degradation and desertification in this region. Serious problems of soil and environmental degradation in general and that in Central Asia in particular exacerbated b...

163

Depleted Oil Reservoirs: A Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safe, long-term sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is fast becoming a need because of the environmental impact of increased amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. A number of alternatives are currently being studied to permanently remove CO2 from the atmosphere. These can be divided in three main categories, ocean, terrestrial and geologic disposal. Multiple geologic settings can be used

R. J. Pawar; D. Zhang

2001-01-01

164

Carbon sequestration under irrigated switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum) production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Perennial herbaceous bioenergy crops have the potential to improve soil quality, sequester soil C, enhance nutrient cycling, improve wildlife habitat and supply a portion of U.S. energy needs when used as a fuel. Enhanced carbon sequestration combined with bioenergy based cropping systems could pot...

165

Forest carbon sequestration changes in response to timber harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest succession contributes to the global terrestrial carbon (C) sink, but changes in C sequestration in response to varied harvest intensities have been debated. The forests of the Central Appalachian region have been aggrading over the past 100 years following widespread clear-cutting that occurred in the early 1900s and these forests are now valuable timberlands. This study compared the history

Sarah C. Davis; Amy E. Hessl; Carrie J. Scott; Mary Beth Adams; Richard B. Thomas

2009-01-01

166

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest

M. K. Shukla; R. Lal

2004-01-01

167

Risk assessment framework for geologic carbon sequestration sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a simple and transparent approach for assessing CO and brine leakage risk associated with CO injection at geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. The approach, called the Certification Framework (CF), is based on the concept of effective trapping, which takes into account both the probability of leakage from the storage formation and impacts of leakage. The effective trapping

C. Oldenburg; P. Jordan; Y. Zhang; J.-P. Nicot; S. L. Bryant

2010-01-01

168

In Brief: Carbon Sequestration Partnerships; Review of Peer Reviews  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Energy named seven regional partnerships on 16 August to study the best methods for the non-biological sequestration of carbon in different parts of the country.Peer review guidelines for science issued by the federal government which is related to regulatory topics could be tightened up under a 29 August White House proposal.

Showstack, Randy

169

Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect (2nd Edition)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This volume is a second edition of the book “Soil Carbon Sequestration and The Greenhouse Effect”. The first edition was published in 2001 as SSSA Special Publ. #57. The present edition is an update of the concepts, processes, properties, practices and the supporting data. All chapters are new co...

170

Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest

M. K. Shukla; K. Lorenz; R. Lal

2005-01-01

171

Plant functional traits and soil carbon sequestration in contrasting biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant functional traits control a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes, including soil carbon storage which is a key component of the global carbon cycle. Plant traits regulate net soil carbon storage by controlling carbon assimilation, its transfer and storage in belowground biomass, and its release from soil through respiration, fire and leaching. However, our mechanistic understanding of these processes is

Gerlinde B. De Deyn; Johannes H. C. Cornelissen; Richard D. Bardgett

2008-01-01

172

CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION BY MECHANOCHEMICAL CARBONATION OF MINERAL SILICATES  

SciTech Connect

The University of Utah and the University of Idaho investigated the carbonation of silicate minerals by mechanochemical processing. This method uses intense grinding, and has the potential of being much less expensive than other methods of mineral sequestration. Tests were conducted in three types of grinding devices. In these tests, natural and synthetic silicate compounds were ground for varying times in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. A significant change takes place in the lizardite variety of serpentine after 15 to 20 minutes of intense grinding in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. The X-ray diffraction spectrum of lizardite thus treated was much different than that of the untreated mineral. This spectrum could not be identified as that of any natural or synthetic material. Laboratory analyses showed that small amounts of carbon are fixed by grinding lizardite, forsterite, and wollastonite (all naturally-occurring minerals), and synthetic magnesium silicate, in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. It was thus concluded that further investigation was warranted, and a follow-up proposal was submitted to the Department of Energy under solicitation number.

Michael G. Nelson

2004-04-01

173

Land-use change and carbon sinks: Econometric estimation of the carbon sequestration supply function  

SciTech Connect

Increased attention by policy makers to the threat of global climate change has brought with it considerable interest in the possibility of encouraging the expansion of forest area as a means of sequestering carbon dioxide. The marginal costs of carbon sequestration or, equivalently, the carbon sequestration supply function will determine the ultimate effects and desirability of policies aimed at enhancing carbon uptake. In particular, marginal sequestration costs are the critical statistic for identifying a cost-effective policy mix to mitigate net carbon dioxide emissions. We develop a framework for conducting an econometric analysis of land use for the forty-eight contiguous United States and employing it to estimate the carbon sequestration supply function. By estimating the opportunity costs of land on the basis of econometric evidence of landowners' actual behavior, we aim to circumvent many of the shortcomings of previous sequestration cost assessments. By conducting the first nationwide econometric estimation of sequestration costs, endogenizing prices for land-based commodities, and estimating land-use transition probabilities in a framework that explicitly considers the range of land-use alternatives, we hope to provide better estimates eventually of the true costs of large-scale carbon sequestration efforts. In this way, we seek to add to understanding of the costs and potential of this strategy for addressing the threat of global climate change.

Lubowski, Ruben N.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Stavins, Robert N.

2001-01-01

174

Applications of mineral carbonation to geological sequestration of CO2  

SciTech Connect

Geological sequestration of CO2 is a promising near-term sequestration methodology. However, migration of the CO2 beyond the natural reservoir seals could become problematic, thus the identification of means to enhance the natural seals could prove beneficial. Injection of a mineral reactant slurry could provide a means to enhance the natural reservoir seals by supplying the necessary cations for precipitation of mineral carbonates. The subject study evaluates the merit of several mineral slurry injection strategies by conduct of a series of laboratory-scale CO2 flood tests on whole core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone from the Illinois Basin.

O'Connor, William K.; Rush, G.E.

2005-01-01

175

Carbon Sequestration and the Implications for Rangeland Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Synopsis  The significance of the carbon balance in the rangelands of the NW of China is examined against a global perspective of carbon\\u000a gains and losses from soil and vegetation. The results from field work in Gansu (Qilian Mountains) and in Xinjiang (Tian and\\u000a Altai Mountains) are summarized. In this chapter we review the processes of C capture and storage (sequestration)

Long Ruijun; Shang Zhanhuan; Li Xiaogan; Jiang Ping-an; Jia Hong-tao; Victor Squires

176

Modeling soil carbon sequestration in agricultural lands of Mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is a low-input low-output system primarily for subsistence. Some of these areas are becoming less able to feed the people because of land degradation and erosion. The aim of this study is to characterize the potential for increasing levels of soil carbon for improving soil quality and carbon sequestration. A combination of high- and low-resolution imagery

P. C. Doraiswamy; G. W. McCarty; E. R. Hunt Jr.; R. S. Yost; M. Doumbia; A. J. Franzluebbers

2007-01-01

177

Carbon sequestration in the agricultural soils of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, technical and economically viable potentials for carbon sequestration in the agricultural soils of Europe by 2008–2012 are analysed against a business-as-usual scenario. We provide a quantitative estimation of the carbon absorption potential per hectare and the surface of agricultural land that is available and suitable for the implementation of those measures, their environmental effects as well as

Annette Freibauer; Mark D. A Rounsevell; Pete Smith; Jan Verhagen

2004-01-01

178

Carbon Sequestration and Turnover in Semiarid Savannas and Dry Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on carbon and biomass budgets under different land use in tropical savannas and some dry forests are reviewed. Global data show wide ranges of biomass carbon stocks (20-150 Mg C ha-1), net primary production (2-15 Mg C ha-1y-1) and litter production (2-10 Mg C ha-1y-1) for the semiarid tropics. Although ranges for soil carbon are also wide, an average

H. Tiessen; C. Feller; E. V. S. B. Sampaio; P. Garin

1998-01-01

179

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION: AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops an integrated assessment approach for analysis of the economic potential for carbon sequestration in agricultural soils. By linking a site-specific economic simulation model of agricultural production to a crop ecosystem model, the approach shows the economic efficiency of soil carbon (C) sequestration depends on site-specific opportunity costs of changing production practices and rates of soil C sequestration.

John M. Antle; Susan M. Capalbo; Sian Mooney; Edward T. Elliott; Keith H. Paustian

2001-01-01

180

Carbon Sequestration at the Howland Forest in Maine: Where Does the Carbon go?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eddy covariance towers provide information on net carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, but they provide little information on the location of carbon sources and sinks. We measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 in a mature, old-growth mixed spruce/hemlock/red maple forest at the Howland Forest beginning in 1996. Live biomass at Howland Forest is about 110 Mg C ha-1 in the stand with the eddy covariance tower. Between 1996 and 2000, Howland Forest was a net carbon sink, taking up on average about 1.95\\pm0.46 Mg C ha-1 y-1. Forest mensurational measurements between 1989 and 1998 indicate that, over this entire time period, carbon storage due to tree growth increased by about 1.65 Mg C ha-1 y-1; about 23% of this carbon is stored in roots. However, mortality between 1998-2002 was about 0.28 Mg C ha-1 y-1. Soil C storage also contributes to carbon sequestration, ranging from 0.07-0.24 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in well-drained soils; this does not include changes in soil C storage in poorly-drained soils (roughly 15% of the area). Down-dead wood, measured using the point-relascope method, contains about 4.1 Mg C ha-1. Based on an empirical relationship between temperature and respiration, down-dead wood respires about 0.27 Mg C ha-1 y-1, but estimates of input rates over four years suggests a similar rate of down-dead wood production; this pool appears to be neither gaining nor losing significant amounts of carbon. Standing dead wood contains about 10 Mg C ha-1, but its contribution to NEE is poorly understood. Our results suggest that changes in carbon storage in live vegetation and soils contribute the most to carbon sequestration at Howland Forest and, within the estimates of uncertainty, equate to average NEE estimates over a four-year period.

Scott, N. A.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Davidson, E. A.; Gaudinski, J. B.; Trumbore, S. E.; Hughes, H.; Ranson, J.

2002-12-01

181

Optimal Global Carbon Management with Ocean Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the socially optimal anthropogenic intervention into the global carbon cycle. The limiting factor for this intervention is the accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere, which causes global warming. We apply a simplified two-box model to incorporate aspects of the global carbon cycle in a more appropriate way than a simple proportional decay assumption does. Anthropogenic intervention into the

Wilfried Rickels; Thomas Lontzek

2008-01-01

182

Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Particles for Ocean Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents strategies for producing negatively buoyant CO{sub 2} hydrate composite particles for ocean carbon sequestration. Our study is based on recent field observations showing that a continuous-jet hydrate reactor located at an ocean depth of 1500 m produced curved negatively buoyant cylindrical particles with diameters {approx} 2.5 cm and lengths up to {approx} 1 m. Accordingly we performed new laboratory experiments to determine the drag coefficient of such particles and, based on the measured drag coefficient and the initial settling velocity observed in the field, have concluded that the reactor efficiency (percentage of liquid CO{sub 2} converted to hydrate) in the field was {approx} 16%. Using the dissolution rates observed in the field, we conclude that such particles would ultimately sink to depth below discharge of {approx} 115 m. We have also predicted the sinking depth of particles potentially produced from various scaled-up reactors and have shown that, for example, a 10 cm diameter particle produced with a hydrate conversion of 50% could reach the ocean bottom before completely dissolving. In a real sequestration scenario, we are interested in following large groups of hydrate particles released continuously. We have previously shown that increasing particle size and hydrate conversion efficiency enhances the sinking of hydrate particle plumes produced by the continuous release of CO{sub 2} in a quiescent ambient, but that a sufficiently strong current will cause the entrained particles to separate from the plume and settle discretely. In the latter case, particles of different sizes and hydrate conversions (hence different settling velocities) will follow different settling trajectories as they dissolve. This particle fractionation, if employed deliberately, spreads the discharged CO{sub 2} in the down current and vertical directions, enhancing mixing, while turbulent diffusion helps spread the CO{sub 2} in the third direction. A numerical model that incorporates these processes is used to predict the downstream concentrations and changes in pH from such particle plumes in a 'strong' current. An extension of this model simulates hydrate particles that are released continuously from a moving ship. Because of the ship speed, such particles would never form a coherent plume, but the combination of particle fractionation and advection due to the ship motion produces excellent dilution of the discharged CO{sub 2}.

Chow, Aaron C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Adams, E. Eric [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Israelsson, P. H. [Quantitative Environmental Analysis; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2009-01-01

183

Reactor design considerations in mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

One of the promising approaches to lowering the anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere is mineral sequestration. In this approach, the carbon dioxide reacts with alkaline earth containing silicate minerals forming magnesium and/or calcium carbonates. Mineral carbonation is a multiphase reaction process involving gas, liquid and solid phases. The effective design and scale-up of the slurry reactor for mineral carbonation will require careful delineation of the rate determining step and how it changes with the scale of the reactor. The shrinking core model was used to describe the mineral carbonation reaction. Analysis of laboratory data indicates that the transformations of olivine and serpentine are controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion through an ash layer respectively. Rate parameters for olivine and serpentine carbonation are estimated from the laboratory data.

Ityokumbul, M.T.; Chander, S. (both of Pennsylvania State Univ.); O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

2001-01-01

184

Mineralization strategies for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in three primary research areas--each concerned with sequestering carbon dioxide into mineral matrices. Direct mineral carbonation was pioneered at Albany Research Center. The method treats the reactant, olivine or serpentine in aqueous media with carbon dioxide at high temperature and pressure to form stable mineral carbonates. Recent results are introduced for pretreatment by high-intensity grinding to improve carbonation efficiency. To prove feasibility of the carbonation process, a new reactor was designed and operated to progress from batch tests to continuous operation. The new reactor is a prototype high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop reactor that will furnish information on flow, energy consumption, and wear and corrosion resulting from slurry flow and the carbonation reaction. A promising alternative mineralization approach is also described. New data are presented for long-term exposure of carbon dioxide to Colombia River Basalt to determine the extent of conversion of carbon dioxide to permanent mineral carbonates. Batch autoclave tests were conducted using drill-core samples of basalt and reacted under conditions that simulate in situ injection into basalt-containing geological formations.

Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.

2003-01-01

185

Optimizing carbon sequestration in commercial forests by integrating carbon management objectives in wood supply modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a methodology for generating forest management plans, which explicitly maximize carbon (C) sequestration at the forest-landscape level. This paper takes advantage of concepts first presented in a paper\\u000a by Meng et al. (2003; Mitigation Adaptation Strategies Global Change 8:371–403) by integrating C-sequestration objective functions in existing\\u000a wood supply models. Carbon-stock calculations performed in WoodstockTM (RemSoft Inc.) are based

Charles P.-A. Bourque; Eric T. Neilson; Chris Gruenwald; Samantha F. Perrin; Jason C. Hiltz; Yvon A. Blin; Geoffrey V. Horsman; Matthew S. Parker; Christie B. Thorburn; Michael M. Corey; Fan-rui Meng; D. Edwin Swift

2007-01-01

186

The effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration by direct injection: Leakage and discount rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct injection of CO2 into the ocean is a potentially effective carbon sequestration strategy. Therefore, we develop an analytic framework to allow us to compare the effectiveness of this strategy with other carbon management options. We estimate the effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration using one-dimensional and three-dimensional ocean models. We discuss a new measure of effectiveness of carbon sequestration in

H. J. Herzog; K. Caldeira; M. E. Wickett; J. Reilly

2001-01-01

187

NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB)  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a brief summary of the milestone for Quarter 1 of 2006 of the NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB) This milestone assigns consistent symbology to the ''National CO{sub 2} Facilities'' GIS layer on the NATCARB website. As a default, CO{sub 2} sources provided by the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships and the National Group are now all one symbol type. In addition for sinks such as oil and gas fields where data is drawn from multiple partnerships, the symbology is given a single color. All these modifications are accomplished as the layer is passed through the national portal (www.natcarb.org). This documentation is sent to National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a Topical Report and will be included in the next Annual Report.

Timothy R. Carr

2006-01-09

188

Potential for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Flood Basalts  

SciTech Connect

Flood basalts are a potentially important host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Most lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have enormous capacity for storage of CO2. Interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability basalt rock overlying sequential flows may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Laboratory experiments confirm relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-saturated pore water with basalts to form stable carbonate minerals. Calculations suggest a sufficiently short time frame for onset of carbonate precipitation after CO2 injection that verification of in situ mineralization rates appears feasible in field pilot studies. If proven viable, major flood basalts in the U.S. and India would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity and additional geologic sequestration options in certain regions where more conventional storage options are limited.

McGrail, B. PETER; Schaef, Herbert T.; Ho, Anita M.; Chien, Yi-Ju; Dooley, James J.; Davidson, Casie L.

2006-12-01

189

Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

2003-05-31

190

Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. (6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high ({approx}50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

Baylor university

2003-06-01

191

Evidence for carbon sequestration by agricultural liming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural lime can be a source or a sink for CO2, depending on whether reaction occurs with strong acids or carbonic acid. Here we examine the impact of liming on global warming potential by comparing the sum of Ca2+ and Mg2+ to carbonate alkalinity in soil solutions beneath unmanaged vegetation versus limed row crops, and of streams and rivers in

Stephen K. Hamilton; Amanda L. Kurzman; Clay Arango; Lixin Jin; G. Philip Robertson

2007-01-01

192

Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) could become an instrumental part of a future carbon trading system in the US. If the US starts operating an emissions trading scheme (ETS) similar to that of the European Union's then limits on CO(sub 2) emissions will be...

S. Hoversten

2008-01-01

193

Organic carbon sequestration in earthworm burrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms strongly affect soil organic carbon cycling. The aim of this study was to determine whether deep burrowing anecic earthworms enhance carbon storage in soils and decrease C turnover. Earthworm burrow linings were separated into thin cylindrical sections with different distances from the burrow wall to determine gradients from the burrow wall to the surrounding soil. Organic C, total N,

Axel Don; Bert Steinberg; Ingo Schöning; Karin Pritsch; Monika Joschko; Gerd Gleixner; Ernst-Detlef Schulze

2008-01-01

194

Soil Carbon Sequestration in Pastureland and Rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degraded land with less than 1.5% organic carbon (class 4 and 5 land) in the Parkland of Western Canada has significant potential, from 5 to 15 Mg C ha-1 depending on management, for carbon storage with forages in the Parkland. The potential ranges from 5 to 15 Mg C ha-1, over a period from 15 to 20 years, depending on

A. P. Moulin; P. McCaughey; D. McCartney; M. Entz; S. Bittman; W. F. Nuttall

195

CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monitoring program to measure treatment effects on above ground, and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools for the planting areas is being conducted. The collection of soil and tissue samples from both the 2003 and 2004 plantings is complete and are currently being processed in the laboratory. Detailed studies have been initiated to address specific questions pertaining to carbon

Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

2004-01-01

196

UK land use and soil carbon sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review explores the role of land use and land use change as a determinant of the soil's ability to sequester and store carbon in the UK. Over 95 percent of the UK land carbon stock is located in soils which are subjected to a range of land uses and global changes. Land use change can result in rapid soil

N. J. Ostle; P. E. Levy; C. D. Evans; P. Smith

2009-01-01

197

Brines as Possible Cation Sources for Biomimetic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility industry is currently producing 2.1 x 109 tonnes of CO2 per year from burning coal. The amounts of CO2 produced by a single coal-burning station are typically around 0.1 tonnes\\/MW\\/h for a coal burn of 0.04 tonnes\\/MW\\/h. These large fixed sources of CO2 constitute an obvious target for carbon sequestration to minimize greenhouse-gas emissions. The generally favored approach

G. M. Bond; A. Abel; B. J. McPherson; J. Stringer

2002-01-01

198

Simultaneous leaching and carbon sequestration in constrained aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of metal ions’ leaching and precipitated mineral phases of metal-rich fly ash (FA) was examined in order to evaluate\\u000a microbial impacts on carbon sequestration and metal immobilization. The leaching solutions consisted of aerobic deionized\\u000a water (DW) and artificial eutrophic water (AEW) that was anaerobic, organic- and mineral-rich, and higher salinity as is typical\\u000a of bottom water in eutrophic

Ji-Won Moon; Kyu-Seong Cho; James G. Moberly; Yul Roh; Tommy J. Phelps

2011-01-01

199

Soil Carbon Sequestration in Natural and Managed Tropical Forest Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article collates and synthesizes the available information on the potential of agroforestry and tropical plantations on soil carbon (C) sequestration to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Tropical forest ecosystems (TFEs) occupy 1.8 billion hectares (Bha) of the total area of 4.2 Bha in forest biomes. The terrestrial C pool in TFEs comprises 120 Mg\\/ha (tons) in vegetation and 123

R. Lai

2004-01-01

200

How strongly can forest management influence soil carbon sequestration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed the experimental evidence for long-term carbon (C) sequestration in soils as consequence of specific forest management strategies. Utilization of terrestrial C sinks alleviates the burden of countries which are committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. Land-use changes such as those which result from afforestation and management of fast-growing tree species, have an immediate effect on the regional

Robert Jandl; Marcus Lindner; Lars Vesterdal; B. M. S. D. L. Bauwens; Rainer Baritz; Frank Hagedorn; Dale W. Johnson; Kari Minkkinen; Kenneth A. Byrne

2007-01-01

201

Technological learning for carbon capture and sequestration technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes potentials of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCT) in a set of long-term energy-economic-environmental scenarios based on alternative assumptions for technological progress of CCT. In order to get a reasonable guide to future technological progress in managing CO2 emissions, we review past experience in controlling sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from power plants. By doing so, we quantify

Keywan Riahi; Edward S. Rubin; Margaret R. Taylor; Leo Schrattenholzer; David Hounshell

2004-01-01

202

Carbon sequestration potential in reclaimed mine sites in seven east-central states  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial systems represent a significant potential carbon (C) sink to help mitigate or offset greenhouse gas emissions. Nearly 3.2 Mha are permitted for mining activities in the United States, which are required to be reclaimed with vegetative cover. While site-specific studies have assessed C accumulation on reclaimed mine sites, regional analyses to estimate potential C increases have not been conducted. For this analysis, potential C sequestration is analyzed on 567000 ha of mine land in a seven-state region reclaimed to cropland, pasture, or forest. Carbon accumulation is estimated for cropland, pasture, and forest soils, forest litter layer, and aboveground biomass by estimating average annual rates of C accumulation from site-specific and general C sequestration studies. The average annual rate of C storage is highest when mine land is reclaimed to forest, where the potential sequestration is 0.7 to 2.2 Tg yr{sup -1}. The C from soils, litter layer, and biomass from mine lands reclaimed to forest represents 0.3 to 1.0% of the 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions from the study region (919 Tg CO{sub 2}). To achieve the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction goal of 7% below the 1990 level as proposed by the Kyoto Treaty requires CO{sub 2} emissions in the study area to be reduced by just over 64 Tg CO{sub 2}. The potential carbon storage in mine sites reclaimed to forest could account for 4 to 12.5% of these required reductions.

Sperow, M. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Division of Resources Managment

2006-07-15

203

Mesoscale carbon sequestration site screening and CCS infrastructure analysis.  

PubMed

We explore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) at the meso-scale, a level of study between regional carbon accounting and highly detailed reservoir models for individual sites. We develop an approach to CO(2) sequestration site screening for industries or energy development policies that involves identification of appropriate sequestration basin, analysis of geologic formations, definition of surface sites, design of infrastructure, and analysis of CO(2) transport and storage costs. Our case study involves carbon management for potential oil shale development in the Piceance-Uinta Basin, CO and UT. This study uses new capabilities of the CO(2)-PENS model for site screening, including reservoir capacity, injectivity, and cost calculations for simple reservoirs at multiple sites. We couple this with a model of optimized source-sink-network infrastructure (SimCCS) to design pipeline networks and minimize CCS cost for a given industry or region. The CLEAR(uff) dynamical assessment model calculates the CO(2) source term for various oil production levels. Nine sites in a 13,300 km(2) area have the capacity to store 6.5 GtCO(2), corresponding to shale-oil production of 1.3 Mbbl/day for 50 years (about 1/4 of U.S. crude oil production). Our results highlight the complex, nonlinear relationship between the spatial deployment of CCS infrastructure and the oil-shale production rate. PMID:20698546

Keating, Gordon N; Middleton, Richard S; Stauffer, Philip H; Viswanathan, Hari S; Letellier, Bruce C; Pasqualini, Donatella; Pawar, Rajesh J; Wolfsberg, Andrew V

2010-08-10

204

Carbon-sequestration and ecosystem services in the boreal ecoregion of Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managing public lands for carbon (C) sequestration is increasingly discussed as a component of national carbon policies. However, management of public land to facilitate carbon sequestration must be considered in the context of other management mandates and the effects on other ecosystem services. Of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service's (USFWS) National Wildlife Refuge lands in Alaska, about 35% are in the boreal ecoregion; primarily in the Intermountain and the Alaska Range Transition ecoregions. These refuges were established to conserve wildlife habitat, fulfill treaty obligations, provide for continued subsistence uses, and ensure necessary water quality and quantity. One of the major factors in determining ecosystem distribution in the boreal ecoregion is disturbance. Fire is the dominant disturbance for Alaska's boreal region. Most USFWS refuge lands are managed with "limited" suppression, where fires burn naturally and are monitored to assure the protection of human life, property, and site specific values (such as historical or religious). However, there is increasing interest in biomass harvest and combustion for local energy production. Harvest and fire can have differing effects on both the spatial and temporal aspects of carbon storage. The current biomass harvest for energy production proposals are considered to be C neutral because they focus on "hazardous" biomass which would burn naturally or in a prescribed burn. The goal of this effort is to explore the relation between C storage and other public land management priorities, as well as, to explore how disturbance type (fire and harvest) affect C storage and boreal ecosystem distribution in the context of wildlife habitat and subsistence use management priorities. We present a conceptual model that defines the linkages among these management priorities, a data gap analysis, and scenarios to be evaluated.

