Science.gov

Sample records for biomolecules equipment design

  1. PASADENA hyperpolarization of 13C biomolecules: equipment design and installation

    PubMed Central

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Harris, Kent C.; Perman, William H.; Robertson, Larry W.; Bhattacharya, Pratip

    2009-01-01

    Object The PASADENA method has achieved hyperpolarization of 16–20% (exceeding 40,000-fold signal enhancement at 4.7 T), in liquid samples of biological molecules relevant to in vivo MRI and MRS. However, there exists no commercial apparatus to perform this experiment conveniently and reproducibly on the routine basis necessary for translation of PASADENA to questions of biomedical importance. The present paper describes equipment designed for rapid production of six to eight liquid samples per hour with high reproducibility of hyperpolarization. Materials and methods Drawing on an earlier, but unpublished, prototype, we provide diagrams of a delivery circuit, a laminar-flow reaction chamber within a low field NMR contained in a compact, movable housing. Assembly instructions are provided from which a computer driven, semiautomated PASADENA polarizer can be constructed. Results Together with an available parahydrogen generator, the polarizer, which can be operated by a single investigator, completes one cycle of hyperpolarization each 52 s. Evidence of efficacy is presented. In contrast to competing, commercially available devices for dynamic nuclear polarization which characteristically require 90 min per cycle, PASADENA provides a low-cost alternative for high throughput. Conclusions This equipment is suited to investigators who have an established small animal NMR and wish to explore the potential of heteronuclear (13C and 15N) MRI, MRS, which harnesses the enormous sensitivity gain offered by hyperpolarization. PMID:19067008

  2. Design and characterization of nanomaterial-biomolecule conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Tae-Jin

    In the field of nanobiotechnology, nanoscale dimensions result in physical properties that differ from more conventional bulk material state. The integration of nanomaterials with biomolecules has begun to be used for unique physical properties, and for biological specific recognition, thereby leading to novel nanomaterial-biomolecule conjugates. The direction of this dissertation is to develop biocatalytic nanomaterial-biomolecule conjugates and to characterize them. For this, biological catalysts are employed to combine with nanomaterials. Two large parts include functional ization of nanomaterials with biomolecules and assembly of nanomaterials using a biological catalyst. First part of this thesis work is the exploration of the biocatalytic properties of nanomaterial-biomolecule conjugates. Si nanocolumns have higher surface area which leads more amount of biocatalytis immobilization than flat Si wafer with the same projected area. The enhanced activity of soybean peroxidase (SBP) immobilized onto Si nanocolumns as novel nanostructured supports is focused. Next, the catalytic activity of immobilized DNAzyme onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is compared to that in solution phase, and multiple turnovers are examined. The relationship between hybridization efficiency and activity is investigated as a function of surface density of DNAzyme on MWNTs. Then, cellular delivery of silica nanoparticle-protein conjugates is visually confirmed and therefore the intracellular function of a protein delivered by silica nanoparticle-protein conjugates is proved. For one example of the intracellular function, stable SBP immobilized onto silica nanoparticles to activate a prodrug is demonstrated. Second part of this thesis work is the formation of nanostructured materials through the enzymatic assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Enzymatic polymerization of a phenol compound is applied to the bridging of two or more SWNTs functionalized with phenol

  3. Fundamentals of microelectronic equipment design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenashev, A. P.; Koledov, L. A.

    Microelectronic equipment design is reviewed with reference to general design principles and criteria, role of standardization, design of microcircuit components, and assembly techniques. Particular attention is given to the design of hybrid integrated circuitry and discrete radioelectronic components. Design methods for providing adequate temperature conditions and protection from humidity and mechanical overloads as well as component layout criteria are also discussed.

  4. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably...

  5. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably...

  6. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably...

  7. 21 CFR 58.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equipment design. 58.61 Section 58.61 Food and... PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Equipment § 58.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  8. 21 CFR 58.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equipment design. 58.61 Section 58.61 Food and... PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Equipment § 58.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  9. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792... (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  10. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792... (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  11. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792... (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  12. 21 CFR 58.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equipment design. 58.61 Section 58.61 Food and... PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Equipment § 58.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  13. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792... (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  14. 21 CFR 58.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment design. 58.61 Section 58.61 Food and... PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Equipment § 58.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  15. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably...

  16. 40 CFR 792.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equipment design. 792.61 Section 792.61...) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the... of appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall...

  17. 40 CFR 160.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment design. 160.61 Section 160... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation... appropriate design and adequate capacity to function according to the protocol and shall be suitably...

  18. 21 CFR 58.61 - Equipment design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equipment design. 58.61 Section 58.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Equipment § 58.61 Equipment design. Equipment used in the generation, measurement, or assessment of data...

  19. [Design of transdermal ultrasonophoresis equipment].

    PubMed

    Li, Liangcheng; Zhang, Yongshun; Li, Zhonghong

    2009-02-01

    The recent fast development in biotechnology has resulted in a large number of therapeutic biologicals coming in the foreground for clinical application. Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is designed for patching the drug on the skin, and then the drug molecules permeate through the skin into the subcutaneous capillary vessels. However,very few drugs can be administered transdermally at the therapeutic levels to pass through the barrier of stratum corneum. Several physical and chemical methods are applied to improve the permeability of skin. Research result shows that the low-frequency ultrasonic technique can extraordinarily increase the rate of permeation. As a result, it is becoming one of the potential methods that serve as the substitutes for traditional methods. In this paper is presented a type of equipment based on MSP430. The principle of design, the structure of hardware, and the applied function in this area are described. PMID:19334582

  20. Design and applications of gold nanoparticle conjugates by exploiting biomolecule-gold nanoparticle interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shao; Zuo, Xiaolei; Pan, Dun; Pei, Hao; Wang, Lianhui; Fan, Chunhai; Huang, Wei

    2013-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a type of widely used nanomaterials with unique chemical and physical properties. AuNPs can be readily synthesized, and modified with various chemical or biological molecules, making them promising candidates for catalysis, drug delivery and biological imaging applications. In this review, we mainly focus on recent advances in the design and synthesis of conjugates of AuNPs by exploiting biomolecule-AuNP interactions. We will also discuss a variety of bioapplications of AuNP-based conjugates.

  1. Bifunctional chelating agent for the design and development of site specific radiopharmaceuticals and biomolecule conjugation strategy

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Prabhu, Kandikere R.; Gali, Hariprasad; Pillarsetty, Nagavara Kishore; Volkert, Wynn A.

    2003-10-21

    There is provided a method of labeling a biomolecule with a transition metal or radiometal in a site specific manner to produce a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical compound by synthesizing a P.sub.2 N.sub.2 -bifunctional chelating agent intermediate, complexing the intermediate with a radio metal or a transition metal, and covalently linking the resulting metal-complexed bifunctional chelating agent with a biomolecule in a site specific manner. Also provided is a method of synthesizing the --PR.sub.2 containing biomolecules by synthesizing a P.sub.2 N.sub.2 -bifunctional chelating agent intermediate, complexing the intermediate with a radiometal or a transition metal, and covalently linking the resulting radio metal-complexed bifunctional chelating agent with a biomolecule in a site specific manner. There is provided a therapeutic or diagnostic agent comprising a --PR.sub.2 containing biomolecule.

  2. Design Modification of Electrophoretic Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddick, J. M.; Hirsch, I.

    1973-01-01

    The improved design of a zone electrophoretic sampler is reported that can be used in mass screening for hemoglobin S, the cause of sickle cell anemia. Considered is a high voltage multicell cellulose acetate device that requires 5 to 6 minutes electrophoresis periods; cells may be activitated individually or simultaneously. A multisample hemoglobin applicator standardizes the amount of sample applied and transfers the homolysate to the electrical wires.

  3. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  4. Optimization of biomolecule separation by combining microscale filtration and design-of-experiment methods.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Amir S; Kawka, Karina; Latulippe, David R

    2016-10-01

    There is considerable interest in developing microscale (i.e., high-throughput) methods that enable multiple filtration experiments to be run in parallel with smaller sample amounts and thus reduce the overall required time and associated cost to run the filtration tests. Previous studies to date have focused on simply evaluating the filtration capacity, not the separation performance. In this work, the stirred-well filtration (SWF) method was used in combination with design-of-experiment (DOE) methods to optimize the separation performance for three binary mixtures of bio-molecules: protein-protein, protein-polysaccharide, and protein-DNA. Using the parallel based format of the SWF method, eight constant-flux ultrafiltration experiments were conducted at once to study the effects of stirring conditions, permeate flux, and/or solution conditions (pH, ionic strength). Four separate filtration tests were conducted for each combination of process variables; in total, over 100 separate tests were conducted. The sieving coefficient and selectivity results are presented to match the DOE design format and enable a greater understanding of the effects of the different process variables that were studied. The method described herein can be used to rapidly determine the optimal combination of process factors that give the best separation performance for a range of membrane-based separations applications and thus obviate the need to run a large number of traditional lab-scale tests. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2131-2139. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27563852

  5. OFFICE EQUIPMENT: DESIGN, INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS, AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on office equipment design; indoor air emissions of organics, ozone, and particulates from office equipment; and pollution prevention approaches for reducing these emissions. Since much of the existing emissions data from office equipme...

  6. Shuttle orbiter S-band payload communications equipment design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springett, J. C.; Maronde, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of the design, and the performance assessment of the Orbiter S-band communication equipment are reported. The equipment considered include: network transponder, network signal processor, FM transmitter, FM signal processor, payload interrogator, and payload signal processor.

  7. Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Evaluation of the Air Amplifier for Improved Detection of Biomolecules by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Robichaud, Guillaume; Dixon, R. Brent; Potturi, Amarnatha S.; Cassidy, Dan; Edwards, Jack R.; Sohn, Alex; Dow, Thomas A.; Muddiman, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Through a multi-disciplinary approach, the air amplifier is being evolved as a highly engineered device to improve detection limits of biomolecules when using electrospray ionization. Several key aspects have driven the modifications to the device through experimentation and simulations. We have developed a computer simulation that accurately portrays actual conditions and the results from these simulations are corroborated by the experimental data. These computer simulations can be used to predict outcomes from future designs resulting in a design process that is efficient in terms of financial cost and time. We have fabricated a new device with annular gap control over a range of 50 to 70 μm using piezoelectric actuators. This has enabled us to obtain better aerodynamic performance when compared to the previous design (2× more vacuum) and also more reproducible results. This is allowing us to study a broader experimental space than the previous design which is critical in guiding future directions. This work also presents and explains the principles behind a fractional factorial design of experiments methodology for testing a large number of experimental parameters in an orderly and efficient manner to understand and optimize the critical parameters that lead to obtain improved detection limits while minimizing the number of experiments performed. Preliminary results showed that several folds of improvements could be obtained for certain condition of operations (up to 34 folds). PMID:21499524

  8. Shuttle orbiter S-band communications equipment design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springett, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    An assessment of S-band communication equipment includes: (1) the review and analysis of the ability of the various subsystem avionic equipment designs to interface with, and operate on signals from/to adjoining equipment; (2) the performance peculiarities of the hardware against the overall specified system requirements; and (3) the evaluation of EMC EMI test results of the various equipment with respect to the possibility of mutual interferences.

  9. Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-13

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

  10. A source for microhydrated biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Förstel, M; Neustetter, M; Denifl, S; Lelievre, F; Hergenhahn, U

    2015-07-01

    We describe the construction of an apparatus for the production of a molecular jet of microhydrated biomolecules. Our design uses a water reservoir producing water vapour, which then passes through a separate reservoir containing a vapour of a sublimated biomolecule. The mixture coexpands into a molecular beam apparatus through a conical nozzle. Mass spectra showing water-adenin and water-uracil complexes are shown as typical examples. Suitable expansion conditions are reached without the use of an inert carrier gas. PMID:26233352

  11. A source for microhydrated biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Förstel, M.; Hergenhahn, U.; Neustetter, M.; Denifl, S.; Lelievre, F.

    2015-07-15

    We describe the construction of an apparatus for the production of a molecular jet of microhydrated biomolecules. Our design uses a water reservoir producing water vapour, which then passes through a separate reservoir containing a vapour of a sublimated biomolecule. The mixture coexpands into a molecular beam apparatus through a conical nozzle. Mass spectra showing water-adenin and water-uracil complexes are shown as typical examples. Suitable expansion conditions are reached without the use of an inert carrier gas.

  12. Design guidelines for remotely maintainable equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Margaret M.; Manouchehri, Davoud

    1988-01-01

    The quantity and complexity of on-orbit assets will increase significantly over the next decade. Maintaining and servicing these costly assets represent a difficult challenge. Three general methods are proposed to maintain equipment while it is still in orbit: an extravehicular activity (EVA) crew can perform the task in an unpressurized maintenance area outside any space vehicle; an intravehicular activity (IVA) crew can perform the maintenance in a shirt sleeve environment, perhaps at a special maintenance work station in a space vehicle; or a telerobotic manipulator can perform the maintenance in an unpressurized maintenance area at a distance from the crew (who may be EVA, IVA, or on the ground). However, crew EVA may not always be possible; the crew may have other demands on their time that take precedence. In addition, the orbit of the tasks themselves may be impossible for crew entry. Also crew IVA may not always be possible as option for equipment maintenance. For example, the equipment may be too large to fit through the vehicle airlock. Therefore, in some circumstances, the third option, telerobotic manipulation, may be the only feasible option. Telerobotic manipulation has, therefore, an important role for on-orbit maintenance. It is not only used for the reasons outlined above, but also used in some cases as backup to the EVA crew in an orbit that they can reach.

  13. Recent advancements in nanotechnological strategies in selection, design and delivery of biomolecules for skin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Korrapati, Purna Sai; Karthikeyan, K; Satish, Aishwarya; Krishnaswamy, Venkat Raghavan; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2016-10-01

    Skin is a very complex organ and hence designing a bioengineered skin model replicating the essential physiological characteristics for replacing the diseased or damaged parts has been a challenging goal for many. Newer technologies for satisfying most of the criteria are being attempted with the copious efforts of biologists, engineers, physiologists, using multitude of features in combination. Amongst them nanotechnology based biomaterials have gained prominence owing to the enhanced pharmacokinetics, bio-distribution profile, extended half-life and reduced side effects. Designing a matrix that can be assimilated into the body during the regeneration and delivering the essential pharmacological agents in a temporal and spatially specific manner is a tremendous goal. This review essentially deals with the various approaches for designing a multidisciplinary translational smart matrix for addressing the various skin related ailments. PMID:27287175

  14. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  15. Design of equipment for lunar dust removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belden, Lacy; Cowan, Kevin; Kleespies, Hank; Ratliff, Ryan; Shah, Oniell; Shelburne, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    NASA has a long range goal of constructing a fully equipped, manned lunar base on the near side of the moon by the year 2015. During the Apollo Missions, lunar dust coated and fouled equipment surfaces and mechanisms exposed to the lunar environment. In addition, the atmosphere and internal surfaces of the lunar excursion module were contaminated by lunar dust which was brought in on articles passed through the airlock. Consequently, the need exists for device or appliance to remove lunar dust from surfaces of material objects used outside of the proposed lunar habitat. Additionally, several concepts were investigated for preventing the accumulation of lunar dust on mechanisms and finished surfaces. The character of the dust and the lunar environment present unique challenges for the removal of contamination from exposed surfaces. In addition to a study of lunar dust adhesion properties, the project examines the use of various energy domains for removing the dust from exposed surfaces. Also, prevention alternatives are examined for systems exposed to lunar dust. A concept utilizing a pressurized gas is presented for dust removal outside of an atmospherically controlled environment. The concept consists of a small astronaut/robotic compatible device which removes dust from contaminated surfaces by a small burst of gas.

  16. Design and Implementation of Functional Nanoelectronic Interfaces With Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissue Using Nanowire Device Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Timko, Brian P.; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Qing, Quan; Tian, Bozhi; Lieber, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowire FETs (NWFETs) are promising building blocks for nanoscale bioelectronic interfaces with cells and tissue since they are known to exhibit exquisite sensitivity in the context of chemical and biological detection, and have the potential to form strongly coupled interfaces with cell membranes. We present a general scheme that can be used to assemble NWs with rationally designed composition and geometry on either planar inorganic or biocompatible flexible plastic surfaces. We demonstrate that these devices can be used to measure signals from neurons, cardiomyocytes, and heart tissue. Reported signals are in millivolts range, which are equal to or substantially greater than those recorded with either planar FETs or multielectrode arrays, and demonstrate one unique advantage of NW-based devices. Basic studies showing the effect of device sensitivity and cell/substrate junction quality on signal magnitude are presented. Finally, our demonstrated ability to design high-density arrays of NWFETs enables us to map signal at the subcellular level, a functionality not enabled by conventional microfabricated devices. These advances could have broad applications in high-throughput drug assays, fundamental biophysical studies of cellular function, and development of powerful prosthetics. PMID:21785576

  17. Equipment design guidance document for flammable gas waste storage tank new equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Smet, D.B.

    1996-04-11

    This document is intended to be used as guidance for design engineers who are involved in design of new equipment slated for use in Flammable Gas Waste Storage Tanks. The purpose of this document is to provide design guidance for all new equipment intended for application into those Hanford storage tanks in which flammable gas controls are required to be addressed as part of the equipment design. These design criteria are to be used as guidance. The design of each specific piece of new equipment shall be required, as a minimum to be reviewed by qualified Unreviewed Safety Question evaluators as an integral part of the final design approval. Further Safety Assessment may be also needed. This guidance is intended to be used in conjunction with the Operating Specifications Documents (OSDs) established for defining work controls in the waste storage tanks. The criteria set forth should be reviewed for applicability if the equipment will be required to operate in locations containing unacceptable concentrations of flammable gas.

  18. 21 CFR 211.63 - Equipment design, size, and location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment design, size, and location. 211.63 Section 211.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Equipment §...

  19. 21 CFR 211.63 - Equipment design, size, and location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equipment design, size, and location. 211.63 Section 211.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Equipment §...

  20. 21 CFR 211.63 - Equipment design, size, and location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equipment design, size, and location. 211.63 Section 211.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Equipment §...

  1. 21 CFR 211.63 - Equipment design, size, and location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equipment design, size, and location. 211.63 Section 211.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Equipment §...

  2. 21 CFR 211.63 - Equipment design, size, and location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equipment design, size, and location. 211.63 Section 211.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Equipment §...

  3. Design and synthesis of efficient fluorescent dyes for incorporation into DNA backbone and biomolecule detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Li, Alexander D Q

    2007-01-01

    We report here the design and synthesis of a series of pi-conjugated fluorescent dyes with D-A-D (D, donor; A, acceptor), D-pi-D, A-pi-A, and D-pi-A for applications as the signaling motif in biological-synthetic hybrid foldamers for DNA detection. The Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction and Knoevenagel condensation were demonstrated as the optimum ways for construction of long pi-conjugated systems. Such rodlike chromophores have distinct advantages, as their fluorescence properties are not quenched by the presence of DNA. To be incorporated into the backbone of DNA, the chromophores need to be reasonably soluble in organic solvent for solid-phase synthesis, and therefore a strategy of using flexible tetraethylene glycol (TEG) linkers at either end of these rodlike dyes was developed. The presence of TEG facilitates the protection of the chain-growing hydroxyl group with DMTrCl (dimethoxytrityl chloride) as well as the activation of the coupling step with phosphoramidite chemistry on an automated DNA synthesizer. To form fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pairs, six synthetic chromophores with blue to red fluorescence have been developed, and those with orthogonal fluorescent emission were chosen for incorporation into DNA-chromophore hybrid foldamers. PMID:17508711

  4. An instrument design for non-contact detection of biomolecules and minerals on Mars using fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Smith, Heather D; McKay, Christopher P; Duncan, Andrew G; Sims, Ronald C; Anderson, Anne J; Grossl, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    We discuss fluorescence as a method to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic molecules, as well as minerals on the surface of Mars. We present an instrument design that is adapted from the ChemCam instrument which is currently on the Mars Science Lander Rover Curiosity and thus most of the primary components are currently flight qualified for Mars surface operations, significantly reducing development costs. The major change compared to ChemCam is the frequency multipliers of the 1064 nm laser to wavelengths suitable for fluorescence excitation (266 nm, 355 nm, and 532 nm). We present fluorescence spectrum for a variety of organics and minerals relevant to the surface of Mars. Preliminary results show minerals already known on Mars, such as perchlorate, fluoresce strongest when excited by 355 nm. Also we demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as those present in Martian meteorites, are highly fluorescent at wavelengths in the ultraviolet (266 nm, 355 nm), but not as much in the visible (532 nm). We conclude that fluorescence can be an important method for Mars applications and standoff detection of organics and minerals. The instrument approach described in this paper builds on existing hardware and offers high scientific return for minimal cost for future missions. PMID:25057291

  5. An instrument design for non-contact detection of biomolecules and minerals on Mars using fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We discuss fluorescence as a method to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic molecules, as well as minerals on the surface of Mars. We present an instrument design that is adapted from the ChemCam instrument which is currently on the Mars Science Lander Rover Curiosity and thus most of the primary components are currently flight qualified for Mars surface operations, significantly reducing development costs. The major change compared to ChemCam is the frequency multipliers of the 1064 nm laser to wavelengths suitable for fluorescence excitation (266 nm, 355 nm, and 532 nm). We present fluorescence spectrum for a variety of organics and minerals relevant to the surface of Mars. Preliminary results show minerals already known on Mars, such as perchlorate, fluoresce strongest when excited by 355 nm. Also we demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as those present in Martian meteorites, are highly fluorescent at wavelengths in the ultraviolet (266 nm, 355 nm), but not as much in the visible (532 nm). We conclude that fluorescence can be an important method for Mars applications and standoff detection of organics and minerals. The instrument approach described in this paper builds on existing hardware and offers high scientific return for minimal cost for future missions. PMID:25057291

  6. Bioactive surface design based on functional composite electrospun nanofibers for biomolecule immobilization and biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Sema Demirci; Kayaci, Fatma; Uyar, Tamer; Timur, Suna; Toppare, Levent

    2014-04-01

    The combination of nanomaterials and conducting polymers attracted remarkable attention for development of new immobilization matrices for enzymes. Hereby, an efficient surface design was investigated by modifying the graphite rod electrode surfaces with one-step electrospun nylon 6,6 nanofibers or 4% (w/w) multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) incorporating nylon 6,6 nanofibers (nylon 6,6/4MWCNT). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy study confirmed the successful incorporation of the MWCNTs into the nanofiber matrix for nylon 6,6/4MWCNT sample. Then, these nanofibrous surfaces were coated with a conducting polymer, (poly-4-(4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzaldehyde) (PBIBA) to obtain a high electroactive surface area as new functional immobilization matrices. Due to the free aldehyde groups of the polymeric structures, a model enzyme, glucose oxidase was efficiently immobilized to the modified surfaces via covalent binding. Scanning electron microscope images confirmed that the nanofibrous structures were protected after the electrodeposition step of PBIBA and a high amount of protein attachment was successfully achieved by the help of high surface to volume ratio of electroactive nanofiber matrices. The biosensors were characterized in terms of their operational and storage stabilities and kinetic parameters (K(m)(app) and Imax). The resulting novel glucose biosensors revealed good stability and promising Imax values (10.03 and 16.67 μA for nylon 6,6/PBIBA and nylon 6,6/4MWCNT/PBIBA modified biosensors, respectively) and long shelf life (32 and 44 days for nylon 6,6/PBIBA and nylon 6,6/4MWCNT/PBIBA modified biosensors, respectively). Finally, the biosensor was tested on beverages for glucose detection. PMID:24660809

  7. Equipment designs for the spent LWR fuel dry storage demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, R.J.; Kurasch, D.H.; Hardin, R.T.; Schmitten, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    In conjunction with the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program (SFHPP) equipment has been designed, fabricated and successfully utilized to demonstrate the packaging and interim dry storage of spent LWR fuel. Surface and near surface storage configurations containing PWR fuel assemblies are currently on test and generating baseline data. Specific areas of hardware design focused upon include storage cell components and the support related equipment associated with encapsulation, leak testing, lag storage, and emplacement operations.

