Science.gov

Sample records for biomass production potential

  1. Phytoplankton biomass, production and potential export in the North Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Bert; LeBlanc, Bernard; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Beret, Rachel; Michaud, Josée; Mundy, C.-J.; von Quillfeldt, Cecilie H.; Garneau, Marie-Ève; Roy, Suzanne; Gratton, Yves; Cochran, J. Kirk; Bélanger, Simon; Larouche, Pierre; Pakulski, J. Dean; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    The seasonal patterns of phytoplankton biomass and production were determined in the North Water, located between Greenland and Ellesmere Island (Canadian Arctic), in August 1997, April-July 1998, and August-September 1999. The patterns differed among the four defined regions of this large polynya, i.e. North (>77.5°N), East (>75°W), West (<75°W), and South (<76°N). Phytoplankton biomass and production were low during April throughout the North Water. Biomass first increased in the East during April. From there, the biomass spread north- and westwards during May-June, when the bloom culminated (chlorophyll a concentrations up to 19.8 mg m -3). The large-sized (>5 μm) fraction dominated the biomass and production during the bloom. During July, August, and September, biomass and production decreased over the whole region, with the highest biomass, dominated by large cells, occurring in the North. The annual particulate and dissolved phytoplankton production were the highest ever reported for the high Arctic, reaching maximum values of 254 and 123 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively, in the East. Rates in the North and West were considerably lower than in the East (ca. two- and three-fold, respectively). The f-ratios (i.e. ratio of new to total production), derived from the size structure of phytoplankton, were high north of 76°N (0.4-0.7). Regionally, this indicated a high potential export of particulate organic carbon ( EPOC) from the phytoplankton community to other trophic compartments and/or downwards in the East (155 g C m -2 yr -1), with lower values in the North and West (i.e. 77 and 42 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively). The seasonal and spatial patterns of EPOC were consistent with independent estimates of potential carbon export. Phytoplankton biomass and production were generally dominated by the large size fraction, whereas EPOC seemed to be dominated by the large size fraction early in the season and by the small size fraction (<5 μm) from June until the end

  2. Ozone production potential following convective redistribution of biomass burning emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    1992-01-01

    The effects of deep convection on the potential for forming ozone in the free troposphere have been simulated for regions where the trace gas composition is influenced by biomass burning. Cloud photochemical and dynamic simulations based on observations in the 1980 and 1985 Brazilian campaigns form the basis of a sensitivity study of the ozone production potential under differing conditions. It is seen that there is considerably more ozone formed in the middle and upper troposphere when convection has redistributed hydrocarbons, NO(x), and CO compared to the example of no convection.

  3. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: biomass yield, methane production and combustion.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Nielsen, Henrik Bangsø; Nikolaisen, Lars; Rasmussen, Michael Bo; Markager, Stiig; Olesen, Birgit; Arias, Carlos; Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg

    2011-02-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a production potential of 45T (TS) ha(-1) y(-1). Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH(4) g(-1) VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5-9-fold increase in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production of bioenergy. PMID:21044839

  4. Sources of biomass feedstock variability and the potential impact on biofuels production

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C. Luke; Westover, Tyler L.; Emerson, Rachel M.; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Li, Chenlin

    2015-11-23

    In this study, terrestrial lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a carbon neutral and domestic source of fuels and chemicals. However, the innate variability of biomass resources, such as herbaceous and woody materials, and the inconsistency within a single resource due to disparate growth and harvesting conditions, presents challenges for downstream processes which often require materials that are physically and chemically consistent. Intrinsic biomass characteristics, including moisture content, carbohydrate and ash compositions, bulk density, and particle size/shape distributions are highly variable and can impact the economics of transforming biomass into value-added products. For instance, ash content increases by an order of magnitude between woody and herbaceous feedstocks (from ~0.5 to 5 %, respectively) while lignin content drops by a factor of two (from ~30 to 15 %, respectively). This increase in ash and reduction in lignin leads to biofuel conversion consequences, such as reduced pyrolysis oil yields for herbaceous products as compared to woody material. In this review, the sources of variability for key biomass characteristics are presented for multiple types of biomass. Additionally, this review investigates the major impacts of the variability in biomass composition on four conversion processes: fermentation, hydrothermal liquefaction, pyrolysis, and direct combustion. Finally, future research processes aimed at reducing the detrimental impacts of biomass variability on conversion to fuels and chemicals are proposed.

  5. Sources of biomass feedstock variability and the potential impact on biofuels production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Williams, C. Luke; Westover, Tyler L.; Emerson, Rachel M.; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Li, Chenlin

    2015-11-23

    In this study, terrestrial lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a carbon neutral and domestic source of fuels and chemicals. However, the innate variability of biomass resources, such as herbaceous and woody materials, and the inconsistency within a single resource due to disparate growth and harvesting conditions, presents challenges for downstream processes which often require materials that are physically and chemically consistent. Intrinsic biomass characteristics, including moisture content, carbohydrate and ash compositions, bulk density, and particle size/shape distributions are highly variable and can impact the economics of transforming biomass into value-added products. For instance, ash content increases by anmore » order of magnitude between woody and herbaceous feedstocks (from ~0.5 to 5 %, respectively) while lignin content drops by a factor of two (from ~30 to 15 %, respectively). This increase in ash and reduction in lignin leads to biofuel conversion consequences, such as reduced pyrolysis oil yields for herbaceous products as compared to woody material. In this review, the sources of variability for key biomass characteristics are presented for multiple types of biomass. Additionally, this review investigates the major impacts of the variability in biomass composition on four conversion processes: fermentation, hydrothermal liquefaction, pyrolysis, and direct combustion. Finally, future research processes aimed at reducing the detrimental impacts of biomass variability on conversion to fuels and chemicals are proposed.« less

  6. Potential effects on grassland birds of converting marginal cropland to switchgrass biomass production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, L.D.; Best, L.B.; Jacobsen, T.J.; Braster, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Habitat loss is a major reason for the decline of grassland birds in North America. Five habitats (pastures, hayfields, rowcrop fields, small-grain fields, Conservation Reserve Program fields) compose most of the habitat used by grassland birds in the Midwest United States. Growing and harvesting switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a biomass fuel would create another habitat for grassland birds. Bird abundance information from studies conducted in Iowa and adjacent states and land-use data for the Rathbun Lake Watershed in southern Iowa were used in a Geographic Information System to model the potential effects on bird abundances of converting rowcrop fields to biomass production. Abundances of bird species that are management priorities increased in both biomass scenarios. Common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) abundance in the watershed also increased greatly in both scenarios. Other species (e.g., homed lark [Eremophila alpestris], killdeer [Charadrius vociferous]) were more abundant in the existing land use than in the biomass scenarios, and conversion of fields from rowcrop to biomass production could be detrimental to these species. In general, biomass fields will provide habitat for grassland birds that are management priorities, but future monitoring of birds in such fields is needed as conversion of rowcrop fields to biomass production continues. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Three types of Marine microalgae and Nannocholoropsis oculata cultivation for potential source of biomass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Vijendren; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Tien Thanh, Nguyen; Khalid, Nadila Abdul; Osman, Noridah; Mansor, Nurlidia

    2015-06-01

    Microalgae have been vastly investigated throughout the world for possible replacement of fossil fuels, besides utilization in remediation of leachate, disposal of hypersaline effluent and also as feedstock for marine organisms. This research particularly has focused on locally available marine microalgae sample and Nannochloropsis oculata for potential mass production of microalgae biomass. Biomass produced by sample 1 and sample 2 is 0.6200 g/L and 0.6450 g/L respectively. Meanwhile, sample 3 and N. oculata has obtained maximum biomass concentration of 0.4917 g/L and 0.5183 g/L respectively. This shows that sample 1 and sample 2 has produced approximately 20% higher biomass concentration in comparison to sample 3 and N. oculata. Although sample 3 and N. oculata is slightly lower than other samples, the maximum biomass was achieved four days earlier. Hence, the specific growth rate of sample 3 and N. oculata is higher; meanwhile the specific growth rate of N. oculata is the highest. Optical density measurements of all the sample throughout the cultivation period also correlates well with the biomass concentration of microalgae. Therefore, N. oculata is finally selected for utilization in mass production of microalgae biomass.

  8. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria: potential and prospects.

    PubMed

    Sokan-Adeaga, Adewale Allen; Ana, Godson R E E

    2015-01-01

    The quest for biofuels in Nigeria, no doubt, represents a legitimate ambition. This is so because the focus on biofuel production has assumed a global dimension, and the benefits that may accrue from such effort may turn out to be enormous if the preconditions are adequately satisfied. As a member of the global community, it has become exigent for Nigeria to explore other potential means of bettering her already impoverished economy. Biomass is the major energy source in Nigeria, contributing about 78% of Nigeria's primary energy supply. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the potential of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria is given. The study adopted a desk review of existing literatures on major energy crops produced in Nigeria. A brief description of the current biofuel developmental activities in the country is also given. A variety of biomass resources exist in the country in large quantities with opportunities for expansion. Biomass resources considered include agricultural crops, agricultural crop residues, forestry resources, municipal solid waste, and animal waste. However, the prospects of achieving this giant stride appear not to be feasible in Nigeria. Although the focus on biofuel production may be a worthwhile endeavor in view of Nigeria's development woes, the paper argues that because Nigeria is yet to adequately satisfy the preconditions for such program, the effort may be designed to fail after all. To avoid this, the government must address key areas of concern such as food insecurity, environmental crisis, and blatant corruption in all quarters. It is concluded that given the large availability of biomass resources in Nigeria, there is immense potential for biofuel production from these biomass resources. With the very high potential for biofuel production, the governments as well as private investors are therefore encouraged to take practical steps toward investing in agriculture for the production of energy crops and the

  9. Productivity ranges of sustainable biomass potentials from non-agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueler, Vivian; Fuss, Sabine; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Weddige, Ulf; Beringer, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Land is under pressure from a number of demands, including the need for increased supplies of bioenergy. While bioenergy is an important ingredient in many pathways compatible with reaching the 2 °C target, areas where cultivation of the biomass feedstock would be most productive appear to co-host other important ecosystems services. We categorize global geo-data on land availability into productivity deciles, and provide a geographically explicit assessment of potentials that are concurrent with EU sustainability criteria. The deciles unambiguously classify the global productivity range of potential land currently not in agricultural production for biomass cultivation. Results show that 53 exajoule (EJ) sustainable biomass potential are available from 167 million hectares (Mha) with a productivity above 10 tons of dry matter per hectare and year (tD Mha‑1 a‑1), while additional 33 EJ are available on 264 Mha with yields between 4 and 10 tD M ha‑1 a‑1: some regions lose less of their highly productive potentials to sustainability concerns than others and regional contributions to bioenergy potentials shift when less productive land is considered. Challenges to limit developments to the exploitation of sustainable potentials arise in Latin America, Africa and Developing Asia, while new opportunities emerge for Transition Economies and OECD countries to cultivate marginal land.

  10. Effects of light availability on the biomass production, CO2 fixation, and bioethanol production potential of Thermosynechococcus CL-1.

    PubMed

    Su, Chih Ming; Hsueh, Hsin Ta; Li, Tzu Ying; Huang, Li Che; Chu, Yi Ling; Tseng, Chi Ming; Chu, Hsin

    2013-10-01

    A thermophilic cyanobacterium named Thermosynechococcus CL-1 (TCL-1) was cultivated in this study to eliminate the energy input of cooling system in flat plate photobioreactors. Cultivating TCL-1 in the 1.5 cm light path flat plate photobioreactor exhibited stable characteristics for biomass production, CO2 fixation, and carbohydrate production under high illumination conditions (1000 or 2000 μE m(-2) s(-1)). The greatest biomass and carbohydrate productivity, and CO2 fixation rate were recorded at 116, 67, and 170 mg/L/h, respectively, in the 1.5c m light path photobioreactor and under optimal biomass concentration (about 3 g/L). Cultivating Thermosynechococcus CL-1 in flat plate photobioreactors exhibits high potential for biomass production, CO2 fixation and bioethanol production. PMID:23545071

  11. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  12. Evaluating the composition and processing potential of novel sources of Brazilian biomass for sustainable biorenewables production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The search for promising and renewable sources of carbohydrates for the production of biofuels and other biorenewables has been stimulated by an increase in global energy demand in the face of growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security. In particular, interest has focused on non-food lignocellulosic biomass as a potential source of abundant and sustainable feedstock for biorefineries. Here we investigate the potential of three Brazilian grasses (Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum and Brachiaria brizantha), as well as bark residues from the harvesting of two commercial Eucalyptus clones (E. grandis and E. grandis x urophylla) for biofuel production, and compare these to sugarcane bagasse. The effects of hot water, acid, alkaline and sulfite pretreatments (at increasing temperatures) on the chemical composition, morphology and saccharification yields of these different biomass types were evaluated. Results The average yield (per hectare), availability and general composition of all five biomasses were compared. Compositional analyses indicate a high level of hemicellulose and lignin removal in all grass varieties (including sugarcane bagasse) after acid and alkaline pretreatment with increasing temperatures, whilst the biomasses pretreated with hot water or sulfite showed little variation from the control. For all biomasses, higher cellulose enrichment resulted from treatment with sodium hydroxide at 130°C. At 180°C, a decrease in cellulose content was observed, which is associated with high amorphous cellulose removal and 5-hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde production. Morphological analysis showed the effects of different pretreatments on the biomass surface, revealing a high production of microfibrillated cellulose on grass surfaces, after treatment with 1% sodium hydroxide at 130°C for 30 minutes. This may explain the higher hydrolysis yields resulting from these pretreatments, since these cellulosic nanoparticles can be easily

  13. Global biomass production potentials exceed expected future demand without the need for cropland expansion

    PubMed Central

    Mauser, Wolfram; Klepper, Gernot; Zabel, Florian; Delzeit, Ruth; Hank, Tobias; Putzenlechner, Birgitta; Calzadilla, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Global biomass demand is expected to roughly double between 2005 and 2050. Current studies suggest that agricultural intensification through optimally managed crops on today's cropland alone is insufficient to satisfy future demand. In practice though, improving crop growth management through better technology and knowledge almost inevitably goes along with (1) improving farm management with increased cropping intensity and more annual harvests where feasible and (2) an economically more efficient spatial allocation of crops which maximizes farmers' profit. By explicitly considering these two factors we show that, without expansion of cropland, today's global biomass potentials substantially exceed previous estimates and even 2050s' demands. We attribute 39% increase in estimated global production potentials to increasing cropping intensities and 30% to the spatial reallocation of crops to their profit-maximizing locations. The additional potentials would make cropland expansion redundant. Their geographic distribution points at possible hotspots for future intensification. PMID:26558436

  14. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    PubMed

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  15. Biomass production of multipopulation microalgae in open air pond for biofuel potential.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, P; Umadevi, K

    2016-04-01

    Biodiesel gains attention as it is made from renewable resources and has considerable environmental benefits. The present investigation has focused on large scale cultivation of multipopulation microalgae in open air pond using natural sea water without any additional nutritive supplements for low cost biomass production as a possible source of biofuel in large scale. Open air algal pond attained average chlorophyll concentration of 11.01 µg/L with the maximum of 43.65 µg/L as well as a higher lipid concentration of 18% (w/w) with lipid content 9.3 mg/L on the 10th day of the culture; and maximum biomass of 0.36 g/L on the 7th day of the culture. Composition analysis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS). Multipopulation of algal biomass had 18% of total lipid content with 55% of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), 35.3% of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 9.7% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), revealing a potential source of biofuel production at low cost. PMID:27295924

  16. Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, R. E.; Laurino, C. N.; Vallejos, R. H.

    1982-08-01

    The use of aquatic plants in artificial lakes as a biomass source for biogas and fertilizer production through anaerobic fermentation is evaluated, and the magnitude of this resource and the potential production of biogas and fertilizer are estimated. The specific case considered is the artificial lake that will be created by the construction of Parana Medio Hydroelectric Project on the middle Parana River in Argentina. The growth of the main aquatic plant, water hyacinth, on the middle Parana River has been measured, and its conversion to methane by anaerobic fermentation is determined. It is estimated that gross methane production may be between 1.0-4.1 x 10 to the 9th cu cm/year. The fermentation residue can be used as a soil conditioner, and it is estimated production of the residue may represent between 54,900-221,400 tons of nitrogen/year, a value which is 2-8 times the present nitrogen fertilizer demand in Argentina.

  17. Pleurotus biomass production on vinasse and its potential use for aquaculture feed

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, S.B.; Ferreira, L.F.R.; Messias, T.G.; Souza, G.; Pompeu, G.B.; Monteiro, R.T.R.

    2015-01-01

    The vinasse is a by-product generated during the manufacture of alcohol from sugarcane fermentation. Rich in organic matter, it is known that the vinasse has the potential to be used as a source of nutrients for plants as well as microorganisms. In this study, the fungi Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. ostreatus, P. albidus and P. flabellatus were cultivated in vinasse and utilised as a complementary diet for Danio rerio fish. The fungi mycelia cultured in vinasse for 15 days were lyophilised and offered to the fishes at a rate of 2% (medium/body weight) for 28 days. P. albidus produced the highest biomass (16.27 g L−1). Bromatological analysis of mycelia showed similar values to commercial rations. Toxicity tests showed that fish survival was 100% and no significant biomass loss was observed, indicating that the tested fungi grown in vinasse showed no toxicity. Our results showed that vinasse is a promising by-product for fungal growth and the mycelia of Pleurotus sp. fungi can be included in the diets of fish as a nutritional supplement. PMID:26000196

  18. Pretreated densified biomass products

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  19. Production of liquid fuels out of plant biomass and refuse: Methods, cost, potential

    SciTech Connect

    Woick, B.; Friedrich, R.

    1981-09-01

    Different ways of producing biomass and its conversion into high grade fuel for vehicles are reviewed with particular reference to physical and geographical factors, pertaining in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Even with the potentially small amount of biomass in the FRG, the fueling of diesel engines with rape oil or modified ethanol, which can be obtained from any cellulosic feedstock, seems to pose the fewest difficulties and promises greatest efficiency. However, the amount of fuel produced from biomass can probably only meet a very small percentage of the total amount required.

  20. Characterization of Nizimuddinia zanardini macroalgae biomass composition and its potential for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Parviz; Zamani, Akram; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Nizimuddinia zanardini macroalgae, harvested from Persian Gulf, was chemically characterized and employed for the production of ethanol, seaweed extract, alginic acid, and biogas. In order to improve the products yields, the biomass was pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid and hot water. The pretreated and untreated biomasses were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase (15FPU/g) and β-glucosidase (30IU/g). Hydrolysis yield of glucan was 29.8, 82.5, and 72.7g/kg for the untreated, hot-water pretreated, and acid pretreated biomass, respectively. Anaerobic fermentation of hydrolysates by Saccharomycescerevisiae resulted in the maximum ethanol yield of 34.6g/kg of the dried biomass. A seaweed extract containing mannitol and a solid residue containing alginic acid were recovered as the main byproducts of the ethanol production. On the other hand, the biogas yield from the biomass was increased from 170 to 200m(3) per ton of dried algae biomass by hot water pretreatment. PMID:25461003

  1. The Potential for Biomass District Energy Production in Port Graham, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Sink, Chugachmiut; Keeryanne Leroux, EERC

    2008-05-08

    This project was a collaboration between The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Chugachmiut – A Tribal organization Serving the Chugach Native People of Alaska and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tribal Energy Program. It was conducted to determine the economic and technical feasibility for implementing a biomass energy system to service the Chugachmiut community of Port Graham, Alaska. The Port Graham tribe has been investigating opportunities to reduce energy costs and reliance on energy imports and support subsistence. The dramatic rise in the prices of petroleum fuels have been a hardship to the village of Port Graham, located on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. The Port Graham Village Council views the forest timber surrounding the village and the established salmon industry as potential resources for providing biomass energy power to the facilities in their community. Benefits of implementing a biomass fuel include reduced energy costs, energy independence, economic development, and environmental improvement. Fish oil–diesel blended fuel and indoor wood boilers are the most economical and technically viable options for biomass energy in the village of Port Graham. Sufficient regional biomass resources allow up to 50% in annual heating savings to the user, displacing up to 70% current diesel imports, with a simple payback of less than 3 years for an estimated capital investment under $300,000. Distributive energy options are also economically viable and would displace all imported diesel, albeit offering less savings potential and requiring greater capital. These include a large-scale wood combustion system to provide heat to the entire village, a wood gasification system for cogeneration of heat and power, and moderate outdoor wood furnaces providing heat to 3–4 homes or community buildings per furnace. Coordination of biomass procurement and delivery, ensuring resource reliability and technology acceptance, and arbitrating

  2. Forecasting fish biomasses, densities, productions, and bioaccumulation potentials of mid-atlantic wadeable streams.

    PubMed

    Barber, M Craig; Rashleigh, Brenda; Cyterski, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Regional fishery conditions of Mid-Atlantic wadeable streams in the eastern United States are estimated using the Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator (BASS) bioaccumulation and fish community model and data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). Average annual biomasses and population densities and annual productions are estimated for 352 randomly selected streams. Realized bioaccumulation factors (BAF) and biomagnification factors (BMF), which are dependent on these forecasted biomasses, population densities, and productions, are also estimated by assuming constant water exposures to methylmercury and tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorinated biphenyls. Using observed biomasses, observed densities, and estimated annual productions of total fish from 3 regions assumed to support healthy fisheries as benchmarks (eastern Tennessee and Catskill Mountain trout streams and Ozark Mountains smallmouth bass streams), 58% of the region's wadeable streams are estimated to be in marginal or poor condition (i.e., not healthy). Using simulated BAFs and EMAP Hg fish concentrations, we also estimate that approximately 24% of the game fish and subsistence fishing species that are found in streams having detectable Hg concentrations would exceed an acceptable human consumption criterion of 0.185 μg/g wet wt. Importantly, such streams have been estimated to represent 78.2% to 84.4% of the Mid-Atlantic's wadeable stream lengths. Our results demonstrate how a dynamic simulation model can support regional assessment and trends analysis for fisheries. PMID:25858149

  3. Measurement of the inhibitory potential and detoxification of biomass pretreatment hydrolysate for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Engel, R.E.; Nagle, N.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Microtox assay represents a rapid, accurate, and reproducible method for determining general microbial toxicity. This assay was used to evaluate the relative toxicity of a variety of hydrolysate samples derived from dilute-acid and alkaline biomass pretreatment. Toxicity is elicited from biomass degradation products, such as furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural, and acetic acid, generated during pretreatment. Microtox results indicate that the pretreatment samples examined ranged from 9 to 71 toxicity units (TU). Correlations of TU and sample absorbance at several wavelengths were evaluated for all sample series. Sample TU values best agreed with absorbance at 230 nm, but the unsatisfactory fit suggests that absorbance should not be used as an absolute measure of sample toxicity. Microtox data for pretreatment hydrolysate samples were correlated with the inhibition experienced by the ethanologenic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D{sub 5}A, during the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process of pretreated biomass. None of the alkaline pretreatment conditions produced inhibition during SSF. However, the acid pretreatment conditions did produce a wide range of inhibitory and noninhibitory hydrolysates. In general, fermentation was inhibited for acid-pretreated hydrolysate samples with values exceeding 45 TU. Preliminary studies that focused on reducing hydrolysate sample toxicity (detoxification) indicate that adding perlite and zeolite had little effect. However, the use of charcoal, a universal flocculent, or ion-exchange resins significantly reduced sample toxicity, holding promise for the efficient bioconversion of pretreated biomass to ethanol. Moreover, the developed toxicity measurement assay can quickly monitor the quality of the pretreatment process. In this way, biomass conversion operation processes can be reliably controlled at the pilot and commercial scales. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Biomass production in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.; Dowd, M.L.

    1981-08-01

    Florida posseses climatic, land, and water resources favorable for abundant biomass production. Therefore, a statewide program has been initiated to determine adapted species for the available array of production sites. Plant resources under investigation include woody, aquatic, grasses, hydrocarbon, and root crop species. The goal is to produce a continuous stream of biomass for the various biofuel conversion options. Preliminary yields from energy cropping experiments range from about 10 to nearly 90 metric tons per hectare per year, depending on the crop and the production systems employed. (Refs. 15).