Wang, B.; Manies, K.; Labay, K.; Johnson, W. N.; Harden, J. W.

2011-12-01

205

CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS  

SciTech Connect

A monitoring program to measure treatment effects on above ground, and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools for the planting areas is being conducted. The collection of soil and tissue samples from both the 2003 and 2004 plantings is complete and are currently being processed in the laboratory. Detailed studies have been initiated to address specific questions pertaining to carbon cycling. Examinations of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots were continued during this reporting period. A whole-tree harvesting method was employed to evaluate carbon accumulation as a function of time on the mined site. The trees were extracted from the sites and separated into the following components: foliage, stems, branches, and roots.

Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

2004-11-30

206

Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation.  

PubMed

Carbonation is the water-mediated replacement of silicate minerals, such as olivine, by carbonate, and is commonplace in the Earth's crust. This reaction can remove significant quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere and store it over geological timescales. Here we present the first direct evidence for CO2 sequestration and storage on Mars by mineral carbonation. Electron beam imaging and analysis show that olivine and a plagioclase feldspar-rich mesostasis in the Lafayette meteorite have been replaced by carbonate. The susceptibility of olivine to replacement was enhanced by the presence of smectite veins along which CO2-rich fluids gained access to grain interiors. Lafayette was partially carbonated during the Amazonian, when liquid water was available intermittently and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were close to their present-day values. Earlier in Mars' history, when the planet had a much thicker atmosphere and an active hydrosphere, carbonation is likely to have been an effective mechanism for sequestration of CO2. PMID:24149494

Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin R; Mark, Darren F; Smith, Caroline L

2013-10-22

207

Review of literature on economics and policy of carbon sequestration in agricultural soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe key economic and policy-related issues with regard to terrestrial C sequestration and provide an overview of the economics of C sequestration on agricultural soils in the USA. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Recent economic literature on carbon sequestration was reviewed to gather insights on the role of agriculture in greenhouse gas

Dean A. Bangsund; F. Larry Leistritz

2008-01-01

208

Mechanically Activated Olivine as Feedstock for Ex-situ Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Preliminary Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuel power plants need sequestration to significantly lower CO2 emissions. In nature, Mg- and Ca- rich silicates react with CO2(aq) and perform a natural sequestration by dissolution of silicates and a later precipitation of carbonates. This type of sequestration is environmentally friendly and stable. One severe problem with adopting this method for industrial processes is the slow reaction rate.

A. Haug; I. A. Munz; J. Kihle

2006-01-01

209

Evaluating Soil Carbon Sequestration in Central Iowa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration through landuse and management of agricultural systems is of great interest worldwide. Agricultural soils can be a source of CO2 when not properly managed but can also be a sink for sequestering CO2 through proper soil and crop management. The EPIC-CENTURY biogeochemical model was used to simulate the baseline level of soil carbon from soil survey data and project changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) under different tillage and crop management practices for corn and soybean crops. The study was conducted in central Iowa (50 km x 100 km) to simulate changes in soil carbon over the next 50 years. The simulations were conducted in two phases; initially a 25-year period (1971-1995) was simulated using conventional tillage practices since there was a transition in new management after 1995. In the second 25-year period (1996-2020), four different modeling scenarios were applied namely; conventional tillage, mulch tillage, no-tillage and no-tillage with a rye cover crop over the winter. The model simulation results showed potential gains in soil carbon in the top layers of the soil for conservation tillage. The simulations were made at a spatial resolution of 1.6 km x 1.6 km and mapped for the study area. There was a mean reduction in soil organic carbon of 0.095 T/ha per year over the 25-year period starting with 1996 for the conventional tillage practice. However, for management practices of mulch tillage, no tillage and no tillage with cover crop there was an increase in soil organic carbon of 0.12, 0.202 and 0.263 T/ha respectively over the same 25-year period. These results are in general similar to studies conducted in this region.

Doraiswamy, P. C.; Hunt, E. R.; McCarty, G. W.; Daughtry, C. S.; Izaurralde, C.

2005-12-01

210

Science of Geological Carbon Sequestration: Integration of Experimentation and Simulation.  

SciTech Connect

This LDRD-DR will develop and enhance the science and technology needed to safely and effectively sequester carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) in geologic formations for the long term. There is consensus in the scientific community that increased levels of greenhouse gases such as CO[sub 2] are adversely affecting the global environment as evidenced by recent trends in global warming and dramatic changes in weather patterns. Geologic sequestration represents an immediately available, low-cost option for mitigating the global environmental impact of C0[sub 2] by removing large amounts of the gas from the atmosphere. The main limitation of this approach is the limited knowledge of the fundamental science that governs the physical and chemical behavior of (supercritical) CO[sub 2] during and after injection into the host geologic environment. Key scientific issues revolve around determination of the ultimate fate of injected CO[sub 2] which is governed by permeability/porosity relations in the multi-phase CO[sub 2]-brine(-oil) systems as well as the reactivity and integrity of the host rock. We propose a combined experimental and theoretical investigation to determine key parameters and incorporate them into coupled microscopic and macroscopic numerical CO[sub 2] flow and reaction models. This problem provides an excellent opportunity to utilize unique LANL resources including the Supercritical Fluids Facility (SCRUB) for dynamic (flow-through) studies of supercritical CO[sub 2] (scCO[sub 2]); LANSCE for microscale investigation of pore structure and reaction products; and hydrothermal reaction laboratories for long-term flow and reaction studies. These facilities will allow us to obtain crucial experimental data that could not be easily obtained at any other research facility in the world. The experimental data will be used to develop and validate coupled flow and reaction models that build on existing state-of-the-art modeling capabilities in EES, T and D Divisions. Carbon sequestration is an emerging research area in which federal funding has grown significantly over past years. Together with existing applied, small carbon sequestration projects funded by DOE, this proposed LDRD project, focusing on fundamental issues of long-term geological carbon sequestration, will put the laboratory at the forefront of carbon sequestration science/engineering and in a unique and advantageous position to develop future major programs in this area.

Zhang, D.; Hall, M. L.; Higdon, D.; Hollis, W. K.; Kaszuba, J.; Lichtner, P.; Pawar, R.; Zhao, Y.; Chen, S.; Grigg, R.

2003-08-04

211

Sequestration of CO2 by concrete carbonation.  

PubMed

Carbonation of reinforced concrete is one of the causes of corrosion, but it is also a way to sequester CO2. The characteristics of the concrete cover should ensure alkaline protection for the steel bars but should also be able to combine CO2 to a certain depth. This work attempts to advance the knowledge of the carbon footprint of cement. As it is one of the most commonly used materials worldwide, it is very important to assess its impact on the environment. In order to quantify the capacity of cement based materials to combine CO2 by means of the reaction with hydrated phases to produce calcium carbonate, Thermogravimetry and the phenolphthalein indicator have been used to characterize several cement pastes and concretes exposed to different environments. The combined effect of the main variables involved in this process is discussed. The moisture content of the concrete seems to be the most influential parameter. PMID:20225850

Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Mora, Pedro; Sanjuan, Miguel A

2010-04-15

212

Cropping Systems, Carbon Sequestration and Erosion in Brazil: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils represent a large carbon pool, approximately 1,500 Gt, which is equivalent to almost three times the quantity stored in terrestrial biomass and twice the amount stored in the atmosphere. Any modification of land-use or land management can induce variations in soil carbon stocks, even in agricultural systems that are perceived to be in a steady state. Tillage practices often

Martial Bernoux; Carlos C. Cerri; Carlos Eduardo P. Cerri; Marcos Siqueira Neto; Aurélie Metay; Anne-Sophie Perrin; Eric Scopel; Razafimbelo Tantely; Didier Blavet; Marisa C. Piccolo; Mariana Pavei; Eleanor Milne

213

Climate Controls on Carbon Sequestration in Eastern North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mid-latitude forest ecosystems have been proposed as a "missing sink"today. The role of soils (including wetlands) in this proposed sink is a very important unknown. In order to make estimates of future climate change effects on carbon storage, we can examine past wetland carbon sequestration. How did past climate change affect net wetland carbon storage? We present long-term data from existing wetland sites used for paleoclimate reconstruction to assess the net carbon storage in wetland over the last 15,000 years. During times of colder and wetter climate, many mid-latitude sites show increases in carbon storage, while past warmer, drier climates produced decreases in storage. Comparisons among bog, fen, swamp, and tidal marsh are demonstrated for the Hudson Valley region.

Peteet, D. M.; Renik, B.; Maenza-Gmelch, T.; Kurdyla, D.; Gulderson, T.

2002-12-01

214

A General Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration Activities and Carbon Credits  

SciTech Connect

A general methodology was developed for evaluation of carbon sequestration technologies. In this document, we provide a method that is quantitative, but is structured to give qualitative comparisons despite changes in detailed method parameters, i.e., it does not matter what ''grade'' a sequestration technology gets but a ''better'' technology should receive a better grade. To meet these objectives, we developed and elaborate on the following concepts: (1) All resources used in a sequestration activity should be reviewed by estimating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions for which they historically are responsible. We have done this by introducing a quantifier we term Full-Cycle Carbon Emissions, which is tied to the resource. (2) The future fate of sequestered carbon should be included in technology evaluations. We have addressed this by introducing a variable called Time-adjusted Value of Carbon Sequestration to weigh potential future releases of carbon, escaping the sequestered form. (3) The Figure of Merit of a sequestration technology should address the entire life-cycle of an activity. The figures of merit we have developed relate the investment made (carbon release during the construction phase) to the life-time sequestration capacity of the activity. To account for carbon flows that occur during different times of an activity we incorporate the Time Value of Carbon Flows. The methodology we have developed can be expanded to include financial, social, and long-term environmental aspects of a sequestration technology implementation. It does not rely on global atmospheric modeling efforts but is consistent with these efforts and could be combined with them.

Klasson, KT

2002-12-23

215

A Survey of Measurement, Mitigation, and Verification Field Technologies for Carbon Sequestration Geologic Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE's) Carbon Sequestration Program is developing state-of-the-science technologies for measurement, mitigation, and verification (MM&V) in field operations of geologic sequestration. MM&V of geologic carbon sequestration operations will play an integral role in the pre-injection, injection, and post-injection phases of carbon capture and storage projects to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Effective MM&V is critical

K. K. Cohen; S. M. Klara; R. D. Srivastava

2004-01-01

216

Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and thus play an important role in global carbon cycles. Most global carbon budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbon-storing ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in mangroves and salt marshes from the western and eastern Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. The set of sites spans a latitudinal range from 22.4°S in the Indian Ocean to 55.5°N in the northeastern Atlantic. The average soil carbon density of mangrove swamps (0.055 ± 0.004 g cm-3) is significantly higher than the salt marsh average (0.039 ± 0.003 g cm-3). Soil carbon density in mangrove swamps and Spartina patens marshes declines with increasing average annual temperature, probably due to increased decay rates at higher temperatures. In contrast, carbon sequestration rates were not significantly different between mangrove swamps and salt marshes. Variability in sediment accumulation rates within marshes is a major control of carbon sequestration rates masking any relationship with climatic parameters. Globally, these combined wetlands store at least 44.6 Tg C yr-1 and probably more, as detailed areal inventories are not available for salt marshes in China and South America. Much attention has been given to the role of freshwater wetlands, particularly northern peatlands, as carbon sinks. In contrast to peatlands, salt marshes and mangroves release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and store more carbon per unit area.

Chmura, Gail L.; Anisfeld, Shimon C.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Lynch, James C.

2003-12-01

217

Carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removing atmospheric carbon (C) and storing it in the terrestrial biosphere is one of the options, which have been proposed to compensate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agricultural lands are believed to be a major potential sink and could absorb large quantities of C if trees are reintroduced to these systems and judiciously managed together with crops and\\/or animals. Thus, the

Alain Albrecht; Serigne T Kandji

2003-01-01

218

Crop Management for Soil Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from agriculture is related to increasing and protecting soil organic matter (SOM) concentration. Agricultural soils can be a significant sink for atmospheric carbon (C) through increase of the SOM concentration. The natural ecosystems such as forests or prairies, where C gains are in equilibrium with losses, lose a large fraction of the antecedent C

Marek K. Jarecki; Rattan Lal

2003-01-01

219

Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Potential Environmental Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, understanding of the profound implications of anthropogenically driven climate change has grown. In turn, this has fuelled research into options to mitigate likely im- pacts. Approaches involving the capture of carbon dioxide and its storage in geological forma- tions, or in marine waters, have generated a raft of proposed solutions. The scale of some of

Paul Johnston; David Santillo

220

Soil carbon sequestration: Quantifying this ecosystem service  

EPA Science Inventory

Soils have a crucial role in supplying many goods and services that society depends upon on a daily basis. These include food and fiber production, water cleansing and supply, nutrient cycling, waste isolation and degradation. Soils also provide a significant amount of carbon s...

221

Community perceptions of carbon sequestration: insights from California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, many energy experts have supported carbon sequestration as a viable technological response to climate change. Given the potential importance of sequestration in US energy policy, what might explain the views of communities that may be directly impacted by the siting of this technology? To answer this question, we conducted focus groups in two communities who were potentially pilot project sites for California's DOE-funded West Coast Regional Partnership (WESTCARB). We find that communities want a voice in defining the risks to be mitigated as well as the justice of the procedures by which the technology is implemented. We argue that a community's sense of empowerment is key to understanding its range of carbon sequestration opinions, where 'empowerment' includes the ability to mitigate community-defined risks of the technology. This sense of empowerment protects the community against the downside risk of government or corporate neglect, a risk that is rarely identified in risk assessments but that should be factored into assessment and communication strategies.

Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Ray, Isha

2009-07-01

222

Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio  

SciTech Connect

This research project was aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of RMS and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. Restoration of disturbed land is followed by the application of nutrients to the soil to promote the vegetation development. Reclamation is important both for preserving the environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. Since reclamation treatments have significant influence on the rate of soil development, a study on subplots was designed with the objectives of assessing the potential of different biosolids on soil organic C (SOC) sequestration rate, soil development, and changes in soil physical and water transmission properties. All sites are owned and maintained by American Electric Power (AEP). These sites were reclaimed by two techniques: (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover.

K. Lorenz; R. Lal

2007-12-31

223

Economic Feasibility of Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR)  

SciTech Connect

Prior reservoir simulation and laboratory studies have suggested that injecting carbon dioxide into mature natural gas reservoirs for carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) is technically feasible. Reservoir simulations show that the high density of carbon dioxide can be exploited to favor displacement of methane with limited gas mixing by injecting carbon dioxide in low regions of a reservoir while producing from higher regions in the reservoir. Economic sensitivity analysis of a prototypical CSEGR application at a large depleting gas field in California shows that the largest expense will be for carbon dioxide capture, purification, compression, and transport to the field. Other incremental costs for CSEGR include: (1) new or reconditioned wells for carbon dioxide injection, methane production, and monitoring; (2) carbon dioxide distribution within the field; and, (3) separation facilities to handle eventual carbon dioxide contamination of the methane. Economic feasibility is most sensitive to wellhead methane price, carbon dioxide supply costs, and the ratio of carbon dioxide injected to incremental methane produced. Our analysis suggests that CSEGR may be economically feasible at carbon dioxide supply costs of up to $4 to $12/t ($0.20 to $0.63/Mcf). Although this analysis is based on a particular gas field, the approach is general and can be applied to other gas fields. This economic analysis, along with reservoir simulation and laboratory studies that suggest the technical feasibility of CSEGR, demonstrates that CSEGR can be feasible and that a field pilot study of the process should be undertaken to test the concept further.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Stevens, S.H.; Benson, S.M.

2003-02-26

224

The European and global potential of carbon dioxide sequestration in tackling climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although, it has received relatively little attention as a potential method of combating climate change in comparison to energy reduction measures and development of carbon-free energy technologies, sequestration of carbon dioxide in geologic or biospheric sinks has enormous potential. This paper reviews the potential for sequestration using geological and ocean storage as a means of reducing carbon dioxide emissions.Considerable quantities

M. C. Grimston; V. Karakoussis; R. Fouquet; R. van der Vorst; P. Pearson; M. Leach

2001-01-01

225

Modelling soil carbon sequestration of intensively monitored forest plots in Europe by three different approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on soil carbon sequestration and its interaction with nitrogen availability is rather limited, since soil processes account for the most significant unknowns in the C and N cycles. In this paper we compare three completely different approaches to calculate carbon sequestration in forest soils. The first approach is the limit-value concept, in which the soil carbon accumulation is estimated

Janet P. Mol Dijkstra; Gert Jan Reinds; Hans Kros; Björn Berg; Wim de Vries

2009-01-01

226

THE ROLE OF CARBON CAPTURE & SEQUESTRATION IN A LONG-TERM TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY OF ATMOSPHERIC STABILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the potential of carbon capture and sequestration technologies to make a significant contribution to national and global efforts to control carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. We examine the performance of these technologies under two alternative future energy-policy scenarios. We conclude that carbon capture and sequestration technologies could indeed play a significant role in reducing atmospheric

JJ DOOLEY; JA EDMONDS; MA WISE

227

A Grass Root Proposal for Carbon Sequestration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass of invisible root material below ground is related to the amount of visible plant material above ground as would have been shown below except for EGU rules. However in many countries modern livestock management methods involve constant grazing which keeps grass short and so leaves very little root mass. This paper will show photographic comparisons, such as the pair which I had to remove from this abstract, resulting from a change in livestock movements which give heavy grazing for a short period alternating with long periods for recovery to tall grass. Apparently arid land can be converted to lush pasture with more livestock and higher biodiversity. If you had seen them you would have been astonished. The soil carbon content of many regions in Scotland is 20 kg per square metre reaching 600 kg in peat bogs. Increasing the soil carbon of one third of the world's land area by 1 kg per square metre amounts to 100 Gigatonne.

Salter, Stephen; Lovell, Tony; Ward, Bruce

2010-05-01

228

Making carbon sequestration a paying proposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased from a preindustrial concentration of about 280 ppm to about 367 ppm at present. The increase has closely\\u000a followed the increase in CO2 emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Global warming caused by increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere\\u000a is the major environmental challenge for the 21st century. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO2

Fengxiang X. Han; Jeff S. Lindner; Chuji Wang

2007-01-01

229

Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in atmospheric concentration of CO2 by 31% since 1750 from fossil fuel combustion and land use change necessitates identification of strategies for mitigating the threat of the attendant global warming. Since the industrial revolution, global emissions of carbon (C) are estimated at 270±30 Pg (Pg=petagram=1015 g=1 billion ton) due to fossil fuel combustion and 136±55 Pg due to

R. Lal

2004-01-01

230

Fluid Mechanical Modelling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow of supercritical carbon dioxide against an impermeable caprock will be considered from a theoretical and experimental point of view. A series of fundamental problems will be presented, along with some laboratory simulations. It will be shown that in the simplest case, when the caprock is totally impermeable and horizontal, with viscosity differences between the supercritical carbon dioxide and the fluid into which it is intruding neglected, the radius of the spreading of carbon dioxide increases like the square root of time. We will then consider the influence of a sloping caprock, where for time short compared to some critical time, ?c, the spreading pool is close to axisymmetric, while for times very much greater than ?c it is approximately three times larger in the upslope than cross-slope direction. For typical geological conditions, ?c can vary from between days and years, and hence the observed shape will depend on details at the injection site. A discussion of the effects of different viscosities of the intruding and intruded fluid will be presented and the important non- dimensional physical parameters outlined. The talk will conclude with a discussion of very recent research on the effects of heterogeneous porosity in the ambient and an application of the results to the analysis of the observations at Sleipner. The talk will be illustrated by colour movie sequences of experiments and a real desk- top experiment.

Huppert, H. E.

2007-12-01

231

Ocean Fertilization for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean is a major sink for both preindustrial and anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Both physically and biogeochemically driven pumps, termed the solubility and biological pump, respectively Fig.5.1) are responsible for the majority of carbon sequestration in the ocean's interior [1]. The solubility pump relies on ocean circulation - specifically the impact of cooling of the upper ocean at high latitudes both enhances the solubility of carbon dioxide and the density of the waters which sink to great depth (the so-called deepwater formation) and thereby sequester carbon in the form of dissolved inorganic carbon (Fig.5.1). The biological pump is driven by the availability of preformed plant macronutrients such as nitrate or phosphate which are taken up by phytoplankton during photosynthetic carbon fixation. A small but significant proportion of this fixed carbon sinks into the ocean's interior in the form of settling particles, and in order to maintain equilibrium carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is transferred across the air-sea interface into the ocean (the so-called carbon drawdown) thereby decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (Fig.5.1).Fig.5.1

Boyd, Philip W.

232

Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

2013-01-01

233

Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) could become an instrumental part of a future carbon trading system in the US. If the US starts operating an emissions trading scheme (ETS) similar to that of the European Union's then limits on CO{sub 2} emissions will be conservative in the beginning stages. The government will most likely start by distributing most credits for free; these free credits are called allowances. The US may follow the model of the EU ETS, which during the first five-year phase distributed 95% of the credits for free, bringing that level down to 90% for the second five-year phase. As the number of free allowances declines, companies will be forced to purchase an increasing number of credits at government auction, or else obtain them from companies selling surplus credits. In addition to reducing the number of credits allocated for free, with each subsequent trading period the number of overall credits released into the market will decline in an effort to gradually reduce overall emissions. Companies may face financial difficulty as the value of credits continues to rise due to the reduction of the number of credits available in the market each trading period. Governments operating emissions trading systems face the challenge of achieving CO{sub 2} emissions targets without placing such a financial burden on their companies that the country's economy is markedly affected.

Hoversten, Shanna

2008-08-07

234

A Holocene record of climate-driven shifts in coastal carbon sequestration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A sediment core collected in the mesohaline portion of Chesapeake Bay was found to contain periods of increased delivery of refractory black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The BC was most likely produced by biomass combustion during four centennialscale dry periods as indicated by the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), beginning in the late Medieval Warm Period of 1100 CE. In contrast, wetter periods were associated with increased non-BC organic matter influx into the bay, likely due to greater runoff and associated nutrient delivery. In addition, an overall increase in both BC and non-BC organic matter deposition during the past millennium may reflect a shift in climate regime. The finding that carbon sequestration in the coastal zone responds to climate fluctuations at both centennial and millennial scales through fire occurrence and nutrient delivery has implications for past and future climate predictions. Drought-induced fires may lead, on longer timescales, to greater carbon sequestration and, therefore, represent a negative climate feedback. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Mitra, S.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Hunsinger, G. B.; Willard, D.; Dunn, J. C.

2009-01-01

235

The economic potential of carbon sequestration in Californian agricultural land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation studies the potential success of a carbon sequestration policy based on payments to farmers for adoption of alternative, less intensive, management practices in California. Since this is a first approach from a Californian perspective, we focus on Yolo County, an important agricultural county of the State. We focus on the six more important crops of the region: wheat, tomato, corn, rice, safflower, and sunflower. In Chapter 1, we characterize the role of carbon sequestration in Climate Change policy. We also give evidence on which alternative management practices have greenhouse gas mitigation potential (reduced tillage, cover-cropping, and organic systems) based on a study of experimental sites. Chapter 2 advances recognizing the need for information at the field level, and describes the survey designed used to obtain data at the field level, something required to perform a complete integrated assessment of the issue. The survey design is complex in the sense that we use auxiliary information to obtain a control (subpopulation of conventional farmers)-case (subpopulation of innovative farmers) design with stratification for land use. We present estimates for population quantities of interest such as total variable costs, profits, managerial experience in different alternatives, etc. This information efficiently gives field level information for innovative farmers, a missing piece of information so far, since our sampling strategy required the inclusion with probability one of farmers identified as innovative. Using an agronomic process model (DayCent) for the sample and population units, we construct carbon mitigation cost curves for each crop and management observed. Chapter 3 builds different econometric models for cross-sectional data taking into account the survey design, and expanding the sample size constructing productivity potential under each alternative. Based on the yield productivity potential modeled for each unit, we conclude that a carbon sequestration program based in payments for management adoption is going to favor the probability of adoption of mitigating alternatives. Finally, in Chapter 4, we interpret the yield productivity potential, as a state variable, summarizing the complex system of environmental and land-use history of each field, and propose fully dynamic econometric models to structurally assess carbon sequestration policies.

Catala-Luque, Rosa

236

On leakage and seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites  

SciTech Connect

Geologic carbon sequestration is one strategy for reducing the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ) concentrations (IEA, 1997; Reichle, 2000). As used here, the term geologic carbon sequestration refers to the direct injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} deep into subsurface target formations. These target formations will typically be either depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or brine-filled permeable formations referred to here as brine formations. Injected CO{sub 2} will tend to be trapped by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) permeability trapping, for example when buoyant supercritical CO{sub 2} rises until trapped by a confining caprock; (2) solubility trapping, for example when CO{sub 2} dissolves into the aqueous phase in water-saturated formations, or (3) mineralogic trapping, such as occurs when CO{sub 2} reacts to produce stable carbonate minerals. When CO{sub 2} is trapped in the subsurface by any of these mechanisms, it is effectively sequestered away from the atmosphere where it would otherwise act as a greenhouse gas. The purpose of this report is to summarize our work aimed at quantifying potential CO{sub 2} seepage due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites. The approach we take is to present first the relevant properties of CO{sub 2} over the range of conditions from the deep subsurface to the vadose zone (Section 2), and then discuss conceptual models for how leakage might occur (Section 3). The discussion includes consideration of gas reservoir and natural gas storage analogs, along with some simple estimates of seepage based on assumed leakage rates. The conceptual model discussion provides the background for the modeling approach wherein we focus on simulating transport in the vadose zone, the last potential barrier to CO{sub 2} seepage (Section 4). Because of the potentially wide range of possible properties of actual future geologic sequestration sites, we carry out sensitivity analyses by means of numerical simulation and derive the trends in seepage flux and near-surface CO{sub 2} concentrations that will arise from variations in fundamental hydrogeological properties.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Unger, A.J.A.; Hepple, R.P.; Jordan, P.D.

