Science.gov

Sample records for biomedical research centre

  1. Biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Biomedical problems encountered by man in space which have been identified as a result of previous experience in simulated or actual spaceflight include cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone loss, muscle atrophy, red cell alterations, fluid and electrolyte loss, radiation effects, radiation protection, behavior, and performance. The investigations and the findings in each of these areas were reviewed. A description of how biomedical research is organized within NASA, how it is funded, and how it is being reoriented to meet the needs of future manned space missions is also provided.

  2. Building up careers in translational neuroscience and mental health research: Education and training in the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Rapado-Castro, Marta; Pazos, Ángel; Fañanás, Lourdes; Bernardo, Miquel; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Leza, Juan Carlos; Berrocoso, Esther; de Arriba, Jose; Roldán, Laura; Sanjuán, Julio; Pérez, Victor; Haro, Josep M; Palomo, Tomás; Valdizan, Elsa M; Micó, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2015-01-01

    The number of large collaborative research networks in mental health is increasing. Training programs are an essential part of them. We critically review the specific implementation of a research training program in a translational Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health in order to inform the strategic integration of basic research into clinical practice to have a positive impact in the mental health system and society. Description of training activities, specific educational programs developed by the research network, and challenges on its implementation are examined. The Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has focused on training through different activities which have led to the development of an interuniversity master's degree postgraduate program in mental health research, certified by the National Spanish Agency for Quality Evaluation and Accreditation. Consolidation of training programs within the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has considerably advanced the training of researchers to meet competency standards on research. The master's degree constitutes a unique opportunity to accomplish neuroscience and mental health research career-building within the official framework of university programs in Spain. PMID:25682021

  3. Getting our house in order: an audit of the registration and publication of clinical trials supported by the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and the Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, A C; Petit-Zeman, S; Goldacre, B; Heneghan, C J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To audit the proportion of clinical trials that had been publically registered and, of the completed trials, the proportion published. Setting 2 major research institutions supported by the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR). Primary and secondary outcome measures The proportion of trials reporting results within 12 months, 24 months and ‘ever’. Factors associated with non-publication were analysed using logistic regression. Inclusion criteria Phases 2–4 clinical trials identified from internal documents and publication lists. Results In total, 286 trials were identified. We could not find registration for 4 (1.4%) of these, all of which were completed and published. Of the trials with a registered completion date pre-January 2015, just over half (56%) were published, and half of these were published within 12 months (36/147, 25%). For some trials, information on the public registers was found to be out-of-date and/or inaccurate. No clinical trial characteristics were found to be significantly associated with non-publication. We have produced resources to facilitate similar audits elsewhere. Conclusions It was feasible to conduct an internal audit of registration and publication in 2 major research institutions. Performance was similar to, or better than, comparable cohorts of trials sampled from registries. The major resource input required was manually seeking information: if all registry entries were maintained, then almost the entire process of audit could be automated—and routinely updated—for all research centres and funders. PMID:26936902

  4. NASA's Biomedical Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The biomedical research program has been established to investigate the major physiological and psychological problems encountered by man when he undertakes spaceflight. The program seeks to obtain a better definition of each problem, an understanding of its underlying mechanism, and ultimately a means of prevention. In pursuing these goals the program also includes a major effort to develop the research tools and procedures it needs where these are not being developed elsewhere. After almost twenty years of manned spaceflight activities and after a much longer period of space related ground-based research, the program now recognizes two characteristics of spaceflight which are truly unique to space. These are weightlessness and one specific form of radiation. In its present stage of maturity much of the research focuses on mechanisms underlying the basic responses of man and animals to weightlessness. The program consists of nine elements. Eight of these are referable to specific physiological problems that have either been encountered in previous manned spaceflight or which are anticipated to occur as spaceflights last longer, traverse steeper orbital inclinations, or are otherwise different from previous missions. The ninth addresses problems that have neither arisen nor can be reasonably predicted but are suspected on the basis of theoretical models, ground-based animal research, or for other reasons. The program's current emphasis is directed toward the motion sickness problem because of its relevance to Space Shuttle operations. Increased awareness and understanding of the radiation hazard has resulted in more emphasis being placed on the biological effects of high energy, high mass number particulate radiation and upon radiation protection . Cardiovascular and musculoskeleta1 studies are pursued in recognition of the considerable fundamental knowledge that must be acquired in these areas before effective countermeasures to the effects of repetitive or long

  5. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In June 1996, NASA released a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) inviting proposals to establish a National Space Biomedical Research Institute (9-CAN-96-01). This CAN stated that: The Mission of the Institute will be to lead a National effort for accomplishing the integrated, critical path, biomedical research necessary to support the long term human presence, development, and exploration of space and to enhance life on Earth by applying the resultant advances in human knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space. The Institute will be the focal point of NASA sponsored space biomedical research. This statement has not been amended by NASA and remains the mission of the NSBRI.

  6. Biomedical research publications, 1982 - 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcik, C.; Pleasant, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    Cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, blood cell alterations, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, and general biomedical research are covered in a bibliography of 444 items.

  7. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) sponsors and performs fundamental and applied space biomedical research with the mission of leading a world-class, national effort in integrated, critical path space biomedical research that supports NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Strategic Plan. It focuses on the enabling of long-term human presence in, development of, and exploration of space. This will be accomplished by: designing, implementing, and validating effective countermeasures to address the biological and environmental impediments to long-term human space flight; defining the molecular, cellular, organ-level, integrated responses and mechanistic relationships that ultimately determine these impediments, where such activity fosters the development of novel countermeasures; establishing biomedical support technologies to maximize human performance in space, reduce biomedical hazards to an acceptable level, and deliver quality medical care; transferring and disseminating the biomedical advances in knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space to the benefit of mankind in space and on Earth, including the treatment of patients suffering from gravity- and radiation-related conditions on Earth; and ensuring open involvement of the scientific community, industry, and the public at large in the Institute's activities and fostering a robust collaboration with NASA, particularly through Johnson Space Center.

  8. Biomedical Polar Research Workshop Minutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This workshop was conducted to provide a background of NASA and National Science Foundation goals, an overview of previous and current biomedical research, and a discussion about areas of potential future joint activities. The objectives of the joint research were: (1) to develop an understanding of the physiological, psychological, and behavioral alterations and adaptations to extreme environments of the polar regions; (2) to ensure the health, well-being, and performance of humans in these environments; and (3) to promote the application of biomedical research to improve the quality of life in all environments.

  9. Biomedical research publications: 1980 - 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pleasant, L. G.; Limbach, L.

    1982-01-01

    Publications concerning the major physiological and psychological problems encountered by man when he undertakes space flight are listed. Nine research areas are included: cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, blood cell alterations, fluid and eletrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, and general biomedical research.

  10. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This report outlines the National Space Biomedical Research Institute's (NSBRI) activities during FY 2004, the Institute's seventh year. It is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC 9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Institute's lead institution, Baylor College of Medicine.

  11. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) activities during FY 2001, the fourth year of the NSBRI's programs. It is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC 9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Baylor College of Medicine (NSBRI).

  12. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This report outlines the activities of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) during FY 2003, the sixth year of the NSBRI's programs. It is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC 9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Institute's lead institution, Baylor College of Medicine.

  13. [Cluster analysis in biomedical researches].

    PubMed

    Akopov, A S; Moskovtsev, A A; Dolenko, S A; Savina, G D

    2013-01-01

    Cluster analysis is one of the most popular methods for the analysis of multi-parameter data. The cluster analysis reveals the internal structure of the data, group the separate observations on the degree of their similarity. The review provides a definition of the basic concepts of cluster analysis, and discusses the most popular clustering algorithms: k-means, hierarchical algorithms, Kohonen networks algorithms. Examples are the use of these algorithms in biomedical research. PMID:24640781

  14. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) during FY 1999, the second full year of existence of the NSBRI's research program, and is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Baylor College of Medicine (NSBRI). The report consists of progress reports on projects related to the effects of microgravity and space on physiology. The research is broken up in nine areas: (1) Bone loss, (2) Cardiovascular alterations, (3) human performance, (3) immunology, infection and hematology, (4) muscle alterations and atrophy,(5) Neurovestibular adaptation, radiation effects, (6) technology development, and (7) synergy projects.

  15. Educating about biomedical research ethics.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Bratislav; Stankovic, Mirjana

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the global and worsening problem of research misconduct as it relates to bio-medico-legal education. While research misconduct has serious legal implications, few adequate legal remedies exist to deal with it. With respect to teaching, research ethics education should be mandatory for biomedical students and physicians. Although teaching alone will not prevent misconduct, it promotes integrity, accountability, and responsibility in research. Policies and law enforcement should send a clear message that researchers should adhere to the highest standards of ethics in research. It is vital that researchers and physicians understand basic aspects of law and the legal system in order to develop understanding of the medico-legal issues not just in the legal context, but with a sound grounding in ethics, social and theoretical contexts so that they can practice good medicine. Routine and holistic research ethics education across the curriculum for medical students and resident physicians, and continuing medical education for practicing doctors, are probably the best ways to accomplish this goal. PMID:24752379

  16. Animals in biomedical space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    The use of experimental animals has been a major component of biomedical research progress. Using animals in space presents special problems, but also provides special opportunities. Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalian function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertebrate development. Following these preliminary animals experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  17. Publishing priorities of biomedical research funders

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand the publishing priorities, especially in relation to open access, of 10 UK biomedical research funders. Design Semistructured interviews. Setting 10 UK biomedical research funders. Participants 12 employees with responsibility for research management at 10 UK biomedical research funders; a purposive sample to represent a range of backgrounds and organisation types. Conclusions Publicly funded and large biomedical research funders are committed to open access publishing and are pleased with recent developments which have stimulated growth in this area. Smaller charitable funders are supportive of the aims of open access, but are concerned about the practical implications for their budgets and their funded researchers. Across the board, biomedical research funders are turning their attention to other priorities for sharing research outputs, including data, protocols and negative results. Further work is required to understand how smaller funders, including charitable funders, can support open access. PMID:24154520

  18. Cohort profile of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register: current status and recent enhancement of an Electronic Mental Health Record-derived data resource

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Gayan; Broadbent, Matthew; Callard, Felicity; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Downs, Johnny; Dutta, Rina; Fernandes, Andrea; Hayes, Richard D; Henderson, Max; Jackson, Richard; Jewell, Amelia; Kadra, Giouliana; Little, Ryan; Pritchard, Megan; Shetty, Hitesh; Tulloch, Alex; Stewart, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register and its Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) application were developed in 2008, generating a research repository of real-time, anonymised, structured and open-text data derived from the electronic health record system used by SLaM, a large mental healthcare provider in southeast London. In this paper, we update this register's descriptive data, and describe the substantial expansion and extension of the data resource since its original development. Participants Descriptive data were generated from the SLaM BRC Case Register on 31 December 2014. Currently, there are over 250 000 patient records accessed through CRIS. Findings to date Since 2008, the most significant developments in the SLaM BRC Case Register have been the introduction of natural language processing to extract structured data from open-text fields, linkages to external sources of data, and the addition of a parallel relational database (Structured Query Language) output. Natural language processing applications to date have brought in new and hitherto inaccessible data on cognitive function, education, social care receipt, smoking, diagnostic statements and pharmacotherapy. In addition, through external data linkages, large volumes of supplementary information have been accessed on mortality, hospital attendances and cancer registrations. Future plans Coupled with robust data security and governance structures, electronic health records provide potentially transformative information on mental disorders and outcomes in routine clinical care. The SLaM BRC Case Register continues to grow as a database, with approximately 20 000 new cases added each year, in addition to extension of follow-up for existing cases. Data linkages and natural language processing present important opportunities to enhance this type of research resource further, achieving both volume

  19. Status of marine biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, O

    1976-01-01

    A meeting on Marine Biomedical Research, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health and the Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, was attended by approximately 125 scientists, directors and representatives from many of the country's marine biological laboratories, and government agencies whose interests and responsibilites are in the marine biology and health areas. The purpose of the meeting was to explore the undeveloped research opportunities in the area of marine biology for the advancement of our understanding of human health problems and to provide information on the current status of marine biology laboratories. The meeting was devoted to presentations and discussions in four general areas: (1)Marine Species as Models for Human Disease; (2)Environmental Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis; (3)Human Health and the Marine Environment--infectious agents and naturally occurring and foreign toxins; and (4)Drugs from the seas. Representatives from twelve of the country's approximatley 40 marine laboratories discussed their organization, developmental history, scientific programs, facilities, and present status of their support. The presentations served as a background and stimulated very lively analytical and constructive discussions of the undeveloped research and education potential residing in the marine environment and biological laboratories for a better understanding of many human health problems; some scientific areas that should be developed to realize this potential; and the needs and problems of marine laboratories that require attention and support if they are to survive and realize their possibilities. PMID:944630

  20. Ceramide synthases in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Cingolani, Francesca; Futerman, Anthony H; Casas, Josefina

    2016-05-01

    Sphingolipid metabolism consists of multiple metabolic pathways that converge upon ceramide, one of the key molecules among sphingolipids (SLs). In mammals, ceramide synthesis occurs via N-acylation of sphingoid backbones, dihydrosphingosine (dhSo) or sphingosine (So). The reaction is catalyzed by ceramide synthases (CerS), a family of enzymes with six different isoforms, with each one showing specificity towards a restricted group of acyl-CoAs, thus producing ceramides (Cer) and dihydroceramides (dhCer) with different fatty acid chain lengths. A large body of evidence documents the role of both So and dhSo as bioactive molecules, as well as the involvement of dhCer and Cer in physiological and pathological processes. In particular, the fatty acid composition of Cer has different effects in cell biology and in the onset and progression of different diseases. Therefore, modulation of CerS activity represents an attractive target in biomedical research and in finding new treatment modalities. In this review, we discuss functional, structural and biochemical features of CerS and examine CerS inhibitors that are currently available. PMID:26248326

  1. The growth of biomedical terahertz research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shuting; He, Yuezhi; Ung, Benjamin S.; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Interest in biomedical terahertz research is growing rapidly and there are now several terahertz groups in Asia, Europe and the US investigating potential applications such as pharmaceutical quality control, protein characterization and cancer detection. This review article outlines the technological bottlenecks that have been overcome which have made biomedical terahertz research possible. Key research findings will be presented, and the limitations that remain and the research initiatives that strive to address them will also be discussed.

  2. Is biomedical research a good investment?

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Norman R.

    2014-01-01

    As the US addresses its budget dilemma, the easiest items to cut are those with the longest-term payoff. Research stands out among this group. Biomedical research has already been markedly reduced, and further reductions appear to be in store. As a frequent witness in Congressional hearings on such matters, here I discuss the challenge of assessing the value of investments in biomedical research. PMID:25438057

  3. NIH/NSF accelerate biomedical research innovations

    Cancer.gov

    A collaboration between the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health will give NIH-funded researchers training to help them evaluate their scientific discoveries for commercial potential, with the aim of accelerating biomedical in

  4. The Obligation to Participate in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, G. Owen; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Wertheimer, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The prevailing view is that participation in biomedical research is above and beyond the call of duty. While some commentators have offered reasons against this, we propose a novel public goods argument for an obligation to participate in biomedical research. Biomedical knowledge is a public good, available to any individual even if that individual does not contribute to it. Participation in research is a critical way to support that important public good. Consequently, we all have a duty to participate. The current social norm is that people participate only if they have a good reason to do so. The public goods argument implies that people should participate unless they have a good reason not to. Such a shift would be of great aid to the progress of biomedical research, eventually making our society significantly healthier and longer-lived. PMID:19567441

  5. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NSBRI partners with NASA to develop countermeasures against the deleterious effects of long duration space flight. NSBRI's science and technology projects are directed toward this goal, which is accomplished by: 1. Designing, testing and validating effective countermeasures to address the biological and environmental impediments to long-term human space flight. 2. Defining the molecular, cellular, organ-level, integrated responses and mechanistic relationships that ultimately determine these impediments, where such activity fosters the development of novel countermeasures. 3. Establishing biomedical support technologies to maximize human performance in space, reduce biomedical hazards to an acceptable level and deliver quality medical care. 4. Transferring and disseminating the biomedical advances in knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space to the general benefit of humankind; including the treatment of patients suffering from gravity- and radiation-related conditions on Earth. and 5. ensuring open involvement of the scientific community,industry and the public in the Institute's activities and fostering a robust collaboration with NASA, particularly through JSC.

  6. Unique Ownership Issues in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Allen B.

    1988-01-01

    The application of the principles of property law to the results of the research are examined, specifically as applied to the use of human tissue in biomedical research. It concludes that lawful access of research material provides sufficient dominion to preclude any asserted claim by the source of research material. (Author/MLW)

  7. Simbody: multibody dynamics for biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Michael A.; Seth, Ajay; Delp, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Multibody software designed for mechanical engineering has been successfully employed in biomedical research for many years. For real time operation some biomedical researchers have also adapted game physics engines. However, these tools were built for other purposes and do not fully address the needs of biomedical researchers using them to analyze the dynamics of biological structures and make clinically meaningful recommendations. We are addressing this problem through the development of an open source, extensible, high performance toolkit including a multibody mechanics library aimed at the needs of biomedical researchers. The resulting code, Simbody, supports research in a variety of fields including neuromuscular, prosthetic, and biomolecular simulation, and related research such as biologically-inspired design and control of humanoid robots and avatars. Simbody is the dynamics engine behind OpenSim, a widely used biomechanics simulation application. This article reviews issues that arise uniquely in biomedical research, and reports on the architecture, theory, and computational methods Simbody uses to address them. By addressing these needs explicitly Simbody provides a better match to the needs of researchers than can be obtained by adaptation of mechanical engineering or gaming codes. Simbody is a community resource, free for any purpose. We encourage wide adoption and invite contributions to the code base at https://simtk.org/home/simbody. PMID:25866705

  8. Communication Patterns in a Biomedical Research Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorry, G. Anthony; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Studies of the communication patterns among scientists in a biomedical research center should help in the assessment of the center's impact on research processes. Such a study at the National Heart and Blood Vessel Research and Demonstration Center (NRDC) at Baylor College of Medicine is reported. (LBH)

  9. Capturing the Value of Biomedical Research.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Stefano; Jamaleddine, Zeina

    2016-03-24

    Assessing the real-world impact of biomedical research is notoriously difficult. Here, we present the framework for building a prospective science-centered information system from scratch that has been afforded by the Sidra Medical and Research Center in Qatar. This experiment is part of the global conversation on maximizing returns on research investment. PMID:27015300

  10. Understanding Metabolomics in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jung; Kim, Su Hee; Kim, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Shin

    2016-01-01

    The term "omics" refers to any type of specific study that provides collective information on a biological system. Representative omics includes genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, and new omics is constantly being added, such as lipidomics or glycomics. Each omics technique is crucial to the understanding of various biological systems and complements the information provided by the other approaches. The main strengths of metabolomics are that metabolites are closely related to the phenotypes of living organisms and provide information on biochemical activities by reflecting the substrates and products of cellular metabolism. The transcriptome does not always correlate with the proteome, and the translated proteome might not be functionally active. Therefore, their changes do not always result in phenotypic alterations. Unlike the genome or proteome, the metabolome is often called the molecular phenotype of living organisms and is easily translated into biological conditions and disease states. Here, we review the general strategies of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Targeted metabolome or lipidome analysis is discussed, as well as nontargeted approaches, with a brief explanation of the advantages and disadvantages of each platform. Biomedical applications that use mass spectrometry-based metabolomics are briefly introduced. PMID:26676338

  11. [Electronic health records and biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Daniel, Christel; Jais, Jean-Philippe; El Fadly, Naji; Landais, Paul

    2009-10-01

    The rapid progress in Web technology has led to the multiplication of health and research records for any given patient. Initiatives such as the personal medical record or the communicating cancer communicable records have recently been introduced. However, their primary aim is not for biomedical research. Several international groups of researchers are analyzing the appropriate role of the electronic health record as a support to biomedical research. The need to complete several distinct records for a given patient is a limiting factor, in view of the lack of medical and paramedical resources and the rising quality demands for both medical care and biomedical research. The impediments to "secondary reuse" of clinical data stored in electronic health records for biomedical research purposes are statutory, organizational, and technical. The international Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative has proposed a promising approach that uses an integration profile known as a Retrieve Form for Data Capture (RFD). A joint project by the North American Association of Cancer Registries and the Centers for Disease Control has made possible the automated transmission of pathology reports to the registries and thus limited the need for registry technicians to come copy these forms at the hospital. PMID:19766440

  12. National Space Biomedical Research Institute Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) during FY 2000. The NSBRI is responsible for the development of countermeasures against the deleterious effects of long-duration space flight and performs fundamental and applied space biomedical research directed towards this specific goal. Its mission is to lead a world-class, national effort in integrated, critical path space biomedical research that supports NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Strategic Plan by focusing on the enabling of long-term human presence in, development of, and exploration of space. This is accomplished by: designing, testing and validating effective countermeasures to address the biological and environmental impediments to long-term human space flight; defining the molecular, cellular, organ-level, integrated responses and mechanistic relationships that ultimately determine these impediments, where such activity fosters the development of novel countermeasures; establishing biomedical support technologies to maximize human performance in space, reduce biomedical hazards to an acceptable level, and deliver quality medical care; transferring and disseminating the biomedical advances in knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space to the general benefit of mankind, including the treatment of patients suffering from gravity- and radiation-related conditions on Earth; and ensuring open involvement of the scientific community, industry and the public at large in the Institute's activities and fostering a robust collaboration with NASA, particularly through NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Attachment:Appendices (A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,O, and P.).

  13. An appraisal of future space biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    Three general classes of manned space flight missions of the future are described. These include: earth-orbital, lunar, and planetary. Biomedical science and technology is analyzed emphasizing areas of research needed to support future manned space flights and the information to be obtained from them.

  14. Opening up Academic Biomedical Research

    NASA Video Gallery

    Eva Guinan, MD, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Associate Direction, Center for Clinical and Translational Research at Harvard Medical School, was featured during the September 7, 2011 Innovatio...

  15. Building interdisciplinary biomedical research using novel collaboratives.

    PubMed

    Ravid, Katya; Faux, Russell; Corkey, Barbara; Coleman, David

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally, biomedical research has been carried out mainly within departmental boundaries. However, successful biomedical research increasingly relies on development of methods and concepts crossing these boundaries, requiring expertise in different disciplines. Recently, major research institutes have begun experimenting with ways to foster an interdisciplinary ethos. The Evans Center for Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research ("the Evans Center") at Boston University is a new organizational paradigm to address this challenge. The Evans Center is built around interdisciplinary research groups termed affinity research collaboratives (ARCs). Each ARC consists of investigators from several academic departments and at least two research disciplines, bound by a common goal to investigate biomedical problems concerning human disease. Novel aspects of the Evans Center include a "bottom-up" approach to identifying areas of ARC research (research vision and strategy are typically initiated by a core group of faculty with input from the center director); a pre-ARC period of faculty affiliation/project(s)' self-selection prior to formation of a peer-reviewed ARC; and Evans Center support for innovative ARCs for up to three years pending yearly metric evaluation, followed by continued administrative support as a group matures into an ARC program.Since its inception in early 2009, the Evans Center has documented achievements at discovery/publication, grant award, and educational levels. Enhanced interactions between members of individual ARCs, as assessed by quantitative networking analysis, are discussed in the context of high productivity. As universities seek new approaches to stimulate interdisciplinary research, the Evans Center and its ARCs are offered as a productive model for leveraging discovery. PMID:23269301

  16. The Press Research Centre, 1956-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press Research Centre, Krakow (Poland).