  8. Engineering design guidelines for electromagnetic pulse hardening of naval equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, S. R.; Perala, R. A.; Rosich, R. K.; Cook, R. B.; Rudolph, T. H.

    1981-07-01

    This document is intended to be used by engineers who design and manufacture shipboard equipment. It is complete in the sense that both the EMP hazard and the means of mitigating the hazard (hardening) are presented. The hazard is described, which not only discusses EMP generation in a general sense, but it also presents specific threat levels for EMP fields and transient currents and voltages included on cables and antennas which are connected to electronic equipment. This specific threat constitutes an EMP survivability criteria which must be met by the mission critical equipment. The necessary hardening technology areas include volume shielding, cable shielding and connectors, interface susceptibility analysis, terminal protective devices, upset and upset hardening, common mode rejection techniques, optical isolation, and grounding/bonding techniques. Test techniques which can verify equipment hardness are presented along with methods to observe the equipment's hardness and maintain the hardness.

  9. Design of gearbox for oil field hoisting equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Ibragimova, N.E.

    1995-07-01

    The kinematic diagram of the mechanical drive of oil field hoisting equipment is determined by the gear ratio for raising and lowering the down-hole equipment, the necessary hoist load capacity, and the power of the traction engine of the transport base. The choice of a rational gear ratio for raising the down-hole equipment is an important stage in the kinematic design of the transmission. The gear ratio of the gearbox of an oil-field hoist should be such as to ensure that the equipment is raised and lowered most rapidly and the utilization of the traction engine power is highest. The preferred gear train is one chosen in accordance with the geometric structure of the gear train of the gearbox. Such gearboxes are convenient to operate and easy to build. The design of these gearboxes is discussed.

  10. Design review report for modifications to RMCS safety class equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, J.E.

    1997-05-30

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for modifications to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) safety class equipment. These modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve the Engineering Change Notices affecting safety class equipment used in the RMCS system. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that these changes are acceptable.

  11. System design description for master equipment list, phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, J.D.

    1997-04-11

    This System Design Description (SDD) is for the Master Equipment List Phase I (MEL). It has been prepared following the WI-IC-CM-3-10, ''Software Practices,'' (Ref. 6). This SDD describes the internal design for implementation of the MEL Phase I.

  12. Method for detecting biomolecules

    DOEpatents

    Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Jun

    2008-08-12

    A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode

  13. Evolution of design concepts for remotely maintainable equipment racks

    SciTech Connect

    Peishel, F.L.; Mouring, R.W.; Schrock, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Equipment racks have been used to support process equipment in radioactive facilities for many years. Improvements in the design of these racks have evolved relatively slowly primarily as a result of limitations in the capabilities of maintenance equipment; that is, tasks could only be approached from above using bridge cranes with viewing primarily through periscopes. In recent years, however, technological advances have been made by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in bridge-mounted servomanipulators with onboard auxiliary hoists and television viewing systems. These advances permit full cell coverage by the manipulator arms which, in turn, allow maintenance tasks to be approached horizontally as well as from above. Maintainable equipment items can be stacked vertically on a rack because total overhead access is less important and maintenance tasks that would not have been attempted in the past can now be performed. These advances permit greater flexibility in the design and cell layout of the racks and lead to concepts that could significantly increase the availability of a facility. The evolution of rack design and a description of the alternative concepts based on present maintenance systems capabilities are presented in this paper. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  14. 30 CFR 75.1909 - Nonpermissible diesel-powered equipment; design and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nonpermissible diesel-powered equipment; design... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1909 Nonpermissible diesel-powered equipment; design and performance requirements. (a) Nonpermissible diesel-powered equipment, except for the special category of equipment...

  15. Topsides equipment, operating flexibility key floating LNG design

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, K.; Lopez, R.; Mok, J.

    1998-03-09

    Use of a large-scale floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is an economical alternative to an onshore plant for producing from an offshore field. Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, has advanced a design for such a plant that is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. Presented were descriptions of the general design basis, hull modeling and testing, topsides and storage layouts, and LNG offloading. But such a design also presents challenges for designing topsides equipment in an offshore environment and for including flexibility and safety. These are covered in this second article. Mobil`s floating LNG plant design calls for a square concrete barge with a moon-pool in the center. It is designed to produce 6 million tons/year of LNG with up to 55,000 b/d of condensate from 1 bcfd of raw feed gas.

  16. The stem cell laboratory: design, equipment, and oversight.

    PubMed

    Wesselschmidt, Robin L; Schwartz, Philip H

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes some of the major issues to be considered when setting up a laboratory for the culture of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). The process of establishing a hPSC laboratory can be divided into two equally important parts. One is completely administrative and includes developing protocols, seeking approval, and establishing reporting processes and documentation. The other part of establishing a hPSC laboratory involves the physical plant and includes design, equipment and personnel. Proper planning of laboratory operations and proper design of the physical layout of the stem cell laboratory so that meets the scope of planned operations is a major undertaking, but the time spent upfront will pay long-term returns in operational efficiency and effectiveness. A well-planned, organized, and properly equipped laboratory supports research activities by increasing efficiency and reducing lost time and wasted resources. PMID:21822863

  17. Design of EPON far-end equipment based on FTTH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiancheng; Yun, Xiang

    2008-12-01

    Now, most favors fiber access is mainly the EPON fiber access system. Inheriting from the low cost of Ethernet, usability and bandwidth of optical network, EPON technology is one of the best technologies in fiber access and is adopted by the carriers all over the world widely. According to the scheme analysis to FTTH fan-end equipment, hardware design of ONU is proposed in this paper. The FTTH far-end equipment software design deference modulation design concept, it divides the software designment into 5 function modules: the module of low-layer driver, the module of system management, the module of master/slave communication, and the module of main/Standby switch and the module of command line. The software flow of the host computer is also analyzed. Finally, test is made for Ethernet service performance of FTTH far-end equipment, E1 service performance and the optical path protection switching, and so on. The results of test indicates that all the items are accordance with technical request of far-end ONU equipment and possess good quality and fully reach the requirement of telecommunication level equipment. The far-end equipment of FTTH divides into several parts based on the function: the control module, the exchange module, the UNI interface module, the ONU module, the EPON interface module, the network management debugging module, the voice processing module, the circuit simulation module, the CATV module. In the downstream direction, under the protect condition, we design 2 optical modules. The system can set one group optical module working and another group optical module closure when it is initialized. When the optical fiber line is cut off, the LOS warning comes out. It will cause MUX to replace another group optical module, simultaneously will reset module 3701/3711 and will make it again test the distance, and will give the plug board MPC850 report through the GPIO port. During normal mode, the downstream optical signal is transformed into the

  18. Designing Equipment for Use in Gamma Radiation Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergriff, K.U.

    1990-01-01

    High levels of gamma radiation are known to cause degradation in a variety of materials and components. When designing systems to operate in a high radiation environment, special precautions and procedures should be followed. This report (1) outlines steps that should be followed in designing equipment and (2) explains the general effects of radiation on various engineering materials and components. Much information exists in the literature on radiation effects upon materials. However, very little information is available to give the designer a step-by-step process for designing systems that will be subject to high levels of gamma radiation, such as those found in a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. In this report, many radiation effect references are relied upon to aid in the design of components and systems.

  19. Design and bidding of UV disinfection equipment -- Case study

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurek, M.

    1998-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems are being widely considered for application to treated wastewaters, in lieu of conventional chlorination facilities. The number of UV systems operating in the US was approximately 50 in 1984. In 1990 there were over 500 systems, a ten-fold increase. The use of UV disinfection has increased since 1990, and will likely to increase in the future. It is anticipated that as many chlorine disinfection facilities reach their useful life, most of them will be replaced with UV disinfection systems. Several manufacturers offer different UV disinfection equipment. Each offers something different for the designer. There are also different approaches used in estimating the number of lamps needed for the disinfection system. The lack of standardization in determination of the number of lamps for a UV system poses problems for the designer. Such was the case during the design of the disinfection system for the Watertown, SD Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWRP). The purpose of this paper is to present a case study for the design and bidding of UV disinfection equipment.

  20. Designing and Building to ``Impossible'' Tolerances for Vibration Sensitive Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertlein, Bernard H.

    2003-03-01

    As the precision and production capabilities of modern machines and factories increase, our expectations of them rise commensurately. Facility designers and engineers find themselves increasingly involved with measurement needs and design tolerances that were almost unthinkable a few years ago. An area of expertise that demonstrates this very clearly is the field of vibration measurement and control. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Semiconductor manufacturing, micro-machining, surgical microscopes — These are just a few examples of equipment or techniques that need an extremely stable vibration environment. The challenge to architects, engineers and contractors is to provide that level of stability without undue cost or sacrificing the aesthetics and practicality of a structure. In addition, many facilities have run out of expansion room, so the design is often hampered by the need to reuse all or part of an existing structure, or to site vibration-sensitive equipment close to an existing vibration source. High resolution measurements and nondestructive testing techniques have proven to be invaluable additions to the engineer's toolbox in meeting these challenges. The author summarizes developments in this field over the last fifteen years or so, and lists some common errors of design and construction that can cost a lot of money in retrofit if missed, but can easily be avoided with a little foresight, an appropriate testing program and a carefully thought out checklist.

  1. Molecular Modeling of Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, Chaok

    Living organisms are composed of a variety of biomolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides (polymeric forms of sugar molecules), lipids, metabolites, etc. Those biomolecules interact with each other to sustain life in constantly varying environment. For example, signals from environment (such as existence of food) are transferred to inside the cell as a result of interactions of biomolecules (binding of molecules from food that cause delicious smell to receptor proteins in our nose, and consequent conformational changes of the receptor proteins leading to further changes in other signaling molecules) to generate reactions required for the particular situation (secreting enzymes for digestion). One may therefore say that life phenomenon is governed by complex interaction networks of biomolecules.

  2. Design and Fabrication of Nano Biologically Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor (Nano Bio-FET) for Bio-Molecule Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foo, K. L.; Kashif, M.; Hashim, U.

    2011-05-01

    Biologically Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor (Bio-FET) based on silicon nanowires (SiNWs), so called Nano Bio-FET, promise ultrasensitive dynamic label-free electrical detection of bio-molecule. Therefore, Nano Bio-FET which is one type of biosensor is mainly used for biological element detection such as nucleic acid, antibodies and enzyme. SiNWs which is act as the transducer is one type of the Nanowire where it can be produced using a top-down or bottom-up approach. As to minimize the cost of fabrication process, conventional CMOS process was chosen. For this reason, SiNWs, as small as 40 nm in width, is fabricated using spacer patterning lithography (SPL) technique. SPL is one type of top-down technique used to fabricate nanostructure especially nanowire. It is a low-cost and compatible to standard CMOS fabrication process. SPL, in general is a combination of conventional photolithography, anisotropic etchings and the excellent homogeneity and reproducibility of conformal chemical vapor deposition processes.

  3. Method of calculating the optimal radioelectronic equipment design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolaev, Yu. P.

    1993-05-01

    In designing the competitive radio-electronic equipment there inevitably arises the justified optimal constructional decision problem that accounts for many quality indexes. A totality of these quality indexes can be conveniently represented by the vector in a multi-dimensional space, on the coordinate axes of which the specific quantities of all the accountable indexes of quality are laid off. Inevitability of accounting for a variety of quality indexes, when choosing optimal decision, raises a problem of vector (multi-objective) optimization of the object developed.

  4. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and Systems § 130.220 Design of equipment for cooking and...

  5. [Design, equipment, and management for air conditioning in operating room].

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kumiko; Mizuno, Ju

    2011-11-01

    In order to maintain air cleanliness in the operating room (OR) permanently, air exchange rate in the OR should be more than 15 times x hr(-1), the laminar air flow should be kept, and the numbers of the persons in the OR and the numbers of opening and closing OR door should be limited. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter is effective in collection and removal of airborne microbes, and is used in the biological clean room. We need to design, equip, and manage the OR environment according to Guideline for Design and Operation of Hospital HVAC Systems HEAS-02-2004 established by Healthcare Engineering Association of Japan and Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection (SSI) established by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the USA. PMID:22175178

  6. Dual modification of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Maruani, Antoine; Richards, Daniel A; Chudasama, Vijay

    2016-07-14

    With the advent of novel bioorthogonal reactions and "click" chemistry, an increasing number of strategies for the single labelling of proteins and oligonucleotides have emerged. Whilst several methods exist for the site-selective introduction of a single chemical moiety, site-selective and bioorthogonal dual modification of biomolecules remains a challenge. The introduction of multiple modules enables a plethora of permutations and combinations and can generate a variety of bioconjuguates with many potential applications. From de novo approaches on oligomers to the post-translational functionalisation of proteins, this review will highlight the main strategies to dually modify biomolecules. PMID:27278999

  7. 47 CFR 2.937 - Equipment defect and/or design change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment defect and/or design change. 2.937 Section 2.937 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO... An Equipment Authorization § 2.937 Equipment defect and/or design change. When a complaint is...

  8. 47 CFR 2.937 - Equipment defect and/or design change.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment defect and/or design change. 2.937 Section 2.937 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO... An Equipment Authorization § 2.937 Equipment defect and/or design change. When a complaint is...

  9. Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumski, Michał

    This chapter describes the most important features of capillary electrophoretic equipment. A presentation of the important developments in high voltage power supplies for chip CE is followed by preparation of fused silica capillaries for use in CE. Detection systems that are used in capillary electrophoresis are widely described. Here, UV-Vis absorbance measurements are discussed including different types of detection cells—also those less popular (u-shaped, Z-shaped, mirror-coated). Fluorescence detection and laser-induced fluorescence detection are the most sensitive detection systems. Several LIF setups, such as collinear, orthogonal, confocal, and sheath-flow cuvette, are presented from the point of view of the sensitivity they can provide. Several electrochemical detectors for CE, such as conductivity, amperometric, and potentiometric, are also shown and their constructions discussed. CE-MS and much less known CE (CEC)-NMR systems are also described. The examples of automation and robotized CE systems together with their potential fields of application are also presented.

  10. Chemistry and Biology Laboratories. Design--Construction--Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Werner

    Guidelines for planning, building, and equipping the biological and chemical laboratory are revealed, along with construction methods for the modernization or building of new academic or industrial type laboratories. Building equipment, services, utilities, and materials data are given with rules concerning the dimensions and services of…

  11. Chinese equipment for US markets: traditional design, low cost

    SciTech Connect

    Kissel, P.C.; Hansen, J.C.; Shen, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    Peter C. Kissel and James C. Hansen were members of a delegation of US businessmen invited to the People's Republic of China by the China Science and Technology Exchange Center and Carroway Engineering, Inc., to discuss China's small-scale hydroelectric equipment and the means of obtaining such equipment for exportation to the US. The delegation, led by Peter K. Shen, president of Carroway Engineering, visited with Chinese government officials in four cities and provinces in June 1985, and inspected two of the principal electrical machine factories that manufacture hydroelectric equipment for projects in the US. In this article, the authors discuss the negotiations necessary to obtain Chinese equipment and China's ability to supply the US market for turbine-generator equipment.

  12. Frustration in biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, Diego U; Komives, Elizabeth A; Wolynes, Peter G

    2014-11-01

    Biomolecules are the prime information processing elements of living matter. Most of these inanimate systems are polymers that compute their own structures and dynamics using as input seemingly random character strings of their sequence, following which they coalesce and perform integrated cellular functions. In large computational systems with finite interaction-codes, the appearance of conflicting goals is inevitable. Simple conflicting forces can lead to quite complex structures and behaviors, leading to the concept of frustration in condensed matter. We present here some basic ideas about frustration in biomolecules and how the frustration concept leads to a better appreciation of many aspects of the architecture of biomolecules, and especially how biomolecular structure connects to function by means of localized frustration. These ideas are simultaneously both seductively simple and perilously subtle to grasp completely. The energy landscape theory of protein folding provides a framework for quantifying frustration in large systems and has been implemented at many levels of description. We first review the notion of frustration from the areas of abstract logic and its uses in simple condensed matter systems. We discuss then how the frustration concept applies specifically to heteropolymers, testing folding landscape theory in computer simulations of protein models and in experimentally accessible systems. Studying the aspects of frustration averaged over many proteins provides ways to infer energy functions useful for reliable structure prediction. We discuss how frustration affects folding mechanisms. We review here how the biological functions of proteins are related to subtle local physical frustration effects and how frustration influences the appearance of metastable states, the nature of binding processes, catalysis and allosteric transitions. In this review, we also emphasize that frustration, far from being always a bad thing, is an essential feature

  13. A “Reverse-Schur” Approach to Optimization With Linear PDE Constraints: Application to Biomolecule Analysis and Design

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Altman, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a partial-differential-equation (PDE)-constrained approach for optimizing a molecule’s electrostatic interactions with a target molecule. The approach, which we call reverse-Schur co-optimization, can be more than two orders of magnitude faster than the traditional approach to electrostatic optimization. The efficiency of the co-optimization approach may enhance the value of electrostatic optimization for ligand-design efforts–in such projects, it is often desirable to screen many candidate ligands for their viability, and the optimization of electrostatic interactions can improve ligand binding affinity and specificity. The theoretical basis for electrostatic optimization derives from linear-response theory, most commonly continuum models, and simple assumptions about molecular binding processes. Although the theory has been used successfully to study a wide variety of molecular binding events, its implications have not yet been fully explored, in part due to the computational expense associated with the optimization. The co-optimization algorithm achieves improved performance by solving the optimization and electrostatic simulation problems simultaneously, and is applicable to both unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. Reverse-Schur co-optimization resembles other well-known techniques for solving optimization problems with PDE constraints. Model problems as well as realistic examples validate the reverse-Schur method, and demonstrate that our technique and alternative PDE-constrained methods scale very favorably compared to the standard approach. Regularization, which ordinarily requires an explicit representation of the objective function, can be included using an approximate Hessian calculated using the new BIBEE/P (boundary-integral-based electrostatics estimation by preconditioning) method. PMID:23055839

  14. Design of equipment used for high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, R.F.; Brill, B.A.; Carl, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    The equipment as designed, started, and operated for high-level radioactive waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project in western New York State is described. Equipment for the processes of melter feed make-up, vitrification, canister handling, and off-gas treatment are included. For each item of equipment the functional requirements, process description, and hardware descriptions are presented.

  15. Frustration in Biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Ferreiro, Diego U.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Biomolecules are the prime information processing elements of living matter. Most of these inanimate systems are polymers that compute their own structures and dynamics using as input seemingly random character strings of their sequence, following which they coalesce and perform integrated cellular functions. In large computational systems with a finite interaction-codes, the appearance of conflicting goals is inevitable. Simple conflicting forces can lead to quite complex structures and behaviors, leading to the concept of frustration in condensed matter. We present here some basic ideas about frustration in biomolecules and how the frustration concept leads to a better appreciation of many aspects of the architecture of biomolecules, and how biomolecular structure connects to function. These ideas are simultaneously both seductively simple and perilously subtle to grasp completely. The energy landscape theory of protein folding provides a framework for quantifying frustration in large systems and has been implemented at many levels of description. We first review the notion of frustration from the areas of abstract logic and its uses in simple condensed matter systems. We discuss then how the frustration concept applies specifically to heteropolymers, testing folding landscape theory in computer simulations of protein models and in experimentally accessible systems. Studying the aspects of frustration averaged over many proteins provides ways to infer energy functions useful for reliable structure prediction. We discuss how frustration affects folding mechanisms. We review here how a large part of the biological functions of proteins are related to subtle local physical frustration effects and how frustration influences the appearance of metastable states, the nature of binding processes, catalysis and allosteric transitions. We hope to illustrate how Frustration is a fundamental concept in relating function to structural biology. PMID:25225856

  16. Design and manufacturing technology of radioelectronic equipment, chapter 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollerner, N. F.

    1983-12-01

    Radio and electronic equipment malfunctions as a result of internal and external effects. Reliability of the systems is crucial. The following topics were discussed: guarantee of reliability, economy, calculation of efficiency according to random failures, failure elements, sudden wear, and deterioration failures.

  17. 46 CFR 39.40-3 - Design and equipment for vapor balancing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fitted with a detonation arrester that meets the requirements of 33 CFR 154.822(a) located within 3... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and equipment for vapor balancing-TB/ALL. 39.40-3... Lightering and Topping-Off Operations with Vapor Balancing § 39.40-3 Design and equipment for vapor...

  18. 46 CFR 39.40-3 - Design and equipment for vapor balancing-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fitted with a detonation arrester that meets the requirements of 33 CFR 154.822(a) located within 3... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design and equipment for vapor balancing-TB/ALL. 39.40-3... Lightering and Topping-Off Operations with Vapor Balancing § 39.40-3 Design and equipment for vapor...