  5. Culture media optimization of Porphyridium purpureum: production potential of biomass, total lipids, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Mysore Doddaiah; Kathiresan, Shanmugam; Bhattacharya, Sila; Sarada, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    Porphyridium purpureum a red marine microalga is known for phycobiliproteins (PB), polyunsaturated fatty acids and sulphated exopolysaccharides. In the present study, effects of media constituents for the production of different polyunsaturated fatty acids from P. purpureum were considered using a response surface methodology (RSM). A second order polynomial was used to predict the response functions in terms of the independent variables such as the concentrations of sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, sodium nitrate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The response functions were production of biomass yield, total lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids like arachidonic acid (AA 20:4) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5). Results corroborated that maximum Biomass (0.95 gL(-1)) yield was at the concentrations of sodium chloride (14.89 gL(-1)), magnesium sulfate (3.93 gL(-1)) and sodium nitrate (0.96 gL(-1)) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.09 gL(-1)). Optimum total lipid (17.9 % w/w) and EPA (34.6 % w/w) content was at the concentrations of sodium chloride (29.98 gL(-1)), magnesium sulfate (9.34 gL(-1)) and sodium nitrate (1.86 gL(-1)). Variation in concentration of potassium dihydrogen phosphate for both lipid (0.01gL(-1)) and EPA content (0.20 gL(-1)) was observed. The optimum conditions for biomass, total lipid, AA and EPA varied indicating their batch mode of growth and interaction effect of the salt. PMID:27407193

  6. Banana by-products: an under-utilized renewable food biomass with great potential.

    PubMed

    Padam, Birdie Scott; Tin, Hoe Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Abdullah, Mohd Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Banana (Musaceae) is one of the world's most important fruit crops that is widely cultivated in tropical countries for its valuable applications in food industry. Its enormous by-products are an excellent source of highly valuable raw materials for other industries by recycling agricultural waste. This prevents an ultimate loss of huge amount of untapped biomass and environmental issues. This review discusses extensively the breakthrough in the utilization of banana by-products such as peels, leaves, pseudostem, stalk and inflorescence in various food and non-food applications serving as thickening agent, coloring and flavor, alternative source for macro and micronutrients, nutraceuticals, livestock feed, natural fibers, and sources of natural bioactive compounds and bio-fertilizers. Future prospects and challenges are the important key factors discussed in association to the sustainability and feasibility of utilizing these by-products. It is important that all available by-products be turned into highly commercial outputs in order to sustain this renewable resource and provide additional income to small scale farming industries without compromising its quality and safety in competing with other commercial products. PMID:25477622

  7. The potential of freshwater macroalgae as a biofuels feedstock and the influence of nutrient availability on freshwater macroalgal biomass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Jin-Ho

    Extensive efforts have been made to evaluate the potential of microalgae as a biofuel feedstock during the past 4-5 decades. However, filamentous freshwater macroalgae have numerous characteristics that favor their potential use as an alternative algal feedstock for biofuels production. Freshwater macroalgae exhibit high rates of areal productivity, and their tendency to form dense floating mats on the water surface imply significant reductions in harvesting and dewater costs compared to microalgae. In Chapter 1, I reviewed the published literature on the elemental composition and energy content of five genera of freshwater macroalgae. This review suggested that freshwater macroalgae compare favorably with traditional bio-based energy sources, including terrestrial residues, wood, and coal. In addition, I performed a semi-continuous culture experiment using the common Chlorophyte genus Oedogonium to investigate whether nutrient availability can influence its higher heating value (HHV), productivity, and proximate analysis. The experimental study suggested that the most nutrient-limited growth conditions resulted in a significant increase in the HHV of the Oedogonium biomass (14.4 MJ/kg to 16.1 MJ/kg). Although there was no significant difference in productivity between the treatments, the average dry weight productivity of Oedogonium (3.37 g/m2/day) was found to be much higher than is achievable with common terrestrial plant crops. Although filamentous freshwater macroalgae, therefore, have significant potential as a renewable source of bioenergy, the ultimate success of freshwater macroalgae as a biofuel feedstock will depend upon the ability to produce biomass at the commercial-scale in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. Aquatic ecology can play an important role to achieve the scale-up of algal crop production by informing the supply rates of nutrients to the cultivation systems, and by helping to create adaptive production systems that are resilient to

  8. Further Characterization of CELSS Wastes: A Review of Solid Wastes Present to Support Potential Secondary Biomass Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Matthew S.

    1996-01-01

    Controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) may one day play an essential role in extraterrestrial colonies. Key to the success of any CELSS will be the system's ability to approach a self-supporting status through recovery and reuse of basic resources. Primary CELSS solid wastes with potential to support secondary biomass production will be inedible plant biomass and metabolic human wastes. Solid waste production is summarized and reported as 765 g N per day per person, including 300 g C and 37 g N per day per person. One Resource Recovery configuration using the bioprocessing of solid wastes into a Tilapia feed stream is examined. Based on estimated conversion efficiencies, 12 g of protein per day per person is produced as a nutrition supplement. The unique tissue composition of crops produced at the Kennedy Space Center CELSS Program highlights the need to evaluate Resource Recovery components with data generated in the CELSS environment.

  9. Predicting Consumer Biomass, Size-Structure, Production, Catch Potential, Responses to Fishing and Associated Uncertainties in the World's Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Simon; Collingridge, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Existing estimates of fish and consumer biomass in the world's oceans are disparate. This creates uncertainty about the roles of fish and other consumers in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem processes, the extent of human and environmental impacts and fishery potential. We develop and use a size-based macroecological model to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on predicted consumer biomass, production and distribution. Resulting uncertainty is large (e.g. median global biomass 4.9 billion tonnes for consumers weighing 1 g to 1000 kg; 50% uncertainty intervals of 2 to 10.4 billion tonnes; 90% uncertainty intervals of 0.3 to 26.1 billion tonnes) and driven primarily by uncertainty in trophic transfer efficiency and its relationship with predator-prey body mass ratios. Even the upper uncertainty intervals for global predictions of consumer biomass demonstrate the remarkable scarcity of marine consumers, with less than one part in 30 million by volume of the global oceans comprising tissue of macroscopic animals. Thus the apparently high densities of marine life seen in surface and coastal waters and frequently visited abundance hotspots will likely give many in society a false impression of the abundance of marine animals. Unexploited baseline biomass predictions from the simple macroecological model were used to calibrate a more complex size- and trait-based model to estimate fisheries yield and impacts. Yields are highly dependent on baseline biomass and fisheries selectivity. Predicted global sustainable fisheries yield increases ≈4 fold when smaller individuals (< 20 cm from species of maximum mass < 1 kg) are targeted in all oceans, but the predicted yields would rarely be accessible in practice and this fishing strategy leads to the collapse of larger species if fishing mortality rates on different size classes cannot be decoupled. Our analyses show that models with minimal parameter demands that are based on a few established ecological principles

  10. Biotechnology in biomass crop production

    SciTech Connect

    Harry, D.E.; Sederoff, R.R. . Dept. of Forestry; North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC . Dept. of Forestry)

    1989-12-01

    There is great potential for the application of plant genetic engineering to production of biomass crops. Two factors largely determine the feasibility of crop improvement using genetic engineering: (1) the status of technology for the transfer and expression of foreign genetic material in plants, and (2) the level of understanding about genetic factors involved in the process or trait to be manipulated. Although information and technology for exploiting the potential of genetic engineering is in an early developmental phase, new research initiatives can now be taken to make significant advances. In this report we evaluate the nature and status of information and technology relating to specific problems of interest for production of biomass crops. In our discussions, we emphasize woody crops because our expertise is stronger in this area, but we have included information on herbaceous crops as appropriate. Plant genetic engineering has the potential to improve plantation or stand establishment, biomass production, and structural or chemical properties for efficient biomass utilization by either direct combustion or by conversion. Such research programs must be highly interdisciplinary, involving new technologies in laboratory research, in addition to traditional field testing. 119 refs.

  11. Wood biomass: The potential of willow

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P. . Coll. of Environmental Science and Forestry)

    1991-10-01

    Experiments were established in central New York State in spring, 1987, to evaluate the potential of Salix for wood biomass production using ultrashort-rotation intensive-culture techniques. Five selected willow clones and one hybrid poplar clone planted at 1 {times} 1 foot spacing were tested for biomass production with annual coppicing. This report presents results of this research as of December 31, 1990. (VC)

  12. Biomass in Serbia - potential of beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasanac-Bosanac, Lj.; Cirkovic-Mitrovic, T.; Popovic, V.; Jokanovic, D.

    2012-04-01

    As for the renewable sources for energy production, biomass from forests and wood processing industry comes to the second place. The woody biomass accounts for 1.0 Mtoe, that is equivalent with 1.0 Mtoe of oil. Due to current evaluations, the greatest part of woody biomass would be used for briquettes and pallets production. As the biomass from forests is increasingly becoming the interest of national and international market, a detailed research on overall potential of woody supply from Serbian forests is required. Beech forests account for 29.4 % of forest cover of Serbia. They also have the greatest standing volume (42.4 % of the overall standing volume) and the greatest mean annual increment (32.3 %)(Bankovic,et.al.2009). Herewith, the aim of this poster is to determine the long-term biomass production of these forests.For this purpose a management unit called Lomnicka reka has been chosen. As these beech forests have similar structural development, this location is considered representative for whole Serbia. DBH of all trees were measured with clipper and the accuracy of 0.01 mm, and the heights with a Vertex 3 device (with accuracy of 0.1 m). All measurements were performed on the fields each 500 m2 (square meters). The overall quantity of root biomass was calculated using the allometric equations. The poster shows estimated biomass stocks of beech forests located in Rasina area. Dates are evaluated using non-linear regression (Wutzler,T.et.al.2008). Biomass potential of Serbian beech forests will enable the evaluation of long-term potential of energy generation from woody biomass in agreement with principles of sustainable forest management. The biomass from such beech forests can represent an important substitution for energy production from fossil fuels (e.g. oil) and herewith decrease the CO2 emissions.

  13. Energy production from biomass (Part 1): Overview of biomass.

    PubMed

    McKendry, Peter

    2002-05-01

    The use of renewable energy sources is becoming increasingly necessary, if we are to achieve the changes required to address the impacts of global warming. Biomass is the most common form of renewable energy, widely used in the third world but until recently, less so in the Western world. Latterly much attention has been focused on identifying suitable biomass species, which can provide high-energy outputs, to replace conventional fossil fuel energy sources. The type of biomass required is largely determined by the energy conversion process and the form in which the energy is required. In the first of three papers, the background to biomass production (in a European climate) and plant properties is examined. In the second paper, energy conversion technologies are reviewed, with emphasis on the production of a gaseous fuel to supplement the gas derived from the landfilling of organic wastes (landfill gas) and used in gas engines to generate electricity. The potential of a restored landfill site to act as a biomass source, providing fuel to supplement landfill gas-fuelled power stations, is examined, together with a comparison of the economics of power production from purpose-grown biomass versus waste-biomass. The third paper considers particular gasification technologies and their potential for biomass gasification. PMID:12058829

  14. Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimons, R.E.; Laurino, C.N.; Vallejos, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The Argentine government's Agua y Energia Electrica is planning to construct a hydroelectric power-generation facility on the middle Parana River, which is already heavily infested with aquatic weeds such as water hyacinth. These species will probably proliferate in the lakes that will be formed by the power project and perhaps seriously interfere with the facility. As a solution to this problem, Argentine biochemists propose mechanical harvesting and anaerobic fermentation of the aquatic plants to produce biogas and fertilizer. According to an evaluation of this potential resource, gross methane production could reach 37-153 billion CF (1.0-4.1 billion m/sup 3/)/yr, and the digested residue could provide 60,500-244,000 tons (54,900-221,400 metric tons)/yr of nitrogen, which represents 2-8 times Argentina's current nitrogen fertilizer demand.

  15. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  16. Potential Harvestable Corn Cob Biomass in Several Production Systems in the Western Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proposed use of corn residues for biofuel production has increased interest in how much and what components of residue should/can be removed. One component of corn residue that is already being handled (corn cobs) might be an easily harvestable product that could be used for biofuel production. ...

  17. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuels are a major area of interest and technology development globally. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relativ...

  18. Predicting potential biomass and N production of Sunn hemp when grown as a cover crop in the south

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) has the potential to become an important green manure and cover crop in the South because it produces significant quantities of biomass and nitrogen in a short period of time. For successful incorporation into conservation management systems producers need a tool to pre...

  19. Chlorella mirabilis as a Potential Species for Biomass Production in Low-Temperature Environment

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, S. P.; Kvíderová, J.; Tříska, J.; Elster, J.

    2013-01-01

    Successful adaptation/acclimatization to low temperatures in micro-algae is usually connected with production of specific biotechnologically important compounds. In this study, we evaluated the growth characteristics in a micro-scale mass cultivation of the Antarctic soil green alga Chlorella mirabilis under different nitrogen and carbon sources followed by analyses of fatty acid contents. The micro-scale mass cultivation was performed in stable (in-door) and variable (out-door) conditions during winter and/or early spring in the Czech Republic. In the in-door cultivation, the treatments for nitrogen and carbon sources determination included pure Z medium (control, Z), Z medium + 5% glycerol (ZG), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 50 μM KNO3 (ZGN), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 200 μM NH4Cl (ZGA), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 (ZNC), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 + 200 μM NH4Cl (ZGCA) and Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 + 50 μM KNO3 (ZGCN) and were performed at 15°C with an irradiance of 75 μmol m−2 s−1. During the out-door experiments, the night-day temperature ranged from −6.6 to 17.5°C (daily average 3.1 ± 5.3°C) and irradiance ranged from 0 to 2,300 μmol m−2 s−1 (daily average 1,500 ± 1,090 μmol m−2 s−1). Only the Z, ZG, ZGN, and ZGC treatments were used in the out-door cultivation. In the in-door mass cultivation, all nitrogen and carbon sources additions increased the growth rate with the exception of ZGA. When individual sources were considered, only the effect of 5% glycerol addition was significant. On the other hand, the growth rate decreased in the ZG and ZGN treatments in the out-door experiment, probably due to carbon limitation. Fatty acid composition showed increased production of linoleic acid in the glycerol treatments. The studied strain of C. mirabilis is proposed to be a promising source of linoleic acid in low

  20. Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKinn, T.

    1985-05-01

    Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms)) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of one year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ day (23.6 dry tons/acre yr). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (27 dry tons/acre yr), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt/m/sup 2/ (22 dry tons/acre yr) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. N and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured im primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7% N and 0.94% P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8% N and 0.79% P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nurtrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N/ha yr and 321 to 387 kg P/ha yr, respectively.

  1. Biomass production and nutrient removal potential of water hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hueston, F.M.; McKim, T.

    1985-05-01

    Growth and nutrient uptake of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms) cultured in sewage effluent were measured over a period of 1 year in a prototype wastewater treatment system which has been in operation at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida. Annual productivity of water hyacinth cultured in primary sewage effluent (Channel II) was found to be in the range of 5 to 27 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (23.6 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/). Average growth rate during the months of May through October 1982 for hyacinth cultured in Channel II (primary sewage effluent) and Channel I (treated primary sewage effluent leaving Channel II) was about 16 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (27 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/), compared to the growth rate of 13 g dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ (22 dry tons acre/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/) for hyacinths cultured in secondary sewage effluent. Plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent generally had longer roots than the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent. A significant relationship was observed between the growth rate of hyacinth and the solar radiation. Nitrogen and P concentration of the plant tissue were higher in the hyacinths cultured during winter months compared to the plants grown in summer months. Average N and P concentration of the plants cultured in primary sewage effluent were found to be 3.7 percent N and 0.94 percent P, respectively, while the plants cultured in secondary sewage effluent had a total N and P content of 2.8 percent N and 0.79 percent P. Nutrient ratios of the major plant nutrients were found to be approximately the same as the nutrient ratios in the sewage effluent. Annual N and P uptake rates of hyacinth cultured in sewage effluent were found to be in the range of 1176 to 1193 kg N ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ and 321 to 387 kg P ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/, respectively.

  2. Biomass Production and Soil Carbon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is expanding interest in harvesting crop biomass for energy. Crop biomass such as corn stover, wheat straw, soybean straw or other crop straws can be used as feedstock to support several bioenergy platforms (cellulosic ethanol, gasification or pyrolysis). There are potential benefits for using...

  3. Analytical pyrolysis of synthetic chars derived from biomass with potential agronomic application (biochar). Relationships with impacts on microbial carbon dioxide production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A set of 20 biochar samples produced from the pyrolysis of different biomass feedstocks with potential applications as soil amendments were investigated by pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). The yields of 38 pyrolysis products representative of charred (e.g., benze...

  4. Lignocellulose biomass production potential from poplar short rotation plantations on marginal land in Germany and their impact on soil organic carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Edwin; Klatt, Steffen; Kiese, Ralf; Werner, Christian; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    In this study we assess the potential of lignocellulose biomass production by short rotation plantations in Germany. To avoid conflicts with agricultural food production only marginal agricultural land was accounted, which is usually of low quality and productivity. The process-oriented biogeochemical model LandscapeDNDC was used in conjunction with the forest-growth model PSIM to simulate the yield of poplar grown in short-rotation plantations throw-out Germany. The model was validated on five sites with different climatic conditions in Central Europe. The study aims to assess the effects of biomass short rotation plantations on the soil organic carbon stocks in Germany by comparing the cultivation of the bioenergy crops against the former arable land use (taken from the NitroEurope database). Using regional model input, with climatic drivers and soil properties being the most important, the biomass production potential of poplar plantations was simulated. To limit short-term climatic effects on the simulation outcome, we simulated biomass yields from short-rotation (6 year) Populus plantations for three time slices (1990-1995, 2000-2005, and 2010-2015) with climate data taken from the NitroEurope database and provided the simulated yield averages and standard deviations of these runs as well as the changes in soil organic carbon stocks compared to the former land use due to the land use change. Considering 10% of the arable land with the lowest productivity, the model results in a biomass production of approximately 6.78 t DM / ha / year which is approx. 10.1 kilo t DM / year while the 10% of the arable land with the highest productivity result in 8.11 t DM / ha / year which is approx. 12.6 kilo t DM / year (averages over 3 simulation time slices). We will present results of transient simulations of several rotations with various rotation lengths for biomass yields and changes in soil organic carbon stocks.

  5. Pilot-scale comparison of four duckweed strains from different genera for potential application in nutrient recovery from wastewater and valuable biomass production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Fang, Y; Jin, Y; Huang, J; Bao, S; Fu, T; He, Z; Wang, F; Wang, M; Zhao, H

    2015-01-01

    The application potential of four duckweed strains from four genera, Wolffia globosa 0222, Lemna japonica 0223, Landoltia punctata 0224 and Spirodela polyrhiza 0225, were compared in four parallel pilot-scale wastewater treatment systems for more than 1 year. The results indicated that each duckweed strain had unique potential advantages. Unlike L. japonica 0223 and La. punctata 0224, which grow throughout the year, S. polyrhiza 0225 and W. globosa 0222 do not survive cold weather. For year round performance, L. japonica 0223 was best not only in dry biomass production (6.10 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) ), but also in crude protein (35.50%), total amino acid (26.83%) and phosphorus (1.38%) content, plus recovery rates of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and CO2 (0.31, 0.085 and 7.76 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) , respectively) and removal rates of TN and TP (0.66 and 0.089 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) , respectively). This strongly demonstrates that L. japonica 0223 performed best in wastewater treatment and protein biomass production. Under nutrient starvation conditions, La. punctata 0224 had the highest starch content (45.84%), dry biomass production (4.81 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) ) and starch accumulation (2.9 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) ), making it best for starch biomass production. W. globosa 0222 and S. polyrhiza 0225 showed increased flavonoid biomass production, with higher total flavonoid content (5.85% and 4.22%, respectively) and high dominant flavonoids (>60%). This study provides useful information for selecting the appropriate local duckweed strains for further application in wastewater treatment and valuable biomass production. PMID:24942851

  6. Winter crop and residue biomass potential in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper estimates the potential biomass production from winter crops and summer crop residues in China. Rye is used to represent winter crop production, and straw from corn, wheat and rice is used to represent residue potential. Biomass totals are intended for use as energy feedstocks and are ass...

  7. Microalgae biomass growth using primary treated wastewater as nutrient source and their potential use for lipids production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frementiti, Anastacia; Aravantinou, Andriana F.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2015-04-01

    The great demand for energy, the rising price of the crude oil and the rapid decrease of the supply of fossil fuels are the main reasons that have increased the interest for the production of fuels from renewable resources. Microalgae are considered to be the most promising new source of biomass and biofuels, since their lipid content in some cases is up to 70%. The microalgal growth and its metabolism processes are essential in wastewater treatment with many economical prospects. The aim of this work was to evaluate the algal production in a laboratory scale open pond. The pond had a working volume of 30 L and was fed with sterilized primary treated wastewater. Chlorococcum sp. was used as a model microalgal. Experiments were conducted under controlled environmental conditions in order to investigate the removal of nutrients, biomass growth, and lipids accumulation in microalgae. Chlorococcum sp. cultures behavior was investigated under batch, fill and draw, and continuous operation mode, at two different radiation intensities (100 and 200 μmol/m2s). The maximum biomass concentration of 630 mg/L was observed with the fill and draw mode. Moreover, the growth rates of microalgal biomass were depended on the influent nutrients concentration. Specifically, the phosphates were the limiting factor for biomass growth in continuous condition; the phosphates removal in this condition, reached a 100%. Chemical demand oxygen (COD) was not removed efficiently by Chlorococcum sp. since it was an autotrophic microalgal with no organic carbon demands for its growth. The lipids content in the dry weight of Chlorococcum sp. ranged from 1 to 9% depending on the concentration of nutrients and the operating conditions.

  8. New market potential: Torrefaction of Woody Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J. Richard Hess

    2015-07-01

    According to researchers in Idaho National Laboratory’s Bioenergy Program, torrefaction of woody biomass could reduce variability in biomass feedstock and enable development of a commodity-type product for green energy generation and usage.

  9. Biomass Production Potential of a Wastewater Alga Chlorella vulgaris ARC 1 under Elevated Levels of CO2 and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Chinnasamy, Senthil; Ramakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Das, Keshav C.

    2009-01-01

    The growth response of Chlorella vulgaris was studied under varying concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036 to 20%) and temperature (30, 40 and 50°C). The highest chlorophyll concentration (11 μg mL–1) and biomass (210 μg mL–1), which were 60 and 20 times more than that of C. vulgaris at ambient CO2 (0.036%), were recorded at 6% CO2 level. At 16% CO2 level, the concentrations of chlorophyll and biomass values were comparable to those at ambient CO2 but further increases in the CO2 level decreased both of them. Results showed that the optimum temperature for biomass production was 30°C under elevated CO2 (6%). Although increases in temperature above 30°C resulted in concomitant decrease in growth response, their adverse effects were significantly subdued at elevated CO2. There were also differential responses of the alga, assessed in terms of NaH14CO3 uptake and carbonic anhydrase activity, to increases in temperature at elevated CO2. The results indicated that Chlorella vulgaris grew better at elevated CO2 level at 30°C, albeit with lesser efficiencies at higher temperatures. PMID:19333419

  10. Photoinduced Biohydrogen Production from Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Amao, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Photoinduced biohydrogen production systems, coupling saccharaides biomass such as sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, cellulose, or saccharides mixture hydrolysis by enzymes and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), and hydrogen production with platinum colloid as a catalyst using the visible light-induced photosensitization of Mg chlorophyll-a (Mg Chl-a) from higher green plant or artificial chlorophyll analog, zinc porphyrin, are introduced. PMID:19325796

  11. Biomass resource potential using energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Martin, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    Biomass energy crops can provide a significant and environmentally beneficial source of renewable energy feedstocks for the future. They can revitalize the agricultural sector of the US economy by providing profitable uses for marginal cropland. Energy crops include fast-growing trees, perennial grasses, and annual grasses, all capable of collecting solar energy and storing it as cellulosic compounds for several months to several years. Once solar energy is thus captured, it can be converted by means of currently available technologies to a wide variety of energy products such as electricity, heat, liquid transportation fuels, and gases. Experimental results from field trials have generated optimism that selected and improved energy crops, established on cropland with moderate limitations for crop production, have the potential for producing high yields. Both trees and grasses, under very good growing conditions, have produced average annual yields of 20 to 40 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1}. Sorghum has shown especially high yields in the Midwest. Hybrids between sugar cane and its wild relatives, called energy cane, have yielded as much as 50 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} in Florida. These experimental results demonstrate that some species have the genetic potential for very rapid growth rates. New wood energy crop systems developed by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program offer, at a minimum, a 100% increase in biomass production rates over the 2 to 4 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} of dry leafless woody biomass produced by most natural forest systems. Experimental data indicate that short rotation wood crops established on cropland with moderate limitations are capable of producing biomass yields of 8--20 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} with a present average about 11 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} on typical cropland sites.