2002-07-18

237

CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS  

SciTech Connect

The April-June 2004 quarter was dedicated to the establishment of monitoring systems for all the new research areas. Hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas as does weather data pertinent to the research. Studies assessing specific questions pertaining to carbon flux has been established and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals is being quantified. The approval of two experimental practices associated with this research by the United States Office of Surface Mining was a major accomplishment during this period of time. These experimental practices will eventually allow for tree planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and for the use of loose dumped spoil on mountain top removal areas with no grading in the final layer of rooting material for tree establishment.

Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

2004-08-02

238

An Index-Based Approach to Assessing Recalcitrance and Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Engineered Black Carbons (Biochars)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R, for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar

Omar R. Harvey; Li-Jung Kuo; Andrew R. Zimmerman; Patrick Louchouarn; James E. Amonette; Bruce Herbert

2012-01-01

239

Long-term nitrogen regulation of forest carbon sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that nitrogen (N) limits plant production but unclear how N regulates long-term terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration in response to rising atmospheric C dioxide (CO2)(Luo et al., 2004). Most experimental evidence on C-N interactions is primarily derived from short-term CO2 manipulative studies (e.g. Oren et al., 2001; Reich et al., 2006a), which abruptly increase C inputs into ecosystems and N demand from soil while atmospheric CO2 concentration in the real world is gradually increasing over time (Luo & Reynolds, 1999). It is essential to examine long-term N regulations of C sequestration in natural ecosystems. Here we present results of a synthesis of more than 100 studies on long-term C-N interactions during secondary succession. C significantly accumulates in plant, litter and forest floor in most studies, and in mineral soil in one-third studies during stand development. Substantial increases in C stock are tightly coupled with N accretion. The C: N ratio in plant increases with stand age in most cases, but remains relatively constant in litter, forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that natural ecosystems could have the intrinsic capacity to maintain long-term C sequestration through external N accrual, high N use efficiency, and efficient internal N cycling.

Yang, Y.; Luo, Y.

2009-12-01

240

Landscape level differences in soil carbon and nitrogen: Implications for soil carbon sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to understand how land cover and topography act, independently or together, as determinants of soil carbon and nitrogen storage over a complex terrain. Such information could help to direct land management for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Soils were sampled under different land covers and at different topographic positions on the mostly forested 14,000

Charles T. Garten Jr; Tom L. Ashwood

2002-01-01

241

Landscape level differences in soil carbon and nitrogen: implications for soil carbon sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to understand how land cover and topography act, independently or together, as determinants of soil carbon and nitrogen storage over a complex terrain. Such information could help to direct land management for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Soils were sampled under different land covers and at different topographic positions on the mostly forested 14,000

Charles T Garten Jr; Tom L. Ashwood

2002-01-01

242

The Deep Carbon Cycle and CO2 Sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased understanding of the Earth’s carbon cycle may provide insight for future carbon storage. Long term geologic sequestration of CO2 occurs in the earth via exothermic reactions between CO2 and silicate minerals to form carbonate minerals. It has been shown that while there is a large enough supply of ultra mafic igneous rock to sequester the CO2 [1], the kinetics of this natural process are too slow to effectively manage our CO2 output. Most studies have focused on studying reaction kinetics at relatively low temperatures and pressures [2,3], and have found that the reaction kinetics are either too slow or (in the case of serpentine) necessitate an uneconomical heat pretreatment [3,4]. Our experiments expand the pressures and temperatures (up to 500 bars and exceeding 200 °C) at which the CO2 + silicate reaction is studied using fused silica capillary cells and Raman and XRD analysis. By increasing our understanding of the kinetics of this process and providing a valuable input for reactive flow and transport models, these results may guide approaches for practical CO2 sequestration in carbonate minerals as a way to manage atmospheric CO2 levels. High pressure and temperature results on carbonates have implications for understanding the deep carbon cycle. Most of the previous high pressure studies on carbonates have concentrated on magnesite (MgCO3), calcite (CaCO3), or dolomite ((Ca,Mg)CO3) [5,6]. While the Mg and Ca carbonates are the most abundant, iron-rich siderite (FeCO3) may be a significant player at greater depths within the earth. We performed XRD and Raman spectroscopy experiments on siderite to lower mantle pressures (up to 40 GPa) and observed a possible phase change around 13 GPa. References 1. Lackner, Klaus S., Wendt, Christopher H., Butt, Darryl P., Joyce, Edward L., Sharp, David H., 1995, Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals, Energy, Vol.20, No. 11, pp. 1153-1170 2. Bearat, Hamdallah, McKelvy, Michael J., Chizmeshya, Andrew V.G., Gormley, Deirdre, Nunez, Ryan, Carpenter, R.W., Squires, Kyle, Wolf, George, 2006, Carbon Sequestration via Aqueous Olivine Mineral Carbonation: Role of Passivating Layer Formation, Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 40, pp 4802-4808 3. Wolf, George H., Chizmeshya, Andrew V. G., Diefenbacher, Jason, McKelvy, Michael J., 2004, In Situ Observation of CO2 Sequestration Reactions Using a Novel Microreaction System, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol.38, No.3, pp 932-936 4. O’Connor, W. K., Dahlin, D. C., Nilsen, D.N., Rush, G.E., Walters, R.P., and Turner, P. C., 2000, “CO2 Storage in Solid Form: A Study of Direct Mineral Carbonation,” Proc. of the 5th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Technologies, Cairns, Australia, August 14-18, pp. 1-7 5. Isshiki, Maiko, Irifune, Tetsuo, Hirose, Kei, Ono, Shigeaki, Ohishi, Yasuo, Watanuki, Tetsu, Nishibori, Eiji, Takata, Masaki, Sakata, Makoto, 2004, Stability of magnesite and its high-pressure form in the lowermost mantle, Nature, Vol. 427, pp. 60-63 6. Kawano, Jun, Miyake, Akira, Shimobayashi, Norimasa, Kitamura, Masao, 2009, Molecular dynamics simulation of the phase transition between calcite and CaCO3-II , Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 21, pp. 1-11

Filipovitch, N. B.; Mao, W. L.; Chou, I.; Mu, K.

2009-12-01

243

Quercus ilex L. carbon sequestration capability related to shrub size.  

PubMed

CO(2) sequestration capacity of Quercus ilex L., an evergreen species developing in shrub and forest communities widely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin, was analysed. Experiments were carried out in the period of January to December 2009 on 20 shrubs of different size, growing at the Botanical Garden of Rome. At shrub level, the largest differences concern total photosynthetic leaf surface area per shrub and shrub volume. Shrubs structure significantly contribute to reduce total irradiance and air temperature below the canopy. Leaf mass per area is higher in sun leaves than in shade ones (20 ± 1 and 12 ± 2 mg cm(?-2), respectively). Sun leaves are also characterised by the highest leaf thickness (78% higher in sun than in shade leaves), the spongy parenchyma thickness (71% higher in sun than in shade leaves) and the highest adaxial cuticle thickness (7.2 ± 1.2 and 4.7 ± 0.5 ?m, respectively). Net photosynthetic rates (P (N)) of sun and shade leaves are the highest in spring, and shade leaves contribute 6% to the whole shrub P (N). Q. ilex CO(2) sequestration depends on shrub size. In particular, the CO(2) sequestration per shrub was 0.20 ± 0.02 Kg CO(2) year(?-1) in small shrubs, and it was 75% and 98% lower than in medium and large ones. The highest CO(2) sequestration is measured in spring, decreasing 77% during drought. Q. ilex may play a significant role in mitigating carbon dioxide concentration and lowering air and soil temperature in areas around the Mediterranean Basin. PMID:20824326

Gratani, Loretta; Catoni, Rosangela; Varone, Laura

2010-09-08

244

Process for flash carbonization of biomass  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A low-energy input process for the pyrolytic conversion of biomass to charcoal or carbonized charcoal is provided. The biomass is sealed in a container, pressurized with air and heated to ignition. Control of pressure by input of air and release of gases to maintain successively lower pressure levels results in a typical time for the conversion of less than 30 minutes.

2004-09-14

245

Historical advances in the study of global terrestrial soil organic carbon sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper serves two purposes: it provides a summarized scientific history of carbon sequestration in relation to the soil-plant system and gives a commentary on organic wastes and SOC sequestration.The concept of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration has its roots in: (i) the experimental work of Lundegårdh, particularly his in situ measurements of CO2 fluxes at the soil-plant interface (1924,

C. Feller; M. Bernoux

2008-01-01

246

Biogeologic Carbon Sequestration - a Cost-Effective Proposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon sequestration has been proposed as a strategy for reducing the impact of carbon dioxide emissions from burning of fossil fuels. There are two main routes: 1) capture CO2 emissions from power plants or other large point sources followed by some form of "burial/sequestration", and 2) extraction of CO2 from the ambient atmosphere (involving substantial concentration relative to atmospheric levels) also followed by burial/sequestration. In either case the goal is to achieve significant long-term isolation of CO2 at an economically sustainable price, perhaps measured by some "market price" for CO2, such as the European carbon futures market, where the price is now (2/3/09) about 14-15/tonne of CO2. The second approach, removal of CO2 from the atmosphere, has the potential benefit of reversing the previous buildup of atmospheric CO2, and perhaps even providing a means to "adjust" terrestrial climate by regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. For the present, ideas of planetary "geo-engineering" are not as popular as reducing the impact of continued CO2 emissions. In fact, the energy and capital costs of extraction from a dilute atmosphere appear to make this approach uneconomical. Proposals to fertilize the open ocean suffer from concerns about long term ecosystem effects, to say nothing of a lack of verifiability. There is, however, an approach using biological systems that can not only extract significant amounts of CO2, but can do so cost-effectively. Lakes are known in which primary productivity approaches or exceeds 1gm C/cm2-yr. This equates to removal of 35,000 tonnes of CO2 per km2 per year, with a "market value" of about 500,000/yr. Such productivity only occurs under highly eutrophic conditions, and presumably requires significant nutrient additions. As such it would be unthinkable to pursue this technique on a large scale in extant lakes. If, however, it is possible to produce one or more large artificial lakes under acceptable conditions it is conceivable that this approach to carbon sequestration could prove invaluable in both the near and long term.

Shaw, G. H.; Kuhns, R.

2009-05-01

247

Carbon sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest management  

SciTech Connect

Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: carbon sequestration; sustainable development; and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest management strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives, and is centered around: preservation of primary forests; intensified use of non-timber resources; agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry.

Cairns, M.A.; Meganck, R.A.

1994-01-01

248

Evaluating Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Options for Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in forest and agricultural land management practices have the potential to increase carbon (C) storage by terrestrial systems, thus offsetting C emissions to the atmosphere from energy production. This study assesses that potential for three terrestrial management practices within the state of Virginia, USA: afforestation of marginal agricultural lands; afforestation of riparian agricultural lands; and changing tillage practices for row crops; each was evaluated on a statewide basis and for seven regions within the state. Lands eligible for each practice were identified, and the C storage potential of each practice on those lands was estimated through a modeling procedure that utilized land-resource characteristics represented in Geographic Information System databases. Marginal agricultural lands’ afforestation was found to have the greatest potential (1.4 Tg C yr-1, on average, over the first 20 years) if applied on all eligible lands, followed by riparian afforestation (0.2 Tg C yr-1 over 20 years) and tillage conversion (0.1 Tg C yr-1 over 14 years). The regions with the largest potentials are the Ridge and Valley of western Virginia (due to extensive areas of steep, shallow soils) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain in eastern Virginia (wet soils). Although widespread and rapid implementation of the three modeled practices could be expected to offset only about 3.4% of Virginia’s energy-related CO2 emissions over the following 20 years (equivalent to about 8.5% of a Kyoto Treaty-based target), they could contribute to achievement of C-management goals if implemented along with other mitigation measures.

Galang, Jeffrey S.; Zipper, Carl E.; Prisley, Stephen P.; Galbraith, John M.; Donovan, Patricia F.

2007-02-01

249

Mineralogy and Microbial Survival During Carbon Sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When CO2 is sequestered in deep saline aquifers, a region of high dissolved CO2 surrounds the supercritical CO2 plume. While microbial life will doubtless be perturbed as a result of the CO2 injection, survival may be possible in the region of high dissolved CO2. Mineralogy of the aquifer may influence which microorganisms survive by providing substrates for lithotrophic microbes and determining the competitiveness of microbes in the subsurface. Iron-rich minerals like hematite, for example, provide a terminal electron acceptor for dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB) that is essential for their respiration. Mineral dissolution may also provide toxicity for microbes providing increased concentration of toxic elements like Al in groundwater as a result of feldspar or clay dissolution. We investigated, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model DIRB, grown in the presence of representative minerals found in deep saline aquifers including carbonate minerals, silicate minerals, and clays. Cultures were subjected to 20 to 25 atm of CO2 at 30° C for 2 to 8 hours in modified Parr reactors. Cultures were plated to determine viability after CO2 stress and imaged using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Preliminary results show that MR-1 grown in the presence of dolomite and subjected to 20 atm of CO2 for 2 hours results in decreased viability in comparison to cells grown with hematite or no minerals present. This suggests there is selective toxicity with dolomite, possibly due to an increase in dissolved Mg. Additionally, ESEM imaging revealed a change in cell morphology from plump rods to thin, pointy cells after incubating in CO2 for 8 hours at 25 atm. This change in cell morphology may be the result of cell damage due to CO2 stress. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114.

Santillan, E. U.; Gilbert, K.; Bennett, P.

2010-12-01

250

Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility.  

PubMed

There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. However energy is required to initiate the pyrolysis process during biochar production which can also lead to the release of greenhouse gasses. Alternative methods can be used to stabilize C in composts and other organic residues without impacting their quality. The objectives of this study include: (i) to compare the rate of decomposition among various organic amendments and (ii) to examine the effect of clay materials on the stabilization of C in organic amendments. The decomposition of a number of organic amendments (composts and biochars) was examined by monitoring the release of carbon-dioxide using respiration experiments. The results indicated that the rate of decomposition as measured by half life (t(1/2)) varied between the organic amendments and was higher in sandy soil than in clay soil. The half life value ranged from 139 days in the sandy soil and 187 days in the clay soil for poultry manure compost to 9989 days for green waste biochar. Addition of clay materials to compost decreased the rate of decomposition, thereby increasing the stabilization of C. The half life value for poultry manure compost increased from 139 days to 620, 806 and 474 days with the addition of goethite, gibbsite and allophane, respectively. The increase in the stabilization of C with the addition of clay materials may be attributed to the immobilization of C, thereby preventing it from microbial decomposition. Stabilization of C in compost using clay materials did not impact negatively the value of composts in improving soil quality as measured by potentially mineralizable nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon in soil. PMID:22444054

Bolan, N S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Choppala, G K; Thangarajan, R; Chung, J W

2012-03-22

251

Effects of added organic matter and water on soil carbon sequestration in an arid region.  

PubMed

It is generally predicted that global warming will stimulate primary production and lead to more carbon (C) inputs to soil. However, many studies have found that soil C does not necessarily increase with increased plant litter input. Precipitation has increased in arid central Asia, and is predicted to increase more, so we tested the effects of adding fresh organic matter (FOM) and water on soil C sequestration in an arid region in northwest China. The results suggested that added FOM quickly decomposed and had minor effects on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool to a depth of 30 cm. Both FOM and water addition had significant effects on the soil microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass increased with added FOM, reached a maximum, and then declined as the FOM decomposed. The FOM had a more significant stimulating effect on microbial biomass with water addition. Under the soil moisture ranges used in this experiment (21.0%-29.7%), FOM input was more important than water addition in the soil C mineralization process. We concluded that short-term FOM input into the belowground soil and water addition do not affect the SOC pool in shrubland in an arid region. PMID:23875022

Lai, Liming; Li, Yufei; Tian, Yuan; Jiang, Lianhe; Zhao, Xuechun; Zhu, Linhai; Chen, Xi; Gao, Yong; Wang, Shaoming; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

2013-07-16

252

Policy Instruments in Integrating Biodiversity Cons ervation and Carbon Sequestration as a Part of Forest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation are both public goods that are under international governance. This paper outlines one p ossible policy instrument for the integration of carbon sequestration and biodiversity, which encour ages private forest owners to change their behaviour with respect to forest management. The id ea is that private forest owners are introduced by voluntary agreements on less

Anssi Ahtikoski; Eriika Melkas; Paula Horne; Kai Kokko

253

Recent Advancements in Carbonic Anhydrase Driven Processes for CO2 Sequestration: Minireview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the advancements in carbonic anhydrase driven processes for CO2 sequestration research and engineering. Historical and recent discoveries of carbonic anhydrase and idea behind using it for CO2 sequestration are elaborated as well as the uses of this enzyme in free and immobilized form are thoroughly discussed. New concepts like extension of immobilized enzyme systems for bioreactor approach

Ajam Yakub Shekh; Kannan Krishnamurthi; Sandeep N. Mudliar; Raju R. Yadav; Abhay B. Fulke; Sivanesan Saravana Devi; Tapan Chakrabarti

2011-01-01

254

Recent Advancements in Carbonic Anhydrase–Driven Processes for CO2 Sequestration: Minireview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors reviews the advancements in carbonic anhydrase– driven processes for CO2 sequestration research and engineering. Historical and recent discoveries of carbonic anhydrase and idea behind using it for CO2 sequestration are elaborated as well as the uses of this enzyme in free and immobilized forms are thoroughly discussed. New concepts such as extension of immobilized enzyme systems for bioreactor

Ajam Yakub Shekh; Kannan Krishnamurthi; Sandeep N. Mudliar; Raju R. Yadav; Abhay B. Fulke; Sivanesan Saravana Devi; Tapan Chakrabarti

2012-01-01

255

POTENTIAL NITROGEN CONSTRAINTS ON SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION UNDER LOW AND ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between nitrogen cycling and carbon sequestration is critical in predicting the consequences of anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 (hereafter, Ca). The progressive N limitation (PNL) theory predicts that carbon sequestration in plants and soils with rising Ca may be constrained by the availability of nitrogen in many eco- systems. Here we report on the interaction between C and

Richard A. Gill; Laurel J. Anderson; H. Wayne Polley; Hyrum B. Johnson; Robert B. Jackson

2006-01-01

256

DUSEL CO2: A deep underground laboratory for geologic carbon sequestration studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy is the long-term containment of CO2 in deep underground formations. To develop a sound understanding of geologic carbon sequestration, we will build a deep underground laboratory to study the processes of storing and trapping CO2, including the risks of unintended leakage. The laboratory will be part

C. A. Peters; P. F. Dobson; C. M. Oldenburg; G. Scherer; T. C. Onstott; J. T. Birkholzer; B. M. Freifeld; M. A. Celia; J. S. Wang; J. Prevost

2009-01-01

257

Ecological carbon sequestration via wood harvest and storage: Can it be a viable climate mitigation and adaptation strategy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forests are sustainably managed to optimal carbon productivity, and a fraction of the wood is selectively harvested and stored to prevent decomposition under anaerobic, dry or cold conditions. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. The live trees serve as a 'carbon scrubber' or 'carbon remover' that provides continuous sequestration (negative emissions). The stored wood is a semi-permanent carbon sink, but also serves as a 'biomass/bioenergy reserve' that could be utilized in the future. Based on forest coarse wood production rate, land availability, bioconservation and other practical constraints, we estimate a carbon sequestration potential for wood harvest and storage (WHS) 1-3 GtC y-1. The implementation of such a scheme at our estimated lower value of 1 GtC y-1 would imply a doubling of the current world wood harvest rate. This can be achieved by harvesting wood at a modest harvesting intensity of 1.2 tC ha-1 y-1, over a forest area of 8 Mkm2 (800 Mha). To achieve the higher value of 3 GtC y-1, forests need to be managed this way on half of the world's forested land, or on a smaller area but with higher harvest intensity. However, the actual implementation may face challenges that vary regionally. We estimate a cost of 10-50/tCO2 for harvest and storage around the landing site. The technique is low tech, distributed and reversible. We compare the potential of WHS with a number of other carbon sequestration methods, and recommend conducting demo projects and research into WHS as a climate mitigation and adaptation option.

Zeng, N.; Zaitchik, B.

2012-04-01

258

Efficiency of incentives to jointly increase carbon sequestration and species conservation on a landscape  

PubMed Central

We develop an integrated model to predict private land-use decisions in response to policy incentives designed to increase the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation across heterogeneous landscapes. Using data from the Willamette Basin, Oregon, we compare the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation under five simple policies that offer payments for conservation. We evaluate policy performance compared with the maximum feasible combinations of carbon sequestration and species conservation on the landscape for various conservation budgets. None of the conservation payment policies produce increases in carbon sequestration and species conservation that approach the maximum potential gains on the landscape. Our results show that policies aimed at increasing the provision of carbon sequestration do not necessarily increase species conservation and that highly targeted policies do not necessarily do as well as more general policies.

Nelson, Erik; Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Lonsdorf, Eric; White, Denis; Bael, David; Lawler, Joshua J.

2008-01-01

259

Predicting and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ocean Carbon Sequestration by Direct Injection  

SciTech Connect

Direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the ocean is a potentially effective carbon sequestration strategy. Therefore, we want to understand the effectiveness of oceanic injection and develop the appropriate analytic framework to allow us to compare the effectiveness of this strategy with other carbon management options. Here, after a brief review of direct oceanic injection, we estimate the effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration using one dimensional and three dimensional ocean models. We discuss a new measure of effectiveness of carbon sequestration in a leaky reservoir, which we denote sequestration potential. The sequestration potential is the fraction of global warning cost avoided by sequestration in a reservoir. We show how these measures apply to permanent sequestration and sequestration in leaky reservoirs, such as the oceans, terrestrial biosphere, and some geologic formations. Under the assumptions of a constant cost of carbon emission and a 4% discount rate, injecting 900 m deep in the ocean avoids {approx}90% of the global warming cost associated with atmospheric emission; an injection 1700 m deep would avoid > 99 % of the global warming cost. Hence, for discount rates in the range commonly used by commercial enterprises, oceanic direct injection may be nearly as economically effective as permanent sequestration at avoiding global warming costs.

Caldeira, K; Herzog, H J; Wickett, M E

2001-04-24

260

Water Challenges for Geologic Carbon Capture and Sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed as a means to dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions with the continued use of fossil fuels. For geologic sequestration, the carbon dioxide is captured from large point sources (e.g., power plants or other industrial sources), transported to the injection site and injected into deep geological formations for storage. This will produce new water challenges, such as the amount of water used in energy resource development and utilization and the “capture penalty” for water use. At depth, brine displacement within formations, storage reservoir pressure increases resulting from injection, and leakage are potential concerns. Potential impacts range from increasing water demand for capture to contamination of groundwater through leakage or brine displacement. Understanding these potential impacts and the conditions under which they arise informs the design and implementation of appropriate monitoring and controls, important both for assurance of environmental safety and for accounting purposes. Potential benefits also exist, such as co-production and treatment of water to both offset reservoir pressure increase and to provide local water for beneficial use.

Newmark, Robin L.; Friedmann, Samuel J.; Carroll, Susan A.

2010-04-01

261

Potential nitrogen constraints on soil carbon sequestration under low and elevated atmospheric CO2.  