  19. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided with heavy-duty hinges and locking-devices to prevent accidental opening in heavy weather. (b) Each...

  20. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided with heavy-duty hinges and locking-devices to prevent accidental opening in heavy weather. (b) Each...

  1. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided with heavy-duty hinges and locking-devices to prevent accidental opening in heavy weather. (b) Each...

  2. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided with heavy-duty hinges and locking-devices to prevent accidental opening in heavy weather. (b) Each...

  3. 78 FR 19541 - Proposed Revision to Design of Structures, Components, Equipment and Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... published in the Federal Register (FR) on March 1, 2013 (78 FR 13911), that announced the request for comments on the proposed revisions in Chapter 3, ``Design of Structures, Components, Equipment, and Systems... COMMISSION Proposed Revision to Design of Structures, Components, Equipment and Systems AGENCY:...

  4. 78 FR 15755 - Proposed Revision to Design of Structures, Components, Equipment and Systems; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... March 1, 2013 (41 FR 13911), that announced the solicitation for comments of the proposed revision in Chapter 3, ``Design of Structures, Components, Equipment, and Systems'' and is soliciting public comment... COMMISSION Proposed Revision to Design of Structures, Components, Equipment and Systems; Correction...

  5. [Equipment design for magnetic therapy and "Polus" devices].

    PubMed

    Viktorov, V A; Malkov, Iu V

    1994-01-01

    Low-frequency magnetotherapy is among the most original therapeutical techniques since it is effective in treating most diseases and has practically no contraindications. Due to atraumaticity of a low-frequency electromagnetic field, the application of magnetotherapy is indicated in geriatric care, in particular. The VNIIMP-VITA Joint-Stock Company has developed a family of the Polyus system equipment for magnetotherapy, whereby all the well-known therapeutical procedures of low-frequency magnetotherapy can be performed. The magnetotherapeutic room equipped with Polyus-2D, Polyus-3, and Polyus-4 ensures a complete set of magneto-therapeutical exposure. The rooms are supplied by the VNIIMP-VITA Joint-Stock Company. PMID:7934729

  6. THE DESIGN OF INSTRUCTIONAL EQUIPMENT, TWO VIEWS. OCCASIONAL PAPER NUMBER 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEVERENZ, HUMBOLDT W.; TOWNSLEY, MALCOM G.

    TWO VIEWS ON THE DESIGN OF INSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT ARE PRESENTED. ONE IS BY H. W. LEVERENZ OF THE RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA, AND THE OTHER IS BY MALCOLM TOWNSLEY OF THE BELL AND HOWELL COMPANY. EACH WAS ASKED TO WRITE ON TWO QUESTIONS--(1) HOW HAS INSTRUCTIONAL EQUIPMENT BEEN DESIGNED IN THE PAST, AND (2) HOW SHOULD IT BE DESIGNED IN THE FUTURE.…

  7. Cost effectiveness of operator features in equipment design.

    PubMed

    Williams, J C

    1983-06-01

    In design negotiation, the attribution of credible values to the incorporation or deletion of operator features allows engineers the freedom to judge the overall effect of human factors recommendations in relation to the achievement of a design specification. Likewise in the development phase, product planners frequently need more precise statements about productivity, training needs and general operational performance than, "it will be greater/less, worse/better than...". The method described utilises measured and synthetic data, learning theory and Markov processes to calculate the likelihood of operator task failure. These failure rates are then treated via filter factors derived from the application of the Nominal Groups Technique to give a global statement of the likelihood of operator failure resulting in unscheduled calls for service. Using the relationship between the cost of service calls and the overall life cost of developing, manufacturing, marketing and supporting a leased product, it is then possible to place credible values on the design features in question. Thus during the design process it becomes feasible to calculate the likely effects of human factors recommendations and modifications in relation to manufacturing costs, and thereby facilitate rational assessment of their implementation on a sound economic basis. This technique has been used to considerable effect, and represents a useful additional tool for the human factors practitioner in the design negotiation process. Further developments and refinements are planned, and it is anticipated that a similar technique will shortly be available to enable assessment of the effectiveness of product training programmes and job aids. PMID:15676470

  8. Design of highwall mining equipment electronic guidance package

    SciTech Connect

    Brenden, B.B.; Morgen, G.P.; Shorpik, J.R.; Farrar, R.

    1981-11-01

    This report provides design specifics and guidance software for a guidance system intended for use in guiding an auger type highwall mining head through thin coal seams to depths of up to 600 ft. A small desk top computer is used at the operator's station to send and receive signals in serialized bit streams to a downhole microprocessor. The guidance system accepts signals from a variety of sensors and uses these signals to plot and control the course of the auger head automatically using computer algorithms designed to keep the auger head in the coal seam and maintain a specified stump thickness.

  9. Medical Requirements for Ambulance Design and Equipment. Emergency Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Medical Sciences.

    A vehicle must meet certain specific requirements to be classified as an ambulance if it is to satisfy the demands of the physician in terms of emergency care for which properly trained ambulance attendants can be held responsible. Developed by professional and lay experts for use by automotive designers and manufacturing, this publication would…

  10. HYNOL PROCESS ENGINEERING: PROCESS CONFIGURATION, SITE PLAN, AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the design of the hydropyrolysis reactor system of the Hynol process. (NOTE: A bench scale methanol production facility is being constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing methanol from biomass using the Hynol process. The plant is bein...

  11. Uranium Recycle by Ion Exchange and Calcination - Summary of Design Development and Equipment Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hathcock, D.J.; A.J. Duncan

    2005-10-31

    Technical information for the process of recovery of uranium from uranyl nitrate hexahydrate solutions that was developed as part of the Onsite Uranium Recycle (OSUR) project conducted at the Savannah River Site in the 1980's is summarized. The process involves an ion-exchange process to load the uranyl species from solution onto a cation resin that is subsequently dried using a microwave oven, and then calcined using a rotary calciner to produce U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. The information in this report was compiled to support critical decisions for new facilities and processes at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The information includes a detailed description of the process and process equipment that were developed for the OSUR project including the technical bases for the materials selection and process conditions. Additional process considerations and recommendations to for a new-design facility are also provided.

  12. A basic guide to overlay design using nondestructive testing equipment data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Vernon R.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a basic and concise guide to designing asphalt concrete (AC) overlays over existing AC pavements. The basis for these designs is deflection data obtained from nondestructive testing (NDT) equipment. This data is used in design procedures which produce required overlay thickness or an estimate of remaining pavement life. This guide enables one to design overlays or better monitor the designs being performed by others. This paper will discuss three types of NDT equipment, the Asphalt Institute Overlay Designs by Deflection Analysis and by the effective thickness method as well as a method of estimating remaining pavement life, correlations between NDT equipment and recent correlations in Washington State. Asphalt overlays provide one of the most cost effective methods of improving existing pavements. Asphalt overlays can be used to strengthen existing pavements, to reduce maintenance costs, to increase pavement life, to provide a smoother ride, and to improve skid resistance.

  13. A Virtual Prototyping Technology for Design of Pressing Equipment of Dried Tofu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mingji; Dong, Xiuping

    vThe industry of dried tofu products wants to achieve breakthrough, the key lies in developing efficient processing equipments. Pressing equipment of dried tofu has been mostly designed according to the line - "manual design (some with a CAD) - prototype production - prototype testing - design modification". However this way not only gets a high cost of research, but also a long cycle. It used virtual prototyping technology, at first, according to the design requirements, created three-dimensional modeling by using Pro/E software; at last, made the feasibility analysis of kinematics and dynamics by using of ADAMS software. Through optimization design, analysis and control of cost, it had several characters as follows, simple machine, low cost, high productivity, it had great significance to mechanization and industrialization of pressing equipment of dried tofu.

  14. Diffusion phenomena of cells and biomolecules in microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz-Ozturk, Ece; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Biomicrofluidics is an emerging field at the cross roads of microfluidics and life sciences which requires intensive research efforts in terms of introducing appropriate designs, production techniques, and analysis. The ultimate goal is to deliver innovative and cost-effective microfluidic devices to biotech, biomedical, and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, creating an in-depth understanding of the transport phenomena of cells and biomolecules becomes vital and concurrently poses significant challenges. The present article outlines the recent advancements in diffusion phenomena of cells and biomolecules by highlighting transport principles from an engineering perspective, cell responses in microfluidic devices with emphases on diffusion- and flow-based microfluidic gradient platforms, macroscopic and microscopic approaches for investigating the diffusion phenomena of biomolecules, microfluidic platforms for the delivery of these molecules, as well as the state of the art in biological applications of mammalian cell responses and diffusion of biomolecules. PMID:26180576

  15. Equipment and design changes in extrusion of foamed fluoropolymer resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randa, S. K.; Carlson, M. A.; Reifschneider, D. P.

    Recent growth of computer networks has increased the market for foamed coaxial cables. To meet this need, the gas injection process for foaming of Teflon* FEP and PFA fluorocarbon resins introduced in 1981 at the 30th Wire and Cable Symposium has been refined. Advances in die and extruder screw design have broadened capability from 500 CATV coaxial cable to miniature wire sizes. Increased processing speeds and higher core quality have been achieved. These coaxial cables have a unique combination of properties that are maintained over a wide range of temperatures and signal frequencies. They have dielectric constants as low as 1.3 and low flame spread and smoke generation as tested to UL 910. These cables are now widely used for high frequency signal transmission in compliance with the National Electric Code for installation without conduit in building air handling plenums. Military applications represent newer areas of interest with weight and space savings and high electrical quality. The characteristics of several coaxial cables are reviewed.

  16. A Design Philosophy for Instrumentation Equipment in a Dynamic Systems and Measurements Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachtigal, Chester L.; And Others

    A program designed to increase studnet interest and provide motivation in a third-year systems and measurements laboratory in mechanical engineering is provided. The philosophy of the course, instructional techniques, equipment design (including schematics and photographs), suggested activities, and student reactions to the course are presented.…

  17. The microprocessor-aided design of radioelectronic equipment Programming, typical solutions, and debugging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksenko, A. G.; Galitsyn, A. A.; Ivannikov, A. D.

    Some basic principles in the design of digital equipment by microprocessors in the framework of CAM are discussed. Attention is given to technical and programming problems in improving the interface between microcomputers and control objects, the effective control of microprocessing systems, complex debugging techniques in microcomputer and microprocessing programs. Particular consideration is given to the design of digital filters.

  18. Facility Systems, Ground Support Systems, and Ground Support Equipment General Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Eric A.; Mathews, Roger E.

    2014-01-01

    This standard establishes requirements and guidance for design and fabrication of ground systems (GS) that includes: ground support equipment (GSE), ground support systems (GSS), and facility ground support systems (F GSS) to provide uniform methods and processes for design and development of robust, safe, reliable, maintainable, supportable, and cost-effective GS in support of space flight and institutional programs and projects.

  19. Design/Operations review of core sampling trucks and associated equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1996-03-11

    A systematic review of the design and operations of the core sampling trucks was commissioned by Characterization Equipment Engineering of the Westinghouse Hanford Company in October 1995. The review team reviewed the design documents, specifications, operating procedure, training manuals and safety analysis reports. The review process, findings and corrective actions are summarized in this supporting document.

  20. Mobile terminal equipment design utilising split-loop phase-lock techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenington, P. B.; Mcgeehan, J. P.; Edwards, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The design and resultant performance of the terminal equipment in a mobile satellite system is vitally important in respect to the overall cost/performance compromise of the whole system. Improvements in system performance which also result in a reduction of the equipment cost are rare. However, this paper details a significant advance in terminal design, utilizing a novel form of 'split-loop' phase locked receiver/downconverter system to enable an accurate, stable and wide coverage terminal to be realized at a reduced cost. The system has the capability of automatically locking onto any carrier within a complete transponder, and can cope with severe amplitude modulation and fading effects.

  1. Reliability and Maintainability Constrains for the Design, Production and Operation of Astronomical Equipment for the Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansorge, W.

    The installation and operation of an ELT and the associated astronomical instruments requires considering the reliability aspects (the ability to work satisfactorily for a specified time under given environmental conditions) and the maintenance/maintainability aspects from the beginning of an ELT/instrument project. In particular, for equipment working in the extreme antarctic environment the reliability and maintainability characteristics are the main factors influencing, i)the availability of the equipment for the scientific research activities, and ii) the annual and the long term operation costs (Life Cycle Costs, LCC). These characteristics have to be designed and built into the equipment. The presentation describes the general strategy to be followed, the main activities to be done, and the decisions to be taken during the individual project phases from the identification of the user needs to the installation, commissioning and operation in order to guarantee high equipment availability and optimized maintenance effort and costs.

  2. Design of Alarm Sound of Home Care Equipment Based on Age-related Auditory Sense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibano, Jun-Ichi; Tadano, Shigeru; Kaneko, Hirotaka

    A wide variety of home care equipment has been developed to support the independent lifestyle and care taking of elderly persons. Almost all of the equipment has an alarm designed to alert a care person or to sound a warning in case of an emergency. Due to the fact that aging human beings' senses physiologically, weaken and deteriorate, each alarm's sound must be designed to account for the full range of elderly person's hearing loss. Since the alarms are usually heard indoors, it is also necessary to evaluate the relationship between the basic characteristics of the sounds and living area's layout. In this study, we investigated the sounds of various alarms of the home care equipment based on both the age-related hearing characteristics of elderly persons and the propagation property of the sounds indoors. As a result, it was determined that the hearing characteristics of elderly persons are attuned to sounds which have a frequency from 700Hz to 1kHz, and it was learned that the indoor absorption ratio of sound is smallest when the frequency is 1kHz. Therefore, a frequency of 1kHz is good for the alarm sound of home care equipment. A flow chart to design the alarm sound of home care equipment was proposed, taking into account the extent of age-related auditory sense deterioration.

  3. Injury survey of a non-traditional 'soft-edged' trampoline designed to lower equipment hazards.

    PubMed

    Eager, David B; Scarrott, Carl; Nixon, Jim; Alexander, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In Australia trampolines contribute one quarter of all childhood play equipment injuries. The objective of this study was to gather and evaluate injury data from a non-traditional, 'soft-edged', consumer trampoline, where the design aimed to minimise injuries from the equipment and from falling off. The manufacturer of the non-traditional trampoline provided the University of Technology Sydney with their Australian customer database. The study involved surveys in Queensland and New South Wales, between May 2007 and March 2010. Initially injury data was gathered by a phone interview pilot study, then in the full study, through an email survey. The 3817 respondents were the carers of child users of the 'soft-edge' trampolines. Responses were compared with Australian and US emergency department data. In both countries the proportion of injuries caused by the equipment and falling off was compared with the proportion caused by the jumpers to themselves or each other. The comparisons showed a significantly lower proportion resulted from falling-off or hitting the equipment for this design when compared to traditional trampolines, both in Australia and the US. This research concludes that equipment-induced and falling-off injuries, the more severe injuries on traditional trampolines, can be significantly reduced with appropriate trampoline design. PMID:22471672

  4. DOE/USDA joint project to design and manufacture prototype equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, J.G.

    1996-07-01

    Design, assembly, prove-in, and performance testing of prototype equipment for the United States Department of Agriculture`s Subtropical Agriculture Research Laboratory (SARL) were completed by the Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant. The plant is operated by AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). The prototype equipment was developed as part of the USDA`s efforts to mass produce parasitic wasps for organic control of boll weevils in cotton crops. This development was part of the Production Capability Assurance Program and also part of the Work For Others program. Design and assembly of this prototype equipment led to some new FM&T processes and technologies and exercised many others as described in the text and, at the same time, met the needs of the USDA.

  5. 40 CFR 60.103a - Design, equipment, work practice or operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operational standards. 60.103a Section 60.103a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... May 14, 2007 § 60.103a Design, equipment, work practice or operational standards. (a) Except as... and a co-generation unit or combined heat and power unit. (iv) Minimization of sweep gas flow...

  6. 40 CFR 60.103a - Design, equipment, work practice or operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operational standards. 60.103a Section 60.103a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... May 14, 2007 § 60.103a Design, equipment, work practice or operational standards. (a) Except as... and a co-generation unit or combined heat and power unit. (iv) Minimization of sweep gas flow...

  7. Housing, Equipment, and Design Research and Scholarship: A Family and Consumer Sciences Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamish, Julia O.; Ahn, Mira; Seiling, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of research on housing, equipment, and design (n=333) in the Journal of Home Economics/Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences (1985-2000), Home Economics Research Journal/Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal (1985- 2000), and Housing and Society (1985-1999) found that articles declined by more than 50% and behavior theories were…

  8. New design for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a liquid beam laser desorption ion source for the analysis of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvat, A.; Lugovoj, E.; Faubel, M.; Abel, B.

    2004-05-01

    We describe a novel liquid beam mass spectrometer, based on a recently discovered nanosecond laser desorption phenomenon, [W. Kleinekofort, J. Avdiev, and B. Brutschy, Int. J. Mass Ion. Processes 152, 135 (1996)] which allows the liquid-to-vacuum transfer, and subsequent mass analysis of pre-existing ions and ionic associates from liquid microjets of aqueous solutions. The goal of our novel technical approach is to establish a system with good mass resolution that implements improvements on critical components that make the system more reliable and easier to operate. For laser desorption pulsed dye-laser difference frequency mixing is used that provides tunable infrared light near the absorption maximum of liquid water around 3 μm. Different types of liquid beam glass nozzles (convergent capillary and aperture plate nozzles) are investigated and characterized. Starting from theoretical considerations of hydrodynamic drag forces on micrometer size droplets in supersonic rarefied gas flows we succeeded in capturing efficiently the liquid beam in a liquid beam recycling trap operating at the vapor pressure of liquid water. For improving the pollution resistance, the liquid jet high vacuum ion source region is spatially separated from the reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) working behind a gate valve in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. A simple (simulation optimized) ion optics is employed for the ion transfer from the source to the high vacuum region. This new feature is also mostly responsible for the improved mass resolution. With the present tandem-TOF-MS setup a resolution of m/Δm≈1800 for the low and m/Δm≈700 in the high mass region has been obtained for several biomolecules of different mass and complexity (amino acids, insulin, and cytochrome c).

  9. A novel compact design of calibration equipment for gas and thermal sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, P. X.; Zhang, H. X.; Peng, X. Y.; Sajjad, M.; Chu, J.

    2011-04-15

    A novel design of calibration equipment has been developed for static and dynamic calibrations of gas and thermal sensors. This system is cheap, compact, and easily adjustable, which is also combined with a plasma surface modification source for tailoring the surface of sensors to ensure the sensitivity and selectivity. The main advantage of this equipment is that the operating temperature, bias voltage, types of plasma source (for surface modification), types of feeding gases, and gas flow rate (for calibrations), etc., can be independently controlled. This novel system provides a highly reliable, reproducible, and economical method of calibrations for various gas and thermal sensors.

  10. Microfluidic radiolabeling of biomolecules with PET radiometals

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Dexing; Desai, Amit V.; Ranganathan, David; Wheeler, Tobias D.; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Reichert, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A robust, versatile and compact microreactor has been designed, fabricated and tested for the labeling of bifunctional chelate conjugated biomolecules (BFC-BM) with PET radiometals. Methods The developed microreactor was used to radiolabel a chelate, either 1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) that had been conjugated to cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-DPhe-Lys) peptide, with both 64Cu and 68Ga respectively. The microreactor radiolabeling conditions were optimized by varying temperature, concentration and residence time. Results Direct comparisons between the microreactor approach and conventional methods showed improved labeling yields and increased reproducibility with the microreactor under identical labeling conditions, due to enhanced mass and heat transfer at the microscale. More importantly, over 90% radiolabeling yields (incorporation of radiometal) were achieved with a 1:1 stoichiometry of bifunctional chelate biomolecule conjugate (BFC-BM) to radiometal in the microreactor, which potentially obviates extensive chromatographic purification that is typically required to remove the large excess of unlabeled biomolecule in radioligands prepared using conventional methods. Moreover, higher yields for radiolabeling of DOTA-functionalized BSA protein (Bovine Serum Albumin) were observed with 64Cu/68Ga using the microreactor, which demonstrates the ability to label both small and large molecules. Conclusions A robust, reliable, compact microreactor capable of chelating radiometals with common chelates has been developed and validated. Based on our radiolabeling results, the reported microfluidic approach overall outperforms conventional radiosynthetic methods, and is a promising technology for the radiometal labeling of commonly utilized BFC-BM in aqueous solutions. PMID:23078875

  11. Conceptual design of equipment to excavate and transport regolith from the lunar maria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detwiler, Mark; Foong, Chee Seng; Stocklin, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    NASA hopes to have a manned lunar outpost completed by 2005. In order to establish the base, regolith must be excavated from the lunar surface. Regolith will be used as a source for life-supporting elements and as radiation shielding for the lunar outpost. The design team from the University of Texas at Austin designed excavation and transportation equipment for initial operations of the lunar base. The design team also characterized the elements to be found in the regolith and determined the power required to excavate regolith. The characterization of the soil was based on a literature review of lunar geography. Power requirements for excavation were developed by adapting terrestrial equations for excavation power requirements and adapting them to lunar soil conditions. The design of the excavation and transportation equipment was broken into three functions: loosing, collecting, and transporting. A scarifier was selected to loosen, a bucket was selected to collect, and a load-haul system was selected to transport. The functions are powered by a modular fuel cell powered vehicle that provides power for motion of the equipment.

  12. Design considerations, tooling, and equipment for remote in-service inspection of radioactive piping and pressure-vessel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swannack, D.L.; Schmoker, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained in use of remotely-operated nondestructive testing (NDT) equipment for inspection of reactor-system components. Experience obtained in operating the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has provided a basis for field verification of remote NDT equipment designs and has suggested development improvements. Remote Viewing and data gathering systems used include periscopes, borescopes, fiberscopes, hybrid borescopes/fiberscopes, and closed circuit television. A summary of design consideration for inspection equipment and power plant design is presented to achieve improved equipment operation and reduction of plant maintenance downtime.

  13. Facility Systems, Ground Support Systems, and Ground Support Equipment General Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    KSC-DE-512-SM establishes overall requirements and best design practices to be used at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the development of ground systems (GS) in support of operations at launch, landing, and retrieval sites. These requirements apply to the design and development of hardware and software for ground support equipment (GSE), ground support systems (GSS), and facility ground support systems (F-GSS) used to support the KSC mission for transportation, receiving, handling, assembly, test, checkout, servicing, and launch of space vehicles and payloads and selected flight hardware items for retrieval. This standards manual supplements NASA-STD-5005 by including KSC-site-specific and local environment requirements. These requirements and practices are optional for equipment used at manufacturing, development, and test sites.

