Science.gov

Sample records for biomass energy state

  1. A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-08-20

    This survey reviews efforts by CESA member clean energy funds to promote the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. For each fund, details are provided regarding biomass eligibility for support, specific programs offering support to biomass projects, and examples of supported biomass projects (if available). For the purposes of this survey, biomass is defined to include bio-product gasification, combustion, co-firing, biofuel production, and the combustion of landfill gas, though not all of the programs reviewed here take so wide a definition. Programs offered by non-CESA member funds fall outside the scope of this survey. To date, three funds--the California Energy Commission, Wisconsin Focus on Energy, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority--have offered programs targeted specifically at the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. We begin by reviewing efforts in these three funds, and then proceed to cover programs in other funds that have provided support to biomass projects when the opportunity has arisen, but otherwise do not differentially target biomass relative to other renewable technologies.

  2. 1994 Washington State directory of Biomass Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    This is the fourth edition of the Washington Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities, the first edition was published in 1987. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of and basic information about known biomass producers and users within the state to help demonstrate the importance of biomass energy in fueling our state`s energy needs. In 1992 (latest statistical year), estimates show that the industrial sector in Washington consumed nearly 128 trillion Btu of electricity, nearly 49.5 trillion Btu of petroleum, over 82.2 trillion Btu of natural gas, and over 4.2 trillion Btu of coal. Facilities listed in this directory generated approximately 114 trillion Btu of biomass energy - 93 trillion were consumed from waste wood and spent chemicals. In the total industrial energy picture, wood residues and chemical cooking liquors placed second only to electricity. This directory is divided into four main sections biogas production, biomass combustion, ethanol production, and solid fuel processing facilities. Each section contains maps and tables summarizing the information for each type of biomass. Provided in the back of the directory for reference are a conversion table, a table of abbreviations, a glossary, and an index. Chapter 1 deals with biogas production from both landfills and sewage treatment plants in the state. Biogas produced from garbage and sewage can be scrubbed and used to generate electricity. At the present time, biogas collected at landfills is being flared on-site, however four landfills are investigating the feasibility of gas recovery for energy. Landfill biogas accounted for approximately 6 percent of the total biomass reported. Sewage treatment biogas accounted for 0.6 percent. Biogas generated from sewage treatment plants is primarily used for space and process heat, only one facility presently scrubs and sells methane. Together, landfill and sewage treatment plant biogas represented over 6.6 percent of the total biomass reported.

  3. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-12-31

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington`s industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state`s total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state`s energy needs.

  4. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington's industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state's total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state's energy needs.

  5. Biomass energy

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1983-01-01

    This book offers a broad, interdisciplinary approach to assessing the factors that are key determinants to the use of biomass energies, stressing their limitations, complexities, uncertainties, links, and consequences. Considers photosynthesis, energy costs of nutrients, problems with monoculture, and the energy analysis of intensive tree plantations. Subjects are examined in terms of environmental and economic impact. Emphasizes the use and abuse of biomass energies in China, India, and Brazil. Topics include forests, trees for energy, crop residues, fuel crops, aquatic plants, and animal and human wastes. Recommended for environmental engineers and planners, and those involved in ecology, systematics, and forestry.

  6. Some employment and earnings implications of regional biomass energy utilization: New England and the Cornbelt States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, W.; Bell, S. E.; Blair, L. M.; Gove, R. M.; Little, J. R.

    1981-08-01

    Because of their abundant forest and agricultural biomass resources, New England and the Cornbelt are likely to grow considerably in the development of biomass energy systems during the next decade or two. Forty thousand or more permanent jobs might be created in New England's wood energy industry by the end of the century. If alcohol-fuel use continues to grow, even greater potential for employment in biomass energy exists in the Cornbelt states. The associated earnings would be quite substantial for both regions. The direct combustion of wood and activities related to alcohol-fuel production are expected to be the major contributors to biomass energy production, employment, and earnings; but other biomass systems show potential as well. Energy extraction from municipal waste, anaerobic digestion of animal manure, and other biomass conversion systems will all generate employment as they grow in use.

  7. Biomass Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Traylor, T.D.; Pitsenbarger, J.

    1996-03-01

    Biomass Energy Research announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development (R&D) information available on biomass power systems, alternate feedstocks from biomass, and biofuels supply options.

  8. Washington State biomass data book

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  9. Energy from Biomass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carioca, J. O. B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how biomass in the form of fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung can be converted into fuels such as biogas and ethanol to replace or supplement fossil fuels. Argues for future decentralized, integrated biomass energy development. (TW)

  10. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-02-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  11. Biomass energy: State of the technology present obstacles and future potential

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, L.

    1993-06-23

    The prevailing image of wood and waste burning as dirty and environmentally harmful is no longer valid. The use of biomass combustion for energy can solve many of our nation`s problems. Wood and other biomass residues that are now causing expensive disposal problems can be burned as cleanly and efficiently as natural gas, and at a fraction of the cost. New breakthroughs in integrated waste-to-energy systems, from fuel handling, combustion technology and control systems to heat transfer and power generation, have dramatically improved system costs, efficiencies, cleanliness of emissions, maintenance-free operation, and end-use applications. Increasing costs for fossil fuels and for waste disposal strict environmental regulations and changing political priorities have changed the economics and rules of the energy game. This report will describe the new rules, new playing fields and key players, in the hope that those who make our nation`s energy policy and those who play in the energy field will take biomass seriously and promote its use.

  12. Switchgrass for biomass energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a native warm-season grass and is the model herbaceous perennial biomass energy feedstock for the USA. More than 75-years of experience confirm that switchgrass will be productive and sustainable on rain-fed marginally-productive cropland east of the 100th meridian....

  13. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  14. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the U.S. economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  15. Assessing Public Preferences for Forest Biomass Based Energy in the Southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaeta, Andres; Alavalapati, Janaki; Lal, Pankaj; Matta, Jagannadha R.; Mercer, Evan

    2010-04-01

    This article investigated public preferences for forest biomass based liquid biofuels, particularly ethanol blends of 10% ( E10) and 85% ( E85). We conducted a choice experiment study in three southern states in the United States: Arkansas, Florida, and Virginia. Reducing atmospheric CO2, decreasing risk of wildfires and pest outbreaks, and enhancing biodiversity were presented to respondents as attributes of using biofuels. Results indicated that individuals had a positive extra willingness to pay (WTP) for both ethanol blends. The extra WTP was greater for higher blends that offered larger environment benefits. The WTPs for E10 were 0.56 gallon-1, 0.58 gallon-1, and 0.48 gallon-1, and for E85 they were 0.82 gallon-1, 1.17 gallon-1, and 1.06 gallon-1 in Arkansas, Florida, and Virginia, respectively. Although differences in WTP for E10 were statistically insignificant among the three states, significant differences were found in the WTP for E85 between AR and FL and between AR and VA. Preferences for the environmental attributes appeared to be heterogeneous, as respondents’ were willing to pay a premium for E10 in all three states to facilitate the reduction of CO2 and the improvement of biodiversity but were not willing to pay more for E85 in order to enhance biodiversity.

  16. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of waste

  17. Individual biomass facility reports. Supplement to some employment and earnings implications of regional biomass energy utilization: New England and the Cornbelt States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, J. R.; Bell, S. E.; Blair, L. M.; Gove, R. M.; Stevenson, W.; Tamura, R. F.

    1981-08-01

    Research was conducted to determine the direct employment and earnings implications of regional biomass energy utilization. Details of the primary data collected during the course of the investigation are provided. A case studies approach was used to observe and analyze various biomass energy systems. Visits were made to existing biomass facilities and data on their operation and employment requirements were collected. Information on planned or potential future facilities was also obtained. When this information was analyzed, a fairly accurate picture of the current situation as well as the rate and direction of future development in biomass was attained. Separate descriptions are included for each facility visited or for each interview obtained. The facility reports are organized according to fuel cycle (wood-fuel, alcohol-fuel, municipal solid waste facilities, others).

  18. United States biomass energy: An assessment of costs and infrastructure for alternative uses of biomass energy crops as an energy feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, William Russell, III

    Reduction of the negative environmental and human health externalities resulting from both the electricity and transportation sectors can be achieved through technologies such as clean coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic technologies for electricity; reformulated gasoline and other fossil fuels, hydrogen, and electrical options for transportation. Negative externalities can also be reduced through demand reductions and efficiency improvements in both sectors. However, most of these options come with cost increases for two primary reasons: (1) most environmental and human health consequences have historically been excluded from energy prices; (2) fossil energy markets have been optimizing costs for over 100 years and thus have achieved dramatic cost savings over time. Comparing the benefits and costs of alternatives requires understanding of the tradeoffs associated with competing technology and lifestyle choices. As bioenergy is proposed as a large-scale feedstock within the United States, a question of "best use" of bioenergy becomes important. Bioenergy advocates propose its use as an alternative energy resource for electricity generation and transportation fuel production, primarily focusing on ethanol. These advocates argue that bioenergy offers environmental and economic benefits over current fossil energy use in each of these two sectors as well as in the U.S. agriculture sector. Unfortunately, bioenergy research has offered very few comparisons of these two alternative uses. This thesis helps fill this gap. This thesis compares the economics of bioenergy utilization by a method for estimating total financial costs for each proposed bioenergy use. Locations for potential feedstocks and bio-processing facilities (co-firing switchgrass and coal in existing coal fired power plants and new ethanol refineries) are estimated and linear programs are developed to estimate large-scale transportation infrastructure costs for each sector

  19. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. , Portland, OR )

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  20. Selection of high producing shrubs of the Western United States for energy biomass. Final report, April 1, 1978-October 31, 1981. [Saltbush, sagebrush, rabbitbrush, and greasewood

    SciTech Connect

    McKell, C.M.; Van Epps, G.A.; Barker, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    This project investigated the selection and preliminary study of the most productive native shrubs that are commonly found growing on millions of acres of arid and semiarid lands of the Western United States for their potential use as energy fuel from biomass. Many uncertainties exist in producing biomass for energy fuels. However, arid land shrub biomass production offers several advantages that may be more favorable than other biomass types. Shrubs could utilize available marginal croplands and rangelands; there would be little or no competition for scarce water resources, and within the wide diversity of native shrubs, a number of species have a potential for relatively large biomass production. Species chosen for study were fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), big saltbush (A. lentiformis), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), spreading rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus linifolis), rubber rabbitbrush (C. nauseosus), and greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus). The study was divided into three phases. Phase one dealt with the selection, measurement, and burning quality of large growing shrubs in native populations. The main objective of phase two was to measure the biomass production of the selected large growing shrubs at a dryland field research station for three years. In addition the influence of planting space was ascertained. In phase three the genetic differences of large and small sagebrush (A. tridentata) were evaluated. 15 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Biomass energies: resources, links, constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: radiation and photosynthesis; primary production and biomass; resources; wood for energy; silviculture; requirements and effects; crop residues; residues for energy conversion; sugar crops and grain; cassava; fuel crops; aquatic plants; freshwater plants; ocean algae; animal wastes; Chinese biogas generation; and ecodisasters.

  2. Investigation of Biomass Combustion Rate of Fire Radiative Energy Using Multiple-Satellite-observed Active Fires and Landsat TM Burn Severities across the Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Zhang, X.; Kondragunta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of atmospheric aerosol and greenhouse gases that substantially influence climate and regional air quality. However, the accuracy of biomass burning emissions estimated using traditional method is limited by large uncertainties in burned area and fuel loading. Alternatively, fire radiative energy (FRE) has recently been demonstrated to be linearly related to biomass combustion, which potentially improves the estimation of biomass burning emissions. The FRE-based combustion rate is 0.368-0.453 kg/MJ according to field controlled experiments while it varies from 1.37-4.5 kg/MJ derived from satellite-based bottom-up and top-down aerosol optical thickness estimates. Here we investigate the FRE combustion rate in over 1000 burn scars from 2011 to 2012 across the Continental United States (CONUS). Specifically, FRE was calculated by combining the high spatial observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the high temporal observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Biomass consumption in burn scars was modeled using Landsat TM 30m burn severities, 30m fuel loading from Fuel Characteristic Classification System, and combustion completeness compiled from recent literatures. The combustion rate was then investigated by correlating FRE to biomass consumption across CONUS and Bailey's ecoregions. Our results show that the combustion rate can be extracted from the linear relationship between biomass consumption and FRE. The combustion rate is 0.415±10% kg/MJ across CONUS, which is similar to the rate derived from field experiments. However, it varies from 0.18-1.9 kg/MJ among ecoregions. This implies that a single combustion rate could produce large uncertainty in the estimation of biomass consumption at large scales. We suggest that ecoregion specified combustion rates should help to improve the accuracy of quantifying biomass burning emissions regionally and globally.

  3. Biomass utilization at Northern States Power Company

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    Northern States Power Company ({open_quotes}NSP{close_quotes}) generates, transmits and distributes electricity and distributes natural gas to customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Michigan. An important and growing component of the fuel needed to generate steam for electrical production is biomass. This paper describes NSP`s historical use of biomass, current biomass resources and an overview of how NSP plans to expand its use of biomass in the future.

  4. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofer, S. S.; Zaborsky, O. R.

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  5. Energy production from biomass (Part 1): Overview of biomass.

    PubMed

    McKendry, Peter

    2002-05-01

    The use of renewable energy sources is becoming increasingly necessary, if we are to achieve the changes required to address the impacts of global warming. Biomass is the most common form of renewable energy, widely used in the third world but until recently, less so in the Western world. Latterly much attention has been focused on identifying suitable biomass species, which can provide high-energy outputs, to replace conventional fossil fuel energy sources. The type of biomass required is largely determined by the energy conversion process and the form in which the energy is required. In the first of three papers, the background to biomass production (in a European climate) and plant properties is examined. In the second paper, energy conversion technologies are reviewed, with emphasis on the production of a gaseous fuel to supplement the gas derived from the landfilling of organic wastes (landfill gas) and used in gas engines to generate electricity. The potential of a restored landfill site to act as a biomass source, providing fuel to supplement landfill gas-fuelled power stations, is examined, together with a comparison of the economics of power production from purpose-grown biomass versus waste-biomass. The third paper considers particular gasification technologies and their potential for biomass gasification. PMID:12058829

  6. Bavarian program for using renewable energies (biomass-network)

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, T.

    1995-11-01

    In Bavaria biomass is the most important regenerated resource of energy besides water. For the energetic utilization of biomass the following groups of products should be developed: biogenic fuels (biodiesel, nature diesel), biogas and warmth, steam and electricity based on biomass in small heating plants, heating plants, heating and electricity plants and in combustions of biomass in connection with coal. In a long term the future percentage of biomass used as a resource of energy could be 12%. But in a first step only 5% of the primary energy requirement should be sufficiently supplied with biomass. Biomass as a combustible has a special importance in Bavaria. Therefore residues of forest work, of the utilization of wood, of landscape conservation works, and of the agriculture, such as straw and energy crops are used. For the reason of rationalization within the utilization of biomass a self propelling biotruck, that condenses biomass, was developed. In the next years the state funds of the utilization of biomass as a resource of energy are about 50 Mio DM, available from the Bavarian free state, the Federal Republic of Germany and the EU. These funds are especially assigned for technological furtherances. The funds are directed by CARMEN, an institution founded by the economy and the Bavarian free state for all matters concerning renewable resources. The production and utilization of renewable resources in Bavaria give new tasks to agricultural areas and create new jobs. Moreover many positive effects for the environment and the economic welfare are given.

  7. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-07-01

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembles an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1 During this Performance Period work efforts focused on conducting tests of biomass feedstock samples on the 2 inch mini-bench gasifier. The gasification tests were completed. The GTI U-GAS model was used to check some of the early test results against the model predictions. Additional modeling will be completed to further verify the model predictions and actual results.

  8. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Francis S. Lau

    2003-09-01

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Natural gas and waste coal fines were evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. A design was developed for a cofiring combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures in a power generation boiler, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. Following the preliminary design, GTI evaluated the gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembled an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test were used to confirm the process design completed in Phase Task 1. As a result of the testing and modeling effort, the selected biomass feedstocks gasified very well, with a carbon conversion of over 98% and individual gas component yields that matched the RENUGAS{reg_sign} model. As a result of this work, the facility appears very attractive from a commercial standpoint. Similar facilities can be profitable if they have access to low cost fuels and have attractive wholesale or retail electrical rates for electricity sales. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. Phase II has not been approved for construction at this time.

  9. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-12-31

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembles an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on conducting tests of biomass feedstock samples on the 2 inch mini-bench gasifier.

  10. Energy from biomass and wastes: 1982 update

    SciTech Connect

    Klass, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Although federal support of research to develop energy from biomass and wastes continued to decrease in 1982, other sources of funding are taking up some of the slack. The contribution of energy from biomass and wastes to US primary energy consumption has increased to about 2.7 quads or 3.5% of total consumption and is projected to grow to about 3.5 quads by 1985. A reassessment of future climatic changes because of the greenhouse effect has not found any new results that require revision of the first assessment conducted in 1979. It is therefore apropos to begin to incorporate methodologies into world energy and biomass management that take this effect into account before any adverse changes begin to occur. Extensive research programs have continued on biomass production for energy applications and on the gasification and liquefaction of biomass and wastes for fuels, energy, and chemicals. Commercialization of this technology appears to be increasing at a higher rate, particularly for combustion of wood, wood wastes, and municipal solid wastes for heat, steam, and electric production; anaerobic digestion of industrial wastes for combined waste disposal and methane production; and use of fermentation ethanol as a motor fuel. Ethanol-fuel usage more than doubled in 1982 in the United States as compared to 1981, and plant capacity is expanding rapidly. Methanol has not yet begun to compete with ethanol because of federal limitations on the concentration of methanol in blends with gasoline. Relaxation of these requirements and passage of tax-forgiveness laws for methanol now enjoyed by ethanol could provide the incentives to make methanol the dominant fuel for vehicles in the long term.

  11. Biomass energy systems information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on biomass energy systems are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. This report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Results from 12 biomass groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Nonfederally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Representatives of Manufacturers (2 groups), Representatives of State Forestry Offices, Private Foresters, Forest Products Engineers, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and System Managers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  12. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-03-31

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembles an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1 During this Performance Period work efforts focused on conducting tests of biomass feedstock samples on the 2 inch mini-bench gasifier. GTI determined that the mini-bench feed system could not handle ''raw'' biomass samples. These clogged the fuel feed screw. GTI determined that palletized samples would operate well in the mini-bench unit. Two sources of this material were identified that had

  13. Biomass Estimates for Five Western States.

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, James O.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the woody biomass resource within US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Biomass Program, comprised of southeast Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. In addition to the regional forest biomass assessment, information will be presented for logging residue, which represents current energy conversion opportunities. The information presented in the report is based on data and relationships already published. Regionally applicable biomass equations are generally not available for species occurring in the west. Because of this, a number of assumptions were made to develop whole-tree biomass tables. These assumptions are required to link algorithms from biomass studies to regional timber inventory data published by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Research Units (FIA), of the Pacific Northwest and Intermountain Research Stations, US Forest Service. These sources and assumptions will be identified later in this report. Tabular biomass data will be presented for 11 resource areas, identified in the FS inventory publications. This report does not include information for the vast area encompassing interior Alaska. Total tress biomass as defined in the report refers to the above ground weight of a tree above a 1.0 foot stump, and exclusive of foliage. A glossary is included that defines specific terms as used in the report. Inventory terminology is derived from forest inventory reports from Forest Inventory and Analysis units at the Intermountain and Pacific Northwest Research Stations. 39 refs., 15 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Switchgrass for Biomass Energy: Status and Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass has been identified as a perennial biomass energy crop because it can produce high biomass yields on marginal land that is not suitable for grain crop production and provides many conservation benefits. The cellulose and hemi-cellulose of the biomass from switchgrass cell walls can be b...

  15. Controversy over Biomass Plant at Florida State Heats up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that Florida State University officials are gearing up for what could be another bruising battle this month over a proposed biomass plant that could bring the campus cleaner, cheaper energy and monetary support for alternative-energy research. Or, it could bring noise and pollution to a nearby neighborhood, according to…

  16. Biomass energy systems and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, H. M.; Kanciruk, P.; Roop, R. D.; Sharples, F. E.; Tatum, J. S.; Oakes, K. M.

    The technology, resources, applied, and experimental features of biomass energy resources are explored, with an emphasis on environmental and social implications of large-scale biomass development. The existing land and water based biomass resource is described in terms of available energy, ecological concerns, agricultural crops, livestock production, freshwater systems, and ocean systems. Attention is given to proposed systems of biomass energy production from forestry and silviculture, agricultural crops, livestock wastes, and freshwater and ocean systems. A survey is made of various biomass materials, techniques for conversion to gas, liquid fuels, or for direct combustion, and impacts of large-scale biomass production and harvest are examined. Particular note is made of the effects of scaling biomass conversion systems, including near- and long-term applications, and ethics and aesthetic concerns.

  17. Biomass energy conversion in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschard, R. L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1981-06-01

    Materials and processes for producing liquid fuels from biomass are discussed. Direct combustion of biomass is discussed. The use of sugar industry products, tree crops, municipal solid wastes, and other biomass resources is discussed, as well as the environmental impacts of direct combustion systems.

  18. Biomass Energy Data Book, 2011, Edition 4

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wright, L.; Boundy, B.; Diegel, S. W.; Davis, S. C.

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability.

  19. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 4

    SciTech Connect

    Boundy, Robert Gary; Diegel, Susan W; Wright, Lynn L; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2011-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also two appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  20. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Lynn L; Boundy, Robert Gary; Badger, Philip C; Perlack, Robert D; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2009-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the second edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, assumptions for selected tables and figures, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  1. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 3

    SciTech Connect

    Boundy, Robert Gary; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2010-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the third edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  2. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Lynn L; Boundy, Robert Gary; Perlack, Robert D; Davis, Stacy Cagle; Saulsbury, Bo

    2006-09-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of the Biomass Program and the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis in the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and is currently only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and BioOil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is about the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include measures of conversions, biomass characteristics and assumptions for selected tables and figures. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  3. Alternative biomass sources for thermal energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steensen, Torge; Müller, Sönke; Dresen, Boris; Büscher, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    of Bottrop-Kirchhellen in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. This region consists of nature reserves, forests, farmland and a few villages. To present a qualitative comparison between simulated and true biomass volume, we conducted field work by mapping the spatial extent of the desired biomass occurrences in the area. First results indicate a qualitative match of about 75%. Our research highlights the small-scale biomass features that have not been incorporated in previous biomass estimates. With the regular trimming and the accompanied raw material that becomes available, a new sector of thermal energy generation can be outlined. An automated quantification using satellite and GIS data will allow a regular monitoring of the vegetation growth and an assessment of the transport routes and costs as well as the location of the prospective power plants. In the endeavour of creating a sustainable energy supply, these biomass units should not be neglected, especially since the usage of the traditional units is limited due to competing interests in food production and nature conservation.

  4. Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

  5. Energy biomass characteristics of chosen plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyszlak-Bargłowicz, J.; Zając, G.; Piekarski, W.

    2012-04-01

    The chosen energy plants species: willow, mallow and Miscanthus are presented. Result of analysis of combustion heat and heating value of these species biomass indicate on possibility of their utilization as fuel for combustion and energy and heat production.

  6. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr.

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  7. Biomass: An Alternative Source of Energy for Eighth or Ninth Grade Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Lillie; Murff, Marye

    This teaching unit develops the possibility of using biomass as an alternative source of energy. The concept of biomass is explained and the processes associated with its conversion to energy are stated. Suggestions for development of biomass technology in different geographic areas are indicated. Lessons for 6 days are presented for use with…

  8. Biomass energy systems program summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Research programs in biomass which were funded by the US DOE during fiscal year 1978 are listed in this program summary. The conversion technologies and their applications have been grouped into program elements according to the time frame in which they are expected to enter the commercial market. (DMC)

  9. Biomass energy analysis for crop dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.P.; Haase, S.G.; Quinn, M.W.

    1994-12-31

    In 1994, an agricultural processing facility was constructed in southern New Mexico for spice and herb dehydration. Annual operational costs are dominated by energy costs, due primarily to the energy intensity of dehydration. A feasibility study was performed to determine whether the use of biomass resources as a feedstock for a cogeneration system would be an economical option. The project location allowed access to unusual biomass feedstocks including cotton gin trash, pecan shells and in-house residues. A resource assessment of the immediate project area determined that approximately 120,000 bone dry tons of biomass feedstocks are available annually. Technology characterization for the plant energy requirements indicated gasification systems offer fuel flexibility advantages over combustion systems although vendor support and commercial experience are limited. Regulatory siting considerations introduce a level of uncertainty because of a lack of a precedent in New Mexico for gasification technology and because vendors of commercial gasifiers have little experience operating such a facility nor gathering emission data. A public opinion survey indicated considerable support for renewable energy use and biomass energy utilization. However, the public opinion survey also revealed limited knowledge of biomass technologies and concerns regarding siting of a biomass facility within the geographic area. The economic analysis conducted for the study is based on equipment vendor quotations, and indicates there will be difficulty competing with current prices of natural gas.

  10. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    This project is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to Design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications.

  11. Hydrogen from biomass: state of the art and research challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, Thomas A; Elam, Carolyn C; Evans, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen, Task 16, Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials. Hydrogen's share in the energy market is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production will need to keep pace with this growing market. In the near term, increased production will likely be met by conventional technologies, such as natural gas reforming. In these processes, the carbon is converted to CO2 and released to the atmosphere. However, with the growing concern about global climate change, alternatives to the atmospheric release of CO2 are being investigated. Sequestration of the CO2 is an option that could provide a viable near-term solution. Reducing the demand on fossil resources remains a significant concern for many nations. Renewable-based processes like solar- or wind-driven electrolysis and photobiological water splitting hold great promise for clean hydrogen production; however, advances must still be made before these technologies can be economically competitive. For the near-and mid-term, generating hydrogen from biomass may be the more practical and viable, renewable and potentially carbon-neutral (or even carbon-negative in conjunction with sequestration) option. Recently, the IEA Hydrogen Agreement launched a new task to bring together international experts to investigate some of these near- and mid-term options for producing hydrogen with reduced environmental impacts. This review of the state of the art of hydrogen production from biomass was prepared to facilitate in the planning of work that should be done to achieve the goal of near-term hydrogen energy systems. The relevant technologies that convert biomass to hydrogen, with emphasis on thermochemical routes are described. In evaluating the viability of the conversion routes, each must be put in the context of the availability of

  12. Physical availability of tree biomass for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bones, J.T.; Wharton, E.H.

    1983-06-01

    The physical availability of tree biomass for energy is discussed. But first a profile of the US timberland is drawn. Land area, tree volume--by region, species group, and class of timber--and ownership of the land are calculated. Though the West clearly has the greatest volume, the North and the Southeast, with more hardwood, and considerably greater private ownership of land, are more important for wood energy. Wood manufacturing residues, logging residues, and byproducts of timber product harvesting are the major sources for tree biomass energy.

  13. Physical availability of tree biomass for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bones, J.T.; Wharton, E.H.

    1983-06-01

    The physical availability of tree biomass for energy is discussed. But first a profile of the US timberland is drawn. Land area, tree volume--by region, species group, and class of timber--and ownership of the land are calculated. Though the west clearly has the greatest volume, the North and the Southeast, with more hardwood, and considerably greater private ownership of land, are more important for wood energy. Wood manufacturing residues, logging residues, and byproducts of timber product harvesting are the major sources for tree biomass energy.

  14. Biomass energy analysis for crop dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.P.; Haase, S.G.; Quinn, M.W.; Zachritz, W.; Lansford, R.; Swanson, D.

    1995-06-01

    In 1994, an agricultural processing facility began constructing a new spice and herb dehydration facility in southern New Mexico. Because of the considerable energy intensity of the dehydration operation, management of energy costs is of special concern to the facility. Biomass energy conversion offers the potential for firms to reduce annual operating costs-especially firms with access to low-cost resources. Because the selected facility produces a biomass by-product as a result of its dehydration operation, it is appropriate to explore the technical, regulatory, institutional and economic conditions that affect the successful utilization of biomass resources. The facility is characterized as a small-scale installation, relative to other energy users. In this context, small-scale represents less than 100 million Btu per hour of thermal load and less than 1 MWe of electrical load. However, the projected annual energy bill is approximately $1.1 million and represents a significant portion of operational costs for the firm. For this study, the biomass resources in southern New Mexico and western Texas are detailed. Annual supplies of various biomass resources (i.e., wood chips, pecan shells, discarded tires and cotton gin trash) were inventoried. Further, delivered costs are projected for each of the resource forms. A technical assessment for the small-scale gasification and combustion systems is presented.

  15. A sustainable legume biomass energy farming system

    SciTech Connect

    Neathery, J.; Rubel, A.; Stencel, J.; Collins, M.

    1996-12-31

    Before environmentally sensitive areas are converted to biomass energy production, the production, the potential for sustainability of such systems must be assessed. The focus has been on woody or grass crops because of their high potential yields; however, yield sustainability is dependent on the application of fertilizer and lining materials, which in turn contribute to large costs. Growing legumes or mixtures of legumes with grasses could lower or alleviate the need for nitrate fertilizers. The incorporation of legumes into energy cropping systems could: (1) add soil organic matter; (2) introduce biologically fixed N; (3) improve soil structure and texture; (4) reduce soil erosion; (5) reduce production costs; and (6) decrease nitrate run-off in surface waters. Through the {open_quotes}rotation effect{close_quotes}, legumes cause increases in yield of subsequent non-legume crops beyond that accounted for by biologically-fixed N alone. In this paper, we describe a biomass energy system combining legume and grass biomass energy with fertilizer production from these same materials. Preliminary agronomic and engineering assessments for this type of biomass system are presented. The technologies needed to integrate nitrate production with legume energy farming and energy production through legume energy conversion are identified.

  16. Quantifying the Carbon Intensity of Biomass Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, E. L.; Wise, M.; Clarke, L.; McJeon, H.; Mignone, B.

    2012-12-01

    Regulatory agencies at the national and regional level have recognized the importance of quantitative information about greenhouse gas emissions from biomass used in transportation fuels or in electricity generation. For example, in the recently enacted California Low-Carbon Fuel Standard, the California Air Resources Board conducted a comprehensive study to determine an appropriate methodology for setting carbon intensities for biomass-derived transportation fuels. Furthermore, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently conducting a multi-year review to develop a methodology for estimating biogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from stationary sources. Our study develops and explores a methodology to compute carbon emission intensities (CIs) per unit of biomass energy, which is a metric that could be used to inform future policy development exercises. To compute CIs for biomass, we use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), which is an integrated assessment model that represents global energy, agriculture, land and physical climate systems with regional, sectoral, and technological detail. The GCAM land use and land cover component includes both managed and unmanaged land cover categories such as food crop production, forest products, and various non-commercial land uses, and it is subdivided into 151 global land regions (wiki.umd.edu/gcam), ten of which are located in the U.S. To illustrate a range of values for different biomass resources, we use GCAM to compute CIs for a variety of biomass crops grown in different land regions of the U.S. We investigate differences in emissions for biomass crops such as switchgrass, miscanthus and willow. Specifically, we use GCAM to compute global carbon emissions from the land use change caused by a marginal increase in the amount of biomass crop grown in a specific model region. Thus, we are able to explore how land use change emissions vary by the type and location of biomass crop grown in the U.S. Direct

  17. Biomass resource potential using energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Martin, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    Biomass energy crops can provide a significant and environmentally beneficial source of renewable energy feedstocks for the future. They can revitalize the agricultural sector of the US economy by providing profitable uses for marginal cropland. Energy crops include fast-growing trees, perennial grasses, and annual grasses, all capable of collecting solar energy and storing it as cellulosic compounds for several months to several years. Once solar energy is thus captured, it can be converted by means of currently available technologies to a wide variety of energy products such as electricity, heat, liquid transportation fuels, and gases. Experimental results from field trials have generated optimism that selected and improved energy crops, established on cropland with moderate limitations for crop production, have the potential for producing high yields. Both trees and grasses, under very good growing conditions, have produced average annual yields of 20 to 40 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1}. Sorghum has shown especially high yields in the Midwest. Hybrids between sugar cane and its wild relatives, called energy cane, have yielded as much as 50 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} in Florida. These experimental results demonstrate that some species have the genetic potential for very rapid growth rates. New wood energy crop systems developed by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program offer, at a minimum, a 100% increase in biomass production rates over the 2 to 4 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} of dry leafless woody biomass produced by most natural forest systems. Experimental data indicate that short rotation wood crops established on cropland with moderate limitations are capable of producing biomass yields of 8--20 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} with a present average about 11 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} on typical cropland sites.

  18. Sustainable Production of Switchgrass for Biomass Energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 grass native to the North American tallgrass prairies, which historically extended from Mexico to Canada. It is the model perennial warm-season grass for biomass energy. USDA-ARS in Lincoln, NE has studied switchgrass continuously since 1936. Plot-scale rese...

  19. Session of alcohol and biomass energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    A situation and achievements of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization's (NEDO's) development of alcohol biomass technology are presented. The following topics are addressed: a general situation of development of alcohol biomass technology; development of a methane gas manufacturing system using waste; focusing the physico-chemical decomposition; development of high efficiency waste power generation technology; development of corrosion-resistant superheater; demonstration tests of methanol conversion in oil-burning plants; development and research of a methanol engine system for power generation; demonstration tests of methanol conversion in oil-burning plants; and demonstration tests of a reformed methanol total power generation system (system designing and its evaluation). Results up to FY 1991 and research and development plans in FY 1992 of these development projects of alcohol biomass technology are illustrated.

  20. Study on new biomass energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    A biomass energy total system is proposed, and its feasibility is studied. It is the system in which liquid fuel is produced from eucalyptuses planted in the desert area in Australia for production of biomass resource. Eucalyptus tree planting aims at a growth amount of 40 cu m/ha. per year and a practical application area of 45,000ha. CO2 fixation in the biomass plantation becomes 540,000 tons at a 12 ton/ha. rate. Assuming that 0.55 ton of liquid fuel is produced from 1 ton of biomass, a petrochemical plant having a production of 2.5 million bbl/year per unit (equivalent to the fuel used in the 100,000kW class power plant) is needed. Moreover, survey is made on practicality of diesel substitution fuel by esterification of palm oil, and a marked effect of reduction in soot/smoke and particulates in exhaust gas is confirmed. The biomass conversion process technology and the technology for afforestation at the arid land and irrigation are important as future subjects, and the technology development using a bench plant and a pilot plant is needed.

  1. Impact of novel energy sources: OTEC, wind, goethermal, biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Alternate energy conversion methods such as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), wind power, geothermal wells and biomass conversion are being explored, and re-examined in some cases, for commercial viability. At a time when United States fossil fuel and uranium resources are found to be insufficient to supply national needs into the twenty-first century, it is essential to broaden the base of feasible energy conversion technologies. The motivations for development of these four alternative energy forms are established. Primary technical aspects of OTEC, wind, geothermal and biomass energy conversion systems are described along with a discussion of relative advantages and disadvantages of the concepts. Finally, the sentiment is voiced that each of the four systems should be developed to the prototype stage and employed in the region of the country and in the sector of economy which is complimentary to the form of system output.

  2. Energy from biomass: Land analysis and evaluation of supply models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S. Y.; Stavrou, J.; Nelson, C. H.; Vyas, A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of determining the potential overall impact of land-based biomass production on the agricultural and forestry sectors of the US economy were evaluated. The availability of the factor that possibly limits biomass production the most, land is examined. A summary by US Department of Agriculture regions of the amount of available land with potential for biomass production and not presently in food crop production is presented. Then several currently used agricultural and forestry models that could be used to determine the impact of increased land-based biomass production on the agricultural and forestry sectors are evaluated. It was found that the forestry sector would not be significantly effected even by a level of biomass production with an energy yield as high as 11 quads. It was recommended that a suitable linear programming model from Iowa State University's Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) modeling system be used for future analysis. The CARD model would have to be appropriately modified so that biomass grasses and short-rotation trees could be added to the agricultural crops.

  3. Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Thomas D. Foust; Reed Hoskinson; David Thompson

    2003-11-01

    accomplished in a sustainable manner • Feedstock Infrastructure – An integrated feedstock supply system must be developed and implemented that can serve the feedstock needs of the biorefinery at the cost, quality, and consistency of the set targets • System Profitability – Economic profitability and sustainability need to be ensured for all required participants in the feedstock supply system. For each step in the biomass supply process—production, harvesting and collection, storage, preprocessing, system integration, and transportation—this roadmap addresses the current technical situations, performance targets, technical barriers, R&D needs, and R&D priorities to overcome technical barriers and achieve performance targets. Crop residue biomass is an attractive starting feedstock, which shows the best near-term promise as a biorefinery feedstock. Because crop residue is a by-product of grain production, it is an abundant, underutilized, and low cost biomass resource. Corn stover and cereal straw are the two most abundant crop residues available in the United States. Therefore, this roadmap focuses primarily on the R&D needed for using these biomass sources as viable biorefinery feedstocks. However, achieving the goal of 1 billion dry tons of lignocellulosic feedstock will require the use of other biomass sources such as dedicated energy crops. In the long term, the R&D needs identified in this roadmap will need to accommodate these other sources of biomass as well.

  4. Final Scientific and Technical Report State and Regional Biomass Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Handley, Rick; Stubbs, Anne D.

    2008-12-29

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program successfully employed a three pronged approach to build the regional capacity, networks, and reliable information needed to advance biomass and bioenergy technologies and markets. The approach included support for state-based, multi-agency biomass working groups; direct technical assistance to states and private developers; and extensive networking and partnership-building activities to share objective information and best practices.

  5. Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzel, Frederic

    2009-09-01

    The Council of Great Lakes Governors administered the Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This Partnership grew out of the existing Regional Biomass Energy Program which the Council had administered since 1983. The GLBSRP includes the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin. The GLBSRP's overall goal is to facilitate the increased production and use of bioenergy and biobased products throughout the region. The GLBSRP has traditionally addressed its goals and objectives through a three-pronged approach: providing grants to the States; undertaking region-wide education, outreach and technology transfer projects; and, providing in-house management, support and information dissemination. At the direction of US Department of Energy, the primary emphasis of the GLBSRP in recent years has been education and outreach. Therefore, most activities have centered on developing educational materials, hosting workshops and conferences, and providing technical assistance. This report summarizes a selection of activities that were accomplished under this cooperative agreement.

  6. BIOMASS-TO-ENERGY FEASIBILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Cecil T. Massie

    2002-09-03

    The purpose of this study was to assess the economic and technical feasibility of producing electricity and thermal energy from biomass by gasification. For an economic model we chose a large barley malting facility operated by Rahr Malting Co. in Shakopee, Minnesota. This plant provides an excellent backdrop for this study because it has both large electrical loads and thermal loads that allowed us to consider a wide range of sizes and technical options. In the end, eleven scenarios were considered ranging from 3.1 megawatts (MWe) to 19.8 MWe. By locating the gasification and generation at an agricultural product processing plant with large electrical and thermal loads, the expectation was that some of the limitations of stand-alone biomass power plants would be overcome. In addition, since the process itself created significant volumes of low value biomass, the hope was that most of the biomass gathering and transport issues would be handled as well. The development of low-BTU gas turbines is expected to fill a niche between the upper limit of multiple spark ignited engine set systems around 5 MWe and the minimum reasonable scale for steam turbine systems around 10 MWe.

  7. Energy and conservation benefits from managed prairie biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jungers, Jacob M.; Trost, Jared J.; Lehman, Clarence L.; Tilman, David

    2011-01-01

    Marginally productive land, such as that enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), may provide acreage and economic incentives for cellulosic energy production. Improving the yields from these lands will help establish a biomass producer?s position in the marketplace. The effects of water and nitrogen on biomass yields were investigated in both a plot-scale experiment and a broad-scale survey of CRP lands. The plot-scale experiment demonstrated that irrigation improved mixed-species prairie biomass yields more than nitrogen fertilizer on coarse-textured, marginally productive soils. Experimental plots amended with both irrigation and moderate (but not high) nitrogen produced more biomass than other treatment combinations, but this trend was not statistically significant. The survey of biomass yields on CRP lands across four Midwestern States indicates that yields are better correlated with June rainfall than any other individual month. Applying nutrient-enriched water such as agricultural runoff could benefit prairie yields if applied at appropriate times.