PubMed

The interaction between nitrogen cycling and carbon sequestration is critical in predicting the consequences of anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 (hereafter, Ca). The progressive N limitation (PNL) theory predicts that carbon sequestration in plants and soils with rising Ca may be constrained by the availability of nitrogen in many ecosystems. Here we report on the interaction between C and N dynamics during a four-year field experiment in which an intact C3/C4 grassland was exposed to a gradient in Ca from 200 to 560 micromol/mol. There were strong species effects on decomposition dynamics, with C loss positively correlated and N mineralization negatively correlated with Ca for litter of the C3 forb Solanum dimidiatum, whereas decomposition of litter from the C4 grass Bothriochloa ischaemum was unresponsive to Ca. Both soil microbial biomass and soil respiration rates exhibited a nonlinear response to Ca, reaching a maximum at approximately 440 micromol/mol Ca. We found a general movement of N out of soil organic matter and into aboveground plant biomass with increased Ca. Within soils we found evidence of C loss from recalcitrant soil C fractions with narrow C:N ratios to more labile soil fractions with broader C:N ratios, potentially due to decreases in N availability. The observed reallocation of N from soil to plants over the last three years of the experiment supports the PNL theory that reductions in N availability with rising Ca could initially be overcome by a transfer of N from low C:N ratio fractions to those with higher C:N ratios. Although the transfer of N allowed plant production to increase with increasing Ca, there was no net soil C sequestration at elevated Ca, presumably because relatively stable C is being decomposed to meet microbial and plant N requirements. Ultimately, if the C gained by increased plant production is rapidly lost through decomposition, the shift in N from older soil organic matter to rapidly decomposing plant tissue may limit net C sequestration with increased plant production. PMID:16634295

Gill, Richard A; Anderson, Laurel J; Polley, H Wayne; Johnson, Hyrum B; Jackson, Robert B

2006-01-01

262

Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase II  

SciTech Connect

The Southwest Regional Partnership (SWP) on Carbon Sequestration designed and deployed a medium-scale field pilot test of geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the Aneth oil field. Greater Aneth oil field, Utah's largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 455 million barrels of oil (72 million m3). Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation. Because it represents an archetype oil field of the western U.S., Greater Aneth was selected as one of three geologic pilots to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration under the auspices of the SWP on Carbon Sequestration, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The pilot demonstration focuced on the western portion of the Aneth Unit as this area of the field was converted from waterflood production to CO2 EOR starting in late 2007. The Aneth Unit is in the northwestern part of the field and has produced 149 million barrels (24 million m3) of the estimated 450 million barrels (71.5 million m3) of the original oil in place - a 33% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil makes the Aneth Unit ideal to demonstrate both CO2 storage capacity and EOR by CO2 flooding. This report summarizes the geologic characterization research, the various field monitoring tests, and the development of a geologic model and numerical simulations conducted for the Aneth demonstration project. The Utah Geological Survey (UGS), with contributions from other Partners, evaluated how the surface and subsurface geology of the Aneth Unit demonstration site will affect sequestration operations and engineering strategies. The UGS-research for the project are summarized in Chapters 1 through 7, and includes (1) mapping the surface geology including stratigraphy, faulting, fractures, and deformation bands, (2) describing the local Jurassic and Cretaceous stratigraphy, (3) mapping the Desert Creek zone reservoir, Gothic seal, and overlying aquifers, (4) characterizing the depositional environments and diagenetic events that produced significant reservoir heterogeneity, (5) describing the geochemical, petrographic, and geomechanical properties of the seal to determine the CO2 or hydrocarbon column it could support, and (6) evaluating the production history to compare primary production from vertical and horizontal wells, and the effects of waterflood and wateralternating- gas flood programs. The field monitoring demonstrations were conducted by various Partners including New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, University of Utah, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Cambridge Geosciences. The monitoring tests are summarized in Chapters 8 through 12, and includes (1) interwell tracer studies during water- and CO2-flood operations to characterize tracer behavoirs in anticipation of CO2-sequestration applications, (2) CO2 soil flux monitoring to measure background levels and variance and assess the sensitivity levels for CO2 surface monitoring, (3) testing the continuous monitoring of self potential as a means to detect pressure anomalies and electrochemical reaction due to CO2 injection, (4) conducting time-lapse vertical seismic profiling to image change near a CO2 injection well, and (5) monitoring microseismicity using a downhole string of seismic receivers to detect fracture slip and deformation associated with stress changes. Finally, the geologic modeling and numerical simulation study was conducted by researcher at the University of Utah. Chapter 13 summarizes their efforts which focused on developing a site-specific geologic model for Aneth to better understand and design CO2 storage specifically tailored to oil reservoirs.

James Rutledge

2011-02-01

263

75 FR 33613 - Notice of the Carbon Sequestration-Geothermal Energy-Science Joint Workshop  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Geosciences Program and Office of Fossil Energy-Carbon Sequestration Program will be holding a joint workshop on Common Research Themes for Carbon Storage and Geothermal Energy, June 15-16, 2010. Experts from industry, academia, national labs, and...

2010-06-14

264

Carbon sequestration and forest management at DOD installations: An exploratory study  

SciTech Connect

The report explores the influence of management practices such as tree harvesting, deforestation, and reforestation on carbon sequestration potential by DOD forests by performing a detailed analysis of a specific installation, Camp Shelby, Mississippi. Specific research goals (1) quantify forest carbon pools and flux at Camp Shelby from 1990 through 2040, (2) evaluate carbon sequestration as influenced by hypothetical management scenarios, and (3) account for on-site and off-site carbon benefits.

Barker, J.R.; Baumgardner, G.A.; Lee, J.J.; McFarlane, J.C.

1995-04-01

265

The effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration by direct injection: Leakage and discount rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct injection of CO2 into the ocean is a potentially effective carbon sequestration strategy. Therefore, we develop an analytic framework to allow us to compare the effectiveness of this strategy with other carbon management options. We estimate the effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration using one-dimensional and three-dimensional ocean models. We discuss a new measure of effectiveness of carbon sequestration in a leaky reservoir, which we denote ``sequestration potential''. The sequestration potential is the fraction of global warming cost avoided. We show how these measures apply to permanent sequestration and sequestration in a leaky reservoir such as the ocean. Under the assumptions of a constant cost of carbon emission and a 4% discount rate, injection at 900~m deep in the ocean avoids ~90% of the global warming cost associated with atmospheric emission; injection at 1700~m deep would avoid >99% of the global warming cost. However, if carbon emission costs rise faster than the discount rate and backstop carbon-free energy technologies do not become available for many centuries, then storage in a leaky reservoir such as the ocean may not be justifiable. This suggests that purposeful carbon storage in the ocean may be appropriate only as part of a strategy to transition to carbon-free energy sources.

Herzog, H. J.; Caldeira, K.; Wickett, M. E.; Reilly, J.

2001-12-01

266

Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to “global warming.” It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a “CO2 carrier” to “transport” CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C tagged NH4HCO3 (ABC) was used. Products of ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) or long-term effect ammonium bicarbonate (LEABC) were tagged with 14C when they were synthesized in the laboratory. An indoor greenhouse was built and wheat was chosen as the plant to study in this ecosystem. The investigated ecosystem consists of plant (wheat), soils with three different pH values (alkaline, neutral and acid), and three types of underground water (different Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations). After biological assimilation and metabolism in wheat receiving ABC or LEABC, it was found that a considerable amount (up to 10%) of the carbon source is absorbed by the wheat with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source (up to 76%) percolated into the soil as carbonates, such as environmentally benign calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Generally speaking, alkaline soil has a higher capability to capture and store carbon. For the same soil, there is no apparent difference in carbon capturing capability between ABC fertilizer and LEABC fertilizer. These findings answer the question how carbon is distributed after synthesized fertilizer is applied into the ecosystem. In addition, a separate post-experiment on fertilizer carbon forms that exist in the soil was made. It was found that the up to 88% of the trapped carbon exists in the form of insoluble salts (i.e., CaCO3) in alkaline soils. This indicates that alkaline soil has a greater potential for storing carbon after the use of the synthesized fertilizer from exhausted CO2.

Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

2006-09-09

267

Landscape level differences in soil carbon and nitrogen: Implications for soil carbon sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to understand how land cover and topography act, independently or together, as determinants of soil carbon and nitrogen storage over a complex terrain. Such information could help to direct land management for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Soils were sampled under different land covers and at different topographic positions on the mostly forested 14,000 ha Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, USA. Most of the soil carbon stock, to a 40-cm soil depth, was found to reside in the surface 20 cm of mineral soil. Surface soil carbon and nitrogen stocks were partitioned into particulate (?53 ?m) and mineral-associated organic matter (<53 ?m). Generally, soils under pasture had greater nitrogen availability, greater carbon and nitrogen stocks, and lower C:N ratios than soils under transitional vegetation and forests. The effects of topography were usually secondary to those of land cover. Because of greater soil carbon stocks, and greater allocation of soil carbon to mineral-associated organic matter (a long-term pool), we conclude that soil carbon sequestration, but not necessarily total ecosystem carbon storage, is greater under pastures than under forests. The implications of landscape-level variation in soil carbon and nitrogen for carbon sequestration are discussed at several different levels: (1) nitrogen limitations to soil carbon storage; (2) controls on soil carbon turnover as a result of litter chemistry and soil carbon partitioning; (3) residual effects of past land use history; and (4) statistical limitations to the quantification of soil carbon stocks.

Garten, Charles T.; Ashwood, Tom L.

2002-12-01

268

Landscape level differences in soil carbon and nitrogen: implications for soil carbon sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to understand how land cover and topography act, independently or together, as determinants of soil carbon and nitrogen storage over a complex terrain. Such information could help to direct land management for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Soils were sampled under different land covers and at different topographic positions on the mostly forested 14,000 ha Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, USA. Most of the soil carbon stock, to a 40-cm soil depth, was found to reside in the surface 20 cm of mineral soil. Surface soil carbon and nitrogen stocks were partitioned into particulate ({ge}53 {micro}m) and mineral-associated organic matter (<53 {micro}m). Generally, soils under pasture had greater nitrogen availability, greater carbon and nitrogen stocks, and lower C:N ratios than soils under transitional vegetation and forests. The effects of topography were usually secondary to those of land cover. Because of greater soil carbon stocks, and greater allocation of soil carbon to mineral-associated organic matter (a long-term pool), we conclude that soil carbon sequestration, but not necessarily total ecosystem carbon storage, is greater under pastures than under forests. The implications of landscape-level variation in soil carbon and nitrogen for carbon sequestration are discussed at several different levels: (1) nitrogen limitations to soil carbon storage; (2) controls on soil carbon turnover as a result of litter chemistry and soil carbon partitioning; (3) residual effects of past land use history; and (4) statistical limitations to the quantification of soil carbon stocks.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Ashwood, Tom L [ORNL

2002-12-01

269

Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

Smith, Ellen D [ORNL; Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL

2008-03-01

270

Enhanced Performance Assessment System (EPAS) for carbon sequestration.  

SciTech Connect

Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an option to mitigate impacts of atmospheric carbon emission. Numerous factors are important in determining the overall effectiveness of long-term geologic storage of carbon, including leakage rates, volume of storage available, and system costs. Recent efforts have been made to apply an existing probabilistic performance assessment (PA) methodology developed for deep nuclear waste geologic repositories to evaluate the effectiveness of subsurface carbon storage (Viswanathan et al., 2008; Stauffer et al., 2009). However, to address the most pressing management, regulatory, and scientific concerns with subsurface carbon storage (CS), the existing PA methodology and tools must be enhanced and upgraded. For example, in the evaluation of a nuclear waste repository, a PA model is essentially a forward model that samples input parameters and runs multiple realizations to estimate future consequences and determine important parameters driving the system performance. In the CS evaluation, however, a PA model must be able to run both forward and inverse calculations to support optimization of CO{sub 2} injection and real-time site monitoring as an integral part of the system design and operation. The monitoring data must be continually fused into the PA model through model inversion and parameter estimation. Model calculations will in turn guide the design of optimal monitoring and carbon-injection strategies (e.g., in terms of monitoring techniques, locations, and time intervals). Under the support of Laboratory-Directed Research & Development (LDRD), a late-start LDRD project was initiated in June of Fiscal Year 2010 to explore the concept of an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS) for carbon sequestration and storage. In spite of the tight time constraints, significant progress has been made on the project: (1) Following the general PA methodology, a preliminary Feature, Event, and Process (FEP) analysis was performed for a hypothetical CS system. Through this FEP analysis, relevant scenarios for CO{sub 2} release were defined. (2) A prototype of EPAS was developed by wrapping an existing multi-phase, multi-component reservoir simulator (TOUGH2) with an uncertainty quantification and optimization code (DAKOTA). (3) For demonstration, a probabilistic PA analysis was successfully performed for a hypothetical CS system based on an existing project in a brine-bearing sandstone. The work lays the foundation for the development of a new generation of PA tools for effective management of CS activities. At a top-level, the work supports energy security and climate change/adaptation by furthering the capability to effectively manage proposed carbon capture and sequestration activities (both research and development as well as operational), and it greatly enhances the technical capability to address this national problem. The next phase of the work will include (1) full capability demonstration of the EPAS, especially for data fusion, carbon storage system optimization, and process optimization of CO{sub 2} injection, and (2) application of the EPAS to actual carbon storage systems.

Wang, Yifeng; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; McNeish, Jerry A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Dewers, Thomas A.; Hadgu, Teklu; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

2010-09-01

271

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-04-01

272

Tillage, cropping systems, and nitrogen fertilizer source effects on soil carbon sequestration and fractions.  

PubMed

Quantification of soil carbon (C) cycling as influenced by management practices is needed for C sequestration and soil quality improvement. We evaluated the 10-yr effects of tillage, cropping system, and N source on crop residue and soil C fractions at 0- to 20-cm depth in Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Paleudults) in northern Alabama, USA. Treatments were incomplete factorial combinations of three tillage practices (no-till [NT], mulch till [MT], and conventional till [CT]), two cropping systems (cotton [Gossypium hirsutum L.]-cotton-corn [Zea mays L.] and rye [Secale cereale L.]/cotton-rye/cotton-corn), and two N fertilization sources and rates (0 and 100 kg N ha(-1) from NH(4)NO(3) and 100 and 200 kg N ha(-1) from poultry litter). Carbon fractions were soil organic C (SOC), particulate organic C (POC), microbial biomass C (MBC), and potential C mineralization (PCM). Crop residue varied among treatments and years and total residue from 1997 to 2005 was greater in rye/cotton-rye/cotton-corn than in cotton-cotton-corn and greater with NH(4)NO(3) than with poultry litter at 100 kg N ha(-1). The SOC content at 0 to 20 cm after 10 yr was greater with poultry litter than with NH(4)NO(3) in NT and CT, resulting in a C sequestration rate of 510 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) with poultry litter compared with -120 to 147 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) with NH(4)NO(3). Poultry litter also increased PCM and MBC compared with NH(4)NO(3). Cropping increased SOC, POC, and PCM compared with fallow in NT. Long-term poultry litter application or continuous cropping increased soil C storage and microbial biomass and activity compared with inorganic N fertilization or fallow, indicating that these management practices can sequester C, offset atmospheric CO(2) levels, and improve soil and environmental quality. PMID:18453410

Sainju, Upendra M; Senwo, Zachary N; Nyakatawa, Ermson Z; Tazisong, Irenus A; Reddy, K Chandra

2008-05-02

273

Carbon Sequestration in Massachusetts Forests as an Offset for Energy Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gases are both a regulatory and scientific challenge. Policymakers are developing new legislation to utilize forests to mitigate the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) uses afforestation, the planting of new forests, for this purpose. Using afforestation alone, however, ignores current sequestration due to growth, which is already happening within the Northeastern United States. In

Minda Berbeco; Colin Orians

274

Soil sustainability as measured by carbon sequestration using carbon isotopes from crop-livestock management systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is an integral part of maintaining and measuring soil sustainability. This study was undertaken to document and better understand the relationships between two livestock-crop-forage systems and the sequestration of SOC with regards to soil sustainability and was conducted o...

275

THE GULF COAST CARBON CENTER: DEVELOPING A CARBON SEQUESTRATION INDUSTRY IN THE GULF COAST REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vision of the Gulf Coast Carbon Center is to seek to impact global levels of GHG in the atmosphere by doing science and engineering studies that will support reduction of CO2 emissions and enable the development of an economically viable, multifaceted, CO2 sequestration industry in the Gulf Coast. This industrial-academic consortium is investigating issues related to assessing the pathways

Ian J. Duncan; William A. Ambrose; Mark H. Holtz; Susan D. Hovorka; Vanessa Núñez López; Joesph Esandoh-Yeddu; Jean-Phillippe Nicot; Rebecca C. Smyth; Srivatsan Lakshminarasimhan

276

Biochar: a synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration.  

PubMed

Biochar has been heralded as an amendment to revitalize degraded soils, improve soil carbon sequestration, increase agronomic productivity, and enter into future carbon trading markets. However, scientific and economic technicalties may limit the ability of biochar to consistently deliver on these expectations. Past research has demonstrated that biochar is part of the black carbon continuum with variable properties due to the net result of production (e.g., feedstock and pyrolysis conditions) and postproduction factors (storage or activation). Therefore, biochar is not a single entity but rather spans a wide range of black carbon forms. Biochar is black carbon, but not all black carbon is biochar. Agronomic benefits arising from biochar additions to degraded soils have been emphasized, but negligible and negative agronomic effects have also been reported. Fifty percent of the reviewed studies reported yield increases after black carbon or biochar additions, with the remainder of the studies reporting alarming decreases to no significant differences. Hardwood biochar (black carbon) produced by traditional methods (kilns or soil pits) possessed the most consistent yield increases when added to soils. The universality of this conclusion requires further evaluation due to the highly skewed feedstock preferences within existing studies. With global population expanding while the amount of arable land remains limited, restoring soil quality to nonproductive soils could be key to meeting future global food production, food security, and energy supplies; biochar may play a role in this endeavor. Biochar economics are often marginally viable and are tightly tied to the assumed duration of agronomic benefits. Further research is needed to determine the conditions under which biochar can provide economic and agronomic benefits and to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms responsible for these benefits. PMID:22751040

Spokas, Kurt A; Cantrell, Keri B; Novak, Jeffrey M; Archer, David W; Ippolito, James A; Collins, Harold P; Boateng, Akwasi A; Lima, Isabel M; Lamb, Marshall C; McAloon, Andrew J; Lentz, Rodrick D; Nichols, Kristine A

277

Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep-sea basalt.  

PubMed

Developing a method for secure sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into deep-sea basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including (i) vast reservoir capacities sufficient to accommodate centuries-long U.S. production of fossil fuel CO2 at locations within pipeline distances to populated areas and CO2 sources along the U.S. west coast; (ii) sufficiently closed water-rock circulation pathways for the chemical reaction of CO2 with basalt to produce stable and nontoxic (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+))CO(3) infilling minerals, and (iii) significant risk reduction for post-injection leakage by geological, gravitational, and hydrate-trapping mechanisms. CO2 sequestration in established sediment-covered basalt aquifers on the Juan de Fuca plate offer promising locations to securely accommodate more than a century of future U.S. emissions, warranting energized scientific research, technological assessment, and economic evaluation to establish a viable pilot injection program in the future. PMID:18626013

Goldberg, David S; Takahashi, Taro; Slagle, Angela L

2008-07-14

278

Options for accounting carbon sequestration in German forests  

PubMed Central

Background The Accra climate change talks held from 21–27 August 2008 in Accra, Ghana, were part of an ongoing series of meetings leading up to the Copenhagen meeting in December 2009. During the meeting a set of options for accounting carbon sequestration in forestry on a post-2012 framework was presented. The options include gross-net and net-net accounting and approaches for establishing baselines. Results This article demonstrates the embedded consequences of Accra Accounting Options for the case study of German national GHG accounting. It presents the most current assessment of sequestration rates by forest management for the period 1990 – 2007, provides an outlook of future emissions and removals (up to the year 2042) as related to three different management scenarios, and shows that implementation of some Accra options may reverse sources to sinks, or sinks to sources. Conclusion The results of the study highlight the importance of elaborating an accounting system that would prioritize the climate convention goals, not national preferences.

Krug, Joachim; Koehl, Michael; Riedel, Thomas; Bormann, Kristin; Rueter, Sebastian; Elsasser, Peter

2009-01-01

279

Trees for carbon sequestration or fossil fuel substitution: the issue of cost vs. carbon benefit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the costs and quantity of carbon mitigation by afforestation and fossil fuel substitution based on simple mathematical models of carbon stocks and flows assuming the growth conditions of trees in the southern US. Significant carbon benefit can be obtained by substituting biomass derived from short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) for coal or gasoline as opposed to sequestering carbon

Anil Baral; Gauri S. Guha

2004-01-01

280

Effects of organic carbon sequestration strategies on soil enzymatic activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gases emissions can be counterbalanced with proper agronomical strategies aimed at sequestering carbon in soils. These strategies must be tested not only for their ability in reducing carbon dioxide emissions, but also for their impact on soil quality: enzymatic activities are related to main soil ecological quality, and can be used as early and sensitive indicators of alteration events. Three different strategies for soil carbon sequestration were studied: minimum tillage, protection of biodegradable organic fraction by compost amendment and oxidative polimerization of soil organic matter catalyzed by biometic porfirins. All strategies were compared with a traditional agricultural management based on tillage and mineral fertilization. Experiments were carried out in three Italian soils from different pedo-climatic regions located respectively in Piacenza, Turin and Naples and cultivated with maize or wheat. Soil samples were taken for three consecutive years after harvest and analyzed for their content in phosphates, ß-glucosidase, urease and invertase. An alteration index based on these enzymatic activities levels was applied as well. The biomimetic porfirin application didn't cause changes in enzymatic activities compared to the control at any treatment or location. Enzymatic activities were generally higher in the minimum tillage and compost treatment, while differences between location and date of samplings were limited. Application of the soil alteration index based on enzymatic activities showed that soils treated with compost or subjected to minimum tillage generally have a higher biological quality. The work confirms the environmental sustainability of the carbon sequestering agronomical practices studied.

Puglisi, E.; Suciu, N.; Botteri, L.; Ferrari, T.; Coppolecchia, D.; Trevisan, M.; Piccolo, A.

2009-04-01

281

Biological Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Trading Re-Visited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Under Kyoto, biological activities that sequester carbon canbe used to create CO2offset credits that could obviate the need for lifestyle-changing reductions in fossil fuel use. Credits are earned by storing carbon in terrestrialecosystems and wood products, although CO2emissions are also mitigated by delaying deforestation, which accounts for one-quarter of anthropogenic CO2emissions. However, non-permanent carbon offsets from biological activities are

G. Cornelis van Kooten

2007-01-01

282

Biological carbon sequestration and carbon trading re-visited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological activities that sequester carbon create CO2 offset credits that could obviate the need for reductions in fossil fuel use. Credits are earned by storing carbon in terrestrial\\u000a ecosystems and wood products, although CO2 emissions are also mitigated by delaying deforestation, which accounts for one-quarter of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, non-permanent carbon offsets from biological activities are difficult to compare

G. Cornelis van Kooten

2009-01-01

283

Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

SciTech Connect

Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

DePaolo, Don (Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division)

2010-02-03

284

Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration with Biochar: A Preliminary Assessment of its Global Potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar technology involves the capture of CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and its ultimate conversion to biochar by pyrolysis. Energy is obtained during the pyrolysis process and the charcoal, or biochar, which is considerably more stable than biomass, may then be incorporated into agricultural lands where it serves to increase the nutrient- and water-holding capacity of soil. With an estimated half-life in soil on the order of centuries to millenia, biochar offers a way of safely storing C for long periods of time while enhancing the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, biochar technology, like other biomass conversion approaches that include C sequestration options, offers a way to decrease the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. That is, biochar technology is one of the few inherently "carbon-negative" sources of energy. These positive attributes are of little consequence, however, if the total contribution to sequestration is small compared to the need. In this paper, we provide a preliminary assessment of the potential contribution of biochar technology to the mitigation of climate change, and identify some research needs. Currently, the atmospheric C levels are increasing by about 4.1 Gt/yr, with 7.2 Gt/yr being put into the atmosphere by fossil fuel combustion and cement production, and 3.1 Gt/yr being removed from the atmosphere by the ocean (2.2 Gt/yr) and terrestrial processes (0.9 Gt/yr). The uptake by terrestrial processes can be increased significantly by management of the 60.6 Gt/yr of biomass C that is fixed by photosynthesis (i.e., net primary productivity), of which 59 Gt/yr is decomposed and 1.6 Gt/yr combusted. Biomass pyrolysis converts about 50% of the biomass C to char. Of the other 50% that is converted to bio-oil and bio-gas, the net energy production is about 62% efficient. Thus, pyrolysis of 1 Gt of biomass C would provide energy equivalent to about 0.3 Gt of fossil C and could be used to offset that amount of fossil C, while sequestering 0.5 Gt as biochar. Of the 60.6 Gt/yr of biomass that is fixed in usable form, we estimate that perhaps 10% of it (6.1 Gt/yr) could become available in one form or another (crop and forestry residues, and animal waste) for pyrolysis. This level of pyrolysis would offset 1.8 Gt/yr of fossil C, and sequester 3.0 Gt/yr as biochar, enough to halt the increase and actually decrease the level of atmospheric C by 0.7 Gt/yr. Even at half this level (i.e., 5% of annually fixed biomass), pyrolysis would be sufficient to decrease the global C cycle imbalance by 2.4 Gt/yr and in combination with other sequestration options help to achieve the minimum goal of C neutrality. Clearly, the potential contribution of biochar technology is large, perhaps large enough to mitigate climate change alone. However, this preliminary assessment is tempered by several unknowns. Research is needed to further define the impacts of biochar amendments on soil biota, productivity, and greenhouse gas production. For example, there is some evidence that N2O and CH4 production is decreased by biochar amendments, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. The impact of different types of biochar and pyrolysis conditions also needs to be determined. Lastly, total accounting for greenhouse gas emissions coupled with economic analyses to determine the economic potential of the technology under various scenarios is essential.

Amonette, J.; Lehmann, J.; Joseph, S.

2007-12-01

285

Bio-sequestration of carbon dioxide using carbonic anhydrase enzyme purified from Citrobacter freundii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in the atmospheric concentrations of one of the vital green house gasses, carbon dioxide, due to anthropogenic\\u000a interventions has led to several undesirable consequences such as global warming and related changes. In the global effort\\u000a to combat the predicted disaster, several CO2 capture and storage technologies are being deliberated. One of the most promising biological carbon dioxide sequestration

Rishiram Ramanan; Krishnamurthi Kannan; Saravana Devi Sivanesan; Sandeep Mudliar; Simarjot Kaur; Anil Kumar Tripathi; Tapan Chakrabarti

2009-01-01

286

Linear Theory of Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics: Implications in Modeling Soil Respiration and Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term, large-scale soil organic carbon dynamics are typically described by mathematical models based on networks of linear reservoirs. Properties of these networks can be diagnosed from linear system theory (i.e. impulse-response transformations), which is seldom used in soil biogeochemistry, although it can be used to compare and test different models in the context of long-term carbon sequestration in soils.

A. Porporato; S. Manzoni; G. Katul

2008-01-01

287

Perceptions of Utah ranchers toward carbon sequestration: policy implications for US rangelands.  