  14. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2.3: Sulfur Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is Subtask 2.3 of Task 2, Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates, of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 2.3 builds upon the sulfur removal information first presented in Subtask 2.1, Gas Cleanup Technologies for Biomass Gasification by adding additional information on the commercial applications, manufacturers, environmental footprint, and technical specifications for sulfur removal technologies. The data was obtained from Nexant's experience, input from GTI and other vendors, past and current facility data, and existing literature.

  15. Thermally modulated biomolecule transport through nanoconfined channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Zhu, Lizhong

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a nanofluidic device containing both a feed cell and a permeation cell linked by nanopore arrays has been fabricated, which is employed to investigate thermally controlled biomolecular transporting properties through confined nanochannels. The ionic currents modulated by the translocations of goat antibody to human immunoglobulin G (IgG) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) are recorded and analyzed. The results suggest that the modulation effect decreases with the electrolyte concentration increasing, while the effects generated by IgG translocation are more significant than that generated by BSA translocation. More importantly, there is a maximum decreasing value in each modulated current curve with biomolecule concentration increasing for thermally induced intermolecular collision. Furthermore, the turning point for the maximum shifts to lower biomolecule concentrations with the system temperature rising (from 4°C to 45°C), and it is mainly determined by the temperature in the feed cell if the temperature difference exists in the two separated cells. These findings are expected to be valuable for the future design of novel sensing device based on nanopore and/or nanopore arrays.

  16. Fundamentals of Biomolecule Analysis by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinecke, Andrea; Ryzhov, Victor

    2005-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) is a soft ionization technique that allows transfer of fragile biomolecules directly from solution into the gas phase. An instrumental analysis laboratory experiment is designed that would introduce the students to the ESI technique, major parameters of the ion trap mass spectrometers and some caveats in…

  17. BSDB: the biomolecule stretching database

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Mateusz; Sułkowska, Joanna I.; Witkowski, Bartłomiej S.; Cieplak, Marek

    2011-01-01

    We describe the Biomolecule Stretching Data Base that has been recently set up at http://www.ifpan.edu.pl/BSDB/. It provides information about mechanostability of proteins. Its core is based on simulations of stretching of 17 134 proteins within a structure-based model. The primary information is about the heights of the maximal force peaks, the force–displacement patterns, and the sequencing of the contact-rupturing events. We also summarize the possible types of the mechanical clamps, i.e. the motifs which are responsible for a protein's resistance to stretching. PMID:20929872

  18. BSDB: the biomolecule stretching database.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Mateusz; Sulkowska, Joanna I; Witkowski, Bartlomiej S; Cieplak, Marek

    2011-01-01

    We describe the Biomolecule Stretching Data Base that has been recently set up at http://www.ifpan.edu.pl/BSDB/. It provides information about mechanostability of proteins. Its core is based on simulations of stretching of 17 134 proteins within a structure-based model. The primary information is about the heights of the maximal force peaks, the force-displacement patterns, and the sequencing of the contact-rupturing events. We also summarize the possible types of the mechanical clamps, i.e. the motifs which are responsible for a protein's resistance to stretching. PMID:20929872

  19. Engineering considerations for the economic design, installation and operation of ozonation equipment for cooling water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, R.G.

    1994-12-31

    Once it has been decided to install ozone for the treatment of cooling water, the next step is to assure that the equipment is sized and designed for the most reliable and economical operation. Design principles are presented which have proved to be effective for ozonation systems which have been treating municipal water and wastewaters so as to maximize the reliability of equipment performance, constancy of ozone output in a fail-safe mode, minimizing power expenditures, while providing for preventive maintenance. For example, rather than purchase a single ozone generator with a second for standby, the purchaser of ozone equipment might install three ozone generators, each of which is capable of producing 50% of the required quantity of ozone. Two of these are on-line continuously, with the third off-line, allowing for planned maintenance downtime. For periods of unusually high ozone demand, on-site liquid oxygen can be made available to double the output of ozone over that available from dried air. Advantages of generating ozone from oxygen will be discussed, and finally, a novel Japanese method of generating ozone from high purity oxygen, adsorption of ozone onto silica gel or molecular sieves, recycling of the oxygen, and intermittent application of the adsorbed ozone to flowing cooling water will be described.

  20. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part II-Equipment and Costing.

    PubMed

    Baird, Phillip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-08-01

    Part II of this article discusses and provides guidance on the equipment and systems necessary to operate a repository. The various types of storage equipment and monitoring and support systems are presented in detail. While the material focuses on the large repository, the requirements for a small-scale startup are also presented. Cost estimates and a cost model for establishing a repository are presented. The cost model presents an expected range of acquisition costs for the large capital items in developing a repository. A range of 5,000-7,000 ft(2) constructed has been assumed, with 50 frozen storage units, to reflect a successful operation with growth potential. No design or engineering costs, permit or regulatory costs, or smaller items such as the computers, software, furniture, phones, and barcode readers required for operations have been included. PMID:26886768

  1. Design of a telescoping tube system for access and handling equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlefield, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft processing presents unique problems for the design of ground support equipment. A telescoping tube system consists of a number of nested structural tubes that can be extended and retracted (telescoped) while supporting a load. A typical telescoping tube system provides lateral, torsional, and vertical support for an access platform. Several concepts for improved telescoping tubes were developed with emphasis placed on reliability, ease of maintenance, and cost effectiveness. The most promising prototype design utilizes adjustable rollers running on tracks bolted to the tube sections. A wire rope deployment system ensures that all tube sections are controlled during extension and retraction. Track shimming and roller adjustment allow for fabrication of a high precision tube assembly that does not require extensive machining or unusually large shop equipment. The use of rolling contact eliminates the contamination problems encountered with sliding tubes in previous designs. The prototype design is suitable for indoor or outdoor use. A prototype tube assembly was fabricated and tested for strength, stiffness, maintainability, and endurance.

  2. Evaluation of Raman spectroscopy for the trace analysis of biomolecules for Mars exobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehlicka, Jan; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Vitek, Petr; Culka, Adam

    2010-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an ideal technique for the identification of biomolecules and minerals for astrobiological applications. Raman spectroscopic instrumentation has been shown to be potentially valuable for the in-situ detection of spectral biomarkers originating from rock samples containing remnants of terrestrial endolithic colonisation. Within the future payloads designed by ESA and NASA for several missions focussing on life detection on Mars, Raman spectroscopy has been proposed as an important non-destructive analytical tool for the in-situ identification of organic compounds relevant to life detection on planetary and moon surfaces or near sub-surfaces. Portable Raman systems equipped with 785 nm lasers permit the detection of pure organic minerals, aminoacids, carboxylic acids, as well as NH-containing compounds outdoors at -20°C and at an altitude of 3300 m. A potential limitation for the use of Raman spectroscopic techniques is the detection of very low amounts of biomolecules in rock matrices. The detection of beta-carotene and aminoacids has been achieved in the field using a portable Raman system in admixture with crystalline powders of sulphates and halite. Relatively low detection limits less than 1 % for detecting beta-carotene, aminoacids using a portable Raman system were obtained analysing traces of these compounds in crystalline powders of sulphates and halite. Laboratory systems permit the detection of these biomolecules at even lower concentrations at sub-ppm level of the order of 0.1 to 1 mg kg-1. The comparative evaluation of laboratory versus field measurements permits the identification of critical issues for future field applications and directs attention to the improvements needed in the instrumentation . A comparison between systems using different laser excitation wavelengths shows excellent results for 785 nm laser excitation . The results of this study will inform the acquisition parameters necessary for the deployment of robotic

  3. Transient Anion States of Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varella, Marcio

    2012-10-01

    Much of the interest on electron interactions with biomolecules is related to radiation damage [Gohlke and Illenberger, Europhys. News 33, 207 (2002)]. The high energy photons employed in radiology and radiotherapy generate a large number of fast electrons in living cells. These electrons thermalize in a picosecond scale, eventually forming dissociative matestable anions with water and biomolecules. In this work, we employ the parallel version of Schwinger Multichannel Method with Pseudopotentials [Bettega et al., Phys. Rev. A 47, 1111 (1993); Santos et al., J. Phys. Chem. 136, 084307 (2012)] to investigate transient anion states of protein and nucleic acid precursors. We address glycine in both neutral and zwitterionic forms, as well as glycine-water clusters and disulfide bonds. The interest on the two forms of glycine (and other amino acids) relies on the fact that only the neutral form is stable in the gas phase, while the zwitterion is more stable in solution, pointing out limitations of standard gas-phase studies. Electron attachment to disulfide bonds also has potential impact on protein stability. Finally we address transient anion states of substituted uracil molecules in the gas phase. [4pt] In collaboration with M. H. F. Bettega, S. d'A. Sanchez, R. F. da Costa, M. A. P. Lima, J. S. dos Santos, and F. Kossoski.

  4. BSDB: the Biomolecule Stretching Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marek; Sikora, Mateusz; Sulkowska, Joanna I.; Witkowski, Bartlomiej

    2011-03-01

    Despite more than a decade of experiments on single biomolecule manipulation, mechanical properties of only several scores of proteins have been measured. A characteristic scale of the force of resistance to stretching, Fmax , has been found to range between ~ 10 and 480 pN. The Biomolecule Stretching Data Base (BSDB) described here provides information about expected values of Fmax for, currently, 17 134 proteins. The values and other characteristics of the unfolding proces, including the nature of identified mechanical clamps, are available at www://info.ifpan.edu.pl/BSDB/. They have been obtained through simulations within a structure-based model which correlates satisfactorily with the available experimental data on stretching. BSDB also lists experimental data and results of the existing all-atom simulations. The database offers a Protein-Data-Bank-wide guide to mechano-stability of proteins. Its description is provided by a forthcoming Nucleic Acids Research paper. Supported by EC FUNMOL project FP7-NMP-2007-SMALL-1, and European Regional Development Fund: Innovative Economy (POIG.01.01.02-00-008/08).

  5. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  6. Conceptual design of experimental equipment for large-diameter NTD-Si.

    PubMed

    Yagi, M; Watanabe, M; Ohyama, K; Yamamoto, K; Komeda, M; Kashima, Y; Yamashita, K

    2009-01-01

    An irradiation-experimental equipment for 12in neutron transmutation doping silicon (NTD-Si) was designed conceptually by using MCNP5 in order to improve the neutron flux distribution of the radial direction. As a result of the calculations, the neutron absorption reaction ratio of the circumference to the center could be limited within 1.09 using a thermal neutron filter that covers the surface of the silicon ingot. The uniformity of the (30)Si neutron absorption was less than 5.3%. PMID:19299158

  7. 46 CFR 153.488 - Design and equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and equipment for tanks carrying high melting... equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B. Unless waived under § 153.491, for a ship... a Category B NLS with a melting point of 15 °C or more, the cargo tank must have— (a) An...

  8. 46 CFR 153.488 - Design and equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B. Unless waived under § 153.491, for a ship... a Category B NLS with a melting point of 15 °C or more, the cargo tank must have— (a) An arrangement... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design and equipment for tanks carrying high...

  9. 46 CFR 153.488 - Design and equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B. Unless waived under § 153.491, for a ship... a Category B NLS with a melting point of 15 °C or more, the cargo tank must have— (a) An arrangement... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design and equipment for tanks carrying high...

  10. 46 CFR 153.488 - Design and equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B. Unless waived under § 153.491, for a ship... a Category B NLS with a melting point of 15 °C or more, the cargo tank must have— (a) An arrangement... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design and equipment for tanks carrying high...

  11. 46 CFR 153.488 - Design and equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B. Unless waived under § 153.491, for a ship... a Category B NLS with a melting point of 15 °C or more, the cargo tank must have— (a) An arrangement... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design and equipment for tanks carrying high...

  12. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 9: Design approaches: CAES, appendix C. Major mechanical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    The major mechanical equipment includes the turbine-motor/generator, compressor train, intercooler/aftercooler system, and exhaust gas recuperator. The design criteria for each of these components is interrelated with, and dependent upon, each of the other components within the major mechanical equipment group. Careful consideration of this dependency has resulted in an overall design approach which satisfies the requirements of the CAES operational cycle while providing for a conservative component design.

  13. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design objectives for equipment to control releases of..., Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals; Form; Contents; Ineligibility of Certain Applicants § 50.34a Design...) An application for a construction permit shall include a description of the preliminary design...

  14. The Factors of Design on Playing Equipment in Young Children Schools by Viewpoint of Young Children Behavioral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Chuen-tzay

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the care-givers of preschool education institutions whose cognition on playing equipment functions, conditions of both setting and using, and the main factors which should beware of design. Besides, not only constructed the factors of design, but also provided suggestions about setting and designing of…

  15. Thermal control for space microelectronic equipment via pyroelectric material: Design, characterisation and experimental campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Riccardo; Gasbarri, Paolo; Lecci, Umberto

    2012-12-01

    In the last decades the development of new satellite platforms from a smaller to a bigger size goes in parallel with the development of the microelectronics equipment boarded on. Avionics, control systems and payloads equipment exploit the microelectronics in order to reduce the overall dimensions and masses and to increase the performances of each unit for the improvement of goals in each mission. A larger use of electronic elements with the relevant components increases the importance of a carefully equipment designed under different points of view. One of them is the thermal management. It is well known that the Joule Effect causes the heat overstocking which in turn reduces the efficiency of the electronic devices and increases the difficulties to manage the thermal power budget on board. A new design philosophy sees a possibility for a simpler and a more efficient thermal control on the use of the pyroelectric materials. Pyroelectrics are a "special" class of materials that demonstrates a spontaneous capacity to convert thermal fluxes in electrical charge and if applied on a "passive" structure they can "actively" reduce the heat overstocking. The electrical charge could be eventually stored for different purposes such as for instance the auto-feeding, or better the energy harvesting. With the reduction of the temperature of each component, and consequently with the reduction of the heat flux that flows through microelectronics, better efficiency and better performances are ensured. In this way the reliability is increased and the goals of the mission could be achieved easier and easier. In this paper the design of a thermal rig made up of pyroelectric devices and dummy electronics components in order to verify the thermo-electric conversion is presented. Furthermore an experimental campaign has been performed to validate the technology here introduced and the relevant results presented. In particular the characterisation of a typical aerospace pyroelectric

  16. Large scale rigidity-based flexibility analysis of biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Streinu, Ileana

    2016-01-01

    KINematics And RIgidity (KINARI) is an on-going project for in silico flexibility analysis of proteins. The new version of the software, Kinari-2, extends the functionality of our free web server KinariWeb, incorporates advanced web technologies, emphasizes the reproducibility of its experiments, and makes substantially improved tools available to the user. It is designed specifically for large scale experiments, in particular, for (a) very large molecules, including bioassemblies with high degree of symmetry such as viruses and crystals, (b) large collections of related biomolecules, such as those obtained through simulated dilutions, mutations, or conformational changes from various types of dynamics simulations, and (c) is intended to work as seemlessly as possible on the large, idiosyncratic, publicly available repository of biomolecules, the Protein Data Bank. We describe the system design, along with the main data processing, computational, mathematical, and validation challenges underlying this phase of the KINARI project. PMID:26958583

  17. Signal processing and display interface studies. [performance tests - design analysis/equipment specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Signal processing equipment specifications, operating and test procedures, and systems design and engineering are described. Five subdivisions of the overall circuitry are treated: (1) the spectrum analyzer; (2) the spectrum integrator; (3) the velocity discriminator; (4) the display interface; and (5) the formatter. They function in series: (1) first in analog form to provide frequency resolution, (2) then in digital form to achieve signal to noise improvement (video integration) and frequency discrimination, and (3) finally in analog form again for the purpose of real-time display of the significant velocity data. The formatter collects binary data from various points in the processor and provides a serial output for bi-phase recording. Block diagrams are used to illustrate the system.

  18. Design of magneto-rheological mount for a cabin of heavy equipment vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Soon-Yong; Do, Xuan Phu; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, magneto-rheological (MR) mount for a cabin of heavy equipment vehicles is designed for improving vibration isolation in both low and high frequency domains. The proposed mount consists of two principal parts of mount, rubber part and MR fluid path. The rubber part of existed mount and spring are used to change the stiffness and frequency characteristics for low vibration frequency range. The MR fluid path is a valve type structure using flow mode. In order to control the external magnetic field, a solenoid coil is placed in MR mount. Magnetic intensity analysis is then conducted to optimize dimensions using computer simulation. Experimental results show that magnetic field can reduce low frequency vibration. The results presented in this work indicate that proper application of MR fluid and rubber characteristic to devise MR mount can lead to the improvement of vibration control performance in both low and high frequency ranges.

  19. Passive protection devices for high-voltage equipment: Design procedures and performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Serino, G.; Bonacina, G.; Bettinali, F.

    1995-12-31

    A 420 kV High-Voltage Alternating Current Circuit-Breaker, a typical element of an open-air electrical substation, is considered. Experimental tests carried out on such a piece of equipment by ISMES, under ENEL support, clearly pointed out its inability to withstand the seismic qualification level of highest severity indicated by the standards. The design of a seismic isolation system for the switch-gear composed of spring units and dampers is developed in this paper, and the dynamic earthquake response of the isolated circuit-breaker is compared numerically to the one obtained without the seismic protection system. The remarkable reduction of stresses in the porcelain insulators are shown, evidencing that this occurs to the detriment of a certain increment of displacements at the top of the apparatus.

  20. Supporting Faculty with Media Equipped Classrooms: Considerations for Design and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James A.

    This paper gives an overview of the Media Equipped Classroom (MEC) program at the State University of New York at Buffalo. In 1988 a study was undertaken to explore alternate ways of providing media equipment services to classrooms at the university. The traditional (current) model of delivery and set-up of audiovisual equipment, relying upon…

  1. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

    2011-07-20

    It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The three primary

  2. Analysis of commercial equipment and instrumentation for Spacelab payloads. Volume 3: Design analysis and trade studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of each selected equipment item, and suitability and cost analyses were documented by equipment item. Tradeoffs of alternative specification requirements are presented which include possible relaxation of vibration, material control, fungus and corrosion requirements for experiment equipment. An additional tradeoff was performed to determine whether it is cost effective to modify experiment equipment to be compatible with a 28-volt dc power source rather than the conventional 110-volt ac source. Programmatic analysis data are given which were used as the basis for the extension of results from the analyses of specific equipment items to the entire spacelab experiment program.

  3. HVAC Equipment Design Options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes (NZEH) -A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D

    2005-11-01

    Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Conventional unitary equipment and system designs have matured to a point where cost-effective, dramatic efficiency improvements that meet near-zero-energy housing (NZEH) goals require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. This report describes results of a scoping assessment of HVAC system options for NZEH homes. ORNL has completed a preliminary adaptation, for consideration by The U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office, Building Technologies (BT) Program, of Cooper's (2001) stage and gate planning process to the HVAC and Water Heating element of BT's multi-year plan, as illustrated in Figure 1. In order to adapt to R&D the Cooper process, which is focused on product development, and to keep the technology development process consistent with an appropriate role for the federal government, the number and content of the stages and gates needed to be modified. The potential federal role in technology development involves 6 stages and 7 gates, but depending on the nature and status of the concept, some or all of the responsibilities can flow to the private sector for product development beginning as early as Gate 3. In the proposed new technology development stage and gate sequence, the Stage 2 'Scoping Assessment

  4. Design of high precision motor driving system for circular scanning ultrasonic endoscopic imaging equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Haoran; Bai, Baoping; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Yanan; Wang, Yi; Yu, Daoyin

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a motor driving system for circular scanning ultrasonic endoscopic imaging equipment. It was designed to guarantee the motor rotating at a relatively constant speed in load fluctuation conditions, which result from the bending and twisting of the flexible shaft which connects the probe to the motor. A hardware feedback circuit based on Frequency-To-Voltage Converter LM331 and Step-Down Voltage Regulator LM2576-ADJ was designed to ensure steady rotation of motor in load fluctuation conditions, and a D/A module offered by MCU was used to regulate the real-time rotary speed. The feedback response cycle is about 20 μs according to theoretical analysis. Experimental results show that the maximum error is +/-1 r/min under the normal running environment (300 ~1500 r/min) and load fluctuation conditions, which means the average instability is reduced to 0.11% as compared with that of the motor drive simply based on MCU which is 0.94%. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the motor driving system has high accuracy, fast response, excellent reliability and good versatility and portability, and can precisely guarantee the smooth movement of load-changing PMW (Pulse Width Modulation) motor, so as to ensure the imaging quality, and can effectively improve the efficiency and accuracy of the diagnosis.

  5. An overview: biomolecules from microalgae for animal feed and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Yaakob, Zahira; Ali, Ehsan; Zainal, Afifi; Mohamad, Masita; Takriff, Mohd Sobri

    2014-12-01

    Despite being more popular for biofuel, microalgae have gained a lot of attention as a source of biomolecules and biomass for feed purposes. Algae farming can be established using land as well as sea and strategies can be designed in order to gain the products of specific interest in the optimal way. A general overview of the contributions of Algae to meet the requirements of nutrients in animal/aquaculture feed is presented in this study. In addition to its applications in animal/aquaculture feed, algae can produce a number of biomolecules including astaxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene, chlorophyll, phycobiliprotein, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), beta-1,3-glucan, and pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds which have been reviewed with respect to their commercial importance and current status. The review is further extended to highlight the adequate utilization of value added products in the feeds for livestock, poultry and aquaculture (with emphasis in shrimp farming). PMID:25984489

  6. Recent advances in exploiting ionic liquids for biomolecules: Solubility, stability and applications.

    PubMed

    Sivapragasam, Magaret; Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Goto, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    The technological utility of biomolecules (e.g. proteins, enzymes and DNA) can be significantly enhanced by combining them with ionic liquids (ILs) - potentially attractive "green" and "designer" solvents - rather than using in conventional organic solvents or water. In recent years, ILs have been used as solvents, cosolvents, and reagents for biocatalysis, biotransformation, protein preservation and stabilization, DNA solubilization and stabilization, and other biomolecule-based applications. Using ILs can dramatically enhance the structural and chemical stability of proteins, DNA, and enzymes. This article reviews the recent technological developments of ILs in protein-, enzyme-, and DNA-based applications. We discuss the different routes to increase biomolecule stability and activity in ILs, and the design of biomolecule-friendly ILs that can dissolve biomolecules with minimum alteration to their structure. This information will be helpful to design IL-based processes in biotechnology and the biological sciences that can serve as novel and selective processes for enzymatic reactions, protein and DNA stability, and other biomolecule-based applications. PMID:27312484

  7. Italy-Japan international project-based learning for developing human resources using design of welfare equipment as a subject.