    In 1956, the Press Research Centre was established in Cracow, Poland by a group of journalists and publishers, for the purpose of instituting press research that would have practical applications. The aims of the Centre were to conduct studies on the history of the Polish press, the contemporary press, press readership, and editorial techniques.…

  17. Environmental practices for biomedical research facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Medlin, E L; Grupenhoff, J T

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment, the Facilities Committee focused its work on the development of best environmental practices at biomedical research facilities at the university and independent research facility level as well as consideration of potential involvement of for-profit companies and government agencies. The designation "facilities" includes all related buildings and grounds, "green auditing" of buildings and programs, purchasing of furnishings and sources, energy efficiency, and engineering services (lighting, heating, air conditioning), among other activities. The committee made a number of recommendations, including development of a national council for environmental stewardship in biomedical research, development of a system of green auditing of such research facilities, and creation of programs for sustainable building and use. In addition, the committee recommended extension of education and training programs for environmental stewardship, in cooperation with facilities managers, for all research administrators and researchers. These programs would focus especially on graduate fellows and other students, as well as on science labs at levels K--12. PMID:11121360

  18. Computational Approaches for Predicting Biomedical Research Collaborations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research is increasingly collaborative, and successful collaborations often produce high impact work. Computational approaches can be developed for automatically predicting biomedical research collaborations. Previous works of collaboration prediction mainly explored the topological structures of research collaboration networks, leaving out rich semantic information from the publications themselves. In this paper, we propose supervised machine learning approaches to predict research collaborations in the biomedical field. We explored both the semantic features extracted from author research interest profile and the author network topological features. We found that the most informative semantic features for author collaborations are related to research interest, including similarity of out-citing citations, similarity of abstracts. Of the four supervised machine learning models (naïve Bayes, naïve Bayes multinomial, SVMs, and logistic regression), the best performing model is logistic regression with an ROC ranging from 0.766 to 0.980 on different datasets. To our knowledge we are the first to study in depth how research interest and productivities can be used for collaboration prediction. Our approach is computationally efficient, scalable and yet simple to implement. The datasets of this study are available at https://github.com/qingzhanggithub/medline-collaboration-datasets. PMID:25375164

  19. Fruit flies in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Wangler, Michael F; Yamamoto, Shinya; Bellen, Hugo J

    2015-03-01

    Many scientists complain that the current funding situation is dire. Indeed, there has been an overall decline in support in funding for research from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation. Within the Drosophila field, some of us question how long this funding crunch will last as it demotivates principal investigators and perhaps more importantly affects the long-term career choice of many young scientists. Yet numerous very interesting biological processes and avenues remain to be investigated in Drosophila, and probing questions can be answered fast and efficiently in flies to reveal new biological phenomena. Moreover, Drosophila is an excellent model organism for studies that have translational impact for genetic disease and for other medical implications such as vector-borne illnesses. We would like to promote a better collaboration between Drosophila geneticists/biologists and human geneticists/bioinformaticians/clinicians, as it would benefit both fields and significantly impact the research on human diseases. PMID:25624315

  20. Fruit Flies in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Wangler, Michael F.; Yamamoto, Shinya; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2015-01-01

    Many scientists complain that the current funding situation is dire. Indeed, there has been an overall decline in support in funding for research from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation. Within the Drosophila field, some of us question how long this funding crunch will last as it demotivates principal investigators and perhaps more importantly affects the long-term career choice of many young scientists. Yet numerous very interesting biological processes and avenues remain to be investigated in Drosophila, and probing questions can be answered fast and efficiently in flies to reveal new biological phenomena. Moreover, Drosophila is an excellent model organism for studies that have translational impact for genetic disease and for other medical implications such as vector-borne illnesses. We would like to promote a better collaboration between Drosophila geneticists/biologists and human geneticists/bioinformaticians/clinicians, as it would benefit both fields and significantly impact the research on human diseases. PMID:25624315

  1. [Biomimetic sensors in biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Gayet, Landry; Lenormand, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The recent research on both the synthesis of membrane proteins by cell-free systems and the reconstruction of planar lipid membranes, has led to the development of a cross-technology to produce biosensors or filters. Numerous biomimetic membranes are currently being standardized and used by the industry, such as filters containing aquaporin for water desalination, or used in routine at the laboratory scale, for example the bacteriorhodopsin as a light sensor. In the medical area, several fields of application of these biomimetic membranes are under consideration today, particularly for the screening of therapeutic molecules and for the developing of new tools in diagnosis, patient monitoring and personalized medicine. PMID:26152170

  2. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  3. Biomedical research in a Digital Health Framework.

    PubMed

    Cano, Isaac; Lluch-Ariet, Magí; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Maier, Dieter; Kalko, Susana; Cascante, Marta; Tegnér, Jesper; Miralles, Felip; Herrera, Diego; Roca, Josep

    2014-11-28

    This article describes a Digital Health Framework (DHF), benefitting from the lessons learnt during the three-year life span of the FP7 Synergy-COPD project. The DHF aims to embrace the emerging requirements--data and tools--of applying systems medicine into healthcare with a three-tier strategy articulating formal healthcare, informal care and biomedical research. Accordingly, it has been constructed based on three key building blocks, namely, novel integrated care services with the support of information and communication technologies, a personal health folder (PHF) and a biomedical research environment (DHF-research). Details on the functional requirements and necessary components of the DHF-research are extensively presented. Finally, the specifics of the building blocks strategy for deployment of the DHF, as well as the steps toward adoption are analyzed. The proposed architectural solutions and implementation steps constitute a pivotal strategy to foster and enable 4P medicine (Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory) in practice and should provide a head start to any community and institution currently considering to implement a biomedical research platform. PMID:25472554

  4. Biomedical research in a Digital Health Framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a Digital Health Framework (DHF), benefitting from the lessons learnt during the three-year life span of the FP7 Synergy-COPD project. The DHF aims to embrace the emerging requirements - data and tools - of applying systems medicine into healthcare with a three-tier strategy articulating formal healthcare, informal care and biomedical research. Accordingly, it has been constructed based on three key building blocks, namely, novel integrated care services with the support of information and communication technologies, a personal health folder (PHF) and a biomedical research environment (DHF-research). Details on the functional requirements and necessary components of the DHF-research are extensively presented. Finally, the specifics of the building blocks strategy for deployment of the DHF, as well as the steps toward adoption are analyzed. The proposed architectural solutions and implementation steps constitute a pivotal strategy to foster and enable 4P medicine (Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory) in practice and should provide a head start to any community and institution currently considering to implement a biomedical research platform. PMID:25472554

  5. Data literacy training needs of biomedical researchers

    PubMed Central

    Federer, Lisa M.; Lu, Ya-Ling; Joubert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The research investigated topic priorities for data literacy training for biomedical researchers and staff. Methods An electronic survey was used to assess researchers' level of knowledge related to data literacy skills and the relevance of these skills to their work. Results Most respondents did not have any formal training in data literacy. Respondents considered most tasks highly relevant to their work but rated their expertise in tasks lower. Conclusion Among this group, researchers have diverse data literacy training needs. Librarians' expertise makes them well suited to provide such training. PMID:26807053

  6. [Open access :an opportunity for biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Duchange, Nathalie; Autard, Delphine; Pinhas, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Open access within the scientific community depends on the scientific context and the practices of the field. In the biomedical domain, the communication of research results is characterised by the importance of the peer reviewing process, the existence of a hierarchy among journals and the transfer of copyright to the editor. Biomedical publishing has become a lucrative market and the growth of electronic journals has not helped lower the costs. Indeed, it is difficult for today's public institutions to gain access to all the scientific literature. Open access is thus imperative, as demonstrated through the positions taken by a growing number of research funding bodies, the development of open access journals and efforts made in promoting open archives. This article describes the setting up of an Inserm portal for publication in the context of the French national protocol for open-access self-archiving and in an international context. PMID:18789227

  7. Leveraging the national cyberinfrastructure for biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    LeDuc, Richard; Vaughn, Matthew; Fonner, John M; Sullivan, Michael; Williams, James G; Blood, Philip D; Taylor, James; Barnett, William

    2014-01-01

    In the USA, the national cyberinfrastructure refers to a system of research supercomputer and other IT facilities and the high speed networks that connect them. These resources have been heavily leveraged by scientists in disciplines such as high energy physics, astronomy, and climatology, but until recently they have been little used by biomedical researchers. We suggest that many of the ‘Big Data’ challenges facing the medical informatics community can be efficiently handled using national-scale cyberinfrastructure. Resources such as the Extreme Science and Discovery Environment, the Open Science Grid, and Internet2 provide economical and proven infrastructures for Big Data challenges, but these resources can be difficult to approach. Specialized web portals, support centers, and virtual organizations can be constructed on these resources to meet defined computational challenges, specifically for genomics. We provide examples of how this has been done in basic biology as an illustration for the biomedical informatics community. PMID:23964072

  8. Community outreach at biomedical research facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, M; Hedetniemi, J N; Herbert, E R; Sassaman, J S; Walker, B C

    2000-01-01

    For biomedical researchers to fulfill their responsibility for protecting the environment, they must do more than meet the scientific challenge of reducing the number and volume of hazardous materials used in their laboratories and the engineering challenge of reducing pollution and shifting to cleaner energy sources. They must also meet the public relations challenge of informing and involving their neighbors in these efforts. The experience of the Office of Community Liaison of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in meeting the latter challenge offers a model and several valuable lessons for other biomedical research facilities to follow. This paper is based on presentations by an expert panel during the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held 1--2 November 1999 at NIH, Bethesda, Maryland. The risks perceived by community members are often quite different from those identified by officials at the biomedical research facility. The best antidote for misconceptions is more and better information. If community organizations are to be informed participants in the decision-making process, they need a simple but robust mechanism for identifying and evaluating the environmental hazards in their community. Local government can and should be an active and fully informed partner in planning and emergency preparedness. In some cases this can reduce the regulatory burden on the biomedical research facility. In other cases it might simplify and expedite the permitting process or help the facility disseminate reliable information to the community. When a particular risk, real or perceived, is of special concern to the community, community members should be involved in the design, implementation, and evaluation of targeted risk assessment activities. Only by doing so will the community have confidence in the results of those activities. NIH has involved community members in joint efforts to deal with topics as varied as recycling and soil

  9. Profiling 'centres of excellence' in CAM research.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, C

    2002-03-01

    Several 'centres of excellence' of research in complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) have emerged in recent years. This study represents an attempt to profile the most productive of these centres. Medline searches (1995-2001) were performed with a long list of individuals directing CAM research groups as key words. Eight of them (all male) had published in excess of 20 Medline-listed articles between 1995-2001, and this group was evaluated in further detail. Three originated from the US and two from the UK. Collectively this group had published 32 clinical trials, an equal number of surveys and 95 systematic reviews. The range of research subjects for most centres was narrow. It is concluded that several active CAM research centres are well established. Their output is variable and, in most cases, leave room for improvement. Probably because of funding difficulties, clinical trials remain rare. PMID:12442823

  10. NASA Johnson Space Center Biomedical Research Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.

    1999-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) medical sciences laboratories constitute a national resource for support of medical operations and life sciences research enabling a human presence in space. They play a critical role in evaluating, defining, and mitigation the untoward effect of human adaption to space flight. Over the years they have developed the unique facilities and expertise required to perform: biomedical sample analysis and physiological performance tests supporting medical evaluations of space flight crew members and scientific investigations of the operationally relevant medical, physiological, cellular, and biochemical issues associated with human space flight. A general overview of these laboratories is presented in viewgraph form.

  11. Racial disparities in participation in biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Kressin, N. R.; Meterko, M.; Wilson, N. J.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether minority patients were less likely to participate in biomedical research, perceive positive benefits from such participation, or to recommend research participation to other patients, an observational study was conducted. Sociodemographic and survey data were collected from 5436 users of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Ambulatory Care, which included questions about veterans' research participation and related attitudes. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine if there were racial differences in the outcomes of interest, controlling for relevant sociodemographic factors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that there were no racial differences in self-reported research participation, but minority veterans were more likely to perceive a positive effect of research and less likely to recommend research to other veterans. However, subgroup analyses indicated that, of those veterans having negative attitudes about research, minority and less educated veterans were disproportionately represented. In the VA system, racial differences in research participation may dissipate because many sociodemographic factors are controlled. Although we did not observe consistent racial differences in research participation or attitudes, the fact that minority veterans were disproportionately represented among the group with the most negative attitudes about research suggests that further research is necessary to fully understand the racial dynamics of research participation in the VA. PMID:10800293

  12. Biomedical Research Division significant accomplishments for FY 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martello, N. V.

    1984-01-01

    Various research and technology activities of Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division are described. Contributions to the Space Administration's goals in the life sciences include research in operational medicine, cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, human behavior and performance, general biomedical research, and gravitational biology.

  13. Accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedical research

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-10-20

    Biological effects occur in natural systems at chemical concentrations of parts per billion (1:10{sup 9}) or less. Affected biomolecules may be separable in only milligram or microgram quantities. Quantification at attomole sensitivity is needed to study these interactions. AMS measures isotope concentrations to parts per 10{sup 13--15} on milligram-sized samples and is ideal for quantifying long-lived radioisotopic labels that are commonly used to trace biochemical pathways in natural systems. {sup 14}C-AMS has now been coupled to a variety of organic separation and definition technologies. The primary research investigates pharmacokinetics and genotoxicities of toxins and drugs at very low doses. Human subject research using AMS includes nutrition, toxicity and elemental balance studies. {sup 3} H, {sup 41}Ca and {sup 26}Al are also traced by AMS for fundamental biochemical kinetic research. Expansion of biomedical AMS awaits further development of biochemical and accelerator technologies designed specifically for these applications.

  14. Accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. S.; Turteltaub, K. W.

    1994-06-01

    Biological effects occur in natural systems at chemical concentrations of parts per billion (1:10 9) or less. Affected biomolecules may be separable in only milligram or microgram quantities. Quantification at attomole sensitivity is needed to study these interactions. AMS measures isotope concentrations to parts per 10 13-15 on milligram-sized samples and is ideal for quantifying long-lived radioisotopic labels for tracing biochemical pathways in natural systems. 14C-AMS has now been coupled to a variety of organic separation and definition technologies. Our primary research investigates pharmacokinetics and genotoxicities of toxins and drugs at very low doses. Human subjects research using AMS includes nutrition, toxicity and elemental balance studies. 3H, 41Ca and 26Al are also traced by AMS for fundamental biochemical kinetic research. Expansion of biomedical AMS awaits further development of biochemical and accelerator technologies designed specifically for these applications.

  15. Management of mixed wastes from biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Linins, I; Klein, R C; Gershey, E L

    1991-09-01

    Mixed radioactive and chemical wastes generated by biomedical research were characterized, and various treatment methods for reducing their volume were evaluated. These wastes consist primarily of organic solvents used in the extraction and purification of radiolabeled biomolecules that are contaminated with low levels of the long-lived radionuclides, 3H and 14C. The Rockefeller University's mixed wastes fall into three broad chemical categories: phenol/chloroform, acetonitrile/water, and mixtures of miscellaneous solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, benzene, and other hazardous chemicals. Currently, with the exception of liquid scintillation cocktails (deregulated in 1981), there are no commercial disposal outlets for mixed wastes nor may they be stored legally for more than 90-180 d. Most of these mixed wastes can be effectively rendered into nonradioactive chemical and aqueous radioactive waste, both of which can be disposed of in accordance with existing regulations. However, to do so requires a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit for licensure as a treatment, storage, and disposal facility. For many university research facilities, this may require financial and personnel resources disproportionate to the small amounts of waste produced. Also, such treatment, if not done properly, presents potential occupational hazards from the direct handling of waste materials. Deregulation of certain mixed wastes would be the safest, most cost-effective, and practical method for dealing with many mixed wastes of biomedical origin. In any event, a national regulatory solution must be found. PMID:1880030

  16. Management of mixed wastes from biomedical research

    SciTech Connect

    Linins, I.; Klein, R.C.; Gershey, E.L. )

    1991-09-01

    Mixed radioactive and chemical wastes generated by biomedical research were characterized, and various treatment methods for reducing their volume were evaluated. These wastes consist primarily of organic solvents used in the extraction and purification of radiolabeled biomolecules that are contaminated with low levels of the long-lived radionuclides, 3H and 14C. The Rockefeller University's mixed wastes fall into three broad chemical categories: phenol/chloroform, acetonitrile/water, and mixtures of miscellaneous solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, benzene, and other hazardous chemicals. Currently, with the exception of liquid scintillation cocktails (deregulated in 1981), there are no commercial disposal outlets for mixed wastes nor may they be stored legally for more than 90-180 d. Most of these mixed wastes can be effectively rendered into nonradioactive chemical and aqueous radioactive waste, both of which can be disposed of in accordance with existing regulations. However, to do so requires a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit for licensure as a treatment, storage, and disposal facility. For many university research facilities, this may require financial and personnel resources disproportionate to the small amounts of waste produced. Also, such treatment, if not done properly, presents potential occupational hazards from the direct handling of waste materials. Deregulation of certain mixed wastes would be the safest, most cost-effective, and practical method for dealing with many mixed wastes of biomedical origin. In any event, a national regulatory solution must be found.

  17. Youth Research Centre Annual Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melbourne Univ. (Australia). Youth Research Centre.

    This report details the activities of the Youth Research Centre (YRC) at the University of Melbourne in 2002 in research project work involving a balance between the completion of projects, the development of new areas, and the continuation of longer-term projects as well as the supervision and teaching of a range of postgraduate health and…

  18. Nanomaterials driven energy, environmental and biomedical research

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Prakash C.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wilson, Jeremiah F.

    2014-03-31

    We have developed state-of-the-art nanomaterials such as nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanocatalysts and nanostructures for clean energy, environmental and biomedical research. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. Based on this principle, chemical energy such as hydrogen has been produced from water electrolysis at a much lower voltage using RuO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the Si wafer substrate. Once the hydrogen is produced from the clean sources such as solar energy and water, it has to be stored by physisorption or chemisorption processes on to the solid state systems. For the successful physical adsorption of hydrogen molecule, we have developed novel polyaniline nanostructures via chemical templating and electrospinning routes. Chemical or complex hydrides involving nano MgH{sub 2} and transition metal nanocatalysts have been synthesized to tailor both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen (chemi) sorption respectively. Utilization of solar energy (UV-Vis) and a coupling of novel semiconductor oxide nanoparticles have been recently demonstrated with enhancement in photo-oxidation and/or photo-reduction processes for the water/air detoxification and sustainable liquid fuel production respectively. Magnetic nanoparticles such as ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been synthesized and optimized for biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery and tumor diagnostic sensing (MRI)

  19. Commercializing biomedical research through securitization techniques.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Jose-Maria; Stein, Roger M; Lo, Andrew W

    2012-10-01

    Biomedical innovation has become riskier, more expensive and more difficult to finance with traditional sources such as private and public equity. Here we propose a financial structure in which a large number of biomedical programs at various stages of development are funded by a single entity to substantially reduce the portfolio's risk. The portfolio entity can finance its activities by issuing debt, a critical advantage because a much larger pool of capital is available for investment in debt versus equity. By employing financial engineering techniques such as securitization, it can raise even greater amounts of more-patient capital. In a simulation using historical data for new molecular entities in oncology from 1990 to 2011, we find that megafunds of $5–15 billion may yield average investment returns of 8.9–11.4% for equity holders and 5–8% for 'research-backed obligation' holders, which are lower than typical venture-capital hurdle rates but attractive to pension funds, insurance companies and other large institutional investors. PMID:23023199

  20. Nanomaterials driven energy, environmental and biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prakash C.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wilson, Jeremiah F.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed state-of-the-art nanomaterials such as nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanocatalysts and nanostructures for clean energy, environmental and biomedical research. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. Based on this principle, chemical energy such as hydrogen has been produced from water electrolysis at a much lower voltage using RuO2 nanoparticles on the Si wafer substrate. Once the hydrogen is produced from the clean sources such as solar energy and water, it has to be stored by physisorption or chemisorption processes on to the solid state systems. For the successful physical adsorption of hydrogen molecule, we have developed novel polyaniline nanostructures via chemical templating and electrospinning routes. Chemical or complex hydrides involving nano MgH2 and transition metal nanocatalysts have been synthesized to tailor both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen (chemi) sorption respectively. Utilization of solar energy (UV-Vis) and a coupling of novel semiconductor oxide nanoparticles have been recently demonstrated with enhancement in photo-oxidation and/or photo-reduction processes for the water/air detoxification and sustainable liquid fuel production respectively. Magnetic nanoparticles such as ZnFe2O4 have been synthesized and optimized for biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery and tumor diagnostic sensing (MRI).

  1. Glyconanomaterials: Emerging applications in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuan; Ramström, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates constitute the most abundant organic matter in nature, serving as structural components and energy sources, and mediating a wide range of cellular activities. The emergence of nanomaterials with distinct optical, magnetic, and electronic properties has witnessed a rapid adoption of these materials for biomedical research and applications. Nanomaterials of various shapes and sizes having large specific surface areas can be used as multivalent scaffolds to present carbohydrate ligands. The resulting glyconanomaterials effectively amplify the glycan-mediated interactions, making it possible to use these materials for sensing, imaging, diagnosis, and therapy. In this review, we summarize the synthetic strategies for the preparation of various glyconanomaterials. Examples are given where these glyconanomaterials have been used in sensing and differentiation of proteins and cells, as well as in imaging glycan-medicated cellular responses. PMID:26500721

  2. Sex Bias in Neuroscience and Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Zucker, Irving

    2010-01-01

    Female mammals have long been neglected in biomedical research. The NIH mandated enrollment of women in human clinical trials in 1993, but no similar initiatives exist to foster research on female animals. We reviewed sex bias in research on mammals in 10 biological fields for 2009 and their historical precedents. Male bias was evident in 8 disciplines and most prominent in neuroscience, with single-sex studies of male animals outnumbering those of females 5.5 to 1. In the past half-century, male bias in non-human studies has increased while declining in human studies. Studies of both sexes frequently fail to analyze results by sex. Underrepresentation of females in animal models of disease is also commonplace, and our understanding of female biology is compromised by these deficiencies. The majority of articles in several journals are conducted on rats and mice to the exclusion of other useful animal models. The belief that non-human female mammals are intrinsically more variable than males and too troublesome for routine inclusion in research protocols is without foundation. We recommend that when only one sex is studied, this should be indicated in article titles, and that funding agencies favor proposals that investigate both sexes and analyze data by sex. PMID:20620164

  3. 77 FR 64598 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services..., 2012...... *VA Central Office. Cellular and Molecular Medicine...... November 19, 2012.........

  4. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  5. Reliable, efficient systems for biomedical research facility

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, P.

    1997-05-01

    Medical Sciences Research Building III (MSRB III) is a 10-story, 207,000 ft{sup 2} (19,230 m{sup 2}) biomedical research facility on the campus of the University of Michigan. The design of MSRB III required a variety of technological solutions to complex design issues. The systems also had to accommodate future modifications. Closely integrated, modular systems with a high degree of flexibility were designed to respond to this requirement. Additionally, designs were kept as simple as possible for operation and maintenance personnel. Integrated electronic controls were used to provide vital data during troubleshooting and maintenance procedures. Equipment was also specified that provides reliability and minimizes maintenance. Other features include 100% redundancy of all central equipment servicing the animal housing area; redundant temperature controls for each individual animal housing room for fail-safe operation to protect the animals against overheating; and accessibility to all items requiring maintenance through an above-ceiling coordination process. It is critical that the engineering systems for MSRB III provide a safe, comfortable, energy efficient environment. The achievement of this design intent was noted by the University`s Commissioning Review Committee which stated: The Commissioning Process performed during both the design phase and construction phase of MSRB III was a significant success, providing an efficiently functioning facility that has been built in accordance with its design intent.