PubMed

Enhanced carbon sequestration is one means to mitigate climate change. Rangelands are arid and semi-arid lands, typified by relatively low and variable levels of net primary productivity, where carbon sequestration might be increased via alterations in land management. Rangelands are vast in size and dominate the land area in the western US and worldwide. It has been estimated that privately owned rangelands in the US could sequester an additional 60 million tons of carbon annually, roughly equal to five percent of the US annual CO(2) emissions. Ranchers are the target population that could implement changes in rangeland management to promote carbon sequestration, but little is known about how they might receive such programs. Therefore, for Utah, we conducted a combined mail and telephone survey of 495 randomly selected ranchers to assess their knowledge of and attitude toward carbon sequestration, possible benefits of carbon sequestration as perceived by ranchers, and factors influencing their likelihood of participating in carbon sequestration programs. Overall, despite that 70 percent of respondents had little or no self-reported knowledge about carbon sequestration, 63 percent had negative views about it. Ranchers reporting the most knowledge also tended to have the most negative attitudes. The least important benefit that might accrue to ranchers from carbon sequestration was seen as climate change mitigation, while the most important benefit was improved land stewardship. Only four percent of respondents indicated an unconditional willingness to participate in carbon sequestration programs, but 71 percent could be interested depending on new information received. Before carbon sequestration programs are developed for rangelands, further research is needed to clarify why more knowledge of carbon sequestration can lead to greater skepticism of relevant programs. We respect this finding, as it may be based on well-founded rancher concerns such as technical or administrative efficacy. If such concerns can be overcome, extension efforts should be tailored to emphasize the ecological merits of carbon sequestration for rangeland management, which will facilitate the ability of ranchers to achieve their personal goals. PMID:22831793

Ma, Zhao; Coppock, D Layne

2012-07-24

288

The Effects of Grazing Management on Soil Carbon (Carbon Sequestration)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This component of the VA RLEP consists of a field based sampling and research effort to document the efficacy of Management intensive Grazing (MiG) techniques to enhance the soil's inherent capacity to serve as a sink for carbon (four data collection sites were developed in VA). To the extent that MiG and associated conservation practices increase the storage of carbon

Richard T. Conant; Keith Paustian

289

Stuffing Carbon Away: Mechanisms of Carbon Sequestration in Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils offer the potential to sequester large quantities of carbon from the atmosphere for decades to millennia and so may ameliorate the anthropogenic influence of fossil fuel release. However changes in climate can drastically affect the soil's ability to store carbon through changes mineralogy on time scales of human interest. It is essential to understand the major controls on soil

P J Reimer; C A Masiello; J R Southon; S E Trumbore; J W Harden; A F White; O A Chadwick; M S Torn

2003-01-01

290

Soil Carbon Storage in Christmas Tree Farms: Maximizing Ecosystem Management and Sustainability for Carbon Sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of agroecosystems for the purpose of manipulating soil carbon stocks could be a viable approach for countering rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, while maximizing sustainability of the agroforestry industry. We investigated the carbon storage potential of Christmas tree farms in the southern Appalachian mountains as a potential model for the impacts of land management on soil carbon. We quantified soil carbon stocks across a gradient of cultivation duration and herbicide management. We compared soil carbon in farms to that in adjacent pastures and native forests that represent a control group to account for variability in other soil-forming factors. We partitioned tree farm soil carbon into fractions delineated by stability, an important determinant of long-term sequestration potential. Soil carbon stocks in the intermediate pool are significantly greater in the tree farms under cultivation for longer periods of time than in the younger tree farms. This pool can be quite large, yet has the ability to repond to biological environmental changes on the centennial time scale. Pasture soil carbon was significantly greater than both forest and tree farm soil carbon, which were not different from each other. These data can help inform land management and soil carbon sequestration strategies.

Chapman, S. K.; Shaw, R.; Langley, A.

2008-12-01

291

Carbon stewardship: land management decisions and the potential for carbon sequestration in Colorado, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use and its role in reducing greenhouse gases is a key element of policy negotiations to address climate change. Calculations of the potential for enhanced terrestrial sequestration have largely focused on the technical characteristics of carbon stocks, such as vegetation type and management regime, and to some degree, on economic incentives. However, the actual potential for carbon sequestration critically depends on who owns the land and additional land management decision drivers. US land ownership patterns are complex, and consequently land use decision making is driven by a variety of economic, social and policy incentives. These patterns and incentives make up the 'carbon stewardship landscape'—that is, the decision making context for carbon sequestration. We examine the carbon stewardship landscape in the US state of Colorado across several public and private ownership categories. Achieving the full potential for land use management to help mitigate carbon emissions requires not only technical feasibility and financial incentives, but also effective implementing mechanisms within a suite of often conflicting and hard to quantify factors such as multiple-use mandates, historical precedents, and non-monetary decision drivers.

Failey, Elisabeth L.; Dilling, Lisa

2010-04-01

292

ALTERNATIVES TO MITIGATE THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT: EMISSION CONTROL BY CARBON SEQUESTRATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

No-till farming and associated C-sequestration practices can improve water and air quality, enhance wildlife habitat, mitigate the greenhouse effect and possibly serve as an additional revenue source for farmers. Carbon sequestration alone can not solve the climate-change dilemma. As we search for t...

293

Nitrogen deposition and soil carbon sequestration: enzymes, experiments, and model estimates (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric nitrogen has long been expected to increase forest carbon sequestration, by means of enhanced productivity and litter production. More recently, N deposition has received attention for its potential for inducing soil C sequestration by suppressing microbial decomposition. Here, we present a range of measurements and model projections of the effects of N additions on soil C dynamics in forest

C. L. Goodale; M. Weiss; C. Tonitto; M. Stone

2010-01-01

294

[Estimation of soil carbon sequestration potential in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia and associated uncertainty].  

PubMed

Based on the measurements in the enclosure and uncontrolled grazing plots in the typical steppe of Xilinguole, Inner Mongolia, this paper studied the soil carbon storage and carbon sequestration in the grasslands dominated by Leymus chinensis, Stipa grandis, and Stipa krylovii, respectively, and estimated the regional scale soil carbon sequestration potential in the heavily degraded grassland after restoration. At local scale, the annual soil carbon sequestration in the three grasslands all decreased with increasing year of enclosure. The soil organic carbon storage was significantly higher in the grasslands dominated by L. chinensis and Stipa grandis than in that dominated by Stipa krylovii, but the latter had much higher soil carbon sequestration potential, because of the greater loss of soil organic carbon during the degradation process due to overgrazing. At regional scale, the soil carbon sequestration potential at the depth of 0-20 cm varied from -0.03 x 10(4) to 3.71 x 10(4) kg C x a(-1), and the total carbon sequestration potential was 12.1 x 10(8) kg C x a(-1). Uncertainty analysis indicated that soil gravel content had less effect on the estimated carbon sequestration potential, but the estimation errors resulted from the spatial interpolation of climate data could be about +/- 4.7 x 10(9) kg C x a(-1). In the future, if the growth season precipitation in this region had an average variation of -3.2 mm x (10 a)(-1), the soil carbon sequestration potential would be de- creased by 1.07 x 10(8) kg C x (10 a)(-1). PMID:22489476

Wang, Wei; Wu, Jian-Guo; Han, Xing-Guo

2012-01-01

295

Microbial characterization of basalt formation waters targeted for geological carbon sequestration.  

PubMed

Geological carbon sequestration in basalts is a promising solution to mitigate carbon emissions into the Earth's atmosphere. The Wallula pilot well in Eastern Washington State, USA provides an opportunity to investigate how native microbial communities in basalts are affected by the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into deep, alkaline formation waters of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Our objective was to characterize the microbial communities at five depth intervals in the Wallula pilot well prior to CO2 injection to establish a baseline community for comparison after the CO2 is injected. Microbial communities were examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to enumerate bacterial cells and 454 pyrosequencing to compare and contrast the diversity of the native microbial communities. The deepest depth sampled contained the greatest amount of bacterial biomass, as well as the highest bacterial diversity. The shallowest depth sampled harbored the greatest archaeal diversity. Pyrosequencing revealed the well to be dominated by the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, with microorganisms related to hydrogen oxidizers (Hydrogenophaga), methylotrophs (Methylotenera), methanotrophs (Methylomonas), iron reducers (Geoalkalibacter), sulfur oxidizers (Thiovirga), and methanogens (Methermicocccus). Thus, the Wallula pilot well is composed of a unique microbial community in which hydrogen and single-carbon compounds may play a significant role in sustaining the deep biosphere. PMID:23418786

Lavalleur, Heather J; Colwell, Frederick S

2013-03-18

296

Goodbye to carbon neutral: Getting biomass footprints right  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most guidance for carbon footprinting, and most published carbon footprints or LCAs, presume that biomass heating fuels are carbon neutral. However, it is recognised increasingly that this is incorrect: biomass fuels are not always carbon neutral. Indeed, they can in some cases be far more carbon positive than fossil fuels.This flaw in carbon footprinting guidance and practice can be remedied.

Eric Johnson

2009-01-01

297

RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of precipitation where sequestration begins to decrease.

Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

2012-03-31

298

Carbon sequestration via aqueous olivine mineral carbonation: role of passivating layer formation  

SciTech Connect

CO{sub 2} sequestration via carbonation of widely available low-cost minerals, such as olivine, can permanently dispose of CO{sub 2} in an environmentally benign and a geologically stable form. The paper reports the results of studies of the mechanisms that limit aqueous olivine carbonation reactivity under the optimum sequestration reaction conditions observed to date: 1 M NaCl + 0.64 M NaHCO{sub 3} at T {approx} 185{sup o}C and P{sub CO{sub 2}} {approx} 135 bar. A reaction limiting silica-rich passivating layer (PL) forms on the feedstock grains, slowing carbonate formation and raising process cost. The morphology and composition of the passivating layers are investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and atomic level modeling. Postreaction analysis of feedstock particles, recovered from stirred autoclave experiments at 1500 rpm, provides unequivocal evidence of local mechanical removal (chipping) of PL material, suggesting particle abrasion. This is corroborated by the observation that carbonation increases dramatically with solid particle concentration in stirred experiments. Multiphase hydrodynamic calculations are combined with experiment to better understand the associated slurry-flow effects. Large-scale atomic-level simulations of the reaction zone suggest that the PL possesses a 'glassy' but highly defective SiO{sub 2} structure that can permit diffusion of key reactants. Mitigating passivating layer effectiveness is critical to enhancing carbonation and lowering sequestration process cost. 30 refs., 7 figs.

Hamdallah Bearat; Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V.G. Chizmeshya; Deirdre Gormley; Ryan Nunez; R.W. Carpenter; Kyle Squires; George H. Wolf [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States). Center for Solid State Science, Science and Engineering of Materials Graduate Program, Departments of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Chemistry and Biochemistry

2006-08-01

299

A disconnect between O horizon and mineral soil carbon - implications for soil C sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing inputs of carbon to soil is one means of potentially increasing carbon sequestration in soils for the purpose of mitigating projected increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The effect of manipulations of aboveground carbon input on soil carbon storage was tested in a temperate, deciduous forest in east Tennessee, USA. A 4.5-year experiment included exclusion of aboveground litterfall and supplemental

Charles T. Garten Jr.

2009-01-01

300

Dissolved Organic Carbon and Natural Terrestrial Sequestration Potential in Volcanic Terrain, San Juan Mountains, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels has stimulated studies to understand and quantify carbon sinks and sources. Soils represent a potentially significant natural terrestrial carbon sequestration (NTS) reservoir. This project is part of a collaborative effort to characterize carbon (C) stability in temperate soils. To examine the potential for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) values as a qualitative indicator of

D. B. Yager; A. Burchell; R. H. Johnson; M. Kugel; G. Aiken; R. Dick

2009-01-01

301

Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is important for preserving environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. The mechanism of physical SOC sequestration is achieved by encapsulation of SOC in spaces within macro and microaggregates. The experimental sites, owned and maintained by American Electrical Power, were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoils and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites were reclaimed both with and without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. In this report results are presented from the sites reclaimed in 1994 (R94-F), in 1987 (R87-G), in 1982 (R82-F), in 1978 (R78-G), in 1969 (R69-F), in1956 (R56-G), and from the unmined control (UMS-G). Three sites are under continuous grass cover and three under forest cover since reclamation. The samples were air dried and fractionated using a wet sieving technique into macro (> 2.0 mm), meso (0.25-2.0 mm) and microaggregates (0.053-0.25 mm). The soil C and N concentrations were determined by the dry combustion method on these aggregate fractions. Soil C and N concentrations were higher at the forest sites compared to the grass sites in each aggregate fraction for both depths. Statistical analyses indicated that the number of random samples taken was probably not sufficient to properly consider distribution of SOC and TN concentrations in aggregate size fractions for both depths at each site. Erosional effects on SOC and TN concentrations were, however, small. With increasing time since reclamation, SOC and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations also increased. The higher C and N concentrations in each aggregate size fraction in older than the newly reclaimed sites demonstrated the C sink capacity of newer sites.

M.K. Shukla; K. Lorenz; R. Lal

2006-01-01

302

Soil carbon dynamics and potential carbon sequestration by rangelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USA has about 336 Mha of grazing lands of which rangelands account for 48%. Changes in rangeland soil C can occur in response to a wide range of management and environmental factors. Grazing, fire, and fertilization have been shown to affect soil C storage in rangelands, as has converting marginal croplands into grasslands. Carbon losses due to soil erosion

G. E Schuman; H. H Janzen; J. E Herrick

2002-01-01

303

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) (Semi-Annual Report, April 1, 2004-September 30, 2004.)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first year of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (third and fourth quarter) of the project...

K. J. Nemeth

2004-01-01

304

Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio. (Report for July 1, 2005-September 30, 2005).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Musk...

M. K. Shukla K. Lorenz R. Lal

2005-01-01

305

Understanding Carbon Sequestration Options in the United States: Capabilities of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System  

SciTech Connect

While one can discuss various sequestration options at a national or global level, the actual carbon management approach is highly site specific. In response to the need for a better understanding of carbon management options, Battelle in collaboration with Mitsubishi Corporation, has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) focused on carbon capture and sequestration opportunities in the United States. The GIS system contains information (e.g., fuel type, location, vintage, ownership, rated capacity) on all fossil-fired generation capacity in the Untied States with a rated capacity of at least 100 MW. There are also data on other CO2 sources (i.e., natural domes, gas processing plants, etc.) and associated pipelines currently serving enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. Data on current and prospective CO2 EOR projects include location, operator, reservoir and oil characteristics, production, and CO2 source. The system also contains information on priority deep saline aquifers and coal bed methane basins with potential for sequestering CO2. The GIS application not only enables data storage, flexible map making, and visualization capabilities, but also facilitates the spatial analyses required to solve complex linking of CO2 sources with appropriate and cost-effective sinks. A variety of screening criteria (spatial, geophysical, and economic) can be employed to identify sources and sinks most likely amenable to deployment of carbon capture and sequestration systems. The system is easily updateable, allowing it to stay on the leading edge of capture and sequestration technology as well as the ever-changing business landscape. Our paper and presentation will describe the development of this GIS and demonstrate its uses for carbon management analysis.

Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; Brown, Daryl R.; Mizoguchi, Akiyoshi; Shiozaki, Mai

2001-04-03

306

Predictable and efficient carbon sequestration in the North Pacific Ocean supported by symbiotic nitrogen fixation.  

PubMed

The atmospheric and deep sea reservoirs of carbon dioxide are linked via physical, chemical, and biological processes. The last of these include photosynthesis, particle settling, and organic matter remineralization, and are collectively termed the "biological carbon pump." Herein, we present results from a 13-y (1992-2004) sediment trap experiment conducted in the permanently oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre that document a large, rapid, and predictable summertime (July 15-August 15) pulse in particulate matter export to the deep sea (4,000 m). Peak daily fluxes of particulate matter during the summer export pulse (SEP) average 408, 283, 24.1, 1.1, and 67.5 ?mol·m(-2)·d(-1) for total carbon, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus (PP), and biogenic silica, respectively. The SEP is approximately threefold greater than mean wintertime particle fluxes and fuels more efficient carbon sequestration because of low remineralization during downward transit that leads to elevated total carbon/PP and organic carbon/PP particle stoichiometry (371:1 and 250:1, respectively). Our long-term observations suggest that seasonal changes in the microbial assemblage, namely, summertime increases in the biomass and productivity of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in association with diatoms, are the main cause of the prominent SEP. The recurrent SEP is enigmatic because it is focused in time despite the absence of any obvious predictable stimulus or habitat condition. We hypothesize that changes in day length (photoperiodism) may be an important environmental cue to initiate aggregation and subsequent export of organic matter to the deep sea. PMID:22308450

Karl, David M; Church, Matthew J; Dore, John E; Letelier, Ricardo M; Mahaffey, Claire

2012-01-30

307

Carbon Capture and Sequestration: A Regulatory Gap Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Though a potentially significant climate change mitigation strategy, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) remains mired in demonstration and development rather than proceeding to full-scale commercialization. Prior studies have suggested numerous reasons for this stagnation. This Report seeks to empirically assess those claims. Using an anonymous opinion survey completed by over 200 individuals involved in CCS, it concludes that there are four primary barriers to CCS commercialization: (1) cost, (2) lack of a carbon price, (3) liability risks, and (4) lack of a comprehensive regulatory regime. These results largely confirm previous work. They also, however, expose a key barrier that prior studies have overlooked: the need for comprehensive, rather than piecemeal, CCS regulation. The survey data clearly show that the CCS community sees this as one of the most needed incentives for CCS deployment. The community also has a relatively clear idea of what that regulation should entail: a cooperative federalism approach that directly addresses liability concerns and that generally does not upset traditional lines of federal-state authority.

Lincoln Davies; Kirsten Uchitel; John Ruple; Heather Tanana

2012-04-30

308

The impact of logging on biodiversity and carbon sequestration in tropical forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical deforestation is one of the most relevant environmental issues at planetary scale. Forest clearcutting has dramatic effect on local biodiversity, on the terrestrial carbon sink and atmospheric GHGs balance. In terms of protection of tropical forests selective logging is, instead, often regarded as a minor or even positive management practice for the ecosystem and it is supported by international certifications. However, few studies are available on changes in the structure, biodiversity and ecosystem services due to the selective logging of African forests. This paper presents the results of a survey on tropical forests of West and Central Africa, with a comparison of long-term dynamics, structure, biodiversity and ecosystem services (such as the carbon sequestration) of different types of forests, from virgin primary to selectively logged and secondary forest. Our study suggests that there is a persistent effect of selective logging on biodiversity and carbon stock losses in the long term (up to 30 years since logging) and after repeated logging. These effects, in terms of species richness and biomass, are greater than the expected losses from commercial harvesting, implying that selective logging in West and Central Africa is impairing long term (at least until 30 years) ecosystem structure and services. A longer selective logging cycle (>30 years) should be considered by logging companies although there is not yet enough information to consider this practice sustainable.

Cazzolla Gatti, R.

2012-04-01

309

Organic Farming and Soil Carbon Sequestration: What Do We Really Know About the Benefits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic farming is believed to improve soil fertility by enhancing soil organic matter (SOM) contents. An important co-benefit\\u000a would be the sequestration of carbon from atmospheric CO2. Such a positive effect has been suggested based on data from field experiments though many studies were not designed to\\u000a address the issue of carbon sequestration. The aim of our study was to

Jens Leifeld; Jürg Fuhrer

2010-01-01

310

National Scale Prediction of Soil Carbon Sequestration under Scenarios of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is gaining momentum as a tool to mitigate the rate of increase of atmospheric CO2. Researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Texas A&M University, and USDA-NRCS used the EPIC model to develop national-scale predictions of soil carbon sequestration with adoption of no till (NT) under scenarios of climate change. In its current form, the

R. C. Izaurralde; A. M. Thomson; S. R. Potter; J. D. Atwood; J. R. Williams

2006-01-01

311

The NatCarb geoportal: Linking distributed data from the Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships are generating the data for a "carbon atlas" of key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential sinks, etc.) required for rapid implementation of carbon sequestration on a broad scale. The NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb) provides Web-based, nation-wide data access. Distributed computing solutions link partnerships and other publicly accessible repositories of geological, geophysical, natural resource, infrastructure, and environmental data. Data are maintained and enhanced locally, but assembled and accessed through a single geoportal. NatCarb, as a first attempt at a national carbon cyberinfrastructure (NCCI), assembles the data required to address technical and policy challenges of carbon capture and storage. We present a path forward to design and implement a comprehensive and successful NCCI. ?? 2007 The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Carr, T. R.; Rich, P. M.; Bartley, J. D.

2007-01-01

312

Mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide in peridotitic and basaltic rocks using seawater for carbonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-situ mineral sequestration requires huge volumes of water for carbonation of CO2 which is injected as one fluid phase into the appropriate reactive subsurface for subsequent mineralization. The amount of water needed to dissolve one ton of CO2 is about 27 tons at 25 bar partial pressure and 25 ° C (Gislason et al., 2010). The CarbFix pilot injection project

Domenik Wolff-Boenisch; Stefan Wenau; Sigurdur Gislason

2010-01-01

313

Application of computational software to model the geochemical and geomechanical interactions in geologic carbon sequestration sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term subsurface containment of carbon dioxide is a key objective of geological carbon dioxide storage in porous rock. In the United States, saline aquifers are the most promising vessel for geologic storage because they represent the largest capacity and greatest long-term stability forecasts. To realize the potential of geologic carbon dioxide sequestration, it is essential to understand the behavior of

C. M. Augustin; P. K. Swart; T. H. Dixon; D. D. Riemer

2010-01-01

314

International and National Aspects of a Legislative Framework to Manage Soil Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the international and national environmental law framework for the management of soil carbon sequestration. Aspects of the legislative framework important to this process include its ability to recognise carbon sinks, expand existing sinks, and the procedures available to return and store carbon in soil reservoirs. International law provides global standards and guidelines and national legislative systems provide

Ian Hannam

2004-01-01

315

Soil carbon stocks and carbon sequestration rates in seminatural grassland in Aso region, Kumamoto, Southern Japan.  

PubMed

Global soil carbon (C) stocks account for approximately three times that found in the atmosphere. In the Aso mountain region of Southern Japan, seminatural grasslands have been maintained by annual harvests and/or burning for more than 1000 years. Quantification of soil C stocks and C sequestration rates in Aso mountain ecosystem is needed to make well-informed, land-use decisions to maximize C sinks while minimizing C emissions. Soil cores were collected from six sites within 200 km(2) (767-937 m asl.) from the surface down to the k-Ah layer established 7300 years ago by a volcanic eruption. The biological sources of the C stored in the Aso mountain ecosystem were investigated by combining C content at a number of sampling depths with age (using (14) C dating) and ?(13) C isotopic fractionation. Quantification of plant phytoliths at several depths was used to make basic reconstructions of past vegetation and was linked with C-sequestration rates. The mean total C stock of all six sites was 232 Mg C ha(-1) (28-417 Mg C ha(-1) ), which equates to a soil C sequestration rate of 32 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) over 7300 years. Mean soil C sequestration rates over 34, 50 and 100 years were estimated by an equation regressing soil C sequestration rate against soil C accumulation interval, which was modeled to be 618, 483 and 332 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) , respectively. Such data allows for a deeper understanding in how much C could be sequestered in Miscanthus grasslands at different time scales. In Aso, tribe Andropogoneae (especially Miscanthus and Schizoachyrium genera) and tribe Paniceae contributed between 64% and 100% of soil C based on ?(13) C abundance. We conclude that the seminatural, C4 -dominated grassland system serves as an important C sink, and worthy of future conservation. PMID:23504937

Toma, Yo; Clifton-Brown, John; Sugiyama, Shinji; Nakaboh, Makoto; Hatano, Ryusuke; Fernández, Fabián G; Ryan Stewart, J; Nishiwaki, Aya; Yamada, Toshihiko

2013-04-03

316

Black Carbon Production in Open Biomass Combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduction in the quantity of forest fuel accumulating in regions prone to wildfires by using fuel reduction burns not only reduces damage to natural resources and habitats (when wildfires subsequently occur), but also provides a mean to generate black carbon of various particle sizes. These include sizes capable of entering the soil matrix and/or undergoing erosion and subsequent deposition in sedimentary sinks. Black carbon represents a compact form of carbon capable of offsetting an equivalent quantity of contemporary fossil carbon released as CO2. Black carbon, provided it is not consumed as a fuel, may serve this purpose for a considerable period in relation to that of our consumption of fossil fuels. Little is presently known of the extent of natural black carbon production in such biomass combustion and it is clearly beneficial to acquire such knowledge and, where possible, to adjust land management practices to enhance this production. This contribution presents the outcomes of an exploratory experiment devised to enable, insofar as possible, (i) a material balance to estimate the yield of black carbon from a small-scale burning of typical forest litter, (ii) identify the primary factors controlling yield (iii) and develop an experimental programme to provide data contributing to the objective of improved model estimates of the black carbon component in the global carbon cycle.

Bryant, R.; Doerr, S. H.; Santin, C.