  8. Biomass Feedstock Availability in the United States: 1999 State Level Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Marie E.; Perlack, Robert L.; Turhollow, Anthony; de la Torre Ugarte, Daniel; Becker, Denny A.; Graham, Robin L.; Slinsky, Stephen E.; Ray, Daryll E.

    2000-01-01

    Interest in using biomass feedstocks to produce power, liquid fuels, and chemicals in the U.S. is increasing. Central to determining the potential for these industries to develop is an understanding of the location, quantities, and prices of biomass resources. This paper describes the methodology used to estimate biomass quantities and prices for each state in the continental United States.

  9. The economics of biomass production in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E.; Lichtenberg, E.; Roningen, V.O.; Shapouri, H.

    1995-12-31

    Biomass crops (e.g. poplar, willow, switchgrass) could become important feedstocks for power, liquid fuel, and chemical production. This paper presents estimates of the potential production of biomass in the US under a range of assumptions. Estimates of potential biomass crop yields and production costs from the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) are combined with measures of land rents from USDA`s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), to estimate a competitive supply of biomass wood and grass crops. Estimates are made for one potential biomass use--electric power production--where future costs of electricity production from competing fossil fuels set the demand price. The paper outlines the methodology used and limitations of the analysis.

  10. The environmental costs and benefits of biomass energy use in California

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.

    1997-05-01

    The California renewable energy industries have worked diligently during the past couple of years to develop public policies conducive to the future of renewable energy production within the context of electric market restructuring and the evolving competitive electric services industry. The state`s biomass power industry has organized itself as the California Biomass Energy Alliance (CBEA), and has participated vigorously in the regulatory and legislative processes. In order to reward biomass power generators for the special services they provide, CBEA has promoted the concept of providing incentives specifically targeted to biomass within the context of any renewables program enacted in the state. This concept has been embraced by the other renewables industry organizations, but resisted by the utilities. This study represents an effort to identify, characterize, ad quantify the environmental costs and benefits of biomass energy use in California, and to elucidate the future role of biomass power production within the context of the evolving deregulation of the California electricity industry. The report begins with a review of the development and growth of the California biomass power industry during the past 15 years. This is followed by an analysis of the biomass fuels market development during the same period. It examines trends in the types and costs of biomass fuels. The environmental performance of the mature California biomass energy industry is analyzed, and takes into account the environmental impacts of the industry, and the impacts that would be associated with disposing of the materials used as fuels if the biomass power industry were not in operation. The analysis is then extended to consider the environmental and economic consequences of the loss of biomass generating capacity since 1993. The report ends with a consideration of the future prospects for the industry in the context of restructuring.

  11. Recycling legislation: A balanced approach for opening biomass energy opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    State recycling legislation represents one of the barriers to using wood wastes for energy. Although many states are setting recycling goals that often mandate a significant portion of the waste stream be recycled, legislation in the same states specifically excludes wood-to-energy as a recycling option. A significant supply of yard waste and wood waste could be available for biomass power generation of recycling legislation credited the use of wood-to-energy as an acceptable recycling alternative. This article discusses in some detail the approach Florida legislation has pursued. It could be a model for other innovative recycling programs. It provides checks and balances as well as reasonable compromises that help to avoid or minimize objections by the environmental community.

  12. Regional allocation of biomass to U.S. energy demands under a portfolio of policy scenarios.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Kimberley A; Venkatesh, Aranya; Nagengast, Amy L; Kocoloski, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The potential for widespread use of domestically available energy resources, in conjunction with climate change concerns, suggest that biomass may be an essential component of U.S. energy systems in the near future. Cellulosic biomass in particular is anticipated to be used in increasing quantities because of policy efforts, such as federal renewable fuel standards and state renewable portfolio standards. Unfortunately, these independently designed biomass policies do not account for the fact that cellulosic biomass can equally be used for different, competing energy demands. An integrated assessment of multiple feedstocks, energy demands, and system costs is critical for making optimal decisions about a unified biomass energy strategy. This study develops a spatially explicit, best-use framework to optimally allocate cellulosic biomass feedstocks to energy demands in transportation, electricity, and residential heating sectors, while minimizing total system costs and tracking greenhouse gas emissions. Comparing biomass usage across three climate policy scenarios suggests that biomass used for space heating is a low cost emissions reduction option, while biomass for liquid fuel or for electricity becomes attractive only as emissions reduction targets or carbon prices increase. Regardless of the policy approach, study results make a strong case for national and regional coordination in policy design and compliance pathways. PMID:24512511

  13. Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program: Quarterly report, September 1, 1986-November 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Bancroft, D.

    1987-05-01

    Stressing near-term biomass feedstock production techniques and conversion processes, the objective of the program is to increase the use of biomass energy by the public and private sectors in the Great Lakes region including Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin. The Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program is divided into three separate operational programs. The first is the State Grant Program, which provides resources to the seven state energy offices in the region to increase their capabilities in biomass energy. State-specific activities and interagency programs are emphasized in the State Grant Program. The second, the Subcontractor Program, involves the letting of subcontracts to private organizations to address regional biomass issues and needs. The third is the In-House Technology Transfer Program in which Council staff develop biomass energy publications and reports. The primary activity this quarter has been information transfer. The program spearheaded an effort to reach the private sector and inform people about a wide range of biomass technologies. In one of the most successful events, 35 cheese manufacturers traveled to the South Alma Cheese Factory to see a woodburner supporting the process steam needs of the facility. In addition, 20 workshops were conducted throughout the region focusing on industrial wood combustion, municipal waste to energy incineration and short rotation forestry. 1 fig.

  14. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program. Progress report, 9th year, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, R.A.

    1992-02-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  15. Current biomass energy technology in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, H.G.

    1985-06-01

    The potential for major biomass energy production in Brazil is very great because of the significant possibilities for expansion of the agricultural and forest production there. For example, production of 20 t/ha (metric) of dry wood in the Amazon basin is reported here by the senior author, who worked with the huge JARI operation there. In addition to the current large ethanol production (7.5 billion liters estimated 1983/84) based mainly on sugar cane, the potential for expanding this with sweet sorghum and cassava is promising. Research and development there and in the US resulted in a high-compression ethanol tractor showing slightly higher thermal efficiency than a standard diesel tractor under field operating conditions.

  16. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and

  17. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  18. Estimates of U.S. Biomass Energy Consumption 1992

    EIA Publications

    1994-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass derived primary energy used by the U.S. economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption.

  19. Biomass measurement from LANDSAT: Drought and energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The theory supporting the use of vegetation indices derived from LANDSAT data for the direct measurement of biomass is reviewed. The use of multispectral data to measure biomass is a natural and viable application since the photosynthetic production of biomass gives vegetation its unique spectral properties. Vegetation indices also perform a normalization function which tends to make them insensitive to atmospheric and soil color variations. Optical and digital LANDSAT products are discussed relative to the use of vegetation indices to monitor drought impact. Based on results obtained in Colorado, operational use of LANDSAT to monitor drought is cost effective, practical and ready for implementation today. The direct measurement of biomass energy resources may also benefit from LANDSAT technology. Measurement of total biomass and annual primary production may be feasible. Identification of that component of biomass resources available for energy use will require other sources of information, however.

  20. Education and training implications of biomass energy system use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, S. E.; Gove, R. M.; Little, J. R.

    1981-08-01

    Direct observations of 189 biomass-related operations combined with existing reports, feasibility studies, and expert opinion are used to assess the education and training implications of biomass energy system use. The number of permanent jobs in activities related to biomass energy production could easily reach the hundreds of thousands by the end of the century. However, national employment related to biomass energy will represent only a very small portion of the employment in any major occupational category. In addition, an analysis of occupational skill requirements suggests that the impacts on education and training institutions are likely to be minimal. Regional shortages could develop for foresters, forestry technicians, chemists, laboratory technicians, process operators, and certain engineers; but these are likely to be in response to economy-wide growth rather than biomass energy-related activity alone.

  1. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change. PMID:18215439

  2. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries. An integrated biomass energy system in dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, is supportive of rural development, is environmentally beneficial (locally and globally), is adapted to local conditions, takes advantage of by- and co-products, and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in rural Yunnan Province in Southwest China provided some financial/economic results, general conclusions, and an initial framework for conducting such assessments. Our assessment indicates that social and environmental benefits are substantial and that investment in the facility is well-justified. However, there are so many considerations to take into account when assessing biomass energy systems that their evaluation is exceedingly complex. These considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementing such systems requires another grouping of considerations into energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. These are further defined in an effort to establish a framework of evaluation and assessment for other such projects. The conclusions that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal.

  3. Economic approach to assess the forest carbon implications of biomass energy.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Adam; Sohngen, Brent; Sedjo, Roger

    2012-06-01

    There is widespread concern that biomass energy policy that promotes forests as a supply source will cause net carbon emissions. Most of the analyses that have been done to date, however, are biological, ignoring the effects of market adaptations through substitution, net imports, and timber investments. This paper uses a dynamic model of forest and land use management to estimate the impact of United States energy policies that emphasize the utilization of forest biomass on global timber production and carbon stocks over the next 50 years. We show that when market factors are included in the analysis, expanded demand for biomass energy increases timber prices and harvests, but reduces net global carbon emissions because higher wood prices lead to new investments in forest stocks. Estimates are sensitive to assumptions about whether harvest residues and new forestland can be used for biomass energy and the demand for biomass. Restricting biomass energy to being sourced only from roundwood on existing forestland can transform the policy from a net sink to a net source of emissions. These results illustrate the importance of capturing market adjustments and a large geographic scope when measuring the carbon implications of biomass energy policies. PMID:22515911

  4. ENVIRONMENT CONSEQUENCES OF WOOD AND OTHER BIOMASS SOURCES OF ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current important researchg needs whose results will be critical to EPA's mission in the next two to three decades with regard to a major expansion in the use of biomass, as an energy source are identified. Biomass currently contributes about 2.4 quads or 3% to the total national...

  5. State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State

    DOE Data Explorer

    This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

  6. Potential supply and cost of biomass from energy crops in the TVA region

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.E.

    1995-04-01

    The economic and supply structures of energy crop markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of energy crop biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas, and coal. In this study, the cost and supply of short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) and switchgrass biomass for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region-a 276-county area that includes portions of 11 states in the southeastern United States - are projected. Projected prices and quantities of biomass are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region, expected energy crop yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curves of SRWC and switchgrass biomass that are projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of energy crop production. Finally, the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of energy crop biomass are shown. In particular, the separate impacts of varying energy crop production costs and yields, and interest rates are examined.

  7. Energy conversion of biomass in coping with global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, Shin-ya; Ogi, Tomoko; Minowa, Tomoaki

    1993-12-31

    The main purpose of the present paper is to propose energy conversion technologies of biomass in coping with global warming. Among thermochemical conversion, liquid fuel production by high pressure process is mainly introduced. Biomass is a term used to describe materials of biological origin, either purpose-grown or arising as by-products, residues or wastes from forestry, agriculture and food processing. Such biomass is a renewable energy sources dependent on solar energy. Through photosynthesis, plants converts carbon dioxide into organic materials used in their growth. Energy can be recovered from the plant materials by several processes, the simplest way is burning in air. As far as biomass is used in this way, there is no atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide making no effect on the Greenhouse Effect, provided that the cycle of regrowth and burning is sustained.

  8. Plankton secondary productivity and biomass: Their relation to lake trophic state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pederson, G.L.; Welch, E.B.; Litt, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    The biomass and production of the most important zooplankton species were followed for two years in three lakes of varying trophic status in the Lake Washington watershed. Cladocerans and copepods were of equal importance in the biomass of lakes Findley and Chester Morse (both oligotrophic), whereas, copepods were the main biomass component in Lake Sammamish (mesotrophic). Cladocerans dominated production in lakes Sammamish and Chester Morse, while in Findley Lake their productive role, like that of biomass, was equal to that of the copepods. Rotifers contributed a relatively small biomass and production. Data from this study supported Hillbricht-Ilkowska's postulate that the energy transfer efficiency between the primary and secondary trophic levels decreases with increasing trophic state. Energy transfer efficiencies for the lakes of this study expressed as a two year mean of the ratio-secondary: primary production, were as follows: Findley Lake-0.13; Chester Morse Lake-0.08; and Lake Sammanish-0.04. On the other hand, the hypothesis of Patalas that the secondary productivity: biomass ratio (P/B) tended to increase in proportion to the productivity of a lake, could not be supported. Lake Sammamish, the most productive of the lakes studied, had a P/B ratio of 0.03 while lakes Findley and Chester Morse had P/B ratios of 0.04. ?? 1976 Dr. W. Junk b. v. Publishers.

  9. Biomass and energy productivity of Leucaena under humid subtropical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, A.B.; Prine, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A table shows the amount and energy content of above-ground biomass produced in 1982 and 1983 by the 12 most productive of 62 accessions of Leucanena spp. established in 1979 at the University of Florida. Mean annual biomass production of the 12 accessions was 29.3 and 24.7 Mg/ha, with energy contents of 19,690 and 19,820 J/g, in 1982 and 1983 respectively.

  10. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  11. Review of the Regional Biomass Energy Program: Technical projects

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1994-12-31

    This article summarizes technical projects of the regional Biomass Energy Program. Projects included are as follows: economic impact studies for renewable energy resources; alternative liquid fuels; Wood pellets fuels forum; residential fuel wood consumption; waste to energy decision-makers guide; fuel assessment for cogeneration facilities; municipal solid waste combustion characteristics.

  12. Alfalfa -- a sustainable crop for biomass energy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  13. Waste biomass-to-energy supply chain management: a critical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Iakovou, E; Karagiannidis, A; Vlachos, D; Toka, A; Malamakis, A

    2010-10-01

    The development of renewable energy sources has clearly emerged as a promising policy towards enhancing the fragile global energy system with its limited fossil fuel resources, as well as for reducing the related environmental problems. In this context, waste biomass utilization has emerged as a viable alternative for energy production, encompassing a wide range of potential thermochemical, physicochemical and bio-chemical processes. Two significant bottlenecks that hinder the increased biomass utilization for energy production are the cost and complexity of its logistics operations. In this manuscript, we present a critical synthesis of the relative state-of-the-art literature as this applies to all stakeholders involved in the design and management of waste biomass supply chains (WBSCs). We begin by presenting the generic system components and then the unique characteristics of WBSCs that differentiate them from traditional supply chains. We proceed by discussing state-of-the-art energy conversion technologies along with the resulting classification of all relevant literature. We then recognize the natural hierarchy of the decision-making process for the design and planning of WBSCs and provide a taxonomy of all research efforts as these are mapped on the relevant strategic, tactical and operational levels of the hierarchy. Our critical synthesis demonstrates that biomass-to-energy production is a rapidly evolving research field focusing mainly on biomass-to-energy production technologies. However, very few studies address the critical supply chain management issues, and the ones that do that, focus mainly on (i) the assessment of the potential biomass and (ii) the allocation of biomass collection sites and energy production facilities. Our analysis further allows for the identification of gaps and overlaps in the existing literature, as well as of critical future research areas. PMID:20231084

  14. Energy production from biomass (Part 2): Conversion technologies.

    PubMed

    McKendry, Peter

    2002-05-01

    The use of biomass to provide energy has been fundamental to the development of civilisation. In recent times pressures on the global environment have led to calls for an increased use of renewable energy sources, in lieu of fossil fuels. Biomass is one potential source of renewable energy and the conversion of plant material into a suitable form of energy, usually electricity or as a fuel for an internal combustion engine, can be achieved using a number of different routes, each with specific pros and cons. A brief review of the main conversion processes is presented, with specific regard to the production of a fuel suitable for spark ignition gas engines. PMID:12058830

  15. Complex analysis of energy production technologies from solid biomass in the Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheliezna, T. A.; Drozdova, O. I.

    2014-04-01

    The results of the energetic, economic, and environmental analyses of technologies of energy production from solid biomass are considered. Examples of the introduction of the technology of the direct combustion of biomass (straw and wood) in a boiler installation, a domestic boiler, and a combined heat and power plant (CHPP) are considered. The results indicate the energetic and environmental reasonability of implementation of such projects. From the economic viewpoint, the introduction of the boilers that use the biomass is profitable with the substitution of natural gas for the state-financed and industrial consumers, and the CHPP operation with the use of biomass is profitable with selling the electrical energy by the "feed-in" tariff.

  16. Application of Nuclear Energy to Bitumen Upgrading and Biomass Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Mamoru Numata; Yasushi Fujimura; Takayuki Amaya; Masao Hori

    2006-07-01

    Key drivers for the increasing use of nuclear energy are the need to mitigate global warming and the requirement for energy security. Nuclear energy can be applied not only to generate electricity but also as a heat source. Moreover, nuclear energy can be applied for hydrogen as well as water production. The application of nuclear energy to oil processing and biomass production is studied in this paper. (authors)

  17. State energy information networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, J.; Ettinger, G.; Wrabel, M.

    1984-06-01

    In November 1983, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) initiated a study under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) State Programs Branch to examine state energy information networks. Goal was to help DOE decide how best to allocate resources to assist states in acquiring information related to state energy programs and policies.

  18. Low-Energy Electron Scattering by Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Biomass Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Eliane; Sanchez, Sergio; Bettega, Marcio; Lima, Marco; Varella, Marcio

    2012-06-01

    The use of second generation (SG) bioethanol instead of fossil fuels could be a good strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the efficient production of SG bioethanol has being a challenge to researchers around the world. The main barrier one must overcome is the pretreatment, a very important step in SG bioethanol aimed at breaking down the biomass and facilitates the extraction of sugars from the biomass. Plasma-based treatment, which can generate reactive species, could be an interesting possibility since involves low-cost atmospheric-pressure plasma. In order to offer theoretical support to this technique, the interaction of low-energy electrons from the plasma with biomass is investigated. This study was motived by several works developed by Sanche et al., in which they understood that DNA damage arises from dissociative electron attachment, a mechanism in which electrons are resonantly trapped by DNA subunits. We will present elastic cross sections for low-energy electron scattering by sugarcane biomass molecules, obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method. Our calculations indicate the formation of π* shape resonances in the lignin subunits, while a series of broad and overlapping σ* resonances are found in cellulose and hemicellulose subunits. The presence of π* and σ* resonances could give rise to direct and indirect dissociation pathways in biomass. Then, theoretical resonance energies can be useful to guide the plasma-based pretreatment to break down specific linkages of interest in biomass.

  19. Comparative study of different waste biomass for energy application.

    PubMed

    Motghare, Kalyani A; Rathod, Ajit P; Wasewar, Kailas L; Labhsetwar, Nitin K

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is available in many varieties, consisting of crops as well as its residues from agriculture, forestry, and the agro-industry. These different biomass find their way as freely available fuel in rural areas but are also responsible for air pollution. Emissions from such solid fuel combustion to indoor, regional and global air pollution largely depend on fuel types, combustion device, fuel properties, fuel moisture, amount of air supply for combustion and also on climatic conditions. In both economic and environment point of view, gasification constitutes an attractive alternative for the use of biomass as a fuel, than the combustion process. A large number of studies have been reported on a variety of biomass and agriculture residues for their possible use as renewable fuels. Considering the area specific agriculture residues and biomass availability and related transportation cost, it is important to explore various local biomass for their suitability as a fuel. Maharashtra (India) is the mainstay for the agriculture and therefore, produces a significant amount of waste biomass. The aim of the present research work is to analyze different local biomass wastes for their proximate analysis and calorific value to assess their potential as fuel. The biomass explored include cotton waste, leaf, soybean waste, wheat straw, rice straw, coconut coir, forest residues, etc. mainly due to their abundance. The calorific value and the proximate analysis of the different components of the biomass helped in assessing its potential for utilization in different industries. It is observed that ash content of these biomass species is quite low, while the volatile matter content is high as compared to Indian Coal. This may be appropriate for briquetting and thus can be used as a domestic fuel in biomass based gasifier cook stoves. Utilizing these biomass species as fuel in improved cook-stove and domestic gasifier cook-stoves would be a perspective step in the rural energy and

  20. Decentralized conversion of biomass to energy, fuels and electricity with fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, P.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells, new processes, advanced equipment and total system approaches will allow biomass to become a larger source of energy to make electricity, fuel and chemicals. These innovative new approaches allow smaller scale operations and allow decentralization of biomass to energy. The pivotal role of biomass will change and expand. Biomass will become a significant near term and a long term energy source.

  1. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  2. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  3. Biomass resources for energy in Ohio: The OH-MARKAL modeling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Bibhakar

    The latest reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have indicated that human activities are directly responsible for a significant portion of global warming trends. In response to the growing concerns regarding climate change and efforts to create a sustainable energy future, biomass energy has come to the forefront as a clean and sustainable energy resource. Biomass energy resources are environmentally clean and carbon neutral with net-zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, since CO2 is absorbed or sequestered from the atmosphere during the plant growth. Hence, biomass energy mitigates greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions that would otherwise be added to the environment by conventional fossil fuels, such as coal. The use of biomass resources for energy is even more relevant in Ohio, as the power industry is heavily based on coal, providing about 90 percent of the state's total electricity while only 50 percent of electricity comes from coal at the national level. The burning of coal for electricity generation results in substantial GHG emissions and environmental pollution, which are responsible for global warming and acid rain. Ohio is currently one of the top emitters of GHG in the nation. This dissertation research examines the potential use of biomass resources by analyzing key economic, environmental, and policy issues related to the energy needs of Ohio over a long term future (2001-2030). Specifically, the study develops a dynamic linear programming model (OH-MARKAL) to evaluate biomass cofiring as an option in select coal power plants (both existing and new) to generate commercial electricity in Ohio. The OH-MARKAL model is based on the MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) framework. Using extensive data on the power industry and biomass resources of Ohio, the study has developed the first comprehensive power sector model for Ohio. Hence, the model can serve as an effective tool for Ohio's energy planning, since it evaluates economic and environmental

  4. The upgrading of the energy of biomass by thermal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Deglise, X.; Lede, J.

    1982-10-01

    A survey is given of various thermal processes for upgrading biomass as a source of energy or chemical raw materials. Estimates are made of the quantity of biomass available and the types best suited to the various processes. The reactions and their yields are discussed. The different types of reactors and means of supplying heat are reviewed for the case of gasification, with special attention to the advantages of concentrated solar energy. Uses are proposed for the products and recommendations are made for future research.

  5. A REVIEW ON BIOMASS DENSIFICATION TECHNOLOGIE FOR ENERGY APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    JAYA SHANKAR TUMULURU; CHRISTOPHER T. WRIGHT

    2010-08-01

    The world is currently facing challenges to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is finding more uses as it is considered carbon neutral since the carbondioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle (Arias et al., 2008). Increasing the utilization of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help to meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol (UN, 1998). Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes like thermochemical (combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation) or chemical (esterification) where direct combustion can provide a direct near-term energy solution (Arias et al., 2008). Some of the inherent problems with raw biomass materials, like low bulk density, high moisture content, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value, limit the ease of use of biomass for energy purposes (Arias et al., 2008). In fact, due to its low energy density compared to fossil fuels, high volumes of biomass will be needed; adding to problems associated with storage, transportation and feed handling at a cogeneration plant. Furthermore, grinding biomass pulverizes, can be very costly and in some cases impractical. All of these drawbacks have given rise to the development of new technologies in order to increase the quality of biomass fuels. The purpose of the work is mainly in four areas 1) Overview of the torrefaction process and to do a literature review on i) Physical properties of torrefied raw material and torrefaction gas composition. 2) Basic principles in design of packed bed i) Equations governing the flow of material in packed bed ii) Equations governing the flow of the gases in packed bed iii) Effect of physical

  6. State energy overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    This publication presents an overview of selected energy-related data for the United States, for each State, and for the District of Columbia. Included are the quantities of energy produced and consumed, estimates of fuel reserves, and the value of nonrenewable fuels produced by type. Also provided for each State are selected demographic and energy-related information that have been ranked and expressed as a percent of the national total. This overview provides a ready reference and a quick access to selected State energy information and State rankings for various socioeconomics and energy items.

  7. Do biomass harvesting guidelines influence herpetofauna following harvests of logging residues for renewable energy?.

    PubMed

    Fritts, Sarah; Moorman, Christopher; Grodsky, Steven; Hazel, Dennis; Homyack, Jessica; Farrell, Chris; Castleberry, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Forests are a major supplier of renewable energy; however, gleaning logging residues for use as woody biomass feedstock could negatively alter habitat for species dependent on downed wood. Biomass Harvesting Guidelines (BHGs) recommend retaining a portion of woody biomass on the forest floor following harvest. Despite BHGs being developed to help ensure ecological sustainability, their contribution to biodiversity has not been evaluated experimentally at operational scales. We compared herpetofauanal evenness, diversity, and richness and abundance of Anaxyrus terrestris and Gastrophryne carolinensis among six treatments that varied in volume and spatial arrangement of woody biomass retained after clearcutting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations in North Carolina, USA (n = 4), 2011-2014 and Georgia (n = 4), USA 2011-2013. Treatments were: (1) biomass harvest with no BHGs, (2) 15% retention with biomass clustered, (3) 15% retention with biomass dispersed, (4) 30% retention with biomass clustered, (5) 30% retention with biomass dispersed, and (6) no biomass harvest. We captured individuals with drift fence arrays and compared evenness, diversity, and richness metrics among treatments with repeated-measure, linear mixed-effects models. We determined predictors of A. terrestris and G. carolinensis abundances using a priori candidate N-mixture models with woody biomass volume, vegetation structure, and groundcover composition as covariates. We had 206 captures of 25 reptile species and 8710 captures of 17 amphibian species during 53690 trap nights. Herpetofauna diversity, evenness, and richness were similar among treatments. A. terrestris abundance was negatively related to volume of retained woody biomass in treatment units in North Carolina in 2013. G. carolinensis abundance was positively related with volume of retained woody debris in treatment units in Georgia in 2012. Other relationships between A. terrestris and G. carolinensis abundances and habitat metrics

  8. Energy-efficient photobioreactor configuration for algal biomass production.

    PubMed

    Pegallapati, Ambica Koushik; Arudchelvam, Yalini; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2012-12-01

    An internally illuminated photobioreactor (IIPBR) design is proposed for energy-efficient biomass production. Theoretical rationale of the IIPBR design and its advantages over the traditional bubble column photobioreactors (PBRs) are presented, followed by experimental results from prototype scale cultivation of freshwater and marine algal strains in an 18L IIPBR. Based on theoretical considerations, the proposed IIPBR design has the potential to support 160% higher biomass density and higher biomass productivity per unit energy input, B/E, than a bubble column PBR of equal incident area per unit culture volume. Experimental B/E values recorded in this study with fresh water algae and marine algae (1.42 and 0.37 gW(-1)d(-1), respectively) are at least twice as those reported in the literature for comparable species cultivated in bubble column and airlift PBRs. PMID:23079413

  9. Development of Switchgrass Into a Biomass Energy Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a North American prairie grass that is being developed into a biomass energy crop in the USA and other countries. Research on switchgrass as a pasture and forage crop was initiated in the mid-1930's in an U.S. Department of Agriculture and University of Nebraska ...

  10. GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF SWITCHGRASS AS A BIOMASS ENERGY CROP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum, has been identified as a primary herbaceous biomass energy crop for use in temperate areas. To date, switchgrass has been primarily used as a warm-season pasture grass in the Great Plains and Midwest, USA. Previously developed cultivars or varieties have been release...

  11. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-05-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  12. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  13. Agronomic Considerations for Simulating Switchgrass for Biomass Energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass native to North America, is a prime candidate for dedicated biomass energy for many regions of the USA. USDA-ARS in Lincoln, NE has conducted switchgrass research since the 1930’s. Plot-scale research has been conducted on switchgrass ...

  14. State Energy Overview 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    Data are presented for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Included are the quantities of energy produced and consumed, estimates of fuel reserves, the value of nonrenewable fuels produced by type, energy expenditures, and consumer prices. Also provided for each state are selected demographic and energy-related data that have been ranked and expressed as a percent of the national total. This overview provides a ready reference and a quick access to selected state energy information and state rankings for various socioeconomic and energy items. Methodology is detailed; a glossary is provided.

  15. The implications of deregulation for biomass and renewable energy in California. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.

    1998-08-01

    The California legislature took up electric utility deregulation legislation during 1996, culminating in AB 1890, California`s landmark restructuring legislation. The legislation created a transition funding program for renewables. No permanent program for the support of renewable energy production extending beyond the end of the transition period (2002) is included in AB 1890. AB 1890 assigned to the California Energy Commission (CEC) the task of determining how to allocate the renewables transition funds between existing and new renewable generating sources, and among the various renewable energy technologies that are available for deployment in California. The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) was assigned the task of reporting to the legislature about the specific benefits provided by biomass energy production in California, and about policies that could shift some of the cost of biomass energy production away from the electric ratepayer, on to beneficiaries of the environmental benefits of biomass energy production. This study describes the development of the CEC and Cal/EPA reports to the California legislature, and provides an analysis of the major issues that were encountered during the course of their development. The study concludes with a consideration of the future prospects for biomass and renewable energy production in the state.

  16. Assessment of equine waste as a biomass resource in New York State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine operations may generate excessive quantities of biomass (manure and used bedding) that could either become a waste or a resource, especially when the biomass is developed as an alternative energy source. Using the generated biomass as a resource can involve a variety of approaches such as la...

  17. Biomass recycling heat technology and energy products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabakaev, R. B.; Gergelizhiu, P. S.; Kazakov, A. V.; Zavorin, A. S.

    2014-10-01

    Relevance is determined by necessity of utilizing of local low-grade fuels by energy equpment. Most widespread Tomsk oblast (Russian Federation region) low-grade fuels are described and listed. Capability of utilizing is analysed. Mass balances of heat-technology conversion materials and derived products are described. As a result, recycling capability of low-grade fuels in briquette fuel is appraised.

  18. Photosynthetic pathway and biomass energy production.

    PubMed

    Marzola, D L; Bartholomew, D P

    1979-08-10

    The current interest in locating new or alternative sources of energy has focused attention on solar energy capture by crops that can be subsequently utilized as a substitute for fossil fuels. The very high productivity of sugarepane and the fact that it accumulates sugars that are directly fermentable to alcohol may have caused seemingly less productive crops to be overlooked. We show here that recoverable alcohol from achievable commercial yields of pineapple can actually equal that of sugarcane, with the pineapple crop requiring only a fraction of the water used by sugarcane. Pineapple is well adapted to the subhumid or semiarid tropics and thus is particularly well suited for exploiting large areas not now under cultivation with any crop of commercial value. PMID:17729660

  19. Process evaluation of the Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.R.; Brown, M.A.; Perlack, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Regional Biomass Energy Program (RBEP) in 1983 to increase the production and use of biomass energy resources. Through the creation of five regional program (the Great Lakes, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, Southeast, and West), the RBEP focuses on regionally specific needs and opportunities. In 1992, Oak Ridge National (ORNL) conducted a process evaluation of the RBEP Program designed to document and explain the development of the goals and strategies of the five regional programs; describe the economic and market context surrounding commercialization of bioenergy systems; assess the criteria used to select projects; describe experiences with cost sharing; identify program accomplishments in the transfer of information and technology; and offer recommendations for program improvement.

  20. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  1. Relation between biomass and body weight of plankton in a steady state oceanic ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.; Mullin, M.M.

    1986-03-01

    In the size range from 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup 3/ ..mu..g (carbon) body weight, the biomass of plankton in the euphotic layer of the North Pacific Central Gyre decreases as an allometric function of body weight. Even in a steady state ecosystem such as that analyzed here, there is variability in space and time; this suggests that one must be careful in extrapolating the relation to less predictable marine areas. In obtaining dynamic information from biomass spectra, one must distinguish changes due to the flow of energy within the spectrum (growth, predation, reproduction) from changes due to emigration from or immigration into the spectrum of the particular area sampled, such as those due to the diel vertical migration of macrozooplankton in the largest size classes.

  2. Modeling and Optimization of Woody Biomass Harvest and Logistics in the Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Damon S.

    World energy consumption is at an all-time high and is projected to continue growing for the foreseeable future. Currently, much of the energy that is produced comes from non-renewable fossil energy sources, which includes the burden of increased greenhouse gas emissions and the fear of energy insecurity. Woody biomass is being considered as a material that can be utilized to reduce the burden caused by fossil energy. While the technical capability to convert woody biomass to energy has been known for a long period of time, the cost of the feedstock has been considered too costly to be implemented in a large commercial scale. Increasing the use of woody biomass as an energy source requires that the supply chains are setup in a way that minimizes cost, the locational factors that lead to development are understood, the facilities are located in the most favorable locations and local resource assessments can be made. A mixed integer linear programming model to efficiently configure woody biomass supply chain configurations and optimize the harvest, extraction, transport, storage and preprocessing of the woody biomass resources to provide the lowest possible delivered price. The characteristics of woody biomass, such as spatial distribution and low bulk density, tend to make collection and transport difficult as compared to traditional energy sources. These factors, as well as others, have an adverse effect on the cost of the feedstock. The average delivered cost was found to be between 64.69-98.31 dry Mg for an annual demand of 180,000 dry Mg. The effect of resource availability and required demand was examined to determine the impact that each would have on the total cost. The use of woody biomass for energy has been suggested as a way to improve rural economies through job creation, reduction of energy costs and regional development. This study examined existing wood using bio-energy facilities in the northeastern United States to define the drivers of

  3. Nanotechnology makes biomass electrolysis more energy efficient than water electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y X; Lavacchi, A; Miller, H A; Bevilacqua, M; Filippi, J; Innocenti, M; Marchionni, A; Oberhauser, W; Wang, L; Vizza, F

    2014-01-01

    The energetic convenience of electrolytic water splitting is limited by thermodynamics. Consequently, significant levels of hydrogen production can only be obtained with an electrical energy consumption exceeding 45 kWh kg(-1)H2. Electrochemical reforming allows the overcoming of such thermodynamic limitations by replacing oxygen evolution with the oxidation of biomass-derived alcohols. Here we show that the use of an original anode material consisting of palladium nanoparticles deposited on to a three-dimensional architecture of titania nanotubes allows electrical energy savings up to 26.5 kWh kg(-1)H2 as compared with proton electrolyte membrane water electrolysis. A net energy analysis shows that for bio-ethanol with energy return of the invested energy larger than 5.1 (for example, cellulose), the electrochemical reforming energy balance is advantageous over proton electrolyte membrane water electrolysis. PMID:24892771

  4. Nanotechnology makes biomass electrolysis more energy efficient than water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. X.; Lavacchi, A.; Miller, H. A.; Bevilacqua, M.; Filippi, J.; Innocenti, M.; Marchionni, A.; Oberhauser, W.; Wang, L.; Vizza, F.

    2014-06-01

    The energetic convenience of electrolytic water splitting is limited by thermodynamics. Consequently, significant levels of hydrogen production can only be obtained with an electrical energy consumption exceeding 45 kWh kg-1H2. Electrochemical reforming allows the overcoming of such thermodynamic limitations by replacing oxygen evolution with the oxidation of biomass-derived alcohols. Here we show that the use of an original anode material consisting of palladium nanoparticles deposited on to a three-dimensional architecture of titania nanotubes allows electrical energy savings up to 26.5 kWh kg-1H2 as compared with proton electrolyte membrane water electrolysis. A net energy analysis shows that for bio-ethanol with energy return of the invested energy larger than 5.1 (for example, cellulose), the electrochemical reforming energy balance is advantageous over proton electrolyte membrane water electrolysis.

  5. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Solid-state anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass: Recent progress and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xumeng; Xu, Fuqing; Li, Yebo

    2016-04-01

    Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD), which has gained popularity in the past decade as an environmentally friendly and cost-effective technology for extracting energy from various types of lignocellulosic biomass, is reviewed in this paper. According to data of biomass and methane yields of lignocellulosic feedstocks, crop residues have the highest methane production potential in the U.S., followed by the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), forestry waste, and energy crops. Methane yield and process stability of SS-AD can be improved by different strategies, such as co-digestion with other organic wastes, pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, and optimization of operating parameters. Different models for SS-AD have been developed, and insights into SS-AD processes have been obtained via microbial community analysis, microscope imaging, and tracer techniques. Future research and development in SS-AD, including feedstock identification and co-digestion, feedstock storage and pretreatment, SS-AD reactor development, digestate treatment, and value-added production, are recommended. PMID:26832395

  7. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio

  8. State Energy Program in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-04-01

    The State Energy Program in Kentucky summarizes the important renewable energy and energy efficiency projects and recent successes of the Kentucky Division of Energy, which is the state energy office in the Kentucky.

  9. Energy States of Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenberg, J. Leland

    1970-01-01

    Discusses molecular spectroscopy arising from transitions within rotational, vibrational, and electronic energy states. Using quantum mechanical formuli, the author describes how these spectroscopic methods can be used to determine internuclear distances, bond energies, bond angles, dipole moments, and other details. Concludes with a selected…

  10. The implications of deregulation for biomass and renewable energy in California

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G

    1998-07-01

    California has been leading the nation down the path of electric utility deregulation, beginning with the April 1994, California Public Utilities Commission`s (CPUC) Blue Book restructuring proposal. The road for renewable energy producers has been particularly rocky, leaving the future of renewable energy production very much in doubt. The original CPUC proposal provided for competition among generating sources on the basis of price alone, without regard for environmental considerations. The California legislature took up electric utility deregulation legislation during 1996, culminating in AB 1890, California`s landmark restructuring legislation, which was passed unanimously by the Senate and Assembly, and signed into law by the governor on September 28, 1996. AB 1890 assigned to the California Energy Commission (CEC) the task of determining how to allocate the renewables transition funds between existing and new renewable generating sources, and among the various renewable energy technologies that are available for deployment in California. The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) was assigned the task of reporting to the legislature about the specific benefits provided by biomass energy production in California, and about policies that could shift some of the cost of biomass energy production away from the electric ratepayer, on to beneficiaries of the environmental benefits of biomass energy production. This study describes the development of the CEC and Cal/EPA reports to the California legislature, and provides an analysis of the major issues that were encountered during the course of their development. The study concludes with a consideration of the future prospects for biomass and renewable energy production in the state.

  11. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xumeng; Matsumoto, Tracie; Keith, Lisa; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass and food wastes, such as taro, papaya, and sweet potato, are limited. In this study, these tropical biomass wastes were evaluated for biogas production by liquid AD (L-AD) and/or solid-state AD (SS-AD), depending on feedstock characteristics. When albizia leaves and chips were used as feedstocks, L-AD had greater methane yields (161 and 113 L kg(-1)VS, respectively) than SS-AD (156.8 and 59.6 L kg(-1)VS, respectively), while SS-AD achieved 5-fold higher volumetric methane productivity than L-AD. Mono-digestion and co-digestion of taro skin, taro flesh, papaya, and sweet potato achieved methane yields from 345 to 411 L kg(-1)VS, indicating the robustness of AD technology. PMID:25022835

  12. Energy from biomass — Some basic physical and related considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloyne, R. W.

    1983-09-01

    The production of vegetable matter (biomass) by photosynthesis is determined by species and by meteorological factors (especially, but not exclusively, solar radiation). Annual net primary production of land-based biomass corresponds to only about 1/1000 of the intercepted irradiation at ground level, but even so, is 10 times the world's estimated energy needs. The exploitation of this energy potential at any one place is critically influenced by the economic, political and social factors, amongst which are the competition from agriculture (especially food crops), forestry, industrial and urban (including leisure) needs for land and resources. Social factors (e.g. population and population density) also constitute prime influences. Strategies for utilisation range from the cultivation of special energy crops (readily conceivable on the American/ Australasian continents); to the more efficient manipulation of current land-use patterns (including “opportunity” cropping); to the more effective exploitation of biologi cal wastes (e.g. methane from sewage), probably the only immediately practical possibility in any densely populated and highly industrialised country. The spatial pattern of solar irradiation at ground level is complex. In the summer, total daily irradiation in continental high latitudes can exceed that in maritime temperate regions; and this combined with species differences and the almost infinite variety of shape and orientation of plant parts, result in a photosynthetic production of biomass which does not conform completely to a zonal pattern, but in broad terms annual dry matter production varies from a few kg/ha in Arctic Tundra to tens of tonnes in temperate latitudes rising to nearly 100 t/ha for perennial tropical crops. If a species could be developed to grow throughout the year at the current seasonal rate, a yield of 150 t/yr, ha) seems possible.