    PubMed

    Hanafusa, A; Komeda, T; Ito, K; Zobel, P Beomonte

    2015-08-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is effective for developing human resources of young students. The design of welfare equipment, such as wheelchairs and gait assistive devices, is taken as the subject in this study because these devices must be fit to their environment, users, and method of use; students must consider the circumstances of each country concerned. The program commenced in 2012 at L'Aquila, Italy, and the Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan and has been continuing for three years. Students were divided into four groups and discussions were held on how to adapt the equipment to the user and environment. After discussion, they designed and simulated a model of the equipment using CAD. Finally, they presented their designs to each other. Through the program, students had fruitful discussions, exchanged ideas from different cultures, and learned from each other. Furthermore, friendships among the students were nurtured. It is believed that the objective of the program was satisfactorily accomplished. PMID:26737090

  8. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 1: Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.

  9. Computer simulation of biomolecule-biomaterial interactions at surfaces and interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qun; Wang, Meng-hao; Wang, Ke-feng; Liu, Yaling; Zhang, Hong-ping; Lu, Xiong; Zhang, Xing-dong

    2015-06-01

    Biomaterial surfaces and interfaces are intrinsically complicated systems because they involve biomolecules, implanted biomaterials, and complex biological environments. It is difficult to understand the interaction mechanism between biomaterials and biomolecules through conventional experimental methods. Computer simulation is an effective way to study the interaction mechanism at the atomic and molecular levels. In this review, we summarized the recent studies on the interaction behaviors of biomolecules with three types of the most widely used biomaterials: hydroxyapatite (HA), titanium oxide (TiO2), and graphene(G)/graphene oxide(GO). The effects of crystal forms, crystallographic planes, surface defects, doping atoms, and water environments on biomolecules adsorption are discussed in detail. This review provides valuable theoretical guidance for biomaterial designing and surface modification. PMID:26065541

  10. Design challenges for matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and infrared resonant laser evaporation equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, James A.

    2011-11-01

    Since the development of the Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) process by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the late 1990s, MAPLE has become an active area of research for the deposition of a variety of polymer, biological, and organic thin films. As is often the case with advancements in thin-film deposition techniques new technology sometimes evolves by making minor or major adjustments to existing deposition process equipment and techniques. This is usually the quickest and least expensive way to try out new ideas and to "push the envelope" in order to obtain new and unique scientific results as quickly as possible. This process of "tweaking" current equipment usually works to some degree, but once the new process is further refined overall designs for a new deposition tool based on the critical attributes of the new process typically help capitalize more fully on the all the salient features of the new and improved process. This certainly has been true for the MAPLE process. In fact the first MAPLE experiments the polymer/solvent matrix was mixed and poured into a copper holder held at LN2 temperature on a laboratory counter top. The holder was then quickly placed onto a LN2 cooled reservoir in a vacuum deposition chamber and placed in a vertical position on a LN2 cooled stage and pumped down as quickly as possible. If the sample was not placed into the chamber quickly enough the frozen matrix would melt and drip into the bottom of the chamber onto the chambers main gate valve making a bit of a mess. However, skilled and motivated scientists usually worked quickly enough to make this process work most of the time. The initial results from these experiments were encouraging and led to several publications which sparked considerable interest in this newly developed technique Clearly this approach provided the vision that MAPLE was a viable deposition process, but the equipment was not optimal for conducting MAPLE experiments on a regular basis

  11. Design guidelines for use of adhesives in hybrid microcircuits. [for electronic equipment in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, S. V.; Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the use of adhesives in the assembly of hybrid microcircuits offers advantages over other bonding methods, there currently does not exist a set of guidelines for the selection of adhesives which will insure that hybrid microcircuits assembled with them will meet the long use-life, high-reliability requirements of electronic equipment for space applications. This study was directed to the identification of the properties of electrically insulative adhesives that potentially could cause problems in such an application, and to the development of evaluation tests to quantify these properties and thus form the basis for establishing suitable guidelines and, ultimately, specifications. Bond strength, outgassing after cure, and corrosivity were selected for detailed attention since they are considered to be especially critical. Introductory discussion includes enumeration and brief comments on the properties of adhesives considered to be important for the proposed application, a general review of polymeric types of adhesives, and identification of the major types of adhesives commercially available and specifically designed for microelectronic use. The specific tests developed to evaluate bond strength, outgassing after cure, and corrosivity are discussed in detail, and comparative results obtained for selected adhesives representative of the major types are given.

  12. Biomolecule-assisted route to prepare titania mesoporous hollow structures.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shangjun; Wang, Yaoming; Hong, Zhanglian; Lü, Xujie; Wan, Dongyun; Huang, Fuqiang

    2011-10-01

    Amino acids, as a particularly important type of biomolecules, have been used as multifunctional templates to intelligently construct mesoporous TiO(2) hollow structures through a simple solvothermal reaction. The structure-directing behaviors of various amino acids were systematically investigated, and it was found that these biomolecules possess the general capability to assist mesoporous TiO(2) hollow-sphere formation. At the same time, the nanostructures of the obtained TiO(2) are highly dependent on the isoelectric points (pI) of amino acids. Their molecular-structure variations can lead to pI differences and significantly influence the final TiO(2) morphologies. Higher-pI amino acids (e.g., L-lysine and L-arginine) have better structure-directing abilities to generate nanosheet-assembled hollow spheres and yolk/shell structures. The specific morphologies and mesopore size of these novel hollow structures can also be tuned by adjusting the titanium precursor concentration. Heat treatment in air and vacuum was further conducted to transform the as-prepared structures to porous nanoparticle-assembled hollow TiO(2) and TiO(2)/carbon nanocomposites, which may be potentially applied in the fields of photocatalysts, dye-sensitized solar cells, and Li batteries. This study provides some enlightenment on the design of novel templates by taking advantage of biomolecules. PMID:21882272

  13. SERS-based detection of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cialla, Dana; Pollok, Sibyll; Steinbrücker, Carolin; Weber, Karina; Popp, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    In order to detect biomolecules, different approaches using for instance biological, spectroscopic or imaging techniques are established. Due to the broad variety of these methods, this review is focused on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as an analytical tool in biomolecule detection. Here, the molecular specificity of Raman spectroscopy is combined with metallic nanoparticles as sensor platform, which enhances the signal intensity by several orders of magnitude. Within this article, the characterization of diverse biomolecules by means of SERS is explained and moreover current application fields are presented. The SERS intensity and as a consequence thereof the reliable detection of the biomolecule of interest is effected by distance, orientation and affinity of the molecule towards the metal surface. Furthermore, the great capability of the SERS technique for cutting-edge applications like pathogen detection and cancer diagnosis is highlighted. We wish to motivate by this comprehensive and critical summary researchers from various scientific background to create their own ideas and schemes for a SERS-based detection and analysis of biomolecules.

  14. The Design of Transportation Equipment in Terms of Human Capabilities. The Role of Engineering Psychology in Transport Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Ross A.

    Human factors engineering is considered with regard to the design of safety factors for aviation and highway transportation equipment. Current trends and problem areas are identified for jet air transportation and for highway transportation. Suggested solutions to transportation safety problems are developed by applying the techniques of human…

  15. Development of in-structure design spectra for dome mounted equipment on underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Julyk, L.J.

    1995-09-01

    In-structure response spectra for dome mounted equipment on underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site are developed on the basis of recent soil-structure-interaction analyses. Recommended design spectra are provided for various locations on the tank dome.

  16. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Applications for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals;...

  17. 42 CFR 421.210 - Designations of regional carriers to process claims for durable medical equipment, prosthetics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designations of regional carriers to process claims for durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics and supplies. 421.210 Section 421.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Carriers...

  18. SECOND GENERATION EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT DESIGN TO SUPPORT VOLOXIDATION TESTING AT INL

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Wahlquit; Kenneth J. Bateman; Brian R. Westphal

    2008-05-01

    Voloxidation is a potential head-end process used prior to aqueous or pyrochemical spent-oxide-fuel treatment. The spent oxide fuel is heated to an elevated temperature in oxygen or air to promote separation of the fuel from the cladding as well as volatize the fission products. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) have been collaborating on voloxidation research through a joint International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI). A new furnace and off-gas trapping system (OTS) with enhanced capability was necessary to perform further testing. The design criteria for the OTS were jointly agreed upon by INL and KAERI. First, the equipment must accommodate the use of spent nuclear fuel and be capable of operating in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the INL. This primarily means the furnace and OTS must be remotely operational and maintainable. The system requires special filters and distinctive temperature zones so that the fission products can be uniquely captured. The OTS must be sealed to maximize the amount of fission products captured. Finally, to accommodate the largest range of operating conditions, the OTS must be capable of handling high temperatures and various oxidizing environments. The constructed system utilizes a vertical split-tube furnace with four independently controlled zones. One zone is capable of reaching 1200°C to promote the release of volatile fission products. The three additional zones that capture fission products can be controlled to operate between 100-1100°C. A detailed description of the OTS will be presented as well as some initial background information on high temperature seal options.

  19. Improved design of electrophoretic equipment for rapid sickle-cell-anemia screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddick, J. M.; Hirsch, I.

    1974-01-01

    Effective mass screening may be accomplished by modifying existing electrophoretic equipment in conjunction with multisample applicator used with cellulose-acetate-matrix test paper. Using this method, approximately 20 to 25 samples can undergo electrophoresis in 5 to 6 minutes.

  20. Microorganisms and biomolecules in space hard environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horneck, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microorganisms and biomolecules exposed to space vacuum and to different intensities of selected wavelengths of solar ultraviolet radiation is studied. The influence of these factors, applied singly or simultaneously, on the integrity of microbial systems and biomolecules is measured. Specifically, this experiment will study in Bacillus subtilis spores (1) disturbances in subsequent germination, outgrowth, and colony formation; (2) photochemical reactions of the DNA and protein in vivo and in vitro and their role in biological injury; and (3) the efficiency of repair processes in these events.

  1. Design challenges for matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and infrared resonant laser evaporation equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, James A.

    2011-11-01

    Since the development of the Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) process by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the late 1990s, MAPLE has become an active area of research for the deposition of a variety of polymer, biological, and organic thin films. As is often the case with advancements in thin-film deposition techniques new technology sometimes evolves by making minor or major adjustments to existing deposition process equipment and techniques. This is usually the quickest and least expensive way to try out new ideas and to "push the envelope" in order to obtain new and unique scientific results as quickly as possible. This process of "tweaking" current equipment usually works to some degree, but once the new process is further refined overall designs for a new deposition tool based on the critical attributes of the new process typically help capitalize more fully on the all the salient features of the new and improved process. This certainly has been true for the MAPLE process. In fact the first MAPLE experiments the polymer/solvent matrix was mixed and poured into a copper holder held at LN2 temperature on a laboratory counter top. The holder was then quickly placed onto a LN2 cooled reservoir in a vacuum deposition chamber and placed in a vertical position on a LN2 cooled stage and pumped down as quickly as possible. If the sample was not placed into the chamber quickly enough the frozen matrix would melt and drip into the bottom of the chamber onto the chambers main gate valve making a bit of a mess. However, skilled and motivated scientists usually worked quickly enough to make this process work most of the time. The initial results from these experiments were encouraging and led to several publications which sparked considerable interest in this newly developed technique Clearly this approach provided the vision that MAPLE was a viable deposition process, but the equipment was not optimal for conducting MAPLE experiments on a regular basis

  2. The production of biocatalysts and biomolecules from extremophiles.

    PubMed

    Schiraldi, Chiara; De Rosa, Mario

    2002-12-01

    The discovery of life in seemingly prohibitive environments continues to challenge conventional concepts of the growth-limiting conditions of many cellular organisms. The diversity of extremophiles has barely been tapped -estimates generally agreeing that <1% of the microorganisms in the environment have been cultivated in pure cultures to date. The production of extremophilic biomass is very important to provide sufficient material for enzyme and biomolecule isolation and characterization, eventually revealing particular features of industrial interest. Hence, special equipment and custom-tailored processes have been developed and are currently under evaluation for the improvement of fermentation productivity. Despite the remarkable opportunities that these uncommon organisms present for biotechnological applications only few instances can be reported for actual exploitation. This lack of progress from the research findings at a laboratory-scale to the actual development of pilot and large-scale production is correlated with the difficulties encountered in extremophile cultivations. Here, we report recent achievements in the production of biomass and related enzymes and biomolecules from extremophile sources, especially focusing on the application of novel fermentation strategies. PMID:12443873

  3. Designing electronic equipment for random vibration environments; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, March 25, 26, 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmann, J.

    1982-10-01

    Random vibration basics for electronics packaging design are considered along with a response spectrum analysis for random vibration, design guides for random vibration, an example of design for random, guidelines for random vibration design of electronic equipment, the design for long fatigue life in random vibration environment, and a vibration-fatigue reliability analysis. Attention is given to the design of electronic equipment for random vibration environments, the analysis and test of ceramic substrates for the packaging of leadless chip carriers, the computer-aided interactive structural optimization of printed circuit-board design, and random vibration effects on piece part applications. Other topics explored are related to the design of cathode ray tubes for use in a random vibration environment, power supplies designed for random vibration, wear of connection contacts exposed to relative motion, test data on leadless chip carriers with ceramic substrates in severe random vibration environments, component lead wire strain relief for random vibration environments, and a large ceramic substrate assembly. For individual items see A83-30852 to A83-30868

  4. Design and Implementation of a Portal for the Medical Equipment Market: MEDICOM

    PubMed Central

    Kalivas, Dimitris; Panou-Diamandi, Ourania; Zeelenberg, Cees; van Nimwegen, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Background The MEDICOM (Medical Products Electronic Commerce) Portal provides the electronic means for medical-equipment manufacturers to communicate online with their customers while supporting the Purchasing Process and Post Market Surveillance. The Portal offers a powerful Internet-based search tool for finding medical products and manufacturers. Its main advantage is the fast, reliable and up-to-date retrieval of information while eliminating all unrelated content that a general-purpose search engine would retrieve. The Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System (UMDNS) registers all products. The Portal accepts end-user requests and generates a list of results containing text descriptions of devices, UMDNS attribute values, and links to manufacturer Web pages and online catalogues for access to more-detailed information. Device short descriptions are provided by the corresponding manufacturer. The Portal offers technical support for integration of the manufacturers' Web sites with itself. The network of the Portal and the connected manufacturers' sites is called the MEDICOM system. Objective To establish an environment hosting all the interactions of consumers (health care organizations and professionals) and providers (manufacturers, distributors, and resellers of medical devices). Methods The Portal provides the end-user interface, implements system management, and supports database compatibility. The Portal hosts information about the whole MEDICOM system (Common Database) and summarized descriptions of medical devices (Short Description Database); the manufacturers' servers present extended descriptions. The Portal provides end-user profiling and registration, an efficient product-searching mechanism, bulletin boards, links to on-line libraries and standards, on-line information for the MEDICOM system, and special messages or advertisements from manufacturers. Platform independence and interoperability characterize the system design. Relational Database

  5. Tuneable graphene nanopores for single biomolecule detection.

    PubMed

    Al-Dirini, Feras; Mohammed, Mahmood A; Hossain, Md Sharafat; Hossain, Faruque M; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2016-05-21

    Solid-state nanopores are promising candidates for next generation DNA and protein sequencing. However, once fabricated, such devices lack tuneability, which greatly restricts their biosensing capabilities. Here we propose a new class of solid-state graphene-based nanopore devices that exhibit a unique capability of self-tuneability, which is used to control their conductance, tuning it to levels comparable to the changes caused by the translocation of a single biomolecule, and hence, enabling high detection sensitivities. Our presented quantum simulation results suggest that the smallest amino acid, glycine, when present in water and in an aqueous saline solution can be detected with high sensitivity, up to a 90% change in conductance. Our results also suggest that passivating the device with nitrogen, making it an n-type device, greatly enhances its sensitivity, and makes it highly sensitive to not only the translocation of a single biomolecule, but more interestingly to intramolecular electrostatics within the biomolecule. Sensitive detection of the carboxyl group within the glycine molecule, which carries a charge equivalent to a single electron, is achieved with a conductance change that reaches as high as 99% when present in an aqueous saline solution. The presented findings suggest that tuneable graphene nanopores, with their capability of probing intramolecular electrostatics, could pave the way towards a new generation of single biomolecule detection devices. PMID:27171594

  6. PREFACE: Structure and Function of Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marek; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej

    2005-05-01

    The Workshop on the Structure and Function of Biomolecules took place in Bedlewo near Poznan, Poland, on 13-15 May 2004, two weeks after Poland joined the European Community. The Workshop was sponsored by the ASPECT Centre of Excellence for Advanced Spectroscopy Applications in Physics, Modern Science, Biology and Environmental Protection (the European Community contract GMA1-2002-72801) and by the Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences. The Workshop gathered together approximately 100 participants mostly from the European Community but also from Canada, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the USA. The scientific aim of this Workshop was to provide an active forum for cross-disciplinary interactions between specialists who are active in different fields related to biomolecules, with an emphasis on proteins and nucleic acids. The workshop covered both experimental and theoretical issues. The subjects that were discussed included: mechanical stretching of biomolecules, protein kinetics and structure, aggregation of biomolecules, and novel spectroscopic methods for studying protein conformation. There were 36 invited lectures and 33 poster contributions presented at the Workshop. This Special Issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains a sample of the research presented at the Workshop.

  7. Tuneable graphene nanopores for single biomolecule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dirini, Feras; Mohammed, Mahmood A.; Hossain, Md Sharafat; Hossain, Faruque M.; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2016-05-01

    Solid-state nanopores are promising candidates for next generation DNA and protein sequencing. However, once fabricated, such devices lack tuneability, which greatly restricts their biosensing capabilities. Here we propose a new class of solid-state graphene-based nanopore devices that exhibit a unique capability of self-tuneability, which is used to control their conductance, tuning it to levels comparable to the changes caused by the translocation of a single biomolecule, and hence, enabling high detection sensitivities. Our presented quantum simulation results suggest that the smallest amino acid, glycine, when present in water and in an aqueous saline solution can be detected with high sensitivity, up to a 90% change in conductance. Our results also suggest that passivating the device with nitrogen, making it an n-type device, greatly enhances its sensitivity, and makes it highly sensitive to not only the translocation of a single biomolecule, but more interestingly to intramolecular electrostatics within the biomolecule. Sensitive detection of the carboxyl group within the glycine molecule, which carries a charge equivalent to a single electron, is achieved with a conductance change that reaches as high as 99% when present in an aqueous saline solution. The presented findings suggest that tuneable graphene nanopores, with their capability of probing intramolecular electrostatics, could pave the way towards a new generation of single biomolecule detection devices.

  8. Routing of Biomolecules and Transgenes’ Vectors in Nuclei of Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Malecki, Marek; Malecki, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    The molecular architecture of Nuclear Pore Complexes (NPCs), as well as the import and export of molecules through them, has been intensively studied in a variety of cells, including oocytes. However, the structures and mechanisms, involved in the transport of molecules beyond the NPCs, remained unclear, until now. The specific aim of this work was, therefore, to determine, if there exist any intranuclear structures in continuum with the NPCs. This information could help in explaining the mechanisms, which propel the distribution of biomolecules and vectors inside the cell nuclei. To attain this aim, we used rapid cryo-immobilization to capture molecular processes of living cells with millisecond resolution. We pursued molecular imaging, including electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, to reveal structures with nanometer spatial resolution. We also bioengineered single chain variable fragments to track biomolecules and transgenes’ constructs. Herein, we reveal the Nuclear Routing Networks (NRNs) in the oocytes of Xenopus laevis. The NRNs originate at and extend from the tops of intranuclear baskets of the NPCs to interconnect them, while creating a complex, intra-nuclear, three-dimensional architecture. The NRNs guide the export of both tRNA, as well as the Nuclear Export Signal (NES) equipped vectors, from the nuclei. Moreover, the NRNs guide the import of both nucleoplasmin, as well as the Nuclear Localization Signals (NLS) modified transgenes’ vectors, into the nuclei. The vectors equipped with these NLS and NES shuttle back and forth through the NPCs and NRNs. To summarize, we reveal the NRN, which functions as the guided distribution system in the Xenopus laevis oocytes’ nuclei. We further proceed with the identification of its molecular components. PMID:22896814

  9. Educational Technology Equipped Classrooms: Re-Design Based on Faculty Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James A.; Cichocki, Ronald R.

    An overview is presented of the most recent Educational Technology Equipped Classroom (ETEC) developed at the State University of New York at Buffalo. The latest ETEC is the product of an extensive development procedure with input from faculty. The first three classrooms renovated to incorporate educational technology at the university were…

  10. Recommended Values of Meteorological Factors to Be Considered in the Design of Aircraft Ice-Prevention Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Alun R; Lewis, William

    1949-01-01

    Meteorological conditions conducive to aircraft icing are arranged in four classifications: three are associated with cloud structure and the fourth with freezing rain. The range of possible meteorological factors for each classification is discussed and specific values recommended for consideration in the design of ice-prevention equipment for aircraft are selected and tabulated. The values selected are based upon a study of the available observational data and theoretical considerations where observations are lacking. Recommendations for future research in the field are presented.

  11. Impact of Mars sand on dust on the design of space suits and life support equipment: A technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonds, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    Space suits and life support equipment will come in intimate contact with Martian soil as aerosols, wind blown particles and material thrown up by men and equipment on the Martian surface. For purposes of this discussion the soil is assumed to consist of a mixture of cominuted feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, quartz, titanomagnetite and other anhydrous and hydrous iron bearing oxides, clay minerals, scapolite and water soluble chlorides and sulfates. The soil may have photoactivated surfaces that acts as a strong oxidizer with behavior similar to hydrogen peroxide. The existing data about the Mars soil suggests that the dust and sand will require designs analogous to those uses on equipment exposed to salty air and blowing sand and dust. The major design challenges are in developing high performance radiators which can be cleaned after each EVA without degradation, designing seals that are readily cleaned and possibly in selecting materials which will not be degraded by any strong oxidants in the soil. The magnitude of the dust filtration challenge needs careful evaluation in terms of the trade off between fine-particle dust filters with low pressure drop that are either physically large and heavy, like filter baghouses require frequent replacement of filter elements, of low volume high pressure thus power consumption approaches, or washable filters. In the latter, filter elements are cleaned with water, as could the outsides of the space suits in the airlock.