2012-04-01

317

Geological Carbon Sequestration in the Ohio River Valley: An Evaluation of Possible Target Formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of geological carbon sequestration within the Ohio River Valley is of major interest to the national electricity and coal industries because the Valley is home to a heavy concentration of coal-burning electricity generation plants and the infrastructure is impossible to eliminate in the short-term. It has been determined by Ohio's politicians and citizenry that the continued use of coal in this region until alternative energy supplies are available will be necessary over the next few years. Geologic sequestration is the only possible means of keeping the CO2 out of the atmosphere in the region. The cost of the sequestration effort greatly decreases CO2 emissions by sequestering CO2 directly on site of these plants, or by minimizing the distance between fossil-fueled generation and sequestration (i.e., by eliminating the cost of transportation of supercritical CO2 from plant to sequestration site). Thus, the practicality of CO2 geologic sequestration within the Ohio River Valley is central to the development of such a commercial effort. Though extensive work has been done by the Regional Partnerships of the DOE/NETL in the characterization of general areas for carbon sequestration throughout the nation, few projects have narrowed their focus into a single geologic region in order to evaluate the sites of greatest commercial potential. As an undergraduate of the Earth Sciences at Ohio State, I have engaged in thorough research to obtain a detailed understanding of the geology of the Ohio River Valley and its potential for commercial-scale carbon sequestration. Through this research, I have been able to offer an estimate of the areas of greatest interest for CO2 geologic sequestration. This research has involved petrological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geophysical analyses of four major reservoir formations within Ohio—the Rose Run, the Copper Ridge, the Clinton, and the Oriskany—along with an evaluation of the possible effects of injection into these saline reservoirs.

Dalton, T. A.; Daniels, J. J.

2009-12-01

318

The sequestration of terrestrial organic carbon in Arctic Ocean sediments: A comparison of methods and implications for regional carbon budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of approaches have previously been developed to estimate the fraction of terrestrial or marine organic carbon present in aquatic sediments. The task of quantifying each component is especially important for the Arctic due to the regions’ sensitivity to global climate change and the potential for enhanced terrestrial organic carbon inputs with continued Arctic warming to alter carbon sequestration.

Laura L. Belicka; H. Rodger Harvey

2009-01-01

319

Nitrogen deposition and forest carbon sequestration: a quantitative synthesis from plot to global scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric nitrogen deposition has long been proposed as a driver of terrestrial carbon sequestration, but its quantitative effect remains poorly constrained. Global models, observations along N deposition gradients, and plot-level forest N-addition experiments provide a range of estimates of the amount of C sequestered in response to added N. Synthesis of results from 48 multi-year N-addition studies in temperate forests show responses ranging from +53 to -95 kg C of live tree production per unit of N addition. Negative effects on live tree C occurred in stands with low rates of biomass accumulation, and occurred more rapidly with higher N application rates. More positive effects occurred in younger stands, and with greater efficiency of C gain at lower N addition rates. Observations of tree growth along N deposition gradients in Europe and the eastern U.S. produced broadly similar tree growth responses (19-56 kg C/kg N) as the N addition experiments. Soil C response increased with N addition rate, and averaged 4 + 12 kg C/kg N. These surface soil responses suggest modest suppression of soil decomposition induced by added N in some but not all sites due to several possible mechanisms, none of which are yet considered in global models. Global-scale estimates of N deposition effects on forest C sequestration have ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 Pg C/y depending on assumptions on the rate of N deposition to forests, its fate, and the C:N ratios of recipient C pools. A new group of biogeochemistry models designed for coupling with global climate models all simulate relatively limited terrestrial C sinks from atmospheric N deposition alone (0.2 - 0.4 PgC/y), more in combination with rising atmospheric CO2. Future model projections should benefit from rigorous comparisons with the range of observed C responses reviewed here.

Goodale, C. L.; Thomas, R. Q.; Dentener, F. J.; Adams, M.; Baron, J.; Emmett, B.; Evans, C. B.; Fernandez, I. J.; Gundersen, P.; Hagedorn, F.; Kulmatiski, A.; Lovett, G. M.; McNulty, S.; Melvin, A. M.; Moldan, F.; Ollinger, S. V.; Schleppi, P.; Weiss, M.

2009-12-01

320

Utility of Biofilms and Biologically-Induced Mineralization in Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologic carbon sequestration involves the injection of CO2 into underground formations including oil beds, deep un-minable coal seams, basaltic rocks, and deep saline aquifers with temperature and pressure conditions such that CO2 will often be in the supercritical state. Four trapping mechanisms are proposed to play significant roles in the deep geologic sequestration of CO2: formation trapping, capillary trapping, solubility

R. Gerlach; A. C. Mitchell; A. B. Cunningham; L. Spangler

2010-01-01

321

Spatio-temporal changes in biomass carbon sinks in China's forests from 1977 to 2008.  

PubMed

Forests play a leading role in regional and global carbon (C) cycles. Detailed assessment of the temporal and spatial changes in C sinks/sources of China's forests is critical to the estimation of the national C budget and can help to constitute sustainable forest management policies for climate change. In this study, we explored the spatio-temporal changes in forest biomass C stocks in China between 1977 and 2008, using six periods of the national forest inventory data. According to the definition of the forest inventory, China's forest was categorized into three groups: forest stand, economic forest, and bamboo forest. We estimated forest biomass C stocks for each inventory period by using continuous biomass expansion factor (BEF) method for forest stands, and the mean biomass density method for economic and bamboo forests. As a result, China's forests have accumulated biomass C (i.e., biomass C sink) of 1896 Tg (1 Tg=10(12) g) during the study period, with 1710, 108 and 78 Tg C in forest stands, and economic and bamboo forests, respectively. Annual forest biomass C sink was 70.2 Tg C a(-1), offsetting 7.8% of the contemporary fossil CO2 emissions in the country. The results also showed that planted forests have functioned as a persistent C sink, sequestrating 818 Tg C and accounting for 47.8% of total C sink in forest stands, and that the old-, mid- and young-aged forests have sequestrated 930, 391 and 388 Tg C from 1977 to 2008. Our results suggest that China's forests have a big potential as biomass C sink in the future because of its large area of planted forests with young-aged growth and low C density. PMID:23722235

Guo, Zhaodi; Hu, Huifeng; Li, Pin; Li, Nuyun; Fang, Jingyun

2013-05-31

322

The Effect of Emissions Trading And Carbon Sequestration on The Cost Of CO2 Emissions Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The deployment of carbon capture and sequestration (CC&S) technologies is greatly affected by the marginal cost of controlling carbon emissions (also the value of carbon, when emissions permits are traded). Emissions limits that are more stringent in the near term imply higher near-term carbon values and therefore encourage the local development and deployment of CC&S technologies. In addition, trade in emissions obligations lowers the cost of meeting any regional or global emissions limit and so affects the rate of penetration of CC&S technologies. We examine the effects of the availability of sequestration opportunities and emissions trading (either within select regions or globally) on the cost of emissions mitigation and compliance with different emissions reduction targets for the IPCC SRES scenarios. For each base scenario and emissions target, we examine the issues outlined above and present quantitative estimates for the impacts of trade and the availability of sequestration opportunities in meeting emissions limitation obligations.

Mahasenan, Natesan; Scott, Michael J.; Smith, Steven J.

2002-08-05

323

An integrated assessment model of carbon sequestration benefits: a case study of Liping county, China.  

PubMed

This research attempts to model the complexity of planting trees to increase China's CO(2) sequestration potential by using a GIS-based integrated assessment (IA) approach. We use the IA model to assess the impact of China's Grain for Green reforestation and afforestation program on farmer and state incomes as well as CO(2) sequestration in Liping County, Guizhou Province. The IA model consists of five sub-models for carbon sequestration, crop income, timber income, Grain for Green, and carbon credits. It also includes a complementary qualitative module for assessing program impacts by gender and ethnicity. Using four scenarios with various assumptions about types of trees planted, crop incomes by township, CO(2) credit prices, state subsidies, methods for estimating carbon sequestered, and harvesting of trees, we find great variation in the impact of the Grain for Green program on incomes and on carbon sequestered over a 48 year period at both the county and township levels. PMID:17178433

Caldwell, I M; Maclaren, V W; Chen, J M; Ju, W M; Zhou, S; Yin, Y; Boland, A

2006-12-18

324

CONSERVATION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON: THE POTENTIAL OF FOREST AND AGROFOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Forests play a major role in the Earth's carbon cycle through assimilation, storage, and emission of CO2. stablishment and management of boreal, temperate, and tropical forest and agroforest systems could potentially enhance sequestration of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere. i...

325

Organic Matter Dynamics, Aggregation, and Carbon Sequestration in Mine Tailings Amended with Humic Substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of macroaggregation, carbon dynamics, and carbon sequestration were investigated in degraded mine tailings. Humic substances (HSs), wheat straw, lime, and their various combinations were added to the mine tailings and then incubated at 20 °C for 24 weeks. A significant increase (up to 79%) of water?stable macroaggregates was observed in the HS?amended tailings after the incubation. During the macroaggregation,

Ibrahim M. Saiyed; Tee Boon Goh

2009-01-01

326

Predicting and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ocean Carbon Sequestration by Direct Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct injection of CO into the ocean is a potentially effective carbon sequestration strategy. Therefore, we want to understand the effectiveness of oceanic injection and develop the appropriate analytic framework to allow us to compare the effectiveness of this strategy with other carbon management options. Here, after a brief review of direct oceanic injection, we estimate the effectiveness of ocean

Ken Caldeira; Howard J. Herzog; Michael E. Wickett

2001-01-01

327

Commentary Tillage and soil carbon sequestration—What do we really know?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that soil disturbance by tillage was a primary cause of the historical loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) in North America, and that substantial SOC sequestration can be accomplished by changing from conventional plowing to less intensive methods known as conservation tillage. This is based on experiments where changes in carbon storage have been estimated through

John M. Baker; Tyson E. Ochsner; Rodney T. Venterea; Timothy J. Griffis

328

Nitrogen fixation-enhanced carbon sequestration in low nitrate, low chlorophyll seascapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of fluxes in the carbon cycle of subtropical and tropical marine habitats is determined by the supply of inorganic nutrients. These habitats have low sea-surface concentra- tions of nitrate (NO3-) and chlorophyll (dubbed LNLC regions), sustain relatively low rates of organic matter production and export, and represent global ocean minima in carbon sequestration potential. The low NO3- resupply

David M. Karl; Ricardo M. Letelier

2008-01-01

329

Glucose additions to aggregates subjected to drying\\/wetting cycles promote carbon sequestration and aggregate stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeochemical mechanisms at microscale regions within soil macroaggregates strengthen aggregates during repeated DW cycles. Knowledge of additional biogeochemical processes that promote the movement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into and throughout soil aggregates and soil aggregate stabilization are essential before we can more accurately predict maximum carbon (C) sequestration by soils subjected to best management practices. We investigated the spatial

Eun-Jin Park; Woo Jun Sul; Alvin J. M. Smucker

2007-01-01

330

Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in Cotton Production Systems of the Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past agricultural management practices have contributed to the loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and emission of greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxideand nitrous oxide).Fortunately, however, conservation- oriented agricultural management systems can be, and have been, developed to sequester SOC, improve soil quality, and increase crop productivity. Our objectives were to (i) review literature related to SOC sequestration in cotton (Gossypium

H. J. Causarano; A. J. Franzluebbers; D. W. Reeves; J. N. Shaw

2006-01-01

331

Sequestration of carbon in soil organic matter in Senegal: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequestration of Carbon in Soil Organic Matter (SOCSOM) in Senegal is a multi-disciplinary development project planned and refined through two international workshops. The project was implemented by integrating a core of international experts in remote sensing, biogeochemical modeling, community socio-economic assessments, and carbon measurements in a fully collaborative manner with Senegal organizations, national scientists, and local knowledge and expertise. The

L. L Tieszen; G. G Tappan; A Touré

2004-01-01

332

Tillage and soil carbon sequestration—What do we really know?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that soil disturbance by tillage was a primary cause of the historical loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) in North America, and that substantial SOC sequestration can be accomplished by changing from conventional plowing to less intensive methods known as conservation tillage. This is based on experiments where changes in carbon storage have been estimated through

John M. Baker; Tyson E. Ochsner; Rodney T. Venterea; Timothy J. Griffis

2007-01-01

333

Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems: A Status Report on R and D Progress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sequestration of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is a low-cost option that may be available in the near-term to mitigate increasing atmospheric CO(sub 2) concentrations, while providing additional benefits. Storing carbon in terrestrial ecosystems can be...

G. K. Jacobs

2001-01-01

334

Economic potential for soil carbon sequestration in the Nioro region of Senegal’s Peanut Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from an analysis of the economic potential for soil carbon sequestration in the Nioro region of Senegal’s Peanut Basin. This analysis was based on the linkage of site-specific biophysical models and economic simulation models using the Tradeoff Analysis System to simulate farmers’ participation in contracts to sequester soil carbon. Available soils and climate data were used

Bocar Diagana; John Antle; Jetse Stoorvogel; Kara Gray

2007-01-01

335

Biophysical potential for soil carbon sequestration in agricultural systems of the Old Peanut Basin of Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon sequestration in soil organic matter is increasingly advocated as a possible win–win strategy in the rehabilitation of degrading dryland agro-ecosystems because it simultaneously contributes to the reduction of global atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations while enhancing local land productivity. A study was conducted in Senegal's Old Peanut Basin to assess current carbon stocks and to examine management options for their

P Tschakert; M Khouma; M Sène

2004-01-01

336

Possibilities for Future Carbon Sequestration in Canadian Agriculture in Relation to Land Use Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing carbon sequestration in agricultural soils in Canada is examined as a possible strategy in slowing or stopping the current increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Estimates are provided on the amount of carbon that could be sequestered in soils in various regions in Canada by reducing summerfallow area, increased use of forage crops, improved erosion control, shifts from conventional to

J. Dumanski; R. L. Desjardins; C. Tarnocai; C. Monreal; E. G. Gregorich; V. Kirkwood; C. A. Campbell

1998-01-01

337

Quantifying the impacts on biodiversity of policies for carbon sequestration in forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently a great deal of interest in the use of afforestation (conversion of non-forest land to forest) to reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. To date, economic analyses have focused on the costs of forest carbon sequestration policies related to foregone profits from agricultural production. No studies have examined additional costs or benefits associated with impacts on biodiversity.

Stephen Matthews; Raymond O'Connor; Andrew J. Plantinga

2002-01-01

338

Carbon sequestration and the optimal management of New Hampshire timber stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the tradeoff between resource extraction and net carbon sequestration in managing representative timber stands in the state of New Hampshire in the northeastern United States. In the absence of policies to promote forest carbon storage, land owners have incentives to employ clear-cut harvesting regimes with relatively short rotation periods. Under conservative assumptions regarding the social benefits of

John Gutrich; Richard B. Howarth

2007-01-01

339

Impact on bacterial activities of ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide into bathypelagic layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2), direct injection of CO2 into bathypelagic layers, is one of the climate change mitigation options. It is essential to assess the potential environmental impacts on the marine ecosystem. In bathypelagic layers, bacteria are dominant organisms and play significant roles in oceanic carbon cycling through utilization and transformation of organic matter. We performed laboratory

N. Yamada; M. Suzumura; N. Tsurushima; K. Harada

2008-01-01

340

Simulating carbon sequestration in plowed and no-tillage systems in Brazilian Oxisols using CQESTR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CQESTR simulates the effect of several management practices on soil organic carbon stocks. The model had been calibrated and validated in temperate regions. Our objective was to simulate carbon sequestration in Oxisols under plowed and no-tillage systems in northeastern and southeastern Brazil using...

341

Re-evaluation of forest biomass carbon stocks and lessons from the world's most carbon-dense forests.  

PubMed

From analysis of published global site biomass data (n = 136) from primary forests, we discovered (i) the world's highest known total biomass carbon density (living plus dead) of 1,867 tonnes carbon per ha (average value from 13 sites) occurs in Australian temperate moist Eucalyptus regnans forests, and (ii) average values of the global site biomass data were higher for sampled temperate moist forests (n = 44) than for sampled tropical (n = 36) and boreal (n = 52) forests (n is number of sites per forest biome). Spatially averaged Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change biome default values are lower than our average site values for temperate moist forests, because the temperate biome contains a diversity of forest ecosystem types that support a range of mature carbon stocks or have a long land-use history with reduced carbon stocks. We describe a framework for identifying forests important for carbon storage based on the factors that account for high biomass carbon densities, including (i) relatively cool temperatures and moderately high precipitation producing rates of fast growth but slow decomposition, and (ii) older forests that are often multiaged and multilayered and have experienced minimal human disturbance. Our results are relevant to negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change regarding forest conservation, management, and restoration. Conserving forests with large stocks of biomass from deforestation and degradation avoids significant carbon emissions to the atmosphere, irrespective of the source country, and should be among allowable mitigation activities. Similarly, management that allows restoration of a forest's carbon sequestration potential also should be recognized. PMID:19553199

Keith, Heather; Mackey, Brendan G; Lindenmayer, David B

2009-06-24

342

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO  

SciTech Connect

This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. During this quarter, water infiltration tests were performed on the soil surface in the experimental sites. Soil samples were analyzed for the soil carbon and nitrogen contents, texture, water stable aggregation, and mean weight and geometric mean diameter of aggregates. This report presents the results from two sites reclaimed during 1978 and managed under grass (Wilds) and forest (Cumberland) cover, respectively. The trees were planted in 1982 in the Cumberland site. The analyses of data on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were presented in the third quarter report. This report presents the data on infiltration rates, volume of transport and storage pores, available water capacity (AWC) of soil, particle size distribution, and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and coal carbon contents. The SIC content ranged from 0.04 to 1.68% in Cumberland tree site and 0.01 to 0.65% in the Wilds. The coal content assumed to be the carbon content after oven drying the sample at 350 C varied between 0.04 and 3.18% for Cumberland and 0.06 and 3.49% for Wilds. The sand, silt and clay contents showed moderate to low variability (CV < 0.16) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. The volume of transmission (VTP) and storage pores (VSP) also showed moderate to high variability (CV ranged from 0.22 to 0.39 for Wilds and 0.17 to 0.36 for Cumberland). The CV for SIC was high (0.7) in Cumberland whereas that for coal content was high (0.4) in the Wilds. The steady state infiltration rates (i{sub c}) also showed high variability (CV > 0.6) and ranged from 0.01 to 0.98 cm min{sup -1} in Cumberland and 0.1 to 1.68 cm min{sup -1} in Wilds. The cumulative infiltration (I) was highly variable (CV > 0.6) and ranged from 4.2 to 110 cm in Cumberland and 17.4 to 250 cm in Wilds. The AWC for 0-15 cm depth also showed moderate variability (CV = 0.3) for Cumberland but high for Wilds (CV = 0.4). The sand and silt contents showed strong spatial dependence with nugget-sill ratio of 15 and 23%, respectively with a range of 50 m in Cumberland site. Strong spatial dependence for sand content was also obtained for Wilds. The VSP, AWC, I, clay content, VTP, and i{sub c}, showed moderate to low spatial dependence (nugget-sill ratio varied from 32 to 72% in Cumberland and 37 to 88% in Wilds). These preliminary results along with those reported earlier during the third quarter suggest that the management effects are important and indicative of these sources of variability.

M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

2004-10-01

343

[Characteristics of carbon storage and sequestration in different age beech (Castanopsis hystrix) plantations in south subtropical area of China].  

PubMed

To transform large area pure conifer plantations by planting indigenous and valuable broad-leaved tree species has been advocated as an effective close-to-nature forest management in sub-tropical China. Taking the 10-, 20- and 27-year-old Castanopsis hystrix plantations in Guangxi of South China as test objects and by the methods of plot investigation and biomass measurement, this paper studied the carbon content in different plant organs, litter layers, and soil layers and the carbon storage and its allocation in tree layer, litter layer and soil layer. For the test plantations, the carbon content in different C. hystrix organs ranged from 49.7% to 57.9%, and that in litter layer was 40.8%-50.5%, being higher in fresh litter layer than in semi-decomposed litter layer. The carbon storage in the soil profiles (0-60 cm) increased with plantation age but decreased with soil depth. The total carbon storage in the 10-, 20- and 27-year-old plantations was 182. 42, 234.75 and 269. 75 t x hm(-2), respectively, among which, tree layer, litter layer and soil layer occupied 19.8%, 32.0% and 32.8%, 1.5%, 1.6% and 1.3%, and 78.7%, 66.4% and 65.9%, respectively. The annual net carbon sequestration of the 10-, 20- and 27-year-old plantations was 4.70, 5.64 and 5.18 t x hm(-2), respectively. It was considered that C. hystrix had a high capability in carbon sequestration, being able to be an ideal tree species for multi-purpose forest management with large and valuable timber production. PMID:22586955

Liu, En; Wang, Hui; Liu, Shi-Rong

2012-02-01

344

Nonlinear root-derived carbon sequestration across a gradient of nitrogen and phosphorous deposition in experimental mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced sequestration of plant-carbon (C) inputs to soil may mitigate rising atmo- spheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and related climate change but how this sequestration will respond to anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) deposi- tion is uncertain. We couple isotope, soil C fractionation and mesocosm techniques to assess the sequestration of plant-C inputs, and their partitioning into C pools

MARK A. BRADFO; AH F; R O B E RT; B. JA

345

Maintenance of a Living Understory Enhances Soil Carbon Sequestration in Subtropical Orchards  

PubMed Central

Orchard understory represents an important component of the orchards, performing numerous functions related to soil quality, water relations and microclimate, but little attention has been paid on its effect on soil C sequestration. In the face of global climate change, fruit producers also require techniques that increase carbon (C) sequestration in a cost-effective manner. Here we present a case study to compare the effects of understory management (sod culture vs. clean tillage) on soil C sequestration in four subtropical orchards. The results of a 10-year study indicated that the maintenance of sod significantly enhanced the soil C stock in the top 1 m of orchard soils. Relative to clean tillage, sod culture increased annual soil C sequestration by 2.85 t C ha-1, suggesting that understory management based on sod culture offers promising potential for soil carbon sequestration. Considering that China has the largest area of orchards in the world and that few of these orchards currently have sod understories, the establishment and maintenance of sod in orchards can help China increase C sequestration and greatly contribute to achieving CO2 reduction targets at a regional scale and potentially at a national scale.

Liu, Zhanfeng; Lin, Yongbiao; Lu, Hongfang; Ding, Mingmao; Tan, Yaowen; Xu, Shejin; Fu, Shenglei

2013-01-01

346

Maintenance of a living understory enhances soil carbon sequestration in subtropical orchards.  

PubMed

Orchard understory represents an important component of the orchards, performing numerous functions related to soil quality, water relations and microclimate, but little attention has been paid on its effect on soil C sequestration. In the face of global climate change, fruit producers also require techniques that increase carbon (C) sequestration in a cost-effective manner. Here we present a case study to compare the effects of understory management (sod culture vs. clean tillage) on soil C sequestration in four subtropical orchards. The results of a 10-year study indicated that the maintenance of sod significantly enhanced the soil C stock in the top 1 m of orchard soils. Relative to clean tillage, sod culture increased annual soil C sequestration by 2.85 t C ha(-1), suggesting that understory management based on sod culture offers promising potential for soil carbon sequestration. Considering that China has the largest area of orchards in the world and that few of these orchards currently have sod understories, the establishment and maintenance of sod in orchards can help China increase C sequestration and greatly contribute to achieving CO2 reduction targets at a regional scale and potentially at a national scale. PMID:24116188

Liu, Zhanfeng; Lin, Yongbiao; Lu, Hongfang; Ding, Mingmao; Tan, Yaowen; Xu, Shejin; Fu, Shenglei

2013-10-08

347

Properties of Mutants of Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Lacking Inorganic Carbon Sequestration Systems  

SciTech Connect

A mutant ( 5) of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 constructed by inactivating five inorganic carbon sequestration systems did not take up CO2 or HCO3– and was unable to grow in air with or without glucose. The 4 mutant in which BicA is the only active inorganic carbon sequestration system showed low activity of HCO3– uptake and grew under these conditions but more slowly than the wild-type strain. The 5 mutant required 1.7% CO2 to attain half the maximal growth rate. Electron transport activity of the mutants was strongly inhibited under high light intensities, with the 5 mutant more susceptible to high light than the 4 mutant. The results implicated the significance of carbon sequestration in dissipating excess light energy.

Xu, Min; Bernat, Gabor; Singh, Abhay K.; Mi, Hualing; Rogner, Matthias; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Ogawa, Teruo

2008-09-10

348

Comparison of Caprock Mineral Characteristics at Field Demonstration Sites for Saline Aquifer Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In 2003 the U.S Department of Energy initiated regional partnership programs to address the concern for rising atmospheric CO2. These partnerships were formed to explore regional and economical means for geologically sequestering CO2 across the United States and to set the stage for future commercial applications. Several options exist for geological sequestration and among these sequestering CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising. This is due, in part, to the possibility of stabilized permanent storage through mineral precipitation from chemical interactions of the injected carbon dioxide with the brine and reservoir rock. There are nine field demonstration sites for saline sequestration among the regional partnerships in Phase II development to validate the overall commercial feasibility for CO2 geological sequestration. Of the nine sites considered for Phase II saline sequestration demonstration, seven are profiled in this study for their caprock lithologic and mineral characteristics.

Griffith, C.A.; Lowry, G. (Carnegie Mellon University); Dzombak, D. (Carnegie Mellon University); Soong, Yee; Hedges, S.W.

2008-10-01

349

Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration - Science for Enhancement and Implementation  

SciTech Connect

It is time to re-evaluate all available options that might not be permanent yet have the potential to buy time, bridging to a future when new energy system technologies and a transformed energy infrastructure can fully address the climate challenge. Terrestrial sequestration is one option large enough to make a contribution in the coming decades using proven land management methods and with the possibility that new technologies could significantly enhance the opportunity. Here we review progress on key scientific, economic, and social issues; postulate the extent to which new technologies might significantly enhance terrestrial sequestration potential; and address remaining research needs.

Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Amonette, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Birdsey, Richard A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Jastrow, Julie D [ORNL; Lal, Dr. Rattan [Ohio State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; McCarl, Bruce [Texas A& M University; Thomson, Dr. Allison [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Metting, F. Blaine [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

2009-01-01

350

Carbon Sequestration at the Howland Forest in Maine: Where Does the Carbon go?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eddy covariance towers provide information on net carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, but they provide little information on the location of carbon sources and sinks. We measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 in a mature, old-growth mixed spruce\\/hemlock\\/red maple forest at the Howland Forest beginning in 1996. Live biomass at Howland Forest is about 110 Mg

N. A. Scott; D. Y. Hollinger; E. A. Davidson; J. B. Gaudinski; S. E. Trumbore; H. Hughes; J. Ranson

2002-01-01

351

Geochemical Impacts to Groundwater from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Controls on pH and Inorganic Carbon Concentrations from Reaction Path and Kinetic Modeling  

EPA Science Inventory

Geologic carbon sequestration has the potential to cause long-term reductions in global emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Safe and effective application of carbon sequestration technology requires an understanding of the potential risks to the quality of underground...

352

A Survey of Measurement, Mitigation, and Verification Field Technologies for Carbon Sequestration Geologic Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE's) Carbon Sequestration Program is developing state-of-the-science technologies for measurement, mitigation, and verification (MM&V) in field operations of geologic sequestration. MM&V of geologic carbon sequestration operations will play an integral role in the pre-injection, injection, and post-injection phases of carbon capture and storage projects to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Effective MM&V is critical to the success of CO2 storage projects and will be used by operators, regulators, and stakeholders to ensure safe and permanent storage of CO2. In the U.S. DOE's Program, Carbon sequestration MM&V has numerous instrumental roles: Measurement of a site's characteristics and capability for sequestration; Monitoring of the site to ensure the storage integrity; Verification that the CO2 is safely stored; and Protection of ecosystems. Other drivers for MM&V technology development include cost-effectiveness, measurement precision, and frequency of measurements required. As sequestration operations are implemented in the future, it is anticipated that measurements over long time periods and at different scales will be required; this will present a significant challenge. MM&V sequestration technologies generally utilize one of the following approaches: below ground measurements; surface/near-surface measurements; aerial and satellite imagery; and modeling/simulations. Advanced subsurface geophysical technologies will play a primary role for MM&V. It is likely that successful MM&V programs will incorporate multiple technologies including but not limited to: reservoir modeling and simulations; geophysical techniques (a wide variety of seismic methods, microgravity, electrical, and electromagnetic techniques); subsurface fluid movement monitoring methods such as injection of tracers, borehole and wellhead pressure sensors, and tiltmeters; surface/near surface methods such as soil gas monitoring and infrared sensors and; aerial and satellite imagery. This abstract will describe results, similarities, and contrasts for funded studies from the U.S. DOE's Carbon Sequestration Program including examples from the Sleipner North Sea Project, the Canadian Weyburn Field/Dakota Gasification Plant Project, the Frio Formation Texas Project, and Yolo County Bioreactor Landfill Project. The abstract will also address the following: How are the terms ``measurement,'' ``mitigation''and ``verification'' defined in the Program? What is the U.S. DOE's Carbon Sequestration Program Roadmap and what are the Roadmap goals for MM&V? What is the current status of MM&V technologies?

Cohen, K. K.; Klara, S. M.; Srivastava, R. D.

2004-12-01

353

Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio  

SciTech Connect

This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed mine soils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed mine soil and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites are owned and maintained by American Electrical Power. These sites were reclaimed (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. This report presents the results from two forest sites reclaimed with topsoil application and reclaimed in 1994 (R94-F) and in 1973 (R73-F), and two forest sites without topsoil application and reclaimed in 1969 (R69-F) and 1962 (R62-F). Results from one site under grass without topsoil application and reclaimed in 1962 (R62-G) are also shown. Three core soil samples were collected from each of the experimental sites and each landscape position (upper, middle and lower) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), volumes of transport (VTP) pores, and available water capacity (AWC) were determined. No significant differences were observed in VTP and AWC in 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths among the sites R94-F and R73-F reclaimed with topsoil application and under continuous forest cover (P<0.05). VTP and AWC did also not differ among upper, middle and lower landscape positions. However, saturated hydraulic conductivity in 0-15 cm depth at R73-F was significantly lower at the lower compared to the upper landscape position. No significant differences were observed for Ks among landscape positions at R94-F. No significant differences were observed in VTP and AWC among landscape positions and depths within R69-F, R62-F and R62-G. However, saturated hydraulic conductivity was higher in 0-15 cm depth at R62-F than at R69-F and R62-G. At the latter site, Ks was higher in the upper compared to the lower landscape position whereas Ks did not differ among landscape positions at the other sites. Statistical analyses indicated that the number of random samples taken was probably not sufficient to properly consider distribution of VTP and AWC in 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths across the sites, in particular for the sites without topsoil application.

K. Lorenz; M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

2006-04-01

354

Genome Enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes in Poplar  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the S.H. Strauss laboratory portion of 'Genome-enabled discovery of carbon sequestration genes in poplar' are (1) to explore the functions of candidate genes using Populus transformation by inserting genes provided by Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Florida (UF) into poplar; (2) to expand the poplar transformation toolkit by developing transformation methods for important genotypes; and (3) to allow induced expression, and efficient gene suppression, in roots and other tissues. As part of the transformation improvement effort, OSU developed transformation protocols for Populus trichocarpa 'Nisqually-1' clone and an early flowering P. alba clone, 6K10. Complete descriptions of the transformation systems were published (Ma et. al. 2004, Meilan et. al 2004). Twenty-one 'Nisqually-1' and 622 6K10 transgenic plants were generated. To identify root predominant promoters, a set of three promoters were tested for their tissue-specific expression patterns in poplar and in Arabidopsis as a model system. A novel gene, ET304, was identified by analyzing a collection of poplar enhancer trap lines generated at OSU (Filichkin et. al 2006a, 2006b). Other promoters include the pGgMT1 root-predominant promoter from Casuarina glauca and the pAtPIN2 promoter from Arabidopsis root specific PIN2 gene. OSU tested two induction systems, alcohol- and estrogen-inducible, in multiple poplar transgenics. Ethanol proved to be the more efficient when tested in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions. Two estrogen-inducible systems were evaluated in transgenic Populus, neither of which functioned reliably in tissue culture conditions. GATEWAY-compatible plant binary vectors were designed to compare the silencing efficiency of homologous (direct) RNAi vs. heterologous (transitive) RNAi inverted repeats. A set of genes was targeted for post transcriptional silencing in the model Arabidopsis system; these include the floral meristem identity gene (APETALA1 or AP1), auxin response factor gene (ETTIN), the gene encoding transcriptional factor of WD40 family (TRANSPARENTTESTAGLABRA1 or TTG1), and the auxin efflux carrier (PIN-FORMED2 or PIN2) gene. More than 220 transgenic lines of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations were analyzed for RNAi suppression phenotypes (Filichkin et. al., manuscript submitted). A total of 108 constructs were supplied by ORNL, UF and OSU and used to generate over 1,881 PCR verified transgenic Populus and over 300 PCR verified transgenic Arabidopsis events. The Populus transgenics alone required Agrobacterium co-cultivations of 124.406 explants.

Filichkin, Sergei; Etherington, Elizabeth; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steve

2007-02-22

355

Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically Viable Forest Harvesting Practices That Increase Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Forests provide wildlife habitat, water and air purification, climate moderation, and timber and nontimber products. Concern about climate change has put forests in the limelight as sinks of atmospheric carbon. The C stored in the global vegetation, mostly in forests, is nearly equivalent to the amount present in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Both voluntary and government-mandated carbon trading markets are being developed and debated, some of which include C sequestration resulting from forest management as a possible tradeable commodity. However, uncertainties regarding sources of variation in sequestration rates, validation, and leakage remain significant challenges for devising strategies to include forest management in C markets. Hence, the need for scientifically-based information on C sequestration by forest management has never been greater. The consequences of forest management on the US carbon budget are large, because about two-thirds of the {approx}300 million hectare US forest resource is classified as 'commercial forest.' In most C accounting budgets, forest harvesting is usually considered to cause a net release of C from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere. However, forest management practices could be designed to meet the multiple goals of providing wood and paper products, creating economic returns from natural resources, while sequestering C from the atmosphere. The shelterwood harvest strategy, which removes about 30% of the basal area of the overstory trees in each of three successive harvests spread out over thirty years as part of a stand rotation of 60-100 years, may improve net C sequestration compared to clear-cutting because: (1) the average C stored on the land surface over a rotation increases, (2) harvesting only overstory trees means that a larger fraction of the harvested logs can be used for long-lived sawtimber products, compared to more pulp resulting from clearcutting, (3) the shelterwood cut encourages growth of subcanopy trees by opening up the forest canopy to increasing light penetration. Decomposition of onsite harvest slash and of wastes created during timber processing releases CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, thus offsetting some of the C sequestered in vegetation. Decomposition of soil C and dead roots may also be temporarily stimulated by increased light penetration and warming of the forest floor. Quantification of these processes and their net effect is needed. We began studying C sequestration in a planned shelterwood harvest at the Howland Forest in central Maine in 2000. The harvest took place in 2002 by the International Paper Corporation, who assisted us to track the fates of harvest products (Scott et al., 2004, Environmental Management 33: S9-S22). Here we present the results of intensive on-site studies of the decay of harvest slash, soil respiration, growth of the remaining trees, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO{sub 2} during the first six years following the harvest. These results are combined with calculations of C in persisting off-site harvest products to estimate the net C consequences to date of this commercial shelterwood harvest operation. Tower-based eddy covariance is an ideal method for this study, as it integrates all C fluxes in and out of the forest over a large 'footprint' area and can reveal how the net C flux, as well as gross primary productivity and respiration, change following harvest. Because the size of this experiment precludes large-scale replication, we are use a paired-airshed approach, similar to classic large-scale paired watershed experiments. Measurements of biomass and C fluxes in control and treatment stands were compared during a pre-treatment calibration period, and then divergence from pre-treatment relationships between the two sites measured after the harvest treatment. Forests store carbon (C) as they accumulate biomass. Many forests are also commercial sources of timber and wood fiber. In most C accounting budgets, forest harvesting is usually considered to cause a net release of C from the terrestrial biosphere to the at

Davidson, E.A.; Dail, D.B., Hollinger, D.; Scott, N.; Richardson, A.

2012-08-02

356

Computational Modeling of the Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

EPA Science Inventory

Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

357

Bacterial and Fungal Contributions to Carbon Sequestration in Agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current knowledge of microbial processes affecting C sequestration in agroecosystems. The microbial contri- bution to soil C storage is directly related to microbial community dynamics and the balance between formation and degradation of mi- crobial byproducts. Soil microbes also indirectly influence C cycling by improving soil aggregation, which physically protects soil organic matter (SOM). Consequently, the

S. D. Frey; R. K. Thiet; K. M. Batten

2006-01-01

358

Potential for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Flood Basalts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood basalts are a potentially important host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Most lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have enormous capacity for storage of CO2. Interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability basalt rock overlying sequential flows may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Laboratory experiments confirm relatively rapid

B. PETER McGrail; Herbert T. Schaef; Anita M. Ho; Yi-Ju Chien; James J. Dooley; Casie L. Davidson

2006-01-01

359

Potential for carbon dioxide sequestration in flood basalts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood basalts are a potentially important host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Most lava flows have flow tops that are porous and permeable and have enormous capacity for storage of CO2. Interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability basalt rock overlying sequential flows may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Laboratory experiments confirm relatively

B. Peter McGrail; H. Todd Schaef; Anita M. Ho; Yi-Ju Chien; James J. Dooley; Casie L. Davidson

2006-01-01

360

Significant role for microbial autotrophy in the sequestration of soil carbon.  

PubMed

Soils were incubated for 80 days in a continuously labeled (14)CO(2) atmosphere to measure the amount of labeled C incorporated into the microbial biomass. Microbial assimilation of (14)C differed between soils and accounted for 0.12% to 0.59% of soil organic carbon (SOC). Assuming a terrestrial area of 1.4 × 10(8) km(2), this represents a potential global sequestration of 0.6 to 4.9 Pg C year(-1). Estimated global C sequestration rates suggest a "missing sink" for carbon of between 2 and 3 Pg C year(-1). To determine whether (14)CO(2) incorporation was mediated by autotrophic microorganisms, the diversity and abundance of CO(2)-fixing bacteria and algae were investigated using clone library sequencing, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) gene (cbbL). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant cbbL-containing bacteria were Azospirillum lipoferum, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Ralstonia eutropha, and cbbL-containing chromophytic algae of the genera Xanthophyta and Bacillariophyta. Multivariate analyses of T-RFLP profiles revealed significant differences in cbbL-containing microbial communities between soils. Differences in cbbL gene diversity were shown to be correlated with differences in SOC content. Bacterial and algal cbbL gene abundances were between 10(6) and 10(8) and 10(3) to 10(5) copies g(-1) soil, respectively. Bacterial cbbL abundance was shown to be positively correlated with RubisCO activity (r = 0.853; P < 0.05), and both cbbL abundance and RubisCO activity were significantly related to the synthesis rates of [(14)C]SOC (r = 0.967 and 0.946, respectively; P < 0.01). These data offer new insights into the importance of microbial autotrophy in terrestrial C cycling. PMID:22286999

Yuan, Hongzhao; Ge, Tida; Chen, Caiyan; O'Donnell, Anthony G; Wu, Jinshui

2012-01-27

361

Carbon sequestration in a long-term conventional versus conservation tillage experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of conservation tillage practices on carbon sequestration has been of great interest in recent years. Changes in the soil organic carbon (SOC) as influenced by tillage, is more noticeable under long-term rather than short-term tillage practices. This experiment analyzed the organic carbon status of soils sampled at depth increments from 0 to 60cm after 25 years of five

W Deen; P. K Kataki

2003-01-01

362

An Integrated Functional Genomics Consortium to Increase Carbon Sequestration in Poplars: Optimizing Aboveground Carbon Gain  

SciTech Connect

This project used gene expression patterns from two forest Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments (Aspen FACE in northern Wisconsin and POPFACE in Italy) to examine ways to increase the aboveground carbon sequestration potential of poplars (Populus). The aim was to use patterns of global gene expression to identify candidate genes for increased carbon sequestration. Gene expression studies were linked to physiological measurements in order to elucidate bottlenecks in carbon acquisition in trees grown in elevated CO2 conditions. Delayed senescence allowing additional carbon uptake late in the growing season, was also examined, and expression of target genes was tested in elite P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa hybrids. In Populus euramericana, gene expression was sensitive to elevated CO2, but the response depended on the developmental age of the leaves. Most differentially expressed genes were upregulated in elevated CO2 in young leaves, while most were downregulated in elevated CO2 in semi-mature leaves. In P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa hybrids, leaf development and leaf quality traits, including leaf area, leaf shape, epidermal cell area, stomatal number, specific leaf area, and canopy senescence were sensitive to elevated CO2. Significant increases under elevated CO2 occurred for both above- and belowground growth in the F-2 generation. Three areas of the genome played a role in determining aboveground growth response to elevated CO2, with three additional areas of the genome important in determining belowground growth responses to elevated CO2. In Populus tremuloides, CO2-responsive genes in leaves were found to differ between two aspen clones that showed different growth responses, despite similarity in many physiological parameters (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf area index). The CO2-responsive clone shunted C into pathways associated with active defense/response to stress, carbohydrate/starch biosynthesis and subsequent growth. The CO2-unresponsive clone partitioned C into pathways associated with passive defense and cell wall thickening. These results indicate that there is significant variation in gene expression patterns between different tree genotypes. Consequently, future efforts to improve productivity or other advantageous traits for carbon sequestration should include an examination of genetic variability in CO2 responsiveness.

Karnosky, David F (deceased); Podila, G Krishna; Burton, Andrew J (for DF Karnosky)

2009-02-17

363

Long-term effect of a single application of organic refuse on carbon sequestration and soil physical properties.  

PubMed

Restoration of degraded lands could be a way to reverse soil degradation and desertification in semiarid areas and mitigate greenhouse gases (GHG). Our objective was to evaluate the long-term effects of a single addition of organic refuse on soil physical properties and measure its carbon sequestration potential. In 1988, a set of five plots (87 m(2) each) was established in an open desert-like scrubland (2-4% cover) in Murcia, Spain, to which urban solid refuse (USR) was added in a single treatment at different rates. Soil properties were monitored over a 5-yr period. Sixteen years after the addition, three of the plots were monitored again (P0: control, P1: 13 kg m(-2), P2: 26 kg m(-2) of USR added) to assess the lasting effect of the organic addition on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pools and on the physical characteristics of the soil. The SOC content was higher in P2 (16.4 g kg(-1)) and in P1 (11.8 g kg(-1)) than in P0 (7.9 g kg(-1)). Likewise, aerial biomass increased from 0.18 kg m(-2) in P0 up to 0.27 kg m(-2) in P1 and 0.46 kg m(-2) in P2. This represents a total C sequestration of 9.5 Mg ha(-1) in P2 and 3.4 Mg ha(-1) in P1, most of the sequestered C remaining in the recalcitrant soil pool. Additionally, higher saturated hydraulic conductivity, aggregate stability, and available water content values and lower bulk density values were measured in the restored plots. Clearly, a single addition of organic refuse to the degraded soils to increase the potential for C sequestration was effective. PMID:18948462

Albaladejo, J; Lopez, J; Boix-Fayos, C; Barbera, G G; Martinez-Mena, M

2008-10-23

364

The United States Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships program: a collaborative approach to carbon management.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) concept, which is a first attempt to bring the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) carbon sequestration program activities into the "real world" by using a geographically-disposed-system type approach for the U.S. Each regional partnership is unique and covers a unique section of the U.S. and is tasked with determining how the research and development activities of DOE's carbon sequestration program can best be implemented in their region of the country. Although there is no universal agreement on the cause, it is generally understood that global warming is occurring, and many climate scientists believe that this is due, in part, to the buildup of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere. This is evident from the finding presented in the National Academy of Science Report to the President on Climate Change which stated "Greenhouse gases are accumulating in Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities, causing surface air temperatures and subsurface ocean temperatures to rise. Temperatures are, in fact, rising. The changes observed over the last several decades are likely mostly due to human activities, ...". In the United States, emissions of CO(2) originate mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production, transportation, and other industrial processes. Roughly one third of U.S. anthropogenic CO(2) emissions come from power plants. Reduction of CO(2) emissions through sequestration of carbon either in geologic formations or in terrestrial ecosystems can be part of the solution to the problem of global warming. However, a number of steps must be accomplished before sequestration can become a reality. Cost effective capture and separation technology must be developed, tested, and demonstrated; a database of potential sequestration sites must be established; and techniques must be developed to measure, monitor, and verify the sequestered CO(2). Geographical differences in fossil fuel use, the industries present, and potential sequestration sinks across the United States dictate the use of a regional approach to address the sequestration of CO(2). To accommodate these differences, the DOE has created a nationwide network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) to help determine and implement the carbon sequestration technologies, infrastructure, and regulations most appropriate to promote CO(2) sequestration in different regions of the nation. These partnerships currently represent 40 states, three Indian Nations, four Canadian Provinces, and over 200 organizations, including academic institutions, research institutions, coal companies, utilities, equipment manufacturers, forestry and agricultural representatives, state and local governments, non-governmental organizations, and national laboratories. These partnerships are dedicated to developing the necessary infrastructure and validating the carbon sequestration technologies that have emerged from DOE's core R&D and other programs to mitigate emissions of CO(2), a potent greenhouse gas. The partnerships provide a critical link to DOE's plans for FutureGen, a highly efficient and technologically sophisticated coal-fired power plant that will produce both hydrogen and electricity with near-zero emissions. Though limited to the situation in the U.S., the paper describes for the international scientific community the approach being taken by the U.S. to prepare for carbon sequestration, should that become necessary. PMID:16054694

Litynski, John T; Klara, Scott M; McIlvried, Howard G; Srivastava, Rameshwar D

2005-07-28

365

[Influences of grazing and exclosure on carbon sequestration in degraded sandy grassland, Inner Mongolia, north China].  

PubMed

Very little is known about the effects of continuous grazing and exclosure on carbon sequestration in semi-arid sandy grassland of North China. Soil-plant system carbon in representative degraded sandy grassland in Horqin sandy steppe (N42 degrees 58', E 120 degrees 42') was measured. Three situations were compared: continuous grazing (CG), exclosure for 5 years (5EX) and exclosure for 10 years (10EX). Ground cover increased from the CG (35%) to the 5EX (63%) and to the 10EX (81%), and accordingly soil organic carbon and total plant components carbon increased from the CG (493 g.m-2 and 95 g.m-2) to the 5EX (524 g.m-2 and 146 g.m-2) and to the 10EX (584 g.m-2 and 309 g.m-2). In terms of the distribution of carbon in plant-soil system, 65.3%, 78.2% and 83.9% of plant-soil carbon was in soils at 0-15 cm in the 10EX site, in the 5EX site and in the CG site, respectively. The results suggested that continuous grazing in the erosion-prone sandy grassland was very detrimental to vegetation, soil and surrounding environment. Under exclosure conditions, vegetation restoration and litter accumulation not only effectively protected soil from loss through wind erosion, but also significantly increased plant-soil system carbon storage, and thus sequestration of atmospheric carbon. However, the recycling of aboveground plant carbon to the soil was restricted when grazing was excluded and a large part of carbon sequestrated was immobilized in plant litter accumulating on the soil surface. Further research on time scale for exclosure is needed. It is concluded that the degraded sandy grassland could contribute to significant carbon sequestration with the implementation of protecting practices. PMID:14551952

Su, Yongzhong; Zhao, Halin

2003-07-01

366

Linear Theory of Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics: Implications in Modeling Soil Respiration and Carbon Sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term, large-scale soil organic carbon dynamics are typically described by mathematical models based on networks of linear reservoirs. Properties of these networks can be diagnosed from linear system theory (i.e. impulse-response transformations), which is seldom used in soil biogeochemistry, although it can be used to compare and test different models in the context of long-term carbon sequestration in soils. In this work, the general theory of linear impulse-response systems is briefly reviewed and linked to the theory of stochastic point processes. Two characteristic times are considered, the residence time (i.e., the time spent by a molecule in the system) and age (the time elapsed since the molecule entered the system). Both are represented through their probability density functions, which are computed explicitly as a function of model structure. Different cases are analyzed and compared, ranging from a simple individual-pool model, to feedback models involving loops (as in models of soil organic carbon-microbial interactions and physical adsorption-desorption), and to more complex networks often used to simulate in the details the soil organic carbon processes. As examples for these complex networks, the compartmental model CENTURY (Parton et al., 1987), and the continuum-quality Q-model (Agren and Bosatta, 1996) are considered. We assess the relative importance of model structural characteristics to determine the organic carbon residence time and age distributions.

Porporato, A.; Manzoni, S.; Katul, G.

2008-12-01

367

DOE Ocean Carbon Sequestration Research Workshop 2005 - May 26th thru 27th  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this workshop was to bring together the principal investigators of all the projects that were being funded under the DOE ocean carbon sequestration research program. The primary goal of the workshop was to interchange research results, to discuss ongoing research, and to identify future research priorities. In addition, we hoped to encourage the development of synergies and

Jorge L. Sarmiento; Francisco Chavez; Matthew Maltrud; Eric Adams; Kevin Arrigo; James Barry; Kevin Carmen; James Bishop; Rainer Bleck; Niki Gruber; David Erickson; James Kennett; Costas Tsouris; Alessandro Tagliabue; Adina Paytan; Daniel Repeta; Patricia Yeager; John Marshall; Anand Gnanadesikan

2007-01-01

368

Policy Alternatives to Increase the Demand for Forest-Based Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

National, regional, and international actors can use a range of different policies to increase the demand for forest-based carbon sequestration. Demand for these services has the potential to significantly impact the decisions of landowners, land managers, and private investors by increasing the incentives for creation or maintenance of forest ecosystems. The Kyoto process is at the center of discussions regarding

Alexander Hovani; Mike Fotos

2007-01-01

369

Fertilization Increases Below-Ground Carbon Sequestration of Loblolly Pine Plantations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extent of fertilization of southern pine forests is increasing rapidly; industrial fertilization increased from 16,200 ha per year in 1988, to 344,250 ha in 1998. Fertilization increases stand productivity and can increase carbon (C) sequestration by:...

K. H. Johnsen J. R. Butnor C. Maier R. Pangle L. Samuelson J. Seiler S. E. McKeand H. L. Allen

2001-01-01

370

Tillage, Cropping Systems, and Nitrogen Fertilizer Source Eff ects on Soil Carbon Sequestration and Fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifi cation of soil carbon (C) cycling as infl uenced by management practices is needed for C sequestration and soil quality improvement. We evaluated the 10-yr eff ects of tillage, cropping system, and N source on crop residue and soil C fractions at 0- to 20-cm depth in Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Paleudults) in northern Alabama, USA.