  13. Harvesting forest biomass for energy in Minnesota: An assessment of guidelines, costs and logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Dalia El Sayed Abbas Mohamed

    The emerging market for renewable energy in Minnesota has generated a growing interest in utilizing more forest biomass for energy. However, this growing interest is paralleled with limited knowledge of the environmental impacts and cost effectiveness of utilizing this resource. To address environmental and economic viability concerns, this dissertation has addressed three areas related to biomass harvest: First, existing biomass harvesting guidelines and sustainability considerations are examined. Second, the potential contribution of biomass energy production to reduce the costs of hazardous fuel reduction treatments in these trials is assessed. Third, the logistics of biomass production trials are analyzed. Findings show that: (1) Existing forest related guidelines are not sufficient to allow large-scale production of biomass energy from forest residue sustainably. Biomass energy guidelines need to be based on scientific assessments of how repeated and large scale biomass production is going to affect soil, water and habitat values, in an integrated and individual manner over time. Furthermore, such guidelines would need to recommend production logistics (planning, implementation, and coordination of operations) necessary for a potential supply with the least site and environmental impacts. (2) The costs of biomass production trials were assessed and compared with conventional treatment costs. In these trials, conventional mechanical treatment costs were lower than biomass energy production costs less income from biomass sale. However, a sensitivity analysis indicated that costs reductions are possible under certain site, prescriptions and distance conditions. (3) Semi-structured interviews with forest machine operators indicate that existing fuel reduction prescriptions need to be more realistic in making recommendations that can overcome operational barriers (technical and physical) and planning and coordination concerns (guidelines and communications

  14. Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E.; Lu, W.

    1995-11-01

    Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

  15. Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, J.; Tokarevsky, V.

    1998-06-01

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.

  16. Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Earth receives around 1000 W.m−2 of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture. PMID:24976951

  17. Renewable biomass energy: Understanding regional scale environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.

    1993-12-31

    If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental impacts of growing energy crops at the regional scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level the probable impact of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different impacts in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass.

  18. Production of Biomass-Degrading Multienzyme Complexes under Solid-State Fermentation of Soybean Meal Using a Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Vitcosque, Gabriela L.; Fonseca, Rafael F.; Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Farinas, Cristiane S.

    2012-01-01

    Biomass-degrading enzymes are one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels. This work evaluates the effects of operational conditions on biomass-degrading multienzyme production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger. The fungus was cultivated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) of soybean meal, using an instrumented lab-scale bioreactor equipped with an on-line automated monitoring and control system. The effects of air flow rate, inlet air relative humidity, and initial substrate moisture content on multienzyme (FPase, endoglucanase, and xylanase) production were evaluated using a statistical design methodology. Highest production of FPase (0.55 IU/g), endoglucanase (35.1 IU/g), and xylanase (47.7 IU/g) was achieved using an initial substrate moisture content of 84%, an inlet air humidity of 70%, and a flow rate of 24 mL/min. The enzymatic complex was then used to hydrolyze a lignocellulosic biomass, releasing 4.4 g/L of glucose after 36 hours of saccharification of 50 g/L pretreated sugar cane bagasse. These results demonstrate the potential application of enzymes produced under SSF, thus contributing to generate the necessary technological advances to increase the efficiency of the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. PMID:23365723

  19. Energy Potential of Biomass from Conservation Grasslands in Minnesota, USA

    PubMed Central

    Jungers, Jacob M.; Fargione, Joseph E.; Sheaffer, Craig C.; Wyse, Donald L.; Lehman, Clarence

    2013-01-01

    Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass yield, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency, and plant tissue nitrogen (N) as metrics of bioenergy potential from mixed-species conservation grasslands harvested with commercial-scale equipment. With three years of data, we used mixed-effects models to determine factors that influence bioenergy potential. Sixty conservation grassland plots, each about 8 ha in size, were distributed among three locations in Minnesota. Harvest treatments were applied annually in autumn as a completely randomized block design. Biomass yield ranged from 0.5 to 5.7 Mg ha−1. May precipitation increased biomass yield while precipitation in all other growing season months showed no affect. Averaged across all locations and years, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency was 450 l Mg−1 and the concentration of plant N was 7.1 g kg−1, both similar to dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crops such as switchgrass. Biomass yield did not decline in the second or third year of harvest. Across years, biomass yields fluctuated 23% around the average. Surprisingly, forb cover was a better predictor of biomass yield than warm-season grass with a positive correlation with biomass yield in the south and a negative correlation at other locations. Variation in land ethanol yield was almost exclusively due to variation in biomass yield rather than biomass quality; therefore, efforts to increase biomass yield might be more economical than altering biomass composition when managing conservation grasslands for ethanol production. Our measurements of bioenergy potential, and the factors that control it, can serve as parameters for assessing the economic

  20. Improvement for Thermal Energy Characteristics of Wood Biomass Pelletized Using a Half Carbonized Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimura, Kenji; Ida, Tamio; Fuchihata, Manabu; Honjo, Takako; Sano, Hiroshi

    Biomass pellet utilities are popular in North European as a pellet stove and boiler et al. But, we have a lot of problem on wood biomass utilities in social situations and geography conditions. Especially, to move of biomass from mountain area to user side transportation coast rises. Therefore, we have to improve for thermal energy characteristics in biomass based on moving. This technology is new carbonized technology for improvement of biomass thermal energy characteristics. This technology controls heated temperature and pressed force by hot-press method. Fundamental properties of biomass show thermal decomposition and ultimate analysis. In these results, we suggest to occur a half carbonized phenomena for improvement of thermal energy. Half carbonized phenomena begin approximately 540K in sawdust and 580K in cellulose. And, total calorifi c value suddenly increases in these heated temperatures. Sawdust could suggest occurring lower 40K to compare cellulose.

  1. State Energy Program Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs

    1999-03-17

    The State Energy Program Operations Manual is a reference tool for the states and the program officials at the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and Regional Support Offices as well as State Energy Offices. The Manual contains information needed to apply for and administer the State Energy Program, including program history, application rules and requirements, and program administration and monitoring requirements.

  2. Characterization of the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant as a biomass energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E.; Guerboy, B.; Sanli, I.

    1999-11-01

    Oil seed plants are important biomass energy sources. The rapeseed plant, which yields a high amount of vegetable oil, has a major position among other oil seed plants. In this study the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant (type 00 Brassica napus L.) has been investigated as a candidate for a biomass energy source.

  3. Photoreceptor effects on plant biomass, resource allocation, and metabolic state.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deyue; Seaton, Daniel D; Krahmer, Johanna; Halliday, Karen J

    2016-07-01

    Plants sense the light environment through an ensemble of photoreceptors. Members of the phytochrome class of light receptors are known to play a critical role in seedling establishment, and are among the best-characterized plant signaling components. Phytochromes also regulate adult plant growth; however, our knowledge of this process is rather fragmented. This study demonstrates that phytochrome controls carbon allocation and biomass production in the developing plant. Phytochrome mutants have a reduced CO2 uptake, yet overaccumulate daytime sucrose and starch. This finding suggests that even though carbon fixation is impeded, the available carbon resources are not fully used for growth during the day. Supporting this notion, phytochrome depletion alters the proportion of day:night growth. In addition, phytochrome loss leads to sizeable reductions in overall growth, dry weight, total protein levels, and the expression of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE genes. Because cellulose and protein are major constituents of plant biomass, our data point to an important role for phytochrome in regulating these fundamental components of plant productivity. We show that phytochrome loss impacts core metabolism, leading to elevated levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, amino acids, sugar derivatives, and notably the stress metabolites proline and raffinose. Furthermore, the already growth-retarded phytochrome mutants are less responsive to growth-inhibiting abiotic stresses and have elevated expression of stress marker genes. This coordinated response appears to divert resources from energetically costly biomass production to improve resilience. In nature, this strategy may be activated in phytochrome-disabling, vegetation-dense habitats to enhance survival in potentially resource-limiting conditions. PMID:27330114

  4. Pressurized Oxidative Recovery of Energy from Biomass Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    M. Misra

    2007-06-10

    This study was conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility of using pressurized oxyfuel, the ThermoEnergy Integrated Power System (TIPS), to recover energy from biomass. The study was focused on two fronts—computer simulation of the TIPS plant and corrosion testing to determine the best materials of construction for the critical heat exchanger components of the process. The goals were to demonstrate that a successful strategy of applying the TIPS process to wood waste could be achieved. To fully investigate the technical and economic benefits of using TIPS, it was necessary to model a conventional air-fired biomass power plant for comparison purposes. The TIPS process recovers and utilizes the latent heat of vaporization of water entrained in the fuel or produced during combustion. This latent heat energy is unavailable in the ambient processes. An average composition of wood waste based on data from the Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, and the South was used for the study. The high moisture content of wood waste is a major advantage of the TIPS process. The process can utilize the higher heating value of the fuel by condensing most of the water vapor in the flue gas and making the flue gas a useful source of heat. This is a considerable thermal efficiency gain over conventional power plants which use the lower heating value of the fuel. The elevated pressure also allows TIPS the option of recovering CO2 at near ambient temperatures with high purity oxygen used in combustion. Unlike ambient pressure processes which need high energy multi-stage CO2 compression to supply pipeline quality product, TIPS is able to simply pump the CO2 liquid using very little auxiliary power. In this study, a 15.0 MWe net biomass power plant was modeled, and when a CO2 pump was included it only used 0.1 MWe auxiliary power. The need for refrigeration is eliminated at such pressures resulting in significant energy, capital, and operating and maintenance savings. Since wood

  5. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments.

    PubMed

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor. PMID:22546368

  6. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Portfolio Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D.

    2008-07-01

    The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) mandates an increase in the use of wind, solar, biomass, and other alternatives to fossil and nuclear electric generation. This paper provides a summary of the policy objectives that commonly drive the establishment of an RPS, the key issues that states have encountered in implementing an RPS, and the strategies that some of the leading states have followed to address implementation challenges. The factors that help an RPS function best generally have been explored in other analyses. This study complements others by comparing empirical outcomes, and identifying the policies that appear to have the greatest impact on results.

  7. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  8. Electronic energy states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    One-electron wave functions are reviewed and approximate solutions of two-electron systems are given in terms of these one-electron functions. The symmetry effects associated with electron spin are reviewed and the effects of electron exchange on energy levels of the two-electron system are given. The coupling of electronic orbital and spin angular momentum is considered next and the Lande interval rule for Russell-Saunders or LS coupling is derived. The configurations possible for various multi-electron LS couplings are enumerated (examples from the first two rows of the periodic table are given), and the meaning of the spectroscopic nomenclature is discussed, particularly with respect to the degeneracies of the electron states involved. Next the nomenclature, symmetries, and degeneracies for electron states of diatomic molecules are discussed, and some examples for N2, O2, and NO are presented. The electronic partition functions and derivative thermodynamic properties are expressed in terms of these energies and degeneracies, and examples are given for some of the simple gas species encountered in the earth's atmosphere.

  9. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

  10. {open_quotes}Green{close_quotes} certification: An option for helping the biomass energy industry grow

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    This article explores the potential merits of `green` certification as an approach that may help overcome barriers and facilitate the future growth of the biomass power industry. Two methods of certification are addressed in this article, independent certification and self certification. Topics discussed include the following: utility `green Pricing` opportunities; perspectives on sustainable forestry and biomass energy; market incentives and the role of biomass in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. 7 refs.

  11. Rapid and accurate determination of the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass by solid-state NMR

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li; McCallum, Scott A.; Miao, Jianjun; Hart, Courtney; Tudryn, Gregory J.; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels and biomaterials, produced from lignocellulosic feedstock, require facile access to cellulose and hemicellulose to be competitive with petroleum processing and sugar-based fermentation. Physical-chemical barriers resulting from lignin complicates the hydrolysis biomass into fermentable sugars. Thus, the amount of lignin within a substrate is critical in determining biomass processing. The application of 13C cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance for the direct quantification of lignin content in biomass is examined. Using a standard curve constructed from pristine lignin and cellulose, the lignin content of a biomass sample is accurately determined through direct measurement without chemical or enzymatic pre-treatment. PMID:25404762

  12. Rapid and accurate determination of the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; McCallum, Scott A; Miao, Jianjun; Hart, Courtney; Tudryn, Gregory J; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    Biofuels and biomaterials, produced from lignocellulosic feedstock, require facile access to cellulose and hemicellulose to be competitive with petroleum processing and sugar-based fermentation. Physical-chemical barriers resulting from lignin complicates the hydrolysis biomass into fermentable sugars. Thus, the amount of lignin within a substrate is critical in determining biomass processing. The application of (13)C cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance for the direct quantification of lignin content in biomass is examined. Using a standard curve constructed from pristine lignin and cellulose, the lignin content of a biomass sample is accurately determined through direct measurement without chemical or enzymatic pre-treatment. PMID:25404762

  13. Eleventh Annual Conference on Alcohol and Biomass Energy Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-10-01

    NEDO is undertaking a number of alcohol and biomass energy technology projects aiming at developing technology for bacterial production of fuel alcohol directly from currently unutilized resources such as agricultural and forestry wastes. This book reports the eleventh annual conference and consists of two parts. Part one describes outlines of these projects classified into three groups. In part two, achievements of these projects are reported in detail. For the development of fuel alcohol production technology using bacteria, searching for and breeding superior bacteria were achieved, and the optimum design of a total production system including a fermenter and peripheral processes was studied. Next, for the development of a high-efficiency membrane complex methane production unit from sewage and industrial waste water, membrane modules, a new type bioreactor, and an instrumentation and control system were investigated, leading to test production with pilot plants. Finally, for demonstration tests for converting oil-fired power stations to methanol, developmental studies on stationary diesel power generation and others were carried out.

  14. Modeling of Biomass Burning Aerosols over Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, C.; Lavoue, D.; Davis, A.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. National Emissions Inventory (NEI) for area sources such as biomass burning have uncertainties in temporal variability due to temporal averaging of the final inventories. The Fire Inventory of NCAR (FINN) provides detailed emissions estimates of gaseous and aerosol emissions from individual wildland, prescribed, and open fires over North America. In an effort to improve PM2.5 source impact estimates from fire activity over Southeastern U.S., the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is used to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and source impacts for fires during May of 2012. In this work, FINN emissions estimates replace NEI fire emissions estimates for more precise estimation of fire impact on air quality. Modeled results are evaluated using observations from monitoring networks such as the Chemical Speciation Network and the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization network. Aircraft measurements from the Deep Convective Cloud and Chemistry (DC3) flight campaign and the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) are also used to evaluate modeled simulations of aerosol concentrations.

  15. Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. I. Geothermal and biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, A. P.; Etnier, E. L.

    1981-07-01

    An evaluation of potential occupational and public health aspects of geopressure, hydrothermal, hot dry rock, silviculture, crop and animal residues, fermentable plant products, municipal waste, and plantation energy technologies has been performed. Future development of these energy options in the United States will contain hazards that could easily be eliminated by safer equipment design and common-sense attention to operation and maintenance. Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide gas occurs near all geothermal sites and wherever organic matter decomposes anaerobically. Respiratory damage has occurred to laborers in geothermal fields, while farm workers have been fatally overcome when employed near agitating liquid manure systems. However, the most frequent and severe of reported injuries to geothermal workers is dermal exposure to caustic sludges produced by H2S abatement systems. Principal health and safety considerations of biomass pathways are directly related to the diffuse nature of solar energy fixation by photosynthesis and subsequent transfer to animal food chains. Since the potential fuel is in an unconcentrated form, cultivation, harvest, and transport are necessarily laborintensive. Thus, a significant potential for occupational injuries and fatalities exists. Of all biomass systems evaluated, direct burning of solid fuels presents the greatest public health risk. Data are presented to characterize the population at risk and the frequency and severity of injuries.

  16. Conversion of agricultural bio-mass to energy via catalyst assisted pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One method for converting agricultural waste or specifically grown crops to energy is by heating this “bio-mass” to high temperatures in the absence of oxygen, a process called pyrolysis. Burning bio-mass in the presence of oxygen produces mostly carbon dioxide and water. Burning biomass in the ab...

  17. Implications of Perennial Biomass Energy Cropping Systems for Pasture and Forage Lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lignocellulose in forage crops represents large source of biomass feedstock for conversion into energy-related end products. With new technologies and processes for biomass production and conversion approaching commercial reality forages could once again fuel agriculture. Some of the most extens...

  18. Forest biomass as a source of renewable energy in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Tuerker, M.F.; Ayaz, H.; Kaygusuz, K.

    1999-10-01

    In Turkey illegal cutting takes place, which cannot be controlled. Legal cuttings have also been done by several state forest enterprises. As a result, the amount of wood raw material produced by forest enterprises legally and by forest villagers illegally has exceeded the potential capacity of the forest. According to the research related to Macka and other Turkish state forests, the state forests have been decreasing day by day. This is because the amount of wood raw material taken from the forests has exceeded the production potential of the forest. That study concluded that the Macka and other Turkish forests will be exhausted after 64 and 67 years, respectively. This study also examined both establishing and exploiting energy forests near the forest villages and producing fuel briquettes manufactured using the residues of agriculture, forestry, and stock breeding to diminish the demand for illegal fuel wood cutting from the state forests.

  19. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-01-25

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

  20. Woody biomass resource of major tree taxa for the Midsouth states. Forest Service Resource Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Rosson, J.F.

    1992-02-01

    Data from the most recent State forest surveys were used to derive estimates of wood and bark biomass for the Midsouth region. For clarification of these data, appendix 1 defines relevant terms. Species that occurred in the Midsouth sample are listed in appendix 2. Appendix 3 tables 1 through 3 describe the Midsouth timberland area by State. Tables 4 through 48 describe the biomass resource by species group (4-6), ownership class (7-12), forest type (13-18), tree class (19-30), diameter class (31-36), basal area class (37-42), and height class (43-48). See the list of tables for a more detailed description of table content. Appendix 4 figures 1 through 7 describe the extent of biomass resource by yield class.

  1. Enhancing biomass energy yield from pilot-scale high rate algal ponds with recycling.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of recycling on biomass energy yield in High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs). Two 8 m(3) pilot-scale HRAPs treating primary settled sewage were operated in parallel and monitored over a 2-year period. Volatile suspended solids were measured from both HRAPs and their gravity settlers to determine biomass productivity and harvest efficiency. The energy content of the biomass was also measured. Multiplying biomass productivity and harvest efficiency gives the 'harvestable biomass productivity' and multiplying this by the energy content defines the actual 'biomass energy yield'. In Year 1, algal recycling was implemented in one of the ponds (HRAPr) and improved harvestable biomass productivity by 58% compared with the control (HRAPc) without recycling (HRAPr: 9.2 g/m(2)/d; HRAPc: 5.8 g/m(2)/d). The energy content of the biomass grown in HRAPr, which was dominated by Pediastrun boryanum, was 25% higher than the control HRAPc which contained a mixed culture of 4-5 different algae (HRAPr: 21.5 kJ/g; HRAPc: 18.6 kJ/g). In Year 2, HRAPc was then seeded with the biomass harvested from the P. boryanum dominated HRAPr. This had the effect of shifting algal dominance from 89% Dictyosphaerium sp. (which is poorly-settleable) to over 90% P. boryanum in 5 months. Operation of this pond was then switched to recycling its own harvested biomass, which maintained P. boryanum dominance for the rest of Year 2. This result confirms, for the first time in the literature, that species control is possible for similarly sized co-occurring algal colonies in outdoor HRAP by algal recycling. With regard to the overall improvement in biomass energy yield, which is a critical parameter in the context of algal cultivation for biofuels, the combined improvements that recycling triggered in biomass productivity, harvest efficiency and energy content enhanced the harvested biomass energy yield by 66% (HRAPr: 195 kJ/m(2)/day; HRAPc: 118 kJ/m(2)/day). PMID:23764593

  2. Anaerobic conversion of microalgal biomass to sustainable energy carriers--a review.

    PubMed

    Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Tuovinen, Olli H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2013-05-01

    This review discusses anaerobic production of methane, hydrogen, ethanol, butanol and electricity from microalgal biomass. The amenability of microalgal biomass to these bioenergy conversion processes is compared with other aquatic and terrestrial biomass sources. The highest energy yields (kJ g(-1) dry wt. microalgal biomass) reported in the literature have been 14.8 as ethanol, 14.4 as methane, 6.6 as butanol and 1.2 as hydrogen. The highest power density reported from microalgal biomass in microbial fuel cells has been 980 mW m(-2). Sequential production of different energy carriers increases attainable energy yields, but also increases investment and maintenance costs. Microalgal biomass is a promising feedstock for anaerobic energy conversion processes, especially for methanogenic digestion and ethanol fermentation. The reviewed studies have mainly been based on laboratory scale experiments and thus scale-up of anaerobic utilization of microalgal biomass for production of energy carriers is now timely and required for cost-effectiveness comparisons. PMID:23021960

  3. State building energy codes status

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

  4. First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this second volume cover Transportation Fuels, and Chemicals and Products. Transportation Fuels topics include: Biodiesel, Pyrolytic Liquids, Ethanol, Methanol and Ethers, and Commercialization. The Chemicals and Products section includes specific topics in: Research, Technology Transfer, and Commercial Systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. The Potential for Biomass District Energy Production in Port Graham, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Sink, Chugachmiut; Keeryanne Leroux, EERC

    2008-05-08

    This project was a collaboration between The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Chugachmiut – A Tribal organization Serving the Chugach Native People of Alaska and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tribal Energy Program. It was conducted to determine the economic and technical feasibility for implementing a biomass energy system to service the Chugachmiut community of Port Graham, Alaska. The Port Graham tribe has been investigating opportunities to reduce energy costs and reliance on energy imports and support subsistence. The dramatic rise in the prices of petroleum fuels have been a hardship to the village of Port Graham, located on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. The Port Graham Village Council views the forest timber surrounding the village and the established salmon industry as potential resources for providing biomass energy power to the facilities in their community. Benefits of implementing a biomass fuel include reduced energy costs, energy independence, economic development, and environmental improvement. Fish oil–diesel blended fuel and indoor wood boilers are the most economical and technically viable options for biomass energy in the village of Port Graham. Sufficient regional biomass resources allow up to 50% in annual heating savings to the user, displacing up to 70% current diesel imports, with a simple payback of less than 3 years for an estimated capital investment under $300,000. Distributive energy options are also economically viable and would displace all imported diesel, albeit offering less savings potential and requiring greater capital. These include a large-scale wood combustion system to provide heat to the entire village, a wood gasification system for cogeneration of heat and power, and moderate outdoor wood furnaces providing heat to 3–4 homes or community buildings per furnace. Coordination of biomass procurement and delivery, ensuring resource reliability and technology acceptance, and arbitrating

  6. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten, the Proctor Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites, for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A separate Appendix provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. 26 figs., 121 tabs.

  7. Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and Jet Fuel in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Kinchin, C.; McCormick, R.

    2013-12-01

    The study summarizes the best available public data on the production, capacity, cost, market demand, and feedstock availability for the production of biomass-based diesel and jet fuel. It includes an overview of the current conversion processes and current state-of-development for the production of biomass-based jet and diesel fuel, as well as the key companies pursuing this effort. Thediscussion analyzes all this information in the context of meeting the RFS mandate, highlights uncertainties for the future industry development, and key business opportunities.

  8. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncoveredmore » that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.« less

  9. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  10. Biotechnology of biomass conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers: An introduction to biomass crops; The microbiology of fermentation processes; The production of ethanol from biomass crops, such as sugar cane and rubbers; The energy of biomass conversion; and The economics of biomass conversion.

  11. Assessing Extension's Ability to Promote Family Forests as a Woody Biomass Feedstock in the Northeast United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Rene' H.; Ghosh, Chandrani

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here surveyed Extension educators' awareness and knowledge of woody biomass energy and assessed their desire and ability to reach out to family forest owners-a critical feedstock source. The results indicate Extension educators are aware of the potential of woody biomass to serve as a renewable source of energy. Respondents…

  12. BIOMASS GASIFICATION FOR AGRICULTURAL ENERGY SOURCES AND SOIL ENRICHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phase I of the Biomass Gasification Project gave birth to many success stories and demonstrated enormous potential for members of the local agricultural community and for students within the university.

    Community-building

    Watauga County Cooperative Ext...

  13. State Energy Overview. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    An overview of selected energy-related data for the United States, for each state, and for the District of Columbia is presented. Included are the quantities of energy produced and consumed, estimates of fuel reserves, the value of nonrenewable fuels produced by type, energy expenditures, and consumer prices. Also provided for each state are selected demographic and energy-related information that have been ranked and expressed as a percent of the national total. This overview provides a ready reference and a quick access to selected state energy information and state rankings for various socioeconomic and energy items. The State Energy Overview is arranged in five sections. The first section presents United States totals and an overview of state rankings. The second depicts data for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The glossary presents definitions germane to this publication and the fourth section describes methodology and includes remarks concerning the information and methods used to estimate 1982 consumption numbers. The fifth section presents sources of data and information for this publication. A summary of each section is included.

  14. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  15. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai Brent Auvermann Saqib Mukhtar Sergio C. Capareda Cady Engler Wyatte Harman J.N. Reddy, Robert DeOtte David B. Parker Dr. B.A. Stewart

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  17. Leveling Intermittent Renewable Energy Production Through Biomass Gasification-Based Hybrid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.; Munoz, D.

    2010-01-01

    The increased use of intermittent renewable power in the United States is forcing utilities to manage increasingly complex supply and demand interactions. This paper evaluates biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be integrated with renewable resources to improve the efficiency, reliability, dispatchability, and cost of other renewable technologies. Two hybrid concepts were analyzed that involve co-production of gaseous hydrogen and electric power from thermochemical biorefineries. Both of the concepts analyzed share the basic idea of combining intermittent wind-generated electricity with a biomass gasification plant. The systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at a cost of $1.67/kg. The proposed hybrid systems seek to either fill energy shortfalls by supplying hydrogen to a peaking natural gas turbine or to absorb excess renewable power during low-demand hours. Direct leveling of intermittent renewable electricity production is accomplished with either an indirectly heated biomass gasifier, or a directly heated biomass gasifier. The indirect gasification concepts studied were found to be cost competitive in cases where value is placed on controlling carbon emissions. A carbon tax in the range of $26-40 per metric ton of CO{sub 2} equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emission makes the systems studied cost competitive with steam methane reforming (SMR) to produce hydrogen. However, some additional value must be placed on energy peaking or sinking for these plants to be economically viable. The direct gasification concept studied replaces the air separation unit (ASU) with an electrolyzer bank and is unlikely to be cost competitive in the near future. High electrolyzer costs and wind power requirements make the hybridization difficult to justify economically without downsizing the system. Based on a direct replacement of the ASU with electrolyzers, hydrogen

  18. Don't forget alternate energy sources: biomass, geothermal, wind

    SciTech Connect

    Miskell, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The United States is probably the most fortunate country in the world in terms of potential energy resources, and that is part of the problem in developing alternate sources. Which ones should be given preference, and which ones will give the quickest, most economic return on investment. The exploration of converting potential plant life to energy is already underway. One such plant is the milkweed. The milky latex substance of the weed contains 30% hydrocarbon and 70% water. About 7% to 10% of the plant weight is extractable crude oil. The unused plant residue can be processed to produce alcohol. In Utah, a milkweed project yielded 2.5 pounds of oil from 35 lbs. of milkweed. The California Commission is looking into the possibility of using two million tons of rice straw, now left in the fields to be burned. The basic thrust of geothermal activity is still the dry steam plants in the Geyser field in California, but the movement to develop more prevalent hot water persists. Binary production and the use of moderate hot water are gaining in acceptance. The government's goal for wind for the year 2000 is 2% of total energy usage. Both utility and consumer participation will be required to meet that goal. Utilities will have to install 20,000 to 30,000 large-scale machines and nearly 1 million would have to be installed by consumers for homes and farms. Movement is already underway.

  19. Environmental risks of utilizing crop and forest residues for biomass energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pimentel, D.; Fast, S.; Gallahan, D.; Moran, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Crop and forest residues are a valuable biomass resource for natural, agricultural, and forest ecosystems. These residues are essential to protect the soil from erosion and rapid water runoff and to maintain soil organic matter and nutrients. Thus, only an estimated 20% of the total residues remaining after harvest can be utilized for conversion because of environmental limitations and the impracticality of harvesting residues on some lands. Although the potential contribution of biomass energy to U.S. energy needs is relatively small, it is renewable energy (assuming no environmental degradation) and therefore has some long term value to the nation's energy program.

  20. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten, Brent W. Auvermann, Saqib Mukhtar, Sergio Caperada Cady R. Engler, Wyatte Harman Reddy JN Robert Deotte

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  1. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this report is to help focus the federal programs in biomass energy, by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid-1979. In addition, the industry's perceptions of government activities are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations, as listed in Exhibit 1. Interview findings have been supplemented by research of recent literature. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry; (2) what are the companies doing; (3) what are their objectives and strategies; and (4) what are the implications for government policy. This executive summary provides highlights of the key findings and conclusions. The summary discussion is presented in seven parts: (1) overview of the biomass field; (2) structure of the biomass industry today; (3) corporate activities in biomass-related areas; (4) motivations for these activities; (5) industry's outlook on the future for energy-from-biomass; (6) industry's view of government activities; and (7) implications for Federal policy.

  2. State Energy Data Needs Assessment

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This report responds to Section 805(d) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Public Law 110-140, requiring the Energy Information Administration to assess State-level energy data needs and submit to Congress a plan to address those needs.

  3. Geographies of biomass and solar energy: Spatial decision support for regional energy sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, Kirby Edward

    This thesis applies concepts and techniques in geography in order to contribute to our understanding of the opportunities and challenges associated with the transition toward renewable energy. The work is best understood as the sum of two parts. In the first part, the methodological and philosophical underpinnings of the field of energy geography are explored in order to situate the research in the broader constellation of geographical practices surrounding energy. I make the case that energy transitions are not merely shifts in energy supply but are also simultaneously fundamental shifts in prevailing spatial relations, so that energy transition management is best conceived as a spatial strategy with emphasis on regional level land-energy planning. In the second part of the thesis, I aim to provide decision support in favour of this spatial strategy. This begins in Chapter 4 with a comprehensive critical review of how GIScience and remote sensing has been applied in RE assessments and spatial planning. The next three chapters engage key gaps in this literature and are the analytical contributions of the thesis. The focus of the research is on biomass and solar energy in (eastern) Ontario. In Chapter 5 I develop geographically explicit supply-cost curves for forestry and agricultural biomass and assess the relative merits of a mixed biomass feedstock stream. In Chapter 6 I recognize and address the issue that developers of dedicated bioenergy crops and ground-mount solar PV systems prefer the same type of land. Land-energy trade-offs are modeled and their implications in the context of incentivizing RE development are discussed. In Chapter 7 I explore ways in which targeted facility siting can capture ancillary benefits related to RE production. I argue that focusing on the benefits as well as the costs of system siting is critical to linking developer and public interests. Ontario's feed-in tariff program is evaluated in the light of this claim. Chapter 8

  4. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Federal programs in biomass energy are defined by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid 1979. The industry's perceptions of government activites are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities, petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry? (2) what are the companies doing? (3) what are their objectives and strategies? (4) what are the implications for government policy?

  5. Biomass energy production. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    These 210 citations from the international literature describe the production and/or utilization of most forms of biomass as a source of energy, fuel, food, and chemical intermediates or feedstocks. Biomass conversion by incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or fermentation, as well as by catalytic, photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, and bio-electrochemical means are among the conversion processes considered. Discussions include biomass plantation and material productivity, transportation and equipment requirements, effects, comparisons of means and efficiencies of utilization and conversion, assessments of limitations, and evaluations of economic potential.

  6. Energy-efficient biomass processing with pulsed electric fields for bioeconomy and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Alexander; Sack, Martin; Teissie, Justin; Pataro, Gianpiero; Pliquett, Uwe; Saulis, Gintautas; Stefan, Töpfl; Miklavcic, Damijan; Vorobiev, Eugene; Frey, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Fossil resources-free sustainable development can be achieved through a transition to bioeconomy, an economy based on sustainable biomass-derived food, feed, chemicals, materials, and fuels. However, the transition to bioeconomy requires development of new energy-efficient technologies and processes to manipulate biomass feed stocks and their conversion into useful products, a collective term for which is biorefinery. One of the technological platforms that will enable various pathways of biomass conversion is based on pulsed electric fields applications (PEF). Energy efficiency of PEF treatment is achieved by specific increase of cell membrane permeability, a phenomenon known as membrane electroporation. Here, we review the opportunities that PEF and electroporation provide for the development of sustainable biorefineries. We describe the use of PEF treatment in biomass engineering, drying, deconstruction, extraction of phytochemicals, improvement of fermentations, and biogas production. These applications show the potential of PEF and consequent membrane electroporation to enable the bioeconomy and sustainable development. PMID:27127539

  7. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 1, Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed an initial investigation of the effects of physical and chemical properties of biomass feedstocks relative to their performance in biomass energy conversion systems. Both biochemical conversion routes (anaerobic digestion and ethanol fermentation) and thermochemical routes (combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification) were included in the study. Related processes including chemical and physical pretreatment to improve digestibility, and size and density modification processes such as milling and pelletizing were also examined. This overview report provides background and discussion of feedstock and conversion relationships, along with recommendations for future research. The recommendations include (1) coordinate production and conversion research programs; (2) quantify the relationship between feedstock properties and conversion priorities; (3) develop a common framework for evaluating and characterizing biomass feedstocks; (4) include conversion effects as part of the criteria for selecting feedstock breeding programs; and (5) continue emphasis on multiple feedstock/conversion options for biomass energy systems. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Switchgrass biomass energy storage project. Final report, September 23, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.A.; Teel, A.; Brown, S.S.

    1996-07-01

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the Chariton Valley RC&D Inc., a USDA-sponsored rural development organization, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Energy Bureau (IDNR-EB), and IES Utilities, a major Iowa energy company, is directed at the development of markets for energy crops in southern Iowa. This effort is part of a statewide coalition of public and private interests cooperating to merge Iowa`s agricultural potential and its long-term energy requirements to develop locally sustainable sources of biomass fuel. The four-county Chariton Valley RC&D area (Lucas, Wayne, Appanoose and Monroe counties) is the site of one of eleven NREL/EPRI feasibility studies directed at the potential of biomass power. The focus of renewable energy development in the region has centered around the use of swithgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.). This native Iowa grass is one of the most promising sustainable biomass fuel crops. According to investigations by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), switchgrass has the most potential of all the perennial grasses and legumes evaluated for biomass production.

  9. Glucanocellulosic ethanol: the undiscovered biofuel potential in energy crops and marine biomass.

    PubMed

    Falter, Christian; Zwikowics, Claudia; Eggert, Dennis; Blümke, Antje; Naumann, Marcel; Wolff, Kerstin; Ellinger, Dorothea; Reimer, Rudolph; Voigt, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    Converting biomass to biofuels is a key strategy in substituting fossil fuels to mitigate climate change. Conventional strategies to convert lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol address the fermentation of cellulose-derived glucose. Here we used super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to uncover the nanoscale structure of cell walls in the energy crops maize and Miscanthus where the typical polymer cellulose forms an unconventional layered architecture with the atypical (1, 3)-β-glucan polymer callose. This raised the question about an unused potential of (1, 3)-β-glucan in the fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. Engineering biomass conversion for optimized (1, 3)-β-glucan utilization, we increased the ethanol yield from both energy crops. The generation of transgenic Miscanthus lines with an elevated (1, 3)-β-glucan content further increased ethanol yield providing a new strategy in energy crop breeding. Applying the (1, 3)-β-glucan-optimized conversion method on marine biomass from brown macroalgae with a naturally high (1, 3)-β-glucan content, we not only substantially increased ethanol yield but also demonstrated an effective co-fermentation of plant and marine biomass. This opens new perspectives in combining different kinds of feedstock for sustainable and efficient biofuel production, especially in coastal regions. PMID:26324382

  10. Glucanocellulosic ethanol: the undiscovered biofuel potential in energy crops and marine biomass

    PubMed Central

    Falter, Christian; Zwikowics, Claudia; Eggert, Dennis; Blümke, Antje; Naumann, Marcel; Wolff, Kerstin; Ellinger, Dorothea; Reimer, Rudolph; Voigt, Christian A.

    2015-01-01

    Converting biomass to biofuels is a key strategy in substituting fossil fuels to mitigate climate change. Conventional strategies to convert lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol address the fermentation of cellulose-derived glucose. Here we used super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to uncover the nanoscale structure of cell walls in the energy crops maize and Miscanthus where the typical polymer cellulose forms an unconventional layered architecture with the atypical (1, 3)-β-glucan polymer callose. This raised the question about an unused potential of (1, 3)-β-glucan in the fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. Engineering biomass conversion for optimized (1, 3)-β-glucan utilization, we increased the ethanol yield from both energy crops. The generation of transgenic Miscanthus lines with an elevated (1, 3)-β-glucan content further increased ethanol yield providing a new strategy in energy crop breeding. Applying the (1, 3)-β-glucan-optimized conversion method on marine biomass from brown macroalgae with a naturally high (1, 3)-β-glucan content, we not only substantially increased ethanol yield but also demonstrated an effective co-fermentation of plant and marine biomass. This opens new perspectives in combining different kinds of feedstock for sustainable and efficient biofuel production, especially in coastal regions. PMID:26324382

  11. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  12. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  13. Biomass Production in Switchgrass across the United States: Database Description and Determinants of Yield

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, Stan D; Davis, Ethan B.; Borsuk, Mark E.; Gunderson, Carla A; Lynd, L.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental to deriving a sustainable supply of cellulosic feedstock for an emerging biofuels industry is understanding how biomass yield varies as a function of crop management, climate, and soils. Here we focus on the perennial switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and compile a database that contains 1190 observations of yield from 39 field trials conducted across the United States. Data include site location, stand age, plot size, cultivar, crop management, biomass yield, temperature, precipitation, and information on land quality. Statistical analysis revealed the major sources of variation in yield. Frequency distributions of yield for upland and lowland ecotypes were unimodal, with mean ({+-}SD) biomass yields of 8.7 {+-} 4.2 and 12.9 {+-} 5.9 Mg ha-1 for the two ecotypes, respectively. We looked for, but did not find, bias toward higher yields associated with small plots or preferential establishment of stands on high quality lands. A parametric yield model was fit to the data and accounted for one-third of the total observed variation in biomass yields, with an equal contribution of growing season precipitation, annual temperature, N fertilization, and ecotype. The model was used to predict yield across the continental United States. Mapped output was consistent with the natural range of switchgrass and, as expected, yields were shown to be limited by precipitation west of the Great Plains. Future studies should extend the geographic distribution of field trials and thus improve our understanding of biomass production as a function of soil, climate, and crop management for promising biofuels such as switchgrass.

  14. Supply and demand in energy and agriculture: Emitters of CO{sub 2} and possibilities for global biomass energy strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Ahamer, G.; Hubergasse, J.

    1996-12-31

    As seen from the perspective of global E3-modelling (= environment-economy-energy), the sectors of energy and of agriculture are double players situated in a field of tension: both exhibit growing emissions--but both also exhibit reduction potentials for CO{sub 2}, if areas are used for growth of biomass energy carriers. On the one hand, meeting food demand requires increasing agricultural land use in some regions, on the other hand in other regions, an important input of fossil fuels buys higher efficiency levels. In the First World, newly set-aside land can be used for biomass energy production. Before envisaging global strategies for CO{sub 2} emission reductions and more specifically for an enhanced use of biomass for energy, the present boundary conditions of the global energy and agricultural systems have to be analyzed. In a second step, a likely future development has to be contrasted with the desirable increase of bioenergy.