  12. Miscanthus as cellulosic biomass for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Chien; Kuan, Wei-Chih

    2015-06-01

    The members of the genus Miscanthus are potential feedstocks for biofuels because of the promising high yields of biomass per unit of planted area. This review addresses species, cultivation, and lignocellulose composition of Miscanthus, as well as pretreatment and enzyme saccharification of Miscanthus biomass for ethanol fermentation. The average cellulose contents in dried biomass of Miscanthus floridulus, Miscanthus sinensis, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, and Miscanthus × giganteus (M × G) are 37.2, 37.6, 38.9, and 41.1% wt/wt, respectively. A number of pretreatment methods have been applied in order to enhance digestibility of Miscanthus biomass for enzymatic saccharification. Pretreatment of Miscanthus using liquid hot water or alkaline results in a significant release of glucose; while glucose yields can be 90% or higher if a pretreatment like AFEX that combines both chemical and physical processes is used. As ethanol is produced by yeast fermentation of the hydrolysate from enzymatic hydrolysis of residual solids (pulp) after pretreatment, theoretical ethanol yields are 0.211-0.233 g/g-raw biomass if only cellulose is taken into account. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated M × G and M. lutarioriparius results in experimental ethanol yields of 0.13 and 0.15 g/g-raw biomass, respectively. Co-production of value-added products can reduce the overall production cost of bioethanol. PMID:26013948

  13. Microbial biomass production and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Shoshan, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    A study of microbial biomass production was conducted to determine the amount that certain microorganisms can produce. The microorganisms, grown in their optimum conditions, were put into media containing 1% (w/v) corn starch. Those that yielded the greatest quantity of biomass were then utilized in corn meal fermentation. Their effect upon the protein nutritional value of the product was also determined. A comparative study was then carried out to determine the amylolytic activity, and biomass produced by single and mixed cultures of microorganisms including Bacillus sterothermophilus, Endomycopsis fibuligera, Saccharomyces diastaticus, and Candida utilis. In bacteria-yeast fermentation, the highest biomass (4.3 mg/ml) was obtained from C. utilis following B. sterothermophilus. In another fermentation process, yeast-yeast, the highest biomass (6.73 mg/ml) was obtained from a mixed culture of E. fibuligera and C. utilis. In both groups of microorganisms, the level of crude protein, crude fiber, percent relative nutritive value (%RNV) and total available amino acids of lysine, methionine and tryptophan increased. The increase made by the mixed cultures of yeast was superior and was the only treatment that showed a significant (P > 0.05) difference from the non-fermented control and from other treatments.

  14. Assessment of the Projected One Billion Ton Biomass for Cellulosic Biofuel Production and Its Potential Implications on Regional Water Quality and Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Yan, E.; Wu, M.

    2011-12-01

    The DOE and USDA joint study, also commonly referred as the "Billion-Ton" study, assessed the cellulosic feedstock resources potential in the U.S. for producing second generation biofuel to replace 30 percent of the country's transportation fuels by year 2030. The available resource is expected to come from changing cropping pattern, increasing crop yield, harvesting agricultural and forest wood residues, and developing energy crops. Such large-scale changes in land use and crop managements are likely to affect the associated water quality and resources at both regional and local scales. To address the water sustainability associated with the projected biomass production in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), we have developed a SWAT watershed model that simulate the changes in water quality (nitrogen, phosphorus, and soil erosion) and resources (soil water content, evapotranspiration, and runoff) of the region due to future biomass production scenario estimated by the Billion-Ton study. The scenario is implemented by changing the model inputs and parameters at subbasin and hydrologic response unit levels, as well as by improving the SWAT model to represent spatially varying crop properties. The potential impacts on water quality and water availability were compared with the results obtained from a baseline simulation which represents current watershed conditions and existing level of feedstock production. The basin level results suggested mixed effects on the water quality. The projected large-scale biomass production scenario is expected to decrease loadings of total nitrogen and nitrate in the streams while increase total phosphorus and suspended sediment. Results indicate an increase in the rate of evapotranspiration and a decrease in the soil water content and in surface runoff. discharge to the streams. The impacts at the subbasin or local scale varies spatially and temporally depending on the types of land use change, their locations, and crop

  15. Molecular characterisation and biomass and metabolite production of Lactobacillus reuteri LPB P01–001: A potential probiotic

    PubMed Central

    Pancheniak, Elizete de F. R.; Maziero, Maike T.; Rodriguez-León, José A.; Parada, José L.; Spier, Michele R.; Soccol, Carlos R.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri LPB P01–001 was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of wild swine and was characterised by biochemical testing and sequencing of gene 16S rRNA. A simple and low-cost culture medium based on cane sugar (2.5% p/v) and yeast extract (1% p/v) was used in the production of this probiotic. The fermentative conditions were a) pH control at 6.5 and b) no pH control; both were set at 37°C in a 12 L slightly stirred tank bioreactor. Fermentation parameters such as the specific growth rate, productivity and yield of biomass, lactic and acetic acid levels were determined. L. reuteri LPB P01–001 behaves as an aciduric bacteria because it grows better in a low pH medium without pH control. However, the lactic acid production yield was practically half (9.22 g.L-1) of that obtained under a constant pH of 6.5, which reached 30.5 g.L-1 after 28 hours of fermentation. The acetic acid production was also higher under pH-controlled fermentation, reaching 10.09 g.L-1after 28 hours of fermentation. These parameters may raise the interest of those committed to the efficient production of a probiotic agent for swine. PMID:24031812

  16. A feasibility study of agricultural and sewage biomass as biochar, bioenergy and biocomposite feedstock: production, characterization and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Sarmah, Ajit K; Smernik, Ron; Das, Oisik; Farid, Mohammed; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we pyrolysed six waste derived biomass: pine sawdust (PSD), paunch grass (PG), broiler litter (BL), sewage sludge (SS), dewatered pond sludge (DWP), and dissolved air-floatation sludge (DAF) into biochar. Biochars were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, (13)C-solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to evaluate their feasibility for potential agronomic and environmental applications. Syngas produced during the pyrolysis process was also analyzed to determine the energy values. Results show that PSD biochar has the utmost potential for carbon sequestration and contaminant remediation due to its high surface area, aromaticity and carbon content. Additionally given its low ash content, PSD biochar could also potentially be used as filler in wood plastic biocomposites. Low levels of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in all biochars suggest that biochars are also applicable for land application according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR part 503. The composition of syngas evolved during the pyrolysis of feedstocks showed little difference in the calorific values, ranging from 12-16 MJ/dsm with PSD having the maximum calorific value of 16 MJ/dsm. PMID:25644846

  17. Predicting Consumer Biomass, Size-Structure, Production, Catch Potential, Responses to Fishing and Associated Uncertainties in the World’s Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Simon; Collingridge, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Existing estimates of fish and consumer biomass in the world’s oceans are disparate. This creates uncertainty about the roles of fish and other consumers in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem processes, the extent of human and environmental impacts and fishery potential. We develop and use a size-based macroecological model to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on predicted consumer biomass, production and distribution. Resulting uncertainty is large (e.g. median global biomass 4.9 billion tonnes for consumers weighing 1 g to 1000 kg; 50% uncertainty intervals of 2 to 10.4 billion tonnes; 90% uncertainty intervals of 0.3 to 26.1 billion tonnes) and driven primarily by uncertainty in trophic transfer efficiency and its relationship with predator-prey body mass ratios. Even the upper uncertainty intervals for global predictions of consumer biomass demonstrate the remarkable scarcity of marine consumers, with less than one part in 30 million by volume of the global oceans comprising tissue of macroscopic animals. Thus the apparently high densities of marine life seen in surface and coastal waters and frequently visited abundance hotspots will likely give many in society a false impression of the abundance of marine animals. Unexploited baseline biomass predictions from the simple macroecological model were used to calibrate a more complex size- and trait-based model to estimate fisheries yield and impacts. Yields are highly dependent on baseline biomass and fisheries selectivity. Predicted global sustainable fisheries yield increases ≈4 fold when smaller individuals (< 20 cm from species of maximum mass < 1kg) are targeted in all oceans, but the predicted yields would rarely be accessible in practice and this fishing strategy leads to the collapse of larger species if fishing mortality rates on different size classes cannot be decoupled. Our analyses show that models with minimal parameter demands that are based on a few established ecological principles

  18. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change. PMID:18215439

  19. Energy Potential of Biomass from Conservation Grasslands in Minnesota, USA

    PubMed Central

    Jungers, Jacob M.; Fargione, Joseph E.; Sheaffer, Craig C.; Wyse, Donald L.; Lehman, Clarence

    2013-01-01

    Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass yield, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency, and plant tissue nitrogen (N) as metrics of bioenergy potential from mixed-species conservation grasslands harvested with commercial-scale equipment. With three years of data, we used mixed-effects models to determine factors that influence bioenergy potential. Sixty conservation grassland plots, each about 8 ha in size, were distributed among three locations in Minnesota. Harvest treatments were applied annually in autumn as a completely randomized block design. Biomass yield ranged from 0.5 to 5.7 Mg ha−1. May precipitation increased biomass yield while precipitation in all other growing season months showed no affect. Averaged across all locations and years, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency was 450 l Mg−1 and the concentration of plant N was 7.1 g kg−1, both similar to dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crops such as switchgrass. Biomass yield did not decline in the second or third year of harvest. Across years, biomass yields fluctuated 23% around the average. Surprisingly, forb cover was a better predictor of biomass yield than warm-season grass with a positive correlation with biomass yield in the south and a negative correlation at other locations. Variation in land ethanol yield was almost exclusively due to variation in biomass yield rather than biomass quality; therefore, efforts to increase biomass yield might be more economical than altering biomass composition when managing conservation grasslands for ethanol production. Our measurements of bioenergy potential, and the factors that control it, can serve as parameters for assessing the economic

  20. Sunflower as a potential biomass crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass resources are essential for bioenergy production. There are two major criteria for determining whether a crop is suitable for energy use. The first is the high dry matter yield per land unit and the second is the net gain in energy amount (the amount of energy produced from the biomass shoul...

  1. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Amanda N.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2015-02-02

    One of the most environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-energy density (oils) feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source) and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration has also been proposed in the intergovernmental panel on climate change report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass). To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity, it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. In addition, these strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to twofold increases in biomass productivity.

  2. Biotechnological production of methanol from waste biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, R.; Morris, D.

    1995-12-01

    The production of methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) from waste biomass is possible through the use of genetically modified bacteria. The biomass to methanol conversion process makes use of a naturally occurring, direct aerobic enzymatic system referred to as oxidative demethylation. Methoxy groups are stripped off of lignin and lignin like plant substances (approximately fifty percent of all plant biomass) and hydrolyzed to form methanol. Since the biotech process is stoichiometric, potentially every methoxy group in the lignin feedstock can be converted to methanol fuel. Approximately 30-35% of lignin is a methoxy compound that can be converted. Biotechnological conversion could produce up to 100 gallons/ton or 20 billion gallons a year of methanol from waste biomass. Current work has focused on the genetic modification of the enzymatic conversion process to reach commercial production. The goals of this research are; increase product yields, implement an operon {open_quotes}switch{close_quotes} mechanism to exploit multiple feedstocks, and produce environmentally safe by-products. Progress on these topics will be reported.

  3. BIOMASS BURNING AND THE PRODUCTION OF METHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomass burning and its environmental implications have also become important research elements of the International Geosphere-Bio sphere Program and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project. he production of atmospheric methane (CH4) by biomass burning will be asse...

  4. The economics of biomass production in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E.; Lichtenberg, E.; Roningen, V.O.; Shapouri, H.

    1995-12-31

    Biomass crops (e.g. poplar, willow, switchgrass) could become important feedstocks for power, liquid fuel, and chemical production. This paper presents estimates of the potential production of biomass in the US under a range of assumptions. Estimates of potential biomass crop yields and production costs from the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) are combined with measures of land rents from USDA`s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), to estimate a competitive supply of biomass wood and grass crops. Estimates are made for one potential biomass use--electric power production--where future costs of electricity production from competing fossil fuels set the demand price. The paper outlines the methodology used and limitations of the analysis.

  5. Woody biomass production in waste recycling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwood, D.L.; Snyder, G.H.; Sprinkle, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    Combining woody biomass production with waste recycling offers many mutual advantages, including increased tree growth and nutrient and water reclamation. Three biomass/recycling studies collectively involving Eucalyptus amplifolia, E. camaldulensis, and E. grandis, rapidly growing species potentially tolerant of high water and nutrient levels, are (1) evaluating general potential for water/nutrient recycling systems to enhance woody biomass production and to recycle water and nutrients, (2) documenting Eucalyptus growth, water use, and nutrient uptake patterns, and (3) identifying Eucalyptus superior for water and nutrient uptake in central and southern Florida. In a 1992-93 study assessing the three Eucalyptus species planted on the outside berms of sewage effluent holding ponds, position on the berms (top to bottom) and genotypes influenced tree size. The potential of the trees to reduce effluent levels in the ponds was assessed. In a stormwater holding pond planted in 1993, these Eucalyptus genotypes varied significantly for tree size but not for survival. E. camaldulensis appears generally superior when flooded with industrial stormwater. Potential sizes of ponds needed for different stormwater applications were estimated. Prolonged flooding of 4- and 5-year-old E. camaldulensis with agricultural irrigation runoff has had no observable effects on tree growth or survival. Younger E. camaldulensis, E. amplifolia, and E. grandis were assessed for water use and nutrient uptake during a Summer 1994 flooding.

  6. Evaluation of the biomass potential for the production of lignocellulosic bioethanol from various agricultural residues in Austria and Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahr, Heike; Steindl, Daniel; Wimberger, Julia; Schürz, Daniel; Jäger, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Due to the fact that the resources of fossil fuels are steadily decreasing, researchers have been trying to find alternatives over the past few years. As bioethanol of the first generation is based on potential food, its production has become an increasingly controversial topic. Therefore the focus of research currently is on the production of bioethanol of the second generation, which is made from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials. However, for the production of bioethanol of the second generation the fibres have to be pre-treated. In this work the mass balances of various agricultural residues available in Austria were generated and examined in lab scale experiments for their bioethanol potential. The residues were pretreatment by means of state of the art technology (steam explosion), enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented with yeast to produce ethanol. Special attention was paid the mass balance of the overall process. Due to the pretreatment the proportion of cellulose increases with the duration of the pre-treatment, whereby the amount of hemicellulose decreases greatly. However, the total losses were increasing with the duration of the pre-treatment, and the losses largely consist of hemicellulose. The ethanol yield varied depending on the cellulose content of the substrates. So rye straw 200 °C 20 min reaches an ethanol yield of 169 kg/t, by far the largest yield. As result on the basis of the annual straw yield in Austria, approximately 210 000 t of bioethanol (266 million litres) could be produced from the straw of wheat (Triticum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa) and corn (Zea mays) as well as elephant grass (Miscanthus sinensis) using appropriate pre-treatment. So the greenhouse gas emissions produced by burning fossil fuels could be reduced significantly. About 1.8 million tons of motor gasoline are consumed in Austria every year. The needed quantity for a transition to E10 biofuels could thus be easily provided by bioethanol

  7. Fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass has become an important research focus in the production of renewable biofuels and other bio-products. It means conversion of the carbohydrates contained in the biomass, including cellulose, hemicellose, and/or pectin into their component sug...

  8. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOEpatents

    Grady, James L.; Chen, Guang Jiong

    1998-01-01

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

  9. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOEpatents

    Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

    1998-10-13

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

  10. Engineering verification of the biomass production chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M., III; Sager, J. C.; Jones, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for life support systems, both biological and physical-chemical, for long-term human attended space missions are under serious study throughout NASA. The KSC 'breadboard' project has focused on biomass production using higher plants for atmospheric regeneration and food production in a special biomass production chamber. This chamber is designed to provide information on food crop growth rate, contaminants in the chamber that alter plant growth requirements for atmospheric regeneration, carbon dioxide consumption, oxygen production, and water utilization. The shape and size, mass, and energy requirements in relation to the overall integrity of the biomass production chamber are under constant study.

  11. The secretion of the bacterial phytase PHY-US417 by Arabidopsis roots reveals its potential for increasing phosphate acquisition and biomass production during co-growth.

    PubMed

    Belgaroui, Nibras; Berthomieu, Pierre; Rouached, Hatem; Hanin, Moez

    2016-09-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is a major source of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the soil; however, the plant lacks the capacity to utilize it for Pi nutrition and growth. Microbial phytases constitute a group of enzymes that are able to remobilize Pi from PA. Thus, the use of these phytases to increase the capacity of higher plants to remobilize Pi from PA is of agronomical interest. In the current study, we generate transgenic Arabidopsis lines (ePHY) overexpressing an extracellular form of the phytase PHY-US417 of Bacillus subtilis, which are characterized by high levels of secreted phytase activity. In the presence of PA as sole source of Pi, while the wild-type plants show hallmark of Pi deficiency phenotypes, including the induction of the expression of Pi starvation-induced genes (PSI, e.g. PHT1;4) and the inhibition of growth capacity, the ePHY overexpressing lines show a higher biomass production and no PSI induction. Interestingly, when co-cultured with ePHY overexpressors, wild-type Arabidopsis plants (or tobacco) show repression of the PSI genes, improvement of Pi content and increases in biomass production. In line with these results, mutants in the high-affinity Pi transporters, namely pht1;1 and pht1;1-1;4, both fail to accumulate Pi and to grow when co-cultured with ePHY overexpressors. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of secreted phytases in improving the Pi content and enhancing growth of not only the transgenic lines but also the neighbouring plants. PMID:26914451

  12. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barry, Amanda N.; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Sayre, Richard T.

    2015-02-02

    One of the most environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-energy density (oils) feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source) and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration has also been proposed in the intergovernmental panel on climate change report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials formore » biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass). To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity, it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. In addition, these strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to twofold increases in biomass productivity.« less

  13. Biomass production from inland brines

    SciTech Connect

    Reach, C.D. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing inland saline waters to produce biomass through the application of marine aquaculture was investigated. From available data, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the crustacea Artemia salina were selected as the experimental marine organisms. The proposed diatom served to establish primary productivity and concurrently provide a food source for the herbivorus crustacea. The objective of the first phase research was to investigate the ability of P. tricornutum and A. salina to survive in the inland saline environment. Clarified activated sludge and anaerobic digester effluents were evaluated as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Experimental results indicated that diatom and crustacea growth in the inland brine was equivalent to control cultures utilizing seawater. Wastewater effluents were successful as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Bioassay experiments conducted with petroleum related brines yielded mixed results respect to the survival and growth of the P. tricornutum and A. salina organisms. A second series of experiments involved cholornaphthalene, chlorophenanthene, and chlorophenanthrene, and chloroanthracene as the experimental hydrocarbons. Results of the diatom studies show chloroanthracene to induce toxic effects at a concentration of 500 ug/L. Artemia studies showed no acutely toxic effects relative to the test hydrocarbons at 50 and 100 ug/L.

  14. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production from waste biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor Aslan, A. K. H.; Mohd Ali, M. D.; Morad, N. A.; Tamunaidu, P.

    2016-06-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) is a group of biopolymers that are extensively researched for such purpose due to the biocompatibility with mammal tissue and similar properties with conventional plastic. However, commercialization of PHA is impended by its high total production cost, which half of it are from the cost of pure carbon source feedstock. Thus, cheap and sustainable feedstocks are preferred where waste materials from various industries are looked into. This paper will highlight recent studies done on PHA production by utilizing crop and agro waste material and review its potential as alternative feedstock.

  15. Butanol production from renewable biomass by clostridia.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-11-01

    Global energy crisis and limited supply of petroleum fuels have rekindled the worldwide focus towards development of a sustainable technology for alternative fuel production. Utilization of abundant renewable biomass offers an excellent opportunity for the development of an economical biofuel production process at a scale sufficiently large to have an impact on sustainability and security objectives. Additionally, several environmental benefits have also been linked with the utilization of renewable biomass. Butanol is considered to be superior to ethanol due to its higher energy content and less hygroscopy. This has led to an increased research interest in butanol production from renewable biomass in recent years. In this paper, we review the various aspects of utilizing renewable biomass for clostridial butanol production. Focus is given on various alternative substrates that have been used for butanol production and on fermentation strategies recently reported to improve butanol production. PMID:22939593

  16. Potential for biomass electricity in four Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Tantlinger, J.; Kaya, M.

    1997-12-31

    Of all forms of renewable energy, biomass offers the best near-term opportunity for supplying a significant portion of the world`s need for electric power. Biomass is especially competitive when fuel supply costs are partially defrayed as production activities associated with the processing of another product, e.g., sugar, rice, or vegetable oil. Not only do such processing situations provide cost savings, they also generate very large supplies of fuel and therefore can contribute significantly to the local energy mix. Access to ample supplies of competitively-priced biomass feedstocks is only one of several factors needed to encourage the use of biomass for power generation; equally important is a healthy market for electricity, i.e., need for large blocks of additional power and sufficient strength in the economy to attract investment in new capacity. Worldwide, the Asia-Pacific region is projected to have the greatest need for new generating capacity in the next decade and shows the highest rate of economic growth, making it an attractive market for biomass power. Also critical to the expansion of bioenergy is the adoption of positive, stable policies on energy production, distribution, and sale, that encourage the generation and use of electricity from biomass. The aforementioned three factors--adequate biomass supplies, increasing demand for electricity, and supportive policies--are examined for four Asian countries, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Information presented for each of the four countries include the types and amounts of bioresidues and their associated electric power generation potential; present and future supplies and demand for electricity; and existing or planned government and utility policies that could impact the generation and use of biomass power.

  17. Flotation of algae for water reuse and biomass production: role of zeta potential and surfactant to separate algal particles.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Dong-Heui; Kim, Mi-Sug

    2015-01-01

    The effect of chemical coagulation and biological auto-flocculation relative to zeta potential was examined to compare flotation and sedimentation separation processes for algae harvesting. Experiments revealed that microalgae separation is related to auto-flocculation of Anabaena spp. and requires chemical coagulation for the whole period of microalgae cultivation. In addition, microalgae separation characteristics which are associated with surfactants demonstrated optimal microalgae cultivation time and separation efficiency of dissolved CO2 flotation (DCF) as an alternative to dissolved air flotation (DAF). Microalgae were significantly separated in response to anionic surfactant rather than cationic surfactant as a function of bubble size and zeta potential. DAF and DCF both showed slightly efficient flotation; however, application of anionic surfactant was required when using DCF. PMID:26287835

  18. PRODUCTION OF XYLITOL FROM AGRICULTURAL HEMICELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of value-added co-products from agricultural biomass is an important economic driver for the success of a biorefinery approach to the production of ethanol and other fuels. During most ethanol production methods, significant amounts of hemicellulose by-products are produced which are...

  19. Conversion of biomass to selected chemical products.

    PubMed

    Gallezot, Pierre

    2012-02-21

    This critical review provides a survey illustrated by recent references of different strategies to achieve a sustainable conversion of biomass to bioproducts. Because of the huge number of chemical products that can be potentially manufactured, a selection of starting materials and targeted chemicals has been done. Also, thermochemical conversion processes such as biomass pyrolysis or gasification as well as the synthesis of biofuels were not considered. The synthesis of chemicals by conversion of platform molecules obtained by depolymerisation and fermentation of biopolymers is presently the most widely envisioned approach. Successful catalytic conversion of these building blocks into intermediates, specialties and fine chemicals will be examined. However, the platform molecule value chain is in competition with well-optimised, cost-effective synthesis routes from fossil resources to produce chemicals that have already a market. The literature covering alternative value chains whereby biopolymers are converted in one or few steps to functional materials will be analysed. This approach which does not require the use of isolated, pure chemicals is well adapted to produce high tonnage products, such as paper additives, paints, resins, foams, surfactants, lubricants, and plasticisers. Another objective of the review was to examine critically the green character of conversion processes because using renewables as raw materials does not exempt from abiding by green chemistry principles (368 references). PMID:21909591

  20. Closed photobioreactors for production of microalgal biomasses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bei; Lan, Christopher Q; Horsman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Microalgal biomasses have been produced industrially for a long history for application in a variety of different fields. Most recently, microalgae are established as the most promising species for biofuel production and CO(2) bio-sequestration owing to their high photosynthesis efficiency. Nevertheless, design of photobioreactors that maximize solar energy capture and conversion has been one of the major challenges in commercial microalga biomass production. In this review, we systematically survey the recent developments in this field. PMID:22306165

  1. Biomass and neutral lipid production in geothermal microalgal consortia.

    PubMed

    Bywaters, Kathryn F; Fritsen, Christian H

    2014-01-01

    Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems - in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011, 2012). Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass, and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 39.0 to 344.1 mg C L(-1) day(-1). The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production) ranged from 0 to 38.74 mg free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerols (TAG) L(-1 )day(-1); the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio) decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment. All results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels. PMID:25763368

  2. Biomass and Neutral Lipid Production in Geothermal Microalgal Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Bywaters, Kathryn F.; Fritsen, Christian H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems – in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011, 2012). Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass, and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 39.0 to 344.1 mg C L−1 day−1. The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production) ranged from 0 to 38.74 mg free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerols (TAG) L−1 day−1; the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio) decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment. All results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels. PMID:25763368

  3. Investigating combustion as a method of processing inedible biomass produced in NASA's biomass production chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hinkle, C. R.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project at the John F. Kennedy Space Center is a research program to integrate and evaluate biological processes to provide air, water, and food for humans in closed environments for space habitation. This project focuses on the use of conventional crop plants as grown in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) for the production and recycling of oxygen, food, and water. The inedible portion of these crops has the potential to be converted to edible biomass or directly to the elemental constituents for direct recycling. Converting inedible biomass directly, by combustion, to carbon dioxide, water, and minerals could provide a baseline for estimating partitioning of the mass balance during recycling in a CELSS. Converting the inedible biomass to carbon dioxide and water requires the same amount of oxygen that was produced by photosynthesis. The oxygen produced during crop growth is just equal to the oxygen required to oxidize all the biomass produced during growth. Thus, the amount of oxygen produced that is available for human consumption is in proportion to the amount of biomass actually utilized by humans. The remaining oxygen must be available to oxidize the rest of the biomass back to carbon dioxide and water or the system will not be a regenerative one.