  6. [The significance of animals in biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Pawlik, W W

    1998-01-01

    The mission of medicine is maintenance of health, elimination of suffering and prolongation of life. These aims can be achieved by medicine based on experimental determination, because only then it becomes a real science. The nature of human mind has led the man since the beginning of humanity on the earth to the cognition of his environment and himself. Being intellectually superior than other living creatures, the man got power over them. In his endless efforts to expand knowledge about living organisms, including his own, he started to use animals. The man has used animals for cognitive purposes for ages and is still doing it, however his motivation has changed and is still changing. Cognition of functions of living organisms on the basis of observation solely, without any interference into the living body gave a lot of important information, yet, generally, this method was of little use for the development of science. Only the use of animals could give information about this what was earlier unknown and impossible. The long-lasting evolution of experimental studies of living functions of higher organisms resulted in achieving a perfect level in biomedical studies. Vivisection, as it was understood years ago, has become history. For a chronic experiment, an animal is surgically prepared according to the researcher's intention. The surgery and the postoperative period follow the principles used in human surgery. After the convalesce period, the animal is used for further experiments. On such prepared animals, the investigations in experimental cardiology, neurophysiology, gastroenterology and other medical disciplines are performed. The animal prepared for longlasting experiments do not suffer from pain during both the experiments and intervals between them. Another important achievement in chronic experiments is considerable reduction of the number of animals used in experimental medicine. Undoubtedly, the greatest achievements in medicine in the 19th and 20th

  7. 76 FR 1212 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to...

  8. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the public...

  9. Domestic animals as models for biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Domestic animals are unique models for biomedical research due to their long history (thousands of years) of strong phenotypic selection. This process has enriched for novel mutations that have contributed to phenotype evolution in domestic animals. The characterization of such mutations provides insights in gene function and biological mechanisms. This review summarizes genetic dissection of about 50 genetic variants affecting pigmentation, behaviour, metabolic regulation, and the pattern of locomotion. The variants are controlled by mutations in about 30 different genes, and for 10 of these our group was the first to report an association between the gene and a phenotype. Almost half of the reported mutations occur in non-coding sequences, suggesting that this is the most common type of polymorphism underlying phenotypic variation since this is a biased list where the proportion of coding mutations are inflated as they are easier to find. The review documents that structural changes (duplications, deletions, and inversions) have contributed significantly to the evolution of phenotypic diversity in domestic animals. Finally, we describe five examples of evolution of alleles, which means that alleles have evolved by the accumulation of several consecutive mutations affecting the function of the same gene. PMID:26479863

  10. The Charles Perkins Centre's Twins Research Node.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lucas C; Craig, Jeffrey M; Hopper, John L; Carrick, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Twins can help researchers disentangle the roles of genes from those of the environment on human traits, health, and diseases. To realize this potential, the Australian Twin Registry (ATR), University of Melbourne, and the Charles Perkins Centre (CPC), University of Sydney, established a collaboration to form the Twins Research Node, a highly interconnected research facility dedicated specifically to research involving twins. This collaboration aims to foster the adoption of twin designs as important tools for research in a range of health-related domains. The CPC hosted their Twins Research Node's launch seminar entitled 'Double the power of your research with twin studies', in which experienced twin researchers described how twin studies are supporting scientific discoveries and careers. The launch also featured twin pairs who have actively participated in research through the ATR. Researchers at the CPC were surveyed before the event to gauge their level of understanding and interest in utilizing twin research. This article describes the new Twins Research Node, discusses the survey's main results and reports on the launch seminar. PMID:27302367

  11. High-tech biomedical research: lessons from Iran's experience

    PubMed Central

    Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2008-01-01

    Iran has recently made a significant progress in the field of biomedical science and launched an appreciable number of new high-tech biomedical research projects. Review of Iran's experience in advancing its biomedical research and the pitfalls the country encountered during the years of its progress could be of interest to other countries with similar technological conditions. As needs assessment and human resources have pivotal roles in any research infrastructure, here, we have delineated these factors and explored ways by which optimum advantage could be gained from them. PMID:18501001

  12. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF).

    PubMed

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Clausen, Thomas; Duckert, Fanny; Ravndal, Edle; Waal, Helge

    2011-08-01

    The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF) at the University of Oslo is a newly established, clinical addiction research centre. It is located at the Oslo University Hospital and has a major focus on opioid dependency, investigating Norwegian opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), with special interest in OMT during pregnancy, mortality, morbidity and criminality before, during and after OMT and alternatives to OMT, such as the use of naltrexone implants. The well-developed health registries of Norway are core assets that also allow the opportunity for other types of substance abuse research. This research includes health services, abuse of prescription drugs and drugs of abuse in connection with traffic. The centre also focuses upon comorbidity, investigating the usefulness and limitations of psychometric instruments, drug abuse in different psychiatric treatment settings and internet-based interventions for hazardous alcohol consumption. PMID:20735364

  13. Biomedical engineering: A platform for research and innovation in ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Christy K.

    2001-05-01

    An undergraduate or graduate degree in biomedical engineering prepares students to solve problems at the interface between engineering and medicine. Biomedical engineering encompasses evolving areas such as advanced medical imaging for diagnosis and treatment of disease, tissue engineering for designing and manufacturing biological implants for damaged or diseased tissues and organs, and bioinformatics for determining which genes play a major role in health and disease. Biomedical engineering academic programs produce graduates with the ability to pursue successful careers in the biomedical device industry or to obtain advanced degrees leading to careers in biomedical engineering research, medicine, law or business. Biomedical engineering majors take courses in biology, anatomy, physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and medical product design and value life-long learning. Students learn to work effectively in interdisciplinary teams comprised of individuals with diverse social, cultural and technical backgrounds. Biomedical engineering is becoming increasingly important in imaging and image-guided research. Some examples of innovative ultrasound technology under development are ultrasound devices to accelerate the dissolution of blood clots, advanced surgical instruments with ultrasound guidance and ultrasound contrast agents for targeted drug delivery. Biomedical engineering is a great career choice for technically minded individuals who endeavor to work on applied problems that are medically relevant.

  14. Status of Research in Biomedical Engineering 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This status report is divided into eight sections. The first four represent the classical engineering or building aspects of bioengineering and deal with biomedical instrumentation, prosthetics, man-machine systems and computer and information systems. The next three sections are related to the scientific, intellectual and academic influence of…

  15. Biomedical research publications, 1982-1983. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolcik, C.; Pleasant, L.G.

    1983-10-01

    Cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, blood cell alterations, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, and general biomedical research are covered in a bibliography of 444 items.

  16. Biomedical research applications of electromagnetically separated enriched stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, R. M.

    The current and projected annual requirements through 1985 for stable isotopes enriched by electromagnetic separation methods were reviewed for applications in various types of biomedical research: (1) medical radiosiotope production, labeled compounds, and potential radio-pharmaceuticals; (2) nutrition, food science, and pharmacology: (3) metallobiochemistry and environmental toxicology; (4) nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, and moessbauer spectroscopy in biochemical, biophysical, and biomedical research; and (5) miscellaneous advances in radioactive and nonradioactive tracer technology. Radioisotopes available from commercial sources or routinely used in clinical nuclear medicine were excluded. Current requirements for enriched stable isotopes in biomedical research are not being satisfied. Severe shortages exist for Mg 26, Ca 43, Zn 70, Se 76, Se 77, Se 78, Pd 102, Cd 111, Cd 113, and Os 190. Many interesting and potentially important investigations in biomedical research require small quantities of specific elements at high isotopic enrichments.

  17. Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy for Biomedical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, David; Zimmerli, Greg; Asipauskas, Marius

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of two-photon microscopy as it applies to biomedical research. The topics include: 1) Overview; 2) Background; 3) Principles of Operation; 4) Advantages Over Confocal; 5) Modes of Operation; and 6) Applications.

  18. Cyclotrons for clinical and biomedical research with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to present some background material on cyclotrons and other particle accelerators particularly with a view toward the considerations behind acquiring and installing such a machine for purely clinical and/or biomedical research use.

  19. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences. PMID:26972838

  20. Beef quality assessed at European research centres.

    PubMed

    Dransfield, E; Nute, G R; Roberts, T A; Boccard, R; Touraille, C; Buchter, L; Casteels, M; Cosentino, E; Hood, D E; Joseph, R L; Schon, I; Paardekooper, E J

    1984-01-01

    Loin steaks and cubes of M. semimembranosus from eight (12 month old) Galloway steers and eight (16-18 month old) Charolais cross steers raised in England and from which the meat was conditioned for 2 or 10 days, were assessed in research centres in Belgium, Denmark, England, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy and the Netherlands. Laboratory panels assessed meat by grilling the steaks and cooking the cubes in casseroles according to local custom using scales developed locally and by scales used frequently at other research centres. The meat was mostly of good quality but with sufficient variation to obtain meaningful comparisons. Tenderness and juiciness were assessed most, and flavour least, consistently. Over the 32 meats, acceptability of steaks and casseroles was in general compounded from tenderness, juiciness and flavour. However, when the meat was tough, it dominated the overall judgement; but when tender, flavour played an important rôle. Irish and English panels tended to weight more on flavour and Italian panels on tenderness and juiciness. Juciness and tenderness were well correlated among all panels except in Italy and Germany. With flavour, however, Belgian, Irish, German and Dutch panels ranked the meats similarly and formed a group distinct from the others which did not. The panels showed a similar grouping for judgements of acceptability. French and Belgian panels judged the steaks from the older Charolais cross steers to have more flavour and be more juicy than average and tended to prefer them. Casseroles from younger steers were invariably preferred although the French and Belgian panels judged aged meat from older animals equally acceptable. These regional biases were thought to be derived mainly from differences in cooking, but variations in experience and perception of assessors also contributed. PMID:22055992

  1. Research on pressure sensors for biomedical instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angell, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a piezo-resistive pressure transducer is discussed suitable for recording pressures typically encountered in biomedical applications. The pressure transducer consists of a thin silicon diaphragm containing four strain-sensitive resistors, and is fabricated using silicon monolithic integrated-circuit technology. The pressure transducers can be as small as 0.7 mm outer diameter, and are, as a result, suitable for mounting at the tip of a catheter. Pressure-induced stress in the diaphragm is sensed by the resistors, which are interconnected to form a Wheatstone bridge.

  2. The joint cardiovascular research profile of the university medical centres in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Welie, S D; van Leeuwen, T N; Bouma, C J; Klaassen, A B M

    2016-05-01

    Biomedical scientific research in the Netherlands has a good reputation worldwide. Quantitatively, the university medical centres (UMCs) deliver about 40 % of the total number of scientific publications of this research. Analysis of the bibliometric output data of the UMCs shows that their research is highly cited. These output-based analyses also indicate the high impact of cardiovascular scientific research in these centres, illustrating the strength of this research in the Netherlands. A set of six joint national cardiovascular research topics selected by the UMCs can be recognised. At the top are heart failure, rhythm disorder research and atherosclerosis. National collaboration of top scientists in consortia in these three areas is successful in acquiring funding of large-scale programs. Our observations suggest that funding national consortia of experts focused on a few selected research topics may increase the international competitiveness of cardiovascular research in the Netherlands. PMID:27043238

  3. A community of practice: librarians in a biomedical research network.

    PubMed

    De Jager-Loftus, Danielle P; Midyette, J David; Harvey, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Providing library and reference services within a biomedical research community presents special challenges for librarians, especially those in historically lower-funded states. These challenges can include understanding needs, defining and communicating the library's role, building relationships, and developing and maintaining general and subject specific knowledge. This article describes a biomedical research network and the work of health sciences librarians at the lead intensive research institution with librarians from primarily undergraduate institutions and tribal colleges. Applying the concept of a community of practice to a collaborative effort suggests how librarians can work together to provide effective reference services to researchers in biomedicine. PMID:24528265

  4. The distribution of biomedical research resources and international justice.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2004-05-01

    According to some estimates, less than 10% of the world's biomedical research funds are dedicated to addressing problems that are responsible for 90% of the world's burden of disease. This paper explains why this disparity exists and what should be done about it. It argues that the disparity exists because: 1) multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies do not regard research and development investments on the health problems of developing nations to be economically lucrative; and 2) governmental agencies that sponsor biomedical research face little political pressure to allocate funds for the problems of developing nations. This paper argues that developed nations have an obligation to address disparities related to biomedical research funding. To facilitate this effort, developed countries should establish a trust fund dedicated to research on the health problems of developing nations similar to the Global AIDS Fund. PMID:15086373

  5. [Research Biomedical Ethics and Practical Wisdom].

    PubMed

    Vergara, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    As is well known, in the field of Biomedical Ethics some methodological proposals have been put forward. They try to provide some guidelines in order to take proper decisions. These methodologies are quite useful insofar as they supply reasons for action, but they are essentially insufficient. In fact, taking a good decision requires a special skill that goes beyond sheer technique, and this skill is traditionally called practical wisdom. Not in the usual and more outlying sense of sheer caution, but in the more central one of phronesis or prudentia. Although it is not a new notion, it usually appears blurred in biomedical decision-making theory, playing the wrong role, or in a marginal or indefinite way. From this postulate, we will try to make a double analysis. First, we will try to show the need for a proper understanding of the core role that phronesis plays in decision making. Second, we will try to get the original meaning of Aristotelian phronesis back. For reasons of space, in this paper the second question will be just partially addressed. PMID:26378599

  6. Animal Experiments in Biomedical Research: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Nuno Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This article reviews the use of non-human animals in biomedical research from a historical viewpoint, providing an insight into the most relevant social and moral issues on this topic across time, as well as to how the current paradigm for ethically and publically acceptable use of animals in biomedicine has been achieved. Abstract The use of non-human animals in biomedical research has given important contributions to the medical progress achieved in our day, but it has also been a cause of heated public, scientific and philosophical discussion for hundreds of years. This review, with a mainly European outlook, addresses the history of animal use in biomedical research, some of its main protagonists and antagonists, and its effect on society from Antiquity to the present day, while providing a historical context with which to understand how we have arrived at the current paradigm regarding the ethical treatment of animals in research. PMID:26487317

  7. Structural biology computing: Lessons for the biomedical research sciences.

    PubMed

    Morin, Andrew; Sliz, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    The field of structural biology, whose aim is to elucidate the molecular and atomic structures of biological macromolecules, has long been at the forefront of biomedical sciences in adopting and developing computational research methods. Operating at the intersection between biophysics, biochemistry, and molecular biology, structural biology's growth into a foundational framework on which many concepts and findings of molecular biology are interpreted1 has depended largely on parallel advancements in computational tools and techniques. Without these computing advances, modern structural biology would likely have remained an exclusive pursuit practiced by few, and not become the widely practiced, foundational field it is today. As other areas of biomedical research increasingly embrace research computing techniques, the successes, failures and lessons of structural biology computing can serve as a useful guide to progress in other biomedically related research fields. PMID:23828134

  8. Perspectives of clinician and biomedical scientists on interdisciplinary health research

    PubMed Central

    Laberge, Suzanne; Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Interdisciplinary health research is a priority of many funding agencies. We surveyed clinician and biomedical scientists about their views on the value and funding of interdisciplinary health research. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 31 biomedical and 30 clinician scientists. The scientists were selected from the 2000–2006 membership lists of peer-review committees of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. We investigated respondents’ perspectives on the assumption that collaboration across disciplines adds value to health research. We also investigated their perspectives on funding agencies’ growing support of interdisciplinary research. Results The 61 respondents expressed a wide variety of perspectives on the value of interdisciplinary health research, ranging from full agreement (22) to complete disagreement (11) that it adds value; many presented qualified viewpoints (28). More than one-quarter viewed funding agencies’ growing support of interdisciplinary research as appropriate. Most (44) felt that the level of support was unwarranted. Arguments included the belief that current support leads to the creation of artificial teams and that a top-down process of imposing interdisciplinary structures on teams constrains scientists’ freedom. On both issues we found contrasting trends between the clinician and the biomedical scientists. Interpretation Despite having some positive views about the value of interdisciplinary research, scientists, especially biomedical scientists, expressed reservations about the growing support of interdisciplinary research. PMID:19901042

  9. Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Human Resources.

    This report for 1977 is the third in a series of annual reports prepared by the Committee on a Study of National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel in a continuing study. Discussed are the current status of the labor market and the near-term outlook for research personnel in the four broad areas into which the study is…

  10. Social Media and Mentoring in Biomedical Research Faculty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teruya, Stacey Alan; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how effective and collegial mentoring in biomedical research faculty development may be implemented and facilitated through social media. Method: The authors reviewed the literature for objectives, concerns, and limitations of career development for junior research faculty. They tabularized these as developmental goals, and…

  11. Characteristics Desired in Clinical Data Warehouse for Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Kim, Woo Sung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Due to the unique characteristics of clinical data, clinical data warehouses (CDWs) have not been successful so far. Specifically, the use of CDWs for biomedical research has been relatively unsuccessful thus far. The characteristics necessary for the successful implementation and operation of a CDW for biomedical research have not clearly defined yet. Methods Three examples of CDWs were reviewed: a multipurpose CDW in a hospital, a CDW for independent multi-institutional research, and a CDW for research use in an institution. After reviewing the three CDW examples, we propose some key characteristics needed in a CDW for biomedical research. Results A CDW for research should include an honest broker system and an Institutional Review Board approval interface to comply with governmental regulations. It should also include a simple query interface, an anonymized data review tool, and a data extraction tool. Also, it should be a biomedical research platform for data repository use as well as data analysis. Conclusions The proposed characteristics desired in a CDW may have limited transfer value to organizations in other countries. However, these analysis results are still valid in Korea, and we have developed clinical research data warehouse based on these desiderata. PMID:24872909

  12. 77 FR 20489 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... May 24, 2012..... Sheraton Suites--Old Science-B. Town Alexandria. Neurobiology-D May 24-25,...

  13. 77 FR 23810 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... May 24, 2012........ Sheraton Suites--Old Town Alexandria. Science-B Neurobiology-D May 24-25,...

  14. Technology transfer: trends in the federalization of biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Bulleit, T N; Bonnet, S M

    1996-07-01

    Federal involvement in biomedical research has increased significantly in the postwar era, particularly throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. New federal laws and regulations now offer unprecedented opportunities to commercialize federally funded and conducted research, essentially creating a new field of "technology transfer" law. As a result, the biomedical research sector of the health care industry must master a number of relatively new and still developing federal laws, regulations, policies, and concerns that will probably continue to significantly affect its operations. To assist academic medical centers and others in understanding the federal presence in biomedical research, the authors give a short history of technology transfer laws and issues and summarize some of the current main areas of federal interest, including federal oversight of federally funded research, sponsored research agreements, conflict of interest, scientific misconduct, and the prospect of government price control over some biomedical inventions. The authors caution academic medical centers to realize that recent trends favoring deregulation and budget cutting could diminish federal involvement in the future. Thus, research institutions should keep abreast not only of existing rules and policies but of ongoing legislative and regulatory activities that portend possible changes. PMID:9158337

  15. Maximizing the return on taxpayers' investments in fundamental biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Lorsch, Jon R

    2015-05-01

    The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the U.S. National Institutes of Health has an annual budget of more than $2.3 billion. The institute uses these funds to support fundamental biomedical research and training at universities, medical schools, and other institutions across the country. My job as director of NIGMS is to work to maximize the scientific returns on the taxpayers' investments. I describe how we are optimizing our investment strategies and funding mechanisms, and how, in the process, we hope to create a more efficient and sustainable biomedical research enterprise. PMID:25926703

  16. Maximizing the return on taxpayers' investments in fundamental biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Lorsch, Jon R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the U.S. National Institutes of Health has an annual budget of more than $2.3 billion. The institute uses these funds to support fundamental biomedical research and training at universities, medical schools, and other institutions across the country. My job as director of NIGMS is to work to maximize the scientific returns on the taxpayers' investments. I describe how we are optimizing our investment strategies and funding mechanisms, and how, in the process, we hope to create a more efficient and sustainable biomedical research enterprise. PMID:25926703

  17. Centre for Applied Language Research at the University of Southampton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Robert; Hyde-Simon, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The Centre for Applied Language Research at the University of Southampton is one of two research centres within the discipline of Modern Languages. Established in 2004, CALR now has more than 50 members, predominantly faculty members working in the School of Humanities/Modern Languages, as well as growing number of postgraduate researchers. The…

  18. A Biomedical Research Permissions Ontology: Cognitive and Knowledge Representation Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Jihad; Gabriel, Davera; Sanderson, Iain

    2015-01-01

    In designing a comprehensive mechanism for managing informed consents and permissions for biomedical research involving human participants, a significant effort is dedicated to the development of standardized classification of these consents and permissions. In this paper, we describe the considerations and implications of this effort that should be addressed during the development of a Biomedical Research Permissions Ontology (RPO). It is hoped that this standardization will allow disparate research institutions to pool research data and associated consents and permissions in order to facilitate collaborative translational research projects across multiple institutions and subsequent new breakthroughs in medicine while providing: 1) essential built in protections for privacy and confidentiality of research participants and 2) a mechanism for insuring that researchers adhere to patient’s intent whether to participate in research or not. PMID:26640828

  19. Minimization and management of wastes from biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Rau, E H; Alaimo, R J; Ashbrook, P C; Austin, S M; Borenstein, N; Evans, M R; French, H M; Gilpin, R W; Hughes, J; Hummel, S J; Jacobsohn, A P; Lee, C Y; Merkle, S; Radzinski, T; Sloane, R; Wagner, K D; Weaner, L E

    2000-01-01

    Several committees were established by the National Association of Physicians for the Environment to investigate and report on various topics at the National Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held at the 1--2 November 1999 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. This is the report of the Committee on Minimization and Management of Wastes from Biomedical Research. Biomedical research facilities contribute a small fraction of the total amount of wastes generated in the United States, and the rate of generation appears to be decreasing. Significant reductions in generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes have recently been reported, even at facilities with rapidly expanding research programs. Changes in the focus of research, improvements in laboratory techniques, and greater emphasis on waste minimization (volume and toxicity reduction) explain the declining trend in generation. The potential for uncontrolled releases of wastes from biomedical research facilities and adverse impacts on the general environment from these wastes appears to be low. Wastes are subject to numerous regulatory requirements and are contained and managed in a manner protective of the environment. Most biohazardous agents, chemicals, and radionuclides that find significant use in research are not likely to be persistent, bioaccumulative, or toxic if they are released. Today, the primary motivations for the ongoing efforts by facilities to improve minimization and management of wastes are regulatory compliance and avoidance of the high disposal costs and liabilities associated with generation of regulated wastes. The committee concluded that there was no evidence suggesting that the anticipated increases in biomedical research will significantly increase generation of hazardous wastes or have adverse impacts on the general environment. This conclusion assumes the positive, countervailing trends of enhanced pollution prevention

  20. SEACOIN--an investigative tool for biomedical informatics researchers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eva K; Lee, Hee-Rin; Quarshie, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Peer-reviewed scientific literature is a prime source for accessing knowledge in the biomedical field. Its rapid growth and diverse domain coverage require systematic efforts in developing interactive tools for efficiently searching and summarizing current advances for acquiring knowledge and referencing, and for furthering scientific discovery. Although information retrieval systems exist, the conventional tools and systems remain difficult for biomedical investigators to use. There remain gaps even in the state-of-the-art systems as little attention has been devoted to understanding the needs of biomedical researchers. Our work attempts to bridge the gap between the needs of biomedical users and systems design efforts. We first study the needs of users and then design a simple visual analytic application tool, SEACOIN. A key motivation stems from biomedical researchers' request for a "simple interface" that is suitable for novice users in information technology. The system minimizes information overload, and allows users to search easily even in time-constrained situations. Users can manipulate the depth of information according to the purpose of usage. SEACOIN enables interactive exploration and filtering of search results via "metamorphose topological visualization" and "tag cloud," visualization tools that are commonly used in social network sites. We illustrate SEACOIN's usage through applications on PubMed publications on heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and asthma. PMID:22195132

  1. Research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martello, N.

    1985-01-01

    Various research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division are described. Contributions to the Space Administration's goals in the life sciences include descriptions of research in operational medicine, cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, gravitational biology, and life sciences flight experiments.