  15. Opportunities for utilization of non-conventional energy sources for biomass pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2016-01-01

    The increasing concerns over the depletion of fossil resources and its associated geo-political issues have driven the entire world to move toward sustainable forms of energy. Pretreatment is the first step in any biochemical conversion process for the production of valuable fuels/chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass to eliminate the lignin and produce fermentable sugars by hydrolysis. Conventional techniques have several limitations which can be addressed by using them in tandem with non-conventional methods for biomass pretreatment. Electron beam and γ (gamma)-irradiation, microwave and ultrasound energies have certain advantages over conventional source of energy and there is an opportunity that these energies can be exploited for biomass pretreatment. PMID:26350883

  16. Biomass-derived carbon quantum dot sensitizers for solid-state nanostructured solar cells.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Joe; Marinovic, Adam; Sevilla, Marta; Dunn, Steve; Titirici, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    New hybrid materials consisting of ZnO nanorods sensitized with three different biomass-derived carbon quantum dots (CQDs) were synthesized, characterized, and used for the first time to build solid-state nanostructured solar cells. The performance of the devices was dependent on the functional groups found on the CQDs. The highest efficiency was obtained using a layer-by-layer coating of two different types of CQDs. PMID:25704873

  17. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  18. Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Marguerite A.; May, Nicole; Assaf-Anid, Nada M.; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-increasing global demand for energy has sparked renewed interest within the engineering community in the study of sustainable alternative energy sources. This paper discusses a power generation system which uses biomass as "fuel" to illustrate the concepts taught to students taking a graduate level chemical engineering process…

  19. Mixing State and Optical Properties of Biomass Burning Aerosol during the SAMBBA 2012 Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, Jennifer; Brooks, Barbara; McQuaid, Jim; Osborne, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Emissions of black carbon are a global phenomenon associated with combustion activities with an estimated 40 % of global emissions from biomass burning. These emissions are typically dominated in regional hotspots, such as along the edges of the Amazon Basin, and contribute to the regional air quality and have associated health impacts as well as the global climatic impacts of this major source of black carbon as well as other radiatively active species. New airborne measurements will be presented of biomass burning emissions across the Amazon region from the South AMerican Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) campaign based at Porto Vehlo, Rondônia, Brazil in September 2012. This airborne campaign aboard the FAAM BAe-146 coincided with the seasonal peak in South American biomass burning emissions, which make up the most dominant source of atmospheric pollutants in the region at this time. SAMBBA included dedicated flights involving in-situ measurements and remote sensing of single plume studies through to multi-plume sampling of smouldering and flaming vegetation fires, regional haze sampling, and measurements of biogenic aerosol and gases across Amazonas. This presentation summarises early findings from the SAMBBA aircraft observations focusing on the relationship between biomass burning aerosol properties; size distributions, aerosol mixing state and optical properties from a suite of instruments onboard the FAAM BAe-146. The interplay of these properties influences the regional radiative balance impacting on weather and climate. The Leeds airborne VACC (Volatile Aerosol Concentration and Composition) instrument is designed to investigate the volatility properties of different aerosol species in order to determine aerosol composition; furthermore it can be used to infer the mixing state of the aerosol. Size distributions measured with the volatility system will be compared with ambient size distribution measurements this allows information on organic coating

  20. Emission reductions from woody biomass waste for energy as an alternative to open burning.

    PubMed

    Springsteen, Bruce; Christofk, Tom; Eubanks, Steve; Mason, Tad; Clavin, Chris; Storey, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Woody biomass waste is generated throughout California from forest management, hazardous fuel reduction, and agricultural operations. Open pile burning in the vicinity of generation is frequently the only economic disposal option. A framework is developed to quantify air emissions reductions for projects that alternatively utilize biomass waste as fuel for energy production. A demonstration project was conducted involving the grinding and 97-km one-way transport of 6096 bone-dry metric tons (BDT) of mixed conifer forest slash in the Sierra Nevada foothills for use as fuel in a biomass power cogeneration facility. Compared with the traditional open pile burning method of disposal for the forest harvest slash, utilization of the slash for fuel reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions by 98% (6 kg PM/BDT biomass), nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 54% (1.6 kg NOx/BDT), nonmethane volatile organics (NMOCs) by 99% (4.7 kg NMOCs/BDT), carbon monoxide (CO) by 97% (58 kg CO/BDT), and carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) by 17% (0.38 t CO2e/BDT). Emission contributions from biomass processing and transport operations are negligible. CO2e benefits are dependent on the emission characteristics of the displaced marginal electricity supply. Monetization of emissions reductions will assist with fuel sourcing activities and the conduct of biomass energy projects. PMID:21305889

  1. Inventory of state energy models

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, A.G.; Gist, R.L.; Underwood, R.G.; Weber, J.C.

    1980-03-31

    These models address a variety of purposes, such as supply or demand of energy or of certain types of energy, emergency management of energy, conservation in end uses of energy, and economic factors. Fifty-one models are briefly described as to: purpose; energy system; applications;status; validation; outputs by sector, energy type, economic and physical units, geographic area, and time frame; structure and modeling techniques; submodels; working assumptions; inputs; data sources; related models; costs; references; and contacts. Discussions in the report include: project purposes and methods of research, state energy modeling in general, model types and terminology, and Federal legislation to which state modeling is relevant. Also, a state-by-state listing of modeling efforts is provided and other model inventories are identified. The report includes a brief encylopedia of terms used in energy models. It is assumed that many readers of the report will not be experienced in the technical aspects of modeling. The project was accomplished by telephone conversations and document review by a team from the Colorado School of Mines Research Institute and the faculty of the Colorado School of Mines. A Technical Committee (listed in the report) provided advice during the course of the project.

  2. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-10-01

    Torrefaction of biomass can be described as a mild form of pyrolysis at temperatures typically ranging between 200 and 300 C in an inert and reduced environment. Common biomass reactions during torrefaction include devolatilization, depolymerization, and carbonization of hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Torrefaction process produces a brown to black solid uniform product and also condensable (water, organics, and lipids) and non condensable gases (CO2, CO, and CH4). Typically during torrefaction, 70% of the mass is retained as a solid product, containing 90% of the initial energy content, and 30% of the lost mass is converted into condensable and non-condensable products. The system's energy efficiency can be improved by reintroducing the material lost during torrefaction as a source of heat. Torrefaction of biomass improves its physical properties like grindability; particle shape, size, and distribution; pelletability; and proximate and ultimate composition like moisture, carbon and hydrogen content, and calorific value. Carbon and calorific value of torrefied biomass increases by 15-25%, and moisture content reduces to <3% (w.b.). Torrefaction reduces grinding energy by about 70%, and the ground torrefied biomass has improved sphericity, particle surface area, and particle size distribution. Pelletization of torrefied biomass at temperatures of 225 C reduces specific energy consumption by two times and increases the capacity of the mill by two times. The loss of the OH group during torrefaction makes the material hydrophobic (loses the ability to attract water molecules) and more stable against chemical oxidation and microbial degradation. These improved properties make torrefied biomass particularly suitable for cofiring in power plants and as an upgraded feedstock for gasification.

  3. 76 FR 54748 - State Energy Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference. SUMMARY: This...

  4. Biomass-Bioenergy crops in the United States: A changing paradigm.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J., M., -F; Coleman, M., D.; Gesch, R.; Jaradat, A.; Mitchell, R.; Reicosky, D.; Wilhelm, W., W.

    2007-01-01

    The world energy paradigm is changing from one based on petroleum to one based on a mixture of energy platforms. This change is precipitated by a finite petroleum supply, an expanding global demand, and political instability in areas with major petroleum reserves. The mixed energy platform will include an array of renewable energy sources. The agricultural and forestry sectors have the potential to provide several plant-based products. Corn (Zea mays L.) grain for ethanol has long been utilized at least in some locations. Soydiesel is an expanding market. Technology is rapidly advancing to utilizing crop biomass, perennial grasses, woody perennials and forest products for the production of ethanol via a cellulosic platform and/or utilizing pyrolysis to generate syngas and other products/co-products. Emerging specialty crops have potential to supply feedstock as well. Altering fundamental aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses and the opportunities to increase productivity and conversion-process efficiencies are strategies to expand biomass availability and usage. As this new platform emerges, cellulosic ethanol production brings new concerns: competing uses for crop or crop products, co-products, competition for land base, and management strategies to protect soil, water, and climate resources. As the energy paradigm shifts, the balance among competing needs will be critical to achieve sustainable food, fiber, and energy while protecting the soil resource and the environment. This emphasizes avoiding potential negative environment consequences of new bioenergy technologies and presents strategies on how this may be achieved.

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis and characterization of waste lignocellulosic biomass produced after dye bioremediation under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Pankajkumar R; Kadam, Avinash A; Saratale, Ganesh D; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2014-09-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) adsorbes 60% Reactive Blue172 (RB172). Providensia staurti EbtSPG able to decolorize SCB adsorbed RB172 up to 99% under solid state fermentation (SSF). The enzymatic saccharification efficiency of waste biomass after bioremediation of RB172 process (ddSCB) has been evaluated. The cellulolyitc crude enzyme produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium used for enzymatic hydrolysis of native SCB and ddSCB which produces 0.08 and 0.3 g/L of reducing sugars respectively after 48 h of incubation. The production of hexose and pentose sugars during hydrolysis was confirmed by HPTLC. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on SCB and ddSCB has been evaluated by FTIR, XRD and SEM analysis. Thus, during dye biodegradation under SSF causes biological pretreatment of SCB which significantly enhanced its enzymatic saccharification. Adsorption of dye on SCB, its bioremediation under SSF produces wastes biomass and which further utilized for enzymatic saccharification for biofuel production. PMID:24656486

  6. Assessing the interactions among U.S. climate policy, biomass energy, and agricultural trade

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-09-01

    Energy from biomass is potentially an important contributor to U.S. climate change mitigation efforts. However, an important consideration to large-scale implementation of bioenergy is that the production of biomass competes with other uses of land. This includes traditionally economically productive uses, such as agriculture and forest products, as well as storage of carbon in forests and non-commercial lands. In addition, in the future, biomass may be more easily traded, meaning that increased U.S. reliance on bioenergy could come with it greater reliance on imported energy. Several approaches could be implemented to address these issues, including limits on U.S. biomass imports and protection of U.S. and global forests. This paper explores these dimensions of bioenergy’s role in U.S. climate policy and the relationship to these alternative measures for ameliorating the trade and land use consequences of bioenergy. It first demonstrates that widespread use of biomass in the U.S. could lead to imports; and it highlights that the relative stringency of domestic and international carbon mitigation policy will heavily influence the degree to which it is imported. Next, it demonstrates that while limiting biomass imports would prevent any reliance on other countries for this energy supply, it would most likely alter the balance of trade in other agricultural products against which biomass competes; for example, it might turn the U.S. from a corn exporter to a corn importer. Finally, it shows that increasing efforts to protect both U.S. and international forests could also affect the balance of trade in other agricultural products.

  7. Analysis of state-energy-program capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, J.; Clifford, D.; Gunnison, F.; Humphrey, B.

    1981-05-01

    This report assesses the potential effects on state energy programs of a reduction in the financial assistance available through the State and Local Assistance Programs and the distribution of those effects. The assessment is based on a survey of nine state energy offices (SEOs), which were selected on the basis of state support of energy programs weighted by state energy consumption. The nine SEOs surveyed were the Arizona Energy Office, Arkansas Department of Energy, California Energy Commission, Florida Governor's Energy Office, Illinois Institute of Natural Resources, Minnesota Energy Agency, New Jersey Department of Energy, South Carolina Governor's Division of Energy Resources, and Washington State Energy Office.

  8. Use of Direct and Indirect Estimates of Crown Dimensions to Predict One Seed Juniper Woody Biomass Yield for Alternative Energy Uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout the western United States there is increased interest in utilizing woodland biomass as an alternative energy source. We conducted a pilot study to predict one seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) chip yield from tree-crown dimensions measured on the ground or derived from Very Large Scale ...

  9. Biomass recycle as a means to improve the energy efficiency of CELSS algal culture systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.

    1987-01-01

    Algal cultures can be very rapid and efficient means to generate biomass and regenerate the atmosphere for closed environmental life support systems. However, as in the case of most higher plants, a significant fraction of the biomass produced by most algae cannot be directly converted to a useful food product by standard food technology procedures. This waste biomass will serve as an energy drain on the overall system unless it can be efficiently recycled without a significant loss of its energy content. Experiments are reported in which cultures of the alga Scenedesmus obliquus were grown in the light and at the expense of an added carbon source, which either replaced or supplemented the actinic light. As part of these experiments, hydrolyzed waste biomass from these same algae were tested to determine whether the algae themselves could be made part of the biological recycling process. Results indicate that hydrolyzed algal (and plant) biomass can serve as carbon and energy sources for the growth of these algae, suggesting that the efficiency of the closed system could be significantly improved using this recycling process.

  10. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - State Energy Program Helps States Plan and Implement Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    State energy offices use SEP funds to develop state plans that identify opportunities for adopting renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies, and implementing programs to improve energy sustainability.

  11. State of the States 2010. The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, Elizabeth; Gelman, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This report builds on the emerging body of literature seeking to identify quantitative connections between clean energy policy and renewable energy. The methods presented test the relationships between a broad set of policies and clean energy resources (energy efficiency, biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind). Energy efficiency findings are an initial foray into this type of analysis and indicate significant connections between reduced energy use and buildings codes, energy efficiency resource standards (in some cases), and electricity price. Renewable energy findings specify that there is most often a relationship between state policies and solar and wind development, indicating that while policies might apply to a wide variety of renewable resources, further tailoring of policy specifics to resource needs may lead to increased development of a wider variety of renewable energy resources. Further research is needed to refine the connections between clean energy development and policy, especially in the area of the impact of the length of time that a policy has been in place.

  12. State of the States 2010: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Gelman, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report builds on the emerging body of literature seeking to identify quantitative connections between clean energy policy and renewable energy. The methods presented test the relationships between a broad set of policies and clean energy resources (energy efficiency, biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind). Energy efficiency findings are an initial foray into this type of analysis and indicate significant connections between reduced energy use and buildings codes, energy efficiency resource standards (in some cases), and electricity price. Renewable energy findings specify that there is most often a relationship between state policies and solar and wind development, indicating that while policies might apply to a wide variety of renewable resources, further tailoring of policy specifics to resource needs may lead to increased development of a wider variety of renewable energy resources. Further research is needed to refine the connections between clean energy development and policy, especially in the area of the impact of the length of time that a policy has been in place.

  13. Evaluation energy efficiency of bioconversion knot rejects to ethanol in comparison to other thermochemically pretreated biomass.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojiang; Qin, Menghua; Zhu, J Y; Tian, Guoyu; Li, Zongquan

    2013-02-01

    Rejects from sulfite pulp mill that otherwise would be disposed of by incineration were converted to ethanol by a combined physical-biological process that was comprised of physical refining and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The energy efficiency was evaluated with comparison to thermochemically pretreated biomass, such as those pretreated by dilute acid (DA) and sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL). It was observed that the structure deconstruction of rejects by physical refining was indispensable to effective bioconversion but more energy intensive than that of thermochemically pretreated biomass. Fortunately, the energy consumption was compensated by the reduced enzyme dosage and the elevated ethanol yield. Furthermore, adjustment of disk-plates gap led to reduction in energy consumption with negligible influence on ethanol yield. In this context, energy efficiency up to 717.7% was achieved for rejects, much higher than that of SPORL sample (283.7%) and DA sample (152.8%). PMID:23376154

  14. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2013-01-29

    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  15. Breeding Energy Cane Cultivars as a Biomass Feedstock for Coal Replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research and advanced breeding have demonstrated that energy cane possesses all of the attributes desirable in a biofuel feedstock: extremely good biomass yield in a small farming footprint; negative/neutral carbon footprint; maximum outputs from minimum inputs; well-established growing model for fa...

  16. Second biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, Environment, Agriculture, and Industry which was held August 21-24, 1995. The volume contains copies of full papers as provided by the researchers. Individual papers were separately indexed and abstracted for the database.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF ADVANCED PROCESSES FOR CONVERSION OF COAL AND BIOMASS INTO CLEAN ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomass and coal conversion into clean energy is compared on an economic and environmental basis in three regional scenarios: (1) electric power from direct combustion of wood versus conventional coal combustion in the South Central U.S., (2) synthetic pipeline gas from anaerobic...

  18. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The results of a 20 month study to explore the technical and economic feasibility of fuelwood utilization to operate a 50 megawatt energy conversion facility are described. The availability of biomass as a fuel source, the methods of harvesting and collecting the fuelstock, the costs of providing adequate fuel to the plant, and other requirements for fueling the proposed conversion facility are investigated. (MHR)

  19. Biomass energy systems program summary. Information current as of September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This program summary describes each of the DOE's Biomass Energy System's projects funded or in existence during fiscal year 1979 and reflects their status as of September 30, 1979. The summary provides an overview of the ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the preceding fiscal year as well. (DMC)

  20. Biomass Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Ian Bonner; David J. Muth

    2015-04-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  1. Use of biomass for producing liquid fuel: Current state and innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernova, N. I.; Korobkova, T. P.; Kiseleva, S. V.

    2010-11-01

    Current matters relating to utilization of biomass for producing energy are discussed, including the most developed technologies of biopower engineering and innovative developments, as well as the possibilities of using nonfood raw materials as second-generation biofuel. It is shown that microalgae can be considered as prospective sources of different kinds of renewable biofuel, such as methane, biohydrogen, bioethanol, biobutanol, pyrolysis biofuel, biodiesel, and renewable diesel fuel, and can serve as an alternative to the traditional cultures used for power-generating purposes.

  2. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This report presents the results of a study undertaken to locate a site for the construction of a biomass cogeneration plant in the state of Maine. On the basis of the study, the site selected was Westbrook, Maine. The evaluation of sites was based on comparison of site-related variables such as: adequate biomass availability; cogeneration potential (market for steam produced); water availability; air quality compliance; access roads; site area required; and adequate tie-ins with electric power grids for sale of electricity produced. (DMC)

  3. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  4. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The results of the study investigations confirm the feasibility of collecting 1000 oven dry tons of biomass per day to fuel a 510,000 lb/hr boiler operating in a congeneration mode and producing steam and electricity. This study was based on the supply of a significant portion of the facility's biomass fuel by tree harvesting and collection operations within a 50 mile radius of the plant site. These operations, including transporting biomass to the conversion plant, would pose no threat to the environment if good forestry practice is carefully maintained. Other environmental factors relating to air and water discharges from the conversion plant pose no significant technological problems in complying with federal, state, and local regulations at a cost that is competitive with similar costs associated with fossil fueled facilities.

  5. Clean energy for development and economic growth: Biomass and other renewable options to meet energy and development needs in poor nations

    SciTech Connect

    Lilley, Art; Pandey, Bikash; Karstad, Elsen; Owen, Matthew; Bailis, Robert; Ribot, Jesse; Masera, Omar; Diaz, Rodolpho; Benallou, Abdelahanine; Lahbabi, Abdelmourhit

    2012-10-01

    The document explores the linkages between renewable energy, poverty alleviation, sustainable development, and climate change in developing countries. In particular, the paper places emphasis on biomass-based energy systems. Biomass energy has a number of unique attributes that make it particularly suitable to climate change mitigation and community development applications.

  6. Perspectives of biomass as an energy source in the Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, J.R.

    1980-12-01

    This paper describes the contribution of biomass to the supply of primary energy in the Dominican Republic through its history. In 1978 this contribution was equivalent to 6.94 x 10/sup 6/ boe, which represented 32% of the primary energy supply. This percentage has been diminishing continuously and more rapidly during the last two decades due to the rapid growth of oil consumption in this period. Even though a decrease in the rate of participation of biomass to the total energy supply has occurred, the demand of wood and charcoal by the household sector and small industries increases daily due to the population growth and the relative increase of its purchasing power. Recent studies showed biomass can play an important role in the Dominican Republic as a source of renewable energy. There is a significant potential for energy farming, biogas and fuel alcohol production. Agricultural wastes in the country have been evaluated and it has been found that their potential represents a considerable and non exploited energy resource.

  7. Increasing Biomass Conversion Efficiencies to Ethanol by Engineering Energy Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Government has targeted aggressive development of bioethanol as one route for decreasing oil dependence and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Achieving future production targets depends on expanding feedstock sources beyond corn and towards lignocellulose. This is expected to in...

  8. Application of sugar maple and black locust to the biomass/energy plantation concept. Final report, April 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Mroz, G.D.; Jurgensen, M.F.; Lai, Y.Z.; Liechty, H.O.; Hamlin, D.C.; Gale, M.F.; Sajak, R.L.; Stinhilb, H.M.

    1986-08-01

    Forests in the Upper Lakes States region, composed predominantly of sugar maple and red maple with a large number of stems in small diameter classes, were evaluated for conversion to biomass/energy plantations. The study included examining the use of black locust as an interplant species to improve maple productivity. Available water and phosphorus were found to be highly correlated with site index and biomass on the sites. Skidding of trees with tops intact caused widespread disruption of forest floor horizons. Natural coppice regrowth on all sites was poor. Results indicate it is not feasible to coppice natural stands of northern hardwoods on a 4-year rotation. Survival of interplanted black locust was very poor due to susceptibility to frost. The potential of black locust as a biomass species for SRIC plantations was demonstrated by the exceptional growth of surviving individuals. A provenance trial of 20 seed sources showed variability in frost resistance among seed sources. Data is presented on the wood characteristics of seven northern hardwoods species show that young sprouts have higher moisture content, seasonal moisture content variation, higher extractive and ash content, a lower specific gravity and lower thermal stability. All species evaluated are comparable in terms of major chemical composition, caloric values, and extent of gasification. 111 refs., 11 figs., 35 tabs.

  9. Integrated biomass energy system for Illinois agriculture. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Day, D.L.; Steinberg, M.P.; Rodda, E.D.; Hunt, D.R.

    1988-05-01

    There is considerable interest in the corn belt region of the USA for producing grain alcohol on farms as liquid fuel for tractors, combines, and trucks used in farming operations. Opportunities appear to exist for fuel-alcohol production on a small scale by individual farmers and local groups. Two major energy consumers in beverage-type alcohol plants are the drying of stillage residues and the fueling the distillation plant. These large energy costs have roused interest in product conservation and fuel-saving methods by using spent stillage as livestock feed and using manure-produced biogas as the process fuel for the alcohol plant. Sludge from the biogas plant also can be distributed onto the cropland to furnish some of the needed crop nutrients.

  10. Energy and exergy analyses of a biomass-based hydrogen production system.

    PubMed

    Cohce, M K; Dincer, I; Rosen, M A

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a novel biomass-based hydrogen production plant is investigated. The system uses oil palm shell as a feedstock. The main plant processes are biomass gasification, steam methane reforming and shift reaction. The modeling of the gasifier uses the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and chemical equilibrium considerations. The plant, with modifications, is simulated and analyzed thermodynamically using the Aspen Plus process simulation code (version 11.1). Exergy analysis, a useful tool for understanding and improving efficiency, is used throughout the investigation, in addition to energy analysis. The overall performance of the system is evaluated, and its efficiencies become 19% for exergy efficiency and 22% energy efficiency while the gasifier cold gas efficiency is 18%. PMID:21724387

  11. A decision model for cost effective design of biomass based green energy supply chains.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz Balaman, Şebnem; Selim, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    The core driver of this study is to deal with the design of anaerobic digestion based biomass to energy supply chains in a cost effective manner. In this concern, a decision model is developed. The model is based on fuzzy multi objective decision making in order to simultaneously optimize multiple economic objectives and tackle the inherent uncertainties in the parameters and decision makers' aspiration levels for the goals. The viability of the decision model is explored with computational experiments on a real-world biomass to energy supply chain and further analyses are performed to observe the effects of different conditions. To this aim, scenario analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of energy crop utilization and operational costs on supply chain structure and performance measures. PMID:25983228

  12. Biomass pyrolysis for biochar or energy applications? A life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jens F; Iribarren, Diego; Dufour, Javier

    2015-04-21

    The application of biochar as a soil amendment is a potential strategy for carbon sequestration. In this paper, a slow pyrolysis system for generating heat and biochar from lignocellulosic energy crops is simulated and its life-cycle performance compared with that of direct biomass combustion. The use of the char as biochar is also contrasted with alternative use options: cofiring in coal power plants, use as charcoal, and use as a fuel for heat generation. Additionally, the influence on the results of the long-term stability of the biochar in the soil, as well as of biochar effects on biomass yield, is evaluated. Negative greenhouse gas emissions are obtained for the biochar system, indicating a significant carbon abatement potential. However, this is achieved at the expense of lower energy efficiency and higher impacts in the other assessed categories when compared to direct biomass combustion. When comparing the different use options of the pyrolysis char, the most favorable result is obtained for char cofiring substituting fossil coal, even assuming high long-term stability of the char. Nevertheless, a high sensitivity to biomass yield increase is found for biochar systems. In this sense, biochar application to low-quality soils where high yield increases are expected would show a more favorable performance in terms of global warming. PMID:25830564

  13. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Atmospheric Emissions from Forest Biomass Residues to Energy Supply Chain: A Case Study in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Rafael, Sandra; Tarelho, Luis; Monteiro, Alexandra; Monteiro, Tânia; Gonçalves, Catarina; Freitas, Sylvio; Lopes, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the past decades, pressures on global environment and energy security have led to an increasing demand on renewable energy sources and diversification of the world's energy supply. The Portuguese energy strategy considers the use of Forest Biomass Residues (FBR) to energy as being essential to accomplish the goals established in the National Energy Strategy for 2020. However, despite the advantages pointing to FBR to the energy supply chain, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts on air quality. In this context, a case study was selected to estimate the atmospheric emissions of the FBR to the energy supply chain in Portugal. Results revealed that production, harvesting, and energy conversion processes are the main culprits for the biomass energy supply chain emissions (with a contribution higher than 90%), while the transport processes have a minor importance for all the pollutants. Compared with the coal-fired plants, the FBR combustion produces lower greenhouses emissions, on a mass basis of fuel consumed; the same is true for NOX and SO2 emissions. PMID:26064039

  15. Improving Biomass Yields: High Biomass, Low Input Dedicated Energy Crops to Enable a Full Scale Bioenergy Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Ceres is developing bigger and better grasses for use in biofuels. The bigger the grass yield, the more biomass, and more biomass means more biofuel per acre. Using biotechnology, Ceres is developing grasses that will grow bigger with less fertilizer than current grass varieties. Hardier, higher-yielding grass also requires less land to grow and can be planted in areas where other crops can’t grow instead of in prime agricultural land. Ceres is conducting multi-year trials in Arizona, Texas, Tennessee, and Georgia which have already resulted in grass yields with as much as 50% more biomass than yields from current grass varieties.

  16. Estimated United States Residential Energy Use in 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C A; Johnson, D M; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-12-12

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the residential sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 11,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of electricity and fuels were used throughout the United States residential sector in lighting, electronics, air conditioning, space heating, water heating, washing appliances, cooking appliances, refrigerators, and other appliances. The residential sector is powered mainly by electricity and natural gas. Other fuels used include petroleum products (fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas and kerosene), biomass (wood), and on-premises solar, wind, and geothermal energy. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the residential sector.

  17. Spatially-explicit estimates of greenhouse-gas payback times for perennial cellulosic biomass production on open lands in the Lake States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahajpal, R.

    2015-12-01

    The development of renewable energy sources is an integral step towards mitigating the carbon dioxide induced component of climate change. One important renewable source is plant biomass, comprising both food crops such as corn (Zea mays) and cellulosic biomass from short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) such as hybrid-poplar (Populus spp.) and Willow (Salix spp.). Due to their market acceptability and excellent energy balance, cellulosic feedstocks represent an abundant and if managed properly, a carbon-neutral and environmentally beneficial resource. We evaluate how site variability impacts the greenhouse-gas (GHG) benefits of SRWC plantations on lands potentially suited for bioenergy feedstock production in the Lake States (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan). We combine high-resolution, spatially-explicit estimates of biomass, soil organic carbon and nitrous oxide emissions for SRWC plantations from the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model along with life cycle analysis results from the GREET model to determine the greenhouse-gas payback time (GPBT) or the time needed before the GHG savings due to displacement of fossil fuels exceeds the initial losses from plantation establishment. We calibrate our models using unique yield and N2O emission data from sites across the Lake states that have been converted from pasture and hayfields to SRWC plantations. Our results show a reduction of 800,000 ha in non-agricultural open land availability for biomass production, a loss of nearly 37% (see attached figure). Overall, GPBTs range between 1 and 38 years, with the longest GPBTs occurring in the northern Lake states. Initial soil nitrate levels and site drainage potential explain more than half of the variation in GPBTs. Our results indicate a rapidly closing window of opportunity to establish a sustainable cellulosic feedstock economy in the Lake States.

  18. State energy data report 1993: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  19. Integration of Shiitake cultivation and solid-state anaerobic digestion for utilization of woody biomass.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunqin; Ge, Xumeng; Liu, Zhe; Li, Yebo

    2015-04-01

    Pretreatment technologies that can not only reduce the recalcitrance of woody biomass but also achieve a high benefit-cost ratio are desirable for bioenergy production from woody biomass. In this study, an integrated process was proposed and conducted by pretreating woodchips via Shiitake cultivation for improved methane yield during solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD), and simultaneously producing mushrooms as a high-value co-product. Shiitake cultivation using woodchips as the main substrate ingredient obtained mushroom yields comparable to those using a commercial substrate. Enzymatic digestibility and cumulative methane yields (133-160 L kg(-1)VS during 62 days of SS-AD) of pretreated substrates (spent mushroom substrate) were at least 1.5 times as high as those of untreated woodchips. Compared to a sole SS-AD process, the integrated Shiitake cultivation/SS-AD process increased methane production and solid waste reduction per kilogram of woodchips by about 1.5 and 8 times, respectively. PMID:25686546

  20. State-of-the-art report on methane fermentation of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, S.L.; Vause, K.H.; Skrinde, R.T.

    1980-09-01

    Research and development on biogas have emphasized technologies for expediting natural methane generation from anaerobic digestion of biomass. This indepth study reviews the status of biogas technology in developing countries and assesses the feasibility and desirability of expanding biogas production. First, based on an extensive review of the literature, the principal technical, social, economic, and environmental issues associated with methane production from farm-and feedlot-scale biogas plants and from marine biomass, urban refuse, and landfill are delineated. The microbiological processes underlying anaerobic digestion and the influences of various environmental factors (e.g., mixing, heating, toxicity, pH, retention time, nutrients) on the digestion process are then described. Raw materials available for biogas, different biogas plant designs (e.g., Chinese, Indian, Philippine, and bag), and the maintenance, operation, and safety of biogas plants are discussed. Next, the composition, fuel value, and processing of biogas are examined; attention is also given to the uses of sludge by-products. The ecological, health, and sociocultural implications of constructing and operating biogas plants in developing countries are reviewed and the status of biogas technology is described. The authors conclude that in both developed and developing countries the energy value obtained through biogas generation is only slightly greater than the costs involved. Thus, a major factor in implementing biogas projects is reclamation of by-products for animal feed and fertilizer. In rural areas where kerosene is expensive and labor inexpensive, a very simple biogas system prod

  1. Anticipatory Life Cycle Analysis of In Vitro Biomass Cultivation for Cultured Meat Production in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mattick, Carolyn S; Landis, Amy E; Allenby, Braden R; Genovese, Nicholas J

    2015-10-01

    Cultured, or in vitro, meat consists of edible biomass grown from animal stem cells in a factory, or carnery. In the coming decades, in vitro biomass cultivation could enable the production of meat without the need to raise livestock. Using an anticipatory life cycle analysis framework, the study described herein examines the environmental implications of this emerging technology and compares the results with published impacts of beef, pork, poultry, and another speculative analysis of cultured biomass. While uncertainty ranges are large, the findings suggest that in vitro biomass cultivation could require smaller quantities of agricultural inputs and land than livestock; however, those benefits could come at the expense of more intensive energy use as biological functions such as digestion and nutrient circulation are replaced by industrial equivalents. From this perspective, large-scale cultivation of in vitro meat and other bioengineered products could represent a new phase of industrialization with inherently complex and challenging trade-offs. PMID:26383898

  2. Optimizing the torrefaction of mixed softwood by response surface methodology for biomass upgrading to high energy density.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Young-Hun; Lee, Soo-Min; Lee, Hyoung-Woo

    2012-07-01

    The optimal conditions for the torrefaction of mixed softwood were investigated by response surface methodology. This showed that the chemical composition of torrefied biomass was influenced by the severity factor of torrefaction. The lignin content in the torrefied biomass increased with the SF, while holocellulose content decreased. Similarly, the carbon content energy value of torrefied biomass ranged from 19.31 to 22.12 MJ/kg increased from 50.79 to 57.36%, while the hydrogen and oxygen contents decreased. The energy value of torrefied biomass ranged from 19.31 to 22.12 MJ/kg. This implied that the energy contained in the torrefied biomass increased by 4-19%, when compared with the untreated biomass. The energy value and weight loss in biomass slowly increased as the SF increased up until 6.12; and then dramatically increased as the SF increased further from 6.12 to 7.0. However, the energy yield started decreasing at SF value higher than 6.12; and the highest energy yield was obtained at low SF. PMID:22525262

  3. An evaluation of the impact of forest biomass harvest for biofuels on carbon storage in the US west coast states under different management scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, T. M.; Law, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    Mitigation strategies to reduce fossil fuel emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to investigation of alternative sources of fuels. National and state forest policies have been implemented to both reduce risk of wildfire and promote use of forest biomass as a secondary biofuels energy source. However, the cost and biomass availability have been estimated without quantifying the impact on current and future terrestrial carbon balances. This study uses a combination of Federal Inventory Analysis data (FIA) and supplementary plot data for Washington, Oregon and California to quantify the current forest carbon stocks, net ecosystem production (NEP), and net biome production (NBP = NEP - removals) for the period from 2001-2006. Varying management treatments were applied to determine the net cost, carbon debt, and biofuels energy potential. The treatments were designed to meet multiple objectives emphasizing carbon storage, economic gain, or energy production. The hazardous fuels reduction treatment minimizes carbon loss by only harvesting biomass in forested areas classified by moderate to high risk fire condition classes (FRCC class). This scenario assumes no additional harvest in ecoregions characterized by long fire return intervals (>100 years) such as the Coast Range and the West Cascades and limits removals to an 18 in diameter at breast height (DBH). The energy production treatment maximizes biomass removal by harvesting areas regardless of FRCC class and allows removals up to a 24 inch DBH. Statewide estimates of carbon for 2001-2006 prior to harvest scenarios for California, Oregon, and Washington respectively are as follows: 1) Total land-based carbon stocks (excluding soils) averages 1680, 1663, and 1278 Tg C; 2) NEP is positive in most ecoregions averaging 213, 180, and 191 g C m-2 yr-1; 3) Actual harvest removals averaged 2.7, 6.5, and 5.1 Tg C yr-1 for the same period. In Oregon, the amount of biomass available for biofuels varies from 128 g C m-2 in the

  4. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  5. Solid state bioconversion of oil palm biomass for ligninase enzyme production.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Mahmat, Mohd Erman; Muhammad, Nurdina

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study of bioconversion of local lignocellulosic material, oil palm biomass (OPB) was conducted by evaluating the enzyme production through microbial treatment in solid state bioconversion (SSB). OPB in the form of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was used as a solid substrate and treated with the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, to produce ligninase. The results showed that the highest ligninase activity of 400.27 U/liter was obtained at day 12 of fermentation. While the optimum study indicated the enzyme production of 1472.8 U/liter with moisture content of 50%, 578.7 U/liter with 10% v/w of inoculum size, and 721.8 U/liter with co-substrate concentration of 1% (w/w) at days 9, 9 and 12 of fungal treatment, respectively. The parameters glucosamine and reducing sugar were observed to evaluate the growth and substrate utilization in the experiment. PMID:16317964

  6. Coal conversion and biomass conversion: Volume 1: Final report on USAID (Agency for International Development)/GOI (Government of India) Alternate Energy Resources and Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.

    1987-06-30

    The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.

  7. State Energy Data Report, 1991: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to the Government, policy makers, and the public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  8. Energy from biomass and wastes V; Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium, Lake Buena Vista, FL, January 26-30, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papers are presented in the areas of biomass production and procurement, biomass and waste combustion, gasification processes, liquefaction processes, environmental effects and government programs. Specific topics include a water hyacinth wastewater treatment system with biomass production, the procurement of wood as an industrial fuel, the cofiring of densified refuse-derived fuel and coal, the net energy production in anaerobic digestion, photosynthetic hydrogen production, the steam gasification of manure in a fluidized bed, and biomass hydroconversion to synthetic fuels. Attention is also given to the economics of deriving alcohol for power applications from grain, ethanol fermentation in a yeast-immobilized column fermenter, a solar-fired biomass flash pyrolysis reactor, particulate emissions from controlled-air modular incinerators, and the DOE program for energy recovery from urban wastes.

  9. 76 FR 54747 - State Energy Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of...

  10. 77 FR 43067 - State Energy Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference. SUMMARY:...

  11. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  12. Biomass burning aerosol in the State of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, L. L. S.; Artaxo, P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Camargo, P. B.; Ferraz, E. S. B.

    2003-04-01

    A detailed aerosol source apportionment study has been performed in three sites in State of São Paulo with different land-use: sugarcane crops, cattle, urban area and forest. During the summer and winter, the period when sugarcane is burned every year, PM10 has been sampled during day and night in a period of 48 hours, using stacked filters units collecting fine and coarse particulate mode, providing mass, BC and elemental concentration for each aerosol mode. The concentrations of around 20 elements were determined using particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). Ion chromatography was used to determine up to 11 water-soluble ion components. Highest levels of pollutants have been measured around the sugarcane crops, where the annual PM10 concentration (57.1"45.2µgm-3) exceeds of the other urban and industrialized areas and the BC concentration is significantly higher during the sugarcane burning period (4.2"2.2 µgm-3) than the rest of the year (2.0"1.0 µgm-3). The main sources of the aerosol are correlated to the land cover. Factor and cluster analysis showed the main source int the State of São Paulo is biomass burning, followed by soil dust, biogenic emissions and industrial emissions. The sampling and analytical procedures applied in this study showed the sugarcane burning and agricultural practices are the main source of inhalable particulate, possibly altering the aerosol concentration in some places of the State of São Paulo.

  13. Implementing Systems Engineering in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, C.; Wooley, R.; Sandor, D.

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes how the Systems Integration Office is assisting the Department of Energy's Biomass Program by using systems engineering processes, practices and tools to guide decisions and achieve goals.

  14. My Biomass, Your Biomass, Our Solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US is pursuing an array of renewable energy sources to reduce reliance on imported fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass energy and biomass ethanol are key components in the pursuit. The need for biomass feedstock to produce sufficient ethanol to meet any of the numerous stat...

  15. Evaluating the economic costs, benefits and tradeoffs of dedicated biomass energy systems: The importance of scale

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    The economic and environmental costs, benefits and tradeoffs of bioenergy from dedicated biomass energy systems must be addressed in the context of the scale of interest. At different scales there are different economic and environmental features and processes to consider. The depth of our understanding of the processes and features that influence the potential of energy crops also varies with scale as do the quality and kinds of data that are needed and available. Finally, the appropriate models to use for predicting economic and environmental impacts change with the scale of the questions. This paper explores these issues at three scales - the individual firm, the community, and the nation.

  16. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  17. Common patterns of energy flow and biomass distribution on weighted food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Feng, Yuanjing

    2014-07-01

    Weights of edges and nodes on food webs which are available from the empirical data hide much information about energy flows and biomass distributions in ecosystem. We define a set of variables related to weights for each species i, including the throughflow Ti, the total biomass Xi, and the dissipated flow Di (output to the environment) to uncover the following common patterns in 19 empirical weighted food webs: (1) DGBD distributions (Discrete version of a Generalized Beta Distribution), a kind of deformed Zipf's law, of energy flow and storage biomass; (2) The allometric scaling law Ti∝Xiα, which can be viewed as the counterpart of the Kleiber's 3/4 law at the population level; (3) The dissipation law Di∝Tiβ; and (4) The gravity law, including univariate version f∝( and bivariate approvement f∝Tiγ1Tjγ2. These patterns are very common and significant in all collected webs, as a result, some remarkable regularities are hidden in weights.

  18. Current Research on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R. M.; Magrini-Bair, K. A.; Nimlos, M. R.; Pepiot, P.; Donohoe, B. S.; Hensley, J. E.; Phillips, S. D.