  4. Biomass potential of selected grass and legume crops

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, J.H.; Johnson, K.D.; Volenec, J.J.; Greene, D.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Optimum management strategies for herbaceous biomass crops must be investigated concurrently with the development of cost-effective conversion processes. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the agronomic feasibility of several combinations of species and management systems for producing herbaceous biomass on sites ranging from good to marginal cropland in the Midwest region of the United States. Of the perennial grasses and legumes investigated, switchgrass showed the most potential as a biomass species. It requires minimum fertilizer inputs for high yield, is very persistent, and is effective in reducing soil erosion. Sorghum double-cropped with winter annual rye was very productive but required more inputs than switchgrass. Interseeding sorghum into perennial grasses was not a viable option, due to its great dependence on environmental variables. Plant composition varied greatly across species but was not greatly affected by environment or management treatmenst.

  5. Productivity of biomass crops as influenced by landscape position

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass crops have the potential to produce a variety of products for use in the expanding bioeconomy. Numerous perennial plant species have been identified to serve as dedicated and custom-tailored feedstocks for the production of bioenergy and bioproducts, while also providing numerous positive en...

  6. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics.

  7. Investigation and modeling of biomass decay rate in the dark and its potential influence on net productivity of solar photobioreactors for microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis.

    PubMed

    Le Borgne, François; Pruvost, Jérémy

    2013-06-01

    Biomass decay rate (BDR) in the dark was investigated for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (microalga) and Arthrospira platensis (cyanobacterium). A specific setup based on a torus photobioreactor with online gas analysis was validated, enabling us to follow the time course of the specific BDR using oxygen monitoring and mass balance. Various operating parameters that could limit respiration rates, such as culture temperature and oxygen deprivation, were then investigated. C. reinhardtii was found to present a higher BDR in the dark than A. platensis, illustrating here the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In both cases, temperature proved an influential parameter, and the Arrhenius law was found to efficiently relate specific BDR to culture temperature. The utility of decreasing temperature at night to increase biomass productivity in a solar photobioreactor is also illustrated. PMID:23619140

  8. Archaebacterial Fuel Production: Methane from Biomass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, John E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses microbial production of methane from biomass. Topics include methogens (bacteria producing methane), ecology of methanogenesis, methanogenesis in ruminant/nonruminant and other environments, role of methanogenesis in nature, and methane production in sewage treatment plants. Also discusses construction of methane digesters (and related…

  9. Microalgal biomass production pathways: evaluation of life cycle environmental impacts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microalgae are touted as an attractive alternative to traditional forms of biomass for biofuel production, due to high productivity, ability to be cultivated on marginal lands, and potential to utilize carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial flue gas. This work examines the fossil energy return on investment (EROIfossil), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and direct Water Demands (WD) of producing dried algal biomass through the cultivation of microalgae in Open Raceway Ponds (ORP) for 21 geographic locations in the contiguous United States (U.S.). For each location, comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for multiple microalgal biomass production pathways, consisting of a combination of cultivation and harvesting options. Results Results indicate that the EROIfossil for microalgae biomass vary from 0.38 to 1.08 with life cycle GHG emissions of −46.2 to 48.9 (g CO2 eq/MJ-biomass) and direct WDs of 20.8 to 38.8 (Liters/MJ-biomass) over the range of scenarios analyzed. Further anaylsis reveals that the EROIfossil for production pathways is relatively location invariant, and that algae’s life cycle energy balance and GHG impacts are highly dependent on cultivation and harvesting parameters. Contrarily, algae’s direct water demands were found to be highly sensitive to geographic location, and thus may be a constraining factor in sustainable algal-derived biofuel production. Additionally, scenarios with promising EROIfossil and GHG emissions profiles are plagued with high technological uncertainty. Conclusions Given the high variability in microalgae’s energy and environmental performance, careful evaluation of the algae-to-fuel supply chain is necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of emerging algal biofuel systems. Alternative production scenarios and technologies may have the potential to reduce the critical demands of biomass production, and should be considered to make algae a viable and more efficient biofuel alternative

  10. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    SciTech Connect

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify

  11. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Elizabeth; Qiao, Ming; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy D.; Kania, John

    2015-12-15

    Described are methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals in a batch and/or continuous process. The process generally involves the conversion of water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  12. Microsatellite Markers of Willow Species and Characterization of 11 Polymorphic Microsatellites for Salix eriocephala (Salicaceae), a Potential Native Species for Biomass Production in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Pitre, Frédéric E.; Brouillet, Luc; Labrecque, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Biomass produced from dedicated plantations constitutes a source of renewable energy and is expected to play an important role in several countries in the coming decades. The cultivation of woody crops such as willows therefore raises several environmental issues. In North America, several native willows are potentially interesting for biomass producers. Willow trees are diverse but few species used for environmental applications have been the object of molecular genetic studies. Based on the sequenced poplar genome, 24 microsatellite markers were assayed on five native North American willow species: Salix amygdaloides, S. discolor, S. eriocephala, S. interior and S. nigra. Polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to characterize the allele data on the shrub Salix eriocephala, a North American species with economic potential. Eleven markers amplified and confirmed the potential of this species. Analysis of samples from six populations in eastern Canada showed that all markers were variable as well as polymorphic in at least one population. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9 (mean 2.95) and showed that these microsatellite markers can be used to assess genetic diversity of North American willow species. PMID:27137372

  13. Alfalfa -- a sustainable crop for biomass energy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  14. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  15. Assessment of technology for production of liquid fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, A.P.; Spurlock, J.M.; Birchfield, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Technologies for liquid fuel production from biomass vary widely in states of development and extent of need for government action. Ethanol produced from grain (principally corn), for use in gasohol blends, is the most widely used and accepted biomass-based energy source in the U.S. at present. Several practical factors strongly point to needed government emphasis on research and development to advance ethanol-production technology. Liquid fuels produced from soybeans, sunflowers, Euphorbia and similar crops, or from aquatic plants, remain as longer-term potential requiring further assessment. 6 refs.

  16. Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a midterm forecast for biomass ethanol production under three different technology cases for the period 2000 to 2020, based on projections developed from the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System. An overview of cellulose conversion technology and various feedstock options and a brief history of ethanol usage in the United States are also presented.

  17. Bird Communities and Biomass Yields in Potential Bioenergy Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Peter J.; Sample, David W.; Williams, Carol L.; Turner, Monica G.

    2014-01-01

    Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields), and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes. PMID:25299593

  18. Superior cottonwood and eucalyptus clones for biomass production in wastewater biomass production in wastewater bioremediation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwood, D.L.; Pisano, S.M.; McConnell, W.V.

    1996-12-31

    Fast-growing cottonwood and Eucalyptus species have wastewater bioremediation potential. To estimate genetic variation in cottonwood`s response to sewage effluent, 10 clones were planted at Tallahassee in April 1992. Progenies and/or clones of E. Ampligolia (EA). E. Camaldulensis (EC), and E. Grandis (EG) were planted in a dry stormwater retention/bioremediation pond constructed in June 1993 at Tampa. Genetic variability within cottonwood and Eucalyptus species was observed and should be utilized to optimize biomass production and nutrient uptake in wastewater bioremediation applications. On good sites with freeze risk in northern Florida, three cottonwood clones are particularly productive. While as many as four EC and EG clones are promising, one EG clone appears superior for stormwater remediation, systems in central Florida.

  19. Root crops and their biomass potential in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hair, S.K.; Locascio, S.J.; Forbes, R.R.; White, J.M.; Hensel, D.R.; Shumaker, J.R.; Dangler, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Root and tuber crops are of particular interest as biofuel crops because of their ability to concentrate and store fermentables including starch and sugars, in enlarged organs at or below the soil surface. In Florida, harvest index, the storage organ biomass divided by total plant biomass, of sweet potato, fodder beet, cassava and potato has approached 0.80. Chicory, fodder beet, cassava and sweet potato produced a total plant yield of 16.0, 14.1, 11.4 and 11.3 t/ha, respectively. Since the crops vary for time to maturity and storage organ chemical composition, a conventional unit to equate yield differences is kilocalorie (kcal) production/ha/day. Of the warm season crops, sweet potato and cassava roots produced an estimated 32 and 14 x 10/sup 4/ kcal/ha/day, respectively. Chinese radish and rutabaga roots produced 18 and 17 x 10/sup 4/ kcal/ha/day. Thus, a year round average of as much as 25 x 10/sup 4/ kcal/ha/day has been demonstrated. In conjunction with the total potential biomass production by a plant, root and tuber crops may be able to surpass grain crops in fermentable productivity on a temporal and spacial basis. The factors that will contribute to this include developing the appropriate cultural practices for biomass production along with breeding and selecting for adaptability and favorable harvest index. Since many of these crops have been neglected from a research standpoint, there is little doubt that improvements can be made by further work. 27 references.

  20. Sophorolipid production from biomass hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Samad, Abdul; Zhang, Ji; Chen, Da; Liang, Yanna

    2015-02-01

    Although extensive research has been conducted on producing sophorolipids using Candida (Starmerella) bombicola from pure sugars and various oil sources, production of this biosurfactant has not been evaluated when cells are cultivated in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Here, we report for the first time that C. bombicola is capable of producing sophorolipids on hydrolysates derived from sweet sorghum bagasse and corn fiber. Without oil supplementation, a sophorolipid concentration of 3.6 and 1.0 g/L was detected from cultures with bagasse and corn fiber hydrolysates, respectively. With the addition of soybean oil at 100 g/L, the yield of sophorolipids from these two hydrolysates in the same order was 84.6 and 15.6 g/L. Surprisingly, C. bombicola consumed all monomeric sugars and nonsugar compounds in the hydrolysates, and cultures with bagasse hydrolysates had higher yield of sophorolipids than those from a standard medium which contained pure glucose at the same concentration. PMID:25475889

  1. Forest harvesting reduces the soil metagenomic potential for biomass decomposition.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Erick; Kranabetter, J M; Hope, Graeme; Maas, Kendra R; Hallam, Steven; Mohn, William W

    2015-11-01

    Soil is the key resource that must be managed to ensure sustainable forest productivity. Soil microbial communities mediate numerous essential ecosystem functions, and recent studies show that forest harvesting alters soil community composition. From a long-term soil productivity study site in a temperate coniferous forest in British Columbia, 21 forest soil shotgun metagenomes were generated, totaling 187 Gb. A method to analyze unassembled metagenome reads from the complex community was optimized and validated. The subsequent metagenome analysis revealed that, 12 years after forest harvesting, there were 16% and 8% reductions in relative abundances of biomass decomposition genes in the organic and mineral soil layers, respectively. Organic and mineral soil layers differed markedly in genetic potential for biomass degradation, with the organic layer having greater potential and being more strongly affected by harvesting. Gene families were disproportionately affected, and we identified 41 gene families consistently affected by harvesting, including families involved in lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin degradation. The results strongly suggest that harvesting profoundly altered below-ground cycling of carbon and other nutrients at this site, with potentially important consequences for forest regeneration. Thus, it is important to determine whether these changes foreshadow long-term changes in forest productivity or resilience and whether these changes are broadly characteristic of harvested forests. PMID:25909978

  2. Energy-efficient photobioreactor configuration for algal biomass production.

    PubMed

    Pegallapati, Ambica Koushik; Arudchelvam, Yalini; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2012-12-01

    An internally illuminated photobioreactor (IIPBR) design is proposed for energy-efficient biomass production. Theoretical rationale of the IIPBR design and its advantages over the traditional bubble column photobioreactors (PBRs) are presented, followed by experimental results from prototype scale cultivation of freshwater and marine algal strains in an 18L IIPBR. Based on theoretical considerations, the proposed IIPBR design has the potential to support 160% higher biomass density and higher biomass productivity per unit energy input, B/E, than a bubble column PBR of equal incident area per unit culture volume. Experimental B/E values recorded in this study with fresh water algae and marine algae (1.42 and 0.37 gW(-1)d(-1), respectively) are at least twice as those reported in the literature for comparable species cultivated in bubble column and airlift PBRs. PMID:23079413

  3. Biomass production by fescue and switchgrass alone and in mixed swards with legumes. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M.

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the role of biomass in alleviating potential global warming, the absence of information on the sustainability of biomass production on soils of limited agricultural potential is cited as a major constraint to the assessment of the role of biomass. Research on the sustainability of yields, recycling of nutrients, and emphasis on reduced inputs of agricultural chemicals in the production of biomass are among the critical research needs to clarify optimum cropping practice in biomass production. Two field experiments were conducted between 1989 and 1993. One study evaluated biomass production and composition of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown alone and with bigflower vetch (Vicia grandiflora L.) and the other assessed biomass productivity and composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown alone and with perennial legumes. Switchgrass received 0, 75 or 150 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} or was interseeded with vetch. Tall fescue received 0, 75, 150 or 225 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually or was interseeded with alfalfa (Medicago L.) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). It is hoped that production systems can be designed to produce high yields of biomass with minimal inputs of fertilizer N. Achievement of this goal would reduce the potential for movement of NO{sub 3} and other undesirable N forms outside the biomass production system into the environment. In addition, management systems involving legumes could reduce the cost of biomass production.

  4. Energy production from biomass (Part 2): Conversion technologies.

    PubMed

    McKendry, Peter

    2002-05-01

    The use of biomass to provide energy has been fundamental to the development of civilisation. In recent times pressures on the global environment have led to calls for an increased use of renewable energy sources, in lieu of fossil fuels. Biomass is one potential source of renewable energy and the conversion of plant material into a suitable form of energy, usually electricity or as a fuel for an internal combustion engine, can be achieved using a number of different routes, each with specific pros and cons. A brief review of the main conversion processes is presented, with specific regard to the production of a fuel suitable for spark ignition gas engines. PMID:12058830

  5. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region`s net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region`s energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  6. A 'breadboard' biomass production chamber for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Ralph P.; Knott, William M., III; Hilding, Suzanne E.; Mack, Tommy L.

    1987-01-01

    The Breadboard Project of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program is the first attempt by NASA to integrate the primary components of a bioregenerative life support system into a functioning system. The central component of this project is a Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). The BPC is under construction, and when finished will be sealed for the study of the flux of gases, liquids, and solids through the production module of a CELSS. Features of the CELSS breadboard facility will be covered as will design requirements for the BPC. Cultural practices developed for wheat for the BPC wil be discussed.

  7. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  8. New market potential: Torrefaction of woody biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Hess, J. Richard

    2015-06-02

    Biomass was the primary source of energy worldwide until a few generations ago, when the energy-density, storability and transportability of fossil fuels enabled one of the most rapid cultural transformations in the history of humankind: the industrial revolution. In just a few hundred years, coal, oil and natural gas have prompted the development of highly efficient, high-volume manufacturing and transportation systems that have become the foundation of the world economy. But over-reliance on fossil resources has also led to environmental and energy security concerns. In addition, one of the greatest advantages of using biomass to replace fossil fuels is reduced greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint.

  9. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  10. Microbial biomass and productivity in seagrass beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriarty, D. J.; Boon, P. I.; Hansen, J. A.; Hunt, W. G.; Poiner, I. R.; Pollard, P. C.; Skyring, G. W.; White, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Different methods for measuring the rates of processes mediated by bacteria in sediments and the rates of bacterial cell production have been compared. In addition, net production of the seagrass Zostera capricorni and bacterial production have been compared and some interrelationships with the nitrogen cycle discussed. Seagrass productivity was estimated by measuring the plastochrone interval using a leaf stapling technique. The average productivity over four seasons was 1.28 +/- 0.28 g C m-2 day-1 (mean +/- standard deviation, n = 4). Bacterial productivity was measured five times throughout a year using the rate of tritiated thymidine incorporated into DNA. Average values were 33 +/- 12 mg C m-2 day-1 for sediment and 23 +/- 4 for water column (n = 5). Spatial variability between samples was greater than seasonal variation for both seagrass productivity and bacterial productivity. On one occasion, bacterial productivity was measured using the rate of 32P incorporated into phospholipid. The values were comparable to those obtained with tritiated thymidine. The rate of sulfate reduction was 10 mmol SO4(-2) m-2 day-1. The rate of methanogenesis was low, being 5.6 mg CH4 produced m-2 day-1. A comparison of C flux measured using rates of sulfate reduction and DNA synthesis indicated that anaerobic processes were predominant in these sediments. An analysis of microbial biomass and community structure, using techniques of phospholipid analysis, showed that bacteria were predominant members of the microbial biomass and that of these, strictly anaerobic bacteria were the main components. Ammonia concentration in interstitial water varied from 23 to 71 micromoles. Estimates of the amount of ammonia required by seagrass showed that the ammonia would turn over about once per day. Rapid recycling of nitrogen by bacteria and bacterial grazers is probably important.

  11. Evaluation of potential herbaceous biomass crops on marginal crop lands: 1, Agronomic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, J.H.; Johnson, K.D.; Volenec, J.J.; Kladivko, E.J.; Greene, D.K. . Dept. of Agronomy)

    1990-07-01

    Management of herbaceous biomass crops must be investigated concurrently with the development of cost-effective conversion processes. Our objective was to evaluate the agronomic feasibility of several combinations of species and management systems for producing herbaceous biomass on sites ranging from good to marginal cropland. Soil organic matter and aggregate stability were not adversely affected by any of the management options. Of the perennial grasses and legumes investigated, switchgrass showed the most potential as a biomass candidate. It has minimum fertilizer inputs, is very persistent, and is effective in reducing soil erosion. Sorghum double-cropped with winter annual rye was very productive, but required more inputs than switchgrass. Interseeding sorghum into perennial grasses was not a viable option, due to its great dependence on environmental variables. Photoperiod-sensitive and hybrid sorghums able to utilize an entire growing season were very productive, with yields up to 39 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}. Two harvest per season resulted in low yields, such that lodging resistance must be incorporated into desirable genotypes through breeding, instead of using multiple harvests to prevent lodging. Plant composition was greatly affected by species, with a wide range in composition across sorghum genotypes. Of all species evaluated, switchgrass and sorghum have the greatest biomass potential, and both of these species can be improved to produce higher yields of a more desirable chemical composition through plant breeding. 13 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Alkane production from biomass: chemo-, bio- and integrated catalytic approaches.

    PubMed

    Deneyer, Aron; Renders, Tom; Van Aelst, Joost; Van den Bosch, Sander; Gabriëls, Dries; Sels, Bert F

    2015-12-01

    Linear, branched and cyclic alkanes are important intermediates and end products of the chemical industry and are nowadays mainly obtained from fossil resources. In search for alternatives, biomass feedstocks are often presented as a renewable carbon source for the production of fuels, chemicals and materials. However, providing a complete market for all these applications seems unrealistic due to both financial and logistic issues. Despite the very large scale of current alkane-based fuel applications, biomass definitely has the potential to offer a partial solution to the fuel business. For the smaller market of chemicals and materials, a transition to biomass as main carbon source is more realistic and even probably unavoidable in the long term. The appropriate use and further development of integrated chemo- and biotechnological (catalytic) process strategies will be crucial to successfully accomplish this petro-to-bio feedstock transition. Furthermore, a selection of the most promising technologies from the available chemo- and biocatalytic tool box is presented. New opportunities will certainly arise when multidisciplinary approaches are further explored in the future. In an attempt to select the most appropriate biomass sources for each specific alkane-based application, a diagram inspired by van Krevelen is applied, taking into account both the C-number and the relative functionality of the product molecules. PMID:26360875

  13. Environmental control perspective for ethanol production from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, F.J.; Dock, J.S.; Malloy, M.C.; McNulty, W.B.; Rosen, L.A.; Simons, J.R.; Tomlinson, J.C.

    1980-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study identifying the environmental control technology issues associated with the expanded production of anhydrous ethanol from biomass. It provides an analysis of the environmental control aspects of biomass production and its subsequent conversion to ethanol and a perspective on associated environmental legislation. Two potential crops were selected as representative feedstocks to focus on the generic problems associated with an expanded ethanol production program. The primary feedstock evaluated was corn, and the secondary crop considered was sugar beets. Corn and sugar beets were chosen as representative starch and sugar crops, respectively, because they can be produced in large quantities and are grown in many regions of the contiguous United States. Minimum consideration was given to agricultural and food processing wastes because of their limited availability and poor handling characteristics for transportation. Cellulosic resources were not considered because the required conversion is not commercially available in the near term. (176 refs., 10 figs., 34 tabs.)

  14. Harnessing the potential of ligninolytic enzymes for lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Masran, Ruqayyah; Zanirun, Zuraidah; Bahrin, Ezyana Kamal; Ibrahim, Mohamad Faizal; Lai Yee, Phang; Abd-Aziz, Suraini

    2016-06-01

    Abundant lignocellulosic biomass from various industries provides a great potential feedstock for the production of value-added products such as biofuel, animal feed, and paper pulping. However, low yield of sugar obtained from lignocellulosic hydrolysate is usually due to the presence of lignin that acts as a protective barrier for cellulose and thus restricts the accessibility of the enzyme to work on the cellulosic component. This review focuses on the significance of biological pretreatment specifically using ligninolytic enzymes as an alternative method apart from the conventional physical and chemical pretreatment. Different modes of biological pretreatment are discussed in this paper which is based on (i) fungal pretreatment where fungi mycelia colonise and directly attack the substrate by releasing ligninolytic enzymes and (ii) enzymatic pretreatment using ligninolytic enzymes to counter the drawbacks of fungal pretreatment. This review also discusses the important factors of biological pretreatment using ligninolytic enzymes such as nature of the lignocellulosic biomass, pH, temperature, presence of mediator, oxygen, and surfactant during the biodelignification process. PMID:27115758

  15. Potential for electricity generation from biomass residues in Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Lora, E.S.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is the study of the availability of major biomass residues in Cuba and the analysis of the electricity generation potential by using different technologies. An analysis of the changes in the country`s energy balance from 1988 up to date is presented, as well as a table with the availability study results and the energy equivalent for the following biomass residues: sugar cane bagasse and trash, rice and coffee husk, corn an cassava stalks and firewood. A total equivalent of 4.42 10{sup 6} tons/year of fuel-oil was obtained. Possible scenarios for the electricity production increase in the sugar industry are presented too. The analysis is carried out for a high stream parameter CEST and two BIG/GT system configurations. Limitations are introduced about the minimal milling capacity of the sugar mills for each technology. The calculated {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} electricity generation potential for BIG/GT systems, based on GE LM5000 CC gas turbines, an actual cane harvest of 58.0 10{sup 6} tons/year, half the available trash utilization and an specific steam consumption of 210 kg/tc, was 18601,0 GWh/year. Finally different alternatives are presented for low-scale electricity generation based on the other available agricultural residues.

  16. Wood biomass: The potential of willow. Progress report, November 1987--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.