  12. Design concept of the electrical ground support equipment for the AIV and calibration of the Euclid NISP instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, Massimo; Bonoli, Carlotta; Bortoletto, Favio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Butler, Chris. R.; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Conforti, Vito; Corcione, Leonardo; Franceschi, Enrico; Gianotti, Fulvio; Ligori, Sebastiano; Maciaszek, Thierry; Morgante, Gianluca; Muñoz, Jacinto; Nicastro, Luciano; Prieto, Eric; Rebolo-López, Rafael; Riva, Mario; Spano, Paolo; Toledo-Moreo, Rafael; Valenziano, Luca; Villó, Isidro; Zerbi, Filippo Maria

    2012-09-01

    The Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer (NISP) on board the Euclid ESA mission will be developed and tested at various levels of integration using various test equipment which shall be designed and procured through a collaborative and coordinated effort. In this paper we describe the Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) which shall be required to support the assembly, integration, verification and testing (AIV/AIT) and calibration activities at instrument level before delivery to ESA, and at satellite level, when the NISP instrument is mounted on the spacecraft. We present the EGSE conceptual design as defined in order to be compliant with the AIV/AIT and calibration requirements. The proposed concept is aimed at maximizing the re-use in the EGSE configuration of the Test Equipment developed for subsystem level activities, as well as, at allowing a smooth transition from instrument level to satellite level, and, possibly, at Ground Segment level. This paper mainly reports the technical status at the end of the Definition phase and it is presented on behalf of the Euclid Consortium.

  13. Preparation of 1D nanostructures using biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruneanu, Stela; Olenic, Liliana; Barbu Tudoran, Lucian; Kacso, Irina; Farha Al-Said, Said A.; Hassanien, Reda; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we have shown that one-dimensional (1D) particle arrays can be obtained using biomolecules, like DNA or amino-acids. Nano-arrays of silver and gold were prepared in a single-step synthesis, by exploiting the binding abilities of λ-DNA and L-Arginine. The morphology and optical properties of these nanostructures were investigated using AFM, TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy.

  14. Separation of biomolecules using supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Lucien, F P; Liong, K K; Cotton, N J; Macnaughton, S J; Foster, N R

    1993-01-01

    Supercritical fluids are increasingly being used as a replacement for more conventional organic solvents in the extraction of biomolecules from a range of matrices. Supercritical fluid extraction of essential fatty acids from fish oils is discussed. Supercritical CO2 was used to fractionate two fatty acids, EPA and DHA from fish oil ethyl esters. EPA and DHA were obtained with a purity of 58% and 67% respectively from Sardine oil with an original composition of 17% and 12%. PMID:7763846

  15. Of Tangerines, Asparagus, and Nonprotein Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    2016-05-19

    Every month the editors of Cell Chemical Biology bring you highlights of the most recent chemical biology literature. Our May 2016 selection includes a new method for labeling and visualizing nonprotein biomolecules using electron microscopy; a small molecule, originally found in tangerine peel, that regulates our circadian clock and helps with some of the metabolic pathologies associated with circadian rhythms; and a finding that asparagine is used as an amino acid exchanger in tumor cells. PMID:27203369

  16. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  17. The design of equipment for optical power measurement in FSO link beam cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latal, Jan; David, Tomas; Wilfert, Otakar; Kolka, Zdenek; Koudelka, Petr; Hanacek, Frantisek; Vitasek, Jan; Siska, Petr; Skapa, Jan; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2012-06-01

    The free space optical links have found their major application in today's technological society. The demand for quality broadband is a must for all types of end users in these times. Because of the large jamming from wireless radio networks in non-licensed ISM bands, the free space optical links provide bridging of some densely populated urban areas. Their advantage is the high transmission rate for relatively long distances. However, the disadvantage is the dependence of free space optical links on atmospheric influences. Aired collimated optical beam passes through the atmospheric transmission environment and by its influence cause the deformation of the optical beam. Author's team decided to construct a special measuring device for measurement of optical power in FSO link beam cross-section. The equipment is mobile and can be rearranged and adjust according to the given location and placement of the FSO link at any time. The article describes the individual structural elements of the measuring equipment, its controlling and application for evaluation and adjustment of measuring steps. The graphs from optical power measurements in the beam cross-section of professional FSO links are presented at the end.

  18. The design of an energy harvesting device for prolonging the working time of DC equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yayuan; Deng, Huaxia; Zhang, Jin; Yu, Liandong

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesting (EH) derives from the idea of converting the ambient energy into electric energy, which can solve the problem of DC supply for some electronic equipment. PZT is a typical piezoelectric material of inorganic, which has been developed as EH devices to transfer ambient vibration energy into electric energy. However, these PZT devices require relatively violent excitation, and easy to be fatigue fracture under the resonance condition. In this paper, PVDF, which is a kind of soft piezoelectric polymer, is adopted for developing transducer. The PVDF devices are flexible and have longer life time than PZT devices under the harmonic environment. The EH researches are mainly focused on the development of energy transfer efficiency either by the mechanical structure of transducer or the improvement of circuit. However, the practicality and stability of the EH devices are important in the practical engineering applications. In this paper, a charge amplifier is introduced in the circuit in order to guarantee the stability of the battery charging under small ambient vibration conditions. The model of the mechanical structure of PVDF and the electric performance of circuit are developed. The experimental results and simulation show that the stability of battery charging is improved and the working time of DC equipment is prolonged.

  19. Adsorption characteristics of PCBs to resins, whole cells, cell and tissue components, and biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, R.L.; Conrad, J.; Akin, C.

    1990-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been designated hazardous chemicals by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although PCBs and PCB-containing oils have not been in use since 1977, they persist in the environment. They are known to be absorbed by various aquatic organisms, birds, and mammals. The nature of these affinities is not known. In this study, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) compared the adsorption phenomenon of PCBs on commercial resins, whole bacterial cells, cell and tissue component, and various biomolecules. Adsorption and desorption of PCBs to biomolecules and resins in both aqueous and nonaqueous conditions were examined. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. An aptamer-functionalized chemomechanically modulated biomolecule catch-and-release system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastri, Ankita; McGregor, Lynn M.; Liu, Ya; Harris, Valerie; Nan, Hanqing; Mujica, Maritza; Vasquez, Yolanda; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Ma, Yongting; Aizenberg, Michael; Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.; Aizenberg, Joanna; He, Ximin

    2015-05-01

    The efficient extraction of (bio)molecules from fluid mixtures is vital for applications ranging from target characterization in (bio)chemistry to environmental analysis and biomedical diagnostics. Inspired by biological processes that seamlessly synchronize the capture, transport and release of biomolecules, we designed a robust chemomechanical sorting system capable of the concerted catch and release of target biomolecules from a solution mixture. The hybrid system is composed of target-specific, reversible binding sites attached to microscopic fins embedded in a responsive hydrogel that moves the cargo between two chemically distinct environments. To demonstrate the utility of the system, we focus on the effective separation of thrombin by synchronizing the pH-dependent binding strength of a thrombin-specific aptamer with volume changes of the pH-responsive hydrogel in a biphasic microfluidic regime, and show a non-destructive separation that has a quantitative sorting efficiency, as well as the system's stability and amenability to multiple solution recycling.

  1. Immobilization of biomolecules on poly(vinyldimethylazlactone)-containing surface scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Barringer, Joshua E; Messman, Jamie M; Banaszek, Abigail L; Meyer, Harry M; Kilbey, S Michael

    2009-01-01

    We describe the successful development of a procedure for the step-by-step formation of a reactive, multilayer polymer scaffold incorporating polymers based on 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone (VDMA) on a silicon wafer and the characterization of these materials. Also discussed is the development of a procedure for the nonsite specific attachment of a biomolecule to a modified silicon wafer, including scaffolds modified via drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printing. VDMA-based polymers were used because of their hydrolytic stability and ability of the pendant azlactone rings to form stable covalent bonds with primary amines without byproducts via nucleophilic addition. This reaction proceeds without a catalyst and at room temperature, yielding a stable amide linkage, which adds to the ease of construction expected when using VDMA-based polymers. DOD inkjet printing was explored as an interesting method for creating surfaces with one or more patterns of biomolecules because of the flexibility and ease of pattern design. PMID:19115868

  2. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    SciTech Connect

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  3. Building 834 -- Cost-effective and innovative design of remediation systems using surplus equipment from former weapons programs

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, P.F.; Landgraf, R.K.; Lima, M.R.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Building 834 Complex at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300, has been used by the weapons development programs at LLNL as a testing facility for measuring component response to environmental stresses such as extreme temperature. The heat-exchange system at the facility used trichloroethene TCE, at times with adjuvants, as the primary heat-transfer media for over 20 years. Accidental spills, pipe failures, and seal blowouts over that period contributed to a substantial contaminant plume in a perched water-bearing zone underlying the Complex. Individual wells near the source area have produced ground water samples with TCE concentrations exceeding 800,000 ppb. In the last several years, the authors have developed a modular ground water and soil vapor extraction system for remediating the plume source area. The modular facility design permits the testing of new technologies to expedite remediation, and/or reduce the quantity of hazardous wastes generated as byproducts of the primary remedial activities. To contain costs, the authors have used equipment and components recycled from the original Building 834 Complex heat-exchange system, and surplus equipment from other LLNL divisions. The authors have executed two large-scale tests of energy injection systems for TCE destruction in air (a free-air electron beam and a pulsed, ultraviolet photolysis system), and a soil heating test for accelerating vapor extraction. New work plans for this unique site are being prepared, incorporating the lessons learned in developing new technology with recycled equipment.

  4. Evaluating performance of containment equipment designed for handling manufactured nanomaterials by use of nanoparticle tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artous, Sébastien; Bombardier, Pierre; Derrough, Samir; Locatelli, Dominique; Nobile, Pierre; Durand, Catherine

    2013-04-01

    The implementation in many products of manufactured nanoparticles is in strong growth and raises new questions. For this purpose, the CEA - NanoSafety Platform is developing various research topics for health and safety, environment and nanoparticles exposure in professional activities. The working group Nano-CERT/MTD, driven by INERIS, federates actors of the sector: experts, research organizations, industrial users and manufacturers of collective protection. The main activity of this group is to establish specific guidelines or a voluntary certification of collective protection, at a national scale, but with the possibility of a further extension at an European level. The group aims to establish an experimental protocol of certification to characterize collective protections for workers faced with nanomaterials potential exposure. The NanoSafety Platform provides in this presentation a method of collective protection characterization based on the developments in nanoparticles metrology and on the study of existing standards and practices in related areas (chemicals, dust, microbiological and nuclear). This study presents the results obtained during the experimental characterization of a potential nanoparticles transfer in a prototype laboratory fume hood by the use of a particulate tracer of sodium-fluorescein. The efficiency of the equipment and more specifically the efficiency of dynamical air barrier is evaluated, with the experimental results, by calculating the backward diffusion coefficient.

  5. Nanowire sensors for multiplexed detection of biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    He, Bo; Morrow, Thomas J; Keating, Christine D

    2009-01-01

    Nanowire-based detection strategies provide promising new routes to bioanalysis that could one day revolutionize the healthcare industry. This review covers recent developments in nanowire sensors for multiplexed detection of biomolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins. We focus on encoded nanowire suspension arrays and semiconductor nanowire-based field-effect transistors. Nanowire assembly and integration with microchip technology is emphasized as a key step toward the ultimate goal of multiplexed detection at the point of care using portable, low power, electronic biosensor chips. PMID:18804551

  6. Equipment design issues for the in vivo X-ray fluorescence analysis of bone lead.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, B J

    1991-01-01

    Several groups have reported the development of systems, based on the principle of X-ray fluorescence, for the in vivo measurement of bone lead concentrations. These systems have used the detection of either the characteristic L or K X-rays resulting from excitation by a suitable photon source. This paper examines design issues related to the development of these systems. These design issues are, in most instances, a result of consideration of the physical principles involved, and hence there are many features common to the systems developed by the individual groups. Design issues discussed in this paper include the selection of the site for measurement, source-sample-detector configuration, and collimation. Specific examples from published work are used to demonstrate the relevant features. PMID:2040249

  7. Probabilistic risk assessment techniques help in identifying optimal equipment design for in-situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, V.; Meale, B.M.; Purser, F.E.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis discussed in this paper was performed as part of the buried waste remediation efforts at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The specific type of remediation discussed herein involves a thermal treatment process for converting contaminated soil and waste into a stable, chemically-inert form. Models of the proposed process were developed using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) fault tree and event tree modeling techniques. The models were used to determine the appropriateness of the conceptual design by identifying potential hazards of system operations. Additional models were developed to represent the reliability aspects of the system components. By performing various sensitivities with the models, optimal design modifications are being identified to substantiate an integrated, cost-effective design representing minimal risk to the environment and/or public with maximum component reliability. 4 figs.

  8. Design and initial application of the extended aircraft interrogation and display system: Multiprocessing ground support equipment for digital flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.

    1987-01-01

    A pipelined, multiprocessor, general-purpose ground support equipment for digital flight systems has been developed and placed in service at the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. The design is an outgrowth of the earlier aircraft interrogation and display system (AIDS) used in support of several research projects to provide engineering-units display of internal control system parameters during development and qualification testing activities. The new system, incorporating multiple 16-bit processors, is called extended AIDS (XAIDS) and is now supporting the X-29A forward-swept-wing aircraft project. This report describes the design and mechanization of XAIDS and shows the steps whereby a typical user may take advantage of its high throughput and flexible features.

  9. Design and adaptation of miniaturized electrochemical devices integrating carbon nanotube-based sensors to commercial CE equipment.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Moreno, Mónica; Bermejo, Esperanza; Angeles Lorenzo, M; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2009-10-01

    The design of new electrochemical devices integrating carbon nanotube sensors and their adaptation to commercial CE equipments are described. One of these designs was made for using commercial screen-printed electrodes, whereas the second was projected for coupling commercial glassy carbon electrodes. The electrochemical characterization of these devices revealed that their hydrodynamic behaviour is strongly influenced by the electrode modification with multi-wall carbon nanotubes that provided faster and/or more sensitive signals. The analytical applicability of these devices was illustrated for the CZE separation of chlorinated phenols and the MEKC separation of endocrine disruptors, where the use of carbon nanotube sensors has proved to be advantageous when compared with unmodified ones, with good electrocatalytic properties combined with acceptable background currents and a remarkable resistance to passivation. PMID:19757434

  10. Porous solid ion exchange wafer for immobilizing biomolecules

    DOEpatents

    Arora, Michelle B.; Hestekin, Jamie A.; Lin, YuPo J.; St. Martin, Edward J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2007-12-11

    A porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer. Also disclosed is a porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer containing a biomolecule with a tag. A separate bioreactor is also disclosed incorporating the wafer described above.

  11. Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosman, A. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

  12. Shock Syntheses of Novel Nitrides and Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Toshimori

    2013-06-01

    High-pressure spinel nitride of Si3N4 was discovered more than 10 years ago. Since then there have been many studies on the spinel nitrides and related materials including oxynitrides. We have developed shock synthesis method to investigate their structural, mechanical, chemical, physical, and optical properties. At the same time we tried to synthesize carbon nitrides from the organic substances. And later we extended to shock synthesis of ammonia through the Haber-Bosch reaction under shock in order to apply geochemical subjects related to the origin of life. The simplest amino acid of glycine, as well as animes (up to propylamine) and carboxylic acids (up to pentanoic acid), has been synthesized successfully in aqueous solutions through meteoritic impact reactions. Recently we are trying to make more complex biomolecules for implications of biomolecule formation for the origin of life through meteorite impacts on early Earth's ocean. These results of shock syntheses may imply significant contributions to materials science and Earth and planetary sciences. This research is collaborated with National Institute for Materials Science and Tohoku University.

  13. Low-energy electron collisions with biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent

    2012-11-01

    We report recent progress in applying the Schwinger multichannel computational method to the interactions of slow electrons with biomolecules. Calculations on constituents of DNA, including nucleobases, phosphate esters, and models of the backbone sugar, have provided insight into the nature of the low-energy shape resonances, and thereby into possible sites and mechanisms for electron attachment that may lead to strand-breaking. At the same time, more approximate calculations on larger assemblies such as nucleosides and deoxyadenosine monophosphate indicate how the resonance properties of the subunits will or will not persist in DNA itself. We are pursuing a similar strategy for another major class of biomolecules, the proteins, by beginning with fixed-nuclei studies of the constituent amino acids; here we present preliminary results for the simplest amino acid, glycine. We also describe efforts directed at an improved understanding electron collisions with alcohols, which, in addition to basic scientific interest, may prove useful in the modeling of ignition and combustion within biofuel-powered engines.

  14. SPM for functional identification of individual biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Robert; Schwesinger, Falk; Padeste, Celestino; Plueckthun, Andreas; Anselmetti, Dario; Guentherodt, Hans-Joachim; Tiefenauer, Louis

    1999-06-01

    The identification of specific binding molecules is of increasing interest in the context of drug development based on combinatorial libraries. Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is the method of choice to image and probe individual biomolecules on a surface. Functional identification of biomolecules is a first step towards screening on a single molecule level. As a model system we use recombinant single- chain Fv fragment (scFv) antibody molecules directed against the antigen fluorescein. The scFv's are covalently immobilized on a flat gold surface via the C-terminal cysteine, resulting in a high accessibility of the binding site. The antigen is immobilized covalently via a long hydrophilic spacer to the silicon nitride SPM-tip. This arrangement allows a direct measurement of binding forces. Thus, closely related antibody molecules differing in only one amino acid at their binding site could be distinguished. A novel SPM-software has been developed which combines imaging, force spectroscopic modes, and online analysis. This is a major prerequisite for future screening methods.

  15. Design and Test of a Tethered Pair of Satellites: Equipment Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pernicka, Henry J.; Leitner, Jesse (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A recent development in spacecraft mission design involves the increasing use of Distributed Spacecraft Systems (DSS). Several key technologies must mature sufficiently to facilitate these missions, including the use of spacecraft flying in tightly controlled formations. Such formations may be controlled using "free flying" navigation schemes, or alternatively may use tethers to constrain the formation geometry. An investigation has been initiated here to further develop this technology using two small spacecraft connected by a short tether. After insertion into orbit, the tether will be extended and various data collected on the performance of the dual-spacecraft "formation." At some later time, the tether will be cut, and the spacecraft pair will be navigated in a manner to maintain a geometry as closely as possible to that of the tethered configuration. Comparisons and evaluations of the two modes of operation can then be made so that the merits of both approaches are available to mission designers.

  16. A VLSI design for universal noiseless coding. [for spacecraft imaging equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jun-Ji; Fang, Wai-Chi; Rice, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The practical, noiseless and efficient data-compression technique presented involves a conceptual VLSI design which is capable of meeting real-time processing rates and meets low-power, low-weight, and small-volume requirements. This form of data compression is applicable to image data compression aboard future low-budget spaceflight missions, for such instruments as visual-IR mapping spectrometers and high-resolution imaging spectrometers.

  17. Design and development of electric vehicle charging station equipped with RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panatarani, C.; Murtaddo, D.; Maulana, D. W.; Irawan, S.; Joni, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the development of electric charging station from distributed renewable for electric vehicle (EV). This designed refer to the input voltage standard of IEC 61851, plugs features of IEC 62196 and standard communication of ISO 15118. The developed electric charging station used microcontroller ATMEGA8535 and RFID as controller and identifier of the EV users, respectively. The charging station successfully developed as desired features for electric vehicle from renewable energy resources grid with solar panel, wind power and batteries storage.

  18. Interfacial water thickness at inorganic nanoconstructs and biomolecules: Size matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellini, Annalisa; Fasano, Matteo; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Water molecules in the proximity of solid nanostructures influence both the overall properties of liquid and the structure and functionality of solid particles. The study of water dynamics at solid-liquid interfaces has strong implications in energy, environmental and biomedical fields. This article focuses on the hydration layer properties in the proximity of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and biomolecules (proteins, polypeptides and amino acids). Here we show a quantitative relation between the solid surface extension and the characteristic length of water nanolayer (δ), which is confined at solid-liquid interfaces. Specifically, the size dependence is attributed to the limited superposition of nonbonded interactions in case of small molecules. These results may facilitate the design of novel energy or biomedical colloidal nanosuspensions, and a more fundamental understanding of biomolecular processes influenced by nanoscale water dynamics.

  19. a New Design for Diamond Window Equipped Paris-Edinburgh — First Tests and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchard, M.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Dedera, S.; Trautmann, C.

    2012-12-01

    High pressure cells of the Paris-Edinburgh type are important tools for experimental high pressure studies in material science. Although these cells were originally developed for use in neutron diffraction, today they are also applied in alternative experimental high pressure fields. Their main advantages are their small construction size, limited weight and the relative high reachable pressures with a maximized sample volume. The small construction size also results in very good cost efficiency. The major drawback of these cells is that due to their simple squeezer geometry pressure extrapolations are nearly impossible and, hence, the use of internal standard is mandatory. Consequently, the normal use of Paris-Edinburgh cells is mostly limited to experiments with neutron or synchrotron radiation, during which pressure and temperature are determined by using an internal diffraction standard. To overcome this problem, tone may combine the advantages of diamond anvil cells with those of Paris-Edinburgh-cells by integrating diamond windows into the upper and / or the lower anvil. With such a cell it is possible to retrieve pressure and / or temperature data by measuring the shift of Raman bands or fluorescence lines by spectroscopic methods. Several attempts have been made to build such a cell ([1] and Klotz pers. communication) using different window materials. Until now no final setup has been published. We present a new Paris-Edinburgh cell design especially constructed for use within high energy relativistic heavy ion radiation experiments. This design uses conventional diamond anvils as spectroscopic windows in conjunction with specially designed hardened steel anvils. We have performed first feasibility studies up to 2.5 GPa with a standard Raman spectrometer using a special adapted Raman glass fiber probe. We present results of several mechanical test runs and one experiment with relativistic heavy ion radiation at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f

  20. Electrical insulation design and evaluation of 60 kV prototype condenser cone bushing for the superconducting equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-11-01

    A cryogenic bushing is an essential component to be developed for commercial applications of high voltage (HV) superconducting devices. Due to the steep temperature gradient of the ambient of cryogenic bushing, general gas bushing adopting SF6 gas as an insulating media could not be directly used due to the freezing of SF6 gas. Therefore, condenser type bushing with special material considering cryogenic environment would be better choice for superconducting equipment. Considering these circumstance, we focused on the design of condenser bushing made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). In case of the design of the condenser bushing, it is very important to reduce the electric field intensification on the mounted flange part of the cryostat, which is the most vulnerable part of bushings. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushing were analyzed, and finally 60 kV condenser bushing was fabricated and tested. In order to achieve optimal electric field configuration, the configuration of condenser cone was determined using 2D electric field simulation results. Based on the experimental and the analytical works, 60 kV FRP condenser bushing was fabricated. Finally, the fabricated condenser bushing has been tested by applying lightning impulse and AC overvoltage test. From the test results, it was possible to get satisfactory results which confirm the design of cryogenic bushing in cryogenic environment.