    2012-04-05

    The thermochemical research platform at the National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is primarily focused on conversion of biomass to transportation fuels using non-biological techniques. Research is conducted in three general areas relating to fuels synthesis via thermochemical conversion by gasification: (1) Biomass gasification fundamentals, chemistry and mechanisms of tar formation; (2) Catalytic tar reforming and syngas cleaning; and (3) Syngas conversion to mixed alcohols. In addition, the platform supports activities in both technoeconomic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) of thermochemical conversion processes. Results from the TEA and LCA are used to inform and guide laboratory research for alternative biomass-to-fuels strategies. Detailed process models are developed using the best available material and energy balance information and unit operations models created at NREL and elsewhere. These models are used to identify cost drivers which then form the basis for research programs aimed at reducing costs and improving process efficiency while maintaining sustainability and an overall net reduction in greenhouse gases.

  19. State energy data report 1995 - consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  20. Biological Solar Energy Conversion and U.S. Energy Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimentel, David; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Surveys energy consumption in the United States and explores the possibility of increasing the amount of energy obtained from biomass conversion (biologically produced energy). Economic and environmental concerns of biomass conversion processes are discussed. (CP)

  1. Energy from Marine Biomass Program presentation at the Bio-Energy '80, World Congress and Exposition, Atlanta, Georgia, Wednesday, April 23, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Energy from Marine Biomass Program, sponsored by the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy, now in the concept-validation phase, has the overall objective to develop integrated processes, (including feedstock production, harvesting, and conversion) to produce, from seaweed, methane and other fuels that are cost-competitive on a commercial basis with other alternative sources of energy. To accomplish this objective, quantitative determinations are being made through direct experimentation and evaluation of concepts for the feedstock production, harvesting, recovery of conversion by-products/co-products, and the essential supporting technologies required by integrated feedstock-to-product process systems. Work to date indicates that the technical developments required are within the state of the art of current engineering.

  2. Biomass energy crop production versus food crop production in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Sammuels, G.

    1983-12-01

    The Caribbean countries have traditionally grown sugar cane, coffee and bananas as major agriculture export crops. Food crop production was sufficient in most cases for domestic consumption. In recent years powerful social and economic changes of increasing population, industrial development and higher living standards have placed pressure on local governments to provide food, clothing, shelter and energy. Energy that is mainly supplied by imported oil. Biomass, primarily as sugar cane, can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the problem. Unfortunately, the arable land area for the majority of the countries is limited. Food crop production is needed for local consumption and export. Possible energy crop production to provide local needs will place an increasing demand on arable land. The objective of this paper is to present the scope of food versus energy crop production and a suggested renewable energy crop program to help achieve a balance within the limited land resources of the Caribbean.

  3. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications.

    PubMed

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A; Tolis, Athanasios I; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P

    2014-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained. PMID:24140378

  4. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  5. Multi-state 4-H energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, U.B.; Garthe, J.W.

    1983-06-01

    Through Agricultural Engineering 4-H Energy Programs, youth can be educated to gain knowledge, increase hands on skills, and incorporate energy-saving techniques into their lifestyle. In a pilot multi-state energy program tested by 13 states, youth increased their energy awareness.

  6. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Appendices to the final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The final report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten Island, the Proctor and Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. This appendix to the final report provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations.

  7. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A. Tolis, Athanasios I. Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers

  8. Biomass Energy R&D in the San Francisco Bay Area

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R

    2005-12-07

    Biomass is plant matter such as trees, grasses, agricultural crops or other biological material. It can be used as a solid fuel, or converted into liquid or gaseous forms, for the production of electric power, heat, chemicals, or fuels. There are a number of ways of getting energy from biomass, and a number of factors influence the efficiency of the conversion process. All biomass can be easily combusted. The heat of combustion can be used as heat, or can be used to run gas/steam turbines to produce electricity. However, most biomass combustion processes are inefficient and environmentally non-benign. The main pollutants from direct biomass combustion are tars, particulates, and VOCs. Biodiesels can be made from oils obtained from plants/crops such as soybean, peanuts and cotton. The oils from these sources are mainly triglycerides of fatty acids and not directly suitable as diesel substitutes. Transesterification processes convert the triglycerides into simple esters of the corresponding fatty acids (for example, Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or FAME), which can be directly substitutes for diesel fuels. Starches, sugars and cellulose can be fermented to produce ethanol, which can be added to gasoline, or used directly as an engine fuel. Fermentation of starches and sugars is established technology, practiced for thousands of years. Fermentation of cellulose to make ethanol is relatively harder, requiring additional intermediate steps to hydrolyze the cellulose first by adding acids or by raising temperature. Forestry wastes predominantly comprise cellulose and lignin. Lignin cannot be fermented using the current bio-organisms, and, as mentioned above, even cellulose is difficult to ferment directly. In such cases, a suite of alternative technologies can be employed to convert the biomass into liquid fuels. For example, the biomass can be gasified with the use of air/oxygen and steam, the resultant syngas (mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) can be cleaned to remove

  9. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications

    PubMed Central

    Rollinson, Andrew N.; Williams, Orla

    2016-01-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water. PMID:27293776

  10. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    PubMed

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water. PMID:27293776

  11. Solar Pond devices: free energy or bioreactors for Artemia biomass production?

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Luisa; Sousa, João; Marques, Ana; Tavares, Célia; Giestas, Margarida

    2009-08-01

    The recent exponential growth in industrial aquaculture has led to a huge increase in Artemia biomass production in order to meet increased fish production needs. The present study explores the potential use of salt gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) for production of Artemia nauplii. An SGSP is a basin of water where solar energy is trapped and collected via an artificially imposed gradient. Three zones can be identified in an SGSP: upper and lower zones, which are both convective, and a middle zone, which is intended to be non-convective. The latter acts as a transparent insulation layer and allows for storage of solar energy at the bottom, where it is available for use. The combination of salt, temperature and high transparency could make SGSPs promising bioreactors for the production of Artemia nauplii. Using particle image velocymetry (PIV) and Shadowgraph visualisation techniques, the behaviour of Artemia nauplii under critical cultivation parameters (namely, salinity, temperature and light) was monitored to determine movement velocity, and how movement of Artemia affects the salt gradient. It was observed that Artemia nauplii constantly follow light, irrespective of adverse salinity and/or temperature conditions. However, despite the substantial displacement of Artemia following the light source, the salt gradient is not disrupted. The suitability of SGSPs as bioreactors for Artemia biomass production was then tested. The results were disappointing, probably due to the lack of sufficient O(2) for Artemia survival and growth. Follow-up trials were conducted aimed at using the SGSP as a green and economically attractive energy source to induce faster hatching of cysts and improved Artemia nauplii growth. The results of these trials, and a case study of Artemia nauplii production using an SGSP, are presented. The authors constructed a Solar Pond device, which they suggest as a novel way of supplying thermal energy for Artemia biomass production in an aquaculture

  12. Biomass energy production. 1975-April, 1980 (citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts Data Base). Report for 1975-Apr 80

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.W.

    1980-06-01

    These citations from the international literature describe the production and/or utilization of most forms of biomass as a source of energy, fuel, food, and chemical intermediates or feedstocks. Biomass conversion by incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or fermentation, as well as by catalytic, photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, and bio-electrochemical means are among the conversion processes considered. Discussions include biomass plantation and material productivity, transportation and equipment requirements, environmental effects, comparisons of means and efficiencies of utilization and conversion, assessments of limitations, and evaluations of economic potential. (Contains 210 abstracts)

  13. Biomass hydrolysis inhibition at high hydrogen partial pressure in solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Cazier, E A; Trably, E; Steyer, J P; Escudie, R

    2015-08-01

    In solid-state anaerobic digestion, so-called ss-AD, biogas production is inhibited at high total solids contents. Such inhibition is likely caused by a slow diffusion of dissolved reaction intermediates that locally accumulate. In this study, we investigated the effect of H2 and CO2 partial pressure on ss-AD. Partial pressure of H2 and/or CO2 was artificially fixed, from 0 to 1 557mbars for H2 and from 0 to 427mbars for CO2. High partial pressure of H2 showed a significant effect on methanogenesis, while CO2 had no impact. At high [Formula: see text] , the overall substrate degradation decreased with no accumulation of metabolites from acidogenic bacteria, indicating that the hydrolytic activity was specifically impacted. Interestingly, such inhibition did not occur when CO2 was added with H2. This result suggests that CO2 gas transfer is probably a key factor in ss-AD from biomass. PMID:25935390

  14. Marine biomass: New York State species and site studies. Annual report December 1982-November 1983

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, L.B.

    1983-11-01

    The Energy Authority has been conducting tests since 1979 in an effort to develop a feasible system for the production in Long Island Sound of marine biomass from indigenous macroalgae for economically competitive conversion to synthetic natural gas. During 1983 this goal was brought closer to realization when a 120 x 41 foot seaweed test farm was placed in 60 feet of water in Long Island Sound. The structure is basically a flexible wire cable and rope grid, buoyed at the surface and moored to the bottom of the Sound. It is suitable for cultivating seaweeds that attach themselves to surfaces such as the brown kelp, Laminaria saccharina. The test farm design was chosen from among four previously developed by the engineering team. An ongoing program is taking place in Long Island Sound to test the strength of the structure and to obtain information on plants growing in the structure. The program will test the strain on the lines, corrosion on metal parts, and available light and temperature at various times. Also, since 1982, bioengineering tests have focused on biofouling experiments, and seaweed and rope strength tests. The report also includes discussion of a laboratory research program focused on seeding techniques and strain selection.

  15. Anthropogenic, Biogenic and Biomass Burning VOCs in the Southeast of the United States during SENEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Trainer, M.; Aikin, K.; Brown, S. S.; Gilman, J.; Hanisco, T. F.; Holloway, J.; Kaiser, J.; Keutsch, F. N.; Lee, B.; Lerner, B. M.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Min, K.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Thornton, J. A.; Veres, P. R.; Wolfe, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA field study SENEX was designed to investigate the source strengths and spatial distribution of man-made air pollutants and natural emissions, their interaction to form secondary pollutants, and the atmospheric fate of aerosol and trace gases at the nexus of air quality and climate change. To this end the NOAA research aircraft WP-3D was equipped with instrumentation for the analysis of aerosol and trace gases and this flying atmospheric science laboratory performed 18 research flights over the Southeast of the United States in June and July 2013. VOCs such as isoprene and monoterpenes are released into the atmosphere by vegetation. Aromatics come from incomplete combustion of transportation fuels as well as from oil and natural gas production, and they are found in biomass burning plumes along with the distinct tracer acetonitrile. Oxygenated species such as alcohols, aldehydes and ketones are directly emitted from natural and anthropogenic sources and can be formed by photo oxidation of organic trace gases. At sufficiently high levels of nitrogen oxides, VOCs fuel the production of tropospheric ozone and they contribute to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosol. Hence one key instrument onboard WP-3D was a PTR-MS for the time-resolved quantification of VOCs. The WP-3D performed plume study patterns downwind of coal- and gas-fired power plants. Isoprene concentrations were modulated in the high NOx regime as the plume evolved and the SENEX dataset will be used to constrain the chemistry in such plumes. City plumes of Atlanta (GA), Birmingham (AL), Indianapolis (IN), and St Louis (MO) showed modest concentrations of aromatics due to the decrease in hydrocarbon emissions from cars in comparison with previous studies. One flight leg targeted the plume of a large biofuel refinery, which will allow for an independent estimate of the primary emissions from this industry. A number of plumes of small fires in the study region were sampled as well as

  16. Mixing State and Aging of Biomass Burning Aerosols During the 2007 San Diego Wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zauscher, M. D.; Wang, Y.; Moore, M. J.; Gaston, C. J.; Prather, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) significantly affect regional and global air quality, health and climate, yet their mixing state is not fully characterized. Specifically, aerosols from burning land dominated by chaparral shrubs, such as in Southern California, are less characterized than other BBA, although fires in this area have been increasing in frequency since 1980s. During the 2007 San Diego Wildfires the size-resolved chemistry of 100-400 nm single particles was determined in real-time with an ultra-fine aerosol time of flight mass spectrometer (UF-ATOFMS). BBA, identified by having a strong potassium peak and smaller carbonaceous markers present in the mass spectra, made up 84% of all particles measured between 10/22/07 and 11/1/07. Even though levoglucosan is known as a good biomass burning tracer, only 36% of all BBA in this study had this tracer present. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was utilized to group different BBA chemical markers, such as potassium salts, sulfate, ammonium, oxalate and levoglucosan. A spike in ammonium was observed with the increase in relative humidity on 10/25/07 and correlated with nitric acid and nitrate, indicating that the majority of ammonium was present as NH4NO3. The presence of different potassium salts were used to identify the age of BBA. K2Cl+, indicative of fresh BBA, was only seen at the beginning of the wildfires when the size mode of particles was ~<120 nm. K2NO3+ and K3SO4+ spiked at different times, with K2NO3+ peaking before K3SO4+. Particles with K3SO4+ had larger sizes than those with K2NO3+, thus K2NO3+ represents slightly aged whereas K3SO4+ represents moderately aged BBA. The largest BBA observed, and hence the most aged, were those characterized by the lack of potassium salts and the presence of secondary markers, such as sulfate and oxalate. In summary, we observed the evolution of BBA undergoing four distinct aging steps based on particle size and composition: slightly fresh, slightly aged

  17. Energy Efficiency Analysis: Biomass-to-Wheel Efficiency Related with Biofuels Production, Fuel Distribution, and Powertrain Systems

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2011-01-01

    Background Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW) analysis including three separate conversion elements -- biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case – corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. Significance In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass) would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year), through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens. PMID:21765941

  18. Biomass energy technology annual technical progress report, FY 1982. Volume II. Technical summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The goal of the BET program is to conduct an integrated R and D program for feedstock production and conversion of organic materials to economically produce energy products that will significantly contribute to meeting long-term US energy needs. In feedstock production, laboratory investigations are being performed to reduce the risks associated with the production of microalgal oils that can be used for energy applications and high-value chemical substitutes. Research also is being done on the biochemical mechanisms that control hydrocarbon production by macroalgal species. There has been significant progress in the DOE Short-Rotation Woods Crops Program aimed at increasing yields of biomass through both improved traditional/conventional silvicultural techniques and short-rotation intensive culture. Studies that evaluate the potential of milkweed as an energy feedstock were completed in FY 1982. In thermochemical conversion, evaluations of a variety of high-performance gasification systems for producing medium-Btu gas and synthesis gas were concluded in FY 1982. Free market forces are expected to stimulate private sector interest in developing the technology and marketing needed to commercialize medium-Btu gasification systems. Medium-Btu gases have numerous beneficial industrial applications, and this technology is close to entry into the marketplace. Progress has been made in FY 1982 toward understanding the basic mechanisms and kinetics affecting the thermochemical processing of biomass through fast pyrolysis and direct liquefaction techniques. In biochemical conversion, fundamental research is being performed on the anaerobic digestion process. FY 1982 research activities also included laboratory-scale experiments on photobiological methods for hydrogen production. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each of the 3 program areas for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  19. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues

    SciTech Connect

    Kliopova, Irina Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • SRF production from 10–40 mm fraction of pre-composted sludge and biomass residues. • The material and energy balance of compost and SRF production. • Characteristics of raw materials and classification of produced SRF. • Results of the efficiency of energy recovery, comparison analysis with – sawdust. - Abstract: Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10–40 mm) of pre-composted materials – sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg{sup −1} of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest – evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning

  20. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-02-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications. PMID:24151938

  1. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves

    PubMed Central

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-01-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications. PMID:24151938

  2. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass

  3. State energy price and expenditure report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1980, and 1985 through 1992. Data for all years, 1970 through 1992, are available on personal computer diskettes.

  4. Preliminary review of biomass energy options in Costa Rica and the national alcohol fuel program. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.L.

    1981-01-30

    For an agricultural, oil-importing country such as Costa Rica, the use of biomass as a source of transportation fuels is a topic of great interest. This analysis is intended to assist the Costa Rican government and USAID/CR to identify possible biomass energy projects. While emphasis is on technologies for converting biomass into liquid fuels, agronomic issues and alternative energy options are also explored. Costa Rica plans to build six facilities for converting biomass (primarily sugarcane, supplemented by molasses, cassava, and banana wastes) to hydrous ethanol. The following issues relating to biomass conversion technologies are identified: use of hydroelectrically powered drives in sugarcane processing to allow use of bagasse as a fuel; possible sources and costs of energy for converting starch crops like cassava to ethanol; the optimal method for treating stillage; and the feasibility of using fermentation reactors. No definitive recommendation on the scale of ethanol production is made due to the lack of an environmental impact assessment. Finally, with regard to nonalcohol renewable energy, several ideas warrant consideration: electrically powered mass transit; electric cars; vehicle-mounted gasifiers operating on wood chips or pelletized fuels produced from excess bagasse; anaerobic digestion of animal manure and other agricultural wastes; and energy recovery from municipal solid wastes.

  5. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E. C. D.; Laurens, L. M. L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  6. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  7. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Andrew G.; Crow, Susan; DeBeryshe, Barbara; Ha, Richard; Jakeway, Lee; Khanal, Samir; Nakahata, Mae; Ogoshi, Richard; Shimizu, Erik; Stern, Ivette; Turano, Brian; Turn, Scott; Yanagida, John

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  8. State energy price and expenditure report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1991. Data for all years, 1970 through 1991, are available on personal computer diskettes. Documentation in Appendix A describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1990, published in September 1992.

  9. State industrial energy-conservation workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.T.; Tatar, J.J.; Evans, A.R.; Anderson, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    DOE's Office of Industrial Programs, in cooperation with the Office of State and Local Programs, sponsored a series of four workshops on state industrial energy-conservation programs in September and October, 1980. The workshops provided it a forum in which Federal and state officials could discuss: Federal programs supporting the development and implementation of industrial energy-conservation technology; Federal assistance available for state and local energy-conservation programs; states' programs and policy efforts to encourage industrial energy conservation, and identification of states' needs and recommendations for actions to meet the states' needs more effectively. The basic focus of the workshops was on industrial programs developed by the states through funding by the State Energy-Conservation Program. The objectives, background, and format of the workshops are described in Section 2. A summary of state industrial programs in Section 3 includes a program measure matrix and a discussion of elements in program design. Section 4 describes factors affecting the development, implementation, and evaluation of state industrial conservation programs. In Section 5 state needs, as perceived by the state representatives, are presented and discussed. Section 6 summarizes the states' suggestions as developed in the third session of each workshop.

  10. Gasification-based biomass

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  11. EERE's State & Local Energy Data Tool

    ScienceCinema

    Shambarger, Erick; DeCesaro, Jennifer

    2014-06-26

    EERE's State and Local Energy Data (SLED) Tool provides basic energy market information that can help state and local governments plan and implement clean energy projects, including electricity generation; fuel sources and costs; applicable policies, regulations, and financial incentives; and renewable energy resource potential. Watch this video to learn more about the tool and hear testimonials from real users about the benefits of using this tool.

  12. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  13. EERE's State & Local Energy Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Shambarger, Erick; DeCesaro, Jennifer

    2014-06-23

    EERE's State and Local Energy Data (SLED) Tool provides basic energy market information that can help state and local governments plan and implement clean energy projects, including electricity generation; fuel sources and costs; applicable policies, regulations, and financial incentives; and renewable energy resource potential. Watch this video to learn more about the tool and hear testimonials from real users about the benefits of using this tool.

  14. Biomass Program Biopower Factsheet

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    Generating electricity and thermal energy from biomass has the potential to help meet national goals for renewable energy. The forest products industry has used biomass for power and heat for many decades, yet widespread use of biomass to supply electricity to the U.S. power grid and other applications is relatively recent.

  15. A method for the assessment of site-specific economic impacts of commercial and industrial biomass energy facilities. A handbook and computer model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    A handbook on ``A Method for the Assessment of Site-specific Econoomic Impacts of Industrial and Commercial Biomass Energy Facilities`` has been prepared by Resource Systems Group Inc. under contract to the Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP). The handbook includes a user-friendly Lotus 123 spreadsheet which calculates the economic impacts of biomass energy facilities. The analysis uses a hybrid approach, combining direct site-specific data provided by the user, with indirect impact multipliers from the US Forest Service IMPLAN input/output model for each state. Direct economic impacts are determined primarily from site-specific data and indirect impacts are determined from the IMPLAN multipliers. The economic impacts are given in terms of income, employment, and state and federal taxes generated directly by the specific facility and by the indirect economic activity associated with each project. A worksheet is provided which guides the user in identifying and entering the appropriate financial data on the plant to be evaluated. The WLAN multipliers for each state are included in a database within the program. The multipliers are applied automatically after the user has entered the site-specific data and the state in which the facility is located. Output from the analysis includes a summary of direct and indirect income, employment and taxes. Case studies of large and small wood energy facilities and an ethanol plant are provided as examples to demonstrate the method. Although the handbook and program are intended for use by those with no previous experience in economic impact analysis, suggestions are given for the more experienced user who may wish to modify the analysis techniques.

  16. Isolation and screening of microalgae from natural habitats in the midwestern United States of America for biomass and biodiesel sources

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keesoo; Eisterhold, Megan L.; Rindi, Fabio; Palanisami, Swaminathan; Nam, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Native species of microalgae were isolated from natural water bodies in the Midwestern United States of America and were screened for the ultimate goal of mass cultivation in Missouri and the surrounding states, and for their potential as biomass and biodiesel sources. A number of different nutrient media recipes were utilized to isolate the maximum number of colonies from each field samples. These nutrient recipes were modified in order to optimize the isolation and growth dynamics of specific colonies. All of the isolates were categorized based on the morphological appearance of the culture and the microscopic cellular appearance of the isolated colonies. Isolates included many common green microalgae and cyanobacteria. Lipid content was determined for selected strains that demonstrated relatively quick growth. Scenedesmus sp. that demonstrated the high growth rate, resistance to invasion, and contained sufficient amounts of lipid was investigated for its potential as a sustainable biomass and biodiesel feedstocks. PMID:25097410

  17. Trends in benthic macroinvertebrate community biomass and energy budgets in Lake Sevan, 1928-2004.

    PubMed

    Jenderedjian, Karen; Hakobyan, Susanna; Stapanian, Martin A

    2012-11-01

    Water levels of Lake Sevan (Armenia) were artificially lowered by nearly 20 m between 1949 and 1997. Lowered water levels, combined with increased eutrophication, were associated with seasonally anoxic conditions (lasting 1-4 months) near the bottom of the profundal zone each year during 1976-2004. In addition, the extents of the macrophyte zone and of certain substrate types were severely reduced following drawdown. Maximal depth of occurrence decreased by 2-44 m for at least for 50 species of benthic macroinvertebrates between 1982 and 2004 compared to 1937-1961. Species richness of benthic macroinvertebrates declined from 25 to three species at depths where seasonal anoxia occurred. Total biomass increased by a factor of 10 from the period 1928-1948 to 1976-1979 then declined by a factor of 3 to 4 between 1987 and 2004. Energy flow through detritivores was more than tripled during 1976-2004 compared to 1928-1971, a result of increased plankton primary production. In contrast, energy flow through herbivorous benthic macroinvertebrates decreased by a factor of nearly 5, due to reduced areal coverage of macrophytes. Energy flow through filter feeders did not change over the time period examined, but energy flow through the entire zoobenthos community was nearly tripled. The biomasses of Oligochaeta, Chironomidae, and total zoobenthos showed a delayed response to changes in primary production of 7-9, 2, and 2-4 years, respectively. These patterns may provide a basis to predict results of restoration efforts based on the abundance of the zoobenthos in future years as the level of the lake is restored and water quality improves. PMID:22200943

  18. Advanced biomass-to-energy conversion technologies for the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, D.R.; Kieffer, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    Driven by process changes that are making pulp and paper mills ever increasingly dependent on purchases electric power, the industry is motivated to search for technology alternatives for the conversion of its biomass residuals to electricity and other useful energy products. Recent emphasis by the U.S. Department of Energy in the area of renewables has provided an unusual window of opportunity for advancing to commercial viability these new, more efficient, energy-generation technologies. This window of opportunity comes at a time when greater than 50% of the industry`s power generation equipment will need major alteration or replacement in the next 15 years. Two technologies that can have a profound impact on the industry`s energy self sufficiency-even to substantially increasing the capability of exporting electric power-have evolved to the point of commercial readiness. These technologies are biomass gasification combined cycle (BGCC) and black liquor gasification combined cycle (BLGCC). This paper will concentrate on the results of a detailed feasibility study of the integration of BGCC technology with an operating pulp mill and how this technology when combined with emerging BLGCC can and likely will significantly change the future power house configuration of many pulp and paper production facilities. Economic information presented here includes sensitivities to capital support, export power price, feedstock price, plant capacity factor and the plant heat rate. Additional information is contained in the project report presented to NREL and EPRI. Based on analysis of these sensitivities, the factors having by far the most significant impact on BGCC economics are capital cost, the value of export power and fuel cost. Given a 50% shared cost for the first commercial plant, a positive economic result is achievable at export power prices of 5{cents}/kWh and above.

  19. Trends in Benthic macroinvertebrate community Biomass and Energy Budgets in Lake Sevan, 1928-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Jenderedjian, K.; Hakobyan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Water levels of Lake Sevan (Armenia) were artificially lowered by nearly 20 m between 1949 and 1997. Lowered water levels, combined with increased eutrophication, were associated with seasonally anoxic conditions (lasting 1–4 months) near the bottom of the profundal zone each year during 1976–2004. In addition, the extents of the macrophyte zone and of certain substrate types were severely reduced following drawdown. Maximal depth of occurrence decreased by 2–44 m for at least for 50 species of benthic macroinvertebrates between 1982 and 2004 compared to 1937–1961. Species richness of benthic macroinvertebrates declined from 25 to three species at depths where seasonal anoxia occurred. Total biomass increased by a factor of 10 from the period 1928–1948 to 1976–1979 then declined by a factor of 3 to 4 between 1987 and 2004. Energy flow through detritivores was more than tripled during 1976–2004 compared to 1928–1971, a result of increased plankton primary production. In contrast, energy flow through herbivorous benthic macroinvertebrates decreased by a factor of nearly 5, due to reduced areal coverage of macrophytes. Energy flow through filter feeders did not change over the time period examined, but energy flow through the entire zoobenthos community was nearly tripled. The biomasses of Oligochaeta, Chironomidae, and total zoobenthos showed a delayed response to changes in primary production of 7–9, 2, and 2–4 years, respectively. These patterns may provide a basis to predict results of restoration efforts based on the abundance of the zoobenthos in future years as the level of the lake is restored and water quality improves.

  20. State energy price and expenditure report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1994. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1994, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in October 1996. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources. Documentation is included describing the development of price estimates, data sources, and calculation methods. 316 tabs.

  1. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  2. Directory of Solar Energy Research Activities in the United States: First Edition, May 1980. [1220 projects

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    Information covering 1220, FY 1978 and FY 1979 solar energy research projects is included. In addition to the title and text of project summaries, the directory contains the following indexes: subject index, investigator index, performing organization index, and supporting organization index. This information was registered with the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange by Federal, State, and other supporting organizations. The project summaries are categorized in the following areas: biomass, ocean energy, wind energy,photovoltaics, photochemical energy conversion, photobiological energy conversion, solar heating and cooling, solar process heat, solar collectors and concentrators, solar thermal electric generation, and other solar energy conversion. (WHK)

  3. Renewable energy from biomass: a sustainable option? - Hydrogen production from alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balla, Zoltán; Kith, Károly; Tamás, András; Nagy, Orsolya

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development requires us to find new energy sources instead of fossil fuels. One possibility is the hydrogen fuel cell, which uses significantly more efficient than the current combustion engines. The task of the hydrogen is clean, carbon-free renewable energy sources to choose in the future by growing degree. Hungary can play a role in the renewable energy sources of biomass as a renewable biomass annually mass of about 350 to 360 million tons. The biomass is only a very small proportion of fossil turn carbonaceous materials substitution, while we may utilize alternative energy sources as well. To the hydrogen production from biomass, the first step of the chemical transformations of chemical bonds are broken, which is always activation energy investment needs. The methanol and ethanol by fermentation from different agricultural products is relatively easy to produce, so these can be regarded as renewable energy carriers of. The ethanol can be used directly, and used in several places in the world are mixed with the petrol additive. This method is the disadvantage that the anhydrous alcohol is to be used in the combustion process in the engine more undesired by-products may be formed, and the fuel efficiency of the engine is significantly lower than the efficiency of the fuel cells. More useful to produce hydrogen from the alcohol and is used in a fuel cell electric power generation. Particularly attractive option for the so-called on-board reforming of alcohols, that happens immediately when the vehicle hydrogen production. It does not need a large tank of hydrogen, because the hydrogen produced would be directly to the fuel cell. The H2 tank limit use of its high cost, the significant loss evaporation, the rare-station network, production capacity and service background and lack of opportunity to refuel problems. These can be overcome, if the hydrogen in the vehicle is prepared. As volume even 700 bar only about half the H2 pressure gas can be stored

  4. Biomass estimation during macro-scale solid-state fermentation of basidiomycetes using established and novel approaches.

    PubMed

    Steudler, Susanne; Bley, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been utilised in food production for millennia and is well suited for the cultivation of basidiomycetes, due to the robustness of the process and the possibility of using lignocellulose as the substrate. Basidiomycetes produce diverse enzymes and various primary and secondary metabolites, many of which have biotechnological potential. The quantification of the fungal biomass present is essential for the characterisation of growth kinetics in processes such as SSF. In SSF, fungi grow into the substrate and use it as a nutrient source. Therefore, direct biomass determination is not possible and indirect methods have to be employed. In the presented study, we compared 11 methods for quantifying fungal biomass during SSF of the basidiomycete Trametes hirsuta in a newly developed laboratory reactor (working volume 10 L). The methods were based on measuring the levels of six cell-specific components (ergosterol, glucosamine, nucleic acids, number of fungal nuclei, protein and genomic DNA) and estimations of biological activity (respiration, activities of lignolytic and cellulolytic enzymes, and the glucose and protein contents of the liquid). The methods were evaluated with regards to reproducibility and plausibility of the results, time and resource requirements, possible influential factors, and matrix effects. The most reliable biomass estimates were obtained from measurements of ergosterol content, number of nuclei, and respiration. Thus, these three methods were deemed most suitable for process control and modelling. PMID:25656698

  5. Energy Metrics for State Government Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Trevor

    Measuring true progress towards energy conservation goals requires the accurate reporting and accounting of energy consumption. An accurate energy metrics framework is also a critical element for verifiable Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Energy conservation in government can reduce expenditures on energy costs leaving more funds available for public services. In addition to monetary savings, conserving energy can help to promote energy security, air quality, and a reduction of carbon footprint. With energy consumption/GHG inventories recently produced at the Federal level, state and local governments are beginning to also produce their own energy metrics systems. In recent years, many states have passed laws and executive orders which require their agencies to reduce energy consumption. In June 2008, SC state government established a law to achieve a 20% energy usage reduction in state buildings by 2020. This study examines case studies from other states who have established similar goals to uncover the methods used to establish an energy metrics system. Direct energy consumption in state government primarily comes from buildings and mobile sources. This study will focus exclusively on measuring energy consumption in state buildings. The case studies reveal that many states including SC are having issues gathering the data needed to accurately measure energy consumption across all state buildings. Common problems found include a lack of enforcement and incentives that encourage state agencies to participate in any reporting system. The case studies are aimed at finding the leverage used to gather the needed data. The various approaches at coercing participation will hopefully reveal methods that SC can use to establish the accurate metrics system needed to measure progress towards its 20% by 2020 energy reduction goal. Among the strongest incentives found in the case studies is the potential for monetary savings through energy efficiency. Framing energy conservation

  6. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Zygarlicke, C J; Schmidt, D D; Olson, E S; Leroux, K M; Wocken, C A; Aulich, T A; WIlliams, K D

    2008-07-28

    Biomass utilization is one solution to our nation’s addiction to oil and fossil fuels. What is needed now is applied fundamental research that will cause economic technology development for the utilization of the diverse biomass resources in the United States. This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) applied fundamental research project contributes to the development of economical biomass utilization for energy, transportation fuels, and marketable chemicals using biorefinery methods that include thermochemical and fermentation processes. The fundamental and basic applied research supports the broad scientific objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program, especially in the area of developing alternative renewable biofuels, sustainable bioenergy, technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental remediation. Its deliverables include 1) identifying and understanding environmental consequences of energy production from biomass, including the impacts on greenhouse gas production, carbon emission abatement, and utilization of waste biomass residues and 2) developing biology-based solutions that address DOE and national needs related to waste cleanup, hydrogen production from renewable biomass, biological and chemical processes for energy and fuel production, and environmental stewardship. This project serves the public purpose of encouraging good environmental stewardship by developing biomass-refining technologies that can dramatically increase domestic energy production to counter current trends of rising dependence upon petroleum imports. Decreasing the nation’s reliance on foreign oil and energy will enhance national security, the economy of rural communities, and future competitiveness. Although renewable energy has many forms, such as wind and solar, biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be governed through agricultural methods and that has an energy density that can realistically compete with

  7. Probing Energy and Electron Transfer Mechanisms in Fluorescence Quenching of Biomass Carbon Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zicheng; Kang, Mijeong; Payne, Gregory F; Wang, Xiaohui; Sun, Runcang

    2016-07-13

    The recent discovery of biomass-derived carbon quantum dots (CQDs) offers the potential to extend the sensing and imaging capabilities of quantum dots (QDs) to applications that require biocompatibility and environmental friendliness. Many studies have confirmed the exciting optical properties of CQDs and suggested a range of applications, but realizing the potential of CQDs will require a deeper fundamental understanding of their photophysical behavior. Here, biomass-derived CQDs were synthesized by hydrothermal processing methods from the aminopolysaccharide chitosan, and their fluorescence quenching behaviors were investigated. A family of nitroaromatics with different ring substituents was used to generate systematically varying CQD-quenching behaviors. Experimental evidence including a correlation between quenching constant and spectral overlap, fluorescence lifetime decay, and donor-acceptor distance all demonstrate that the primary mechanism for QCD-quenching is Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and not electron transfer. Spectroelectrochemical studies with redox-dependent quenching molecules and studies with complex dye molecules further support this conclusion. We envision this fundamental understanding of CQDs will facilitate the application of these emerging nanomaterials for sensing and imaging. PMID:27314592

  8. An integrated approach to energy recovery from biomass and waste: Anaerobic digestion-gasification-water treatment.

    PubMed

    Milani, M; Montorsi, L; Stefani, M

    2014-07-01

    The article investigates the performance of an integrated system for the energy recovery from biomass and waste based on anaerobic digestion, gasification and water treatment. In the proposed system, the organic fraction of waste of the digestible biomass is fed into an anaerobic digester, while a part of the combustible fraction of the municipal solid waste is gasified. Thus, the obtained biogas and syngas are used as a fuel for running a cogeneration system based on an internal combustion engine to produce electric and thermal power. The waste water produced by the integrated plant is recovered by means of both forward and inverse osmosis. The different processes, as well as the main components of the system, are modelled by means of a lumped and distributed parameter approach and the main outputs of the integrated plant such as the electric and thermal power and the amount of purified water are calculated. Finally, the implementation of the proposed system is evaluated for urban areas with a different number of inhabitants and the relating performance is estimated in terms of the main outputs of the system. PMID:24946772

  9. Energy requirements for wet solvent extraction of lipids from microalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gregory J O

    2016-04-01

    Biofuel production from microalgae requires energy efficient processes for extracting and converting triacylglyceride lipids to fuel, compatible with coproduction of protein feeds and nutraceuticals. Wet solvent extraction involves mechanical cell rupture, lipid extraction via solvent contacting, physical phase separation, thermal solvent recovery, and transesterification. A detailed analysis of the effect of key process parameters on the parasitic energy demand of this process was performed. On a well-to-pump basis, between 16% and 320% of the resultant biodiesel energy was consumed depending solely on the process parameters. Highly positive energy balances can be achieved, but only if a correctly designed process is used. This requires processing concentrated biomass (ca 25%w/w) with a high triacylglyceride content (ca 30%w/w), and an efficient extraction process employing a non-polar solvent, low solvent-to-paste ratio, and efficient energy recovery. These requirements preclude many laboratory scale processes and polar co-solvents as viable options for large-scale biofuel production. PMID:26802186

  10. Metabolic engineering of sugarcane to accumulate energy-dense triacylglycerols in vegetative biomass.

    PubMed

    Zale, Janice; Jung, Je Hyeong; Kim, Jae Yoon; Pathak, Bhuvan; Karan, Ratna; Liu, Hui; Chen, Xiuhua; Wu, Hao; Candreva, Jason; Zhai, Zhiyang; Shanklin, John; Altpeter, Fredy

    2016-02-01

    Elevating the lipid content in vegetative tissues has emerged as a new strategy for increasing energy density and biofuel yield of crops. Storage lipids in contrast to structural and signaling lipids are mainly composed of glycerol esters of fatty acids, also known as triacylglycerol (TAG). TAGs are one of the most energy-rich and abundant forms of reduced carbon available in nature. Therefore, altering the carbon-partitioning balance in favour of TAG in vegetative tissues of sugarcane, one of the highest yielding biomass crops, is expected to drastically increase energy yields. Here we report metabolic engineering to elevate TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues of sugarcane. Constitutive co-expression of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-2 (DGAT1-2) and oleosin1 (OLE1) and simultaneous cosuppression of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and a subunit of the peroxisomal ABC transporter1 (PXA1) in transgenic sugarcane elevated TAG accumulation in leaves or stems by 95- or 43-fold to 1.9% or 0.9% of dry weight (DW), respectively, while expression or suppression of one to three of the target genes increased TAG levels by 1.5- to 9.5-fold. Accumulation of TAG in vegetative progeny plants was consistent with the results from primary transgenics and contributed to a total fatty acid content of up to 4.7% or 1.7% of DW in mature leaves or stems, respectively. Lipid droplets were visible within mesophyll cells of transgenic leaves by confocal fluorescence microscopy. These results provide the basis for optimizations of TAG accumulation in sugarcane and other high yielding biomass grasses and will open new prospects for biofuel applications. PMID:26058948

  11. Engage States on Energy Assurance and Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Kara Colton; John Ratliff; Sue Gander; Darren Springer; Greg Dierkers

    2008-09-30

    The NGA Center's 'Engaging States on Energy Security and Energy Assurance' has been successful in achieving the stated project purposes and objectives both in the initial proposal as well as in subsequent revisions to it. Our activities, which involve the NGA Center for Best Practices (The NGA Center) Homeland Security and Technology Division, included conducting tabletop exercises to help federal and state homeland security and energy officials determine roles and actions for various emergency scenarios. This included efforts to education state official on developing an energy assurance plan, harmonizing approaches to controlling price volatility, implementing reliability standards, understanding short and long-term energy outlooks and fuel diversification, and capitalizing on DOE's research and development activities. Regarding our work on energy efficiency and renewable energy, the NGA Center's Environment, Energy and Natural Resources Division hosted three workshops which engaged states on the clean energy and alternative transportation fuel and also produced several reports on related topics. In addition, we convened 18 meetings, via conference call, of the Energy Working Group. Finally, through the NGA Center's Front and Center newsletter articles, the NGA Center disseminated promising practices to a wide audience of state policymakers. The NGA Center also hosted a number of workshops and web conferences designed to directly engage states on the deliverables under this Cooperative Agreement. Through the NGA Center's written products and newsletter articles, the NGA Center was able to disseminate promising practices to a wide audience of state policymakers.

  12. Biomass Support for the China Renewable Energy Law: Final Report, December 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-10-01

    Final subcontractor report giving an overview of the biomass power generation technologies used in China. Report covers resources, technologies, foreign technologies and resources for comparison purposes, biomass potential in China, and finally government policies in China that support/hinder development of the using biomass in China for power generation.