    1991-10-01

    Experiments were established in central New York State in spring, 1987, to evaluate the potential of Salix for wood biomass production using ultrashort-rotation intensive-culture techniques. Five selected willow clones and one hybrid poplar clone planted at 1 {times} 1 foot spacing were tested for biomass production with annual coppicing. This report presents results of this research as of December 31, 1990. (VC)

  17. Co-product recovery from biomass during ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of biomass to ethanol represents a sustainable alternative liquid fuel technology that does not need to compete with the supply of commodity crops such as corn and soybeans. Maintaining agricultural production of edible crops for the food supply and using agricultural waste or low inp...

  18. Development of biocatalysts for production of commodity chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Adsul, M G; Singhvi, M S; Gaikaiwari, S A; Gokhale, D V

    2011-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is recognized as potential sustainable source for production of power, biofuels and variety of commodity chemicals which would potentially add economic value to biomass. Recalcitrance nature of biomass is largely responsible for the high cost of its conversion. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce some cost effective pretreatment processes to make the biomass polysaccharides easily amenable to enzymatic attack to release mixed fermentable sugars. Advancement in systemic biology can provide new tools for the development of such biocatalysts for sustainable production of commodity chemicals from biomass. Integration of functional genomics and system biology approaches may generate efficient microbial systems with new metabolic routes for production of commodity chemicals. This paper provides an overview of the challenges that are faced by the processes converting lignocellulosic biomass to commodity chemicals. The critical factors involved in engineering new microbial biocatalysts are also discussed with more emphasis on commodity chemicals. PMID:21277771

  19. (Assessment of the potential of Yunnan Province, China to grow and convert biomass to electricity)

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.

    1990-10-15

    The purpose of the trip was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of biomass energy development in Yunnan Province, China. The evaluation included an assessment of the potential to grow and convert biomass to electricity, and an evaluation of the institutional relationships, which would be critical to the establishment of a collaborative biomass energy development project. This site visit was undertaken to evaluate the potential of an integrated biomass energy project, including the growing and handling of biomass feedstocks and its conversion to electricity. Based on this site visit, it was concluded that biomass production risks are real and further research on species screening and experiments is necessary before proceeding to the conversion phase of this project. The location of potential sites inspected and the logistics required for handling and transporting biomass may also be a concern. The commitment of support (labor and land) and leadership to this project by the Chinese is overwhelming exceeding all pre-site visit expectations. In sum, there is a definite opportunity in Yunnan for an integrated biomass energy project and a potential market for US technology.

  20. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  1. Recent advances in production of succinic acid from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Junaid; Idris, Ani; Abd Aziz, Ramlan

    2014-02-01

    Production of succinic acid via separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) are alternatives and are environmentally friendly processes. These processes have attained considerable positions in the industry with their own share of challenges and problems. The high-value succinic acid is extensively used in chemical, food, pharmaceutical, leather and textile industries and can be efficiently produced via several methods. Previously, succinic acid production via chemical synthesis from petrochemical or refined sugar has been the focus of interest of most reviewers. However, these expensive substrates have been recently replaced by alternative sustainable raw materials such as lignocellulosic biomass, which is cheap and abundantly available. Thus, this review focuses on succinic acid production utilizing lignocellulosic material as a potential substrate for SSF and SHF. SSF is an economical single-step process which can be a substitute for SHF - a two-step process where biomass is hydrolyzed in the first step and fermented in the second step. SSF of lignocellulosic biomass under optimum temperature and pH conditions results in the controlled release of sugar and simultaneous conversion into succinic acid by specific microorganisms, reducing reaction time and costs and increasing productivity. In addition, main process parameters which influence SHF and SSF processes such as batch and fed-batch fermentation conditions using different microbial strains are discussed in detail. PMID:24292125

  2. Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

    Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

  3. Research in biomass production and utilization: Systems simulation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Albert Stewart

    There is considerable public interest in developing a sustainable biobased economy that favors support of family farms and rural communities and also promotes the development of biorenewable energy resources. This study focuses on a number of questions related to the development and exploration of new pathways that can potentially move us toward a more sustainable biobased economy. These include issues related to biomass fuels for drying grain, economies-of-scale, new biomass harvest systems, sugar-to-ethanol crop alternatives for the Upper Midwest U.S., biomass transportation, post-harvest biomass processing and double cropping production scenarios designed to maximize biomass feedstock production. The first section of this study considers post-harvest drying of shelled corn grain both at farm-scale and at larger community-scaled installations. Currently, drying of shelled corn requires large amounts of fossil fuel energy. To address future energy concerns, this study evaluates the potential use of combined heat and power systems that use the combustion of corn stover to produce steam for drying and to generate electricity for fans, augers, and control components. Because of the large capital requirements for solid fuel boilers and steam turbines/engines, both farm-scale and larger grain elevator-scaled systems benefit by sharing boiler and power infrastructure with other processes. The second and third sections evaluate sweet sorghum as a possible "sugarcane-like" crop that can be grown in the Upper Midwest. Various harvest systems are considered including a prototype mobile juice harvester, a hypothetical one-pass unit that separates grain heads from chopped stalks and traditional forage/silage harvesters. Also evaluated were post-harvest transportation, storage and processing costs and their influence on the possible use of sweet sorghum as a supplemental feedstock for existing dry-grind ethanol plants located in the Upper Midwest. Results show that the concept

  4. Perspectives on the economic analysis of ethanol production from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Prebluda, H.J.; Williams, R.

    1981-01-01

    The potential and economics of ethanol production from biomass is examined. Among the topics covered are: the Brazilian gasohol program; the effect of large scale conversion of grain to alcohol on U.S. food and animal feed prices; the Ex-Ferm process for fermenting sugar cane; the effect on cane sugar markets of the large-scale development in the U.S. of high fructose corn syrup; and better utilization of by-products. Significant breakthroughs which have recently taken place and which will improve the economic picture for making alcohol from solid waste are reviewed. (Refs. 26).

  5. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  6. Potential of biomass residue availability; The case of Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, S.C.; Shrestha, R.M.; Ngamkajornvivat, S. )

    1989-01-01

    An acute shortage of fuel wood and charcoal prevails in many developing countries. A logical approach to the problem places emphasis on the development of alternative energy sources, including use of biomass residues. An assessment of the potential of biomass residues for energy and other uses calls for an estimation of their annual production. Also, because the residues are normally bulky they should be utilized near their place of origin whenever possible to avoid high transportation costs. Thus knowledge of the total national generation of residues per year does not provide enough information for planning residue utilization. This article illustrates a method of residue estimation that takes the case of Thailand as an example. It presents the annual generation of nine agricultural resides (paddy husk, paddy straw, bagasse, cotton stalk, corn cob, groundnut shell, cassava stalk and coconut husk and shell) and one forestry residue (sawdust) in different agroeconomic zones and regions of Thailand. The methodology used for the investigation of crop-to-residue ratios is outlined. The annual generation figures for the different residues along with observations about their traditional uses are presented.

  7. Potential for post-closure radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: aboveground biomass, litter production rates, and the distribution of root mass with depth at material disposal area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B; Christensen, Candace; Jennings, Terry L; Jaros, Christopher L; Wykoff, David S; Crowell, Kelly J; Shuman, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) is disposed of at LANL's Technical Area (T A) 54, Material Disposal Area (MDA) G. The ability of MDA G to safely contain radioactive waste during current and post-closure operations is evaluated as part of the facility's ongoing performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA). Due to the potential for uptake and incorporation of radio nuclides into aboveground plant material, the PA and CA project that plant roots penetrating into buried waste may lead to releases of radionuclides into the accessible environment. The potential amount ofcontamination deposited on the ground surface due to plant intrusion into buried waste is a function of the quantity of litter generated by plants, as well as radionuclide concentrations within the litter. Radionuclide concentrations in plant litter is dependent on the distribution of root mass with depth and the efficiency with which radionuclides are extracted from contaminated soils by the plant's roots. In order to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G, surveys are being conducted to assess aboveground biomass, plant litter production rates, and root mass with depth for the four prominent vegetation types (grasses, forbs, shrubs and trees). The collection of aboveground biomass for grasses and forbs began in 2007. Additional sampling was conducted in October 2008 to measure root mass with depth and to collect additional aboveground biomass data for the types of grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees that may become established at MDA G after the facility undergoes final closure, Biomass data will be used to estimate the future potential mass of contaminated plant litter fall, which could act as a latent conduit for radionuclide transport from the closed disposal area. Data collected are expected to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G and ultimately aid in the assessment and subsequent

  8. Biomass Crop Production: Benefits for Soil Quality and Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bandaranayake, W.; Bock, B.R.; Houston, A.; Joslin, J.D.; Pettry, D.E.; Schoenholtz, S.; Thornton, F.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Tyler, D.

    1999-08-29

    Research at three locations in the southeastern US is quantifying changes in soil quality and soil carbon storage that occur during production of biomass crops compared with row crops. After three growing seasons, soil quality improved and soil carbon storage increased on plots planted to cottonwood, sycamore, sweetgum with a cover crop, switchgrass, and no-till corn. For tree crops, sequestered belowground carbon was found mainly in stumps and large roots. At the TN site, the coarse woody organic matter storage belowground was 1.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}yr{sup {minus}1}, of which 79% was stumps and large roots and 21% fine roots. Switchgrass at the AL site also stored considerable carbon belowground as coarse roots. Most of the carbon storage occurred mainly in the upper 30 cw although coarse roots were found to depths of greater than 60 cm. Biomass crops contributed to improvements in soil physical quality as well as increasing belowground carbon sequestration. The distribution and extent of carbon sequestration depends on the growth characteristics and age of the individual biomass crop species. Time and increasing crop maturity will determine the potential of these biomass crops to significantly contribute to the overall national goal of increasing carbon sequestration and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najser, Jan; Peer, Václav; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-08-01

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  10. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Najser, Jan E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  11. Sophorolipid production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samad, Abdul

    , the yield of SLs was 0.55 g/g carbon (sugars plus oil) for cultures with bagasse hydrolysates. Further, SL production was investigated using sweet sorghum bagasse and corn stover hydrolysates derived from different pretreatment conditions. For the former and latter sugar sources, yellow grease or soybean oil was supplemented at different doses to enhance sophorolipid yield. 14-day batch fermentation on bagasse hydrolysates with 10, 40 and 60 g/L of yellow grease had cell densities of 5.7 g/L, 6.4 g/L and 7.8 g/L, respectively. The study also revealed that the yield of SLs on bagasse hydrolysate decreased from 0.67 to 0.61 and to 0.44 g/g carbon when yellow grease was dosed at 10, 40 and 60 g/L. With aforementioned increasing yellow grease concentration, the residual oil left after 14 days was recorded as 3.2 g/L, 8.5 g/L and 19.9 g/L. For similar experimental conditions, the cell densities observed for corn stover hydrolysate combined with soybean oil at 10, 20 and 40 g/L concentration were 6.1 g/L, 5.9 g/L, and 5.4 g/L respectively. Also, in the same order of oil dose supplemented, the residual oil recovered after 14-day was 8.5 g/L, 8.9 g/L, and 26.9 g/L. Corn stover hydrolysate mixed with the 10, 20 and 40 g/L soybean oil, the SL yield was 0.19, 0.11 and 0.09 g/g carbon. Overall, both hydrolysates supported cell growth and sophorolipid production. The results from this research show that hydrolysates derived from the different lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks can be utilized by C. bombicola to achieve substantial yields of SLs. Based upon the results revealed by several batch-stage experiments, it can be stated that there is great potential for scaling up and industrial scale production of these high value products in future.

  12. Potential for Genetic Improvement of Sugarcane as a Source of Biomass for Biofuels.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Nam V; Furtado, Agnelo; Botha, Frederik C; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar + fiber) content, and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many diploid plants, where genetic tools are well developed, biotechnological improvement is hindered in sugarcane by our current limited understanding of the large and complex genome. Therefore, understanding the genetics of the key biofuel traits in sugarcane and optimization of sugarcane biomass composition will advance efficient conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for biofuel production. The large existing phenotypic variation in Saccharum germplasm and the availability of the current genomics technologies will allow biofuel traits to be characterized, the genetic basis of critical differences in biomass composition to be determined, and targets for improvement of sugarcane for biofuels to be established. Emerging options for genetic improvement of sugarcane for the use as a bioenergy crop are reviewed. This will better define the targets for potential genetic manipulation of sugarcane biomass composition for biofuels. PMID:26636072

  13. Potential for Genetic Improvement of Sugarcane as a Source of Biomass for Biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Nam V.; Furtado, Agnelo; Botha, Frederik C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar + fiber) content, and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many diploid plants, where genetic tools are well developed, biotechnological improvement is hindered in sugarcane by our current limited understanding of the large and complex genome. Therefore, understanding the genetics of the key biofuel traits in sugarcane and optimization of sugarcane biomass composition will advance efficient conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for biofuel production. The large existing phenotypic variation in Saccharum germplasm and the availability of the current genomics technologies will allow biofuel traits to be characterized, the genetic basis of critical differences in biomass composition to be determined, and targets for improvement of sugarcane for biofuels to be established. Emerging options for genetic improvement of sugarcane for the use as a bioenergy crop are reviewed. This will better define the targets for potential genetic manipulation of sugarcane biomass composition for biofuels. PMID:26636072

  14. Second generation bioethanol potential from selected Malaysia's biodiversity biomasses: A review.

    PubMed

    Aditiya, H B; Chong, W T; Mahlia, T M I; Sebayang, A H; Berawi, M A; Nur, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Rising global temperature, worsening air quality and drastic declining of fossil fuel reserve are the inevitable phenomena from the disorganized energy management. Bioethanol is believed to clear out the effects as being an energy-derivable product sourced from renewable organic sources. Second generation bioethanol interests many researches from its unique source of inedible biomass, and this paper presents the potential of several selected biomasses from Malaysia case. As one of countries with rich biodiversity, Malaysia holds enormous potential in second generation bioethanol production from its various agricultural and forestry biomasses, which are the source of lignocellulosic and starch compounds. This paper reviews potentials of biomasses and potential ethanol yield from oil palm, paddy (rice), pineapple, banana and durian, as the common agricultural waste in the country but uncommon to be served as bioethanol feedstock, by calculating the theoretical conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and starch components of the biomasses into bioethanol. Moreover, the potential of the biomasses as feedstock are discussed based on several reported works. PMID:26253329

  15. Feasibility of Bioethanol Production From Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aunina, Zane; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Karlis

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to discuss the potential of cellulosic ethanol production processes and compare them, to find the most appropriate production method for Latvia's situation, to perform theoretical calculations and to determine the potential ethanol price. In addition, price forecasts for future cellulosic and grain ethanol are compared. A feasibility estimate to determine the price of cellulosic ethanol in Latvia, if production were started in 2010, was made. The grain and cellulosic ethanol price comparison (future forecast) was made through to the year 2018.

  16. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  17. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on

  18. Ethanol production from carbon dioxide using cyanobacterial biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Mustaqim, Dani; Ohtaguchi, Kazuhisa

    1996-12-31

    An ethanol production system, which consists of chemical and biochemical reaction processes for (1) biomass production using cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis through photosynthetic CO{sub 2} fixation, (2) glucose extraction from that biomass, and (3) ethanol fermentation from the extracted glucose using yeast Saccharomyces sake, was conceptually developed. S. sake was grown on the medium containing the cyanobacterial biomass extract and that containing reagent glucose. It was found that the specific rates of cell growth, glucose consumption, ethanol production and the yeast ethanol tolerance were enhanced by the addition of cyanobacterial biomass extract. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Analysis of coastal upwelling and the production of a biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, J. T.

    1979-01-01

    The coastal upwelling index derived from weather data is input to a set of coupled differential equations that describe the production of a biomass. The curl of the wind stress vector is discussed in the context of the physical extent of the upwelling structure. An analogy between temperature and biomass concentration in the upwelled coastal water is derived and the relationship is quantified. The use of remote satellite or airborne sensing to obtain biomass rate production coefficients is considered.

  20. Combined biomass valorization and hydrogen production in a photoelectrochemical cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Hyun Gil; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    2015-04-01

    In a typical hydrogen-producing photoelectrochemical cell (PEC), water reduction at the cathode (producing hydrogen) is accompanied by water oxidation at the anode (producing oxygen). This anode reaction is, however, not kinetically favourable. Here we investigate the possibility of utilizing solar energy for biomass conversion by performing the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) at the anode of a PEC. HMF is a key intermediate in biomass conversion, and FDCA is an important monomer for the production of numerous polymers. Using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl as a mediator, we obtained a near-quantitative yield and 100% Faradaic efficiency at ambient conditions without the use of precious-metal catalysts. This reaction is also thermodynamically and kinetically more favourable than water oxidation. Our results suggest that solar-driven biomass conversion can be a viable anode reaction that has the potential to increase both the efficiency and the utility of PECs constructed for solar-fuel production.

  1. Harvest management of switchgrass for biomass feedstock and forage production

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, M.A.; Read, J.C.; Reed, R.L.

    1999-02-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm-season perennial grass native to North America, has potential as a biomass energy crop. Their objective was to develop harvest management recommendations for biomass feedstock and forage production. Alamo switchgrass was established in 1992 at Stephenville and Dallas, TX. Four harvest frequencies (one to four cuts per year) and three final autumn harvests (Sept., Oct., or Nov.) were imposed from 1993 to 1996. Tiller densities were counted each spring. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein (CP) concentrations were measured in 1993 and 1994. Concentrations of NDF were lowest and of CP were highest in May-harvested biomass. Forage quality of regrowth decreased with age, reaching NDF concentrations of 790 g kg{sup {minus}1} and CP of < 20 g kg{sup {minus}1}. Total seasonal yields decreased as harvest frequency increased; however, a severe drought reversed this trend at Dallas in 1996. The highest yields occurred with a single harvest in mid-September. Delaying the final harvest until November reduced yields. Harvest date and frequency did not affect tiller density, although tiller density decreased from 900 to 650 and 630 to 310 m{sup {minus}2} at Dallas and Stephenville, respectively, during 1994 to 1997. Thus, a single mid-September harvest should maximize biomass yields in the south-central USA. A two-cut (spring-autumn) system may allow a farmer to use initial growth as forage and the regrowth for biomass, but total yields would be reduced. More frequent harvests would reduce yields further.

  2. The economic prospects of cellulosic biomass for biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumarappan, Subbu

    Alternative fuels for transportation have become the focus of intense policy debate and legislative action due to volatile oil prices, an unstable political environment in many major oil producing regions, increasing global demand, dwindling reserves of low-cost oil, and concerns over global warming. A major potential source of alternative fuels is biofuels produced from cellulosic biomass, which have a number of potential benefits. Recognizing these potential advantages, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 has mandated 21 billion gallons of cellulosic/advanced biofuels per year by 2022. The United States needs 220-300 million tons of cellulosic biomass per year from the major sources such as agricultural residues, forestry and mill residues, herbaceous resources, and waste materials (supported by Biomass Crop Assistance Program) to meet these biofuel targets. My research addresses three key major questions concerning cellulosic biomass supply. The first paper analyzes cellulosic biomass availability in the United States and Canada. The estimated supply curves show that, at a price of 100 per ton, about 568 million metric tons of biomass is available in the United States, while 123 million metric tons is available in Canada. In fact, the 300 million tons of biomass required to meet EISA mandates can be supplied at a price of 50 per metric ton or lower. The second paper evaluates the farmers' perspective in growing new energy crops, such as switchgrass and miscanthus, in prime cropland, in pasture areas, or on marginal lands. My analysis evaluates how the farmers' returns from energy crops compare with those from other field crops and other agricultural land uses. The results suggest that perennial energy crops yielding at least 10 tons per acre annually will be competitive with a traditional corn-soybean rotation if crude oil prices are high (ranging from 88-178 per barrel over 2010-2019). If crude oil prices are low, then energy crops will not be

  3. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  4. Iron nutrition, biomass production, and plant product quality.

    PubMed

    Briat, Jean-François; Dubos, Christian; Gaymard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    One of the grand challenges in modern agriculture is increasing biomass production, while improving plant product quality, in a sustainable way. Of the minerals, iron (Fe) plays a major role in this process because it is essential both for plant productivity and for the quality of their products. Fe homeostasis is an important determinant of photosynthetic efficiency in algae and higher plants, and we review here the impact of Fe limitation or excess on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. We also discuss the agronomic, plant breeding, and transgenic approaches that are used to remediate Fe deficiency of plants on calcareous soils, and suggest ways to increase the Fe content and bioavailability of the edible parts of crops to improve human diet. PMID:25153038

  5. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region's net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region's energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  6. Biotechnological routes based on lactic acid production from biomass.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid, the most important hydroxycarboxylic acid, is now commercially produced by the fermentation of sugars present in biomass. In addition to its use in the synthesis of biodegradable polymers, lactic acid can be regarded as a feedstock for the green chemistry of the future. Different potentially useful chemicals such as pyruvic acid, acrylic acid, 1,2-propanediol, and lactate ester can be produced from lactic acid via chemical and biotechnological routes. Here, we reviewed the current status of the production of potentially valuable chemicals from lactic acid via biotechnological routes. Although some of the reactions described in this review article are still not applicable at current stage, due to their "greener" properties, biotechnological processes for the production of lactic acid derivatives might replace the chemical routes in the future. PMID:21846500

  7. Unlocking the potential of lignocellulosic biomass through plant science.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Poppy E; Gómez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of producing sustainable liquid biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass remains high on the sustainability agenda, but is challenged by the costs of producing fermentable sugars from these materials. Sugars from plant biomass can be fermented to alcohols or even alkanes, creating a liquid fuel in which carbon released on combustion is balanced by its photosynthetic capture. Large amounts of sugar are present in the woody, nonfood parts of crops and could be used for fuel production without compromising global food security. However, the sugar in woody biomass is locked up in the complex and recalcitrant lignocellulosic plant cell wall, making it difficult and expensive to extract. In this paper, we review what is known about the major polymeric components of woody plant biomass, with an emphasis on the molecular interactions that contribute to its recalcitrance to enzymatic digestion. In addition, we review the extensive research that has been carried out in order to understand and reduce lignocellulose recalcitrance and enable more cost-effective production of fuel from woody plant biomass. PMID:26443261

  8. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II

  9. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Seppelt, Ralf; Witing, Felix; Priess, Joerg A.

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  10. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to

  11. Overview of biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is significantly hindered by the structural and chemical complexity of biomass, which makes these materials a challenge to be used as feedstocks for cellulosic ethanol production. Cellulose and hemicellulose, when hydrolyzed into their component su...

  12. NMR Studies of Biomass and its Reaction Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass refers to biological material derived from living or recently living organisms, such as wood, agricultural products and wastes, and alcohol fuels. An increasingly popular R&D approach is to convert biomass into industrial polymers or chemicals. NMR is an excellent technique for the character...

  13. Productivity and biomass of trematode (Digenea) parasites in lake ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Yurlova, N I

    2016-01-01

    The first estimation of the annual production and biomass of cercariae (free swimming transmission stage of digenetic trematodes) in a lake ecosystem has been performed. The biomass of cercariae is comparable with that of free-living invertebrates and may make a significant contribution to the energy flow in lake ecosystems. PMID:27021366

  14. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  15. Management and fertility control ecosystem carbon allocation to biomass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campioli, Matteo; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation within the ecosystem is one of the least understood processes in plant- and geo-sciences. The proportion of the C assimilated through photosynthesis (gross primary production, GPP) that is used for biomass production (BP) is a key variable of the C allocation process and it has been termed as biomass production efficiency (BPE). We investigated the potential drivers of BPE using a global dataset of BP, GPP, BPE and ancillary ecosystem characteristics (vegetation properties, climatic and environmental variables, anthropogenic impacts) for 131 sites comprising six major ecosystem types: forests, grasslands, croplands, tundra, boreal peatlands and marshes. We obtained two major findings. First, site fertility is the key driver of BPE across forests, with nutrient-rich forests allocating 58% of their photosynthates to BP, whereas this fraction is only 42% for nutrient-poor forests. Second, by disentangling the effect of management from the effect of fertility and by integrating all ecosystem types, we observed that BPE is globally not driven by the 'natural' site fertility, but by the positive effect brought by management on the nutrient availability. This resulted in managed ecosystems having substantially larger BPE than natural ecosystems. These findings will crucially improve our elucidation of the human impact on ecosystem functioning and our predictions of the global C cycle.

  16. Biomass Production System (BPS) plant growth unit.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Crabb, T M

    2000-01-01

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses its own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive. PMID:11543164

  17. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  18. Distributed generation from biomass resources: Emerging potential for utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.; Haase, S.; Badger, P.C.