  2. 75 FR 57833 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit..., 2010......... Crowne Plaza Neurobiology-D November 19, 2010......... Crowne Plaza Pulmonary...

  3. 76 FR 66367 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... Medicine. City. Surgery November 22, 2011... The Sheraton Crystal City. Endocrinology-A November...

  4. 75 FR 23847 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and ] Development Services Scientific Merit... & Molecular Medicine........ June 7, 2010 Hotel Palomar. Surgery June 7, 2010 Crowne Plaza....

  5. Quality Assurance in Tissue Resources Supporting Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Grizzle, William E.; Sexton, Katherine C.; Bell, Walter C.

    2009-01-01

    Modern biomedical research requires access to high quality specimens of human tissue with or without extensive clinical annotation. Multiple types of organizations have developed to supply human tissues to support biomedical research. These organizations follow different models including the specific models of 1) prospective collection, 2) tissue banking, and 3) tissue collection associated with clinical trials as well as the model of 4) a tissue resource that incorporates features of the other models. These types of organizations devoted to supplying tissues for research have chosen different goals to meet the different tissue and informational needs of the investigators to whom they supply tissue. In order to provide high quality tissues to support research, all models should rely on a strong quality assurance program with extensive quality control of the tissues being provided to support research. In addition to facilities which collect, process, store and provide tissues, the need for a rigorous QA program applies to all resources and infrastructures used to support biomedical research. The UAB Tissue Collection and Banking Facility which provides human tissue to support biomedical research has been functioning and developing since 1979. To our knowledge, similar programs in providing tissues from animals are less developed, but could easily follow the models which UAB and other institutions providing human tissues have established, including the approaches of UAB and others to QA and QC. This manuscript reviews the current concepts of QA and QC in use in organizations supplying tissue to support biomedical research as well as new approaches in QA and QC that have been proposed. PMID:21572596

  6. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce.

    PubMed

    Mason, Julie L; Johnston, Elizabeth; Berndt, Sam; Segal, Katie; Lei, Ming; Wiest, Jonathan S

    2016-08-01

    The United States has experienced an unsustainable increase of the biomedical research workforce over the past 3 decades. This expansion has led to a myriad of consequences, including an imbalance in the number of researchers and available tenure-track faculty positions, extended postdoctoral training periods, increasing age of investigators at first U.S. National Institutes of Health R01 grant, and exodus of talented individuals seeking careers beyond traditional academe. Without accurate data on the biomedical research labor market, challenges will remain in resolving these problems and in advising trainees of viable career options and the skills necessary to be productive in their careers. We analyzed workforce trends, integrating both traditional labor market information and real-time job data. We generated a profile of the current biomedical research workforce, performed labor gap analyses of occupations in the workforce at regional and national levels, and assessed skill transferability between core and complementary occupations. We conclude that although supply into the workforce and the number of job postings for occupations within that workforce have grown over the past decade, supply continues to outstrip demand. Moreover, we identify practical skill sets from real-time job postings to optimally equip trainees for an array of careers to effectively meet future workforce demand.-Mason, J. L., Johnston, E., Berndt, S., Segal, K., Lei, M., Wiest, J. S. Labor and skills gap analysis of the biomedical research workforce. PMID:27075242

  7. Portable Linear Sled (PLS) for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallotton, Will; Matsuhiro, Dennis; Wynn, Tom; Temple, John

    1993-01-01

    The PLS is a portable linear motion generating device conceived by researchers at Ames Research Center's Vestibular Research Facility and designed by engineers at Ames for the study of motion sickness in space. It is an extremely smooth apparatus, powered by linear motors and suspended on air bearings which ride on precision ground ceramic ways.

  8. 77 FR 26069 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... following three panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science... Medicine will meet on June 4, 2012, at the ] Sheraton Suites Old Town Alexandria and not at VA...

  9. 76 FR 24974 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... following four panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science... 5, 2011..... 6 p.m.-10 p.m.... Crowne Plaza DC/Silver Spring. Medicine. June 6, 2011..... 8 a.m.-5...

  10. Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Bruce; Kirschner, Marc W; Tilghman, Shirley; Varmus, Harold

    2014-04-22

    The long-held but erroneous assumption of never-ending rapid growth in biomedical science has created an unsustainable hypercompetitive system that is discouraging even the most outstanding prospective students from entering our profession--and making it difficult for seasoned investigators to produce their best work. This is a recipe for long-term decline, and the problems cannot be solved with simplistic approaches. Instead, it is time to confront the dangers at hand and rethink some fundamental features of the US biomedical research ecosystem. PMID:24733905

  11. SEACOIN – An Investigative Tool for Biomedical Informatics Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eva K.; Lee, Hee-Rin; Quarshie, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Peer-reviewed scientific literature is a prime source for accessing knowledge in the biomedical field. Its rapid growth and diverse domain coverage require systematic efforts in developing interactive tools for efficiently searching and summarizing current advances for acquiring knowledge and referencing, and for furthering scientific discovery. Although information retrieval systems exist, the conventional tools and systems remain difficult for biomedical investigators to use. There remain gaps even in the state-of-the-art systems as little attention has been devoted to understanding the needs of biomedical researchers. Our work attempts to bridge the gap between the needs of biomedical users and systems design efforts. We first study the needs of users and then design a simple visual analytic application tool, SEACOIN. A key motivation stems from biomedical researchers’ request for a “simple interface” that is suitable for novice users in information technology. The system minimizes information overload, and allows users to search easily even in time-constrained situations. Users can manipulate the depth of information according to the purpose of usage. SEACOIN enables interactive exploration and filtering of search results via “metamorphose topological visualization” and “tag cloud,” visualization tools that are commonly used in social network sites. We illustrate SEACOIN’s usage through applications on PubMed publications on heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and asthma. PMID:22195132

  12. ChE Undergraduate Research Projects in Biomedical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroeve, Pieter

    1981-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate research program in biomedical engineering at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Includes goals and faculty comments on the program. Indicates that 58 percent of projects conducted between 1976 and 1980 have been presented at meetings or published. (SK)

  13. A Pilot Study of Biomedical Trainees' Perceptions Concerning Research Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Michael W.; Friedman, Paul J.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 549 biomedical trainees (graduate and postdoctoral students, medical students, residents, fellows) investigated training in research ethics, observation of scientific misconduct, and willingness to select, omit, or fabricate data to win a grant or publish a paper. The efficacy of current ethics instruction is questioned. (Author/MSE)

  14. Gifted Minority High School Students Study Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, John

    1988-01-01

    A program at Alabama State University seeks to stimulate the interest of academically gifted minority juniors and seniors in biomedical sciences and health professions. Selected students carry out research under the direction of university faculty members, in such areas as salmonella contamination in chicken and acid content in rainwater. (JDD)

  15. e-Science, caGrid, and Translational Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Saltz, Joel; Kurc, Tahsin; Hastings, Shannon; Langella, Stephen; Oster, Scott; Ervin, David; Sharma, Ashish; Pan, Tony; Gurcan, Metin; Permar, Justin; Ferreira, Renato; Payne, Philip; Catalyurek, Umit; Caserta, Enrico; Leone, Gustavo; Ostrowski, Michael C.; Madduri, Ravi; Foster, Ian; Madhavan, Subhashree; Buetow, Kenneth H.; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Siegel, Eliot

    2011-01-01

    Translational research projects target a wide variety of diseases, test many different kinds of biomedical hypotheses, and employ a large assortment of experimental methodologies. Diverse data, complex execution environments, and demanding security and reliability requirements make the implementation of these projects extremely challenging and require novel e-Science technologies. PMID:21311723

  16. Healing the NIH-Funded Biomedical Research Enterprise.

    PubMed

    Germain, Ronald N

    2015-06-18

    Many feel that the R01 grant system supporting biomedical research in the U.S. is broken, discouraging entry of young investigators into the system and inadequately supporting more established investigators. Here, I argue for a "person-not-project"-based scheme that would permit creative, unfettered research by new investigators, better tie ongoing research contributions to continued funding, and help match the number of investigators seeking support with available funds. PMID:26091028

  17. Healing the NIH-funded Biomedical Research Enterprise

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Ronald N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many feel the RO1 grant system supporting biomedical research in the U.S. is broken, discouraging entry of young investigators into the system and inadequately supporting more established investigators. Here I argue for a ‘person not project’-based scheme that would permit creative, unfettered research by new investigators, better tie ongoing research contributions to continued funding, and help match the number of investigators seeking support with available funds. PMID:26091028

  18. Improved reproducibility by assuring confidence in measurements in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Plant, Anne L; Locascio, Laurie E; May, Willie E; Gallagher, Patrick D

    2014-09-01

    ‘Irreproducibility’ is symptomatic of a broader challenge in measurement in biomedical research. From the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) perspective of rigorous metrology, reproducibility is only one aspect of establishing confidence in measurements. Appropriate controls, reference materials, statistics and informatics are required for a robust measurement process. Research is required to establish these tools for biological measurements, which will lead to greater confidence in research results. PMID:25166868

  19. Financial Anatomy of Biomedical Research, 2003 – 2008

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, E. Ray; de Roulet, Jason; Thompson, Joel P.; Reminick, Jason I.; Thai, Ashley; White-Stellato, Zachary; Beck, Christopher A.; George, Benjamin P.; Moses, Hamilton

    2011-01-01

    Context With the exception of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, funding support for biomedical research in the United States has slowed after a decade of doubling. However, the extent and scope of slowing are largely unknown. Objective To quantify funding of biomedical research in the United States from 2003 to 2008. Design We used publicly available data to quantify funding from federal, state and local government, private, and industry sources. We used regression models to compare financial trends between 1994–2003 and 2003–2007 (the last year complete data were available). We also evaluated the number of new drug and device approvals by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) over the same time period. Main Outcome Measures Funding and growth rates by source. Number of FDA approvals. Results Biomedical research funding increased from $75.5 billion in 2003 to $101.1 billion in 2007. In 2008 funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and industry totaled $88.8 billion. In 2007 funding from these sources, adjusted for inflation, was $90.2 billion. Adjusted for inflation, funding from 2003 to 2007 increased by 14% for a compound annual growth rate of 3.4%. By comparison, funding from 1994 to 2003 increased at an annual rate of 7.8% (P<0.001). In 2007, industry (58%) was the largest funder followed by the federal government (33%). The modest increase in funding was not accompanied by an increase in approvals for drugs or devices. In 2007 the United States spent an estimated 4.5% of its total health expenditures on biomedical research and 0.1% on health services research. Conclusions After a decade of doubling, the rate of increase in biomedical research funding slowed from 2003 to 2007, and after adjusting for inflation, the absolute level of funding from NIH and industry appears to have decreased by 2% in 2008. PMID:20068207

  20. Algal lectins as promising biomolecules for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Thakur, Shivani Rani; Bansal, Parveen

    2015-02-01

    Lectins are natural bioactive ubiquitous proteins or glycoproteins of non-immune response that bind reversibly to glycans of glycoproteins, glycolipids and polysaccharides possessing at least one non-catalytic domain causing agglutination. Some of them consist of several carbohydrate-binding domains which endow them with the properties of cell agglutination or precipitation of glycoconjugates. Lectins are rampant in nature from plants, animals and microorganisms. Among microorganisms, algae are the potent source of lectins with unique properties specifically from red algae. The demand of peculiar and neoteric biologically active substances has intensified the developments on isolation and biomedical applications of new algal lectins. Comprehensively, algal lectins are used in biomedical research for antiviral, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor activities, etc. and in pharmaceutics for the fabrication of cost-effective protein expression systems and nutraceutics. In this review, an attempt has been made to collate the information on various biomedical applications of algal lectins. PMID:23855360

  1. Social Media and Mentoring in Biomedical Research Faculty Development

    PubMed Central

    Teruya, Stacey Alan; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine how effective and collegial mentoring in biomedical research faculty development may be implemented and facilitated through social media. Method The authors reviewed the literature for objectives, concerns, and limitations of career development for junior research faculty. They tabularized these as developmental goals, and aligned them with relevant social media strengths and capabilities facilitated through traditional and/or peer mentoring. Results The authors derived a model in which social media is leveraged to achieve developmental goals reflected in independent and shared projects, and in the creation and expansion of support and research networks. Conclusions Social media may be successfully leveraged and applied in achieving developmental goals for biomedical research faculty, and potentially for those in other fields and disciplines. PMID:26120494

  2. Electronic Biomedical Literature Search for Budding Researcher

    PubMed Central

    Thakre, Subhash B.; Thakre S, Sushama S.; Thakre, Amol D.

    2013-01-01

    Search for specific and well defined literature related to subject of interest is the foremost step in research. When we are familiar with topic or subject then we can frame appropriate research question. Appropriate research question is the basis for study objectives and hypothesis. The Internet provides a quick access to an overabundance of the medical literature, in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary literature. It is accessible through journals, databases, dictionaries, textbooks, indexes, and e-journals, thereby allowing access to more varied, individualised, and systematic educational opportunities. Web search engine is a tool designed to search for information on the World Wide Web, which may be in the form of web pages, images, information, and other types of files. Search engines for internet-based search of medical literature include Google, Google scholar, Scirus, Yahoo search engine, etc., and databases include MEDLINE, PubMed, MEDLARS, etc. Several web-libraries (National library Medicine, Cochrane, Web of Science, Medical matrix, Emory libraries) have been developed as meta-sites, providing useful links to health resources globally. A researcher must keep in mind the strengths and limitations of a particular search engine/database while searching for a particular type of data. Knowledge about types of literature, levels of evidence, and detail about features of search engine as available, user interface, ease of access, reputable content, and period of time covered allow their optimal use and maximal utility in the field of medicine. Literature search is a dynamic and interactive process; there is no one way to conduct a search and there are many variables involved. It is suggested that a systematic search of literature that uses available electronic resource effectively, is more likely to produce quality research. PMID:24179937

  3. Introduction to Oxidative Stress in Biomedical and Biological Research

    PubMed Central

    Breitenbach, Michael; Eckl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is now a well-researched area with thousands of new articles appearing every year. We want to give the reader here an overview of the topics in biomedical and basic oxidative stress research which are covered by the authors of this thematic issue. We also want to give the newcomer a short introduction into some of the basic concepts, definitions and analytical procedures used in this field. PMID:26117854

  4. What is the future of biomedical research?

    PubMed

    Tebala, Giovanni Domenico

    2015-10-01

    Randomized controlled trials require hard work and financial commitment, whereas meta-analyses and systematic reviews can be relatively easy to perform and often get published in high impact journals. Many researchers might decide to devote themselves to the latter approach, resulting in a negative impact on clinical research. We have reviewed the number of indexed meta-analyses and systematic reviews on PubMed and compared it with the number of randomized controlled trials over the same period. Statistical analysis showed an exponential increase of synthetic studies with respect to randomized trials. The ratio between RCTs and synthetic studies is quickly decreasing. These results suggest that a growing number of researchers might prefer to commit themselves to synthetic studies more than be involved in more time consuming and funds demanding observational trials. If we are unable to invert this trend, in the future we will have a growing number of synthetic studies utilizing someone else's original data and fewer raw data to base our knowledge upon. PMID:26194725

  5. Biomedical text mining and its applications in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Chan, Jonathan; Meechai, Asawin; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Shen, Bairong

    2013-04-01

    Cancer is a malignant disease that has caused millions of human deaths. Its study has a long history of well over 100years. There have been an enormous number of publications on cancer research. This integrated but unstructured biomedical text is of great value for cancer diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The immense body and rapid growth of biomedical text on cancer has led to the appearance of a large number of text mining techniques aimed at extracting novel knowledge from scientific text. Biomedical text mining on cancer research is computationally automatic and high-throughput in nature. However, it is error-prone due to the complexity of natural language processing. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts underlying text mining and examine some frequently used algorithms, tools, and data sets, as well as assessing how much these algorithms have been utilized. We then discuss the current state-of-the-art text mining applications in cancer research and we also provide some resources for cancer text mining. With the development of systems biology, researchers tend to understand complex biomedical systems from a systems biology viewpoint. Thus, the full utilization of text mining to facilitate cancer systems biology research is fast becoming a major concern. To address this issue, we describe the general workflow of text mining in cancer systems biology and each phase of the workflow. We hope that this review can (i) provide a useful overview of the current work of this field; (ii) help researchers to choose text mining tools and datasets; and (iii) highlight how to apply text mining to assist cancer systems biology research. PMID:23159498

  6. Swine in biomedical research. V. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.

  7. Multidisciplinary Russian biomedical research in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, O. I.; Sychev, V. N.; Samarin, G. I.; Ilyin, E. A.; Belakovskiy, M. S.; Kussmaul, A. R.

    2014-08-01

    Research activities on a comprehensive multidisciplinary program are vital for enhancement of the system of crew's medical care, environmental health and hygiene in space missions. The primary goal of the program must be identification of patterns, intensity and dynamics of structural and functional shifts in organism induced by an aggregate of spaceflight factors including microgravity, isolation, artificial environment, space radiation, etc. Also, the program must pursue differential assessment of emerging deviations from the standpoint of adequacy to the spaceflight conditions and prospects of returning to Earth and guide the development of principles, methods and techniques necessary to maintain health and working capacity of humans during short- and long-duration missions and on return to Earth. Over 50 years, since 1963, the IBMP researchers apply systemic and innovational approaches to fundamental and exploratory studies in the fields of medical sciences, radiation biology, engineering science, biotechnology, etc. with participation of various biological specimens and human volunteers. Investigations aboard manned spacecrafts and biological satellites as well as in ground-based laboratories further enhancement of the medical care system for crews on orbital and remote space missions; they give insight into the fundamental problems of gravitational physiology and biology, psychophysiology, radiation biology, and contribute thereby to the development of knowledge, methods and technologies, as well as medical and scientific equipment.

  8. The use of nonhuman animals in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Ringach, Dario L

    2011-10-01

    Opposition to the use of animals in biomedical research rests on diverse scientific and ethical arguments. Here I offer a response to key objections and argue that the responsible use of animals in biomedical research with the goal of advancing medical knowledge, science and human health, is scientifically and morally justified. My views are unlikely to be shared uniformly across the scientific community. Thus, I hope this personal perspective persuades other scientists, public health officials, scientific organizations and our academic leadership to join the debate and invites opponents of animal research to create an atmosphere where civil discourse can take place, free of threats and intimidation. The public deserves an open and honest debate on this important topic. PMID:21817874

  9. National Centre for Research on Rural Education. Report for 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Research on Rural Education, Nedlands (Western Australia).

    The Centre was originally funded in 1980 for three years to undertake research on major issues and problems in rural education, to publish and disseminate results, and to act as a source of advice to government and private authorities as well as communities. Funding for the Centre has been extended through 1985, and its activities continue to be…

  10. Swine in biomedical research. Vol. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: hemodynamic characteristics of the conscious resting pig; cardiovascular and metabolic responses to acute and chronic exercise in swine (ILLEGIBLE) a large animal model for studies (ILLEGIBLE) effects of heparin-protamine interaction in swine - intravenous vs. intraarterial; swine as animal models in cardiovascular research; studies of coronary thrombosis in swine with von Willebrand's disease; role of plasma intermediate and low density lipoproteins in early atherogenesis in hyperlipidemic swine; swine as a model in renal physiology and nephrology; the pig as a model for studying kidney disease in man; hypertension of renal origin and the effects of Captopril in miniature pigs; porcine natural killer/killer cell system; the behavior of pig lymphocyte populations in vivo; a review of spontaneous and experimental porcine eperythrozoonosis; and Sinclair swine melanoma.

  11. From biomedical-engineering research to clinical application and industrialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Tetsushi; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-12-01

    The rising costs and aging of the population due to a low birth rate negatively affect the healthcare system in Japan. In 2011, the Council for Science and Technology Policy released the 4th Japan's Science and Technology Basic Policy Report from 2011 to 2015. This report includes two major innovations, 'Life Innovation' and 'Green Innovation', to promote economic growth. Biomedical engineering research is part of 'Life Innovation' and its outcomes are required to maintain people's mental and physical health. It has already resulted in numerous biomedical products, and new ones should be developed using nanotechnology-based concepts. The combination of accumulated knowledge and experience, and 'nanoarchitechtonics' will result in novel, well-designed functional biomaterials. This focus issue contains three reviews and 19 original papers on various biomedical topics, including biomaterials, drug-delivery systems, tissue engineering and diagnostics. We hope that it demonstrates the importance of collaboration among scientists, engineers and clinicians, and will contribute to the further development of biomedical engineering.

  12. Swine in biomedical research. V. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the effect of dietary fiber on growing pigs; preparation of a cerebral perfusion model in the pig - anatomic considerations; a review of the utilization of lactose, glucose, sucrose, and cornstarch by neonatal piglets reared artificially; histology of piglet liver, swine hematology; use of swine as a model of musculoskeletal growth in animals; boar and human sperm as cellular models for membrane phospholipiid biosynthesis and degradation; a stereotaxic atlas of the developing swine (Sus Scrofa) forebrain; the effect of ethanol on liver mitochondrial Ca++-uptake; control of feed intake in pigs; the pig as a model of abberations associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; whey and cholesterol in swine; vitamin and mineral nutrition and malnutrition; cadmium absorption, distribution and excretion in young and adult minature swine; a piglet model for infant total parenteral nutrition studies; swine in perinatal research; the endocrine pancreas of the fetal pig; cardiovascular physiology of the pig fetus; and the effect of sow's milk versus formula on the superior mesenteric blood flow of newborn piglets.