  13. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  14. Densified biomass can cost-effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and address energy security in thermal applications.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas O; McNeal, Frederick M; Spatari, Sabrina; G Abler, David; Adler, Paul R

    2012-01-17

    Regional supplies of biomass are currently being evaluated as feedstocks in energy applications to meet renewable portfolio (RPS) and low carbon fuel standards. We investigate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and associated abatement costs resulting from using densified switchgrass for thermal and electrical energy. In contrast to the large and positive abatement costs for using biomass in electricity generation ($149/Mg CO(2)e) due to the low cost of coal and high feedstock and power plant operation costs, abatement costs for replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications are large and negative (-$52 to -$92/Mg CO(2)e), resulting in cost savings. Replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications results in least cost reductions compared to replacing coal in electricity generation, an alternative that has gained attention due to RPS legislation and the centralized production model most often considered in U.S. policy. Our estimates indicate a more than doubling of liquid fuel displacement when switchgrass is substituted for fuel oil as opposed to gasoline, suggesting that, in certain U.S. locations, such as the northeast, densified biomass would help to significantly decarbonize energy supply with regionally sourced feedstock, while also reducing imported oil. On the basis of supply projections from the recently released Billion Ton Report, there will be enough sustainably harvested biomass available in the northeast by 2022 to offset the entirety of heating oil demand in the same region. This will save NE consumers between $2.3 and $3.9 billion annually. Diverting the same resource to electricity generation would cost the region $7.7 billion per year. While there is great need for finding low carbon substitutes for coal power and liquid transportation fuels in the U.S., we argue that in certain regions it makes cost- (and GHG mitigation-) effective sense to phase out liquid heating fuels with locally produced biomass first. PMID

  15. Simulated biomass and soil carbon of loblolly pine and cottonwood plantations across a thermal gradient in southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Luxmoore, Robert J; Tharp, M Lynn; Post, Wilfred M

    2008-01-01

    Changes in biomass and soil carbon with nitrogen fertilization were simulated for a 25-year loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation and for three consecutive 7-year short-rotation cottonwood (Populus deltoides) stands. Simulations were conducted for 17 locations in the southeastern United States with mean annual temperatures ranging from 13.1 to 19.4 C. The LINKAGES stand growth model, modified to include the "RothC" soil C and soil N model, simulated tree growth and soil C status. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased cumulative cottonwood aboveground biomass in the three rotations from a site average of 106 to 272 Mg/ha in 21 years, whereas the equivalent site averages for loblolly pine were unchanged at 176 and 184 Mg/ha in 25 years. Location results, compared on the annual sum of daily mean air temperatures above 5.5 C (growing-degree-days), showed contrasts. Loblolly pine biomass increased whereas cottonwood decreased with increasing growing-degree-days, particularly in cottonwood stands receiving N fertilization. The increment of biomass due to N addition per unit of control biomass (relative response) declined in both plantations with increase in growing-degree-days. Average soil C in loblolly pine stands increased from 24.3 to 40.4 Mg/ha in 25 years and in cottonwood soil C decreased from 14.7 to 13.7 Mg/ha after three 7-year rotations. Soil C did not decrease with increasing growing-degree-days in either plantation type suggesting that global warming may not initially affect soil C. Nitrogen fertilizer increased soil C slightly in cottonwood plantations and had no significant effect on the soil C of loblolly stands.

  16. State energy price and expenditure report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1995. Data for all years are available on a CD-ROM and via Internet. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1995, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in December 1997. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources.

  17. Priorities for ecological research on energy crops in the north central states

    SciTech Connect

    Ugoretz, S.M.; Rineer, K.C.; Downing, M.

    1995-07-26

    Following the principles set by the National Biofuels Roundtable, a workshop was held in March 1995 which brought together a group of stakeholders and experts in the field of biomass energy and ecology. The mission of the workshop was to identify and set priorities for ecological research to ensure that large-scale biomass energy development in the North Central states occurs in an ecologically sound, sustainable manner. The workshop found that questions about the landscape-scale deployment of biomass plantations were most pressing. The workshop recommended that adaptive resource management principles be applied in a phased development of increasingly larger plantations. Each phase of development would help to answer questions about landscape-scale development; improving the design of subsequent phases. Principles of sustainable agriculture should also be applied to biomass plantations to minimize impact on soils and water quality, maintain productivity and benefit the rural economy. Results of the workshop will be helpful to natural resource and research agencies, as well as utilities and biomass energy developers.

  18. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  19. State Energy Efficiency Program Evaluation Inventory

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this inventory, some of which has been placed into a searchable spreadsheet, is to support the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and to research cost information in state-mandated energy efficiency program evaluations – e.g., for use in updating analytic and modeling assumptions used by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  20. Production of Biofuel from Waste Lignocellulosic Biomass Materials Based on Energy Saving Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Maki; Hoshino, Kazuhiro

    To develop biofuel production from waste lignocellulosic biomass materials the rice straw was selected one of renewable material and the degradation condition about pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to obtain effectively fermentable sugars was investigated. Rice straw was pretreated by five kinds of methods and then the components ratio of rice straw was examined. First, the steam explosion was selected based on the degradability and the requirement energy. In addition, the best suitable combination of two cellulases to effective and economical hydrolyze was determined from the degradability of these pretreated rice straws. In the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the steam explosion rice straw by combining cellulase cocktail and a novel fermenting fungus, 13.2 g/L ethanol was able to product for 96 h.

  1. The Goals and Research of the BioEnergy Sciences Center (BESC): Developing Cost-effective and Sustainable Means of Producing Biofuels by Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Suzy

    2009-01-01

    The mission of BioEnergy Sciences Center is to understand and overcome the recalcitrance of biomass to conversion by modifying plant cell walls with improved biocatalysts. The papers in this volume are from the plant transformation and the biomass characterization areas, and showcase the multidisciplinary and multi-institutional nature of the center. The challenge of converting cellulosic biomass to accessible sugars is the dominant obstacle to cost-effective production of biofuels in sustained quantities capable of impacting U.S. consumption of fossil transportation fuels. This was affirmed in a Biomass to Biofuels Workshop report, 'Breaking the Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol' (DOE/SC-0095, 2006). The potential beneficial economic impact of addressing the difficulty of accessing biomass sugars was explained by Lynd et al. [1]. The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) research project addresses this challenge with an unprecedented interdisciplinary effort focused on overcoming the recalcitrance of biomass. The 5-year mission of BESC is to make revolutionary advances in understanding and overcoming the recalcitrance of biomass to conversion into sugars, making it feasible to displace imported petroleum with ethanol and other fuels. BESC will combine plant cell walls engineered to reduce recalcitrance with new biocatalysts to improve deconstruction. These breakthroughs will be realized with a systems biology approach and new high-throughput analytical and computational technologies to achieve: (1) targeted modification of plant cell walls to reduce their recalcitrance (using Populus and switchgrass as high-impact bioenergy feedstocks), thereby, decreasing or eliminating the need for costly chemical pretreatment; and (2) consolidated bioprocessing, which involves the use of a single microorganism or microbial consortium to overcome biomass recalcitrance through single-step conversion of biomass to biofuels. We will greatly enhance our understanding of cell wall structure

  2. In Vivo Packaging of Triacylglycerols Enhances Arabidopsis Leaf Biomass and Energy Density1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Winichayakul, Somrutai; Scott, Richard William; Roldan, Marissa; Hatier, Jean-Hugues Bertrand; Livingston, Sam; Cookson, Ruth; Curran, Amy Christina; Roberts, Nicholas John

    2013-01-01

    Our dependency on reduced carbon for energy has led to a rapid increase in the search for sustainable alternatives and a call to focus on energy densification and increasing biomass yields. In this study, we generated a uniquely stabilized plant structural protein (cysteine [Cys]-oleosin) that encapsulates triacylglycerol (TAG). When coexpressed with diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we observed a 24% increase in the carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation rate per unit of leaf area and a 50% increase in leaf biomass as well as approximately 2-, 3-, and 5-fold increases in the fatty acid content of the mature leaves, senescing leaves, and roots, respectively. We propose that the coexpression led to the formation of enduring lipid droplets that prevented the futile cycle of TAG biosynthesis/lipolysis and instead created a sustained demand for de novo lipid biosynthesis, which in turn elevated CO2 recycling in the chloroplast. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated that the formation of TAG involved acyl cycling in Arabidopsis leaves and roots. We also demonstrate that the combination of Cys-oleosin and DGAT1 resulted in the highest accumulation of fatty acids in the model single-cell eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results support the notion that the prevention of lipolysis is vital to enabling TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues and confirm the earlier speculation that elevating fatty acid biosynthesis in the leaf would lead to an increase in CO2 assimilation. The Cys-oleosins have applications in biofuels, animal feed, and human nutrition as well as in providing a tool for investigating fatty acid biosynthesis and catabolism. PMID:23616604

  3. In vivo packaging of triacylglycerols enhances Arabidopsis leaf biomass and energy density.

    PubMed

    Winichayakul, Somrutai; Scott, Richard William; Roldan, Marissa; Hatier, Jean-Hugues Bertrand; Livingston, Sam; Cookson, Ruth; Curran, Amy Christina; Roberts, Nicholas John

    2013-06-01

    Our dependency on reduced carbon for energy has led to a rapid increase in the search for sustainable alternatives and a call to focus on energy densification and increasing biomass yields. In this study, we generated a uniquely stabilized plant structural protein (cysteine [Cys]-oleosin) that encapsulates triacylglycerol (TAG). When coexpressed with diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we observed a 24% increase in the carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation rate per unit of leaf area and a 50% increase in leaf biomass as well as approximately 2-, 3-, and 5-fold increases in the fatty acid content of the mature leaves, senescing leaves, and roots, respectively. We propose that the coexpression led to the formation of enduring lipid droplets that prevented the futile cycle of TAG biosynthesis/lipolysis and instead created a sustained demand for de novo lipid biosynthesis, which in turn elevated CO2 recycling in the chloroplast. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated that the formation of TAG involved acyl cycling in Arabidopsis leaves and roots. We also demonstrate that the combination of Cys-oleosin and DGAT1 resulted in the highest accumulation of fatty acids in the model single-cell eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results support the notion that the prevention of lipolysis is vital to enabling TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues and confirm the earlier speculation that elevating fatty acid biosynthesis in the leaf would lead to an increase in CO2 assimilation. The Cys-oleosins have applications in biofuels, animal feed, and human nutrition as well as in providing a tool for investigating fatty acid biosynthesis and catabolism. PMID:23616604

  4. State-to-state dynamics of molecular energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, W.R.; Giese, C.F.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this research program is to elucidate the elementary dynamical mechanisms of vibrational and rotational energy transfer between molecules, at a quantum-state resolved level of detail. Molecular beam techniques are used to isolate individual molecular collisions, and to control the kinetic energy of collision. Lasers are used both to prepare specific quantum states prior to collision by stimulated-emission pumping (SEP), and to measure the distribution of quantum states in the collision products by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The results are interpreted in terms of dynamical models, which may be cast in a classical, semiclassical or quantum mechanical framework, as appropriate.

  5. Impending United States energy crisis.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, R L

    1987-03-20

    The U.S. oil and gas industry has been dramatically weakened by the recent oil price collapse. Domestic drilling activity reached a new post-World War II low during the summer of 1986. Given a weak, unstable oil price outlook, U.S. capability will continue to deteriorate. In the last year U.S. imports of foreign oil have risen significantly, and if market forces alone dominate, U.S. dependence is expected to rise from 32% in 1983 to the 50 to 70% level in the not-too-distant future. The 1973 oil embargo and the subsequent attempts to improve U.S. energy security vividly demonstrated the huge costs and long periods of time required to change our energy system. These facts, coupled with the nation's generally short-term orientation, suggest a strong likelihood of a new U.S. energy crisis in the early to middle 1990s. PMID:17775008

  6. Quantifying variation in forest disturbance, and its effects on aboveground biomass dynamics, across the eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Coomes, David A; Purves, Drew W

    2013-01-01

    The role of tree mortality in the global carbon balance is complicated by strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity that arises from the stochastic nature of carbon loss through disturbance. Characterizing spatio-temporal variation in mortality (including disturbance) and its effects on forest and carbon dynamics is thus essential to understanding the current global forest carbon sink, and to predicting how it will change in future. We analyzed forest inventory data from the eastern United States to estimate plot-level variation in mortality (relative to a long-term background rate for individual trees) for nine distinct forest regions. Disturbances that produced at least a fourfold increase in tree mortality over an approximately 5 year interval were observed in 1–5% of plots in each forest region. The frequency of disturbance was lowest in the northeast, and increased southwards along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts as fire and hurricane disturbances became progressively more common. Across the central and northern parts of the region, natural disturbances appeared to reflect a diffuse combination of wind, insects, disease, and ice storms. By linking estimated covariation in tree growth and mortality over time with a data-constrained forest dynamics model, we simulated the implications of stochastic variation in mortality for long-term aboveground biomass changes across the eastern United States. A geographic gradient in disturbance frequency induced notable differences in biomass dynamics between the least- and most-disturbed regions, with variation in mortality causing the latter to undergo considerably stronger fluctuations in aboveground stand biomass over time. Moreover, regional simulations showed that a given long-term increase in mean mortality rates would support greater aboveground biomass when expressed through disturbance effects compared with background mortality, particularly for early-successional species. The effects of increased tree mortality on

  7. Bacterial biomass, metabolic state, and activity in stream sediments: relation to environmental variables and multiple assay comparisons.

    PubMed

    Bott, T L; Kaplan, L A

    1985-08-01

    Bacterial biomass, metabolic condition, and activity were measured over a 16-month period in the surface sediments of the following four field sites with differing dissolved organic matter regimes: a woodlot spring seep, a meadow spring seep, a second-order stream, and a third-order stream. Total bacterial biomass was measured by lipid phosphate and epifluorescence microscopic counts (EMC), and viable biomass was measured by C most probable number, EMC with 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction, and ATP. Bacterial metabolic condition was determined from the percentage of respiring cells, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and adenylate energy charge. Activity measures included C-lipid synthesis, P-phospholipid synthesis, the rate of uptake of algal lysate dissolved organic carbon, and respiration, from which biosynthesis was calculated (dissolved organic carbon uptake corrected for respiration). Total bacterial biomass (from EMC) ranged from 0.012 to 0.354 mug of C/mg of dry sediment and was usually lowest in the third-order stream. The percentage of cells respiring was less than 25% at all sites, indicating that most bacteria were dormant or dead. Adenylate energy charge was measured only in the third-order stream and was uniformly low. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were greater in the woodlot spring seep than in the second- and third-order streams. Uptake of algal lysate dissolved organic carbon ranged from undetectable levels to 166 mg of C . m . h. Little community respiration could be attributed to algal lysate metabolism. Phospholipid synthesis ranged from 0.006 to 0.354 pmol . mg of dry sediment . h. Phospholipid synthesis rates were used to estimate bacterial turnover at the study sites. An estimated 375 bacterial generations per year were produced in the woodlot spring seep, and 67 per year were produced in the third-order stream. PMID:16346867

  8. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A.

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  9. State energy-price system: 1981 update

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Imhoff, K.L.; Hood, L.J.

    1983-08-01

    This report updates the State Energy Price Data System (STEPS) to include state-level energy prices by fuel and by end-use sectors for 1981. Both physical unit prices and Btu prices are presented. Basic documentation of the data base remains generally the same as in the original report: State Energy Price System; Volume 1: Overview and Technical Documentation (DOE/NBB-0029 Volume 1 of 2, November 1982). The present report documents only the changes in procedures necessitated by the update to 1981 and the corrections to the basic documentation.

  10. "Assistance to States on Geothermal Energy"

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Sikkema; Jennifer DeCesaro

    2006-07-10

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, related to geothermal energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on geothermal energy—Contract Number DE-FG03-01SF22367—with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of geothermal energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of responses to information requests on geothermal energy and publications. The publications addressed: geothermal leasing, geothermal policy, constitutional and statutory authority for the development of geothermal district energy systems, and state regulation of geothermal district energy systems. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about geothermal energy for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to geothermal energy in the states. Coordination with the National Geothermal Collaborative: NCSL worked and coordinated with the National Geothermal Collaborative (NGC) to ensure that state legislatures were represented in all aspects of the NGC's efforts. NCSL participated in NGC steering committee conference calls, attended and participated in NGC business meetings and reviewed publications for the NGC. Additionally, NCSL and WSUEP staff drafted a series of eight issue briefs published by the NGC

  11. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency. PMID:27118736

  12. BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

  13. Technology assessment of solar energy systems: availability and impacts of woody biomass utilization in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Hopp, W.J.; Chockie, A.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1981-09-01

    The estimates of the biomass resource base in the Northwest are reviewed for comparison with scenarios used and a preliminary analysis of the issues involved in the collection and use of forest residues as an energy resource is presented. Four issues are reviewed that may serve to constrain the total amount of wood residues available for use as fuel. (MHR)

  14. Tapping the Molecular Potential of Microalgae to Produce Biomass (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Sayre, Richard [LANL

    2013-01-22

    Richard Sayre, from Los Alamos National Laboratory, presents a talk titled "Tapping the Molecular Potential of Microalgae to Produce Biomass" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  15. Tapping the Molecular Potential of Microalgae to Produce Biomass (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Richard

    2012-03-22

    Richard Sayre, from Los Alamos National Laboratory, presents a talk titled "Tapping the Molecular Potential of Microalgae to Produce Biomass" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  16. Microbiological fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass: current state and prospects of mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Lübken, Manfred; Gehring, Tito; Wichern, Marc

    2010-02-01

    The anaerobic fermentation process has achieved growing importance in practice in recent years. Anaerobic fermentation is especially valuable because its end product is methane, a renewable energy source. While the use of renewable energy sources has accelerated substantially in recent years, their potential has not yet been sufficiently exploited. This is especially true for biogas technology. Biogas is created in a multistage process in which different microorganisms use the energy stored in carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for their metabolism. In order to produce biogas, any organic substrate that is microbiologically accessible can be used. The microbiological process in itself is extremely complex and still requires substantial research in order to be fully understood. Technical facilities for the production of biogas are thus generally scaled in a purely empirical manner. The efficiency of the process, therefore, corresponds to the optimum only in the rarest cases. An optimal production of biogas, as well as a stable plant operation requires detailed knowledge of the biochemical processes in the fermenter. The use of mathematical models can help to achieve the necessary deeper understanding of the process. This paper reviews both the history of model development and current state of the art in modeling anaerobic digestion processes. PMID:19960191

  17. Lipase Production in Solid-State Fermentation Monitoring Biomass Growth of Aspergillus niger Using Digital Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Julio C. V.; da Terzi, Selma C.; Bevilaqua, Juliana Vaz; Damaso, Mônica C. T.; Couri, Sônia; Langone, Marta A. P.; Senna, Lilian F.

    The aim of this study was to monitor the biomass growth of Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation (SSF) for lipase production using digital image processing technique. The strain A. niger 11T53A14 was cultivated in SSF using wheat bran as support, which was enriched with 0.91% (m/v) of ammonium sulfate. The addition of several vegetable oils (castor, soybean, olive, corn, and palm oils) was investigated to enhance lipase production. The maximum lipase activity was obtained using 2% (m/m) castor oil. In these conditions, the growth was evaluated each 24 h for 5 days by the glycosamine content analysis and digital image processing. Lipase activity was also determined. The results indicated that the digital image process technique can be used to monitor biomass growth in a SSF process and to correlate biomass growth and enzyme activity. In addition, the immobilized esterification lipase activity was determined for the butyl oleate synthesis, with and without 50% v/v hexane, resulting in 650 and 120 U/g, respectively. The enzyme was also used for transesterification of soybean oil and ethanol with maximum yield of 2.4%, after 30 min of reaction.

  18. Lipase production in solid-state fermentation monitoring biomass growth of aspergillus niger using digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Júlio C V; da C Terzi, Selma; Bevilaqua, Juliana Vaz; Damaso, Mônica C T; Couri, Sônia; Langone, Marta A P; Senna, Lilian F

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the biomass growth of Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation (SSF) for lipase production using digital image processing technique. The strain A. niger 11T53A14 was cultivated in SSF using wheat bran as support, which was enriched with 0.91% (m/v) of ammonium sulfate. The addition of several vegetable oils (castor, soybean, olive, corn, and palm oils) was investigated to enhance lipase production. The maximum lipase activity was obtained using 2% (m/m) castor oil. In these conditions, the growth was evaluated each 24 h for 5 days by the glycosamine content analysis and digital image processing. Lipase activity was also determined. The results indicated that the digital image process technique can be used to monitor biomass growth in a SSF process and to correlate biomass growth and enzyme activity. In addition, the immobilized esterification lipase activity was determined for the butyl oleate synthesis, with and without 50% v/v hexane, resulting in 650 and 120 U/g, respectively. The enzyme was also used for transesterification of soybean oil and ethanol with maximum yield of 2.4%, after 30 min of reaction. PMID:18401753

  19. Biomass burning dominates brown carbon absorption in the rural southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Attwood, A. R.; Brock, C. A.; Guo, H.; Xu, L.; Weber, R. J.; Ng, N. L.; Allen, H. M.; Ayres, B. R.; Baumann, K.; Cohen, R. C.; Draper, D. C.; Duffey, K. C.; Edgerton, E.; Fry, J. L.; Hu, W. W.; Jimenez, J. L.; Palm, B. B.; Romer, P.; Stone, E. A.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    carbon aerosol consists of light-absorbing organic particulate matter with wavelength-dependent absorption. Aerosol optical extinction, absorption, size distributions, and chemical composition were measured in rural Alabama during summer 2013. The field site was well located to examine sources of brown carbon aerosol, with influence by high biogenic organic aerosol concentrations, pollution from two nearby cities, and biomass burning aerosol. We report the optical closure between measured dry aerosol extinction at 365 nm and calculated extinction from composition and size distribution, showing agreement within experiment uncertainties. We find that aerosol optical extinction is dominated by scattering, with single-scattering albedo values of 0.94 ± 0.02. Black carbon aerosol accounts for 91 ± 9% of the total carbonaceous aerosol absorption at 365 nm, while organic aerosol accounts for 9 ± 9%. The majority of brown carbon aerosol mass is associated with biomass burning, with smaller contributions from biogenically derived secondary organic aerosol.

  20. Biorefinery based on olive biomass. State of the art and future trends.

    PubMed

    Romero-García, J M; Niño, L; Martínez-Patiño, C; Álvarez, C; Castro, E; Negro, M J

    2014-05-01

    With currently more than nine million hectares, olive tree cultivation has spread worldwide, table olives and olive oil as the main products. Moreover, a number of by-products and residues derived from both tree cultivation and the process of industrial olive oil production, most having no practical applications, are obtained yearly. This paper reviews the research regarding these by-products, namely biomass from olive tree pruning, olive stones, olive pomace and wastewaters obtained from the process of olive oil production. Furthermore, a wide range of compounds has been identified and can be produced using a broad definition of the term biorefinery based on olive tree biomass. As an example, this paper reviews ethanol production as one of the main proposed applications, as well as research on other value-added products. Finally, this paper also assesses recent technological advances, future perspectives and challenges in each stage of the process. PMID:24713236

  1. Energy conversion of biomass with supercritical and subcritical water using large-scale plants.

    PubMed

    Okajima, Idzumi; Sako, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting unused or waste biomass as an alternative fuel is currently receiving much attention because of the potential reductions in CO2 emissions and the lower cost in comparison to expensive fossil fuels. If we are to use biomass domestically or industrially, we must be able to convert biomass to high-quality and easy-to-use liquid, gas, or solid fuels that have high-calorific values, low moisture and ash contents, uniform composition, and suitable for stored over long periods. In biomass treatment, hot and high-pressure water including supercritical and subcritical water is an excellent solvent, as it is clean and safe and its action on biomass can be optimized by varying the temperature and pressure. In this article, the conversion of waste biomass to fuel using hot and high-pressure water is reviewed, and the following examples are presented: the production of large amounts of hydrogen from waste biomass, the production of cheap bioethanol from non-food raw materials, and the production of composite powder fuel from refractory waste biomass in the rubble from the Great East Japan Earthquake. Several promising techniques for the conversion of biomass have been demonstrated in large-scale plants and commercial deployment is expected in the near future. PMID:23867098

  2. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Volume I. Scope and design criteria and project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    The information in this document is the result of an intensive engineering effort to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass-fueled boilers in cogeneration applications. This design package is based upon a specific site in the State of Maine. However, the design is generic in nature and could serve as a model for other biomass conversion facilities located anywhere biomass is abundant. The project's purpose and summary information are presented: the plant, its concept of operation; and other overall information are described. The capital cost estimate for the plant, and the basis upon which it was obtained are given; a schedule of key milestones and activities required to construct the plant and put it into operation is presented; and the general findings in areas that affect the viability of the project are discussed. The technical design, biomass study, environmental impact, commercialization, and economic factors are addressed. Each major plant area and the equipment and facilities that each includes are discussed in depth. Some overall plant requirements, including noise control, reliability, maintainability, and safety, are detailed. The results of each study relating to alternatives considered for optimizing plant operation parameters and specific system process schemes are briefly presented. All economic factors that affect the feasibility and viability of the biomass project are defined and evaluated.

  3. State energy price and expenditure report, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-28

    The average price paid for energy in the United States in 1986 was $7.19 per million Btu, down significantly from the 1985 average of $8.42 per million Btu. While total energy consumption increased slightly to 74.3 quadrillion Btu from 1985 to 1986, expenditures fell from $445 billion to $381 billion. Energy expenditures per capita in 1986 were $1578, down significantly from the 1985 rate. In 1986, consumers used only 94 percent as much energy per person as they had in 1970, but they spent 3.9 times as much money per person on energy as they had in 1970. By state, energy expenditures per capita in 1986 ranged from the lowest rate of $1277 in New York to the highest of $3108 in Alaska. Of the major energy sources, electricity registered the highest price per million Btu ($19.00), followed by petroleum ($5.63), natural gas ($3.97), coal ($1.62), and nuclear fuel ($0.70). The price of electricity is relatively high because of significant costs for converting energy from various forms (e.g., fossil fuels, nuclear fuel, hydroelectric energy, and geothermal energy) into electricity, and additional, somewhat smaller costs for transmitting and distributing electricity to end users. In addition, electricity is a premium form of energy because of its flexibility and clean nature at energy consumers' sites.

  4. 76 FR 36103 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Teleconference... Renewable Energy, 1000 Independence Ave, SW., Washington DC, 20585 or telephone: (202)...

  5. ZERO WASTE BIODIESEL: USING GLYCERIN AND BIOMASS TO CREATE RENEWABLE ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The procedure for the creation of pellets is fairly mundane, however crucial, in order to create a standard and repeatable process. The pellets biomass material are mixed by weight ratio, and blended to a consistent particulate size. The glycerin to biomass ratio by weight is ...

  6. Energy sorghum biomass harvest thresholds and tillage effects on soil organic carbon and bulk density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy feedstock production systems face many challenges, among which is the lack of guidelines on sustainable biomass harvest thresholds, and tillage cropping systems that minimize the potential cumulative effects of fresh biomass harvesting equipment-induced soil compaction. We used the ALMANAC...

  7. Maximizing Production of Fiber, Fermentable Sugars, and Energy by Matching Biomass Species to Landscape Position

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research project is to characterize a diverse group of potential biomass species (corn, alfalfa, perennial flax, switchgrass, poplar, and willow) for their yield of biomass, fiber, and fermentable sugars across a diverse set of within-field environments. Our goal is to advance ...

  8. Northeast regional biomass program. Second & third quarterly reports, October 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is comprised of the following states: Connecticut. Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont. It is managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the CONEG Policy Research Center, Inc. The Northeast states face several near-term barriers to the expanded use of biomass energy. Informational and technical barriers have impeded industrial conversions, delaying the development of a wood energy supply infrastructure. Concern over the environmental impacts on resources are not well understood. Public awareness and concern about safety issues surrounding wood energy use has also grown to the point of applying a brake to the trend of increases in residential applications of biomass energy. In addition, many residential, industrial, and commercial energy users are discouraged from using biomass energy because of the convenience factor. Regardless of the potential for cost savings, biomass energy sources, aside from being perceived as more esoteric, are also viewed as more work for the user. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is designed to help the eleven Northeastern states overcome these obstacles and achieve their biomass energy potentials. The objective of this program in the current and future years is to increase the role of biomass fuels in the region`s energy mix by providing the impetus for states and the private sector to develop a viable Northeast biomass fuels market.

  9. Evaluation of the potential for using old-field vegetation as an energy feedstock: Biomass yield, chemical composition, environmental concerns, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.W. Jr.

    1990-07-01

    The major focus of current research on production of biomass for use as energy feedstock involves selection of species and genotypes best suited for specific regions of the United States and development of crop management techniques that maximize biomass productivity while minimizing environmental impacts and economic costs. The two experimental sites, and abandoned soybean field (AS) and an abandoned pasture (AP) were studied. At the AS site, the effects of two harvest frequencies (1 or 2 harvests annually), two nitrogen fertilizer treatments (1 or 2 harvests annually), two nitrogen fertilizer treatments (0 or 87 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), and two phosphorous fertilizer treatments (0 or 111 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) were determined. At the AP site, the effects of two harvest treatments (1 or 2 harvests annually), two fertilizer treatments (56:56:135 kg of N:P:K{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), and two lime treatments (0 or 4600 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) were determined. At both sites, treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial experiment. The results of this research indicated that old-field vegetation is: (1) sufficiently productive to provide significant quantities of energy feedstock; (2) chemically suitable as an energy feedstock; (3) environmentally benign with respect to impacts related to soil erosion and nutrient depletion; (4) relatively unresponsive to fertilizer and lime inputs; and (5) economically competitive with other biomass energy feedstock candidates. 38 refs., 8 figs., 68 tabs.

  10. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues.

    PubMed

    Kliopova, Irina; Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-02-01

    Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10-40 mm) of pre-composted materials--sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg(-1) of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest--evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning, comparison analysis with widely used bio-fuel-sawdust and conclusions made are presented. PMID:25481696

  11. Implementation of a Biomass Energy Island for a forested Air Force installation. Final report Mar 82-Jan 83

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, W.J.; McConnell, W.V.; Steadman, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    This study examines the silvicultural practices, harvesting methodology and managerial techniques pertinent to the operation of Choctawhatchee sand pine (CSP) plantations on Eglin AFB to establish Eglin as a Biomass Energy Island (BEI). Previous studies have demonstrated: (1) the feasibility of using wood grown on selected Air Force installations as the fuel to supply the energy requirements of each; and (2) the specific adaptability of Eglin AFB as a Biomass Energy Island (BEI). As such, Eglin would satisfy all energy needs of the facility by using 540,000 green tons of wood chips harvested from 90,000 acres of on-base energy plantations to fuel a gasification/combined cycle conversion system. This study concludes: the technology of biomass conversion is appropriate for Eglin; both gasification and direct combustion cogeneration should be used for comparison purposes initially in the light of changing requirements; and the management of wood fuel plantations at Eglin and the phased establishment of the base as a BEI is both economically and technically sound and desirable.

  12. Enthanol fuels from biomass projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, B. C. B.

    About 100 projects are proposed or underway to convert organic crops such as corn and grains or waste organic material into a clean usable ethyl alcohol fuel. Total production capacity could reach more than two billion gallons per year in 1985, excluding beverage and industrial uses. Congressional appropriation of approximately one-half billion dollars to DOE/USDA for loan guarantees and federal and state laws exempting excise taxes can make this ethanol fuel from biomass possible. An overview and status of the projects will be reviewed. Net energy production of ethyl alcohol from biomass and the impacts of increasing alcohol fuel use will also be discussed.

  13. Biomass Scenario Model: BETO Analysis Platform Peer Review; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.

    2015-03-23

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art fourth-generation model of the domestic bioenergy supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues and their potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, behavior, policy, and physical, technological, and economic constraints. The BSM uses system-dynamics simulation to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain; it tracks the deployment of biofuels given technological development and the reaction of the investment community to those technologies in the context of land availability, the competing oil market, consumer demand for biofuels, and government policies over time. It places a strong emphasis on the behavior and decision-making of various economic agents. The model treats the major infrastructure-compatible fuels. Scenario analysis based on the BSM shows that the biofuels industry tends not to rapidly thrive without significant external actions in the early years of its evolution. An initial focus for jumpstarting the industry typically has strongest results in the BSM in areas where effects of intervention have been identified to be multiplicative. In general, we find that policies which are coordinated across the whole supply chain have significant impact in fostering the growth of the biofuels industry and that the production of tens of billions of gallons of biofuels may occur under sufficiently favorable conditions.

  14. Sustainable biomass energy production and rural economic development using alfalfa as feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Swanberg, D.R.; Oelke, E.A.

    1995-11-01

    Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and with separate alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

  15. Photosynthetic microbial desalination cells (PMDCs) for clean energy, water and biomass production.

    PubMed

    Kokabian, Bahareh; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2013-12-01

    Current microbial desalination cell (MDC) performances are evaluated with chemical catalysts such as ferricyanide, platinum catalyzed air-cathodes or aerated cathodes. All of these methods improve power generation potential in MDCs, however, they are not preferable for large scale applications due to cost, energy and environmental toxicity issues. In this study, performance of microbial desalination cells with an air cathode and an algae biocathode (Photosynthetic MDC - PMDC) were evaluated, both under passive conditions (no mechanical aeration or mixing). The results indicate that passive algae biocathodes perform better than air cathodes and enhance COD removal and utilize treated wastewater as the growth medium to obtain valuable biomass for high value bioproducts. Maximum power densities of 84 mW m(-3) (anode volume) or 151 mW m(-3) (biocathode volume) and a desalination rate of 40% were measured with 0.9 : 1 : 0.5 volumetric ratios of anode, desalination and algae biocathode chambers respectively. This first proof-of-concept study proves that the passive mechanisms can be beneficial in enhancing the sustainability of microbial desalination cells. PMID:24154718

  16. Grassland bird response to harvesting switchgrass as a biomass energy crop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roth, A.M.; Sample, D.W.; Ribic, C.A.; Paine, L.; Undersander, D.J.; Bartelt, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The combustion of perennial grass biomass to generate electricity may be a promising renewable energy option. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) grown as a biofuel has the potential to provide a cash crop for farmers and quality nesting cover for grassland birds. In southwestern Wisconsin (near lat. 42??52???, long. 90??08???), we investigated the impact of an August harvest of switchgrass for bioenergy on community composition and abundance of Wisconsin grassland bird species of management concern. Harvesting the switchgrass in August resulted in changes in vegetation structure and bird species composition the following nesting season. In harvested transects, residual vegetation was shorter and the litter layer was reduced in the year following harvest. Grassland bird species that preferred vegetation of short to moderate height and low to moderate density were found in harvested areas. Unharvested areas provided tall, dense vegetation structure that was especially attractive to tall-grass bird species, such as sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis) and Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii). When considering wildlife habitat value in harvest management of switchgrass for biofuel, leaving some fields unharvested each year would be a good compromise, providing some habitat for a larger number of grassland bird species of management concern than if all fields were harvested annually. In areas where most idle grassland habitat present on the landscape is tallgrass, harvest of switchgrass for biofuel has the potential to increase the local diversity of grassland birds.

  17. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 48% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This study addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from land use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270 - 530 g and 120 -190 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 to 85 g CO2-eq per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. Fossil fuels contributed about 93% to Malaysia's electricity generation mix and emit about 65 million tonnes (Mt) or 36% of the country's 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has set a target to install 330 MW biomass electricity by 2015, which is hoped to avoid 1.3 Mt of GHG emissions annually. The availability of seven types of biomass residues in Peninsular Malaysia is estimated based on residues-to-product ratio, recoverability and accessibility factor and other competing uses. It was found that there are approximately 12.2 Mt/yr of residues. Oil-palm residues contribute about 77% to the total availability with rice and forestry residues at 17%. Electricity from biomass can be produced via direct combustion in dedicated power plants or co-fired with coal. The co-firing of the residues at four existing coal plants in

  18. Free energies for singleton minimal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    It is assumed that any free energy function exhibits strict periodic behavior for histories that have been periodic for all past times. This is not the case for the work function, which, however, has the usual defining properties of a free energy. Forms given in fairly recent years for the minimum and related free energies of linear materials with memory have this property. Materials for which the minimal states are all singletons are those for which at least some of the singularities of the Fourier transform of the relaxation function are not isolated. For such materials, the maximum free energy is the work function, and free energies intermediate between the minimum free energy and the work function should be given by a linear relation involving these two quantities. All such functionals, except the minimum free energy, therefore do not have strict periodic behavior for periodic histories, which contradicts our assumption. A way out of the difficulty is explored which involves approximating the relaxation function by a form for which the minimal states are no longer singletons. A representation can then be given of an arbitrary free energy as a linear combination of the minimum, maximum and intermediate free energies derived in earlier work. This representation obeys our periodicity assumption. Numerical data are presented, supporting the consistency of this approach.

  19. Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a midterm forecast for biomass ethanol production under three different technology cases for the period 2000 to 2020, based on projections developed from the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System. An overview of cellulose conversion technology and various feedstock options and a brief history of ethanol usage in the United States are also presented.

  20. Ground-state energy of nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, George A., Jr.; Benofy, L. P.; Fortes, Mauricio

    1988-07-01

    The low-density expansion of the ground-state energy for spin-dependent forces is given, through order k6F for the ladder approximation and through order k6FlnkF for the complete energy, in terms of derivatives with respect to the strength of the attractive part of the interaction defined by the Baker-Hind-Kahane potential. The ladder approximation is also computed by the numerical solution of the K-matrix equation. The resulting series gives a satisfactory representation of the energy at interesting densities. Using Padé extrapolation techniques, both in the density and in the attractive part of the interaction, we obtain the ground-state energy of nuclear matter.

  1. Cancer -- Pathological Breakdown of Coherent Energy States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jiří Pokorný, Jan; Kobilková, Jitka; Jandová, Anna; Vrba, Jan; Vrba, Jan

    The fundamental property of biological systems is a coherent state far from thermodynamic equilibrium excited and sustained by energy supply. Mitochondria in eukaryotic cells produce energy and form conditions for excitation of oscillations in microtubules. Microtubule polar oscillations generate a coherent state far from thermodynamic equilibrium which makes possible cooperation of cells in the tissue. Mitochondrial dysfunction (the Warburg effect) in cancer development breaks down energy of the coherent state far from thermodynamic equilibrium and excludes the afflicted cell from the ordered multicellular tissue system. Cancer lowering of energy and coherence of the state far from thermodynamic equilibrium is the biggest difference from the healthy cells. Cancer treatment should target mitochondrial dysfunction to restore the coherent state far from thermodynamic equilibrium, apoptotic pathway, and subordination of the cell in the tissue. A vast variety of genetic changes and other disturbances in different cancers can result in several triggers of mitochondrial dysfunction. In cancers with the Warburg effect, mitochondrial dysfunction can be treated by inhibition of four isoforms of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases. Treatment of the reverse Warburg effect cancers would be more complicated. Disturbances of cellular electromagnetic activity by conducting and asbestos fibers present a special problem of treatment.

  2. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, B. J.; Texeira, R. H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. Data were compiled on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region.

  4. Development of a Model for Estimation of Acacia Senegal Tree Biomass Using Allometry and Aster Satellite Imagery at Ennuhud, West Kordofan State, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamin, Hatim; Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    The current paper deals with the development of a biomass model for Acacia senegal trees by applying allometric equations for ground data combined with ASTER satellite data sets. The current study is conducted around Ennuhud area which is located in Ennuhud locality in West Kordofan State, Sudan. Primary data are obtained by application of random sampling around Ennuhud town where Acacia senegal tree species is abundant. Ten sample units are taken. Each unit contains five sample plots (15x15 m), one in the centre and the others in the four directions 100 m away from the centre forming a total of 50 sample plots. The tree coordinates, diameter/diameters (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm), height and crown diameters will be recorded. Sensor data were acquired from ASTER remote sensing satellite (29.03.2007 & 26.01.2011) and integrated with the in-situ data. The expected findings allow for the calculation of the mean diameter of trees. The tree above ground biomass (TAGB), tree below ground biomass (TBGB) and the tree total biomass (TTB) of Acacia senegal are computed consequently. Remotely sensed data are integrated with the ground data for creating the data base for calculating the correlation of the relationship between the two methods of data collection. The application of allometric equations is useful as a non-destructive method for biomass estimation by the application of remote sensing is recommended for biomass modelling over large areas. Keywords: Biomass model, Acacia senegal tree, remote sensing, Ennuhud, North Kordofan

  5. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Fuel Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, G.; Kreycik, C.