    1996-12-31

    Distributed generation (DG) offers potential to enhance the range of services provided by electric utilities. Competitive pressures experienced by the utility industry are sending simultaneous, and often conflicting, signals to planners concerned with busbar costs, market share and customer retention. DG technologies allow planners to address concurrent utility and customer concerns. DG will also open markets for additional commercial applications of diverse biomass technologies. Distributed generation offers multiple benefits both to utilities and to end users. Utilities may site new power production resources more readily and with lower capital costs and reduced financial risk than with larger power generation systems. Important benefits may accrue to the transmission and distribution (T&D) system including various forms of grid support (e.g., reduced line losses, voltage support, and power quality improvement), deferral of upgrades to substations, and provision of power in increments that match projected demand patterns. Other DG benefits may include assistance with customer waste disposal problems, fuel diversity, reduction in emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}, and increases in system reliability. Substantial changes in utility planning practices are required to accommodate DG. The utility must re-think planning procedures to begin from the customer and extend back to the system rather than beginning from comprehensive system planning at the power plant level. As competitive pressures encourage utilities to redefine business practices, DG may help to focus strategic responses to the market.

  19. Field performance of potential biomass feedstocks under no inputs in South Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season perennial grasses have the greatest potential for biomass production in the Southeast for the emerging bioenergy industry. The larger root systems of perennial crops should be able to adapt to lower inputs of water and fertilizer, and should also contribute to soil carbon sequestration....

  20. Biomass burning and the production of methane. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.S.; Cofer, W.R.; Pinto, J.P.

    1992-01-22

    Biomass burning and its environmental implications have also become important research elements of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project. The production of atmospheric methane (CH4) by biomass burning will be assessed. The production of methane and other gaseous and particle carbon species resulting from biomass burning will be outlined. Field measurements and laboratory studies to quantify the emission ratio of methane and other carbon species will be reviewed. The historic database suggests that global biomass burning is increasing with time and is controlled by human activities. Present estimates indicate that biomass burning contributes between about 20 to about 60 Teragrams per year of carbon in the form of methane to the atmosphere. This represents only 5 to 15% of the global annual emissions of methane. Measurements do indicate that biomass burning is the overwhelming source of CH4 in tropical Africa. However, if the rate of global biomass burning increases at the rate that it has been over the last few decades, then the production of methane from biomass burning may become much more important on a global scale in the future.

  1. Biomass energy production. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    These 210 citations from the international literature describe the production and/or utilization of most forms of biomass as a source of energy, fuel, food, and chemical intermediates or feedstocks. Biomass conversion by incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or fermentation, as well as by catalytic, photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, and bio-electrochemical means are among the conversion processes considered. Discussions include biomass plantation and material productivity, transportation and equipment requirements, effects, comparisons of means and efficiencies of utilization and conversion, assessments of limitations, and evaluations of economic potential.

  2. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  3. Methane production from global biomass burning

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Min Hao; Ward, D.E.

    1993-11-20

    Emissions of methane from various sources of biomass burning are determined quantitatively for tropical, temperate, and boreal regions. About 85% of the total CH{sub 4} is emitted in the tropical area, which is mainly the result of shifting cultivation, fuelwood use, and deforestation. Methane emissions from biomass burning may have increased by at least 9% during the last decade because of increases in tropical deforestation and the use of fuelwood. Changes in land use practices and population growth in the tropics are possible causes of the increase of atmospheric CH{sub 4} concentration. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. Biomass production from Trichoderma viride in nonconventional oat medium.

    PubMed

    Motta, F L; Santana, M H A

    2012-01-01

    Oatmeal, an alternative, renewable, and low-cost substrate, was used for the production of Trichoderma viride spores by submerged fermentation. The nonconventional oat medium was only supplemented with potato peptone, which is a green source of nitrogen for the microorganism. Because particles are suspended in the nonconventional oat medium, the characterization was based on viscosity, average particle diameter, size distribution, and porosity of the particles. Because of the complexity of the fungal biomass extraction, the dry weight and protein content were used as methods for quantifying the growth of T. viride. The inversion between the proportion of mycelia and spores was captured in the microscopic image analysis during the fermentation process. After 60 h, spores began to appear, accounting for most of the form present at 120 h of fermentation. The decrease in pH and the increase in glucose concentration during fermentation indicate that glucan hydrolysis occurs and that glucose is released into the medium. The potential for industrial applications of submerged fermentation with oats for biomass production of T. viride is noted in the results. This simple and easily controllable process has several advantages, including the use of low-cost substrates for the propagation of a microorganism that is widely used in scientific and commercial settings. PMID:22736524

  5. Sustainable Production of Switchgrass for Biomass Energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 grass native to the North American tallgrass prairies, which historically extended from Mexico to Canada. It is the model perennial warm-season grass for biomass energy. USDA-ARS in Lincoln, NE has studied switchgrass continuously since 1936. Plot-scale rese...

  6. Development of Sustainable Landscape Designs for Improved Biomass Production in the U.S. Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, Ian J.

    Demand for renewable and sustainable energy options has resulted in a significant commitment by the US Government to research pathways for fuel production from biomass. The research presented in this thesis describes one potential pathway to increase the amount of biomass available for biofuel production by integrating dedicated energy crops into agricultural fields. In the first chapter an innovative landscape design method based on subfield placement of an energy crop into row crop fields in central Iowa is used to reduce financial loss for farmers, increase and diversify biomass production, and improve soil resources. The second chapter explores how subfield management decisions may be made using high fidelity data and modeling to balance concerns of primary crop production and economics. This work provides critical forward looking support to agricultural land managers and stakeholders in the biomass and bioenergy industry for pathways to improving land stewardship and energy security.

  7. Biomass and energy productivity of Leucaena under humid subtropical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, A.B.; Prine, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A table shows the amount and energy content of above-ground biomass produced in 1982 and 1983 by the 12 most productive of 62 accessions of Leucanena spp. established in 1979 at the University of Florida. Mean annual biomass production of the 12 accessions was 29.3 and 24.7 Mg/ha, with energy contents of 19,690 and 19,820 J/g, in 1982 and 1983 respectively.

  8. "Trojan Horse" strategy for deconstruction of biomass for biofuels production.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Hadi, Masood Z.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Thomson, James; Whalen, Maureen; Thilmony, Roger; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Sapra, Rajat

    2008-08-01

    Production of renewable biofuels to displace fossil fuels currently consumed in the transportation sector is a pressing multi-agency national priority. Currently, nearly all fuel ethanol is produced from corn-derived starch. Dedicated 'energy crops' and agricultural waste are preferred long-term solutions for renewable, cheap, and globally available biofuels as they avoid some of the market pressures and secondary greenhouse gas emission challenges currently facing corn ethanol. These sources of lignocellulosic biomass are converted to fermentable sugars using a variety of chemical and thermochemical pretreatments, which disrupt cellulose and lignin cross-links, allowing exogenously added recombinant microbial enzymes to more efficiently hydrolyze the cellulose for 'deconstruction' into glucose. This process is plagued with inefficiencies, primarily due to the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, mass transfer issues during deconstruction, and low activity of recombinant deconstruction enzymes. Costs are also high due to the requirement for enzymes and reagents, and energy-intensive and cumbersome pretreatment steps. One potential solution to these problems is found in synthetic biology; they propose to engineer plants that self-produce a suite of cellulase enzymes targeted to the apoplast for cleaving the linkages between lignin and cellulosic fibers; the genes encoding the degradation enzymes, also known as cellulases, are obtained from extremophilic organisms that grow at high temperatures (60-100 C) and acidic pH levels (<5). These enzymes will remain inactive during the life cycle of the plant but become active during hydrothermal pretreatment i.e., elevated temperatures. Deconstruction can be integrated into a one-step process, thereby increasing efficiency (cellulose-cellulase mass-transfer rates) and reducing costs. The proposed disruptive technologies address biomass deconstruction processes by developing transgenic plants encoding a suite of enzymes used

  9. Linking Gap Model with MODIS Biophysical Products for Biomass Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Sun, G.; Cai, Y.; Guo, Z.; Fu, A.; Ni, W.; Liu, D.

    With the development of earth observation technology and data processing technology biophysical data from remote sensing means such as MODIS LAI and NPP are accessible now However it is still difficult for direct measurement of biomass from remote sensors One possibility for overcoming this problem is using ecological models to link the vegetation parameters currently available from remote sensing to biomass In this paper a combined work is done for estimating forest biomass A calibrated gap model ZELIG was run to simulate the forest development in a temperate forested area in NE China The output relationship between age and biomass was linked to registered MODIS LAI NPP and land cover type images of the same area From the above work forest age or biomass was estimated from existing remote sensed data Obviously there is a lot of work to be done such as optimal combination of biophysical parameters to improve the linkage between MODIS product and ecological modeling

  10. Anaerobic bioassay of methane potential of microalgal biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Hong-Wei

    This study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion as a technique to recover solar energy embodied in excess algal biomass production harvested from Clemson University's high rate algal based Partitioned Aquaculture System (PAS) as an energy source to support PAS operations. In this study, four different organic substrates were loaded to anaerobic digesters in eight experimental trials, to ascertain the optimal combination of operational variables and effect of algal, or modified algal substrate upon methane production rate. The four substrates used in this study were: (1) a synthetic feedstock consisting of molasses and dog food, (2) a commercially obtained, readily degradable algal biomass (Spirulina ) in dry form, (3) PAS harvested and dewatered algal sludge, and (4) algal biomass blended with shredded waste paper or molasses as a carbon supplement for the adjustment of algal C/N ratio. Eight experimental trials using combinations of the four substrates were conducted in 15 liter digesters to investigate the effects of controlled digester parameters upon digester performance. Digesters operating at 20 days HRT, mesophilic digestion (35°C), and twice per day mixing at maximal loading rates produced maximal methane gas using PAS algal sludge. However, under these conditions overall methane production was less than 1000 ml CH4/l day. This low level of energy recovery from the fermentation of algal biomass (alone) is not energetically or economically favorable. Co-digestion of algal sludge and waste paper was investigated as a way to increase methane production. The data obtained from these trials suggest an optimum C/N ratio for co-digestion of algal sludge and waste paper in the range of 20--25/l. A balanced C/N ratio along with the stimulated increase in cellulase activity is suggested as likely reasons for increased methane production seen in co-digestion of algal sludge and waste paper. Yeast extract addition to anaerobic

  11. Biomass and lipid production of a local isolate Chlorella sorokiniana under mixotrophic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Juntila, D J; Bautista, M A; Monotilla, W

    2015-09-01

    A local Chlorella sp. isolate with 97% rbcL sequence identity to Chlorella sorokiniana was evaluated in terms of its biomass and lipid production under mixotrophic growth conditions. Glucose-supplemented cultures exhibited increasing growth rate and biomass yield with increasing glucose concentration. Highest growth rate and biomass yield of 1.602 day(-1) and 687.5 mg L(-1), respectively, were achieved under 2 g L(-1) glucose. Nitrogen starvation up to 75% in the 1.0 g L(-1) glucose-supplemented culture was done to induce lipid accumulation and did not significantly affect the growth. Lipid content ranges from 20% to 27% dry weight. Nile Red staining showed more prominent neutral lipid bodies in starved mixotrophic cultures. C. sorokiniana exhibited enhanced biomass production under mixotrophy and more prominent neutral lipid accumulation under nitrogen starvation with no significant decrease in growth; hence, this isolate could be further studied to establish its potential for biodiesel production. PMID:25847795

  12. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Annette C; Campleman, Sharan L; Long, Christopher M; Peterson, Michael K; Weatherstone, Susan; Quick, Will; Lewis, Ari

    2015-07-01

    Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S) concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios--pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended. PMID:26206568

  13. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Annette C.; Campleman, Sharan L.; Long, Christopher M.; Peterson, Michael K.; Weatherstone, Susan; Quick, Will; Lewis, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S) concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended. PMID:26206568

  14. Biomass production chamber air analysis of wheat study (BWT931)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, J. H.; Peterson, B. V.; Berdis, E.; Wheeler, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) biomass production chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center provides a test bed for bioregenerative studies using plants to provide food, oxygen, carbon dioxide removal, and potable water to humans during long term space travel. Growing plants in enclosed environments has brought about concerns regarding the level of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) emitted from plants and the construction materials that make up the plant growth chambers. In such closed systems, the potential exists for some VOC's to reach toxic levels and lead to poor plant growth, plant death, or health problems for human inhabitants. This study characterized the air in an enclosed environment in which wheat cv. Yocora Rojo was grown. Ninty-four whole air samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry throughout the eighty-four day planting. VOC emissions from plants and materials were characterized and quantified.

  15. Biomass Burning and the Production of Greenhouse Gases. Chapter 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (another greenhouse gas) as well as control the concentration of the hydroxyl radical, which regulates the lifetime of almost every atmospheric gas. Following biomass burning, biogenic emissions of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane are significantly enhanced. It is hypothesized that enhanced postburn biogenic emissions of these gases are related to fire-induced changes in soil chemistry and/or microbial ecology. Biomass burning, once believed to be a tropical phenomenon, has been demonstrated by satellite imagery to also be a regular feature of the world's boreal forests. One example of biomass burning is the extensive 1987 fire that destroyed more than 12 million acres of boreal forest in the People's Republic of China and across its border in the Soviet Union. Recent estimates indicate that almost all biomass burning is human-initiated and that it is increasing with time. With the formation of greenhouse and chemically active gases as direct combustion products and a longer-term enhancement of biogenic emissions of gases, biomass burning may be a significant driver for global change.

  16. Sustainability: The capacity of smokeless biomass pyrolysis for energy production, global carbon capture and sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of modern smokeless biomass pyrolysis for biochar and biofuel production is potentially a revolutionary approach for global carbon capture and sequestration at gigatons of carbon (GtC) scales. A conversion of about 7% of the annual terrestrial gross photosynthetic product (120 GtC y-1) i...

  17. Reclamation of coppice forests in order to increase the potential of woody biomass in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelanovic, I.; Krstic, M.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass makes 63% of the total renewable energy potential of Serbia. Here, the biomass from forests together with wood processing industry waste represent the second most important renewable source for energy production. The Action Plan for Biomass of Serbia (2010) shows that the technically exploitable biomass in the Republic of Serbia amounts annually 2.7 Mtoe. Here, the woody biomass (fuelwood, forest residue, wood processing industry residue, wood from trees outside the forest) accounts for 1.0 Mtoe while the rest originates from agricultural sources. According to the national forest inventory (2008), forest cover in Serbia accounts for 29% of the country area, having standing volume of 362.5 mil. m3 and annual increment of 9.1 mil. m3. More than half is state-owned and the rest 47% is in the private ownership. Coppice forests dominate in the forest stock (65%). According to Glavonjić (2010), northeastern and southwestern Serbia are the regions with greatest spatial forest distribution. The general forest condition is characterised by insufficient production volume, unsatisfactory stock density and forest cover, high percentage of degraded forests, unfavorable age structure, unfavorable health condition and weeded areas. Herewith, the basic measures for the improvement of forest fund (Forestry Development Strategy for Serbia, 2006) represent conversion of coppice forests, increase of forest cover and productivity of forest ecosystems by the ecologically, economically and socially acceptable methods. The actions include reclamation of degraded forests, re- and afforestation activities on abandoned agricultural, degraded and other treeless lands. The average standing volume of high forests is 254 m3·ha-1 with an annual increment of 5.5 m3·ha-1. On the contrary, coppice forests dispose 124 m3·ha-1 of standing volume, having an annual increment of 3.1 m3·ha-1. Here, estimated losses from coppice forests amount up to 3.5 mil. m3 wood annually. These data

  18. Fuels production by photoelectrolysis of water and photooxidation of soluble biomass materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sammells, A.F.; St. John, M.R.

    1984-03-20

    A process and apparatus for production of fuels by photoelectrolysis of water and photooxidation of water soluble biomass and a process for preparation of Schottky-type metalized, appropriately doped n-type semiconductor photochemical diodes suitable for use in the above process and apparatus. The production of hydrogen by photoelectrolysis of water as the cathodic reaction of an optically illuminated photochemical diode is effected in an aqueous electrolyte which comprises a biomass product which may be monosaccharides, polysaccharides, lignins, their partially oxidized products, and mixtures thereof which are oxidized as the anodic reaction of the photochemical diode producing liquid fuels and useful chemicals. Molecular oxygen evolution is avoided and utilization of biomass product provides a cost effective material to increase fuels and useful chemical production by photoelectrolysis of water at potentials substantially less than required for normal water electrolysis involving oxygen evolution.

  19. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Glucanocellulosic ethanol: the undiscovered biofuel potential in energy crops and marine biomass.

    PubMed

    Falter, Christian; Zwikowics, Claudia; Eggert, Dennis; Blümke, Antje; Naumann, Marcel; Wolff, Kerstin; Ellinger, Dorothea; Reimer, Rudolph; Voigt, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    Converting biomass to biofuels is a key strategy in substituting fossil fuels to mitigate climate change. Conventional strategies to convert lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol address the fermentation of cellulose-derived glucose. Here we used super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to uncover the nanoscale structure of cell walls in the energy crops maize and Miscanthus where the typical polymer cellulose forms an unconventional layered architecture with the atypical (1, 3)-β-glucan polymer callose. This raised the question about an unused potential of (1, 3)-β-glucan in the fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. Engineering biomass conversion for optimized (1, 3)-β-glucan utilization, we increased the ethanol yield from both energy crops. The generation of transgenic Miscanthus lines with an elevated (1, 3)-β-glucan content further increased ethanol yield providing a new strategy in energy crop breeding. Applying the (1, 3)-β-glucan-optimized conversion method on marine biomass from brown macroalgae with a naturally high (1, 3)-β-glucan content, we not only substantially increased ethanol yield but also demonstrated an effective co-fermentation of plant and marine biomass. This opens new perspectives in combining different kinds of feedstock for sustainable and efficient biofuel production, especially in coastal regions. PMID:26324382

  1. Glucanocellulosic ethanol: the undiscovered biofuel potential in energy crops and marine biomass

    PubMed Central

    Falter, Christian; Zwikowics, Claudia; Eggert, Dennis; Blümke, Antje; Naumann, Marcel; Wolff, Kerstin; Ellinger, Dorothea; Reimer, Rudolph; Voigt, Christian A.

    2015-01-01

    Converting biomass to biofuels is a key strategy in substituting fossil fuels to mitigate climate change. Conventional strategies to convert lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol address the fermentation of cellulose-derived glucose. Here we used super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to uncover the nanoscale structure of cell walls in the energy crops maize and Miscanthus where the typical polymer cellulose forms an unconventional layered architecture with the atypical (1, 3)-β-glucan polymer callose. This raised the question about an unused potential of (1, 3)-β-glucan in the fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. Engineering biomass conversion for optimized (1, 3)-β-glucan utilization, we increased the ethanol yield from both energy crops. The generation of transgenic Miscanthus lines with an elevated (1, 3)-β-glucan content further increased ethanol yield providing a new strategy in energy crop breeding. Applying the (1, 3)-β-glucan-optimized conversion method on marine biomass from brown macroalgae with a naturally high (1, 3)-β-glucan content, we not only substantially increased ethanol yield but also demonstrated an effective co-fermentation of plant and marine biomass. This opens new perspectives in combining different kinds of feedstock for sustainable and efficient biofuel production, especially in coastal regions. PMID:26324382

  2. [Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].

    PubMed

    Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

    2011-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt. PMID:21650030

  3. Maintaining environmental quality while expanding biomass production: Sub-regional U.S. policy simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2013-03-01

    This paper evaluates environmental policy effects on ligno-cellulosic biomass production and environ- mental outcomes using an integrated bioeconomic optimization model. The environmental policy integrated climate (EPIC) model is used to simulate crop yields and environmental indicators in current and future potential bioenergy cropping systems based on weather, topographic and soil data. The crop yield and environmental outcome parameters from EPIC are combined with biomass transport costs and economic parameters in a representative farmer profit-maximizing mathematical optimization model. The model is used to predict the impact of alternative policies on biomass production and environmental outcomes. We find that without environmental policy, rising biomass prices initially trigger production of annual crop residues, resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and nutrient losses to surface and ground water. At higher biomass prices, perennial bioenergy crops replace annual crop residues as biomass sources, resulting in lower environmental impacts. Simulations of three environmental policies namely a carbon price, a no-till area subsidy, and a fertilizer tax reveal that only the carbon price policy systematically mitigates environmental impacts. The fertilizer tax is ineffectual and too costly to farmers. The no-till subsidy is effective only at low biomass prices and is too costly to government.

  4. Rationally engineered synthetic coculture for improved biomass and product formation.

    PubMed

    Santala, Suvi; Karp, Matti; Santala, Ville

    2014-01-01

    In microbial ecosystems, bacteria are dependent on dynamic interspecific interactions related to carbon and energy flow. Substrates and end-metabolites are rapidly converted to other compounds, which protects the community from high concentrations of inhibitory molecules. In biotechnological applications, pure cultures are preferred because of the more straight-forward metabolic engineering and bioprocess control. However, the accumulation of unwanted side products can limit the cell growth and process efficiency. In this study, a rationally engineered coculture with a carbon channeling system was constructed using two well-characterized model strains Escherichia coli K12 and Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. The directed carbon flow resulted in efficient acetate removal, and the coculture showed symbiotic nature in terms of substrate utilization and growth. Recombinant protein production was used as a proof-of-principle example to demonstrate the coculture utility and the effects on product formation. As a result, the biomass and recombinant protein titers of E. coli were enhanced in both minimal and rich medium simple batch cocultures. Finally, harnessing both the strains to the production resulted in enhanced recombinant protein titers. The study demonstrates the potential of rationally engineered cocultures for synthetic biology applications. PMID:25470793

  5. Compositional and Agronomic Evaluation of Sorghum Biomass as a Potential Feedstock for Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, J.; Wolfrum, E.; Bean, B.; Rooney, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    One goal of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee was to replace 30% of current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. This will take mixtures of various feedstocks; an annual biomass feedstock such as sorghum will play an important role in meeting this goal. Commercial forage sorghum samples collected from field trials grown in Bushland, TX in 2007 were evaluated for both agronomic and compositional traits. Biomass compositional analysis of the samples was performed at the National Renewable Energy Lab in Golden, CO following NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedures. Depending on the specific cultivar, several additional years of yield data for this location were considered in establishing agronomic potential. Results confirm that sorghum forages can produce high biomass yields over multiple years and varied growing conditions. In addition, the composition of sorghum shows significant variation, as would be expected for most crops. Using theoretical estimates for ethanol production, the sorghum commercial forages examined in this study could produce an average of 6147 L ha{sup -1} of renewable fuels. Given its genetic variability, a known genomic sequence, a robust seed industry, and biomass composition, sorghum will be an important annual feedstock to meet the alternative fuel production goals legislated by the US Energy Security Act of 2007.

  6. Macrobenthic biomass and production in a heterogenic subarctic fjord after invasion by the red king crab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Mona M.; Pedersen, Torstein; Ramasco, Virginie; Nilssen, Einar M.

    2015-12-01

    We studied the macrobenthic fauna and their production potential in Porsangerfjord, Northern Norway, in relation to environmental gradients and the recent invasion by the predatory red king crab into the outer fjord. The study area is characterized by a distinct along-fjord temperature gradient, with the influence of warmer Atlantic water in the outer fjord and year-round bottom temperatures around zero in the inner fjord. Benthic organisms can play a crucial role in ecosystem energy flow. Despite this, our knowledge of factors regulating benthic secondary production in high latitude ecosystems is limited. Macrobenthic abundance, biomass (B), production (P) and production-to-biomass ratio (P/B) were estimated from grab samples collected in 2010. Annual P/B ratios were calculated using a multi-parameter artificial neural network (ANN) model by Brey (2012). The mean abundance, biomass, production and P/B were 4611 ind. m- 2 (95% CI = 3994, 5316), 65 g ww m- 2 (95% CI = 51, 82), 174 kJ m- 2 y- 1 (95% CI = 151, 201) and 1.02 y- 1, respectively. Benthic biomass and production in the fjord were dominated by polychaetes. Spatial variability in P/B and production was mainly driven by community structure and differences in environmental habitat conditions. The inner basins of the fjord were characterized by high total production (439 kJ m- 2 y- 1), attributable to high standing stock biomass and community structure, despite cold bottom temperatures. In the middle and outer fjord, smaller taxa with low individual body masses increased the P/B ratios, but they did not compensate for the low biomass, thereby resulting in lower total production in these areas. The low biomass and the sparseness of large taxa in the outer and middle fjord may already be a result of predation by the invasive red king crab resulting in an overall lower macrobenthic production regime.

  7. Biomass production of sugarcane on narrow-rows in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Cayton, J.E.; Eiland, B.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sugarcane production for biomass was examined on three narrow-row patterns in Florida. Equipment and production methods were modified for planting, spraying and harvesting the narrow-row patterns. No large increases in yields of vigorous varieties were found when compared to those from conventional rows. Some increases were observed in varieties which have low stalk populations. 4 refs.