  13. Race in Biological and Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of race has had a significant influence on research in human biology since the early 19th century. But race was given its meaning and social impact in the political sphere and subsequently intervened in science as a foreign concept, not grounded in the dominant empiricism of modern biology. The uses of race in science were therefore often disruptive and controversial; at times, science had to be retrofitted to accommodate race, and science in turn was often used to explain and justify race. This relationship was unstable in large part because race was about a phenomenon that could not be observed directly, being based on claims about the structure and function of genomic DNA. Over time, this relationship has been characterized by distinct phases, evolving from the inference of genetic effects based on the observed phenotype to the measurement of base-pair variation in DNA. Despite this fundamental advance in methodology, liabilities imposed by the dual political-empirical origins of race persist. On the one hand, an optimistic prediction can be made that just as geology made it possible to overturn the myth of the recent creation of the earth and evolution told us where the living world came from, molecular genetics will end the use of race in biology. At the same time, because race is fundamentally a political and not a scientific idea, it is possible that only a political intervention will relieve us of the burden of race. PMID:24186487

  14. Preparation of Botanical Samples for Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Plants are chemical storehouses, a fact which has driven countless multidisciplinary quests for bioactive compounds. As the very first step of botanical research, the whole desire is to find “hit” plants with specific bioactivities. It is logical to use some strategies that can maximize the chances of finding these “hits” with limited time and resources. In addition to selecting the right plants for screening, how the plant extracts are prepared can also influence the bioactivity screening outcomes. An extract from the same plant material can be quite different in chemical composition having different preparations. Because of the complex mixture nature of plant extracts, it is possible artifact activities may be observed. Thus confirmatory activity tests are often necessary to warrant the next laborious isolation step. A bioassay directed isolation approach may be the most efficient in identifying the bioactive compounds because of the narrowed focus at each isolation step, but a phytochemistry isolation approach is appropriate to characterize a purified bioactive extract. In fact, these two approaches can be taken intermittently whenever efficiency can be improved. Finally, use of the identified active compounds is now broader. In addition to determining a lead compound to continue a drug development path, there is an increasing interest in support for the use of botanical extracts as botanical drugs. Instead of dropping the extract after extracting the lead compound, the natural analogues representing the purified extract now have a chance to become leading compounds in the pursuit of novel therapies for metabolic syndrome and other diseases. PMID:18537697

  15. [IPS an ethical paradigm for biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Gámez Escalona, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest advances in molecular and cell biology was the discovery of the Induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS) in mice, by Shinya Yamanka and his team in 2006. The possibility that these cells can be generated also in humans opens up unexpected ways of development for biomedicine. Its main contribution is the creation of a strong protocol that takes into account three major advances in biology such as; nuclear transfer techniques, the discovery of transcription factors associated with pluripotency and the isolation of mouse embryonic stem cells. A protocol that can be easily replicated in other laboratories to have the oportunity to design tests that allow modeling of many incurable diseases, drug testing for human cells or explore the possibilities of autologous transplants of tissues or organs. Yamanaka ethical motivation to find an alternative to embryonic stem cells (ES) and prevent the destruction of embryos produced by In Vitro Fertilization techniques (IVF), has proved to be a research model, in which the intuition of the ethical principles and its application in advanced biotechnology projects, has meant the opening of a whole new way of understanding the biology of embryonic development. It is clear that development, biologically understood (puede ser también ″treated″; tratado), is not a one-way street. The possibilities to deepen into the foundations of molecular biology and genetics, along with the expectations of its clinical applications have earned Yamanka the Nobel Prize in Medicine 2012, along with another great scholar Sir John Gurdon, discoverer of nuclear transfer techniques. PMID:24483317

  16. A relational conceptual framework for multidisciplinary health research centre infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although multidisciplinary and team-based approaches are increasingly acknowledged as necessary to address some of the most pressing contemporary health challenges, many researchers struggle with a lack of infrastructure to facilitate and formalise the requisite collaborations. Specialised research centres have emerged as an important organisational solution, yet centre productivity and sustainability are frequently dictated by the availability and security of infrastructure funds. Despite being widely cited as a core component of research capacity building, infrastructure as a discrete concept has been rather analytically neglected, often treated as an implicit feature of research environments with little specification or relegated to a narrow category of physical or administrative inputs. The terms research infrastructure, capacity, and culture, among others, are deployed in overlapping and inconsistent ways, further obfuscating the crucial functions of infrastructure specifically and its relationships with associated concepts. The case is made for an expanded conceptualisation of research infrastructure, one that moves beyond conventional 'hardware' notions. Drawing on a case analysis of NEXUS, a multidisciplinary health research centre based at the University of British Columbia, Canada, a conceptual framework is proposed that integrates the tangible and intangible structures that interactively underlie research centre functioning. A relational approach holds potential to allow for more comprehensive accounting of the returns on infrastructure investment. For those developing new research centres or seeking to reinvigorate existing ones, this framework may be a useful guide for both centre design and evaluation. PMID:20925953

  17. A relational conceptual framework for multidisciplinary health research centre infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Coen, Stephanie E; Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Ratner, Pamela A

    2010-01-01

    Although multidisciplinary and team-based approaches are increasingly acknowledged as necessary to address some of the most pressing contemporary health challenges, many researchers struggle with a lack of infrastructure to facilitate and formalise the requisite collaborations. Specialised research centres have emerged as an important organisational solution, yet centre productivity and sustainability are frequently dictated by the availability and security of infrastructure funds.Despite being widely cited as a core component of research capacity building, infrastructure as a discrete concept has been rather analytically neglected, often treated as an implicit feature of research environments with little specification or relegated to a narrow category of physical or administrative inputs. The terms research infrastructure, capacity, and culture, among others, are deployed in overlapping and inconsistent ways, further obfuscating the crucial functions of infrastructure specifically and its relationships with associated concepts.The case is made for an expanded conceptualisation of research infrastructure, one that moves beyond conventional 'hardware' notions. Drawing on a case analysis of NEXUS, a multidisciplinary health research centre based at the University of British Columbia, Canada, a conceptual framework is proposed that integrates the tangible and intangible structures that interactively underlie research centre functioning.A relational approach holds potential to allow for more comprehensive accounting of the returns on infrastructure investment. For those developing new research centres or seeking to reinvigorate existing ones, this framework may be a useful guide for both centre design and evaluation. PMID:20925953

  18. Medical and biomedical research productivity from Palestine, 2002 – 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical research productivity reflects the level of medical education and practice in a particular country. The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of medical and biomedical research published from Palestine. Findings Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2002 till December 31, 2011 was searched for authors affiliated with Palestine or Palestinian authority. Results were refined to limit the search to medical and biomedical subjects. The quality of publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report. The total number of publications was 2207. A total of 770 publications were in the medical and biomedical subject areas. The annual rate of publication was 0.077 articles per gross domestic product/capita. The 770 publications have an h-index of 32. One hundred and thirty eight (18%) articles were published in 46 journals that were not indexed in the web of knowledge. Twenty two (22/770; 2.9%) articles were published in journals with an IF > 10. Conclusions The quantity and quality of research originating from Palestinian institutions is promising given the scarce resources of Palestine. However, more effort is needed to bridge the gap in medical research productivity and to promote better health in Palestine. PMID:23375070

  19. Limits on Risks for Healthy Volunteers in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy volunteers in biomedical research often face significant risks in studies that offer them no medical benefits. The U.S. federal research regulations and laws adopted by other countries place no limits on the risks that these participants face. In this essay, I argue that there should be some limits on the risks for biomedical research involving healthy volunteers. Limits on risk are necessary to protect human participants, institutions, and the scientific community from harm. With the exception of self-experimentation, limits on research risks faced by healthy volunteers constitute a type of soft, impure paternalism, because participants usually do not fully understand the risks they are taking. I consider some approaches to limiting research risks and propose that healthy volunteers in biomedical research should not be exposed to greater than a 1% chance of serious harm, such as death, permanent disability, or severe illness or injury. While this guideline would restrict research risks, the limits would not be so low that they would prevent investigators from conducting valuable research. They would, however, set a clear upper boundary for investigators and signal to the scientific community and the public that there are limits on the risks that healthy participants may face in research. This standard provides guidance for decisions made by oversight bodies, but it is not an absolute rule. Investigators can enroll healthy volunteers in studies involving a greater than 1% chance of serious harm if they show that the research addresses a compelling public health or social problem and the risk of serious harm is only slightly more than 1%. The committee reviewing the research should use outside experts to assess these risks. PMID:22198413

  20. Critical Contexts for Biomedical Research in a Native American Community: Health Care, History, and Community Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahota, Puneet Chawla

    2012-01-01

    Native Americans have been underrepresented in previous studies of biomedical research participants. This paper reports a qualitative interview study of Native Americans' perspectives on biomedical research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 53 members of a Southwest tribal community. Many interviewees viewed biomedical research studies as a…

  1. Legacy of Biomedical Research During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided many opportunities to study the role of spaceflight on human life for over 30 years and represented the longest and largest US human spaceflight program. Outcomes of the research were understanding the effect of spaceflight on human physiology and performance, countermeasures, operational protocols, and hardware. The Shuttle flights were relatively short, < 16 days and routinely had 4 to 6 crewmembers for a total of 135 flights. Biomedical research was conducted on the Space Shuttle using various vehicle resources. Specially constructed pressurized laboratories called Spacelab and SPACEHAB housed many laboratory instruments to accomplish experiments in the Shuttle s large payload bay. In addition to these laboratory flights, nearly every mission had dedicated human life science research experiments conducted in the Shuttle middeck. Most Shuttle astronauts participated in some life sciences research experiments either as test subjects or test operators. While middeck experiments resulted in a low sample per mission compared to many Earth-based studies, this participation allowed investigators to have repetition of tests over the years on successive Shuttle flights. In addition, as a prelude to the International Space Station (ISS), NASA used the Space Shuttle as a platform for assessing future ISS hardware systems and procedures. The purpose of this panel is to provide an understanding of science integration activities required to implement Shuttle research, review biomedical research, characterize countermeasures developed for Shuttle and ISS as well as discuss lessons learned that may support commercial crew endeavors. Panel topics include research integration, cardiovascular physiology, neurosciences, skeletal muscle, and exercise physiology. Learning Objective: The panel provides an overview from the Space Shuttle Program regarding research integration, scientific results, lessons learned from biomedical research and

  2. Architecture of a Biomedical Informatics Research Data Management Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christian R; Umbach, Nadine; Baum, Benjamin; Buckow, Karoline; Franke, Thomas; Grütz, Romanus; Gusky, Linda; Nussbeck, Sara Yasemin; Quade, Matthias; Rey, Sabine; Rottmann, Thorsten; Rienhoff, Otto; Sax, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    In University Medical Centers, heterogeneous data are generated that cannot always be clearly attributed to patient care or biomedical research. Each data set has to adhere to distinct intrinsic and operational quality standards. However, only if high-quality data, tools to work with the data, and most importantly guidelines and rules of how to work with the data are addressed adequately, an infrastructure can be sustainable. Here, we present the IT Research Architecture of the University Medical Center Göttingen and describe our ten years' experience and lessons learned with infrastructures in networked medical research. PMID:27577384

  3. Resources for Medical Research, Biomedical Research Manpower - for the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Herbert H.; And Others

    Long-range biomedical manpower needs up to 1985 have been projected and the best estimate indicates that there will be an increase from 64,000 workers in 1965 to 150,000 in 1985. The related expenditure is expected to increase from 1.9 billion dollars to 15.7 billion dollars in the same period. Alternate predictions, based on other possible…

  4. Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The 1985 Report of the Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Medicine (NAS), Washington, DC.

    Designed to provide assistance in the assessment of the need for biomedical and behavioral research personnel, this report presents research findings related to specific medical careers. The review includes an examination of the system under which biomedical and behavioral scientists are trained for research careers and the United States…

  5. Designing an Internet-based collaboratory for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Gantenbein, Rex E

    2002-01-01

    Several recent grants from the National Institutes of Health to the Universities of Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana have created a unique opportunity for collaboration in biomedical research among the three schools, as well as the community colleges in the region. NIH Center of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) programs at Wyoming have been established to study the biological effect of nitric oxide and to investigate stressors that can contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease. Funding from these and related grants have significantly upgraded Wyoming bioimaging and microscopy facilities, as well as provided support for faculty and students in a variety of research disciplines. In order to enhance these research efforts, the Center for Rural Health Research and Education at the University of Wyoming is spearheading an effort to create an Internet-based system for sharing data and research resources among the involved sites. This paper describes how such a "collaboratory" could be designed, using techniques developed for distributed research and development in the computer industry. The system, as envisioned, will support remote data acquisition, management, and visualization, while providing security in the form of authorization and authentication of users and virtual private networking for data transmitted between nodes of the network. PMID:12085639

  6. Women's mental health research: the emergence of a biomedical field.

    PubMed

    Blehar, Mary C

    2006-01-01

    This review surveys the field of women's mental health, with particular emphasis on its evolution into a distinct area of biomedical research. The field employs a biomedical disease model but it also emphasizes social and cultural influences on health outcomes. In recent years, its scope has expanded beyond studies of disorders occurring in women at times of reproductive transitions and it now encompasses a broader study of sex and gender differences. Historical and conceptual influences on the field are discussed. The review also surveys gender differences in the prevalence and clinical manifestations of mental disorders. Epidemiological findings have provided a rich resource for theory development, but without research tools to test theories adequately, findings of gender differences have begged the question of their biological, social, and cultural origins. Clinical depression is used to exemplify the usefulness of a sex/gender perspective in understanding mental illness; and major theories proposed to account for gender differences are critically evaluated. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary federal funding source for biomedical women's mental health research. The review surveys areas of emphasis in women's mental health research at the NIH as well as some collaborative activities that represent efforts to translate research findings into the public health and services arenas. As new analytic methods become available, it is anticipated that a more fundamental understanding of the biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying sex and gender differences in mental illness will emerge. Nonetheless, it is also likely that integration of findings predicated on different conceptual models of the nature and causes of mental illness will remain a challenge. These issues are discussed with reference to their impact on the field of women's mental health research. PMID:17716067

  7. Southwest Research Institute assistance to NASA in biomedical areas of the technology utilization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culclasure, D. F.; Sigmon, J. L.; Carter, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The activities are reported of the NASA Biomedical Applications Team at Southwest Research Institute between 25 August, 1972 and 15 November, 1973. The program background and methodology are discussed along with the technology applications, and biomedical community impacts.

  8. Mössbauer spectroscopy in biomedical physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiufang

    1994-12-01

    Several applications of Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) as an analytical tool in research on biomedical physics are reviewed: (1) The evaluation of treatments for some diseases such as thalassemia, iron-overload disease, high altitude polycythemia. (2) Medical research on the effects of environmental factors on the human body, for example, the effects of electromagnetic radiation on human red blood cells (RBCs). Some advantages and weaknesses of MS, a new application of the Mössbauer effect, cancer therapy, and some possible applications such as monitoring the RBCs of the patients before, during, and after surgical operation, are discussed.

  9. Efficacy of the porcine species in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Karina; Dicks, Naomi; Glanzner, Werner G.; Agellon, Luis B.; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2015-01-01

    Since domestication, pigs have been used extensively in agriculture and kept as companion animals. More recently they have been used in biomedical research, given they share many physiological and anatomical similarities with humans. Recent technological advances in assisted reproduction, somatic cell cloning, stem cell culture, genome editing, and transgenesis now enable the creation of unique porcine models of human diseases. Here, we highlight the potential applications and advantages of using pigs, particularly minipigs, as indispensable large animal models in fundamental and clinical research, including the development of therapeutics for inherited and chronic disorders, and cancers. PMID:26442109

  10. Efficacy of the porcine species in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Karina; Dicks, Naomi; Glanzner, Werner G; Agellon, Luis B; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2015-01-01

    Since domestication, pigs have been used extensively in agriculture and kept as companion animals. More recently they have been used in biomedical research, given they share many physiological and anatomical similarities with humans. Recent technological advances in assisted reproduction, somatic cell cloning, stem cell culture, genome editing, and transgenesis now enable the creation of unique porcine models of human diseases. Here, we highlight the potential applications and advantages of using pigs, particularly minipigs, as indispensable large animal models in fundamental and clinical research, including the development of therapeutics for inherited and chronic disorders, and cancers. PMID:26442109

  11. Increasing value and reducing waste in biomedical research: who's listening?

    PubMed

    Moher, David; Glasziou, Paul; Chalmers, Iain; Nasser, Mona; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Korevaar, Daniël A; Graham, Ian D; Ravaud, Philippe; Boutron, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    The biomedical research complex has been estimated to consume almost a quarter of a trillion US dollars every year. Unfortunately, evidence suggests that a high proportion of this sum is avoidably wasted. In 2014, The Lancet published a series of five reviews showing how dividends from the investment in research might be increased from the relevance and priorities of the questions being asked, to how the research is designed, conducted, and reported. 17 recommendations were addressed to five main stakeholders-funders, regulators, journals, academic institutions, and researchers. This Review provides some initial observations on the possible effects of the Series, which seems to have provoked several important discussions and is on the agendas of several key players. Some examples of individual initiatives show ways to reduce waste and increase value in biomedical research. This momentum will probably move strongly across stakeholder groups, if collaborative relationships evolve between key players; further important work is needed to increase research value. A forthcoming meeting in Edinburgh, UK, will provide an initial forum within which to foster the collaboration needed. PMID:26423180

  12. In vivo optical imaging and dynamic contrast methods for biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Amoozegar, Cyrus B.; Wang, Tracy; McCaslin, Addason F. H.; Bouchard, Matthew B.; Mansfield, James; Levenson, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of optical imaging methods commonly applied to basic research applications. Optical imaging is well suited for non-clinical use, since it can exploit an enormous range of endogenous and exogenous forms of contrast that provide information about the structure and function of tissues ranging from single cells to entire organisms. An additional benefit of optical imaging that is often under-exploited is its ability to acquire data at high speeds; a feature that enables it to not only observe static distributions of contrast, but to probe and characterize dynamic events related to physiology, disease progression and acute interventions in real time. The benefits and limitations of in vivo optical imaging for biomedical research applications are described, followed by a perspective on future applications of optical imaging for basic research centred on a recently introduced real-time imaging technique called dynamic contrast-enhanced small animal molecular imaging (DyCE). PMID:22006910

  13. In vivo optical imaging and dynamic contrast methods for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Elizabeth M C; Amoozegar, Cyrus B; Wang, Tracy; McCaslin, Addason F H; Bouchard, Matthew B; Mansfield, James; Levenson, Richard M

    2011-11-28

    This paper provides an overview of optical imaging methods commonly applied to basic research applications. Optical imaging is well suited for non-clinical use, since it can exploit an enormous range of endogenous and exogenous forms of contrast that provide information about the structure and function of tissues ranging from single cells to entire organisms. An additional benefit of optical imaging that is often under-exploited is its ability to acquire data at high speeds; a feature that enables it to not only observe static distributions of contrast, but to probe and characterize dynamic events related to physiology, disease progression and acute interventions in real time. The benefits and limitations of in vivo optical imaging for biomedical research applications are described, followed by a perspective on future applications of optical imaging for basic research centred on a recently introduced real-time imaging technique called dynamic contrast-enhanced small animal molecular imaging (DyCE). PMID:22006910

  14. Adolescent Self-Consent for Biomedical HIV Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Amy Lewis; Knopf, Amelia S.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Hosek, Sybil G.; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Adolescent Medicine Trials Network Protocol 113 (ATN113) is an open-label, multi-site demonstration project and phase II safety study of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis with 15-17 year old young men who have sex with men that requires adolescent consent for participation. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to the process by which Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and researchers made decisions regarding whether to approve and implement ATN113, so as to inform future biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. Methods Participants included seventeen researchers at thirteen sites in twelve states considering ATN113 implementation. Qualitative descriptive methods were used. Data sources included interviews and documents generated during the initiation process. Results A common process for initiating ATN113 emerged, and informants described how they identified and addressed practical, ethical and legal challenges that arose. Informants described the process as responding to the protocol, preparing for IRB submission, abstaining from or proceeding with submission, responding to IRB concerns and reacting to the outcomes. A complex array of factors impacting approval and implementation were identified; and ATN113 was ultimately implemented in 7 of 13 sites. Informants also reflected on lessons learned that may help inform future biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. Conclusions The results illustrate factors for consideration in determining whether to implement such trials, demonstrate that such protocols have the potential to be approved, and highlight a need for clearer standards regarding biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. PMID:26095412

  15. Death, cadavers and post-mortem biomedical research: a point of view from a Christian community.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Joly, Alain; Champagnat, Julie; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Facing modern developments of medicine and biomedical researches, religious communities are a strong source of ethics principles and orientations. Human dignity does not disappear after life, in a context of biomedical research on cadavers. Moral, political, social and scientific aspects of research on human cadavers (mainly autopsies) have been widely discussed in biomedical publications, whereas the religious ones (which could be predominant for some) have rarely been analyzed and presented. This article will present the results of a survey carried out a French Benedictine Abbey (relative to death, cadaver's status and biomedical research) and subsequent Christian background according to canonic texts and practical cases from anthropological, historical, archeological and biomedical origin. PMID:22782433

  16. Dual-Use Review Policies of Biomedical Research Journals

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Dionne D.; Dinse, Gregg E.

    2011-01-01

    To address biosecurity issues, government agencies, academic institutions, and professional societies have developed policies concerning the publication of “dual-use” biomedical research—that is, research that could be readily applied to cause significant harm to the public, the environment, or national security. We conducted an e-mail survey of life science journals to determine the percentage that have a dual-use policy. Of the 155 journals that responded to our survey (response rate 39%), only 7.7% stated that they had a written dual-use policy and only 5.8% said they had experience reviewing dual-use research in the past 5 years. Among the potential predictors we investigated, the one most highly associated with a journal having a written dual-use policy was membership in the Nature Publishing Group (positive association). When considered individually, both previous experience with reviewing dual-use research and the journal's impact factor appeared to be positively associated with having a written dual-use policy, but only the former remained significant after adjusting for publishing group. Although preventing the misuse of scientific research for terrorist or criminal purposes is an important concern, few biomedical journals have dual-use review policies. Journals that are likely to review research that raises potential dual-use concerns should consider developing dual-use policies. PMID:21395429

  17. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    PubMed

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-12-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental

  18. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    PubMed Central

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-01-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental

  19. US standards lab funds new research centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2010-02-01

    A dozen US research institutions have won grants totalling 123m from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to build new laboratories or extend existing research facilities. The funds, from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, will be used to develop new measurement technologies as well as improve environmental-monitoring techniques. The institutions - 11 universities and one non-profit organization - beat off competition from 155 other institutions for the funds.

  20. Comparative Case Study of Two Biomedical Research Collaboratories

    PubMed Central

    Teasley, Stephanie D; Bhatnagar, Rishi

    2005-01-01

    Background Working together efficiently and effectively presents a significant challenge in large-scale, complex, interdisciplinary research projects. Collaboratories are a nascent method to help meet this challenge. However, formal collaboratories in biomedical research centers are the exception rather than the rule. Objective The main purpose of this paper is to compare and describe two collaboratories that used off-the-shelf tools and relatively modest resources to support the scientific activity of two biomedical research centers. The two centers were the Great Lakes Regional Center for AIDS Research (HIV/AIDS Center) and the New York University Oral Cancer Research for Adolescent and Adult Health Promotion Center (Oral Cancer Center). Methods In each collaboratory, we used semistructured interviews, surveys, and contextual inquiry to assess user needs and define the technology requirements. We evaluated and selected commercial software applications by comparing their feature sets with requirements and then pilot-testing the applications. Local and remote support staff cooperated in the implementation and end user training for the collaborative tools. Collaboratory staff evaluated each implementation by analyzing utilization data, administering user surveys, and functioning as participant observers. Results The HIV/AIDS Center primarily required real-time interaction for developing projects and attracting new participants to the center; the Oral Cancer Center, on the other hand, mainly needed tools to support distributed and asynchronous work in small research groups. The HIV/AIDS Center’s collaboratory included a center-wide website that also served as the launch point for collaboratory applications, such as NetMeeting, Timbuktu Conference, PlaceWare Auditorium, and iVisit. The collaboratory of the Oral Cancer Center used Groove and Genesys Web conferencing. The HIV/AIDS Center was successful in attracting new scientists to HIV/AIDS research, and members

  1. Developing expertise in bioinformatics for biomedical research in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Karikari, Thomas K.; Quansah, Emmanuel; Mohamed, Wael M.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Research in bioinformatics has a central role in helping to advance biomedical research. However, its introduction to Africa has been met with some challenges (such as inadequate infrastructure, training opportunities, research funding, human resources, biorepositories and databases) that have contributed to the slow pace of development in this field across the continent. Fortunately, recent improvements in areas such as research funding, infrastructural support and capacity building are helping to develop bioinformatics into an important discipline in Africa. These contributions are leading to the establishment of world-class research facilities, biorepositories, training programmes, scientific networks and funding schemes to improve studies into disease and health in Africa. With increased contribution from all stakeholders, these developments could be further enhanced. Here, we discuss how the recent developments are contributing to the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. PMID:26767162

  2. Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The 1983 Report of the Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Medicine (NAS), Washington, DC.