    2008-07-01

    The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, renewable fuel standards (RFS) policies are a mechanism for developing a market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. This flexible market-based policy, when properly executed, can correct for market failures and promote growth of the renewable fuels industry better than a more command-oriented approach. The policy attempts to correct market failures such as embedded fossil fuel infrastructure and culture, risk associated with developing renewable fuels, consumer information gaps, and lack of quantification of the non-economic costs and benefits of both renewable and fossil-based fuels. This report focuses on renewable fuel standards policies, which are being analyzed as part of this project.

  6. Elucidating structural characteristics of biomass using solution-state 2 D NMR with a mixture of deuterated dimethylsulfoxide and hexamethylphosphoramide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yoo, Chang Geun; Li, Mi

    2016-04-26

    In recent developments of NMR methods for characterization of lignocellulosic biomass allow improved understanding of plant cell-wall structures with minimal deconstruction and modification of biomass. This study introduces a new NMR solvent system composed of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO-d6) and hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA-d18). HMPA as a co-solvent enhanced swelling and mobility of the biomass samples; thereby it allowed enhancing signals of NMR spectra. Moreover, the structural information of biomass was successfully analyzed by the proposed NMR solvent system (DMSO-d6/HMPA-d18; 4:1, v/v) with different biomass. The proposed bi-solvent system does not require derivatization or isolation of biomass, facilitating a facile sample preparation and involvingmore » with no signals overlapping with biomass peaks. Furthermore, it also allows analyzing biomass with a room-temperature NMR probe instead of cryo-probes, which are traditionally used for enhancing signal intensities.« less

  7. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  8. Biomass-bioenergy crops in the United States: A changing paradigm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world energy paradigm is changing from one based on petroleum to one based on a mixture of energy platforms. This change is precipitated by finite petroleum reserves, an expanding global demand, and political instability in areas with major petroleum reserves. The mixed energy platform will incl...

  9. Carbon Dioxide as an Indicator of Biogenic Activity and Biomass Burning Emissions in the Southeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Choi, Y.; Vadrevu, K. P.; Yang, M. M.; Diskin, G. S.; Mikoviny, T.; Wisthaler, A.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA SEAC4RS mission (utilizing the NASA DC-8 in August-September 2013) was intended to give a broad survey of the atmospheric composition of the southeastern United States including emissions from vegetation, biomass burning and anthropogenic activity. Carbon dioxide in conjunction with other gas-phase and aerosol tracers can be used to differentiate these sources. Isoprene emissions were heavily dependent on vegetation type and temperature, with largest emissions over deciduous forests in Southeastern Missouri. Carbon dioxide uptake, however, was less dependent on vegetation type and more dependent on time of year with largest uptake in August. Emissions of other volatile organic compounds will be analyzed based on land use classification and meteorological conditions. For periods with strong biomass burning influence, variations in emissions are studied with respect to source fuel (from land use imagery) and combustion efficiency (from in situ CO and CO2 measurements). Agricultural fires (in the Mississippi River Valley) were found to have lower combustion efficiencies than wildfires indicating smoldering conditions. This resulted in higher particulate emissions & lower single scattering albedos.

  10. Improved biomass and protein production in solid-state cultures of an Aspergillus sojae strain harboring the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Mora-Lugo, Rodrigo; Madrigal, Marvin; Yelemane, Vikas; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2015-11-01

    The biotechnological value of Aspergillus sojae ATCC 20235 (A. sojae) for production of pectinases in solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been demonstrated recently. However, a common drawback of fungal solid-state cultures is the poor diffusion of oxygen into the fungi that limits its growth and biological productivity. The bacterial Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) has favored the metabolism and productivities of various bacterial and yeast strains besides alleviating hypoxic conditions of its native host, but the use of VHb in filamentous fungi still remains poor explored. Based on the known effects of VHb, this study assessed its applicability to improve A. sojae performance in SSF. The VHb gene (vgb) under control of the constitutive Aspergillus nidulants gpdA promoter was introduced into the genome of A. sojae by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful fungal transformants were identified by fluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. In solid-state cultures, the content of protease, exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG), and exo-polymethylgalacturonase (exo-PMG) of the transformed fungus (A. sojae vgb+) improved were 26, 60, and 44 % higher, respectively, in comparison to its parental strain (A. sojae wt). Similarly, biomass content was also 1.3 times higher in the transformant strain. No significant difference was observed in endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG) content between both fungal strains, suggesting dissimilar effects of VHb towards different enzymatic productions. Overall, our results show that biomass, protease, and exo-pectinase content of A. sojae in SSF can be improved by transformation with VHb. PMID:26224427

  11. Do the states now control energy policy?

    SciTech Connect

    Huard, David; Keen, Randall

    2007-04-15

    Ironically, in the year that has passed since adoption of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), it appears that EPAct has shifted the primary forum for M and A and infrastructure siting issues from the federal government to the states. The effect has been to stymie the transactions and infrastructure development that EPAct should have streamlined. (author)

  12. Handbook for state energy emergency planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This document presents some basic ideas about developing plans for dealing with energy shortages and contains a range of topics and considerations that state government officials and planners may wish to review in formulating an energy emergency plan. Those states in advanced stages of plan development might wish to use this document as a means of reviewing their plans or for possible revisions or refinements. This document introduces a number of key factors and options from which states may choose when finalizing their energy emergency plans. The report is intended to serve as a vehicle for improving planning efforts and does not seek to provide criteria by which to judge or compare different states' plans. There are six basic steps to the planning format presented in this report. The remainder of this document builds upon the outline, providing additional detail on such topics as preliminary planning,legal issues, organizational structures, selection of mitigation measures, and historical reviews. Appendix A lists information sources, and Appendix B contains responses to the State Emergency Plan Survey, updated in October 1990.

  13. Skylarks trade size and energy content in weed seeds to maximize total ingested lipid biomass.

    PubMed

    Gaba, Sabrina; Collas, Claire; Powolny, Thibaut; Bretagnolle, François; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    The trade-off between forage quality and quantity has been particularly studied in herbivore organisms, but much less for seed eating animals, in particular seed-eating birds which constitute the bulk of wintering passerines in European farmlands. The skylark is one of the commonest farmland birds in winter, mainly feeding on seeds. We focus on weed seeds for conservation and management purposes. Weed seeds form the bulk of the diet of skylarks during winter period, and although this is still a matter for discussion, weed seed predation by granivorous has been suggested as an alternative to herbicides used to regulate weed populations in arable crops. Our objectives were to identify whether weed seed traits govern foraging decisions of skylarks, and to characterize key seed traits with respect to size, which is related to searching and handling time, and lipid content, which is essential for migratory birds. We combined a single-offer experiment and a multiple-offer one to test for feeding preferences of the birds by estimating seed intake on weed seed species differing in their seed size and seed lipid content. Our results showed (1) a selective preference for smaller seeds above a threshold of seed size or seed size difference in the pair and, (2) a significant effect of seed lipid biomass suggesting a trade-off between foraging for smaller seeds and selecting seeds rich in lipids. Skylarks foraging decision thus seems to be mainly based on seed size, that is presumably a 'proxy' for weed seed energy content. However, there are clearly many possible combinations of morphological and physiological traits that must play crucial role in the plant-bird interaction such as toxic compound or seed coat. PMID:25452078

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis of miRNA targets in Brachypodium and Biomass Energy Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Pamela J.

    2015-08-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the control of numerous biological processes through the regulation of specific target mRNAs. Although the identities of these targets are essential to elucidate miRNA function, the targets are much more difficult to identify than the small RNAs themselves. Before this work, we pioneered the genome-wide identification of the targets of Arabidopsis miRNAs using an approach called PARE (German et al., Nature Biotech. 2008; Nature Protocols, 2009). Under this project, we applied PARE to Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), a model plant in the Poaceae family, which includes the major food grain and bioenergy crops. Through in-depth global analysis and examination of specific examples, this research greatly expanded our knowledge of miRNAs and target RNAs of Brachypodium. New regulation in response to environmental stress or tissue type was found, and many new miRNAs were discovered. More than 260 targets of new and known miRNAs with PARE sequences at the precise sites of miRNA-guided cleavage were identified and characterized. Combining PARE data with the small RNA data also identified the miRNAs responsible for initiating approximately 500 phased loci, including one of the novel miRNAs. PARE analysis also revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs in the same family guide specific target RNA cleavage in a correspondingly tissue-preferential manner. The project included generation of small RNA and PARE resources for bioenergy crops, to facilitate ongoing discovery of conserved miRNA-target RNA regulation. By associating specific miRNA-target RNA pairs with known physiological functions, the research provides insights about gene regulation in different tissues and in response to environmental stress. This, and release of new PARE and small RNA data sets should contribute basic knowledge to enhance breeding and may suggest new strategies for improvement of biomass energy crops.

  15. Biomass Burning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-07-27

    Projects:  Biomass Burning Definition/Description:  Biomass Burning: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...

  16. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 48% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This study addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from land use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270 - 530 g and 120 -190 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 to 85 g CO2-eq per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. Fossil fuels contributed about 93% to Malaysia's electricity generation mix and emit about 65 million tonnes (Mt) or 36% of the country's 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has set a target to install 330 MW biomass electricity by 2015, which is hoped to avoid 1.3 Mt of GHG emissions annually. The availability of seven types of biomass residues in Peninsular Malaysia is estimated based on residues-to-product ratio, recoverability and accessibility factor and other competing uses. It was found that there are approximately 12.2 Mt/yr of residues. Oil-palm residues contribute about 77% to the total availability with rice and forestry residues at 17%. Electricity from biomass can be produced via direct combustion in dedicated power plants or co-fired with coal. The co-firing of the residues at four existing coal plants in

  17. Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Skelton, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  18. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region`s net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region`s energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  19. Pollutant Emissions and Energy Efficiency under Controlled Conditions for Household Biomass Cookstoves and Implications for Metrics Useful in Setting International Test Standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realistic metrics and methods for testing household biomass cookstoves are required to develop standards needed by international policy makers, donors, and investors. Application of consistent test practices allows emissions and energy efficiency performance to be benchmarked and...

  20. Genetic Regulation of Grass Biomass Accumulation and Biological Conversion Quality (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Sam

    2013-03-01

    Sam Hazen of the University of Massachusetts on "Genetic Regulation of Grass Biomass Accumulation and Biological Conversion Quality" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  1. Biomass power and conventional fossil systems with and without CO2 sequestration - Comparing the energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Spath, Pamela L.; Mann, Margaret K.

    2004-01-01

    Lifecycle analysis of coal-, natural gas- and biomass-based power generation systems with and without CO2 sequestration. Compares global warming potential and energy balance of these systems.

  2. Independent Assessment of Technology Characterizations to Support the Biomass Program Annual State-of-Technology Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, B.

    2011-03-01

    This report discusses an investigation that addressed two thermochemical conversion pathways for the production of liquid fuels and addressed the steps to the process, the technology providers, a method for determining the state of technology and a tool to continuously assess the state of technology. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation as well as recommendations for improvements for future studies.

  3. Seasonal biomass and energy content in seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J.; Hall, M.O.; Riechert, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal collections were made over a 16 month period in seven seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida. The seagrass component accounted for at least 45% of the total biomass and Thalassia testudinum was the dominant species. The 15 month mean of total biomass at six sites that were dominated year around by T. testudinum from Tampa Bay to Cedar Key, Florida was 385 g dry weight m/sup 2/ or 1.42 tons dry weight/acre. The drift and attached seaweed components showed seasonal fluctuations in terms of species and biomass. Of the six open water sites, only one site, characterized by depressed salinity, showed significant differences in seasonal biomass for T. testudinum using a nested ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keul's test for variance. Available kilocalories ranged from a 16 month low of 344 to a high of 1837 kcal/m/sup 2/ with the highest biomass and caloric values occurring in the late spring and summer.

  4. Global Characterization of Biomass-Burning Patterns using Satellite Measurements of Fire Radiative Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Giglio, Louis; Wooster, Martin J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is the most practical means of measuring energy release from large open-air biomass burning. Satellite measurement of fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) enables distinction between fires of different strengths. Based on a 1-km resolution fire data acquired globally by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites from 2000 to 2006, instanteaneous FRP values ranged between 0.02 MW and 1866 MW, with global daily means ranging between 20 and 40 MW. Regionally, at the Aqua-MODIS afternoon overpass, the mean FRP values for Alaska, Western US, Western Australia, Quebec and the rest of Canada are significantly higher than these global means, with Quebec having the overall highest value of 85 MW. Analysis of regional mean FRP per unit area of land (FRP flux) shows that a peak fire season in certain regions, fires can be responsible for up to 0.2 W/m(sup 2) at peak time of day. Zambia has the highest regional monthly mean FRP flux of approximately 0.045 W/m(sup 2) at peak time of day and season, while the Middle East has the lowest value of approximately 0.0005 W/m(sup 2). A simple scheme based on FRP has been devised to classify fires into five categories, to facilitate fire rating by strength, similar to earthquakes and hurricanes. The scheme uses MODIS measurements of FRP at 1-km resolution as follows: catagory 1 (less than 100 MW), category 2 (100 to less than 500 MW), category 3 (500 to less than 1000 MW), category 4 (1000 to less than 1500 MW), catagory 5 (greater than or equal to 1500 MW). In most regions of the world, over 90% of fires fall into category 1, while only less than 1% fall into each of categories 3 to 5, although these proportions may differ significantly from day to day and by season. The frequency of occurence of the larger fires is region specific, and could not be explained by ecosystem type alone. Time-series analysis of the propertions of higher category

  5. The impacts of a plume-rise scheme on earth system modeling: climatological effects of biomass aerosols on the surface temperature and energy budget of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Menezes Neto, Otacilio L.; Coutinho, Mariane M.; Marengo, José A.; Capistrano, Vinícius B.

    2016-05-01

    Seasonal forest fires in the Amazon are the largest source of pollutants in South America. The impacts of aerosols due to biomass burning on the temperature and energy balance in South America are investigated using climate simulations from 1979 to 2005 using HadGEM2-ES, which includes the hot plume-rise scheme (HPR) developed by Freitas et al. (Estudos Avançados 19:167-185, 2005, Atmos Chem Phys 7:3385-3398, 2007, Atmos Chem Phys 10:585-594, 2010). The HPR scheme is used to estimate the vertical heights of biomass-burning aerosols based on the thermodynamic characteristics of the underlying model. Three experiments are performed. The first experiment includes the HPR scheme, the second experiment turns off the HPR scheme and the effects of biomass aerosols (BIOMASS OFF), and the final experiment assumes that all biomass aerosols are released at the surface (HPR OFF). Relative to the BIOMASS OFF experiment, the temperature decreased in the HPR experiment as the net shortwave radiation at the surface decreased in a region with a large amount of biomass aerosols. When comparing the HPR and HPR OFF experiments, the release of biomass aerosols higher on the atmosphere impacts on temperature and the energy budget because the aerosols were transported by strong winds in the upper atmospheric levels.

  6. Utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    SciTech Connect

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Groet, S.S.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if development is successful.

  7. 77 FR 20014 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference... Designated Federal Officer, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  8. 77 FR 20015 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY.... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 1000 Independence Ave....

  9. 78 FR 25064 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Teleconference... Designated Federal Officer, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  10. 77 FR 54573 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference... Designated Federal Officer, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  11. Ecology of agricultural monocultures: Some consequences for biodiversity in biomass energy farms

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, W.; Beyea, J.; Cook, J.H.

    1995-11-01

    Most developmental work on biomass crops has involved extensive monocultures of genetically uniform crops. We review the relevant ecology of agricultural monocultures, and some consequences of monocultural methods for the biomass industry. Monocultures can have very high primary productivity; indeed biomass crops are selected for high productivity. The seasonal tempo of productivity is often more punctuated in monocultures than in multispecies system, leaving temporal productivity gaps. In turn, folivorous insect diversity and abundance tends to track the foliage productivity. The productivity gaps may produce bottlenecks in herbivore abundance and diversity. Herbivore population dynamics tend to be less stable in monocultures, driving fluctuations in predator abundance and diversity. These bottlenecks and fluctuations can increase the frequency and severity of pest problems, for herbivorous insects usually respond to productivity increases faster than their predators. The spatial scaling of structural complexity is also critical to habitat value, particularly for vertebrates. At micro scales structural complexity is a function of plant structure. At meso scales, agricultural monocultures tend to be very uniform, compared to multispecies systems, and provide poorer habitat for species needing meso-scale diversity. We suggest three strategies to enhance or restore biodiversity while developing biomass crops. First, tailor the scale of plantings to the needs of wildlife in the system. Second, manage the deployment of the biomass plantings to be complementary to other landscape features. For example, concentrate biomass plantings on the most favorable sites in the landscape, and develop complementary habitat inclusions on poorer microsites. Third, develop crops and crop combinations to benefit wildlife as well as to provide high yields. Select and deploy crops and clones to bridge productivity gaps.

  12. Forest structure and aboveground biomass in the southwestern United States from MODIS and MISR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red band bidirectional reflectance factor data from the NASA MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) acquired over the southwestern United States were interpreted through a simple geometric–optical (GO) canopy reflectance model to provide maps of fractional crown cover (dimensionless),...

  13. Northeast Regional Biomass Program first and second quarter reports, October 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Northeast states face several near-term barriers to the expanded use of biomass energy. Informational and technical barriers have impeded industrial conversions, delaying the development of a wood energy supply infrastructure. Concern over the environmental impacts on resources are not well understood. Public awareness and concern about safety issues surrounding wood energy use has also grown to the point of applying a brake to the trend of increases in residential applications of biomass energy. In addition, many residential commercial, industrial, and commercial energy users are discouraged from using biomass energy because of the convenience factor. Regardless of the potential for cost savings, biomass energy sources, aside from being perceived as more esoteric, are also viewed as more work for the user. The Northeast Regional biomass Program (NRBP) is designed to help the eleven Northeastern states overcome these obstacles and achieve their biomass energy potentials. The objective of this program in the current and future years is to increase the role of biomass fuels in the region`s energy mix by providing the impetus for states and the private sector to develop a viable Northeast biomass fuels market. This paper contains a management report, state program summaries, technical project status report, and technology transfer activities.

  14. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Oteri, F.; Tegen, S.; Doris, E.

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets--like human capital and modern infrastructure--as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  15. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA). State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, Eric; Oteri, Frank; Tegen, Suzanne; Doris, Elizabeth

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets—like human capital and modern infrastructure–as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  16. State Energy Price System: 1982 update

    SciTech Connect

    Imhoff, K.L.; Fang, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    The State Energy Price System (STEPS) contains estimates of energy prices for ten major fuels (electricity, natural gas, metallurgical coal, steam coal, distillate, motor gasoline, diesel, kerosene/jet fuel, residual fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas), by major end-use sectors (residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility), and by state through 1982. Both physical unit prices and prices per million Btu are included in STEPS. Major changes in STEPS data base for 1981 and 1982 are described. The most significant changes in procedures for the updates occur in the residential sector distillate series and the residential sector kerosene series. All physical unit and Btu prices are shown with three significant digits instead of with four significant digits as shown in the original documentation. Details of these and other changes are contained in this report, along with the updated data files. 31 references, 65 tables.

  17. Ground state energy of large polaron systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benguria, Rafael D.; Frank, Rupert L.; Lieb, Elliott H.

    2015-02-15

    The last unsolved problem about the many-polaron system, in the Pekar–Tomasevich approximation, is the case of bosons with the electron-electron Coulomb repulsion of strength exactly 1 (the “neutral case”). We prove that the ground state energy, for large N, goes exactly as −N{sup 7/5}, and we give upper and lower bounds on the asymptotic coefficient that agree to within a factor of 2{sup 2/5}.

  18. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Volume IV. Design drawings

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains design drawings for the biomass cogeneration plant to be built in Maine. The drawings show a considerable degree of detail, however, they are not to be considered released for construction. There has been no actual procurement of equipment, therefore equipment drawings certified by suppliers have not been included. (DMC)

  19. Sustainability: The capacity of smokeless biomass pyrolysis for energy production, global carbon capture and sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of modern smokeless biomass pyrolysis for biochar and biofuel production is potentially a revolutionary approach for global carbon capture and sequestration at gigatons of carbon (GtC) scales. A conversion of about 7% of the annual terrestrial gross photosynthetic product (120 GtC y-1) i...

  20. Using LiDAR to Estimate Total Aboveground Biomass of Redwood Stands in the Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M.; Vuong, H.

    2013-12-01

    The overall objective of this study is to develop a method for estimating total aboveground biomass of redwood stands in Jackson Demonstration State Forest, Mendocino, California using airborne LiDAR data. LiDAR data owing to its vertical and horizontal accuracy are increasingly being used to characterize landscape features including ground surface elevation and canopy height. These LiDAR-derived metrics involving structural signatures at higher precision and accuracy can help better understand ecological processes at various spatial scales. Our study is focused on two major species of the forest: redwood (Sequoia semperirens [D.Don] Engl.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga mensiezii [Mirb.] Franco). Specifically, the objectives included linear regression models fitting tree diameter at breast height (dbh) to LiDAR derived height for each species. From 23 random points on the study area, field measurement (dbh and tree coordinate) were collected for more than 500 trees of Redwood and Douglas-fir over 0.2 ha- plots. The USFS-FUSION application software along with its LiDAR Data Viewer (LDV) were used to to extract Canopy Height Model (CHM) from which tree heights would be derived. Based on the LiDAR derived height and ground based dbh, a linear regression model was developed to predict dbh. The predicted dbh was used to estimate the biomass at the single tree level using Jenkin's formula (Jenkin et al 2003). The linear regression models were able to explain 65% of the variability associated with Redwood's dbh and 80% of that associated with Douglas-fir's dbh.

  1. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  2. Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, J.; Hlava, K.; Greenwood, H.; Carr, A.

    2013-12-13

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software. The report also includes: A description of each of the components of the Atlas; Lists of the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and A brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies. The Atlas includes the following: A GIS database organized as a set of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS Personal GeoDatabases, and ESRI ArcReader and ArcGIS project files providing an interactive map visualization and analysis interface.

  3. The Use of Biomass for Power Generation in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-15

    Historically, biomass has been man's principal source of energy, mainly used in the form of wood for cooking and heating. With the industrial revolution and the introduction of motorized transportation and electricity, fossil fuels became the dominant source of energy. Today, biomass is the largest domestic source of renewable energy providing over 3% of total U.S. energy consumption, and surpassing hydropower. Yet, recent increases in the price and volatility of fossil fuel supplies and the financial impacts from a number of financially distressed investments in natural gas combined cycle power plants have led to a renewed interest in electricity generation from biomass. The biomass-fueled generation market is a dynamic one that is forecast to show significant growth over the next two decades as environmental drivers are increasingly supported by commercial ones. The most significant change is likely to come from increases in energy prices, as decreasing supply and growing demand increase the costs of fossil fuel-generated electricity and improve the competitive position of biomass as a power source. The report provides an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in biomass-fueled power generation and gives a concise look at what's driving interest in biomass-fueled generation, the challenges faced in implementing biomass-fueled generation projects, and the current and future state of biomass-fueled generation. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of biomass-fueled generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in biomass-fueled generation; an analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of biomass-fueled generation projects; a description of the various feedstocks that can be used for biomass-fueled generation; an evaluation of the biomass supply chain; a description of biomass-fueled generation technologies

  4. Resource mapping and analysis of UK farm livestock manures: Assessing the opportunities for biomass-to-energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dagnall, S.P.

    1995-11-01

    Livestock farms produce wastes with a high potential for pollution. Alternative, environmentally acceptable disposal routes might lie in biomass-to-energy schemes, generating revenue from the energy produced and fertiliser as a by-product; these are currently being developed, or assessed, for the UK under DTI/MAFF collaborative programmes; two options are being considered-direct combustion (12-14MW{sub e}) and centralised anaerobic digestion (0.1-1MW{sub e} CHP). One of the barriers to initiating such schemes is establishing where feedstocks are located in order that they may be exploited in a cost effective manner. Resource mapping and analysis using a Geographical Information System has been used to establish the opportunities for England and Wales. This work was carried out in two parts: produce spatially distributed resource data, of agro-industrial wastes and farm livestock manures, expressed in tonnes dry solids, from which energy production figures were derived; and develop algorithms to establish how much of this resource could be feasibly exploited. By comparing these resource data with other appropriate information (e.g., road networks, environmentally sensitive areas, grid interconnections), the optimum location and size of potential biomass-to-energy plants were determined. Whilst interest in such schemes is anticipated to grow further over the next few years, their future will be heavily dependent upon the level of concern for wider environmental issues.

  5. Energy efficient production of hydrogen and syngas from biomass: development of low-temperature catalytic process for cellulose gasification.

    PubMed

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Yamada, Muneyoshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2002-10-15

    The Rh/CeO2/M (M = SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2) type catalysts with various compositions have been prepared and investigated in the gasification of cellulose, a model compound of biomass, in a fluidized bed reactor at 500-700 degrees C. The conventional nickel and dolomite catalysts have also been investigated. Among the catalysts, Rh/CeO2/SiO2 with 35% CeO2 has been found to be the best catalyst with respect to the carbon conversion to gas and product distribution. The steam addition contributed to the complete conversion of cellulose to gas even at 600 degrees C. Lower steam supply gave the syngas and higher steam supply gave the hydrogen as the major product. Hydrogen and syngas from cellulose or cellulosic biomass gasification are environmentally super clean gaseous fuels for power generation. Moreover, the syngas derived liquid fuels such as methanol, dimethyl ether, and synthetic diesels are also super clean transportation fuels. However, the use of cellulose or cellulosic biomass for energy source through the gasification is challenging because of the formation of tar and char during the gasification process. It is interesting that no tar or char was finally formed in the effluent gas at as low as 500-600 degrees C using Rh/CeO2/SiO2(35) catalyst in this process. PMID:12387426

  6. 78 FR 18579 - State Energy Advisory Board; Open Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board; Open Teleconference AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open..., STEAB Designated Federal Officer, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  7. 76 FR 25683 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB); Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB); Meeting AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an... Federal Officer, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  8. 78 FR 20311 - State Energy Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable.... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 1000 Independence Ave SW., Washington... Secretary for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy regarding goals......

  9. 78 FR 44943 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Teleconference..., STEAB Designated Federal Officer, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  10. 78 FR 52171 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference..., STEAB Designated Federal Officer, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  11. 30 CFR 843.25 - Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with approved State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with... ENFORCEMENT § 843.25 Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with approved State programs. (a) State-by-State... whether: (1) Direct Federal enforcement of the Energy Policy Act and implementing Federal regulations...

  12. 30 CFR 843.25 - Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with approved State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with... ENFORCEMENT § 843.25 Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with approved State programs. (a) State-by-State... whether: (1) Direct Federal enforcement of the Energy Policy Act and implementing Federal regulations...

  13. 30 CFR 843.25 - Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with approved State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with... ENFORCEMENT § 843.25 Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with approved State programs. (a) State-by-State... whether: (1) Direct Federal enforcement of the Energy Policy Act and implementing Federal regulations...

  14. 30 CFR 843.25 - Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with approved State programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with... ENFORCEMENT § 843.25 Energy Policy Act enforcement in States with approved State programs. (a) State-by-State... whether: (1) Direct Federal enforcement of the Energy Policy Act and implementing Federal regulations...

  15. Biomass power in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, D.K.

    1996-12-31

    Electricity production from biomass fuel has been hailed in recent years as an environmentally acceptable energy source that delivers on its promise of economically viable renewable energy. A Wall Street Journal article from three years ago proclaimed wood to be {open_quotes}moving ahead of costly solar panels and wind turbines as the leading renewable energy alternative to air-fouling fossils fuels and scary nuclear plants.{close_quotes} Biomass fuel largely means wood; about 90% of biomass generated electricity comes from burning waste wood, the remainder from agricultural wastes. Biomass power now faces an uncertain future. The maturing of the cogeneration and independent power plant market, restructuring of the electric industry, and technological advances with power equipment firing other fuels have placed biomass power in a competitive disadvantage with other power sources.

  16. The 1985 Biomass Burning Season in South America: Satellite Remote Sensing of Fires, Smoke, and Regional Radiative Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, Sundar A.; Wang, Min; Berendes, Todd A.; Welch, Ronald M.; Yang, Shi-Keng

    1998-01-01

    Using satellite imagery, more than five million square kilometers of the forest and cerrado regions over South America are extensively studied to monitor fires and smoke during the 1985 biomass burning season. The results are characterized for four major ecosystems, namely: (1) tropical rain forest, (2) tropical broadleaf seasonal, (3) savannah/grass and seasonal woods (SGW), and (4) mild/warm/hot grass/shrub (MGS). The spatial and temporal distribution of fires are examined from two different methods using the multispectral Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Local Area Coverage data. Using collocated measurements from the instantaneous scanner Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data, the direct regional radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols is computed. The results show that more than 70% of the fires occur in the MGS and SGW ecosystems due to agricultural practices. The smoke generated from biomass burning has negative instantaneous net radiative forcing values for all four major ecosystems within South America. The smoke found directly over the fires has mean net radiative forcing values ranging from -25.6 to -33.9 W m(exp -2). These results confirm that the regional net radiative impact of biomass burning is one of cooling. The spectral and broadband properties for clear-sky and smoke regions are also presented that could be used as input and/or validation for other studies attempting to model the impact of aerosols on the earth-atmosphere system. These results have important applications for future instruments from the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. Specifically, the combination of the Visible Infrared Scanner and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the combination of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and CERES instruments from the EOS morning crossing mission could provide reliable estimates of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols on a global scale

  17. Biomass Processing Photolibrary

    DOE Data Explorer

    Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

  18. Economic scales for first-generation biomass-gasifier/gas turbine combined cycles fueled from energy plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E.D.; Marrison, C.I.

    1997-04-01

    This paper assesses the scales at which commercial, first-generation biomass integrated-gasifier/gas turbine combined cycle (BIG/GTCC) technology is likely to be most economic when fueled by plantation-derived biomass. First-generation BIG/GTCC systems are likely to be commercially offered by vendors beginning around 2000 and will be based on either pressurized or atmospheric-pressure gasification. Both plant configurations are considered here, with estimates of capital and operating costs drawn from published and other sources. Prospective costs of a farm-grown energy crop (switchgrass) delivered to a power plant are developed with the aid of a geographic information system (GIS) for agricultural regions in the North Central and Southeast US in the year 2000 and 2020. A simplified approach is applied to estimate the cost of delivering chipped eucalyptus from an existing plantation in Northeast Brazil. The optimum capacity (MW{sub opt}), defined as that which yields the minimum calculated cost of electricity (COE{sub m}), varies by geographic region due to differences in delivered biomass costs. With pressurized BIG/GTCC plants, MW{sup opt} is in the range of 230--320 MW{sub e} for the sites considered, assuming most of the land around the power plant is farmed for energy crop production. For atmospheric-pressure BIG/GTCC plants, MW{sub opt} ranges from 110 to 142 MW{sub e}. When a lower fraction of the land around a plant is used for energy farming, values for MW{sub opt} are smaller than these. In all cases, the cost of electricity is relatively insensitive to plant capacity over a wide range around MW{sub opt}.

  19. Merging satellite measurements of fire radiative energy and burned area products to estimate biomass burning: A European case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistinas, I.; Saldaña, G. L.; Oom, D.; Sá, A. C.; Silva, J. M.; Pereira, J.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning is a key element of the terrestrial carbon cycle that influences the global radiation budget through the biomass consumption and the subsequently release of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere having huge impacts on the global climate. Recently, global products of daily fire activity have recorded Fire Radiative Power (FRP), providing a quantitative assessment of fire intensity across the globe. Several studies showed that FRP is proportional to the fire's fuel consumption and smoke emission rates through integration of the FRP over time, deriving the Fire Radiative Energy (FRE), which can be assumed as the total energy released over a spatio-temporal unit and used to infer total emissions from biomass burning in various ecosystems, omitting fuel load and combustion completeness information that are characterized by significant uncertainties at continental and global scale, and at the same time simplifying the computation of spatially explicit fuel consumption estimates. This study integrates spatial and temporal analysis using FRP data from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) for the year 2008 and burned area from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor (MCD64A1) for the same year focusing on Europe. An intercomparison assessment of the emission estimates with the Global Fire Data Emissions Database (GFED) followed, due to lack of FRE and combustion measurements in large scale for validation. We show that the fire-emitted energy approach can be used in continental scale reducing uncertainties in emission estimates which may lead to simplification of the fire parameterization in fire modelling, yet in more robust simulations.

  20. Density of States for Warped Energy Bands

    PubMed Central

    Mecholsky, Nicholas A.; Resca, Lorenzo; Pegg, Ian L.; Fornari, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Warping of energy bands can affect the density of states (DOS) in ways that can be large or subtle. Despite their potential for significant practical impacts on materials properties, these effects have not been rigorously demonstrated previously. Here we rectify this using an angular effective mass formalism that we have developed. To clarify the often confusing terminology in this field, “band warping” is precisely defined as pertaining to any multivariate energy function E(k) that does not admit a second-order differential at an isolated critical point in k-space, which we clearly distinguish from band non-parabolicity. We further describe band “corrugation” as a qualitative form of band warping that increasingly deviates from being twice differentiable at an isolated critical point. These features affect the density-of-states and other parameters ascribed to band warping in various ways. We demonstrate these effects, providing explicit calculations of DOS and their effective masses for warped energy dispersions originally derived by Kittel and others. Other physical and mathematical examples are provided to demonstrate fundamental distinctions that must be drawn between DOS contributions that originate from band warping and contributions that derive from band non-parabolicity. For some non-degenerate bands in thermoelectric materials, this may have profound consequences of practical interest. PMID:26905029

  1. Density of States for Warped Energy Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecholsky, Nicholas A.; Resca, Lorenzo; Pegg, Ian L.; Fornari, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Warping of energy bands can affect the density of states (DOS) in ways that can be large or subtle. Despite their potential for significant practical impacts on materials properties, these effects have not been rigorously demonstrated previously. Here we rectify this using an angular effective mass formalism that we have developed. To clarify the often confusing terminology in this field, “band warping” is precisely defined as pertaining to any multivariate energy function E(k) that does not admit a second-order differential at an isolated critical point in k-space, which we clearly distinguish from band non-parabolicity. We further describe band “corrugation” as a qualitative form of band warping that increasingly deviates from being twice differentiable at an isolated critical point. These features affect the density-of-states and other parameters ascribed to band warping in various ways. We demonstrate these effects, providing explicit calculations of DOS and their effective masses for warped energy dispersions originally derived by Kittel and others. Other physical and mathematical examples are provided to demonstrate fundamental distinctions that must be drawn between DOS contributions that originate from band warping and contributions that derive from band non-parabolicity. For some non-degenerate bands in thermoelectric materials, this may have profound consequences of practical interest.

  2. Using CORE Model-Based Systems Engineering Software to Support Program Management in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Project: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, C.; Sandor, D.; Simpkins, P.

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes how a model-based systems engineering software, CORE, is helping the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Biomass Program assist with bringing biomass-derived biofuels to the market. This software tool provides information to guide informed decision-making as biomass-to-biofuels systems are advanced from concept to commercial adoption. It facilitates management and communication of program status by automatically generating custom reports, Gantt charts, and tables using the widely available programs of Microsoft Word, Project and Excel.

  3. Microbial surface displayed enzymes based biofuel cell utilizing degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass for direct electrical energy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shuqin; Hou, Chuantao; Liang, Bo; Feng, Ruirui; Liu, Aihua

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a bacterial surface displaying enzyme based two-compartment biofuel cell for the direct electrical energy conversion from degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass is reported. Considering that the main degradation products of the lignocellulose are glucose and xylose, xylose dehydrogenase (XDH) displayed bacteria (XDH-bacteria) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were used as anode catalysts in anode chamber with methylene blue as electron transfer mediator. While the cathode chamber was constructed with laccase/multi-walled-carbon nanotube/glassy-carbon-electrode. XDH-bacteria exhibited 1.75 times higher catalytic efficiency than GDH-bacteria. This assembled enzymatic fuel cell exhibited a high open-circuit potential of 0.80 V, acceptable stability and energy conversion efficiency. Moreover, the maximum power density of the cell could reach 53 μW cm(-2) when fueled with degradation products of corn stalk. Thus, this finding holds great potential to directly convert degradation products of biomass into electrical energy. PMID:26051524

  4. Biomass and energy transfer to baleen whales in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, S.; Hedley, S.; Borberg, J.; Hewitt, R.; Thiele, D.; Watkins, J.; Naganobu, M.

    2004-06-01

    Baleen whales are an important group of predators on Antarctic krill in the Southern Ocean. During the CCAMLR 2000 Survey to estimate the biomass and distribution of Antarctic krill, International Whaling Commission observers carried out a visual line transect survey to estimate the number of baleen whales occurring in the survey area. This paper reviews techniques used to estimate krill consumption by baleen whales and in combination with estimates of whale abundance estimates of krill consumption are generated for the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. This survey estimates that the present populations of whales feeding in this region are likely to consume approximately 1.6 million tonnes, but possibly up to as much as 2.7 million tonnes of krill within the summer season. Although this only represents 4-6% of the estimated krill biomass in the region (and probably less than this percentage of the total annual krill production), the depleted numbers of baleen whales resulting from past or current whaling activities should be taken into account when setting quotas for the commercial exploitation of krill if there is to be a recovery to pre-exploitation biomass levels of baleen whales.

  5. State-to-State Mode Specificity: Energy Sequestration and Flow Gated by Transition State.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua

    2015-12-23

    Energy flow and sequestration at the state-to-state level are investigated for a prototypical four-atom reaction, H2 + OH → H + H2O, using a transition-state wave packet (TSWP) method. The product state distribution is found to depend strongly on the reactant vibrational excitation, indicating mode specificity at the state-to-state level. From a local-mode perspective, it is shown that the vibrational excitation of the H2O product derives from two different sources, one attributable to the energy flow along the reaction coordinate into the newly formed OH bond and the other due to the sequestration of the vibrational energy in the OH spectator moiety during the reaction. The analysis provided a unified interpretation of some seemingly contradicting experimental observations. It is further shown that the transfer of vibrational energy from the OH reactant to H2O product is gated by the transition state, accomplished coherently by multiple TSWPs with the corresponding OH vibrational excitation. PMID:26613942

  6. Influence of silane coupling agents on the rheological behavior of hemp fiber filled polyamide 1010 biomass composites in molten state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitani, Yosuke; Hasumi, Megumi; Kitano, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    In order to develop the new engineering materials such as structural materials and tribomaterials based on all plants-derived materials, the influence of silane coupling agent on the rheological properties of hemp fiber (HF) filled polyamide 1010 (PA1010) biomass composites in molten state was investigated for one step of the fabrication of these materials. PA1010 was made from sebacic acid and decamethylenediamine, which are obtained from plant-derived castor oil. Hemp fibers were surface-treated by two types of surface treatment: a) alkali treatment by NaOH solution and b) surface treatment by silane coupling agents with different concentrations. Three types of silane coupling agents: aminosilane, epoxysilane and ureidosilane were used for surface treatment. HF/PA1010 composites were extruded by a twin screw extruder and compression-molded. Rheological behavior in molten state were evaluated by oscillatory flow testing using a parallel plate type rheometer. It was found that the silane coupling agents remarkably influence on: 1) rheological properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, loss tangent and complex viscosity in low angular frequency region in molten state, 2) temperature dependences of rheological properties, and 3) relationship between phase angle and complex modulus (van Gurp - Palmen plots). These rheological behavior were also strongly influenced by the type of silane coupling agents. The viscoelastic properties (both storage and loss moduli) of aminosilane and epoxysilane treated composites were lower, however, those of ureidosilane treated ones were higher than the moduli of only alkali treated composites. Ureidosilane treated composites were the least temperature sensitive in the surface treated composites investigated here.

  7. 78 FR 65305 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a Board meeting of the State...

  8. Energy compensated solid state gamma dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, F.; Clapp, A.; Entine, G.; Kronenberg, S.

    1988-02-01

    Solid state semiconductor detectors using pulse mode detection are attractive candidates for real time dosimetry systems. Their high atomic number relative to that of tissue gives a nonlinear response as a function of the photon energy over the range from 30 keV to 10 MeV. An analytical model of a silicon PIN diode has been developed, including the photoelectric and Compton interactions as well as the ejection of the secondary electrons from the sensitive volume. The authors tested a nonlinear pulse height compensation algorithm using calibrated gamma and x-ray fluxes, and find that this approach improves the dose accuracy.