  8. Membrane recovery of phenolic acid co-products from biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technology to convert lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels is progressing with parallel efforts to develop processes to recover valuable natural products and generate additional revenue from these associated co-products. The lignified components of plant tissues contain phenolic acid structures s...

  9. Cob biomass production in the western corn belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn residue is viewed as an abundant, inexpensive source of biomass that can be removed from fields for ethanol production without deleterious production or environmental effects if proper management is used according to some recent publications. Other publications indicate that corn residue needs ...

  10. Acid-Catalyzed Algal Biomass Pretreatment for Integrated Lipid and Carbohydrate-Based Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Nagle, N.; Davis, R.; Sweeney, N.; Van Wychen, S.; Lowell, A.; Pienkos, P. T.

    2014-11-12

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. We studied the effect of harvest timing on the conversion yields, using two algal strains; Chlorella and Scenedesmus, generating biomass with distinctive compositional ratios of protein, carbohydrate, and lipids. We found that the late harvest Scenedesmus biomass had the maximum theoretical biofuel potential at 143 gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) combined fuel yield per dry ton biomass, followed by late harvest Chlorella at 128 GGE per ton. Our experimental data show a clear difference between the two strains, as Scenedesmus was more successfully converted in this process with a demonstrated 97 GGE per ton. Our measurements indicated a release of >90% of the available glucose in the hydrolysate liquors and an extraction and recovery of up to 97% of the fatty acids from wet biomass. Techno-economic analysis for the combined product yields indicates that this process exhibits the potential to improve per-gallon fuel costs by up to 33% compared to a lipids-only process for one strain, Scenedesmus, grown to the mid-point harvest condition.

  11. Application Problem of Biomass Combustion in Greenhouses for Crop Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Atsuhiro; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    It is consumed much energy in fossil fuels to production crops in greenhouses in Japan. And fl ue gas as CO2 fertilization is used for growing crops in modern greenhouses. If biomass as renewable energy can use for production vegetables in greenhouses, more than 800,000 kl of energy a year (in crude oil equivalent) will be saved. In this study, at fi rst, we made the biomass combustion equipment, and performed fundamental examination for various pellet fuel. We performed the examination that considered an application to a real greenhouse next. We considered biomass as both a source of energy and CO2 gas for greenhouses, and the following fi ndings were obtained: 1) Based on the standard of CO2 gas fertilization to greenhouses, it is diffi cult to apply biomass as a CO2 fertilizer, so that biomass should be applied to energy use only, at least for the time being. 2) Practical biomass energy machinery for economy, high reliability and greenhouses satisfying the conservatism that it is easy is necessary. 3) It is necessary to develop crop varieties and cultivation systems requiring less strict environmental control. 4) Disposal of combustion ash occurring abundantly, effective practical use is necessary.

  12. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Biomass Torrefaction is gaining attention as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties and chemical composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of approximately 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-280 C. Thus, the process can be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. The present review work looks into (a) torrefaction process and different products produced during the process and (b) solid torrefied material properties which include: (i) physical properties like moisture content, density, grindability, particle size distribution and particle surface area and pelletability; (ii) chemical properties like proximate and ultimate composition; and (iii) storage properties like off-gassing and spontaneous combustion.

  13. Enhancing biomass and ethanol production by increasing NADPH production in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Nam; Park, Jong Moon

    2016-08-01

    This study demonstrates that increased NADPH production can improve biomass and ethanol production in cyanobacteria. We over-expressed the endogenous zwf gene, which encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of pentose phosphate pathway, in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. zwf over-expression resulted in increased NADPH production, and promoted biomass production compared to the wild type in both autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. Ethanol production pathway including NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was also integrated with and without zwf over-expression. Excessive NADPH production by zwf over-expression could improve both biomass and ethanol production in the autotrophic conditions. PMID:26951740

  14. Potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since the first discovery of black smoker vents hosting chemosynthetic macrofaunal communities (Spiess et al., 1980), submarine hydrothermal systems and associated biota have attracted interest of many researchers (e.g., Humphris et al., 1995; Van Dover, 2000; Wilcock et al., 2004). In the past couple of decades, particular attention has been paid to chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms that sustain the hydrothermal vent-endemic animal communities as the primary producer. This type of microorganisms obtains energy from inorganic substances (e.g., sulfur, hydrogen, and methane) derived from hydrothermal vent fluids, and is often considered as an important modern analogue to the early ecosystems of the Earth as well as the extraterrestrial life in other planets and moons (e.g., Jannasch and Mottl, 1985; Nealson et al., 2005; Takai et al., 2006). Even today, however, the size of this type of chemosynthetic deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is largely unknown. Here, we present geophysical and geochemical constraints on potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. The estimation of the potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is based on hydrothermal fluid flux calculated from heat flux (Elderfield and Schltz, 1996), maximum chemical energy available from metabolic reactions during mixing between hydrothermal vent fluids and seawater (McCollom, 2007), and maintenance energy requirements of the chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms (Hoehler, 2004). The result shows that the most of metabolic energy sustaining the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is produced by oxidation reaction of reduced sulfur, although some parts of the energy are derived from hydrogenotrophic and methanotrophic reactions. The overall total of the potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is calculated to be much smaller than that in terrestrial ecosystems including terrestrial plants. The big difference in biomass between the

  15. Biomass Potentials in Different Maintenance Scenarios of Satoyama Woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, T.

    2012-04-01

    Woodlands near human settlements often have long histories of providing people with fuelwood and other organic materials. In Japan, these woodlands are called satoyama. While satoyama woodlands were historically coppiced to provide an essential source of fuelwood, many have been developed into residential areas as a result of the introduction of fossil fuels beginning in the 1960's. Remaining satoyamas were simply abandoned due to the loss of economic value from fuelwood. This has resulted in a loss of other satoyama-related functions such as their ecological function. In response to the abandonment of satoyamas, thousands of volunteer groups have formed since the 1990's to restore satoyama woodlands. However, in spite of the importance of grassroots volunteers, their actual activities are limited in spatial extent due to shortages of manpower, time, and maintenance skill. This suggests that more substantial incentives are necessary, if maintenance of satoyama woodlands is to be extended. This study focused on an increased attention of biomass enegy utilization from satoyama trees as a promising incentive, and estimated biomass potentials in different maintenance scenarios of satoyama woodlands through a case study site in peri-urban Tokyo. This study set four maintenance scenarios; a) ground cover removal, b) light-thinning, c) intensive-thinning, and d) rotational coppicing. Based on the scenarios, the amount of biomass obtained, bioenergy generated, and carbon reduced were estimated respectively by the combination of conducting tree measurement and applying a long-term forest dynamics estimation model. Since there is tradeoff between CO2 reduction through woodenergy utilization and CO2 fixation by standing trees, these two variables were analyzed in tandem. The scenario that produces the most woody biomass was rotational coppicing, the maintenance scenario which also mimics historical management regimes. Despite the lowest potential of CO2 fixation by standing

  16. Global and regional potential for bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residue biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, Jay S.; Smith, Steven J.

    2010-02-11

    As co-products, agricultural and forestry residues represent a potential low cost, low carbon, source for bioenergy. A method is developed method for estimating the maximum sustainable amount of energy potentially available from agricultural and forestry residues by converting crop production statistics into associated residue, while allocating some of this resource to remain on the field to mitigate erosion and maintain soil nutrients. Currently, we estimate that the world produces residue biomass that could be sustainably harvested and converted into over 50 EJ yr-1 of energy. The top three countries where this resource is estimated to be most abundant are currently net energy importers: China, the United States (US), and India. The global potential from residue biomass is estimated to increase to approximately 80-95 EJ yr-1 by mid- to late- century, depending on physical assumptions such as of future crop yields and the amount of residue sustainably harvestable. The future market for biomass residues was simulated using the Object-Oriented Energy, Climate, and Technology Systems Mini Climate Assessment Model (ObjECTS MiniCAM). Utilization of residue biomass as an energy source is projected for the next century under different climate policy scenarios. Total global use of residue biomass is estimated to increase to 70-100 EJ yr-1 by mid- to late- century in a central case, depending on the presence of a climate policy and the economics of harvesting, aggregating, and transporting residue. Much of this potential is in developing regions of the world, including China, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and India.

  17. Nonenzymatic sugar production from biomass using biomass-derived γ-valerolactone.

    PubMed

    Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Rand, Jacqueline M; Alonso, David Martin; Han, Jeehoon; Youngquist, J Tyler; Maravelias, Christos T; Pfleger, Brian F; Dumesic, James A

    2014-01-17

    Widespread production of biomass-derived fuels and chemicals will require cost-effective processes for breaking down cellulose and hemicellulose into their constituent sugars. Here, we report laboratory-scale production of soluble carbohydrates from corn stover, hardwood, and softwood at high yields (70 to 90%) in a solvent mixture of biomass-derived γ-valerolactone (GVL), water, and dilute acid (0.05 weight percent H2SO4). GVL promotes thermocatalytic saccharification through complete solubilization of the biomass, including the lignin fraction. The carbohydrates can be recovered and concentrated (up to 127 grams per liter) by extraction from GVL into an aqueous phase by addition of NaCl or liquid CO2. This strategy is well suited for catalytic upgrading to furans or fermentative upgrading to ethanol at high titers and near theoretical yield. We estimate through preliminary techno-economic modeling that the overall process could be cost-competitive for ethanol production, with biomass pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:24436415

  18. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  19. Ethylene dynamics in the CELSS biomass production chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Allen L.

    1994-01-01

    A material balance model for ethylene was developed and applied retrospectively to data obtained in the Biomass Production Chamber of CELSS in order to calculate true plant production rates of ethylene. Four crops were analyzed: wheat, lettuce, soybean, and potato. The model represents an effort to account for each and every source and sink for ethylene in the system. The major source of ethylene is the plant biomass and the major sink is leakage to the surroundings. The result, expressed in the units of ppd/day, were converted to nl of ethylene per gram of plant dry mass per hour and compare favorably with recent glasshouse to belljar experiments.

  20. Nitrous oxide production in soils and the ratio of the fungal to bacterial biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskiy, S. A.; Avksent'ev, A. A.; Davydova, M. A.; Blagodatskaya, E. V.; Kurakov, A. V.

    2008-12-01

    The proportion between the fungal and bacterial biomass, the potential activity of denitrification, and the intensity of N2O production were determined in the soils (chernozem and soddy-podzolic) of secondary biocenoses formed upon the abandoning of agricultural lands. The substitution of meadow and forest vegetation for agrocenoses has led to an increase in the percentage of the fungal biomass in the upper soil horizons. The rate of the net N2O production after the soil moistening positively correlated with the content of nitrates. In the soddy-podzolic soil (pH 3.7-5.6), the rate of nitrous oxide production was higher than that in the chernozem (pH 6.1-6.8). The rate of N2O production was inversely proportional to the bacterial biomass in the soils.

  1. Analysis of Casein Biopolymers Adsorption to Lignocellulosic Biomass as a Potential Cellulase Stabilizer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2012-01-01

    Although lignocellulosic materials have a good potential to substitute current feedstocks used for ethanol production, conversion of these materials to fermentable sugars is still not economical through enzymatic hydrolysis. High cost of cellulase has prompted research to explore techniques that can prevent from enzyme deactivation. Colloidal proteins of casein can form monolayers on hydrophobic surfaces that alleviate the de-activation of protein of interest. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and Kjeldahl and BSA protein assays were used to investigate the unknown mechanism of action of induced cellulase activity during hydrolysis of casein-treated biomass. Adsorptionmore » of casein to biomass was observed with all of the analytical techniques used and varied depending on the pretreatment techniques of biomass. FT-IR analysis of amides I and II suggested that the substructure of protein from casein or skim milk were deformed at the time of contact with biomass. With no additive, the majority of one of the cellulase mono-component, 97.1 ± 1.1, was adsorbed to CS within 24 h, this adsorption was irreversible and increased by 2% after 72 h. However, biomass treatment with skim-milk and casein reduced the adsorption to 32.9% ± 6.0 and 82.8% ± 6.0, respectively.« less

  2. Market potential for biomass co-fire in the four corners region

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.; Haase, S.; Lynch, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    Fire suppression and heavy logging have caused major ecological changes in the pine forests of the San Juan-Rio Grande National Forest. A demonstration and administrative study sale was offered to determine the potential for ecosystem restoration in the forest. The conditions of the sale required the removal of trees from designated units that are typically classified as either Products Other than Logs (POL) or non-merchantable timber in addition to sawtimber. There are approximately 3.7 GW (net) of coal-fired power production capacity within 100 miles of the SJNF. Co-firing of biofuels with fossil fuels has significant potential for utility-scale power production. However, the economics and technical feasibility of co-firing are site-specific, depending on issues such as the availability of biomass, plant layout, existing combustion system technology, and the current cost of coal. The results of the feasibility analysis suggest limited market potential for forestry residues in area power plants. High biomass costs, despite USFS subsidies, coupled with low coal costs and coal supplier issues hinder the prospects for biomass co-fire opportunities. environmental considerations associated with reduced emissions (SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}) are not major issues because of low sulfur coal that is widely available and limited markets for NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} reductions.

  3. [Production of Kluyveromices fragilis biomass in deproteinized milk whey].

    PubMed

    Chinappi, I; Sánchez Crispín, J A

    2000-01-01

    The milk whey from a mature cheese factory deproteinised by acid thermic coagulation (pH 4.5 and 90 degrees C), provides a good culture media for the production of Kluyveromices fragilis biomass. The optimal experimental conditions for the maximal production of biomass were established by using fermenters with different capacity and design. For lactose concentration of 15 g/l, pH 4.5, 30 degrees C and aireation between 0.25 and 1 VVM, the duplication time was below two hours and 98% of the lactose was consumed. The obtained yield in dried weight was between 36 and 49% (g biomass/g lactose). The biomass (without broken cell) contain 46% protein on dry base and showed an "in vitro" digestibility of 65%. The organic mass decreased 80% after 12 hour of fermentation. This process eliminates a polluting agent and simultaneously, produces a biomass that could have industrial use as a protein complement in feeds. PMID:11460792

  4. Characterization of Spirulina biomass for CELSS diet potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.

    1993-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, Spirulina maxima as a biogenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for the space craft crew in a CELSS, was evaluated in an effort to increase the growth rate, biomass, yield, and chemical analysis in continuous cultures. The cell characteristics were determined for cultures maintained at steady state with respect to the substrate concentration. The productivity increased in experiments exposed to low light (30 uE m(exp -2)s(exp -1). Oxygen evolved and protein production were higher in cultures exposed to low light intensity. There was a relationship between nitrate concentration and the yield of the culture. Increasing the concentration of nitrate in the growth medium up to 20 mM was enough to produce a culture having the same chemical composition as that of complete medium. High light was inhibiting the yield of the culture. Increasing the concentration of phosphate beyond 1 mM did not improve the yield of the culture. Increasing the concentration of sodium chloride in the growth medium did not affect the growth of the alga up to 0.1 M but beyond that the culture started to be stressed. The response to stress appeared in high production of total carbohydrate on the expense of protein production. The oxygen production was also higher in cultures stressed with sodium chloride.

  5. Low input production of biomass from perennial grasses in the Coastal Plain of Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season perennial grasses have the greatest potential for biomass production in the Southeast. The larger root systems of perennial crops should be able to adapt to lower inputs of water and fertilizer, and should also contribute to soil carbon sequestration. This study was initiated in fall 2...

  6. Radiation use efficiency, biomass production, and grain yield in two maize hybrids differing in drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought tolerant (DT) maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids have potential to increase yield under drought conditions. However, little information is known about the physiological determinations of yield in DT hybrids. Our objective was to assess radiation use efficiency (RUE), biomass production, and yield ...

  7. Gas exchange in NASA's biomass production chamber - A preprototype closed human life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1992-01-01

    The unique capabilities of the NASA biomass production chamber for monitoring and evaluating gas exchange rates are examined. Special emphasis is given to results with wheat and soybeans. The potential of the chamber as a preprototype of a closed human life support system is considered.

  8. Recovery of phenolic compounds from biomass during ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass to ethanol conversion represents an alternative liquid fuel technology that does not need to compete with food crops. Maintaining agricultural production of commodity crops such as corn and soybeans for the food supply and using agricultural waste or low input energy crops grown on marginal ...

  9. High biomass sorghum production across tillage systems and nitrogen rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy production has traditionally focused on perennial crops; however, these crops require an establishment period before they can be utilized. High biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) grown as an annual crop can be used during this establishment period, but typical yields and nutrient...

  10. Native grasses for biomass production at high elevations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent policies such as the Energy Independence Security Act of 2007 (EISA) and the second U.S. Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS), have targeted biofuel production and domestic energy independence. Hence, considerable interest has focused on producing plant biomass for conversion into biofuels for the...

  11. Process technologies for production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, and switchgrass can serve as low-cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. These feedstocks contain complex carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicelluloses) which need to be converted to fermentable sugars and then these sugars b...

  12. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin; Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia; Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell; Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester .

    2009-03-31

    conversion. All three of these processes are of particular interest to states in the Southeastern US since the agricultural products produced in this region are highly variable in terms of actual crop, production quantity, and the ability of land areas to support a particular type of crop. This greatly differs from the Midwestern US where most of this region's agricultural land supports one to two primary crops, such as corn and soybean. Therefore, developing processes which are relatively flexible in terms of biomass feedstock is key to the southeastern region of the US if this area is going to be a 'player' in the developing biomass to chemicals arena. With regard to the fermentation of syngas, research was directed toward developing improved biocatalysts through organism discovery and optimization, improving ethanol/acetic acid separations, evaluating potential bacterial contaminants, and assessing the use of innovative fermentors that are better suited for supporting syngas fermentation. Acid hydrolysis research was directed toward improved conversion yields and rates, acid recovery using membranes, optimization of fermenting organisms, and hydrolyzate characterization with changing feedstocks. Additionally, a series of development efforts addressed novel separation techniques for the separation of key chemicals from fermentation activities. Biogas related research focused on key factors hindering the widespread use of digester technologies in non-traditional industries. The digestion of acetic acids and other fermentation wastewaters was studied and methods used to optimize the process were undertaken. Additionally, novel laboratory methods were designed along with improved methods of digester operation. A search for better performing digester consortia was initiated coupled with improved methods to initiate their activity within digester environments. The third activity of the consortium generally studied the production of 'other' chemicals from waste biomass materials

  13. Biomass recycling heat technology and energy products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabakaev, R. B.; Gergelizhiu, P. S.; Kazakov, A. V.; Zavorin, A. S.

    2014-10-01

    Relevance is determined by necessity of utilizing of local low-grade fuels by energy equpment. Most widespread Tomsk oblast (Russian Federation region) low-grade fuels are described and listed. Capability of utilizing is analysed. Mass balances of heat-technology conversion materials and derived products are described. As a result, recycling capability of low-grade fuels in briquette fuel is appraised.

  14. Biomass removal: Effect on soil nutrients and productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in renewable alternatives to fossil energy has increased. There is also a growing awareness of the impact of greenhouse gas emission on global climate change. Crop biomass can be used to make liquid fuels like ethanol. These cellulosic materials are also potential feedstock for controlled c...

  15. Improved conversion of herbaceous biomass to biofuels: Potential for modification of key plant characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Sladden, S.E.; Bransby, D.I. . Dept. of Agronomy and Soils)

    1989-10-01

    Biomass crops are converted to fuels via biochemical and thermochemical processes. The process preferred depends on properties and cost of available feedstocks, and on the specific products desired. Since most mature biomass crops are composed of up to 80% cell wall fibers, the properties of these fibers determine, to a large degree, the conversion potential of the crop. However, biomass crops also contain small amounts of proteins, soluble carbohydrates and interfering materials (e.g., tannins and silica) which also influence the desirability of the feedstock in specific conversion processes. Fortunately, wide variation exists in the chemical composition of potential biomass crops. Although the chemical composition of feedstocks can be influenced significantly with judicious management has species selection, some traits are sufficiently heritable to permit breeding for improved feedstock composition. In addition to breeding for specific compositional traits directly, selection for in vitro digestibility or for easily-measured canopy or physiological traits may lead to more rapid and efficient progress in feedstock improvement, provided those measurements are highly-correlated with desirable feedstock composition. At the same time breeders must improve, or at least avoid damaging, stand longevity, tendency of plants to lodge, and establishment traits (e.g., disease resistance and seedling vigor). 46 refs., 8 tabs.

  16. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power

  17. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  18. Photosynthetic pathway and biomass energy production.

    PubMed

    Marzola, D L; Bartholomew, D P

    1979-08-10

    The current interest in locating new or alternative sources of energy has focused attention on solar energy capture by crops that can be subsequently utilized as a substitute for fossil fuels. The very high productivity of sugarepane and the fact that it accumulates sugars that are directly fermentable to alcohol may have caused seemingly less productive crops to be overlooked. We show here that recoverable alcohol from achievable commercial yields of pineapple can actually equal that of sugarcane, with the pineapple crop requiring only a fraction of the water used by sugarcane. Pineapple is well adapted to the subhumid or semiarid tropics and thus is particularly well suited for exploiting large areas not now under cultivation with any crop of commercial value. PMID:17729660

  19. Evaluating root zone water quality impacts associated with various biomass production systems across landscape positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, W.; Zhou, X.; Helmers, M. J.; Schulte Moore, L.; Isenhart, T.; Kolka, R.

    2011-12-01

    Evaluating the water quality impacts of biomass production systems is essential to assessing biomass production systems' environmental impacts. The objective of this study is to determine potential water quality impacts of various production systems across different landscape positions. Five production systems are being evaluated: (1) continuous corn, (2) corn-soy/triticale-soy, (3) switchgrass, (4) triticale/sorghum, and (5) triticale/trees, at five landscape locations: (1) summit, (2) shoulder, (3) backslope, (4) toeslope, and (5) floodplain. Each production system is randomly assigned within three replicates at each landscape location. Soil water samples are taken monthly during the growing season from two suction lysimeters per plot at a depth of 60cm. Initial results indicate significant differences between the production systems and a likely association between fertilizer input and NO3-N concentrations with corn plots having the highest concentration and the tree plots having the lowest. Relatively high concentrations in the corn and sorghum plots following fertilization were observed the first year and similar results are being observed early in the second year of observations. A significant landscape effect was observed late in the growing season during the first year of this study. Quantifying the environmental impacts of biomass production systems will aid in optimizing deployment as producers gear up to meet biomass production demand.

  20. Assessment of the phytoextraction potential of high biomass crop plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Allica, Javier; Becerril, José M; Garbisu, Carlos

    2008-03-01

    A hydroponic screening method was used to identify high biomass crop plants with the ability to accumulate metals. Highest values of shoot accumulation were found in maize cv. Ranchero, rapeseed cv. Karat, and cardoon cv. Peralta for Pb (18 753 mg kg(-1)), Zn (10 916 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (242 mg kg(-1)), respectively. Subsequently, we tested the potential of these three cultivars for the phytoextraction of a metal spiked compost, finding out that, in cardoon and maize plants, increasing Zn and Cd concentrations led to lower values of root and shoot DW. By contrast, rapeseed shoot growth was not significantly affected by Cd concentration. Finally, a metal polluted soil was used to check these cultivars' phytoextraction capacity. Although the soil was phytotoxic enough to prevent the growth of cardoon and rapeseed plants, maize plants phytoextracted 3.7 mg Zn pot(-1). We concluded that the phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies depending on the screening method used. PMID:17644228

  1. Thermo-chemical and biological conversion potential of various biomass feedstocks to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential and the economy of producing ethanol from gasification-fermentation of various biomass feedstocks. The biomass feedstocks include winter cover crops (wheat, rye, clover, hairy betch), summer cover crop (sunhemp), chicken litter, and woody biomass. ...