    This report addresses concerns about the quality of biomedical and behavioral research conducted in the United States and the role that federally supported research and training plays in developing it. In addition, current and projected supply of and demand for scientists in the biomedical and behavioral fields is assessed. These fields include…

  3. Improving biomedical journals' ethical policies: the case of research misconduct.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Scientific journals may incur scientific error if articles are tainted by research misconduct. While some journals' ethical policies, especially those on conflicts of interest, have improved over recent years, with some adopting a uniform approach, only around half of biomedical journals, principally those with higher impact factors, currently have formal misconduct policies, mainly for handling allegations. Worryingly, since a response to allegations would reasonably require an a priori definition, far fewer journals have publicly available definitions of misconduct. While some journals and editors' associations have taken significant steps to prevent and detect misconduct and respond to allegations, the content, visibility of and access to these policies varies considerably. In addition, while the lack of misconduct policies may prompt and maintain a de novo approach for journals, potentially causing stress, publication delays and even legal disputes, the lack of uniformity may be a matter of contention for research stakeholders such as editors, authors and their institutions, and publishers. Although each case may need an individual approach, I argue that posting highly visible, readily accessible, comprehensive, consistent misconduct policies could prevent the publication of fraudulent papers, increase the number of retractions of already published papers and, perhaps, reduce research misconduct. Although legally problematic, a concerted approach, with sharing of information between editors, which is clearly explained in journal websites, could also help. Ideally, journals, editors' associations, and publishers should seek consistency and homogenise misconduct policies to maintain public confidence in the integrity of biomedical research publications. PMID:24505117

  4. UCSC genome browser: deep support for molecular biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Mary E; Williams, Jennifer M; Lathe, Scott M; Karolchik, Donna; Lathe, Warren C

    2008-01-01

    The volume and complexity of genomic sequence data, and the additional experimental data required for annotation of the genomic context, pose a major challenge for display and access for biomedical researchers. Genome browsers organize this data and make it available in various ways to extract useful information to advance research projects. The UCSC Genome Browser is one of these resources. The official sequence data for a given species forms the framework to display many other types of data such as expression, variation, cross-species comparisons, and more. Visual representations of the data are available for exploration. Data can be queried with sequences. Complex database queries are also easily achieved with the Table Browser interface. Associated tools permit additional query types or access to additional data sources such as images of in situ localizations. Support for solving researcher's issues is provided with active discussion mailing lists and by providing updated training materials. The UCSC Genome Browser provides a source of deep support for a wide range of biomedical molecular research (http://genome.ucsc.edu). PMID:18606360

  5. Race and ancestry in biomedical research: exploring the challenges

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The use of race in biomedical research has, for decades, been a source of social controversy. However, recent events, such as the adoption of racially targeted pharmaceuticals, have raised the profile of the race issue. In addition, we are entering an era in which genomic research is increasingly focused on the nature and extent of human genetic variation, often examined by population, which leads to heightened potential for misunderstandings or misuse of terms concerning genetic variation and race. Here, we draw together the perspectives of participants in a recent interdisciplinary workshop on ancestry and health in medicine in order to explore the use of race in research issue from the vantage point of a variety of disciplines. We review the nature of the race controversy in the context of biomedical research and highlight several challenges to policy action, including restrictions resulting from commercial or regulatory considerations, the difficulty in presenting precise terminology in the media, and drifting or ambiguous definitions of key terms. PMID:19348695

  6. Life sciences biomedical research planning for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primeaux, Gary R.; Michaud, Roger; Miller, Ladonna; Searcy, Jim; Dickey, Bernistine

    1987-01-01

    The Biomedical Research Project (BmRP), a major component of the NASA Life Sciences Space Station Program, incorporates a laboratory for the study of the effects of microgravity on the human body, and the development of techniques capable of modifying or counteracting these effects. Attention is presently given to a representative scenario of BmRP investigations and associated engineering analyses, together with an account of the evolutionary process by which the scenarios and the Space Station design requirements they entail are identified. Attention is given to a tether-implemented 'variable gravity centrifuge'.

  7. Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…

  8. 78 FR 28292 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review..., 2013; Pulmonary Medicine will meet on May 30, 2013, at the Sheraton Crystal City Hotel and not on...

  9. 78 FR 22622 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit..., 2013......... U.S. Access Board. Pulmonary Medicine May 30-31, 2013......... Sheraton Crystal...

  10. 76 FR 19188 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... Crowne Plaza DC/Silver Spring. Pulmonary Medicine June 3, 2011 Crowne Plaza DC/Silver Spring....

  11. 78 FR 66992 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... Medicine........ November 25, 2013 *VA Central Office. Neurobiology-F November 26, 2013 *VA Central...

  12. Observations from the AAMC advisory panel on biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D H

    1991-10-01

    The author gives a brief history of the events that led to the establishment of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Advisory Panel on Biomedical Research, describes some of its early activities, and discusses some of the issues that the biomedical research community is facing. Specifically, he describes how the competition for research funding that became particularly intense in 1989-90 eroded the well-orchestrated coalition approach to appropriations that had been the norm. Another disturbing development was a growing tension between research faculty and the administrators of their institutions. To address these problems, the author, under the aegis of the AAMC, convened a series of workshops during the summer of 1990 to provide a forum for airing concerns and allowing different groups to become aware of each other's positions and perceptions. These workshops were quite useful and helped in framing some important issues. Also deriving from the workshops was the recognition that a continuing advisory group on research policy was needed; thus the AAMC advisory panel was created. The author describes its unusual characteristics and its importance. Subcommittees were later established to facilitate the effectiveness of the panel. Early in the panel's deliberations it became clear that it was important to bring into the meeting various knowledgeable individuals to educate and interact with panel members. The author concludes by surveying the larger picture of the public's eroding confidence in research universities and higher education in general, the punitive environment that this has created in Congress, the increasingly harsh economic situation, and what these conditions may portend for future research funding. PMID:1910391

  13. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: the Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Tim; Reist, Dan; Macdonald, Scott; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2010-02-01

    The Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia (CARBC) was established as a multi-campus and multi-disciplinary research centre administered by the University of Victoria (UVic) in late 2003. Its core funding is provided from interest payments on an endowment of CAD 10.55 million dollars. It is supported by a commitment to seven faculty appointments in various departments at UVic. The Centre has two offices, an administration and research office in Victoria and a knowledge exchange unit in Vancouver. The two offices are collaborating on the implementation of CARBC's first 5-year plan which seeks to build capacity in British Columbia for integrated multi-disciplinary research and knowledge exchange in the areas substance use, addictions and harm reduction. Present challenges include losses to the endowment caused by the 2008/2009 economic crisis and difficulties negotiating faculty positions with the university administration. Despite these hurdles, to date each year has seen increased capacity for the Centre in terms of affiliated scientists, funding and staffing as well as output in terms of published reports, electronic resources and impacts on policy and practice. Areas of special research interest include: drug testing in the work-place, epidemiological monitoring, substance use and injury, pricing and taxation policies, privatization of liquor monopolies, polysubstance use, health determinants of indigenous peoples, street-involved youth and other vulnerable populations at risk of substance use problems. Further information about the Centre and its activities can be found on http://www.carbc.ca. PMID:20078479

  14. Use of telescience for biomedical research during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntoon, Carolyn L.; Schneider, Howard J.; Karamanos, Gayle M.

    1991-01-01

    When the U.S. first embarked on a manned space flight program, NASA's use of medical telescience was focused on crew health monitoring. In recent years, medical telescience use has been expanded to include support of basic research in space medicine. It enables ground support personnel to assist on-board crews in the performance of experiments and improves the quality and quantity of data return. NASA is continuing to develop its telescience capabilities. Future plans include telemedicine that will enable physicians on Earth to support crewmembers during flight and telescience that will enable investigators at their home institutions to support and conduct in-flight medical research. NASA's use of telescience for crew safety and biomedical research from Project Mercury to the present is described and NASA's plans for the future are presented.

  15. Biomedical Research and Corporate Interests: A Question of Academic Freedom

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Leemon

    2008-01-01

    The current situation in medicine has been described as a crisis of credibility, as the profit motive of industry has taken control of clinical trials and the dissemination of data. Pharmaceutical companies maintain a stranglehold over the content of medical journals in three ways: (1) by ghostwriting articles that bias the results of clinical trials, (2) by the sheer economic power they exert on journals due to the purchase of drug advertisements and journal reprints, and (3) by the threat of legal action against those researchers who seek to correct the misrepresentation of study results. This paper argues that Karl Popper's critical rationalism provides a corrective to the failure of academic freedom in biomedical research. PMID:22013356

  16. Biomedical research and corporate interests: a question of academic freedom.

    PubMed

    McHenry, Leemon

    2008-01-01

    The current situation in medicine has been described as a crisis of credibility, as the profit motive of industry has taken control of clinical trials and the dissemination of data. Pharmaceutical companies maintain a stranglehold over the content of medical journals in three ways: (1) by ghostwriting articles that bias the results of clinical trials, (2) by the sheer economic power they exert on journals due to the purchase of drug advertisements and journal reprints, and (3) by the threat of legal action against those researchers who seek to correct the misrepresentation of study results. This paper argues that Karl Popper's critical rationalism provides a corrective to the failure of academic freedom in biomedical research. PMID:22013356

  17. Advances in targeted proteomics and applications to biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tujin; Song, Ehwang; Nie, Song; Rodland, Karin D; Liu, Tao; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D

    2016-08-01

    Targeted proteomics technique has emerged as a powerful protein quantification tool in systems biology, biomedical research, and increasing for clinical applications. The most widely used targeted proteomics approach, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), can be used for quantification of cellular signaling networks and preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. As an extension to our previous review on advances in SRM sensitivity (Shi et al., Proteomics, 12, 1074-1092, 2012) herein we review recent advances in the method and technology for further enhancing SRM sensitivity (from 2012 to present), and highlighting its broad biomedical applications in human bodily fluids, tissue and cell lines. Furthermore, we also review two recently introduced targeted proteomics approaches, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) with targeted data extraction on fast scanning high-resolution accurate-mass (HR/AM) instruments. Such HR/AM targeted quantification with monitoring all target product ions addresses SRM limitations effectively in specificity and multiplexing; whereas when compared to SRM, PRM and DIA are still in the infancy with a limited number of applications. Thus, for HR/AM targeted quantification we focus our discussion on method development, data processing and analysis, and its advantages and limitations in targeted proteomics. Finally, general perspectives on the potential of achieving both high sensitivity and high sample throughput for large-scale quantification of hundreds of target proteins are discussed. PMID:27302376

  18. Current Progress of Genetically Engineered Pig Models for Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Gün, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The first transgenic pigs were generated for agricultural purposes about three decades ago. Since then, the micromanipulation techniques of pig oocytes and embryos expanded from pronuclear injection of foreign DNA to somatic cell nuclear transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection-mediated gene transfer, lentiviral transduction, and cytoplasmic injection. Mechanistically, the passive transgenesis approach based on random integration of foreign DNA was developed to active genetic engineering techniques based on the transient activity of ectopic enzymes, such as transposases, recombinases, and programmable nucleases. Whole-genome sequencing and annotation of advanced genome maps of the pig complemented these developments. The full implementation of these tools promises to immensely increase the efficiency and, in parallel, to reduce the costs for the generation of genetically engineered pigs. Today, the major application of genetically engineered pigs is found in the field of biomedical disease modeling. It is anticipated that genetically engineered pigs will increasingly be used in biomedical research, since this model shows several similarities to humans with regard to physiology, metabolism, genome organization, pathology, and aging. PMID:25469311

  19. Research ethics and scientific misconduct in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Kansu, E; Ruacan, S

    2002-01-01

    Scientists have the responsibility of judging what is best for the patient and the optimal conditions for the conduct of the study. All physicians should ensure that research they participate in is ethically conducted. Every clinician should learn and receive training in the responsible conduct of research and publication, and each project must be reviewed by an institutional review committee. Scientific misconduct is defined as any practice that deviates from those accepted by the scientific community and ultimately damages the integrity of the research process. "Sloppy Research" and "Scientific Fraud" include activities which can violate science, records and publication. Sloppy research is due to absence of appropriate training in research discipline and methodologies. In contrast, scientific fraud is defined as deliberate action during application, performance of research, and publication. It includes piracy, plagiarism and fraud. Research institutions should adopt rules and regulations to respond to allegations, start investigational operations and perform appropriate sanctions. PMID:12442615

  20. Scottish Schools Science Equipment Research Centre Bulletin No. 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    Instructions for the construction of the following apparatus for the secondary school science laboratory are included in this issue of the Scottish Schools Science Equipment Research Centre Bulletin: a cheap water purifier using an expendable deionizer can; a simple amplifier suitable for detecting or displaying D. C. currents of 1 microamp or…

  1. Openness--A Way Forward: Development Education Research Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Heremia, Mahora

    2014-01-01

    Education is a vital aspect in the lives of humankind. It contributes and shapes our future as citizens of the world. To understand it is to discover the many hidden talents the world has in store for all. The Development Education Research Centre (DERC) holds many resources that aid in the development of education at a global level. With the…

  2. Research Training in the Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Research Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive research and a highly-trained workforce are essential for the improvement of health and health care both nationally and internationally. During the past 40 years the National Research Services Award (NRSA) Program has played a large role in training the workforce responsible for dramatic advances in the understanding of various…

  3. Cyanobacterial Sunscreen Scytonemin: Role in Photoprotection and Biomedical Research.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-07-01

    Cyanobacteria are the most promising group of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing an array of natural products of industrial importance. Scytonemin is a small hydrophobic alkaloid pigment molecules present in the extracellular sheath of several cyanobacteria as a protective mechanism against short wavelength solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It has great efficacy to minimize the production of reactive oxygen species and formation of DNA lesions. The biosynthesis of scytonemin is regulated by different physico-chemical stressors. Scytonemin display multiple roles, functioning as a potent UV sunscreen and antioxidant molecules, and can be exploited in cosmetic and other industries for the development of new cosmeceuticals. Herein, we review the occurrence, biosynthesis, and potential application of scytonemin in photoprotection, pharmaceuticals, and biomedical research. PMID:26013282

  4. [Liquid nitrogen biobank: a resource for biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Turchi, Stefano; Mercuri, Antonella; Lazzerini, Guido; Chiesa, Maria Rosa; Musacchio, Laura; Tozzi, Sabrina; Boni, Mauro; Zirilli, Ottavio; Andreassi, Maria Grazia

    2012-09-01

    Biobanks are a critical resource for "omics" technologies in order to dissect molecular mechanism and gene-environmental interactions of common diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Progress in basic biomedicine may contribute to advance personalised medicine in which treatments will no longer be "one size fits all", but instead "tailored" to the molecular and genetic profile of each patient. Currently, there are major efforts worldwide to professionalize biobanks in order to move ahead from a "do-it-yourself" tissue collection - as is most frequent at present - for providing high quality preservation and storage of biological samples with potentially greater scientific impact. In this paper, we describe our recent experience in the design and development of a high-security liquid nitrogen storage system (-196°C) as a key resource for biomedical research. PMID:23023017

  5. Recent applications of fish cell culture to biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Hightower, L E; Renfro, J L

    1988-12-01

    Tissues of the fishes are as amenable to the techniques of modern cell culture as mammalian tissues and organs, and yet this vast resource, comprising thousands of vertebrate species, remains largely unexplored. The model systems that have been developed demonstrate the utility of fish cells as sources of special adaptations and exaggerated physiological systems. In this review, we briefly describe several of the successful models along with recent developments in fish cell culture with the hope of stimulating increased interest in the lower vertebrates as useful complements to mammalian cell culture in biomedical research. The topics covered include epithelial ion transport, endocrinological studies, the cellular stress (heat shock) response, thermotolerance, cancer biology, and environmental toxicology. PMID:3062124

  6. Medical research in Israel and the Israel biomedical database.

    PubMed

    Berns, D S; Rager-Zisman, B

    2000-11-01

    The data collected for the second edition of the Directory of Medical Research in Israel and the Israel Biomedical Database have yielded very relevant information concerning the distribution of investigators, publication activities and funding sources. The aggregate data confirm the findings of the first edition published in 1996 [2]. Those facts endorse the highly concentrated and extensive nature of medical research in the Jerusalem area, which is conducted at the Hebrew University and its affiliated hospitals. In contrast, Tel Aviv University, whose basic research staff is about two-thirds the size of the Hebrew University staff, has a more diffuse relationship with its clinical staff who are located at more than half a dozen hospitals. Ben-Gurion University in Beer Sheva and the Technion in Haifa are smaller in size, but have closer geographic contact between their clinical and basic research staff. Nonetheless, all the medical schools and affiliated hospitals have good publication and funding records. It is important to note that while some aspects of the performance at basic research institutions seem to be somewhat better than at hospitals, the records are actually quite similar despite the greater burden of clinical services at the hospitals as compared to teaching responsibilities in the basic sciences. The survey also indicates the substantial number of young investigators in the latest survey who did not appear in the first survey. While this is certainly encouraging, it is also disturbing that the funding sources are apparently decreasing at a time when young investigators are attempting to become established and the increasing burden of health care costs precludes financial assistance from hospital sources. The intensity and undoubtedly the quality of medical research in Israel remains at a level consistent with many of the more advanced western countries. This conclusion is somewhat mitigated by the fact that there is a decrease in available funding

  7. Informed consent among nursing students participating in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Anupama; Christopher, D J; Mammen, Joy; David, Thambu; Kang, Gagandeep; David, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    For consent in biomedical research, it is essential that research participants understand the need for research, the study protocol, the risk and benefits of participation, the freedom to participate or decline and the right to leave the study at any time. A structured questionnaire was used to assess understanding and knowledge among nursing trainees participating in a cohort study investigating exposure and latent tuberculosis at a tertiary care hospital. Data were collected for 138 participants. While 97% were aware of their enrollment into a research protocol, only 78% could state that it was a study on tuberculosis. Approximately two-thirds were aware of plans for blood collection, but not all of them knew the timings or number of samples. The majority (59%) participants had consulted others before making the decision to participate, and only 73% felt that their participation was completely voluntary. Even among healthcare trainees, emphasis needs to be placed on testing both the knowledge and understanding of participants to ensure the principle and practice of truly informed consent. PMID:22864079

  8. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Mouse in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Albert M.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the history of using mice for medical research and discusses the benefits of using these animals for studies in bacteriology, virology, genetics (considering X-linked genetic homologies between mice and humans), molecular biology, immunology, hematology, immune response disorders, oncology, radiobiology, pharmacology, behavior genetics,…

  9. Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Human Resources.

    The fourth in a series of annual reports assessing the role of and need for federal training programs in the biomedical and behavioral sciences is presented. Highlights of this 1978 report include: (1) the results of surveys of the chairpersons of 1,324 basic biomedical science departments and 474 behavioral science departments in Ph.D.-granting…

  10. The effect of public disclosure laws on biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Cardon, Andrew D; Bailey, Matthew R; Bennett, B Taylor

    2012-05-01

    The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and state 'open-records' laws govern access to records in the possession of federal agencies and state entities, such as public universities. Although these laws are intended to promote 'open government' and to assure the existence of an informed citizenry capable of holding government officials accountable for their decisions, an inherent tension exists between the public's access to information and biomedical research institutions' need to ensure the confidentiality of proprietary records and to protect the personal safety of employees. Recognizing these and other conflicts, the federal FOIA and state public-disclosure laws contain express exemptions to protect sensitive information from disclosure. Although some state open-records laws are modeled after the federal FOIA, important differences exist based on the language used by the state law, court interpretations, and exemptions. Two specific types of exemptions are particularly relevant to research facilities: exemptions for research information and exemptions for personal information. Responding to FOIA and state open-records requests requires knowledge of relevant laws and the involvement of all interested parties to facilitate a coordinated and orderly response. PMID:22776187

  11. The Effect of Public Disclosure Laws on Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Cardon, Andrew D; Bailey, Matthew R; Bennett, B Taylor

    2012-01-01

    The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and state ‘open-records’ laws govern access to records in the possession of federal agencies and state entities, such as public universities. Although these laws are intended to promote ‘open government’ and to assure the existence of an informed citizenry capable of holding government officials accountable for their decisions, an inherent tension exists between the public's access to information and biomedical research institutions’ need to ensure the confidentiality of proprietary records and to protect the personal safety of employees. Recognizing these and other conflicts, the federal FOIA and state public-disclosure laws contain express exemptions to protect sensitive information from disclosure. Although some state open-records laws are modeled after the federal FOIA, important differences exist based on the language used by the state law, court interpretations, and exemptions. Two specific types of exemptions are particularly relevant to research facilities: exemptions for research information and exemptions for personal information. Responding to FOIA and state open-records requests requires knowledge of relevant laws and the involvement of all interested parties to facilitate a coordinated and orderly response. PMID:22776187

  12. How Do Interaction Experiences Influence Doctoral Students' Academic Pursuits in Biomedical Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Xiaoqing; Chakraverty, Devasmita; Jeffe, Donna B.; Andriole, Dorothy A.; Wathington, Heather D.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study investigated how doctoral students reported their personal and professional interaction experiences that they believed might facilitate or impede their academic pursuits in biomedical research. We collected 19 in-depth interviews with doctoral students in biomedical research from eight universities, and we based…

  13. Biomedical and Behavioral Research Scientists: Their Training and Supply. Volume 1: Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel.