Upendra M. Sainju; Zachary N. Senwo; Ermson Z. Nyakatawa; Irenus A. Tazisong; K. Chandra

371

Soil carbon sequestration and density distribution in a Vertosol under different farming practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural soils play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycling and can act as a significant C sink if managed properly. The long-term (33 years) effects of no till (NT) v. conventional till (CT), stubble retention (SR) v. stubble burning (SB), and N fertiliser application (NF) v. nil N fertilisation (N0) on soil organic C sequestration, and their

W. J. WangA; R. C. DalalA; P. W. MoodyA

372

Evolution of hydrogen sulfide in sour saline aquifers during carbon dioxide sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many deep saline aquifers suitable for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration contain measurable concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). These aquifers are described here as sour saline aquifers and the other ones as ordinary saline aquifers. Sour saline aquifers occur wherever even minor amounts of anhydrite or other sulfate sources are present in the formation. In this paper, compositional modeling of CO2

Seyyed M. Ghaderi; David W. Keith; Rob Lavoie; Yuri Leonenko

2011-01-01

373

Soil carbon sequestration and density distribution in a Vertosol under different farming practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Agricultural soils play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycling and can act as a significant C sink if managed properly. The long-term (33 years) effects of no till (NT) v. conventional till (CT), stubble retention (SR) v. stubble burning (SB), and N fertiliser application (NF) v. nil N fertilisation (N0) on soil organic C sequestration, and

W. J. Wang; R. C. Dalal; P. W. Moody

2004-01-01

374

Spatial heterogeneity, contract design, and the efficiency of carbon sequestration policies for agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop methods to investigate the efficiency of alternative contracts for Carbon (C) sequestration in cropland soils, taking into account the spatial heterogeneity of agricultural production systems and the costs of implementing more efficient contracts. We describe contracts being proposed for implementation in the United States and other countries that would pay farmers for adoption of specified

John Antle; Susan Capalbo; Siân Mooney; Edward Elliott; Keith Paustian

2003-01-01

375

The impact of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration in European forests and forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimate of net carbon (C) pool changes and long-term C sequestration in trees and soils was made at more than 100 intensively monitored forest plots (level II plots) and scaled up to Europe based on data for more than 6000 forested plots in a systematic 16 km x 16 km grid (level I plots). C pool changes in trees

WIM DE VRIES; GERT JAN REINDS; PER GUNDERSEN; HUBERT STERBA

2006-01-01

376

Using Saline Aquifers for Combined Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology was developed to test the feasibility of linking coal-fired power plants, deep saline aquifers for carbon sequestration, and produced water treatment technologies for use as cooling water. A case study examines the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) with the Morrison Formation Aquifer in the San Juan Basin in Northwest New Mexico. The framework was developed into a dynamic

Peter H. Kobos; Malynda A. Cappelle; Jim L. Krumhansl; Thomas Dewers; David J. Borns; Patrick V. Brady; Andrea McNemar

377

Evaluation of leakage potential from a carbon dioxide EOR\\/sequestration project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide sequestration in geologic media is being investigated as a means of reducing emissions to the atmosphere. Oil and gas fields, which were in production decline, have been raised to new production levels by CO2 enhanced recovery. Currently, these fields use nearby geologic sources of CO2. Future enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects are likely to include some industrial CO2,

Ronald W Klusman

2003-01-01

378

Relevance of Underground Natural Gas Storage to Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the experiences from storing natural gas in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and groundwater aquifers are relevant to geologic carbon dioxide sequestration in spite of the different physical and chemical properties of the two gases. The first successful natural gas storage project in depleted reservoirs was in Canada in 1915, and in the US in 1916. Until about

M. J. Lippmann

2001-01-01

379

Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of underground natural gas storage (UNGS), which started in the USA in 1916, provides useful insight into the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide--the dominant anthropogenic greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. In many ways, UNGS is directly relevant to geologic COâ storage because, like COâ, natural gas (essentially methane) is less dense than water. Consequently, it will tend

Marcelo J. Lippmann; Sally M. Benson

2002-01-01

380

Characterizing fault-plume intersection probability for geologic carbon sequestration risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leakage of CO out of the designated storage region via faults is a widely recognized concern for geologic carbon sequestration. The probability of such leakage can be separated into the probability of a plume encountering a fault and the probability of flow along such a fault. In the absence of deterministic fault location information, the first probability can be calculated

Preston D. Jordan; Curtis M. Oldenburg; Jean-Philippe Nicot

2008-01-01

381

Model Components of the Certification Framework for Geologic Carbon Sequestration Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a framework for assessing the leakage risk of geologic carbon sequestration sites. This framework, known as the Certification Framework (CF), emphasizes wells and faults as the primary potential leakage conduits. Vulnerable resources are grouped into compartments, and impacts due to leakage are quantified by the leakage flux or concentrations that could potentially occur in compartments under various

Curtis M. Oldenburg; Steven L. Bryant; Jean-Philippe Nicot; Navanit Kumar; Yingqi Zhang; Preston Jordan; Lehua Pan; Patrick Granvold; Fotini K. Chow

2009-01-01

382

Probability estimation of CO 2 leakage through faults at geologic carbon sequestration sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leakage of CO2 and brine along faults at geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites is a primary concern for storage integrity. The focus of this study is on the estimation of the probability of leakage along faults or fractures. This leakage probability is controlled by the probability of a connected network of conduits existing at a given site, the probability of

Yingqi Zhang; Curtis M. Oldenburg; Stefan Finsterle; Preston Jordan; Keni Zhang

2009-01-01

383

Probability Estimation of CO2 Leakage Through Faults at Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leakage of CO and brine along faults at geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites is a primary concern for storage integrity. The focus of this study is on the estimation of the probability of leakage along faults or fractures. This leakage probability is controlled by the probability of a connected network of conduits existing at a given site, the probability of

Yingqi Zhang; Curt Oldenburg; Stefan Finsterle; Preston Jordan; Keni Zhang

2008-01-01

384

A REGULATORY FRAMEWORK FOR CARBON CAPTURING AND SEQUESTRATION WITHIN THE POST-KYOTO PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The option of capturing CO2 at large power stations and storing it in geological formations allows for the use of fossil energy resources without further destabilization of the climate system. From an economic point of view, the efficiency of Carbon Capturing and Sequestration (CCS) depends mainly on leakage rates, marginal costs of CCS (including the energy penalty) and the volume

Ottmar Edenhofer; Hermann Held; Nico Bauer

385

Subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide — an overview from an Alberta (Canada) perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

To stabilize the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG), a huge reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is required. Although some people believe that this necessitates a considerable reduction in the use of fossil fuels or fuel switching, other options are available that allow the use of fossil fuels and reduce atmospheric emissions of CO2. Sequestration of CO2 from fossil

Thomas Gentzis

2000-01-01

386

Geological Carbon Sequestration: A New Approach for Near-Surface Assurance Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two distinct objectives in monitoring geological carbon sequestration (GCS): Deep monitoring of the reservoir's integrity and plume movement and near-surface monitoring (NSM) to ensure public health and the safety of the environment. However, the minimum detection limits of the current instrumentation for NSM is too high for detecting weak signals that are embedded in the background levels of

Wielopolski

2011-01-01

387

Assessment of the dynamics in nitrogen and carbon sequestration of European forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the major result of a research project that focused on the assessment of the dynamics in nitrogen and carbon sequestration of European forest soils by estimation of the: (i) retention or release of nitrogen species for selected Intensive Monitoring plots by comparing the input, based on measurements of throughfall and bulk deposition, with the soil output, obtained

Vries de W; Salm van der C; G. J. Reinds; N. B. Dise; P. Gundersen; J. W. Erisman; M. Posch

2003-01-01

388

Soil Properties and Carbon Sequestration of Afforested Pastures in Reclaimed Minesoils of Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use change affects many soil properties, including soil organic carbon (SOC) pool, and the transfer of atmospheric CO2 to terrestrial landscapes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of converting pastureland to Australian pine (Casuarina spp) and Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L) forest on selected soil physical and chemical properties and SOC sequestration in reclaimed minesoils (RMS)

D. A. N. Ussiri; R. Lal; P. A. Jacinthe

2006-01-01

389

Soil carbon sequestration and associated economic costs for farming systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plain: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic carbon sequestration rates over 20 years based on the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) methodology were combined with local economic data to determine the potential for soil C sequestration in wheat-based production systems on the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). The C sequestration potential of rice–wheat systems of India on conversion to no-tillage is estimated to be 44.1MtC over

Peter R. Grace; John Antle; P. K. Aggarwal; Stephen Ogle; Keith Paustian; Bruno Basso

390

RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During the reporting period (October-December 2004) we completed the validation of a forest productivity classification model for mined land. A coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) of 0.68 confirms the model's ability to predict SI based on a selection of mine soil properties. To determine carbon sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio (Figure 1), West Virginia (Figure 2), and Virginia (Figure 3). The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). For hybrid poplar, total plant biomass differences increased significantly with the intensity of silvicultural input. Root, stem, and foliage biomass also increased with the level of silvicultural intensity. Financial feasibility analyses of reforestation on mined lands previously reclaimed to grassland have been completed for conversion to white pine and mixed hardwood species. Examination of potential policy instruments for promoting financial feasibility also have been completed, including lump sum payments at time of conversion, annual payments through the life of the stand, and payments based on carbon sequestration that provide both minimal profitability and fully offset initial reforestation outlays. We have compiled a database containing mine permit information obtained from permitting agencies in Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky. Due to differences and irregularities in permitting procedures between states, we found it necessary to utilize an alternative method to determine mined land acreages in the Appalachian region. We have initiated a proof of concept study, focused in the State of Ohio, to determine the feasibility of using images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and/or Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) to accurately identify mined lands.

James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

2005-02-15

391

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past

Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

2002-01-01

392

Changes in organic carbon pools and C sequestration potential in abandoned Chernozems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use system in Russia has been significantly changed since 1990. More than quarter of croplands (about 34 M ha) including soils of southern regions (Chernozems. Kastanozems) was abandoned. The abandonment of cultivated lands and successive establishment of natural vegetation led to carbon (C) accumulation in soil, qualitative changes in organic C pools and microbial community. This study was aimed (1) to quantify the different C organic pools (total, labile, recalcitrant, and microbial) in the former arable Chernozems depending on the abandonment period and (2) to estimate C sequestration potential of soils after land use change from crops to natural vegetation. Our investigations were carried out on arable soil under winter wheat and soils abandoned 5, 11, 21 and 77 years ago after land use change from crops to permanent grassland (Haplic Chernozems, Rostov region, Russia, 47o27'N, 39o35'E). The total soil organic C (Ctotal, dichromate oxidation method), labile and recalcitrant C (after 7 week incubation at 20 oC and 60% of water holding capacity) were determined in the former plough-layer (0-20 cm). A first order two-component model was used for the analysis of cumulative CO2-C evolution, calculation of mineralization rate constants for labile and recalcitrant C-pools, and estimation of their mean residence time (MRT). Carbon immobilized in microbial biomass (Cmic) was estimated by fumigation-extraction method before and after 10 weeks of incubation without and following addition of glucose at rate of 730 ?g/g of soil. Carbon sequestration potential of soils (CSP, %) was calculated using the ratio between extra C-CO2 release induced by glucose addition and amount of C applied to soil. Our results showed that the establishment of perennial vegetation after land use change from arable Chernozems to permanent grassland resulted in the significant C-accumulation in soils. The SOC-content (0-20 cm layer) increased from 2.08±0.03 to 2.24±0.04% for the first 5 years of abandonment and reached 2.87±0.07% in the 77-yr grassland. The C-stock increased linear with the period of abandonment and changed from 4330 g C/m2 in arable Chernozems to 6650 g C/m2 after 77-yr of permanent grassland. The average C accumulation rate was maximal (280 g C/m2yr) during the first 5 years of abandonment and then soils sequestered C at a rate of 41 and 5 g C/m2•yr for the following 16 and 56 yr, respectively. The average C accumulation rate for entire 77-yr period amounted to 30 g C/m2•yr. Content of microbial C was the lowest in arable and the highest in the 77-yrs grassland as well. The share of Cmic in SOC was minimal in arable soil and 5-yr grassland (1.17-1.21%), and reached to 1.55% after 77 yr of abandonment. The abandonment of arable Chernozems resulted in increase of recalcitrant fraction in the soil organic C pool: 20.6 mg C/g in arable soil vs. 28.6 mg C/g in 77-yrs old abandoned land. The MRT of recalcitrant C in soils after 11-77 years of abandonment was 1.9-2.2 times higher than that in arable soil. The labile C was decreased from 0.25 mg C/g in arable soil to 0.12 mg C/g in soil after 77 years of abandonment. The total C-CO2 release during 10 weeks of incubation decreased from 1.01-1.12 mg C/g in arable soil and young grassland (5 yrs after abandonment) to 0.74-0.77 in old grasslands. Addition of glucose induced the extra C-CO2 release that amounted to 0.22-0.41 mg C/g of soil depending on land use. The extra C-release was maximal in arable soils. It was found that applying of glucose resulted in more significant increase of Cmic in arable soil and 5-yrs grassland in comparison with soils of forest belt, 21- and 77-yrs grasslands. Carbon sequestration potential varied from 44% in arable to 70% in the 77-yrs grassland. We conclude that land use change from crops to natural vegetation leads to organic C accumulation, increase of microbial C, and increase of C sequestration potential in soils. The C accumulation in soils is mainly caused by the sequestration of recalcitrant C pools. The conversion of arable Chernozems to per

Lopes de Gerenyu, V.; Kurganova, I.; Kuzyakov, Y.

2009-04-01

393

Carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery: Identifying candidate sites for pilot study  

SciTech Connect

Depleted natural gas reservoirs are promising targets for carbon dioxide sequestration. Although depleted, these reservoirs are not devoid of methane, and carbon dioxide injection may allow enhanced production of methane by reservoir repressurization or pressure maintenance. Based on the favorable results of numerous simulation studies, we propose a field test of the Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR) process. The objective of the field test is to evaluate the feasibility of CSEGR in terms of reservoir processes such as injectivity, repressurization, flow and transport of carbon dioxide, and enhanced production of methane. The main criteria for the field site include small reservoir volume and high permeability so that increases in pressure and enhanced recovery will occur over a reasonably short time period. The Rio Vista Gas Field in the delta of California's Central Valley offers potential as a test site, although we are currently looking broadly for other potential sites of opportunity.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Benson, S.M.

2001-03-01

394

Net Carbon Sequestration in Agriculture: A National Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agricultural ecosystems have the potential to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and partially mitigate global climatic change. A full carbon cycle analysis of predominant cropping systems is being conducted to determine potential net carbon seq...

T. O. West

2001-01-01

395

Genome-Enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes in Poplar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plants utilize carbon by partitioning the reduced carbon obtained through photosynthesis into different compartments and into different chemistries within a cell and subsequently allocating such carbon to sink tissues throughout the plant. Since the phyto...

J. M. Davis

2007-01-01

396

A Hydro-mechanical Model and Analytical Solutions for Geomechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

We present a hydro-mechanical model for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow in greater detail. The simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. Two parts were coupled using the standard linear poroelasticity. Analytical solutions for pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario. The model predicts the temporal and spatial variation of pressure field and effects of permeability and elastic modulus of formation on the fluid pressure distribution.

Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain HR

2012-05-15

397

Potential for Soil Carbon Sequestration in Cotton Production Systems of the Southeastern USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past agricultural management practices have contributed to the loss of soil organic carbon (C) and emission of greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O)). Fortunately however, conservation-oriented agricultural management systems can be, and have been, developed to sequester soil organic C, improve soil quality, and increase crop productivity. Soil organic C sequestration is intimately associated with agronomic

Hector J. Causarano; Alan J. Franzluebbers; D. Wayne Reeves; Joey N. Shaw; M. Lee Norfleet

398

Agricultural and Ecological Significance of Soil Enzymes: Soil Carbon Sequestration and Nutrient Cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agricultural and ecological significance of soil enzymes have been progressively expanded since the first report on soil enzymes\\u000a about a century ago. In terms of soil carbon and nutrient sequestration and nutrient cycling, several classes of oxidative\\u000a and hydrolytic enzymes have been acknowledged as indicators or predictors of organic carbon decomposition and nutrient mineralization.\\u000a This chapter highlights the current knowledge

Wei Shi

399

Organic Matter Transformation Catalysed by Clays: Model Reactions for Carbon Sequestration in Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilisation of carbon in humic substances, by a variety of coupling reactions, is an important route to carbon sequestration, and is linked to soil enzymes and abiotic components of soils, such as clay minerals. Oxidative coupling reactions of model compounds: vanillin, 2-naphthol, anthrone, 2,6-dimethylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol and 2-hydroxy-6-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (chosen to represent phenolic fragments of soil organic matter) mediated by abiotic

Katrina J. Booth; Antonio F. Patti; Janet L. Scott; Philip J. Wallis

400

Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

SciTech Connect

Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

Oldenburg, Curtis M. (LBNL Earth Sciences Division)

2009-07-21

401

Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review  

SciTech Connect

Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ?fG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than approximately one-third of these compounds. Because the temperatures of host formations that will be used for CO2 injection and sequestration will be at tempera¬tures in the range of 50ºC to 100ºC or greater, the lack of high temperature thermodynamic values for key carbonate compounds especially minerals, will impact the accuracy of some modeling calculations.

Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McGrail, B. Peter

2010-09-28

402

Amazon River enhances diazotrophy and carbon sequestration in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean.  

PubMed

The fresh water discharged by large rivers such as the Amazon is transported hundreds to thousands of kilometers away from the coast by surface plumes. The nutrients delivered by these river plumes contribute to enhanced primary production in the ocean, and the sinking flux of this new production results in carbon sequestration. Here, we report that the Amazon River plume supports N(2) fixation far from the mouth and provides important pathways for sequestration of atmospheric CO(2) in the western tropical North Atlantic (WTNA). We calculate that the sinking of carbon fixed by diazotrophs in the plume sequesters 1.7 Tmol of C annually, in addition to the sequestration of 0.6 Tmol of C yr(-1) of the new production supported by NO(3) delivered by the river. These processes revise our current understanding that the tropical North Atlantic is a source of 2.5 Tmol of C to the atmosphere [Mikaloff-Fletcher SE, et al. (2007) Inverse estimates of the oceanic sources and sinks of natural CO(2) and the implied oceanic carbon transport. Global Biogeochem Cycles 21, doi:10.1029/2006GB002751]. The enhancement of N(2) fixation and consequent C sequestration by tropical rivers appears to be a global phenomenon that is likely to be influenced by anthropogenic activity and climate change. PMID:18647838

Subramaniam, A; Yager, P L; Carpenter, E J; Mahaffey, C; Björkman, K; Cooley, S; Kustka, A B; Montoya, J P; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S A; Shipe, R; Capone, D G

2008-07-22

403

GEO-SEQ Best Practices Manual. Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Site Evaluation to Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The first phase of the GEO-SEQ project was a multidisciplinary effort focused on investigating ways to lower the cost and risk of geologic carbon sequestration. Through our research in the GEO-SEQ project, we have produced results that may be of interest to the wider geologic carbon sequestration community. However, much of the knowledge developed in GEO-SEQ is not easily accessible because it is dispersed in the peer-reviewed literature and conference proceedings in individual papers on specific topics. The purpose of this report is to present key GEO-SEQ findings relevant to the practical implementation of geologic carbon sequestration in the form of a Best Practices Manual. Because our work in GEO-SEQ focused on the characterization and project development aspects, the scope of this report covers practices prior to injection, referred to as the design phase. The design phase encompasses activities such as selecting sites for which enhanced recovery may be possible, evaluating CO{sub 2} capacity and sequestration feasibility, and designing and evaluating monitoring approaches. Through this Best Practices Manual, we have endeavored to place our GEO-SEQ findings in a practical context and format that will be useful to readers interested in project implementation. The overall objective of this Manual is to facilitate putting the findings of the GEO-SEQ project into practice.

Benson, Sally M.; Myer, Larry R.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Doughty, Christine A.; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Hoversten, Mike; Gasperikova, Erica; Daley, Thomas; Majer, Ernie; Lippmann, Marcelo; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Knauss, Kevin; Johnson, James; Foxall, William; Ramirez, Abe; Newmark, Robin; Cole, David; Phelps, Tommy J.; Parker, J.; Palumbo, A.; Horita, J.; Fisher, S.; Moline, Gerry; Orr, Lynn; Kovscek, Tony; Jessen, K.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, J.; Cakici, M.; Hovorka, Susan; Holtz, Mark; Sakurai, Shinichi; Gunter, Bill; Law, David; van der Meer, Bert

2004-10-23

404

Carbon Sequestration: is Science Leading Policy or Will Policy Direct Science?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate-related policy is in its infancy on capital hill, as policy makers only recently started to converge on the acceptance that climate change is a credible, scientific reality. Until recently much of the debate and policy decisions have been related to whether or not climate change, or more specifically global warming, is occurring. The climate debate has shifted from discussing the science behind climate change to addressing how we can reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In the 110th Congress, policy makers have come to realize and accept that we, as a nation, are one of the largest global emitters of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Geologic carbon sequestration has gained significant congressional attention and is considered to be one of the most promising carbon mitigation tools. In the present Congress, scientific experts have testified before numerous committees about the various caveats of geologic carbon sequestration. As a result, policy has been and is currently being drafted to address the challenges facing large-scale commercial demonstration of geologic sequestration facilities. Policy has been passed through both the House and Senate that is aimed at increasing funding for basic and advanced research, development, and demonstration of small- to large-scale carbon dioxide injection projects. This legislation is only the beginning of a series of legislation that is under development. In the next year, policy will be introduced that will likely address issues related to pore space and mineral rights ownership, regulatory framework for carbon dioxide transport and injection, long-term injection site monitoring protocol, personal and environmental safety, and liability issues, to name a few. Policy is not limited to the technical aspects of carbon capture, transport, and storage, but is also being developed to help stimulate a market that will be operating under climate constraints. Financial incentives have been proposed that will assist industrial carbon dioxide emitters in making the transition into a carbon-constrained economy. Science has driven the initial policy that has been proposed to date; however, the topic of carbon sequestration has been advanced through Congress at a near record-breaking pace. As such, there is an increased need to hear from scientists in academia and industry alike to continue to make good policy decisions related to carbon sequestration based on sound scientific advice.

Anderson, A. K.

2007-12-01

405

Material Resource Considerations for Ex Situ Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The conclusions of this report are: (1) There are enough ultramafic resources to sequester all the CO{sub 2} produced by coal-fired powerplants in the US; (2) Sequestering all the CO{sub 2} would require a significant increase in the mining of ultramafic minerals; (3) The increased mining will have an environmental cost; (4) Some man made by product minerals could contribute to CO{sub 2} sequestration although many of these resources are small; and (5) It may be possible in some cases to sequester CO{sub 2} and eliminate hazardous waste in the same ex situ process.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O'Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.; Rush, Gilbert E.

2005-05-01

406

Carbon sequestration via utilization: Atom-economical catalytic routes to hydrogenation of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Though still controversial, global warming from increasing atmospheric trace gases is now generally accepted. The role of CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas resulting from natural phenomenon and burning of fossil fuels, is particularly important. Several options to sequester CO{sub 2} are described in a technology roadmap that was recently released by the US Department of Energy. These options can be divided into two broad categories. These are: (1) CO{sub 2} burial and (2) CO{sub 2} utilization. The CO{sub 2} burial category includes sequestration in oceans, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, abandoned coal mines, and deep geological formations. Of these, recovery of stranded CH{sub 4} (by displacement with injected CO{sub 2}) from coal mines has the benefit of offsetting some of the overall cost of carbon sequestration. The second category involves utilization of CO{sub 2} as a feedstock for making end use products. This remediation option is attractive for its potential commercial value. One such approach involves recycling carbon in CO{sub 2} by converting it into H{sub 2}-rich synthetic fuels. Various aspects of catalytic hydrogenation of CO{sub 2} by metal complexes have been studied by various groups and are a subject of several recent reviews. Both thermal and photochemical activation of CO{sub 2} by metal complexes is addressed in these reviews. With metal catalysts in heterogeneous mode, a significant amount of work has been carried out with variations of Fe catalysts for synthesis of hydrocarbons via the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) route, modified Cu-ZnO catalysts for methanol synthesis or further conversion of methanol to gasoline (MTG). These energy intensive transformations utilize heterogeneous catalysts that operate between 250 C to 400 C although co-production of water makes the overall reactions exothermic.

Mahajan, D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Bose, A.C.

1999-07-01

407

Geographical variations in the effectiveness and side effects of deep ocean carbon sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capture and injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the deep ocean could provide a relatively long-term mitigation of climate change, but would come at the expense of enhancing acidification at the seafloor. We employ an Earth system model to survey the regional differences in the effectiveness and side effects of CO2 injection. Sequestration efficiency, as calculated relative to the ‘natural’ invasion from the atmosphere that would occur in the absence of mitigation, is highest for injection in the deep NW Pacific, but can be negative for shallow sites. For higher climate sensitivities and greater total emissions, sequestration efficiency is enhanced, decreasing the relative cost and increasing its potential value as a form of mitigation. However, CO2 injection increases the total area of seafloor bathed in under-saturated waters, with Atlantic sites inducing particularly large increases in seafloor undersaturation as well as having less favorable sequestration efficiency.

Ridgwell, Andy; Rodengen, Thomas J.; Kohfeld, Karen E.

2011-09-01

408

Proposed roadmap for overcoming legal and financial obstacles to carbon capture and sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Many existing proposals either lack sufficient concreteness to make carbon capture and geological sequestration (CCGS) operational or fail to focus on a comprehensive, long term framework for its regulation, thus failing to account adequately for the urgency of the issue, the need to develop immediate experience with large scale demonstration projects, or the financial and other incentives required to launch early demonstration projects. We aim to help fill this void by proposing a roadmap to commercial deployment of CCGS in the United States.This roadmap focuses on the legal and financial incentives necessary for rapid demonstration of geological sequestration in the absence of national restrictions on CO2 emissions. It weaves together existing federal programs and financing opportunities into a set of recommendations for achieving commercial viability of geological sequestration.

Jacobs, Wendy (Harvard Environmental Law and Policy, Cambridge, MA (US)); Chohen, Leah; Kostakidis-Lianos, Leah; Rundell, Sara (Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA (US))

2009-03-01

409

ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

COâ emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of COâ. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject COâ into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than

Brandon C. Nuttall

2003-01-01