  1. The structure design and performance analysis for damping system of the airborne equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chun-xia; Yan, Cong-lin; Cui, Ding; Ma, She

    2015-02-01

    Vibration is an important factor that could affect the performance of airbone optical system, the damping device based on the wire-rope vibration isolators was designed in this paper, in which the optical system mounted on the helicopter was taken as an example. The transmissibility of the damping device was about 40% which obtained by finite element method, the transmissibility of the damping device was about 36% which obtained by vibration platform test, the result obtained by finite element method was proved by vibration platform test. The vibration of the optical system could been reduced significantly as a result of the device with good damping effect, thereby the stability of the optical system could be enhanced.

  2. Mission design study of an RTG powered, ion engine equipped interstellar spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, Joshua A.

    This research explores a variety of mission and system architectures for an unmanned Interstellar Precursor Mission (IPM) spacecraft with a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) powered Ion Engine using Xenon propellant, traveling on a (direct) ballistic escape trajectory to the undisturbed Interstellar Medium (˜200 AU). The main goal of this work was to determine the relationship between the propulsion system design parameters and the ensuing escape trajectory. To do this, an orbit simulator was created in Matlab using a fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical integration method to propagate the thrusting spacecraft's trajectory through time. The accelerations due to the Sun's gravity and the Ion Engine thrust were modeled separately and then combined into a single total acceleration vector at each time step, with the thrust direction assumed to be in the direction of the spacecraft's instantaneous velocity vector. The propellant of the thruster was also designed to be completely consumed by the time of engine cut-off (ECO), meaning a constant propellant mass flow rate. Simulations were run for burn times of 5, 10 & 15 years, with heliocentric launch velocities of 0, 5, 7, 10 & 12 km/sec from a circular 1 AU Earth orbit, and with RTG supplied engine input powers of 1000, 1500 & 2000 W. A total of 45 simulations were run for the circular 1 AU case, as well as additional comparison simulations for launches from an elliptical Earth orbit at perihelion and aphelion. The results of these simulations yielded many interesting results on the total fly-out times to 200 AU, which ranged dramatically from ˜35 to ˜140 years depending on the propulsion system settings and orbital initial conditions, as well as descriptions of the ECO distances from the Sun for each mission. The simulations also revealed the inherent gravitational maneuver inefficiency felt by all low thrust spacecraft, which becomes more apparent under certain conditions. Relations between launch velocity

  3. Design and implementation of three-dimensional ring-scanning equipment for optimized measurements of near-infrared diffuse optical breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jhao-Ming; Pan, Min-Cheng; Hsu, Ya-Fen; Chen, Liang-Yu; Pan, Min-Chun

    2015-07-01

    We propose and implement three-dimensional (3-D) ring-scanning equipment for near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical imaging to screen breast tumors under prostrating examination. This equipment has the function of the radial, circular, and vertical motion without compression of breast tissue, thereby achieving 3-D scanning; furthermore, a flexible combination of illumination and detection can be configured for the required resolution. Especially, a rotation-sliding-and-moving mechanism was designed for the guidance of source- and detection-channel motion. Prior to machining and construction of the system, a synthesized image reconstruction was simulated to show the feasibility of this 3-D NIR ring-scanning equipment; finally, this equipment is verified by performing phantom experiments. Rather than the fixed configuration, this addressed screening/diagnosing equipment has the flexibilities of optical-channel expansion for spatial resolution and the dimensional freedom for scanning in reconstructing optical-property images.

  4. Design by Formula of Power Steam Line Equipped by Energy Dissipative Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Cesari, F.G.; Battistella, P.

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the ability of passive devices in protecting nuclear piping during earthquake a theoretical/experimental campaign has been performed. By means of numerical runs the effect of viscous dampers application on most critical points of a power plant steam-line has been evaluated. The principle is to employ a local safety solution against heavy dynamic solicitations placing passive devices in crotch region of bends. The devices location corresponds to an in plane position in respect of the curve. Considerations on structural configuration and stress/strain states are also presented with the aim to respect the philosophy of design/verification requirements stated by the ASME Sct. III Cl.1 code. For experimental tests a C mock-up, whose sizes are derived by a thermal plant steam-line, has been suggested and studied. Comparison of numerical data on piping with/without dissipative elements are also included. The impact on the whole structure has been also taken into account. Some of the results included in the paper have been obtained in the E.U. contract named REEDS. (authors)

  5. The performance of a prototype device designed to evaluate general quality parameters of X-ray equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, C. H.; Fernandes, D. C.; Lavínia, N. C.; Caldas, L. V. E.; Pires, S. R.; Medeiros, R. B.

    2014-02-01

    The performance of radiological equipment can be assessed using non-invasive methods and portable instruments that can analyze an X-ray beam with just one exposure. These instruments use either an ionization chamber or a state solid detector (SSD) to evaluate X-ray beam parameters. In Brazil, no such instruments are currently being manufactured; consequently, these instruments come at a higher cost to users due to importation taxes. Additionally, quality control tests are time consuming and impose a high workload on the X-ray tubes when evaluating their performance parameters. The assessment of some parameters, such as the half-value layer (HVL), requires several exposures; however, this can be reduced by using a SSD that requires only a single exposure. One such SSD uses photodiodes designed for high X-ray sensitivity without the use of scintillation crystals. This sensitivity allows one electron-hole pair to be created per 3.63 eV of incident energy, resulting in extremely high and stable quantum efficiencies. These silicon photodiodes operate by absorbing photons and generating a flow of current that is proportional to the incident power. The aim of this study was to show the response of the solid sensor PIN RD100A detector in a multifunctional X-ray analysis system that is designed to evaluate the average peak voltage (kVp), exposure time, and HVL of radiological equipment. For this purpose, a prototype board that uses four SSDs was developed to measure kVp, exposure time, and HVL using a single exposure. The reproducibility and accuracy of the results were compared to that of different X-ray beam analysis instruments. The kVp reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 3%, respectively; the exposure time reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 1%, respectively; and the HVL accuracy was ±2%. The prototype's methodology was able to calculate these parameters with appropriate reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, the prototype can be considered

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 56: Design of Quality Assurance Methodology for VMAT system on Agility System equipped with CVDR

    SciTech Connect

    Thind, K; Tolakanahalli, R

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of designing comprehensive QA plans using iComCAT for Elekta machines equipped with Agility multileaf collimator and continuously variable dose rate. Test plans with varying MLC speed, gantry speed, and dose rate were created and delivered in a controlled manner. A strip test was designed with three 1 cm MLC positions and delivered using dynamic, StepNShoot and VMAT techniques. Plans were also designed to test error in MLC position with various gantry speeds and various MLC speeds. The delivery fluence was captured using the electronic portal-imaging device. Gantry speed was found to be within tolerance as per the Canadian standards. MLC positioning errors at higher MLC speed with gravity effects does add more than 2 mm discrepancy. More tests need to be performed to evaluate MLC performance using independent measurement systems. The treatment planning system with end-to-end testing necessary for commissioning was also investigated and found to have >95% passing rates within 3%/3mm gamma criteria. Future studies involve performing off-axis gantry starshot pattern and repeating the tests on three matched Elekta linear accelerators.

  7. Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari

    2012-01-01

    One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588

  8. Bioconjugation and stabilisation of biomolecules in biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Guido A.

    2016-01-01

    Suitable bioconjugation strategies and stabilisation of biomolecules on electrodes is essential for the development of novel and commercially viable biosensors. In the present review, the functional groups that comprise the selectable targets for practical bioconjugation methods are discussed. We focus on describing the most common immobilisation techniques used in biosensor construction, which are classified into irreversible and reversible methods. Concerning the stability of proteins, the two main types of stability may be defined as (i) storage or shelf stability, and (ii) operational stability. Both types of stability are explained, as well as the introduction of an electrophoretic technique for predicting protein–polymer interactions. In addition, solution and dry stabilisation as well as stabilisation using the covalent immobilisation of proteins are discussed including possible factors that influence stability. Finally, the integration of nanomaterials, such as magnetic particles, with protein immobilisation is discussed in relation to protein stability studies. PMID:27365036

  9. Bioconjugation and stabilisation of biomolecules in biosensors.

    PubMed

    Liébana, Susana; Drago, Guido A

    2016-06-30

    Suitable bioconjugation strategies and stabilisation of biomolecules on electrodes is essential for the development of novel and commercially viable biosensors. In the present review, the functional groups that comprise the selectable targets for practical bioconjugation methods are discussed. We focus on describing the most common immobilisation techniques used in biosensor construction, which are classified into irreversible and reversible methods. Concerning the stability of proteins, the two main types of stability may be defined as (i) storage or shelf stability, and (ii) operational stability. Both types of stability are explained, as well as the introduction of an electrophoretic technique for predicting protein-polymer interactions. In addition, solution and dry stabilisation as well as stabilisation using the covalent immobilisation of proteins are discussed including possible factors that influence stability. Finally, the integration of nanomaterials, such as magnetic particles, with protein immobilisation is discussed in relation to protein stability studies. PMID:27365036

  10. 'Smartening' anticancer therapeutic nanosystems using biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Lozano, Rebeca; Cano, Manuel; Pimentel, Belén; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    To be effective, anticancer agents must induce cell killing in a selective manner, something that is proving difficult to achieve. Drug delivery systems could help to solve problems associated with the lack of selectivity of classical chemotherapeutic agents. However, to realize this, such systems must overcome multiple physiological barriers. For instance, they must evade surveillance by the immune system, attach selectively to target cells, and gain access to their interior. Furthermore, there they must escape endosomal entrapment, and release their cargoes in a controlled manner, without affecting their functionality. Here we review recent efforts aiming at using biomolecules to confer these abilities to bare nanoparticles, to transform them into smart anticancer therapeutic nanosystems. PMID:26277646

  11. A study of thyroid radioiodine monitoring by Monte Carlo simulations: implications for equipment design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Gary H.; Chamberlain, Michael J.; Yiu, Suzanne

    1997-11-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to evaluate the design of collimated detectors used to measure or in the thyroid gland. Two detector sizes were simulated for each radioisotope: (i) for monitoring 2.54 cm diameter and 7.62 cm diameter and 0.2 cm thickness and (ii) for monitoring 2.54 cm diameter, 3.2 cm thickness and 7.62 cm diameter, 6.4 cm thickness. The virtual thyroid gland was 20 g. Activity was placed in both the gland and the remainder of the body in varying amounts to assess the efficacy of collimation. The results show that the detector should be sufficiently large so that its solid angle of acceptance when placed 15 cm anterior to the skin surface will include the whole of a moderately enlarged thyroid gland. Heavy collimation to reduce the contribution of extrathyroidal radioiodine within the subject's body is not normally required. It may be of more value as a positioning device and spacer ensuring an appropriate and constant neck to detector distance than in cutting down counts from extrathyroidal activity. In specifying a sensitive detector system for monitoring intrathyroidal radioiodine, a wide angle of acceptance and sufficient detector crystal thickness take precedence over collimation and shielding.

  12. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Detection of Biomolecules Using EBL Fabricated Nanostructured Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Robert F.; Gutierrez-Rivera, Luis; Dew, Steven K.; Stepanova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Fabrication and characterization of conjugate nano-biological systems interfacing metallic nanostructures on solid supports with immobilized biomolecules is reported. The entire sequence of relevant experimental steps is described, involving the fabrication of nanostructured substrates using electron beam lithography, immobilization of biomolecules on the substrates, and their characterization utilizing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Three different designs of nano-biological systems are employed, including protein A, glucose binding protein, and a dopamine binding DNA aptamer. In the latter two cases, the binding of respective ligands, D-glucose and dopamine, is also included. The three kinds of biomolecules are immobilized on nanostructured substrates by different methods, and the results of SERS imaging are reported. The capabilities of SERS to detect vibrational modes from surface-immobilized proteins, as well as to capture the protein-ligand and aptamer-ligand binding are demonstrated. The results also illustrate the influence of the surface nanostructure geometry, biomolecules immobilization strategy, Raman activity of the molecules and presence or absence of the ligand binding on the SERS spectra acquired. PMID:25867853

  13. A quasi-static continuum model describing interactions between plasmons and non-absorbing biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salary, Mohammad Mahdi; Mosallaei, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    Interactions between the plasmons of noble metal nanoparticles and non-absorbing biomolecules forms the basis of the plasmonic sensors, which have received much attention. Studying these interactions can help to exploit the full potentials of plasmonic sensors in quantification and analysis of biomolecules. Here, a quasi-static continuum model is adopted for this purpose. We present a boundary-element method for computing the optical response of plasmonic particles to the molecular binding events by solving the Poisson equation. The model represents biomolecules with their molecular surfaces, thus accurately accounting for the influence of exact binding conformations as well as structural differences between different proteins on the response of plasmonic nanoparticles. The linear systems arising in the method are solved iteratively with Krylov generalized minimum residual algorithm, and the acceleration is achieved by applying precorrected-Fast Fourier Transformation technique. We apply the developed method to investigate interactions of biotinylated gold nanoparticles (nanosphere and nanorod) with four different types of biotin-binding proteins. The interactions are studied at both ensemble and single-molecule level. Computational results demonstrate the ability of presented model for analyzing realistic nanoparticle-biomolecule configurations. The method can provide comprehensive study for wide variety of applications, including protein structures, monitoring structural and conformational transitions, and quantification of protein concentrations. In addition, it is suitable for design and optimization of the nano-plasmonic sensors.

  14. Tapered Optical Fiber Sensor for Label-Free Detection of Biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ye; Wang, Wenhui; Wu, Nan; Zou, Xiaotian; Wang, Xingwei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fast, highly sensitive and low-cost tapered optical fiber biosensor that enables the label-free detection of biomolecules. The sensor takes advantage of the interference effect between the fiber’s first two propagation modes along the taper waist region. The biomolecules bonded on the taper surface were determined by demodulating the transmission spectrum phase shift. Because of the sharp spectrum fringe signals, as well as a relatively long biomolecule testing region, the sensor displayed a fast response and was highly sensitive. To better understand the influence of various biomolecules on the sensor, a numerical simulation that varied biolayer parameters such as thickness and refractive index was performed. The results showed that the spectrum fringe shift was obvious to be measured even when the biolayer was only nanometers thick. A microchannel chip was designed and fabricated for the protection of the sensor and biotesting. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques were used to precisely control the profile and depth of the microchannel on the silicon chip with an accuracy of 2 μm. A tapered optical fiber biosensor was fabricated and evaluated with an Immune globulin G (IgG) antibody-antigen pair. PMID:22163821

  15. Selecting Microform Reading Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Melinda

    1983-01-01

    Cites sources of information concerning selection of microform reading equipment and provides step-by-step outline of selection process. Defining specific needs for which equipment is used, determining what equipment is being marketed, and examining and evaluating readers' design features in terms of practicability and aesthetics are discussed.…

  16. Assembly and actuation of nanomaterials using active biomolecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Spoerke, Erik David; Thayer, Gayle Echo; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Liu, Jun; Corwin, Alex David; Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Boal, Andrew Kiskadden; Bachand, George David; Trent, Amanda M.; Bachand, Marlene; Rivera, Susan B.; Koch, Steven John

    2005-11-01

    The formation and functions of living materials and organisms are fundamentally different from those of synthetic materials and devices. Synthetic materials tend to have static structures, and are not capable of adapting to the functional needs of changing environments. In contrast, living systems utilize energy to create, heal, reconfigure, and dismantle materials in a dynamic, non-equilibrium fashion. The overall goal of the project was to organize and reconfigure functional assemblies of nanoparticles using strategies that mimic those found in living systems. Active assembly of nanostructures was studied using active biomolecules to drive the organization and assembly of nanocomposite materials. In this system, kinesin motor proteins and microtubules were used to direct the transport and interactions of nanoparticles at synthetic interfaces. In addition, the kinesin/microtubule transport system was used to actively assemble nanocomposite materials capable of storing significant elastic energy. Novel biophysical measurement tools were also developed for measuring the collective force generated by kinesin motor proteins, which will provide insight on the mechanical constraints of active assembly processes. Responsive reconfiguration of nanostructures was studied in terms of using active biomolecules to mediate the optical properties of quantum dot (QD) arrays through modulation of inter-particle spacing and associated energy transfer interaction. Design rules for kinesin-based transport of a wide range of nanoscale cargo (e.g., nanocrystal quantum dots, micron-sized polymer spheres) were developed. Three-dimensional microtubule organizing centers were assembled in which the polar orientation of the microtubules was controlled by a multi-staged assembly process. Overall, a number of enabling technologies were developed over the course of this project, and will drive the exploitation of energy-driven processes to regulate the assembly, disassembly, and dynamic

  17. Biomolecule Delivery to Engineer the Cellular Microenvironment for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Corey J.; Kim, Jayoung; Green, Jordan J.

    2013-01-01

    To realize the potential of regenerative medicine, controlling the delivery of biomolecules in the cellular microenvironment is important as these factors control cell fate. Controlled delivery for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine often requires bioengineered materials and cells capable of spatiotemporal modulation of biomolecule release and presentation. This review discusses biomolecule delivery from the outside of the cell inwards through the delivery of soluble and insoluble biomolecules as well as from the inside of the cell outwards through gene transfer. Ex vivo and in vivo therapeutic strategies are discussed, as well as combination delivery of biomolecules, scaffolds, and cells. Various applications in regenerative medicine are highlighted including bone tissue engineering and wound healing. PMID:24170072

  18. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  19. Fine filtration fabric options designed to help meet the increased demand for more efficient air pollution control equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, A.

    1999-07-01

    The ability to successfully design, purchase, install, and operate air pollution control equipment while still maintaining clean air requirements has become a real challenge to the production sector. Fabric selection for fabric filter dust collectors is part of the air pollution control equipment decision that must be made on a site-specific basis and cannot be generalized from dust collector to dust collector. Filter bags/elements represent a major investment as well as a highly technical decision, which warrants extensive evaluation. After choosing the correct filter bags/elements, it is equally important to protect them in order to keep production at maximum capacity while keeping emissions as low as possible. This paper will discuss the fact that each dust collector has its own set of characteristics and system parameters that are important to evaluate in order to choose a fabric that is best suited for the system. Some of the variables include: Temperature; Moisture Level; Particulate Size; Gas Stream Chemistry; Air-To-Cloth Ratio; Particulate Abrasiveness; and mechanical factors, such as cleaning style, installation, etc. All of these variables will be discussed as they relate to fabric selection and dust collector operation. The specific characteristics of traditional filtration fabrics will also be reviewed to give the audience a proper understanding of what products are available in the marketplace. The main focus of the paper will then be devoted to the developments in filtration technology that have improved the efficiency and operation of dust collection systems in all industries and applications. These developments have been mostly in the areas of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane for fine particulate collection and pleated filter elements utilizing spun bonded media to increase cloth area and efficiency.

  20. Preparation of supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids exhibiting biomolecule-responsive gel degradation.

    PubMed

    Shigemitsu, Hajime; Fujisaku, Takahiro; Onogi, Shoji; Yoshii, Tatsuyuki; Ikeda, Masato; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogelators are small, self-assembling molecules that form supramolecular nanofiber networks that exhibit unique dynamic properties. Development of supramolecular hydrogels that degrade in response to various biomolecules could potentially be used for applications in areas such as drug delivery and diagnostics. Here we provide a synthetic procedure for preparing redox-responsive supramolecular hydrogelators that are used to create hydrogels that degrade in response to oxidizing or reducing conditions. The synthesis takes ∼2-4 d, and it can potentially be carried out in parallel to prepare multiple hydrogelator candidates. This described solid-phase peptide synthesis protocol can be used to produce previously described hydrogelators or to construct a focused molecular library to efficiently discover and optimize new hydrogelators. In addition, we describe the preparation of redox-responsive supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids that are created by mixing aqueous solutions of hydrogelators and enzymes, which requires 2 h for completion. The resultant supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids exhibit gel degradation in response to various biomolecules, and can be rationally designed by connecting the chemical reactions of the hydrogelators with enzymatic reactions. Gel degradation in response to biomolecules as triggers occurs within a few hours. We also describe the preparation of hydrogel-enzyme hybrids arrayed on flat glass slides, enabling high-throughput analysis of biomolecules such as glucose, uric acid, lactate and so on by gel degradation, which is detectable by the naked eye. The protocol requires ∼6 h to prepare the hydrogel-enzyme hybrid array and to complete the biomolecule assay. PMID:27560177

  1. Ionic strength independence of charge distributions in solvation of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, J J; Sosnick, T R; Freed, K F

    2014-12-14

    Electrostatic forces enormously impact the structure, interactions, and function of biomolecules. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for 5 proteins and 5 RNAs to determine the dependence on ionic strength of the ion and water charge distributions surrounding the biomolecules, as well as the contributions of ions to the electrostatic free energy of interaction between the biomolecule and the surrounding salt solution (for a total of 40 different biomolecule/solvent combinations). Although water provides the dominant contribution to the charge density distribution and to the electrostatic potential even in 1M NaCl solutions, the contributions of water molecules and of ions to the total electrostatic interaction free energy with the solvated biomolecule are comparable. The electrostatic biomolecule/solvent interaction energies and the total charge distribution exhibit a remarkable insensitivity to salt concentrations over a huge range of salt concentrations (20 mM to 1M NaCl). The electrostatic potentials near the biomolecule's surface obtained from the MD simulations differ markedly, as expected, from the potentials predicted by continuum dielectric models, even though the total electrostatic interaction free energies are within 11% of each other. PMID:25494774

  2. Ionic strength independence of charge distributions in solvation of biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Virtanen, J. J.; Sosnick, T. R.; Freed, K. F.