    This is the first of three volumes which presents the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel's examination of the educational process that leads to doctoral degrees in biomedical and behavioral science (and to postdoctoral study in some cases) and the role of the National Research Service Awards (NRSA) training programs in it.…

  14. Derivation of porcine pluripotent stem cells for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Yow-Ling; Yang, Jenn-Rong; Liao, Yu-Jing; Kuo, Ting-Yung; Liao, Chia-Hsin; Kang, Ching-Hsun; Tai, Chein; Anderson, Gary B; Chen, Lih-Ren

    2016-07-01

    Pluripotent stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), embryonic germ cells (EGCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are capable of self-renew and limitlessly proliferating in vitro with undifferentiated characteristics. They are able to differentiate in vitro, spontaneously or responding to suitable signals, into cells of all three primary germ layers. Consequently, these pluripotent stem cells will be valuable sources for cell replacement therapy in numerous disorders. However, the promise of human ESCs and EGCs is cramped by the ethical argument about destroying embryos and fetuses for cell line creation. Moreover, there are still carcinogenic risks existing toward the goal of clinical application for human ESCs, EGCs, and iPSCs. Therefore, a suitable animal model for stem cell research will benefit the further development of human stem cell technology. The pigs, on the basis of their similarity in anatomy, immunology, physiology, and biochemical properties, have been wide used as model animals in the study of various human diseases. The development of porcine pluripotent stem cell lines will hold the opportunity to provide an excellent material for human counterpart to the transplantation in biomedical research and further development of cell-based therapeutic strategy. PMID:27158128

  15. Personal electronic health records: from biomedical research to people's health.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Access to web technologies and the increased bandwidth and capacity of these systems has facilitated the development of personal electronic health records (PEHRs). This conference reports the key messages from the Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM) meeting on PEHRs 'From Biomedical Research to People's Health' in May 2009. The conference provided a comprehensive overview of issues and best practice for PEHR. The key messages of the conference were: PEHR have the potential to ensure equity, continuity and healthcare quality. Electronic records may allow individuals to contribute to disease surveillance, public health and research in ways that were not previously possible. We need to prepare carefully for a 'brave new world' in which a small number of commercial organisations may become trusted custodians of the planet's medical information. Ethical dilemmas are already emerging from the use of PEHRs - largely stemming from our experiences within the UK. This report links the findings of this conference with key UK and European innovations. Informaticians, in conjunction with clinicians and solution providers, should both prepare for the realities of PEHR and more formally articulate their potential benefits and risks. PMID:20359404

  16. US biomedical research: basic, translational, and clinical sciences.

    PubMed

    Zerhouni, Elias A

    2005-09-21

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the world's largest biomedical research agency, with a 75-year record of responding to the nation's key medical challenges. Today, medical science is entering a revolutionary period marked by a shift in focus from acute to chronic diseases, rapidly escalating health care costs, a torrent of biological data generated by the sequencing of the human genome, and the development of advanced high-throughput technologies that allow for the study of vast molecular networks in health and disease. This unique period offers the unprecedented opportunity to identify individuals at risk of disease based on precise molecular knowledge, and the chance to intervene to preempt disease before it strikes. Conceptually, this represents the core scientific challenge of the coming century. The NIH is committed to the discoveries that will change the practice of medicine as we know it in order to meet this challenge. The NIH Roadmap constitutes an important vehicle for generating change-a most critical element of this plan is the reengineering of the national clinical research enterprise. This reinvention will call for the transformation of translational clinical science and for novel interdisciplinary approaches that will advance science and enhance the health of the nation. PMID:16174693

  17. Chitosan: A Promising Marine Polysaccharide for Biomedical Research.

    PubMed

    Periayah, Mercy Halleluyah; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Saad, Arman Zaharil Mat

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials created 50 years ago are still receiving considerable attention for their potential to support development in the biomedical field. Diverse naturally obtained polysaccharides supply a broad range of resources applicable in the biomedical field. Lately, chitosan, a marine polysaccharide derived from chitins-which are extracted from the shells of arthropods such as crab, shrimp, and lobster-is becoming the most wanted biopolymer for use toward therapeutic interventions. This is a general short review of chitosan, highlighting the history, properties, chemical structure, processing method, and factors influencing the usage of chitosan derivatives in the biomedical field. PMID:27041872

  18. Chitosan: A Promising Marine Polysaccharide for Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Periayah, Mercy Halleluyah; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Saad, Arman Zaharil Mat

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials created 50 years ago are still receiving considerable attention for their potential to support development in the biomedical field. Diverse naturally obtained polysaccharides supply a broad range of resources applicable in the biomedical field. Lately, chitosan, a marine polysaccharide derived from chitins—which are extracted from the shells of arthropods such as crab, shrimp, and lobster—is becoming the most wanted biopolymer for use toward therapeutic interventions. This is a general short review of chitosan, highlighting the history, properties, chemical structure, processing method, and factors influencing the usage of chitosan derivatives in the biomedical field. PMID:27041872

  19. Karma, reincarnation, and medicine: Hindu perspectives on biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Janis Faye; Sharp, Richard

    2008-12-01

    population. This study suggests that minority status does not automatically indicate unwillingness to participate in genetic or medical research. Indian Americans were not skeptical about the potential benefits of biomedical research in comparison to other ethnic minority communities in the United States. PMID:19479363

  20. Advances in the laboratory culture of octopuses for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, R T; Forsythe, J W

    1985-02-01

    Five species of Octopus were cultured in pilot, large-scale 2,600 liter circulating seawater systems. Improvements in system design, water management and culture methodology were described. These five species all produced large eggs and correspondingly large hatchlings that had no planktonic or larval stage and thus were easier to culture. Octopuses grew well only when fed live marine crustaceans, fishes and other molluscs. Growth occurred as a 4-7% increase in body weight per day during the early exponential growth phase and 2-4% during the latter 1/2 to 3/4 of the life cycle, which ranged from 6-15 months depending upon species. All species reproduced in captivity. Survival was 70-80% when octopuses were reared in individual containers, but in group culture survival dropped to as low as 40% by the adult stage. Causes of mortality were species-specific and included hatchling abnormalities, escapes, aggression, cannibalism, disease, senescence and laboratory accidents. Octopus bimaculoides showed superior qualities for laboratory culture. The future potential of providing American scientists with laboratory-cultured octopuses was discussed along with their uses in biomedical research. PMID:3981958

  1. The Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network Data Repository.

    PubMed

    Keator, David B; van Erp, Theo G M; Turner, Jessica A; Glover, Gary H; Mueller, Bryon A; Liu, Thomas T; Voyvodic, James T; Rasmussen, Jerod; Calhoun, Vince D; Lee, Hyo Jong; Toga, Arthur W; McEwen, Sarah; Ford, Judith M; Mathalon, Daniel H; Diaz, Michele; O'Leary, Daniel S; Jeremy Bockholt, H; Gadde, Syam; Preda, Adrian; Wible, Cynthia G; Stern, Hal S; Belger, Aysenil; McCarthy, Gregory; Ozyurt, Burak; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    The Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN) developed methods and tools for conducting multi-scanner functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Method and tool development were based on two major goals: 1) to assess the major sources of variation in fMRI studies conducted across scanners, including instrumentation, acquisition protocols, challenge tasks, and analysis methods, and 2) to provide a distributed network infrastructure and an associated federated database to host and query large, multi-site, fMRI and clinical data sets. In the process of achieving these goals the FBIRN test bed generated several multi-scanner brain imaging data sets to be shared with the wider scientific community via the BIRN Data Repository (BDR). The FBIRN Phase 1 data set consists of a traveling subject study of 5 healthy subjects, each scanned on 10 different 1.5 to 4 T scanners. The FBIRN Phase 2 and Phase 3 data sets consist of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder along with healthy comparison subjects scanned at multiple sites. In this paper, we provide concise descriptions of FBIRN's multi-scanner brain imaging data sets and details about the BIRN Data Repository instance of the Human Imaging Database (HID) used to publicly share the data. PMID:26364863

  2. Organization of Biomedical Data for Collaborative Scientific Research: A Research Information Management System

    PubMed Central

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L.

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers’ time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment. PMID:20543892

  3. Does science need bioethicists? Ethics and science collaboration in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Kerasidou, Angeliki; Parker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research is an increasingly multidisciplinary activity bringing together a range of different academic fields and forms of expertise to investigate diseases that are increasingly understood to be complex and multifactorial. Recently the discipline of ethics has been starting to find a place in large-scale biomedical collaborations. In this article we draw from our experience of working with the Malaria Genomic Epidemiology Network (MalariaGEN) and other research projects to reflect upon the integration of ethics into biomedical research. We examine the way in which ethics input may be valuable to research, the forms it tends to take, and also the problems and limitations of such collaborations. PMID:26430467

  4. Biomedical Engineering Bionanosystems Research at Louisiana Tech University

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, James; Lvov, Yuri; Hegab, Hisham; Snow, Dale; Wilson, Chester; McDonald, John; Walker, Lynn; Pratt, Jon; Davis, Despina; Agarwal, Mangilal; DeCoster, Mark; Feng, June; Que, Long; O'Neal, Chad; Guilbeau, Eric; Zivanovic, Sandra; Dobbins, Tabbetha; Gold, Scott; Mainardi, Daniela; Gowda, Shathabish; Napper, Stan

    2010-03-25

    The nature of this project is to equip and support research in nanoengineered systems for biomedical, bioenvironmental, and bioenergy applications. Funds provided by the Department of Energy (DoE) under this Congressional Directive were used to support two ongoing research projects at Louisiana Tech University in biomedical, bioenvironmental, and bioenergy applications. Two major projects (Enzyme Immobilization for Large Scale Reactors to Reduce Cellulosic Ethanol Costs, and Nanocatalysts for Coal and Biomass Conversion to Diesel Fuel) and to fund three to five additional seed projects were funded using the project budget. The project funds also allowed the purchase and repair of sophisticated research equipment that will support continued research in these areas for many years to come. Project funds also supported faculty, graduate students, and undergraduate students, contributing to the development of a technically sophisticated work force in the region and the State. Descriptions of the technical accomplishments for each funded project are provided. Biofuels are an important part of the solution for sustainable transportation fuel and energy production for the future. Unfortunately, the country's appetite for fuel cannot be satisfied with traditional sugar crops such as sugar cane or corn. Emerging technologies are allowing cellulosic biomass (wood, grass, stalks, etc.) to also be converted into ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol does not compete with food production and it has the potential to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 86% versus current fossil fuels (current techniques for corn ethanol only reduce greenhouse gases by 19%). Because of these advantages, the federal government has made cellulosic ethanol a high priority. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires a minimum production of at least 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol by 2022. Indeed, the Obama administration has signaled an ambitious commitment of achieving 2

  5. Role of Internet Images in the Biomedical Informatics Research Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, Simone; Gupta, Amarnath

    2003-01-01

    The Biomedical Informatics Research Network is wide breadth project sponsored by the American National Institutes of Health (NIH) to promote the use of modern telecommunication for data exchange and collaboration in brain research. The project is attempting to buid a database and network infrastructure in which neuroscientists will post, query, and analyze raw data, processed data, and the results of the analysis. The project is divided into parts, which analyze mouse brain data and human brain data, respectively. In this phase of the project, the data are essentially anatomical, while in a future phase we foresee the introduction of functional data. One important source of raw data, both for the mouse and the human brains are magnetic resonance images (MRI), which provide dense volumetric information of the density of the brain or (in the case of functional MRI), of the brain activity. In the case of the brain mouse, these data are supplemented with images of slices of brains and other histological measure. One important technical problem that we are facing in BIRN is that of managing these volumetric data, processing them (possibly using tools available only remotely), storing the results of the analyses, and making them available to all the institutions participating in the project. This paper describes the problems posed by the BIRN project, the importance of image data in these activities, and the challenges they pose. We will describe the shared environment that we are creating, and the facilities for storing, querying, remotely processing, and sharing the image data that constitute the bulk of the brain data that scientists are producing.

  6. Development of Tritium AMS for Biomedical Sciences Research

    SciTech Connect

    Dingley, K H; Chiarappa-Zucca, M L

    2002-01-01

    Tritium ({sup 3}H) is a radioisotope that is extensively utilized in biological research. Normally in the biological sciences, {sup 3}H is quantified by liquid scintillation counting. For the most sensitive measurements, liquid scintillation counting requires large samples and counting times of several-hours. In contrast, provisional studies at LLNL's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry have demonstrated that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) can be-used to quantify {sup 3}H in milligram-sized biological samples with a 100 1000-fold improvement in detection limits when compared to scintillation counting. This increased sensitivity is expected to have great impact in the biological research community. However, before {sup 3}H AMS can be used routinely and successfully, two areas of concern needed to be addressed: (1) sample preparation methods needed to be refined and standardized, and (2) smaller and simpler AMS instrumentation needed to be developed. To address these concerns, the specific aims of this project were to: (1) characterize small dedicated {sup 3}H AMS spectrometer (2) develop routine and robust biological sample preparation methods, and (3) with the aid of our external collaborations, demonstrate the application of {sup 3}H AMS in the biomedical sciences. Towards these goals, the {sup 3}H AMS instrument was installed and optimized to enhance performance. The sample preparation methodology was established for standard materials (water and tributyrin) and biological samples. A number of biological and environmental studies which require {sup 3}H AMS were undertaken with university collaborators and our optimized analysis methods were employed to measure samples from these projects.

  7. [Big Data: the great opportunities and challenges to microbiome and other biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenjiang

    2015-02-01

    With the development of high-throughput technologies, biomedical data has been increasing exponentially in an explosive manner. This brings enormous opportunities and challenges to biomedical researchers on how to effectively utilize big data. Big data is different from traditional data in many ways, described as 3Vs - volume, variety and velocity. From the perspective of biomedical research, here I introduced the characteristics of big data, such as its messiness, re-usage and openness. Focusing on microbiome research of meta-analysis, the author discussed the prospective principles in data collection, challenges of privacy protection in data management, and the scalable tools in data analysis with examples from real life. PMID:25736105

  8. DIVERSITY IN THE BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH WORKFORCE: DEVELOPING TALENT

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Richard; Saran, Suman; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the need for and barriers to achievement of greater diversity in the biomedical workforce from the perspectives of gender, race and ethnicity; this is not a new topic. These discussions often center around a ‘pipeline metaphor’ which imagines students flowing through a series of experiences to eventually arrive at a science career. Here we argue that diversity will only be achieved if the primary focus is on: what is happening within the pipeline, not just counting individuals entering and leaving it; de-emphasizing achieving academic milestones by ‘typical’ ages; and adopting approaches that most effectively develop talent. Students may develop skills at different rates based on factors such as earlier access to educational resources, exposure to science (especially research experiences), and competing demands for time and attention during high school and college. Therefore, there is wide variety among students at any point along the pipeline. Taking this view requires letting go of imagining the pipeline as a sequence of age-dependent steps in favor of milestones of skill and talent development decoupled from age or educational stage. Emphasizing talent development opens up many new approaches for science training outside of traditional degree programs. This article provides examples of such approaches, including interventions at the post-baccalaureate and PhD levels, as well as a novel coaching model that incorporates well-established social science theories and complements traditional mentoring. These approaches could significantly impact diversity by developing scientific talent, especially among currently underrepresented minorities. PMID:22678863

  9. Space research at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelhae, Vaeinoe

    The Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) performs research in satellite communication, remote sensing, and space techniques and instruments. Its objectives are space-related development in industry, promotion of applications, and instruments for space research. Several programs are discussed: TELE-X satellite, Aspera (plasma analyzer on Phobos), solar panel technologies, telecommunications and remote sensing with ESA and USSR, participation in the Finnish Energetic and Relativistic Nuclear Electron (ERNE)-CEPAC energetic particle analyzer, French and Finnish ERNE-SWAN project flying on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) to measure solar wind anisotropy, GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitor), and the Silicon X-ray Array (SIXA) detector for the Soviet Spectrum-X satellite.

  10. Evidence of Community Structure in Biomedical Research Grant Collaborations

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Kalinka, Alex T; Hogan, William R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have clearly demonstrated a shift towards collaborative research and team science approaches across a spectrum of disciplines. Such collaborative efforts have also been acknowledged and nurtured by popular extramurally funded programs including the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) conferred by the National Institutes of Health. Since its inception, the number of CTSA awardees has steadily increased to 60 institutes across 30 states. One of the objectives of CTSA is to accelerate translation of research from bench to bedside to community and train a new genre of researchers under the translational research umbrella. Feasibility of such a translation implicitly demands multi-disciplinary collaboration and mentoring. Networks have proven to be convenient abstractions for studying research collaborations. The present study is a part of the CTSA baseline study and investigates existence of possible community-structure in Biomedical Research Grant Collaboration (BRGC) networks across data sets retrieved from the internally developed grants management system, the Automated Research Information Administrator (ARIA) at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS). Fastgreedy and link-community community-structure detection algorithms were used to investigate the presence of non-overlapping and overlapping community-structure and their variation across years 2006 and 2009. A surrogate testing approach in conjunction with appropriate discriminant statistics, namely: the Modularity Index and the Maximum Partition Density is proposed to investigate whether the community-structure of the BRGC networks were different from those generated by certain types of random graphs. Non-overlapping as well as overlapping community-structure detection algorithms indicated the presence of community-structure in the BRGC network. Subsequent, surrogate testing revealed that random graph models considered in the present study may not necessarily be appropriate

  11. Crowdsourcing biomedical research: leveraging communities as innovation engines.

    PubMed

    Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Costello, James C; Friend, Stephen H; Kellen, Michael R; Mangravite, Lara; Meyer, Pablo; Norman, Thea; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2016-07-15

    The generation of large-scale biomedical data is creating unprecedented opportunities for basic and translational science. Typically, the data producers perform initial analyses, but it is very likely that the most informative methods may reside with other groups. Crowdsourcing the analysis of complex and massive data has emerged as a framework to find robust methodologies. When the crowdsourcing is done in the form of collaborative scientific competitions, known as Challenges, the validation of the methods is inherently addressed. Challenges also encourage open innovation, create collaborative communities to solve diverse and important biomedical problems, and foster the creation and dissemination of well-curated data repositories. PMID:27418159

  12. Six essential roles of health promotion research centres: the Atlantic Canada experience.

    PubMed

    Langille, Lynn L; Crowell, Sandra J; Lyons, Renée F

    2009-03-01

    Over the past 20 years, the federal government and universities across Canada have directed resources towards the development of university-based health promotion research centres. Researchers at health promotion research centres in Canada have produced peer-reviewed papers and policy documents based on their work, but no publications have emerged that focus on the specific roles of the health promotion research centres themselves. The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework, based on an in-depth examination of one centre, to help identify the unique roles of health promotion research centres and to clarify the value they add to promoting health and advancing university goals. Considering the shifting federal discourse on health promotion over time and the vulnerability of social and health sciences to changes in research funding priorities, health promotion research centres in Canada and elsewhere may need to articulate their unique roles and contributions in order to maintain a critical focus on health promotion research. The authors briefly describe the Atlantic Health Promotion Research Centre (AHPRC), propose a framework that illustrates six essential roles of health promotion research centres and describe the policy contexts and challenges of health promotion research centres. The analysis of research and knowledge translation activities over 15 years at AHPRC sheds light on the roles that health promotion research centres play in applied research. The conclusion raises questions regarding the value of university-based research centres and challenges to their sustainability. PMID:19171668

  13. Biomedical Engineering: A Compendium of Research Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This document was prepared to provide a comprehensive view of the programs in biomedical engineering in existence in 1969. These programs are supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and are located at 18 universities. This compendium provides information as to the intent and content of these programs from data provided by…

  14. Bovine tuberculosis research: Immune mechanisms relevant to biomedical applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pioneer studies on infectious disease and immunology by Jenner, Pasteur, Koch, Von Behring, Nocard, Roux, and Ehrlich forged a path for the dual-purpose with dual benefit approach, clearly demonstrating the relevance of veterinary studies for biomedical applications. Tuberculosis (TB), primarily due...

  15. Southwest Research Institute assistance to NASA in biomedical areas of the technology utilization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Applications of aerospace technology to biomedical science are described. Recent research and development of specific techniques, services, and equipment adopted by physicians to help combat disease and disability are reviewed.

  16. 78 FR 52777 - Implementation of the Revised International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Implementation of the Revised International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH)...

  17. The Tuskegee Legacy Project: Willingness of Minorities to Participate in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ralph V.; Russell, Stefanie L.; Kegeles, S. Steven; Kressin, Nancy R.; Green, B. Lee; Wang, Min Qi; James, Sherman A.; Claudio, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    The broad goal of the Tuskegee Legacy Project (TLP) study was to address, and understand, a range of issues related to the recruitment and retention of Blacks and other minorities in biomedical research studies. The specific aim of this analysis was to compare the self-reported willingness of Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites to participate as research subjects in biomedical studies, as measured by the Likelihood of Participation (LOP) Scale and the Guinea Pig Fear Factor (GPFF) Scale. The Tuskegee Legacy Project Questionnaire, a 60 item instrument, was administered to 1,133 adult Blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites in 4 U.S. cities. The findings revealed no difference in self-reported willingness to participate in biomedical research, as measured by the LOP Scale, between Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites, despite Blacks being 1.8 times as likely as Whites to have a higher fear of participation in biomedical research on the GPFF Scale. PMID:17242525

  18. Southwest Research Institute assistance to NASA in biomedical areas of the technology utilization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The problem statements presented relate mostly to research on prosthetic equipment and means of attaching biomedical and electronic devices to the human body. A patent application for a reliable switching element in a patient assist control units is also described.

  19. How do scientists perceive the current publication culture? A qualitative focus group interview study among Dutch biomedical researchers

    PubMed Central

    Schipper, K; Bouter, L M; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J; Smulders, Y M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Design Qualitative focus group interview study. Setting Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Participants Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD, postdoctoral staff members and full professors). Main outcome measures Main themes for discussion were selected by participants. Results Frequently perceived detrimental effects of contemporary publication culture were the strong focus on citation measures (like the Journal Impact Factor and the H-index), gift and ghost authorships and the order of authors, the peer review process, competition, the funding system and publication bias. These themes were generally associated with detrimental and undesirable effects on publication practices and on the validity of reported results. Furthermore, senior scientists tended to display a more cynical perception of the publication culture than their junior colleagues. However, even among the PhD students and the postdoctoral fellows, the sentiment was quite negative. Positive perceptions of specific features of contemporary scientific and publication culture were rare. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the current publication culture leads to negative sentiments, counterproductive stress levels and, most importantly, to questionable research practices among junior and senior biomedical scientists. PMID:26888726

  20. The CRC Contribution to Research Training: Report of a Scoping Study for the Cooperative Research Centres Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This report summarises findings from a scoping study conducted for the Cooperative Research Centres Association (CRCA) by the Centre for the Study of Higher Education. The purpose of the scoping study is to inform the research training activities of Cooperative Research Centres (CRCs). While previous studies have focussed on the outcomes supported…

  1. e-Science platform for translational biomedical imaging research: running, statistics, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tusheng; Yang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mingqing; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Lisa; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    In order to enable multiple disciplines of medical researchers, clinical physicians and biomedical engineers working together in a secured, efficient, and transparent cooperative environment, we had designed an e-Science platform for biomedical imaging research and application cross multiple academic institutions and hospitals in Shanghai and presented this work in SPIE Medical Imaging conference held in San Diego in 2012. In past the two-years, we implemented a biomedical image chain including communication, storage, cooperation and computing based on this e-Science platform. In this presentation, we presented the operating status of this system in supporting biomedical imaging research, analyzed and discussed results of this system in supporting multi-disciplines collaboration cross-multiple institutions.