  9. Estimates of spatial and temporal variation of energy crops biomass yields in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; Landuyt, W.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2013-12-01

    Perennial grasses, such as switchgrass (Panicum viragatum) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) have been identified for potential use as biomass feedstocks in the US. Current research on perennial grass biomass production has been evaluated on small-scale plots. However, the extent to which this potential can be realized at a landscape-scale will depend on the biophysical potential to grow these grasses with minimum possible amount of land that needs to be diverted from food to fuel production. To assess this potential three questions about the biomass yield for these grasses need to be answered: (1) how the yields for different grasses are varied spatially and temporally across the US; (2) whether the yields are temporally stable or not; and (3) how the spatial and temporal trends in yields of these perennial grasses are controlled by limiting factors, including soil type, water availability, climate, and crop varieties. To answer these questions, the growth processes of the perennial grasses are implemented into a coupled biophysical, physiological and biogeochemical model (ISAM). The model has been applied to quantitatively investigate the spatial and temporal trends in biomass yields for over the period 1980 -2010 in the US. The bioenergy grasses considered in this study include Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock switchgrass and Alamo switchgrass. The effects of climate, soil and topography on the spatial and temporal trends of biomass yields are quantitatively analyzed using principal component analysis and GIS based geographically weighted regression. The spatial temporal trend results are evaluated further to classify each part of the US into four homogeneous potential yield zones: high and stable yield zone (HS), high but unstable yield zone (HU), low and stable yield zone (LS) and low but unstable yield zone (LU). Our preliminary results indicate that the yields for perennial grasses among different zones are strongly related to the different controlling factors

  10. 78 FR 11167 - Meetings: State Energy Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy Meetings: State Energy Advisory Board AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable.... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue SW... recommendations to the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable......

  11. 77 FR 64495 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC... advice and recommendations to the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Energy Efficiency and......

  12. 77 FR 25155 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 1000 Independence Ave., SW., Washington, DC... recommendations to the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable......

  13. 78 FR 77444 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Teleconference... and Renewable Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20585. Phone number 202-320-9703,...

  14. 78 FR 6088 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable... of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW., Washington... recommendations to the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable......

  15. 78 FR 1209 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable... of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW., Washington... recommendations to the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable......

  16. 76 FR 75876 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a live...

  17. 76 FR 16763 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference. SUMMARY: This notice announces...

  18. 76 FR 25317 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Teleconference. SUMMARY: This notice announces...

  19. 76 FR 60012 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference. SUMMARY: This notice announces...

  20. 76 FR 75876 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference. SUMMARY: This notice announces...

  1. 77 FR 70423 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Teleconference. SUMMARY: This notice announces...

  2. Lovastatin Production by Aspergillus terreus Using Agro-Biomass as Substrate in Solid State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Ho, Yin Wan; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Goh, Yong Meng; Shokryazdan, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Ability of two strains of Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 74135 and ATCC 20542) for production of lovastatin in solid state fermentation (SSF) using rice straw (RS) and oil palm frond (OPF) was investigated. Results showed that RS is a better substrate for production of lovastatin in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin has been obtained using A. terreus ATCC 74135 and RS as substrate without additional nitrogen source (157.07 mg/kg dry matter (DM)). Although additional nitrogen source has no benefit effect on enhancing the lovastatin production using RS substrate, it improved the lovastatin production using OPF with maximum production of 70.17 and 63.76 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and A. terreus ATCC 74135, respectively (soybean meal as nitrogen source). Incubation temperature, moisture content, and particle size had shown significant effect on lovastatin production (P < 0.01) and inoculums size and pH had no significant effect on lovastatin production (P > 0.05). Results also have shown that pH 6, 25°C incubation temperature, 1.4 to 2 mm particle size, 50% initial moisture content, and 8 days fermentation time are the best conditions for lovastatin production in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin using optimized condition was 175.85 and 260.85 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and ATCC 74135, respectively, using RS as substrate. PMID:23118499

  3. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus using agro-biomass as substrate in solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Liang, Juan Boo; Ho, Yin Wan; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Goh, Yong Meng; Shokryazdan, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Ability of two strains of Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 74135 and ATCC 20542) for production of lovastatin in solid state fermentation (SSF) using rice straw (RS) and oil palm frond (OPF) was investigated. Results showed that RS is a better substrate for production of lovastatin in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin has been obtained using A. terreus ATCC 74135 and RS as substrate without additional nitrogen source (157.07 mg/kg dry matter (DM)). Although additional nitrogen source has no benefit effect on enhancing the lovastatin production using RS substrate, it improved the lovastatin production using OPF with maximum production of 70.17 and 63.76 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and A. terreus ATCC 74135, respectively (soybean meal as nitrogen source). Incubation temperature, moisture content, and particle size had shown significant effect on lovastatin production (P < 0.01) and inoculums size and pH had no significant effect on lovastatin production (P > 0.05). Results also have shown that pH 6, 25°C incubation temperature, 1.4 to 2 mm particle size, 50% initial moisture content, and 8 days fermentation time are the best conditions for lovastatin production in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin using optimized condition was 175.85 and 260.85 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and ATCC 74135, respectively, using RS as substrate. PMID:23118499

  4. Enhanced Solid-State Biogas Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass by Organosolv Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohamadsadeghi, Safoora; Zamani, Akram; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári

    2014-01-01

    Organosolv pretreatment was used to improve solid-state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) for methane production from three different lignocellulosic substrates (hardwood elm, softwood pine, and agricultural waste rice straw). Pretreatments were conducted at 150 and 180°C for 30 and 60 min using 75% ethanol solution as an organic solvent with addition of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The statistical analyses showed that pretreatment temperature was the significant factor affecting methane production. Optimum temperature was 180°C for elmwood while it was 150°C for both pinewood and rice straw. Maximum methane production was 152.7, 93.7, and 71.4 liter per kg carbohydrates (CH), which showed up to 32, 73, and 84% enhancement for rice straw, elmwood, and pinewood, respectively, compared to those from the untreated substrates. An inverse relationship between the total methane yield and the lignin content of the substrates was observed. Kinetic analysis of the methane production showed that the process followed a first-order model for all untreated and pretreated lignocelluloses. PMID:25243134

  5. An energy balance from absorbed photons to new biomass for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas acidophila under neutral and extremely acidic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Langner, Uwe; Jakob, Torsten; Stehfest, Katja; Wilhelm, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Chlamydomonas is one of the most well-studied photosynthetic organisms that had important biotechnological potential for future bioproductions of biofuels. However, an energy balance from incident photons to the energy stored in the new biomass is still lacking. In this study, we applied a recently developed system to measure the energy balance for steady state growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii grown at pH 6.5, and C. acidophila that was grown at pH 6.5 and 2.6. Energy use efficiency was quantified on the basis of light absorption, photosynthetic quantum yield, photosynthetic and respiratory quotient, and electron partitioning into proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. The results showed that lower growth rates of C. acidophila under both pH conditions were not caused by the differences in the photosynthetic quantum yield or in alternative electron cycling, but rather by differences in the efficiency of light absorption and increased dark respiration. Analysis of the macromolecular composition of the cells during the light phase showed that C. acidophila uses biosynthetic electrons preferentially for carbohydrate synthesis but not for synthesis of lipids. This led to a strong diurnal cycle of the C/N ratio and could explain the higher dark respiration of C. acidophila compared with C. reinhardtii. PMID:19054351

  6. Solid-state fermentation in multi-well plates to assess pretreatment efficiency of rot fungi on lignocellulose biomass.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Simeng; Raouche, Sana; Grisel, Sacha; Navarro, David; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    The potential of fungal pretreatment to improve fermentable sugar yields from wheat straw or Miscanthus was investigated. We assessed 63 fungal strains including 53 white-rot and 10 brown-rot fungi belonging to the Basidiomycota phylum in an original 12 day small-scale solid-state fermentation (SSF) experiment using 24-well plates. This method offers the convenience of one-pot processing of samples from SSF to enzymatic hydrolysis. The comparison of the lignocellulolytic activity profiles of white-rot fungi and brown-rot fungi showed different behaviours. The hierarchical clustering according to glucose and reducing sugars released from each biomass after 72 h enzymatic hydrolysis splits the set of fungal strains into three groups: efficient, no-effect and detrimental-effect species. The efficient group contained 17 species belonging to seven white-rot genera and one brown-rot genus. The yield of sugar released increased significantly (max. 62%) compared with non-inoculated controls for both substrates. PMID:26249037

  7. Solid-state fermentation in multi-well plates to assess pretreatment efficiency of rot fungi on lignocellulose biomass

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Simeng; Raouche, Sana; Grisel, Sacha; Navarro, David; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The potential of fungal pretreatment to improve fermentable sugar yields from wheat straw or Miscanthus was investigated. We assessed 63 fungal strains including 53 white-rot and 10 brown-rot fungi belonging to the Basidiomycota phylum in an original 12 day small-scale solid-state fermentation (SSF) experiment using 24-well plates. This method offers the convenience of one-pot processing of samples from SSF to enzymatic hydrolysis. The comparison of the lignocellulolytic activity profiles of white-rot fungi and brown-rot fungi showed different behaviours. The hierarchical clustering according to glucose and reducing sugars released from each biomass after 72 h enzymatic hydrolysis splits the set of fungal strains into three groups: efficient, no-effect and detrimental-effect species. The efficient group contained 17 species belonging to seven white-rot genera and one brown-rot genus. The yield of sugar released increased significantly (max. 62%) compared with non-inoculated controls for both substrates. PMID:26249037

  8. Energy projection and modified Laughlin states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremling, M.; Fulsebakke, J.; Moran, N.; Slingerland, J. K.

    2016-06-01

    We develop a method to efficiently calculate trial wave functions for quantum Hall systems which involve projection onto the lowest Landau level. The method essentially replaces the lowest Landau level projection by projection onto the M lowest eigenstates of a suitably chosen Hamiltonian acting within the lowest Landau level. The resulting "energy projection" is a controlled approximation to the exact lowest Landau level projection which improves with increasing M . It allows us to study the projected trial wave functions for system sizes close to the maximal sizes that can be reached by exact diagonalization and can be straightforwardly applied in any geometry. As a first application and test case, we study a class of trial wave functions first proposed by Girvin and Jach [Girvin and Jach, Phys. Rev. B 29, 5617 (1984), 10.1103/PhysRevB.29.5617], which are modifications of the Laughlin states involving a single real parameter. While these modified Laughlin states probably represent the same universality class exemplified by the Laughlin wave functions, we show by extensive numerical work for systems on the sphere and torus that they provide a significant improvement of the variational energy, overlap with the exact wave function and properties of the entanglement spectrum.

  9. Bioenergy co-products derived from microalgae biomass via thermochemical conversion--life cycle energy balances and CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Khoo, H H; Koh, C Y; Shaik, M S; Sharratt, P N

    2013-09-01

    An investigation of the potential to efficiently convert lipid-depleted residual microalgae biomass using thermochemical (gasification at 850 °C, pyrolysis at 550 °C, and torrefaction at 300 °C) processes to produce bioenergy derivatives was made. Energy indicators are established to account for the amount of energy inputs that have to be supplied to the system in order to gain 1 MJ of bio-energy output. The paper seeks to address the difference between net energy input-output balances based on a life cycle approach, from "cradle-to-bioenergy co-products", vs. thermochemical processes alone. The experimental results showed the lowest results of Net Energy Balances (NEB) to be 0.57 MJ/MJ bio-oil via pyrolysis, and highest, 6.48 MJ/MJ for gas derived via torrefaction. With the complete life cycle process chain factored in, the energy balances of NEBLCA increased to 1.67 MJ/MJ (bio-oil) and 7.01 MJ/MJ (gas). Energy efficiencies and the life cycle CO2 emissions were also calculated. PMID:23810951

  10. Energy resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theobald, P.K.; Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Duncan, Donald Cave

    1972-01-01

    Estimates are made of United States resources of coal, petroleum liquids, natural gas, uranium, geothermal energy, and oil from oil shale. The estimates, compiled by specialists of the U.S. Geological Survey, are generally made on geologic projections of favorable rocks and on anticipated frequency of the energy resource in the favorable rocks. Accuracy of the estimates probably ranges from 20 to 50 percent for identified-recoverable resources to about an order of magnitude for undiscovered-submarginal resources. The total coal resource base in the United States is estimated to be about 3,200 billion tons, of which 200-390 billion tons can be considered in the category identified and recoverable. More than 70 percent of current production comes from the Appalachian basin where the resource base, better known than for the United States as a whole, is about 330 billion tons, of which 22 billion tons is identified and recoverable. Coals containing less than 1 percent sulfur are the premium coals. These are abundant in the western coal fields, but in the Appalachian basin the resource base for low-sulfur coal is estimated to be only a little more than 100 billion tons, of which 12 billion tons is identified and recoverable. Of the many estimates of petroleum liquids and natural-gas resources, those of the U.S. Geological Survey are the largest because, in general, our estimates include the largest proportion of favorable ground for exploration. We estimate the total resource base for petroleum liquids to be about 2,900 billion barrels, of which 52 billion barrels is identified and recoverable. Of the total resource base, some 600 billion barrels is in Alaska or offshore from Alaska, 1,500 billion barrels is offshore from the United States, and 1,300 billion barrels is onshore in the conterminous United States. Identified-recoverable resources of petroleum liquids corresponding to these geographic units are 11, 6, and 36 billion barrels, respectively. The total natural

  11. Elemental and thermo-chemical analysis of oil palm fronds for biomass energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangul, Fiseha Mekonnen; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm frond is the most abundant yet untapped biomass waste in Malaysia. This paper investigates the characteristics of raw oil palm fronds and its ash to evaluate its potential utilization as a biomass fuel for gasification process using single throat downdraft gasifier. The morphological nature, elemental content, proximate and ultimate analysis and calorific value were studied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence were used to investigate the surface morphology, elemental and mineralogical nature of oil palm frond and its ash. The results were compared with other agricultural and forestry biomass wastes. From proximate analysis volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash were found to be 83.5%, 15.2% and 1.3%, respectively on dry basis. From ultimate analysis result values of 44.58%, 4.53%, 0.71% and 0.07% for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur were found respectively on dry basis. Oxygen was determined by difference and found to be 48.81%. The proximate and ultimate analysis results indicate that oil palm frond is better than agricultural wastes and less than most forestry wastes to use as a feedstock in the gasification process in order to get a better quality of syngas. The amount of ash content in OPF was found to be much less than in agricultural wastes and higher than most forestry wastes. From x-ray fluorescence analysis CaO and K2O were found as the major oxides in oil palm fronds and rice husk ash with the amount of 28.46% and 15.71% respectively. The overall results of oil palm fronds were found to be satisfactory to use as a feedstock for the process of gasification.

  12. Convergence of Agriculture and Energy: II. Producing Cellulosic Biomass for Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Steven L. Fales; Wallace W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess

    2007-11-01

    The economic competitiveness of cellulosic ethanol production is highly dependent on feedstock cost, which constitutes 35-50% of the total ethanol production cost, depending on geographical factors such as biomass species, yield, location, climate, local economy, as well as the types of systems used for harvesting, collection, preprocessing, and transportation. Consequently, as the deployment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries approaches, feedstock cost and availability are the driving factors that influence the selection of pioneer biorefinery locations, and these same factors will largely control the rate at which this industry grows. Due to geographic variability and complex distributed supply system dynamics, estimating feedstock costs and supplies has been a major source of uncertainty.

  13. BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biomass utilization task consists of the evaluation of a biomass conversion technology including research and development initiatives. The project is expected to provide information on co-control of pollutants, as well as, to prove the feasibility of biomass conversion techn...

  14. Biomass pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  15. Flower Power: Prospects for Photosynthetic Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Alan D.; Williams, Robert H.

    1976-01-01

    This report focuses on the prospects and possibilities for using biomass as an energy source for the United States. However, the greatest potential for utilizing biomass as fuel exists in energy-starved developing nations, since it appears possible to develop biomass technologies keeping capital inputs low in relation to labor inputs. (BT)

  16. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  17. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  18. Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt

    2014-01-01

    Much of Central Africa's economy is centered on oil production. Oil deposits lie below vast amounts of compressed natural gas. The latter is often flared off during oil extraction due to a lack of the infrastructure needed to utilize it for productive energy generation. Though gas flaring is discouraged by many due to its contributions to greenhouse emissions, it represents a waste process and is rarely tracked or recorded in this region. In contrast to this energy waste, roughly 80% of Africa's population lacks access to electricity and in turn uses biomass such as wood for heat and light. In addition to the dangers incurred from collecting and using biomass, the practice commonly leads to ecological change through the acquisition of wood from forests surrounding urban areas. The objective of this project was to gain insight on domestic energy usage in Central Africa, specifically Angola, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. This was done through an analysis of deforestation, an estimation of gas flared, and a suitability study for the infrastructure needed to realize the natural gas resources. The energy from potential natural gas production was compared to the energy equivalent of the biomass being harvested. A site suitability study for natural gas pipeline routes from flare sites to populous locations was conducted to assess the feasibility of utilizing natural gas for domestic energy needs. Analyses and results were shared with project partners, as well as this project's open source approach to assessing the energy sector. Ultimately, Africa's growth demands energy for its people, and natural gas is already being produced by the flourishing petroleum industry in numerous African countries. By utilizing this gas, Africa could reduce flaring, recuperate the financial and environmental loss that flaring accounts for, and unlock a plentiful domestic energy source for its people. II. Introduction Background Africa is home to numerous burgeoning economies; a

  19. Effect of small-scale biomass gasification at the state of refractory lining the fixed bed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janša, Jan; Peer, Vaclav; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    The article deals with the influence of biomass gasification on the condition of the refractory lining of a fixed bed reactor. The refractory lining of the gasifier is one part of the device, which significantly affects the operational reliability and durability. After removing the refractory lining of the gasifier from the experimental reactor, there was done an assessment how gasification of different kinds of biomass reflected on its condition in terms of the main factors affecting its life. Gasification of biomass is reflected on the lining, especially through sticking at the bottom of the reactor. Measures for prolonging the life of lining consist in the reduction of temperature in the reactor, in this case, in order to avoid ash fusion biomass which it is difficult for this type of gasifier.

  20. A national research & development strategy for biomass crop feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.

    1997-07-01

    Planning was initiated in 1996 with the objective of reevaluating current biomass feedstock research and development strategies to: (1) assure that by 2005, one or more commercial lignocellulosic to ethanol projects will be able to acquire a dependable supply of biomass crop feedstocks; (2) assure that recently initiated demonstrations of crops to electricity will be successful and; (3) assure that the research base needed to support future biomass industry expansion is being developed. Multiple trends and analyses indicate that biomass energy research and development strategies must take into account the fact that competition for land will define the upper limits of available biomass energy crop supplies and will largely dictate the price of those supplies. Only crop production and utilization strategies which contribute profit to the farmer or landowner and to energy producers will be used commercially for biomass energy production. Strategies for developing biomass {open_quotes}energy{close_quotes} crop supplies must take into consideration all of the methods by which biomass crops will enter biomass energy markets. The lignocellulosic materials derived from crops can be available as primary residues or crop by-products; secondary residues or processing by-products; co-products (at both the crop production and processing stages); or, as dedicated energy crops. Basic research and development (R&D) leading to yield improvement continues to be recommended as a major long-term focus for dedicated energy crops. Many additional near term topics need attention, some of which are also applicable to by-products and co-products. Switchgrass R&D should be expanded and developed with greater collaboration of USDA and state extension groups. Woody crop research should continue with significant cost-share from industries developing the crops for other commercial products. Co-product options need more investigation.

  1. 75 FR 51248 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB). The Federal...

  2. 75 FR 13270 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB). The Federal...

  3. State energy modeling. Volume 1: An analysis of state energy modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcher, A. G.

    1981-05-01

    An inventory and analysis of state energy models were made. The inventory identified 69 models developed or used at the state government level. Most of these deal with energy demand and area mix as regards the sectors modeled and the fuel types included. Nearly all of these are econometric or econometric engineering end use models. Fewer models deal with energy supply, and several address both supply and demand. The most common types of models are econometric, engineering and use, linear programming, and input-output. Purposes of models include: forecasting; policy analysis; impact analysis; and scenario analysis. Uses include short term emergency management, long term strategic assessment, and specific applications in decisions on facility siting, utility capacity expansion and rate increases proposed legislation, and analysis of federal policy.

  4. Renewable energy sources in Bulgaria: Current state and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, K.

    The over-dependency of Bulgaria on imported fuel stressed the importance of developing a new energy strategy based on energy saving which includes also using renewable energy sources (RES). The target is the substitution of at least 2 percent of the real primary energy consumption with RES by 2010. The author gives a generalized analysis of the available RES in Bulgaria -solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and mini-hydraulic. The potentialities of each source for its usage as a suitable energy supply are pointed out, as well as the current status of research and implementation work, problems connected with legislation, financing and production of particular facilities. The governmental policy concerning RES is considered briefly. A description is given to the project 'Technical and Economical Assessment of Possibilities for Expansion of the RES-part in the Energy Balance of the Country' developed and started in 1994 in the framework of the PHARE program.

  5. Northeast regional biomass program: Second and Third quarterlies and final report, January 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is comprised of the following states: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania. Rhode Island and Vermont. It is managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the CONEG Policy Research Center, Inc. The Northeast states face several near-term barriers to the expanded use of biomass energy. Informational and technical barriers have impeded industrial conversions, delaying the development of a wood energy supply infrastructure. Concern over the environmental impacts on resources are not well understood. Public awareness and concern about safety issues surrounding wood energy use has also grown to the point of applying a brake to the trend of increases in residential applications of biomass energy. In addition, many residential, commercial, industrial, and commercial energy users are discouraged from using biomass energy because of the convenience factor. Regardless of the potential for cost savings, biomass energy sources, aside from being perceived as more esoteric, are also viewed as more work for the user. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is designed to help the eleven states overcome obstacles and achieve biomass energy potentials.

  6. Ground state energy of N Frenkel excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogosov, W.; Combescot, M.

    2009-03-01

    By using the composite many-body theory for Frenkel excitons we have recently developed, we here derive the ground state energy of N Frenkel excitons in the Born approximation through the Hamiltonian mean value in a state made of N identical Q = 0 excitons. While this quantity reads as a density expansion in the case of Wannier excitons, due to many-body effects induced by fermion exchanges between N composite particles, we show that the Hamiltonian mean value for N Frenkel excitons only contains a first order term in density, just as for elementary bosons. Such a simple result comes from a subtle balance, difficult to guess a priori, between fermion exchanges for two or more Frenkel excitons appearing in Coulomb term and the ones appearing in the N exciton normalization factor - the cancellation being exact within terms in 1/Ns where Ns is the number of atomic sites in the sample. This result could make us naively believe that, due to the tight binding approximation on which Frenkel excitons are based, these excitons are just bare elementary bosons while their composite nature definitely appears at various stages in the precise calculation of the Hamiltonian mean value.

  7. Large-Scale Utilization of Biomass Energy and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the Transport and Electricity Sectors under Stringent CO2 Concentration Limit Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-08-05

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to meet atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm by the end of the century. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. A key aspect of the research presented here is that the costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are explicitly incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced globally by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the majority source, along with growing utilization of waste-to-energy. The ability to draw on a diverse set of biomass based feedstocks helps to reduce the pressure for drastic large-scale changes in land use and the attendant environmental, ecological, and economic consequences those changes would unleash. In terms of the conversion of bioenergy feedstocks into value added energy, this paper demonstrates that biomass is and will continue to be used to generate electricity as well as liquid transportation fuels. A particular focus of this paper is to show how climate policies and technology assumptions - especially the availability of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies - affect the decisions made about where the biomass is used in the energy system. The potential for net-negative electric sector emissions through the use of CCS with biomass feedstocks provides an attractive part of the solution for meeting stringent

  8. Hydrothermal carbon from biomass: structural differences between hydrothermal and pyrolyzed carbons via 13C solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Falco, Camillo; Perez Caballero, Fernando; Babonneau, Florence; Gervais, Christel; Laurent, Guillaume; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Baccile, Niki

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to better describe the structure of the hydrothermal carbon (HTC) process and put it in relationship with the more classical pyrolytic carbons. Indeed, despite the low energetic impact and the number of applications described so far for HTC, very little is known about the structure, reaction mechanism, and the way these materials relate to coals. Are HTC and calcination processes equivalent? Are the structures of the processed materials related to each other in any way? Which is the extent of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) inside HTC? In this work, the effect of hydrothermal treatment and pyrolysis are compared on glucose, a good model carbohydrate; a detailed single-quantum double-quantum (SQ-DQ) solid state (13)C NMR study of the HTC and calcined HTC is used to interpret the spectral region corresponding to the signal of furanic and arene groups. These data are compared to the spectroscopic signatures of calcined glucose, starch, and xylose. A semiquantitative analysis of the (13)C NMR spectra provides an estimation of the furanic-to-arene ratio which varies from 1:1 to 4:1 according to the processing conditions and carbohydrate employed. In addition, we formulate some hypothesis, validated by DFT (density functional theory) modeling associated with (13)C NMR chemical shifts calculations, about the possible furan-rich structural intermediates that occur in the coalification process leading to condensed polyaromatic structures. In combination with a broad parallel study on the HTC processing conditions effect on glucose, cellulose, and raw biomass (Falco, C.; Baccile, N.; Titirici, M.-M. Green Chem., 2011, DOI: 10.1039/C1GC15742F), we propose a broad reaction scheme and in which we show that, through HTC, it is possible to tune the furan-to-arene ratio composing the aromatic core of the produced HTC carbons, which is not possible if calcination is used alone, in the temperature range below 350 °C. PMID:22050004

  9. State of Oregon 4th biennial energy plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    State law directs the Oregon Department of Energy (ODOE) to prepare an energy plan every two years. This is the Fourth Biennial Energy Plan. The Plan is a policy blueprint for how to best meet Oregon's future energy needs. It identifies the key energy issues facing the state and sets forth policies and actions to achieve our energy goals of reliable, least-cost, and environmentally safe supply. This book presents: Oregon's demand and supply picture today. The progress Oregon has made toward energy efficiency. Oregon's energy demand and supply outlook for the next 20 years. Estimates of cost-effective conservation and other resources that could contribute to the state's energy supply. The major energy-related health, safety, and environmental issues facing the state. A strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 20 percent from 1988 levels by 2005. A two-year Action Plant that spells out ODOE's recommended actions for achieving Oregon's energy goals.

  10. High-yield harvest of nanofibers/mesoporous carbon composite by pyrolysis of waste biomass and its application for high durability electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; He, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-12-01

    Disposal and recycling of the large scale biomass waste is of great concern. Themochemically converting the waste biomass to functional carbon nanomaterials and bio-oil is an environmentally friendly apporach by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by open burning. In this work, we reported a scalable, "green" method for the synthesis of the nanofibers/mesoporous carbon composites through pyrolysis of the Fe(III)-preloaded biomass, which is controllable by adjustment of temperature and additive of catalyst. It is found that the coupled catalytic action of both Fe and Cl species is able to effectively catalyze the growth of the carbon nanofibers on the mesoporous carbon and form magnetic nanofibers/mesoporous carbon composites (M-NMCCs). The mechanism for the growth of the nanofibers is proposed as an in situ vapor deposition process, and confirmed by the XRD and SEM results. M-NMCCs can be directly used as electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage without further separation, and exhibit favorable energy storage performance with high EDLC capacitance, good retention capability, and excellent stability and durability (more than 98% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles). Considering that biomass is a naturally abundant and renewable resource (over billions tons biomass produced every year globally) and pyrolysis is a proven technique, M-NMCCs can be easily produced at large scale and become a sustainable and reliable resource for clean energy storage. PMID:25372400

  11. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

  12. Advanced Breeding, Development, and Release of High Biomass Energy Cane Cultivars in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research into alternative energy sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral energy are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. Energy cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...

  13. Status report on renewable energy in the States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swezey, B.; Sinclair, K.

    1992-12-01

    As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2) assess the impacts of state policies on renewable energy development; and (3) identify important information needs. The key findings from this effort are: Renewable energy development has occurred only slowly over the last decade, and a small number of states account for the bulk of development. The development that has occurred has been limited to non-utility entities. Directed state policies have been a key driver in renewable energy development. Those states not currently addressing renewables may need more data and information before they proceed with directed policies. Other important observations are: The cost of renewables is an overriding concern. Regulators distinguish between 'emerging' and 'established' renewable energy technologies. Specific data are lacking on state-level renewable energy development. Detailed renewable resource assessments have yet to be performed in many states. This report identifies renewable energy information needs of state regulators. However, a number of concerns are also identified that must be addressed before renewables will receive serious attention in many of those states with limited renewables experience. Finally, the report catalogs a wide variety of policies that have been utilized in the states to promote greater development of renewable energy.

  14. Status report on renewable energy in the States

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B; Sinclair, K

    1992-12-01

    As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2) assess the impacts of state policies on renewable energy development; and (3) identify important information needs. The key findings from this effort are: Renewable energy development has occurred only slowly over the last decade, and a small number of states account for the bulk of development. The development that has occurred has been limited to non-utility entities. Directed state policies have been a key driver in renewable energy development. Those states not currently addressing renewables may need more data and information before they proceed with directed policies. Other important observations are: The cost of renewables is an overriding concern. Regulators distinguish between ``emerging`` and ``established`` renewable energy technologies. Specific data are lacking on state-level renewable energy development. Detailed renewable resource assessments have yet to be performed in many states. This report identifies renewable energy information needs of state regulators. However, a number of concerns are also identified that must be addressed before renewables will receive serious attention in many of those states with limited renewables experience. Finally, the report catalogs a wide variety of policies that have been utilized in the states to promote greater development of renewable energy.

  15. Status report on renewable energy in the States

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B.; Sinclair, K.

    1992-12-01

    As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2) assess the impacts of state policies on renewable energy development; and (3) identify important information needs. The key findings from this effort are: Renewable energy development has occurred only slowly over the last decade, and a small number of states account for the bulk of development. The development that has occurred has been limited to non-utility entities. Directed state policies have been a key driver in renewable energy development. Those states not currently addressing renewables may need more data and information before they proceed with directed policies. Other important observations are: The cost of renewables is an overriding concern. Regulators distinguish between emerging'' and established'' renewable energy technologies. Specific data are lacking on state-level renewable energy development. Detailed renewable resource assessments have yet to be performed in many states. This report identifies renewable energy information needs of state regulators. However, a number of concerns are also identified that must be addressed before renewables will receive serious attention in many of those states with limited renewables experience. Finally, the report catalogs a wide variety of policies that have been utilized in the states to promote greater development of renewable energy.

  16. 77 FR 55201 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB); Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB); Meeting AGENCY: Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a live open meeting of the...

  17. 78 FR 35265 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB); Correction AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting: Correction. SUMMARY: The Department... meeting. Correction In the Federal Register of April 4, 2013, in FR DOC. 2013-07832, on page 20311,...

  18. 75 FR 54131 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... 1904-AC17 Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of proposed determination. SUMMARY: The... the 2006 version of the IECC would achieve greater energy efficiency than the 2003 IECC. Finally,...

  19. 78 FR 65980 - State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference. SUMMARY: This notice announces a teleconference call...

  20. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  1. Marine biomass: New York state species and site studies. Annual report 1 December 1981-30 November 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, D.F.; McKay, L.B.; Brinkhuis, B.H.; Hanisak, M.D.; Williams, S.L.

    1983-10-01

    This annual report describes the research program and results for the third year of work in the NYS Marine Biomass Program. The overall goal of the Program is to develop the ability to produce reasonably priced methane from marine biomass. The specific objectives for the reported year were to design a biological test farm for marine biomass of sufficient size to permit future experimental research on a two-crop system, provide the necessary biological data to support the test farm design and initiate work necessary to seed the farm. A final design for the biological engineering experimental farm, adapting Oriental concepts to New York conditions, was developed and permits and permissions were secured for placing the farm in Long Island Sound. Additional work was successfully completed to determine the mechanical properties of seaweed, develop seeding techniques and appropriate culture media for high reproductive success of Laminaria gametophytes and young sporophytes prior to transfer to culture ropes.

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SWITCHGRASS INTO A BIOMASS FUEL CROP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In his 2006 State of the Union Address, President Bush advocated the use of renewable energy crops such as switchgrass and other biomass crops to solve national energy problems. Most people are not aware that switchgrass research was first initiated in a cooperative U.S. Department of Agriculture an...

  3. Biomass -- A new assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, H.A.

    1999-07-01

    Photo-conversion of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to biomass by plants is the world's basic source of food, fiber, oxygen and fossil fuel; for many people and some industries, biomass combustion supplies a significant amount of the energy they need. Much ingenuity has been applied to developing strategies for recovering energy directly from biomass by cleaning burning, gasification and liquid fuel production; these processes generally have economic or ecological features that keep them out of the main stream of technological development. By contrast, fresh biomass can be digested anaerobically at high conversion, with stimulation, to methane-rich gas and a stabilized organic residue, using technology already at hand. As an example, methane can be produced from sugarcane at a total cost of about $.50/mcf. This process, originally devised to control the level of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere, provides opportunities to contribute to that goal while supplying clean pipeline gas, electricity or petrochemicals.

  4. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  5. Biomass power for rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, P.

    2000-06-02

    Biomass is a proven option for electricity generation. A diverse range of biopower producers includes electric utilities, independent power producers, and the pulp and paper industry. To help expand opportunities for biomass power production, the U.S. Department of Energy established the Biopower Program and is sponsoring efforts to increase the productivity of dedicated energy crops. The Program aims to double biomass conversion efficiencies, thus reducing biomass power generation costs. These efforts will promote industrial and agricultural growth, improve the environment, create jobs, increase U.S. energy security, and provide new export markets.

  6. State Policy Initiatives for Financing Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alternative financing methods (other than state financing) for developing cost-effective energy efficiency projects are discussed. It is suggested that by properly financing energy efficiency investments, state campuses can generate immediate positive cash savings. The following eight initiatives for maximizing energy savings potential are…

  7. Electricity from biomass: An environmental review and strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    This report presents an environmental assessment and strategy for the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program. The regulatory context and the environmental impact of biomass power technologies are described, and an environmental plan for the program is suggested. The plan suggest a proactive, synergistic approach, involving multiple parties with a stake in the successful commercialization of a biomass power industry. These parties include feedstock growers, state regulators. Forest Service and agricultural agents, utilities and independent power producers, rural electric cooperatives, and environmental activists.

  8. United States Department of Energy: A History

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Holl, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    This pamphlet traces the origins of the Department of Energy and outlines the history of the Department as reflected in the energy policies of Presidents Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Reagan. It attempts to place recent energy policy into historical perspective by describing the evolution of the federal Government's role in energy research, development, and regulation.

  9. United States Department of Energy: a history

    SciTech Connect

    Holl, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    This pamphlet traces the origins of the Department of Energy and outlines the history of the Department as reflected in the energy policies of Presidents Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Reagan. It attempts to place recent energy policy into historical perspective by describing the evolution of the federal Government's role in energy research, development, and regulation.

  10. Evaluating a biomass resource: The TVA region-wide biomass resource assessment model

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Wood is an alterative fuel for electric power generation at coal-fired plants in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Short rotation wood energy crops (SRWC) could provide a source of this woody biomass. However, the economic and supply structures of SRWC markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of SRWC biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas and coal. In this study we project the cost and supply of short-rotation woody biomass for the TVA region -- a 276 county area that includes all of Tennessee and portions of 10 contiguous states in the southeastern United States. Projected prices and quantities of SRWC are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region. expected SRWC yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curve of SRWC biomass that is projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of SRWC production. Finally, we show the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of SRWC biomass. In particular, we examine the separate impacts of varying SRWC production yields.

  11. Kinetic and energy production analysis of pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass using a three-parallel Gaussian reaction model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianju; Zhang, Jinzhi; Wu, Jinhu

    2016-07-01

    The kinetic and energy productions of pyrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass were investigated using a three-parallel Gaussian distribution method in this work. The pyrolysis experiment of the pine sawdust was performed using a thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) analyzer. A three-parallel Gaussian distributed activation energy model (DAEM)-reaction model was used to describe thermal decomposition behaviors of the three components, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The first, second and third pseudocomponents represent the fractions of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, respectively. It was found that the model is capable of predicting the pyrolysis behavior of the pine sawdust. The activation energy distribution peaks for the three pseudo-components were centered at 186.8, 197.5 and 203.9kJmol(-1) for the pine sawdust, respectively. The evolution profiles of H2, CH4, CO, and CO2 were well predicted using the three-parallel Gaussian distribution model. In addition, the chemical composition of bio-oil was also obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry instrument (Py-GC/MS). PMID:27035484

  12. Environmental emissions and socioeconomic considerations in the production, storage, and transportation of biomass energy feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.; Wright, L.L.

    1992-07-01

    An analysis was conducted to identify major sources and approximate levels of emissions to land, air, and water, that may result, in the year 2010, from supplying biofuel conversion facilities with energy crops. Land, fuel, and chemicals are all used in the establishment, maintenance, harvest, handling and transport of energy crops. The operations involved create soil erosion and compaction, particulate releases, air emissions from fuel use and chemical applications, and runoff or leachate. The analysis considered five different energy facility locations (each in a different major crop growing region) and three classes of energy crops -- woody crops, perennial herbaceous grasses, and an annual herbaceous crop (sorghum). All projections had to be based on reasonable assumptions regarding probable species used, type of land used, equipment requirements, chemical input requirements, and transportation fuel types. Emissions were summarized by location and class of energy crop.

  13. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, C. W.

    2010-10-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. /Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  14. Wind energy development in the United States: Can state-level policies promote efficient development of wind energy capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Blair S.

    In the absence of strong U.S. federal renewable energy policies, state governments have taken the lead in passing legislation to promote wind energy. Studies have shown that many of these policies, including Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), have aided in the development of wind energy capacity nationwide. This paper seeks to analyze whether these state-level policies have led to an efficient development of U.S. wind energy. For the purposes of this paper, wind energy development is considered efficient if competitive markets enable wind capacity to be built in the most cost effective manner, allowing states to trade wind energy between high wind potential states and low wind potential states. This concept is operationalized by analyzing how state policies that incentivize the in-state development of wind energy impact where wind capacity is developed. A multivariate regression model examining wind capacity in the 48 contiguous United States that had some wind capacity between 1999 and 2008 found these in-state policies are associated with increased wind capacity, controlling for states' wind potential. The results suggest that state-level policies are distorting where wind is developed. These findings support the enactment of a more comprehensive federal energy policy, such as a national RPS, a cap-and-trade program, or a targeted federal transmission policy. These federal policies could spur national markets that would result in the more efficient development of U.S. wind energy.

  15. Environmental Implications of Biomass Removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass removal from the soil surface after harvest or as the harvest operation and then sued for energy production offers the potential for a significant energy resource. There are challenges that arise with biomass removal in cropping systems in which the crop residue has remained on the soil sur...

  16. State energy data report: Consumption estimates, 1960--1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-30

    This volume is an annual report for 1988 by the Energy Information Administration giving energy consumption for each state. A summary is given for the USA as a whole. Consumption is broken down to transportation, industrial, and residential sectors. (FSD)

  17. Eastern States Harness Clean Energy to Promote Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-10-01

    States on the East Coast are including renewable energy and energy efficiency projects into their air quality plans that they submit to the EPA to address nonattainment for nitrogen oxides and other pollutants.

  18. Energy, economic and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M.

    1995-08-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  19. Impact of energy prices and cellulosic biomass supply on agriculture, energy, and the environment: An integrated modeling approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accelerated growth in biofuels markets has both created and reinforced linkages between agricultural and energy markets. This study investigates the dynamics in agricultural and biofuel markets under alternative price scenarios for both crude oil and natural gas. Two energy ...

  20. The Impact of Aerosols Generated from Biomass Burning, Dust Storms, and Volcanoes Upon the Earth's Radiative Energy Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    1997-01-01

    A new technique for detecting aerosols from biomass burning and dust is developed. The radiative forcing of aerosols is estimated over four major ecosystems in South America. A new smoke and fire detection scheme is developed for biomass burning aerosols over South America. Surface shortware irradiance calculations are developed in the presence of biomass burning aerosols during the SCAR-B experiment. This new approach utilizes ground based, aircraft, and satellite measurements.