  2. Attached cultivation for improving the biomass productivity of Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanlan; Chen, Lin; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Yu; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Zhaohui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2015-04-01

    To improve cultivation efficiency for microalgae Spirulina platensis is related to increase its potential use as food source and as an effective alternative for CO2 fixation. The present work attempted to establish a technique, namely attached cultivation, for S. platensis. Laboratory experiments were made firstly to investigate optimal conditions on attached cultivation. The optimal conditions were found: 25 g m(-2) for initial inoculum density using electrostatic flocking cloth as substrata, light intensity lower than 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1), CO2 enriched air flow (0.5%) at a superficial aeration rate of 0.0056 m s(-1) in a NaHCO3-free Zarrouk medium. An outdoor attached cultivation bench-scale bioreactor was built and a 10d culture of S. platensis was carried out with daily harvesting. A high footprint areal biomass productivity of 60 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained. The nutrition of S. platensis with attached cultivation is identical to that with conventional liquid cultivation. PMID:25647023

  3. Advances in the production of sponge biomass Aplysina aerophoba--a model sponge for ex situ sponge biomass production.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Rudolf; Vitello, Marco P; Leitermann, Frank; Syldatk, Christoph

    2006-06-25

    Sponges are a promising source of organic compounds of potential interest regarding industrial and medical applications. For detailed studies on such compounds, large amounts of sponge biomass are required. Obtaining that is at present extremely difficult because most sponges are relatively rare in nature and their mass cultivation in the laboratory has not yet been accomplished. In this study the possibility of culturing Aplysina aerophoba fragments in laboratory was examined. While a substantial biomass increase was not yet observed, we achieved fragmented sponge tissue to develop into a functional sponge as a first success. PMID:16697067

  4. Biomass and productivity of trematode parasites in pond ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Preston, Daniel L; Orlofske, Sarah A; Lambden, Jason P; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2013-05-01

    1. Ecologists often measure the biomass and productivity of organisms to understand the importance of populations and communities in the flow of energy through ecosystems. Despite the central role of such studies in the advancement of freshwater ecology, there has been little effort to incorporate parasites into studies of freshwater energy flow. This omission is particularly important considering the roles that parasites sometimes play in shaping community structure and ecosystem processes. 2. Using quantitative surveys and dissections of over 1600 aquatic invertebrate and amphibian hosts, we calculated the ecosystem-level biomass and productivity of trematode parasites alongside the biomass of free-living aquatic organisms in three freshwater ponds in California, USA. 3. Snails and amphibian larvae, which are both important intermediate trematode hosts, dominated the dry biomass of free-living organisms across ponds (snails = 3.2 g m(-2); amphibians = 3.1 g m(-2)). An average of 33.5% of mature snails were infected with one of six trematode taxa, amounting to a density of 13 infected snails m(-2) of pond substrate. Between 18% and 33% of the combined host and parasite biomass within each infected snail consisted of larval trematode tissue, which collectively accounted for 87% of the total trematode biomass within the three ponds. Mid-summer trematode dry biomass averaged 0.10 g m(-2), which was equal to or greater than that of the most abundant insect orders (coleoptera = 0.10 g m(-2), odonata = 0.08 g m(-2), hemiptera = 0.07 g m(-2) and ephemeroptera = 0.03 g m(-2)). 4. On average, each trematode taxon produced between 14 and 1660 free-swimming larvae (cercariae) infected snail(-1) 24 h(-1) in mid-summer. Given that infected snails release cercariae for 3-4 months a year, the pond trematode communities produced an average of 153 mg m(-2) yr(-1) of dry cercarial biomass (range = 70-220 mg m(-2) yr(-1)). 5. Our results suggest that a significant amount of energy

  5. Production of protein-rich fungal biomass in an airlift bioreactor using vinasse as substrate.

    PubMed

    Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Issarapayup, Kerati; Pavasant, Prasert; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The potential for large-scale production of an edible fungus, Rhizopus oligosporus, on a liquid residue from sugar-to-ethanol production, vinasse, was investigated. An airlift bioreactor (2.5-L working volume) was used for cultivating the fungus on 75% (v/v) vinasse with nutrient supplementation (nitrogen and phosphorus) at 37°C and pH 5.0. Aeration rates were varied from 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 to 2.0 volume(air)/volume(liquid)/min (vvm). The fungal biomass yield depended on the aeration rate, and the highest fungal biomass obtained was 8.04±0.80 (g(biomass increase)/g(initial biomass)) at 1.5vvm. The observed reductions in organic content by 80% (as soluble chemical oxygen demand) suggest the potential of recycling treated effluent as process water for in-plant use or for land applications. The fungal biomass contained ~50% crude protein and the essential amino acids contents were comparable to commercial protein sources for aquatic feeds (fishmeal and soybean meal), with the exception of methionine and phenylalanine. PMID:23434806

  6. Cyanobacteria cultivation in industrial wastewaters and biodiesel production from their biomass: a review.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Lavanya; Subramanian, Geetha; Nazeer, Thayiba Thanveer; Simpson, Hannah Shalini; Rahuman, Shifina T; Raju, Preetha

    2011-01-01

    As an alternative fuel biodiesel has become increasingly important due to diminishing petroleum reserves and adverse environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum-fueled engines. Recently, research interest has focused on the production of biofuel from microalgae. Cyanobacteria appeared to be suitable candidates for cultivation in wastes and wastewaters because they produce biomass in satisfactory quantity and can be harvested relatively easily due to their size and structure. In addition, their biomass composition can be manipulated by several environmental and operational factors to produce biomass with concrete characteristics. Herein, we review the culture of cyanobacteria in wastewaters and also the potential resources that can be transformed into biodiesel successfully for meeting the ever-increasing demand for biodiesel production. PMID:21838795

  7. Towards Predicting Basin-Wide Invertebrate Organic Biomass and Production in Marine Sediments from a Coastal Sea

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Brenda J.; Macdonald, Tara A.; van Roodselaar, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of environmental conditions is required to understand faunal production in coastal seas with topographic and hydrographic complexity. We test the hypothesis that organic biomass and production of subtidal sediment invertebrates throughout the Strait of Georgia, west coast of Canada, can be predicted by depth, substrate type and organic flux modified to reflect lability and age of material. A basin-wide database of biological, geochemical and flux data was analysed using an empirical production/biomass (P/B) model to test this hypothesis. This analysis is unique in the spatial extent and detail of P/B and concurrent environmental measurements over a temperate coastal region. Modified organic flux was the most important predictor of organic biomass and production. Depth and substrate type were secondary modifiers. Between 69–74% of variability in biomass and production could be explained by the combined environmental factors. Organisms <1 mm were important contributors to biomass and production primarily in shallow, sandy sediments, where high P/B values were found despite low organic flux. Low biomass, production, and P/B values were found in the deep, northern basin and mainland fjords, which had silty sediments, low organic flux, low biomass of organisms <1 mm, and dominance by large, slow-growing macrofauna. In the highest organic flux and biomass areas near the Fraser River discharge, production did not increase beyond moderate flux levels. Although highly productive, this area had low P/B. Clearly, food input is insufficient to explain the complex patterns in faunal production revealed here. Additional environmental factors (depth, substrate type and unmeasured factors) are important modifiers of these patterns. Potential reasons for the above patterns are explored, along with a discussion of unmeasured factors possibly responsible for unexplained (30%) variance in biomass and production. We now have the tools for basin-wide first

  8. Succinate production from CO2-grown microalgal biomass as carbon source using engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum through consolidated bioprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungseok; Sim, Sang Jun; Bott, Michael; Um, Youngsoon; Oh, Min-Kyu; Woo, Han Min

    2014-01-01

    The potential for production of chemicals from microalgal biomass has been considered as an alternative route for CO2 mitigation and establishment of biorefineries. This study presents the development of consolidated bioprocessing for succinate production from microalgal biomass using engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum. Starch-degrading and succinate-producing C. glutamicum strains produced succinate (0.16 g succinate/g total carbon source) from a mixture of starch and glucose as a model microalgal biomass. Subsequently, the engineered C. glutamicum strains were able to produce succinate (0.28 g succinate/g of total sugars including starch) from pretreated microalgal biomass of CO2-grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. For the first time, this work shows succinate production from CO2 via sequential fermentations of CO2-grown microalgae and engineered C. glutamicum. Therefore, consolidated bioprocessing based on microalgal biomass could be useful to promote variety of biorefineries. PMID:25056811

  9. Considerations for Sustainable Biomass Production in Quercus-Dominated Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckman, Viktor; Yan, Shuai; Hochbichler, Eduard

    2013-04-01

    Our current energy system is mainly based on carbon (C) intensive metabolisms, resulting in great effects on the earth's biosphere. The majority of the energy sources are fossil (crude oil, coal, natural gas) and release CO2 in the combustion (oxidation) process which takes place during utilization of the energy. C released to the atmosphere was once sequestered by biomass over a time span of millions of years and is now being released back into the atmosphere within a period of just decades. In the context of green and CO2 neutral Energy, there is an on-going debate regarding the potentials of obtaining biomass from forests on multiple scales, from stand to international levels. Especially in the context of energy, it is highlighted that biomass is an entirely CO2 neutral feedstock since the carbon stored in wood originates from the atmospheric CO2 pool and it was taken up during plant growth. It needs systems approaches in order to justify this statement and ensure sustainability covering the whole life-cycle from biomass production to (bio)energy consumption. There are a number of Quercus woodland management systems focussing solely on woody biomass production for energetic utilization or a combination with traditional forestry and high quality timber production for trades and industry. They have often developed regionally as a consequence of specific demands and local production capacities, which are mainly driven by environmental factors such as climate and soil properties. We assessed the nutritional status of a common Quercus-dominated forest ecosystem in northern Austria, where we compared biomass- with belowground C and nutrient pools in order to identify potential site limits if the management shifts towards systems with a higher level of nutrient extraction. Heterogeneity of soils, and soil processes are considered, as well as other, growth-limiting factors (e.g. precipitation) and species-specific metabolisms and element translocation.

  10. Sustainability of biofuels and renewable chemicals production from biomass.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    In the sectors of biofuel and renewable chemicals the big feedstock demand asks, first, to expand the spectrum of carbon sources beyond primary biomass, second, to establish circular processing chains and, third, to prioritize product sectors exclusively depending on carbon: chemicals and heavy-duty fuels. Large-volume production lines will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission significantly but also low-volume chemicals are indispensable in building 'low-carbon' industries. The foreseeable feedstock change initiates innovation, securing societal wealth in the industrialized world and creating employment in regions producing biomass. When raising the investments in rerouting to sustainable biofuel and chemicals today competitiveness with fossil-based fuel and chemicals is a strong issue. Many countries adopted comprehensive bioeconomy strategies to tackle this challenge. These public actions are mostly biased to biofuel but should give well-balanced attention to renewable chemicals as well. PMID:26256682

  11. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Meredith C; Doran-Peterson, Joy

    2012-08-01

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. PMID:22695801

  12. Linking geophysics and soil function modelling - biomass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, J.; Franko, U.; Werban, U.; Fank, J.

    2012-04-01

    The iSOIL project aims at reliable mapping of soil properties and soil functions with various methods including geophysical, spectroscopic and monitoring techniques. The general procedure contains three steps (i) geophysical monitoring, (ii) generation of soil property maps and (iii) process modelling. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the mentioned procedure with a focus on process modelling. It deals with the dynamics of soil water and the direct influence on crop biomass production. The new module PLUS extends CANDY to simulate crop biomass production based on environmental influences. A soil function modelling with an adapted model parameterisation based on data of ground penetration radar (GPR) and conductivity (EM38) was realized. This study shows an approach to handle heterogeneity of soil properties with geophysical data used for biomass production modelling. The Austrian field site Wagna is characterised by highly heterogenic soil with fluvioglacial gravel sediments. The variation of thickness of topsoil above a sandy subsoil with gravels strongly influences the soil water balance. EM38, mounted on a mobile platform, enables to rapidly scan large areas whereas GPR requires a greater logistical effort. However, GPR can detect exact soil horizon depth between topsoil and subsoil, the combination of both results in a detailed large scale soil map. The combined plot-specific GPR and field site EM38 measurements extends the soil input data and improves the model performance of CANDY PLUS for plant biomass production (Krüger et al. 2011). The example demonstrates how geophysics provides a surplus of data for agroecosystem modelling which identifies and contributes alternative options for agricultural management decisions. iSOIL - "Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping" is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission

  13. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  14. Characterization of Spirulina biomass for CELSS diet potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.

    1988-01-01

    Spirulina sp. as a bioregenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for space craft crew in a CELSS, was characterized for growth rate and biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The cell characteristics were identified for two strains of Spirulina: S. maxima and S. plantensis. Fast growth rate and high yield of both strains were obtained under the following conditions: temperature (30 to 35 C), light irradiance (60 to 100 uE/m/s), nitrate (30 mM), phosphate (2 mM), aeration (300 ml/min), and ph (9 to 10). The partitioning of the assimalatory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental growth conditions. The experiments with Spirulina demonstrated that under stress conditions (high light 120 uE/m/s, temperature 38 C, nitrogen or phosphate limitation; 0.1 M sodium chloride) carbohydrate increased at the expense of protein. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total proteins were increased up to almost 70 percent of the organic weight. Conclusion: The nutritional quality of the alga could be manipulated by growth conditions, and therefore usful as a subsystem in CELSS.

  15. Acid-Catalyzed Algal Biomass Pretreatment for Integrated Lipid and Carbohydrate-Based Biofuels Production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Nagle, N.; Davis, R.; Sweeney, N.; Van Wychen, S.; Lowell, A.; Pienkos, P. T.

    2014-11-12

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. We studied the effect of harvest timing on the conversion yields, using two algal strains; Chlorella and Scenedesmus, generating biomass with distinctive compositionalmore » ratios of protein, carbohydrate, and lipids. We found that the late harvest Scenedesmus biomass had the maximum theoretical biofuel potential at 143 gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) combined fuel yield per dry ton biomass, followed by late harvest Chlorella at 128 GGE per ton. Our experimental data show a clear difference between the two strains, as Scenedesmus was more successfully converted in this process with a demonstrated 97 GGE per ton. Our measurements indicated a release of >90% of the available glucose in the hydrolysate liquors and an extraction and recovery of up to 97% of the fatty acids from wet biomass. Techno-economic analysis for the combined product yields indicates that this process exhibits the potential to improve per-gallon fuel costs by up to 33% compared to a lipids-only process for one strain, Scenedesmus, grown to the mid-point harvest condition.« less

  16. Biomass production and nitrogen dynamics in an integrated aquaculture/agriculture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. P.; Hall, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    A combined aquaculture/agriculture system that brings together the three major components of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) - biomass production, biomass processing, and waste recycling - was developed to evaluate ecological processes and hardware requirements necessary to assess the feasibility of and define design criteria for integration into the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Breadboard Project. The system consists of a 1 square meter plant growth area, a 500 liter fish culture tank, and computerized monitoring and control hardware. Nutrients in the hydrophonic solution were derived from fish metabolites and fish food leachate. In five months of continuous operation, 27.0 kg of lettuce tops, 39.9 kg of roots and biofilm, and 6.6 kg of fish (wet weights) were produced with 12.7 kg of fish food input. Based on dry weights, a biomass conversion index of 0.52 was achieved. A nitrogen budget was derived to determine partitioning of nitrogen within various compartments of the system. Accumulating nitrogen in the hypoponic solution indicated a need to enlarge the plant growth area, potentially increasing the biomass production and improving the biomass conversion index.

  17. Biomass energy production. 1975-April, 1980 (citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts Data Base). Report for 1975-Apr 80

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.W.

    1980-06-01

    These citations from the international literature describe the production and/or utilization of most forms of biomass as a source of energy, fuel, food, and chemical intermediates or feedstocks. Biomass conversion by incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or fermentation, as well as by catalytic, photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, and bio-electrochemical means are among the conversion processes considered. Discussions include biomass plantation and material productivity, transportation and equipment requirements, environmental effects, comparisons of means and efficiencies of utilization and conversion, assessments of limitations, and evaluations of economic potential. (Contains 210 abstracts)

  18. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  19. Kinetics study on biomass pyrolysis for fuel gas production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Yi; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Andries, J; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Spliethoff, H; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic knowledge is of great importance in achieving good control of the pyrolysis and gasification process and optimising system design. An overall kinetic pyrolysis scheme is therefore addressed here. The kinetic modelling incorporates the following basic steps: the degradation of the virgin biomass materials into primary products (tar, gas and semi-char), the decomposition of primary tar into secondary products and the continuous interaction between primary gas and char. The last step is disregarded completely by models in the literature. Analysis and comparison of predicted results from different kinetic schemes and experimental data on our fixed bed pyrolyser yielded very positive evidence to support our kinetic scheme. PMID:12861621

  20. Methods for producing and using densified biomass products containing pretreated biomass fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Bruce E.; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2015-05-26

    A process is provided comprising subjecting a quantity of plant biomass fibers to a pretreatment to cause at least a portion of lignin contained within each fiber to move to an outer surface of said fiber, wherein a quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers is produced; and densifying the quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers to produce one or more densified biomass particulates, wherein said biomass fibers are densified without using added binder.

  1. Biomass production efficiency controlled by management in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campioli, M.; Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Bilcke, J.; Ceschia, E.; Chapin, F. S., III; Ciais, P.; Fernández-Martínez, M.; Malhi, Y.; Obersteiner, M.; Olefeldt, D.; Papale, D.; Piao, S. L.; Peñuelas, J.; Sullivan, P. F.; Wang, X.; Zenone, T.; Janssens, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    Plants acquire carbon through photosynthesis to sustain biomass production, autotrophic respiration and production of non-structural compounds for multiple purposes. The fraction of photosynthetic production used for biomass production, the biomass production efficiency, is a key determinant of the conversion of solar energy to biomass. In forest ecosystems, biomass production efficiency was suggested to be related to site fertility. Here we present a database of biomass production efficiency from 131 sites compiled from individual studies using harvest, biometric, eddy covariance, or process-based model estimates of production. The database is global, but dominated by data from Europe and North America. We show that instead of site fertility, ecosystem management is the key factor that controls biomass production efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, in natural forests, grasslands, tundra, boreal peatlands and marshes, biomass production efficiency is independent of vegetation, environmental and climatic drivers. This similarity of biomass production efficiency across natural ecosystem types suggests that the ratio of biomass production to gross primary productivity is constant across natural ecosystems. We suggest that plant adaptation results in similar growth efficiency in high- and low-fertility natural systems, but that nutrient influxes under managed conditions favour a shift to carbon investment from the belowground flux of non-structural compounds to aboveground biomass.

  2. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xumeng; Matsumoto, Tracie; Keith, Lisa; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass and food wastes, such as taro, papaya, and sweet potato, are limited. In this study, these tropical biomass wastes were evaluated for biogas production by liquid AD (L-AD) and/or solid-state AD (SS-AD), depending on feedstock characteristics. When albizia leaves and chips were used as feedstocks, L-AD had greater methane yields (161 and 113 L kg(-1)VS, respectively) than SS-AD (156.8 and 59.6 L kg(-1)VS, respectively), while SS-AD achieved 5-fold higher volumetric methane productivity than L-AD. Mono-digestion and co-digestion of taro skin, taro flesh, papaya, and sweet potato achieved methane yields from 345 to 411 L kg(-1)VS, indicating the robustness of AD technology. PMID:25022835

  3. Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Quang A

    2013-10-01

    The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

  4. Phycoremediation coupled production of algal biomass, harvesting and anaerobic digestion: possibilities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Sanjeev Kumar; Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree; Vijay, Virendra Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Biogas produced from anaerobic digestion is a versatile and environment friendly fuel which traditionally utilizes cattle dung as the substrate. In the recent years, owing to its high content of biodegradable compounds, algal biomass has emerged as a potential feedstock for biogas production. Moreover, the ability of algae to treat wastewater and fix CO2 from waste gas streams makes it an environmental friendly and economically feasible feedstock. The present review focuses on the possibility of utilizing wastewater as the nutrient and waste gases as the CO2 source for algal biomass production and subsequent biogas generation. Studies describing the various harvesting methods of algal biomass as well as its anaerobic digestion have been compiled and discussed. Studies targeting the most recent advancements on biogas enrichment by algae have been discussed. Apart from highlighting the various advantages of utilizing algal biomass for biogas production, limitations of the process such as cell wall resistivity towards digestion and inhibitions caused due to ammonia toxicity and the possible strategies for overcoming the same have been reviewed. The studies compiled in the present review indicate that if the challenges posed in translating the lab scale studies on phycoremediation and biogas production to pilot scale are overcome, algal biogas could become the sustainable and economically feasible source of renewable energy. PMID:23827782

  5. Development of a Fluorescence-based Method for Monitoring Glucose Catabolism and its Potential use in a Biomass Hydrolysis Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Availability and low cost of lignocellulosic biomass has caused tremendous interest in the fermentation of lignocellulosic-derived sugars for the production of liquid fuels. The economic feasibility of lignocellulosic biofuels can be improved by evaluating the fermentation potential of different fee...

  6. Evaluation of Biomass Availability for Biogas Production at Regional Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzene, I.; Bodescu, F.

    2009-01-01

    Currently available data were used in an integrated deterministic modelling approach to assess the total biomass availability. The conceptual approach of combining the benefits of relational database and GIS modelling was tested in two eastern European countries - in Latvia and Romania, both located in different bio-geographical regions. The developed system has proven its efficiency in dealing with heterogeneity in different levels of complexity regarding environmental and ecological structures. The overall approach of assessing the biomass resources was first to estimate the quantity of material generated from municipal waste and agricultural practices in each of research areas. The quantity of material that could be recovered from these practices was then taken into account and the technical and environmental constraints associated with other site factors were evaluated. As a result, the particular areas with high, medium and low potential in each country were identified.

  7. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic potential of high β-glucosidase-producing Trichoderma from decaying biomass.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Benedict C

    2014-10-01

    Availability, cost, and efficiency of microbial enzymes for lignocellulose bioconversion are central to sustainable biomass ethanol technology. Fungi enriched from decaying biomass and surface soil mixture displayed an array of strong cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Strains SG2 and SG4 produced a promising array of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes including β-glucosidase, usually low in cultures of Trichoderma species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rRNA gene revealed that strains SG2 and SG4 are closely related to Trichoderma inhamatum, Trichoderma piluliferum, and Trichoderma aureoviride. Trichoderma sp. SG2 crude culture supernatant correspondingly displayed as much as 9.84 ± 1.12, 48.02 ± 2.53, and 30.10 ± 1.11 units mL(-1) of cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase in 30 min assay. Ten times dilution of culture supernatant of strain SG2 revealed that total activities were about 5.34, 8.45, and 2.05 orders of magnitude higher than observed in crude culture filtrate for cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase, respectively, indicating that more enzymes are present to contact with substrates in biomass saccharification. In parallel experiments, Trichoderma species SG2 and SG4 produced more β-glucosidase than the industrial strain Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30. Results indicate that strains SG2 and SG4 have potential for low cost in-house production of primary lignocellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes for production of biomass saccharides and biofuel in the field. PMID:25129039

  8. Microbial biodiesel production by direct methanolysis of oleaginous biomass.

    PubMed

    Thliveros, Panagiotis; Uçkun Kiran, Esra; Webb, Colin

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel is usually produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with methanol, catalyzed by strong acids or bases. This study introduces a novel biodiesel production method that features direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of the cellular biomass of oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4. NaOH was used as catalyst for transesterification reactions and the variables affecting the esterification level including catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent loading (methanol) and moisture content were investigated using the oleaginous yeast biomass. The most suitable pretreatment condition was found to be 4gL(-1) NaOH and 1:20 (w/v) dried biomass to methanol ratio for 10h at 50°C and under ambient pressure. Under these conditions, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was 97.7%. Therefore, the novel method of direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of R. toruloides is a much simpler, less tedious and time-consuming, process than the conventional processes with higher FAME (biodiesel) conversion yield. PMID:24556371

  9. Growth, yield and compositional characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke as it relates to biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M.D.; Chubey, B.B.; Dorrell, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has shown excellent potential as a carbohydrate-rich crop. Initial investigations determined inulin and tuber yields; however, when additional studies showed that good quality pulp remained after inulin extraction and high forage yields per hectare were obtainable, the scope of investigation was broadened to assess utilization of the total plant. Plant growth, yield and compositional characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke as they relate to biomass production will be reported.

  10. Biomass and pigments production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: Effects of photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Peng, Meng

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at enhancing the bacterial biomass and pigments production in together with pollution removal in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) wastewater treatment via using different photoperiods. Different light/dark cycles and light/dark cycle frequencies were examined. Results showed that PSB had the highest biomass production, COD removal and biomass yield, and light energy efficiency with light/dark cycle of 2h/1h. The corresponding biomass, COD removal and biomass yield reached 2068mg/L, 90.3%, and 0.38mg-biomass/mg-COD-removal, respectively. PSB showed higher biomass production and biomass yield with higher light/dark cycle frequency. Mechanism analysis showed within a light/dark cycle from 1h/2h to 2h/1h, the carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll production increased with an increase in light/dark cycle. Moreover, the pigment contents were much higher with lower frequency of 2-4 times/d. PMID:25958142