  2. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. PMID:20955817

  3. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to Enable Resource Discovery in Clinical and Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D.; Whetzel, Patricia L.; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R.; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D.; Becich, Michael J.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Musen, Mark A.; Smith, Kevin A.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. PMID:20955817

  4. From the NIH: A Systems Approach to Increasing the Diversity of the Biomedical Research Workforce.

    PubMed

    Valantine, Hannah A; Lund, P Kay; Gammie, Alison E

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is committed to attracting, developing, and supporting the best scientists from all groups as an integral part of excellence in training. Biomedical research workforce diversity, capitalizing on the full spectrum of skills, talents, and viewpoints, is essential for solving complex human health challenges. Over the past few decades, the biomedical research workforce has benefited from NIH programs aimed at enhancing diversity. However, there is considerable room for improvement, particularly at the level of independent scientists and within scientific leadership. We provide a rationale and specific opportunities to develop and sustain a diverse biomedical research workforce through interventions that promote the successful transitions to different stages on the path toward completion of training and entry into the biomedical workforce. PMID:27587850

  5. From the NIH: A Systems Approach to Increasing the Diversity of the Biomedical Research Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Valantine, Hannah A.; Lund, P. Kay; Gammie, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is committed to attracting, developing, and supporting the best scientists from all groups as an integral part of excellence in training. Biomedical research workforce diversity, capitalizing on the full spectrum of skills, talents, and viewpoints, is essential for solving complex human health challenges. Over the past few decades, the biomedical research workforce has benefited from NIH programs aimed at enhancing diversity. However, there is considerable room for improvement, particularly at the level of independent scientists and within scientific leadership. We provide a rationale and specific opportunities to develop and sustain a diverse biomedical research workforce through interventions that promote the successful transitions to different stages on the path toward completion of training and entry into the biomedical workforce. PMID:27587850

  6. ROLE OF INSTITUTIONAL CLIMATE IN FOSTERING DIVERSITY IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH WORKFORCE: A CASE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Gary C.; Hurd, Yasmin; Palermo, Ann-Gel S.; Delbrune, Denise; Saran, Suman; Zony, Chati; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the barriers to diversity in biomedical research, describes the evolution and efforts to address climate issues to enhance the ability to attract, retain and develop underrepresented minorities (URM) - underrepresented minorities whose underrepresentation is found both in science and medicine, in the graduate school biomedical research doctoral programs (PhD and MD/PhD) at Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM). We also describe the potential beneficial impact of having a climate that supports diversity and inclusion in the biomedical research workforce. MSSM diversity climate efforts are discussed as part of a comprehensive plan to increase diversity in all institutional programs PhD, MD/PhD, MD, and at the residency, post doctoral fellow, and faculty levels. Lessons learned from four decades of targeted programs and activities at MSSM may be of value to other institutions interested in improving diversity in the biomedical science and academic medicine workforce. PMID:22786740

  7. Research Workforce Diversity: The Case of Balancing National versus International Postdocs in US Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Hawley, Joshua; Desai, Anand

    2013-01-01

    The US government has been increasingly supporting postdoctoral training in biomedical sciences to develop the domestic research workforce. However, current trends suggest that mostly international researchers benefit from the funding, many of whom might leave the USA after training. In this paper, we describe a model used to analyse the flow of national versus international researchers into and out of postdoctoral training. We calibrate our model in the case of the USA and successfully replicate the data. We use the model to conduct simulation-based analyses of effects of different policies on the diversity of postdoctoral researchers. Our model shows that capping the duration of postdoctoral careers, a policy proposed previously, favours international postdoctoral researchers. The analysis suggests that the leverage point to help the growth of domestic research workforce is in the pregraduate education area, and many policies implemented at the postgraduate level have minimal or unintended effects on diversity. PMID:25368504

  8. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee." PMID:15303410

  9. Effects of an Educational Intervention on Female Biomedical Scientists' Research Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Lori L.; Byars-Winston, Angela; Gundermann, Dawn M.; Ward, Earlise C.; Slattery, Angela; King, Andrea; Scott, Denise; Taylor, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Women and people of color continue to be underrepresented among biomedical researchers to an alarming degree. Research interest and subsequent productivity have been shown to be affected by the research training environment through the mediating effects of research self-efficacy. This article presents the findings of a study to determine whether a…

  10. Centre of the Cell: Science Comes to Life

    PubMed Central

    Balkwill, Frances; Chambers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Centre of the Cell is a unique biomedical science education centre, a widening participation and outreach project in London’s East End. This article describes Centre of the Cell’s first five years of operation, the evolution of the project in response to audience demand, and the impact of siting a major public engagement project within a research laboratory. PMID:26340279

  11. Text Summarization in the Biomedical Domain: A Systematic Review of Recent Research

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rashmi; Bian, Jiantao; Fiszman, Marcelo; Weir, Charlene R.; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Mostafa, Javed; Fiol, Guilherme Del

    2014-01-01

    Objective The amount of information for clinicians and clinical researchers is growing exponentially. Text summarization reduces information as an attempt to enable users to find and understand relevant source texts more quickly and effortlessly. In recent years, substantial research has been conducted to develop and evaluate various summarization techniques in the biomedical domain. The goal of this study was to systematically review recent published research on summarization of textual documents in the biomedical domain. Materials and methods MEDLINE (2000 to October 2013), IEEE Digital Library, and the ACM Digital library were searched. Investigators independently screened and abstracted studies that examined text summarization techniques in the biomedical domain. Information is derived from selected articles on five dimensions: input, purpose, output, method and evaluation. Results Of 10,786 studies retrieved, 34 (0.3%) met the inclusion criteria. Natural Language processing (17; 50%) and a Hybrid technique comprising of statistical, Natural language processing and machine learning (15; 44%) were the most common summarization approaches. Most studies (28; 82%) conducted an intrinsic evaluation. Discussion This is the first systematic review of text summarization in the biomedical domain. The study identified research gaps and provides recommendations for guiding future research on biomedical text summarization. conclusion Recent research has focused on a Hybrid technique comprising statistical, language processing and machine learning techniques. Further research is needed on the application and evaluation of text summarization in real research or patient care settings. PMID:25016293

  12. Acoustic separation and biomedical research: lessons from Indian regulation of compensation for research injury.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Megan E

    2015-01-01

    In early 2013, the Indian government introduced new rules governing the conduct of clinical trials involving human participants. Among other provisions, the law requires that sponsors of research compensate participants who are injured during the course of their research participation. This article examines the effects of India's compensation law and the efforts that policymakers in India have made to tailor the law since its passage. I use the legal concept of acoustic separation as a framework to explain and justify the approach that India has taken in refining its regulation of research related injuries. I conclude that India's example may provide useful lessons for research sponsors and lawmakers in other regulatory states seeking to promote a well-regulated biomedical research industry. PMID:25846042

  13. Leveraging dialog systems research to assist biomedical researchers' interrogation of Big Clinical Data.

    PubMed

    Hoxha, Julia; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-06-01

    The worldwide adoption of electronic health records (EHR) promises to accelerate clinical research, which lies at the heart of medical advances. However, the interrogation of such Big Data by clinical researchers can be laborious and error-prone, involving iterative and ineffective communication of data requests to data analysts. Research on this communication process is rare. There also exists no contemporary system that offers intelligent solutions to assist clinical researchers in their quest for clinical data. In this article, we first provide a detailed characterization of the challenges encountered in this communication space. Second, we identify promising synergies between fields studying human-to-human and human-machine communication that can shed light on biomedical data query mediation. We propose a mixed-initiative dialog-based approach to support autonomous clinical data access and recommend needed technology development and communication study for accelerating clinical research. PMID:27067901

  14. Incorporating collaboratory concepts into informatics in support of translational interdisciplinary biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Lee, E Sally; McDonald, David W; Anderson, Nicholas; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Due to its complex nature, modern biomedical research has become increasingly interdisciplinary and collaborative in nature. Although a necessity, interdisciplinary biomedical collaboration is difficult. There is, however, a growing body of literature on the study and fostering of collaboration in fields such as computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) and information science (IS). These studies of collaboration provide insight into how to potentially alleviate the difficulties of interdisciplinary collaborative research. We, therefore, undertook a cross cutting study of science and engineering collaboratories to identify emergent themes. We review many relevant collaboratory concepts: (a) general collaboratory concepts across many domains: communication, common workspace and coordination, and data sharing and management, (b) specific collaboratory concepts of particular biomedical relevance: data integration and analysis, security structure, metadata and data provenance, and interoperability and data standards, (c) environmental factors that support collaboratories: administrative and management structure, technical support, and available funding as critical environmental factors, and (d) future considerations for biomedical collaboration: appropriate training and long-term planning. In our opinion, the collaboratory concepts we discuss can guide planning and design of future collaborative infrastructure by biomedical informatics researchers to alleviate some of the difficulties of interdisciplinary biomedical collaboration. PMID:18706852

  15. Incorporating collaboratory concepts into informatics in support of translational interdisciplinary biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Lee, E. Sally; McDonald, David W.; Anderson, Nicholas; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Due to its complex nature, modern biomedical research has become increasingly interdisciplinary and collaborative in nature. Although a necessity, interdisciplinary biomedical collaboration is difficult. There is, however, a growing body of literature on the study and fostering of collaboration in fields such as computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) and information science (IS). These studies of collaboration provide insight into how to potentially alleviate the difficulties of interdisciplinary collaborative research. We, therefore, undertook a cross cutting study of science and engineering collaboratories to identify emergent themes. We review many relevant collaboratory concepts: (a) general collaboratory concepts across many domains: communication, common workspace and coordination, and data sharing and management, (b) specific collaboratory concepts of particular biomedical relevance: data integration and analysis, security structure, metadata and data provenance, and interoperability and data standards, (c) environmental factors that support collaboratories: administrative and management structure, technical support, and available funding as critical environmental factors, and (d) future considerations for biomedical collaboration: appropriate training and long-term planning. In our opinion, the collaboratory concepts we discuss can guide planning and design of future collaborative infrastructure by biomedical informatics researchers to alleviate some of the difficulties of interdisciplinary biomedical collaboration. PMID:18706852

  16. Profile: Manhiça Health Research Centre (Manhiça HDSS).

    PubMed

    Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhacolo, Ariel; Nhalungo, Delino; Aponte, John J; Bassat, Quique; Augusto, Orvalho; Mandomando, Inácio; Sacarlal, Jahit; Lauchande, Natu; Sigaúque, Betuel; Alonso, Pedro; Macete, Eusébio; Munguambe, Khátia; Guinovart, Caterina; Aide, Pedro; Menendez, Clara; Acácio, Sozinho; Quelhas, Diana; Sevene, Esperança; Nhampossa, Tacilta

    2013-10-01

    The Manhiça Health Research Centre, established in 1996 in a rural area of southern Mozambique, currently follows around 92 000 individuals living in approximately 20 000 enumerated and geo-positioned households. Its main strength is the possibility of linking demographic data and clinical data to promote and conduct biomedical research in priority health areas. Socio-demographic data are updated twice a year and clinical data are collected on a daily basis. The data collected in Manhiça HDSS comprises household and individual characteristics, household socio-economic assets, vital data, migration, individual health history and cause of death, among others. Studies conducted in this HDSS contributed to guide the health authorities and decision-making bodies to define or adjust health policies such as the introduction of Mozambique's expanded programme of immunization with different vaccines (Haemophilus influenzae type b, Pneumococcus) or the development of the concept of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Infants (IPTi) that led to the World Health Organization recommendation of this method as best practice for the control of malaria among infants. Manhiça's data can be accessed through a formal request to Diana Quelhas (diana.quelhas@manhica.net) accompanied by a proposal that will be analysed by the Manhiça HDSS internal scientific and ethics committees. PMID:24159076

  17. Recruiting intergenerational African American males for biomedical research Studies: a major research challenge.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Goldie S; Edwards, Christopher L; Kelkar, Vinaya A; Phillips, Ruth G; Byrd, Jennifer R; Pim-Pong, Dora Som; Starks, Takiyah D; Taylor, Ashleigh L; Mckinley, Raechel E; Li, Yi-Ju; Pericak-Vance, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    The health and well-being of all individuals, independent of race, ethnicity, or gender, is a significant public health concern. Despite many improvements in the status of minority health, African American males continue to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rate of any race-sex group in the United States. Such disparities are accounted for by deaths from a number of diseases such as diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as by many historical and present social and cultural constructs that present as obstacles to better health outcomes. Distrust of the medical community, inadequate education, low socioeconomic status, social deprivation, and underutilized primary health care services all contribute to disproportionate health and health care outcomes among African Americans compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Results of clinical research on diseases that disproportionately affect African American males are often limited in their reliability due to common sampling errors existing in the majority of biomedical research studies and clinical trials. There are many reasons for underrepresentation of African American males in clinical trials, including their common recollection and interpretation of relevant historical of biomedical events where minorities were abused or exposed to racial discrimination or racist provocation. In addition, African American males continue to be less educated and more disenfranchised from the majority in society than Caucasian males and females and their African American female counterparts. As such, understanding their perceptions, even in early developmental years, about health and obstacles to involvement in research is important. In an effort to understand perspectives about their level of participation, motivation for participation, impact of education, and engagement in research, this study was designed to explore factors that impact their willingness to participate. Our

  18. Spacelab Life Sciences 3 biomedical research using the Rhesus Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, R. W.; Searby, N. D.; Stone, L. S.; Hogan, R. P.; Viso, M.; Venet, M.

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, a letter of agreement was signed between the French space agency, CNES, and NASA, formally initiating a joint venture called the RHESUS Project. The goal of this project is to provide a facility to fly rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to support spaceflight experiments which are applicable but not practical to carry out on human subjects. Biomedical investigations in behavior/performance, immunology/microbiology, muscle physiology, cardiopulmonary physiology, bone/calcium physiology, regulatory physiology, and neurophysiology disciplines will be performed. The Rhesus Research Facility, hardware capable of supporting two adult rhesus monkeys in a microgravity environment, is being developed for a first flight on Spacelab Life Sciences in early 1996.

  19. A "meta"-perspective on "bit rot" of biomedical research data.

    PubMed

    Dickmann, Frank; Grütz, Romanus; Rienhoff, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Research data management (RDM) is an important topic for biomedical research due to the issue of "bit rot". RDM aims to implement access to reliable digital data for local and distributed research groups. A key aspect for the understanding of data is the use of metadata. This understanding has been investigated on the basis of two use cases of the DFG project LABIMI/F: RDM for genome data and biomedical image data. The results show that metadata can improve research not only for others but also for the researcher himself. However, RDM is still far from integrating all biomedical data. In addition, RDM is not (yet) a valid approach for clinical trial data management. PMID:22874192

  20. Analyser-based x-ray imaging for biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suortti, Pekka; Keyriläinen, Jani; Thomlinson, William

    2013-12-01

    Analyser-based imaging (ABI) is one of the several phase-contrast x-ray imaging techniques being pursued at synchrotron radiation facilities. With advancements in compact source technology, there is a possibility that ABI will become a clinical imaging modality. This paper presents the history of ABI as it has developed from its laboratory source to synchrotron imaging. The fundamental physics of phase-contrast imaging is presented both in a general sense and specifically for ABI. The technology is dependent on the use of perfect crystal monochromator optics. The theory of the x-ray optics is developed and presented in a way that will allow optimization of the imaging for specific biomedical systems. The advancement of analytical algorithms to produce separate images of the sample absorption, refraction angle map and small-angle x-ray scattering is detailed. Several detailed applications to biomedical imaging are presented to illustrate the broad range of systems and body sites studied preclinically to date: breast, cartilage and bone, soft tissue and organs. Ultimately, the application of ABI in clinical imaging will depend partly on the availability of compact sources with sufficient x-ray intensity comparable with that of the current synchrotron environment.

  1. Research report: learning styles of biomedical engineering students.

    PubMed

    Dee, Kay C; Nauman, Eric A; Livesay, Glen A; Rice, Janet

    2002-09-01

    Examining students' learning styles can yield information useful to the design of learning activities, courses, and curricula. A variety of measures have been used to characterize learning styles, but the literature contains little information specific to biomedical engineering (BMEN) students. We, therefore, utilized Felder's Index of Learning Styles to investigate the learning style preferences of BMEN students at Tulane University. Tulane BMEN students preferred to receive information visually (preferred by 88% of the student sample) rather than verbally, focus on sensory information (55%) instead of intuitive information, process information actively (66%) instead of reflectively, and understand information globally (59%) rather than sequentially. These preferences varied between cohorts (freshman, sophomore, etc.) and a significantly higher percentage of female students preferred active and sensing learning styles. Compared to other engineering student populations, our sample of Tulane BMEN students contained the highest percentage of students preferring the global learning style. Whether this is a general trend for all BMEN students or a trait specific to Tulane engineers requires further investigation. Regardless, this study confirms the existence of a range of learning styles within biomedical engineering students, and provides motivation for instructors to consider how well their teaching style engages multiple learning styles. PMID:12449770

  2. Research Informed Science Enrichment Programs at the Gravity Discovery Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Grady; Blair, David; Coward, David; Deshon, Fred; Gargano, Mark; Gondwe, Mzamose; Heary, Auriol; Longnecker, Nancy; Pitts, Marina; Zadnik, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    Excursions to museums and science centres generally are great fun for students and teachers. The potential educational benefits beyond enjoyment, however, are rarely realised or analysed for their efficacy. The purpose of this paper is to describe four educational enrichment programs delivered at the Gravity Discovery Centre (GDC), near Gingin,…

  3. Golden Helix Institute of Biomedical Research: Interdisciplinary research and educational activities in pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Innocenti, Federico; van Schaik, Ron H.; Lezhava, Alexander; Tzimas, Giannis; Kollia, Panagoula; Macek, Milan; Fortina, Paolo; Patrinos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    The Golden Helix Institute of Biomedical Research is an international non-profit scientific organization with interdisciplinary research and educational activities in the field of genome medicine in Europe, Asia and Latin America. These activities are supervised by an international scientific advisory council, consisting of world leaders in the field of genomics and translational medicine. Research activities include the regional coordination of the Pharmacogenomics for Every Nation Initiative in Europe, in an effort to integrate pharmacogenomics in developing countries, the development of several National/Ethnic Genetic databases and related web services and the critical assessment of the impact of genetics and genomic medicine to society in various countries. Also, educational activities include the organization of the Golden Helix Symposia®, which are high profile scientific research symposia in the field of personalized medicine, and the Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days, an international educational activity focused on pharmacogenomics, as part of its international pharmacogenomics education and outreach efforts. PMID:22379996

  4. Biomedical research, a tool to address the health issues that affect African populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, biomedical research endeavors in low to middle resources countries have focused on communicable diseases. However, data collected over the past 20 years by the World Health Organization (WHO) show a significant increase in the number of people suffering from non-communicable diseases (e.g. heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases). Within the coming years, WHO predicts significant decreases in communicable diseases while non-communicable diseases are expected to double in low and middle income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The predicted increase in the non-communicable diseases population could be economically burdensome for the basic healthcare infrastructure of countries that lack resources to address this emerging disease burden. Biomedical research could stimulate development of healthcare and biomedical infrastructure. If this development is sustainable, it provides an opportunity to alleviate the burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases through diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In this paper, we discuss how research using biomedical technology, especially genomics, has produced data that enhances the understanding and treatment of both communicable and non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. We further discuss how scientific development can provide opportunities to pursue research areas responsive to the African populations. We limit our discussion to biomedical research in the areas of genomics due to its substantial impact on the scientific community in recent years however, we also recognize that targeted investments in other scientific disciplines could also foster further development in African countries. PMID:24143865

  5. Exposome informatics: considerations for the design of future biomedical research information systems

    PubMed Central

    Martin Sanchez, Fernando; Gray, Kathleen; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The environment's contribution to health has been conceptualized as the exposome. Biomedical research interest in environmental exposures as a determinant of physiopathological processes is rising as such data increasingly become available. The panoply of miniaturized sensing devices now accessible and affordable for individuals to use to monitor a widening range of parameters opens up a new world of research data. Biomedical informatics (BMI) must provide a coherent framework for dealing with multi-scale population data including the phenome, the genome, the exposome, and their interconnections. The combination of these more continuous, comprehensive, and personalized data sources requires new research and development approaches to data management, analysis, and visualization. This article analyzes the implications of a new paradigm for the discipline of BMI, one that recognizes genome, phenome, and exposome data and their intricate interactions as the basis for biomedical research now and for clinical care in the near future. PMID:24186958

  6. The Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG): infrastructure and applications for a worldwide research community.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Information explosion and new advances in high throughput experiments have challenged biomedical research, and suggested a future in which inter-institutional and international collaborations will be the norm. The cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid is an ambitious initiative launched by the US National Cancer Institute to develop a network of tools, data, and researchers to support translational and clinical research in oncology, with an ultimate goal to improve cancer care for patients. The three year pilot phase of caBIG ends in 2007, and has engaged over 900 clinicians, scientists, and patient advocates as developers, adopters, and workspace participants. Progress has been demonstrated in creating tools and building prototype grid architecture for collaborative research. Accomplishments in the pilot phase set the stage for extension of the community into other biomedical domains and for federation of the caBIG enterprise with similar initiatives in other scientific areas and in other countries. PMID:17911733

  7. A review of the Institute of Medicine's analysis of using chimpanzees in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert C; Greek, Ray

    2014-06-01

    We argue that the recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine's 2011 report, Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research: Assessing the Necessity, are methodologically and ethically confused. We argue that a proper understanding of evolution and complexity theory in terms of the science and ethics of using chimpanzees in biomedical research would have had led the committee to recommend not merely limiting but eliminating the use of chimpanzees in biomedical research. Specifically, we argue that a proper understanding of the difference between the gross level of examination of species and examinations on finer levels can shed light on important methodological and ethical inconsistencies leading to ignorance of potentially unethical practices and policies regarding the use of animals in scientific research. PMID:23616243

  8. Putting Electrospun Nanofibers to Work for Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jingwei; Li, Xiaoran; Xia, Younan

    2009-01-01

    Electrospinning has been exploited for almost one century to process polymers and related materials into nanofibers with controllable compositions, diameters, porosities, and porous structures for a variety of applications. Owing to its high porosity and large surface area, a non-woven mat of electrospun nanofibers can serve as an ideal scaffold to mimic the extracellular matrix for cell attachment and nutrient transportation. The nanofiber itself can also be functionalized through encapsulation or attachment of bioactive species such as extracellular matrix proteins, enzymes, and growth factors. In addition, the nanofibers can be further assembled into a variety of arrays or architectures by manipulating their alignment, stacking, or folding. All these attributes make electrospinning a powerful tool for generating nanostructured materials for a range of biomedical applications that include controlled release, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. PMID:20011452

  9. Head and Neck Mycetoma: The Mycetoma Research Centre Experience

    PubMed Central

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, EL Sheikh; EL Hassan, Ahmed Mohamed; Jacoub, Angom Osman; Hassan, Doaa

    2015-01-01

    Mycetoma is a unique neglected tropical disease which is endemic in what is known as the “mycetoma belt”. The disease has many devastating impacts on patients and communities in endemic area and is characterised by massive deformity, destruction and disability. Mycetoma is commonly seen in the foot and hand and less frequent in other parts of the body. Mycetoma of the head and neck is a rarity and is associated with high morbidity and even mortality if not treated early. In this communication we report on 49 patients with head and neck mycetoma followed up at the Mycetoma Research Centre in Khartoum. Most of the reported patients had actinomycetoma and the majority were young adult males from mycetoma endemic areas in the Sudan. Most of them were students, farmers and workers. Prior to presentation the majority had long disease duration and the cause was multifactorial. Advanced disease with massive lesion, deformity and disability was the common presentation. There was no obvious history of local trauma, familial tendency or other predisposing factor identified in this group of patients. MRI and CT scan were the most accurate diagnostic tools to determine the disease extent. The treatment outcome was rather poor and characterised by low cure rate, poor outcome and high follows-up dropout. Such a gloomy outcome calls for structured and objective health education programs. PMID:25768090

  10. Medical and biomedical research productivity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (2008-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biomedical publications from a country mirror the standard of Medical Education and practice in that country. It is important that the performance of the health profession is occasionally documented. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of biomedical publications from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in international journals indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2012. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications associated with KSA from 2008 to 2012. The search was limited to medical and biomedical subjects. Results were saved in a text file and later checked carefully to exclude false positive errors. The quality of the publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report 2012. Results: Biomedical research production in KSA in those 5 years showed a clear linear progression. Riyadh was the main hub of medical and biomedical research activity. Most of the publications (40.9%) originated from King Saud University (KSU). About half of the articles were published in journals with an Impact Factor (IF) of < 1, one-fourth in journals with no IF, and the remaining one-fourth in journals with a high IF (≥1). Conclusion: This study revealed that research activity in KSA is increasing. However, there is an increasing trend of publishing in local journals with a low IF. More effort is required to promote medical research in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25657608