    2014-12-14

    Electrostatic forces enormously impact the structure, interactions, and function of biomolecules. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for 5 proteins and 5 RNAs to determine the dependence on ionic strength of the ion and water charge distributions surrounding the biomolecules, as well as the contributions of ions to the electrostatic free energy of interaction between the biomolecule and the surrounding salt solution (for a total of 40 different biomolecule/solvent combinations). Although water provides the dominant contribution to the charge density distribution and to the electrostatic potential even in 1M NaCl solutions, the contributions of water molecules and of ions to the total electrostatic interaction free energy with the solvated biomolecule are comparable. The electrostatic biomolecule/solvent interaction energies and the total charge distribution exhibit a remarkable insensitivity to salt concentrations over a huge range of salt concentrations (20 mM to 1M NaCl). The electrostatic potentials near the biomolecule's surface obtained from the MD simulations differ markedly, as expected, from the potentials predicted by continuum dielectric models, even though the total electrostatic interaction free energies are within 11% of each other.

  3. GroPBS: Fast Solver for Implicit Electrostatics of Biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Bertelshofer, Franziska; Sun, Liping; Greiner, Günther; Böckmann, Rainer A.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the electrostatic potential on the surface of biomolecules or biomembranes under physiological conditions is an important step in the attempt to characterize the physico-chemical properties of these molecules and, in particular, also their interactions with each other. Additionally, knowledge about solution electrostatics may also guide the design of molecules with specified properties. However, explicit water models come at a high computational cost, rendering them unsuitable for large design studies or for docking purposes. Implicit models with the water phase treated as a continuum require the numerical solution of the Poisson–Boltzmann equation (PBE). Here, we present a new flexible program for the numerical solution of the PBE, allowing for different geometries, and the explicit and implicit inclusion of membranes. It involves a discretization of space and the computation of the molecular surface. The PBE is solved using finite differences, the resulting set of equations is solved using a Gauss–Seidel method. It is shown for the example of the sucrose transporter ScrY that the implicit inclusion of a surrounding membrane has a strong effect also on the electrostatics within the pore region and, thus, needs to be carefully considered, e.g., in design studies on membrane proteins. PMID:26636074

  4. Biomolecule-mediated synthesis of nanocrystalline semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Weon

    CdS and ZnS nanocrystalline semiconductors (NCs) were prepared by titrating inorganic sulfide into preformed Cd(II)- or Zn(II)-complexes of phytochelatins, glutathione or cysteine. This strategy resulted in the formation NCs capped by the chosen biomolecule. The range of sizes and their distributions depended primarily on the quantity of sulfide titrated and the biomolecule chosen for the initial metallo-complex. The processes of NC formation were studied by absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The size distribution was analyzed by gel permeation chromatography. Ethanol precipitation of NCs under aqueous conditions was used to isolate nanoparticles within a very narrow size-range. Reduction of selected dyes was also studied on the surfaces of NCs. Glutathione-capped CdS nanoparticles exhibited significant size heterogeneity even at a single sulfide titration. In contrast, phytochelatins showed much less dispersion in size at a given sulfide titration. Phytochelatins could replace glutathione without changing the size of glutathione-capped CdS nanoparticles. Cysteine appeared to be intermediate between glutathione and phytochelatins in the formation of CdS nanoparticles. The calculated radii, using an effective mass approximation method, were 10.8-17.3, 10.6-11.8, and 13.5-15.5A for glutathione-, phytochelatin-, and cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles, respectively. Cysteine-capped ZnS showed narrower size distribution than glutathione-capped ZnS. However, elevated temperatures were necessary to accomplish optimal yields of cysteine-capped ZnS NCs. An additional control over the size distribution of NCs was achieved by size-selective precipitation with ethanol. These procedures led to the isolation of nanoparticles that were more uniform in size and chemical compositions as determined by spectroscopic and chemical analyses of size-fractionated samples. Precipitation also allowed preparation of large quantities of powdered nanoparticles that could be

  5. Equipment Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Magnavox Government & Electronics Company originally used the NASTRAN program in the design stage of heavy aluminum fixtures for vibration testing. Program also used to compare the resonant frequencies of the circuitry to predict whether failures may occur because of high vibration levels. The company engineers can then make design alterations to improve the equipment's vibration resistance. Method allows Magnavox to insure reliability and reduce any possibility of vibration-caused failure in critical defense products they manufacture. Magnavox uses another COSMIC software package called GENOPTICS in the development of a Digital Optical Recorder, and also in research and development of other optical systems. This enables use of an optically recorded disc to store and retrieve digital data. It is reported that this program provides accurate results and that its use saved six man-months of time that would have been needed to develop a comparable software package.

  6. Micro/Nanoscale Parallel Patterning of Functional Biomolecules, Organic Fluorophores and Colloidal Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabella, S.; Brunetti, V.; Vecchio, G.; Torre, A. Della; Rinaldi, R.; Cingolani, R.; Pompa, P. P.

    2009-10-01

    We describe the design and optimization of a reliable strategy that combines self-assembly and lithographic techniques, leading to very precise micro-/nanopositioning of biomolecules for the realization of micro- and nanoarrays of functional DNA and antibodies. Moreover, based on the covalent immobilization of stable and versatile SAMs of programmable chemical reactivity, this approach constitutes a general platform for the parallel site-specific deposition of a wide range of molecules such as organic fluorophores and water-soluble colloidal nanocrystals.

  7. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  8. Biomolecules Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Daxiang

    In recent years, functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with biomolecules such as nucleotide acids, proteins, and artificial polymers have emerged as a new exciting field. Theoretical and experimental studies of structure and function of bio-inspired CNT composites have made great advances. The importance of nucleic acids, proteins, and synthesized polymers to the fundamental developments in CNT-based bio-nano-composites or devices has been recognized. In particular, biomechanics, biochemistry, thermodynamics, electronic, optical and magnetic properties, and biocompatibility and toxicology of the bio-inspired CNT composites have become a new interdisciplinary frontier in life science and nanomaterial science. Bio-inspired CNT composites have been actively exploited potentials in applications such as gene/drug delivery system, tissue engineering scaffolds, hydrogen storage, molecular imaging, biocatalyst systems, biosensors, and antifouling films. Here we review the main advances in this field over the past few years, explore their application prospects, and discuss the issues, approaches, and challenges, with the aim of improving and developing CNT-based bio-nanotechnology.

  9. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... equipment to be installed to maintain control over radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid...

  10. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... equipment to be installed to maintain control over radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid...

  11. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... equipment to be installed to maintain control over radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid...

  12. Engineered Carbon-Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Jitendra N; Vij, Varun; Kemp, K Christian; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-01-26

    The study of electrochemical behavior of bioactive molecules has become one of the most rapidly developing scientific fields. Biotechnology and biomedical engineering fields have a vested interest in constructing more precise and accurate voltammetric/amperometric biosensors. One rapidly growing area of biosensor design involves incorporation of carbon-based nanomaterials in working electrodes, such as one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, two-dimensional graphene, and graphene oxide. In this review article, we give a brief overview describing the voltammetric techniques and how these techniques are applied in biosensing, as well as the details surrounding important biosensing concepts of sensitivity and limits of detection. Building on these important concepts, we show how the sensitivity and limit of detection can be tuned by including carbon-based nanomaterials in the fabrication of biosensors. The sensing of biomolecules including glucose, dopamine, proteins, enzymes, uric acid, DNA, RNA, and H2O2 traditionally employs enzymes in detection; however, these enzymes denature easily, and as such, enzymeless methods are highly desired. Here we draw an important distinction between enzymeless and enzyme-containing carbon-nanomaterial-based biosensors. The review ends with an outlook of future concepts that can be employed in biosensor fabrication, as well as limitations of already proposed materials and how such sensing can be enhanced. As such, this review can act as a roadmap to guide researchers toward concepts that can be employed in the design of next generation biosensors, while also highlighting the current advancements in the field. PMID:26579616

  13. Fullerene–biomolecule conjugates and their biomedicinal applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xinlin; Ebrahimi, Ali; Li, Jie; Cui, Quanjun

    2014-01-01

    Fullerenes are among the strongest antioxidants and are characterized as “radical sponges.” The research on biomedicinal applications of fullerenes has achieved significant progress since the landmark publication by Friedman et al in 1993. Fullerene–biomolecule conjugates have become an important area of research during the past 2 decades. By a thorough literature search, we attempt to update the information about the synthesis of different types of fullerene–biomolecule conjugates, including fullerene-containing amino acids and peptides, oligonucleotides, sugars, and esters. Moreover, we also discuss in this review recently reported data on the biological and pharmaceutical utilities of these compounds and some other fullerene derivatives of biomedical importance. While within the fullerene–biomolecule conjugates, in which fullerene may act as both an antioxidant and a carrier, specific targeting biomolecules conjugated to fullerene will undoubtedly strengthen the delivery of functional fullerenes to sites of clinical interest. PMID:24379667

  14. Engineered collagen hydrogels for the sustained release of biomolecules and imaging agents: promoting the growth of human gingival cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jonghoon; Park, Hoyoung; Kim, Taeho; Jeong, Yoon; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Gilad, Assaf A; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2014-01-01

    We present here the in vitro release profiles of either fluorescently labeled biomolecules or computed tomography contrast nanoagents from engineered collagen hydrogels under physiological conditions. The collagen constructs were designed as potential biocompatible inserts into wounded human gingiva. The collagen hydrogels were fabricated under a variety of conditions in order to optimize the release profile of biomolecules and nanoparticles for the desired duration and amount. The collagen constructs containing biomolecules/nanoconstructs were incubated under physiological conditions (ie, 37°C and 5% CO2) for 24 hours, and the release profile was tuned from 20% to 70% of initially loaded materials by varying the gelation conditions of the collagen constructs. The amounts of released biomolecules and nanoparticles were quantified respectively by measuring the intensity of fluorescence and X-ray scattering. The collagen hydrogel we fabricated may serve as an efficient platform for the controlled release of biomolecules and imaging agents in human gingiva to facilitate the regeneration of oral tissues. PMID:25429215

  15. Cellular content of biomolecules in sub-seafloor microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Stefan; Morono, Yuki; Becker, Kevin W.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Lomstein, Bente Aa.

    2016-09-01

    Microbial biomolecules, typically from the cell envelope, can provide crucial information about distribution, activity, and adaptations of sub-seafloor microbial communities. However, when cells die these molecules can be preserved in the sediment on timescales that are likely longer than the lifetime of their microbial sources. Here we provide for the first time measurements of the cellular content of biomolecules in sedimentary microbial cells. We separated intact cells from sediment matrices in samples from surficial, deeply buried, organic-rich, and organic-lean marine sediments by density centrifugation. Amino acids, amino sugars, muramic acid, and intact polar lipids were analyzed in both whole sediment and cell extract, and cell separation was optimized and evaluated in terms of purity, separation efficiency, taxonomic resemblance, and compatibility to high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for biomolecule analyses. Because cell extracts from density centrifugation still contained considerable amounts of detrital particles and non-cellular biomolecules, we further purified cells from two samples by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Cells from these highly purified cell extracts had an average content of amino acids and lipids of 23-28 fg cell-1 and 2.3 fg cell-1, respectively, with an estimated carbon content of 19-24 fg cell-1. In the sediment, the amount of biomolecules associated with vegetative cells was up to 70-fold lower than the total biomolecule content. We find that the cellular content of biomolecules in the marine subsurface is up to four times lower than previous estimates. Our approach will facilitate and improve the use of biomolecules as proxies for microbial abundance in environmental samples and ultimately provide better global estimates of microbial biomass.

  16. Miniature Laboratory for Detecting Sparse Biomolecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Yu, Nan

    2005-01-01

    A miniature laboratory system has been proposed for use in the field to detect sparsely distributed biomolecules. By emphasizing concentration and sorting of specimens prior to detection, the underlying system concept would make it possible to attain high detection sensitivities without the need to develop ever more sensitive biosensors. The original purpose of the proposal is to aid the search for signs of life on a remote planet by enabling the detection of specimens as sparse as a few molecules or microbes in a large amount of soil, dust, rocks, water/ice, or other raw sample material. Some version of the system could prove useful on Earth for remote sensing of biological contamination, including agents of biological warfare. Processing in this system would begin with dissolution of the raw sample material in a sample-separation vessel. The solution in the vessel would contain floating microscopic magnetic beads coated with substances that could engage in chemical reactions with various target functional groups that are parts of target molecules. The chemical reactions would cause the targeted molecules to be captured on the surfaces of the beads. By use of a controlled magnetic field, the beads would be concentrated in a specified location in the vessel. Once the beads were thus concentrated, the rest of the solution would be discarded. This procedure would obviate the filtration steps and thereby also eliminate the filter-clogging difficulties of typical prior sample-concentration schemes. For ferrous dust/soil samples, the dissolution would be done first in a separate vessel before the solution is transferred to the microbead-containing vessel.

  17. Calculation and visualization of atomistic mechanical stresses in nanomaterials and biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Fenley, Andrew T; Muddana, Hari S; Gilson, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Many biomolecules have machine-like functions, and accordingly are discussed in terms of mechanical properties like force and motion. However, the concept of stress, a mechanical property that is of fundamental importance in the study of macroscopic mechanics, is not commonly applied in the biomolecular context. We anticipate that microscopical stress analyses of biomolecules and nanomaterials will provide useful mechanistic insights and help guide molecular design. To enable such applications, we have developed Calculator of Atomistic Mechanical Stress (CAMS), an open-source software package for computing atomic resolution stresses from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The software also enables decomposition of stress into contributions from bonded, nonbonded and Generalized Born potential terms. CAMS reads GROMACS topology and trajectory files, which are easily generated from AMBER files as well; and time-varying stresses may be animated and visualized in the VMD viewer. Here, we review relevant theory and present illustrative applications. PMID:25503996

  18. Calculation and Visualization of Atomistic Mechanical Stresses in Nanomaterials and Biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Many biomolecules have machine-like functions, and accordingly are discussed in terms of mechanical properties like force and motion. However, the concept of stress, a mechanical property that is of fundamental importance in the study of macroscopic mechanics, is not commonly applied in the biomolecular context. We anticipate that microscopical stress analyses of biomolecules and nanomaterials will provide useful mechanistic insights and help guide molecular design. To enable such applications, we have developed Calculator of Atomistic Mechanical Stress (CAMS), an open-source software package for computing atomic resolution stresses from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The software also enables decomposition of stress into contributions from bonded, nonbonded and Generalized Born potential terms. CAMS reads GROMACS topology and trajectory files, which are easily generated from AMBER files as well; and time-varying stresses may be animated and visualized in the VMD viewer. Here, we review relevant theory and present illustrative applications. PMID:25503996

  19. Ordered mesoporous ternary mixed oxide materials as potential adsorbent of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim

    2012-05-01

    Designing a suitable mesoporous framework material for the selective adsorption or immobilization of biomolecules is a very challenging area of research. Mesoporous ternary Co-Si-Al oxide materials with large mesopore and their nanoscale ordering have been reported. The synthesis of these ternary oxides are accomplished through evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method using Pluronic non-ionic surfactant F127 under non-aqueous sol-gel route. N2 sorption study revealed high BET surface areas for these materials. These materials exhibited very efficient and selective adsorption for the essential biomolecules like vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid) from their respective aqueous solutions.

  20. Biomolecule conjugation strategy using novel water-soluble phosphine-based chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Gali, Hariprasad; Volkert, Wynn A.

    2004-08-24

    This invention describes a novel strategy to produce phosphine-functionalized biomolecules (e.g. peptides or proteins) for potential use in the design and development of site-specific radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis or therapy of specific cancers. Hydrophilic alkyl phosphines, in general, tend to be oxidatively unstable. Therefore, incorporation of such phosphine functionalities on peptide (and other biomolecule) backbones, without oxidizing the P.sup.III centers, is difficult. In this context this discovery reports on a new technology by which phosphines, in the form of bifunctional chelating agents, can be directly incorporated on biomolecular backbones using manual synthetic or solid phase peptide synthesis methodologies. The superior ligating abilities of phosphine ligands, with various diagnostically (e.g. TC-99m) or therapeutically (e.g. Re186/188, Rh-105, Au-199) useful radiometals, coupled with the findings that the resulting complexes demonstrate high in vivo stability makes this approach useful in the development of radiolabeled biomolecules for applications in the design of tumor-specific radiopharmaceuticals.

  1. One-step (18)F labeling of biomolecules using organotrifluoroborates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibo; Lin, Kuo-Shyan; Bénard, François; Pourghiasian, Maral; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Perrin, David M; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-09-01

    Herein we present a general protocol for the functionalization of biomolecules with an organotrifluoroborate moiety so that they can be radiolabeled with aqueous (18)F fluoride ((18)F(-)) and used for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Among the β(+)-emitting radionuclides, fluorine-18 ((18)F) is the isotope of choice for PET, and it is produced, on-demand, in many hospitals worldwide. Organotrifluoroborates can be (18)F-labeled in one step in aqueous conditions via (18)F-(19)F isotope exchange. This protocol features a recently designed ammoniomethyltrifluoroborate, and it describes the following: (i) a synthetic strategy that affords modular synthesis of radiolabeling precursors via a copper-catalyzed 'click' reaction; and (ii) a one-step (18)F-labeling method that obviates the need for HPLC purification. Within 30 min, (18)F-labeled PET imaging probes, such as peptides, can be synthesized in good chemical and radiochemical purity (>98%), satisfactory radiochemical yield of 20-35% (n > 20, non-decay corrected) and high specific activity of 40-111 GBq/μmol (1.1-3.0 Ci/μmol). The entire procedure, including the precursor preparation and (18)F radiolabeling, takes 7-10 d. PMID:26313478

  2. Acoustic cavity transducers for the manipulation of cells and biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovar, Armando; Patel, Maulik; Lee, Abraham P.

    2010-02-01

    A novel fluidic actuator that is simple to fabricate, integrate, and operate is demonstrated for use within microfluidic systems. The actuator is designed around the use of trapped air bubbles in lateral cavities and the resultant acoustic streaming generated from an outside acoustic energy source. The orientation of the lateral cavities to the main microchannel is used to control the bulk fluid motion within the device. The first order flow generated by the oscillating bubble is used to develop a pumping platform that is capable of driving fluid within a chip. This pump is integrated into a recirculation immunoassay device for enhanced biomolecule binding through fluid flow for convection limited transport. The recirculation system showed an increase in binding site concentration when compared with traditional passive and flow-through methods. The acoustic cavity transducer has also been demonstrated for application in particle switching. Bursts of acoustic energy are used to generate a second order streaming pattern near the cavity interface to drive particles away or towards the cavity. The use of this switching mechanism is being extended to the application of sorting cells and other particles within a microfluidic system.

  3. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant Modules Designed to Integrate with Standard Unitary Rooftop Package Equipment - Final Report: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J

    2004-03-15

    This report summarizes the investigation of two active desiccant module (ADM) pilot site installations initiated in 2001. Both pilot installations were retrofits at existing facilities served by conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems that had encountered frequent humidity control, indoor air quality (IAQ), and other operational problems. Each installation involved combining a SEMCO, Inc., ADM (as described in Fischer and Sand 2002) with a standard packaged rooftop unit built by the Trane Company. A direct digital control (DDC) system integral to the ADM performed the dual function of controlling the ADM/rooftop combination and facilitating data collection, trending, and remote performance monitoring. The first installation involved providing preconditioned outdoor air to replace air exhausted from the large kitchen hood and bathrooms of a Hooters restaurant located in Rome, Georgia. This facility had previously added an additional rooftop unit in an attempt to achieve occupant comfort without success. The second involved conditioning the outdoor air delivered to each room of a wing of the Mountain Creek Inn at the Callaway Gardens resort. This hotel, designed in the ''motor lodge'' format with each room opening to the outdoors, is located in southwest Georgia. Controlling the space humidity always presented a serious challenge. Uncomfortable conditions and musty odors had caused many guests to request to move to other areas within the resort. This is the first field demonstration performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory where significant energy savings, operating cost savings, and dramatically improved indoor environmental conditions can all be claimed as the results of a retrofit desiccant equipment field installation. The ADM/rooftop combination installed at the restaurant resulted in a reduction of about 34% in the electricity used by the building's air-conditioning system. This represents a reduction of approximately 15% in

  4. STDN ranging equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

  5. Technology Equipment Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

  6. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  7. Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on engineer equipment mechanics is designed to advance the professional competence of privates through sergeants as equipment mechanics, Military Occupation Specialty 1341, and is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include…

  8. Adaptive Recreational Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Designed for teachers interested in therapeutic recreation, the document lists sources of adaptive recreational equipment and their homemade counterparts. Brief descriptions for ordering or constructing recreational equipment for the visually impaired, poorly coordinated, physically impaired, and mentally retarded are given. Specific adaptations…

  9. COM1/348: Design and Implementation of a Portal for the Market of the Medical Equipment (MEDICOM)

    PubMed Central

    Palamas, S; Vlachos, I; Panou-Diamandi, O; Marinos, G; Kalivas, D; Zeelenberg, C; Nimwegen, C; Koutsouris, D

    1999-01-01

    Introduction The MEDICOM system provides the electronic means for medical equipment manufacturers to communicate online with their customers supporting the Purchasing Process and the Post Market Surveillance. The MEDICOM service will be provided over the Internet by the MEDICOM Portal, and by a set of distributed subsystems dedicated to handle structured information related to medical devices. There are three kinds of these subsystems, the Hypermedia Medical Catalogue (HMC), Virtual Medical Exhibition (VME), which contains information in a form of Virtual Models, and the Post Market Surveillance system (PMS). The Universal Medical Devices Nomenclature System (UMDNS) is used to register all products. This work was partially funded by the ESPRIT Project 25289 (MEDICOM). Methods The Portal provides the end user interface operating as the MEDICOM Portal, acts as the yellow pages for finding both products and providers, providing links to the providers servers, implements the system management and supports the subsystem database compatibility. The Portal hosts a database system composed of two parts: (a) the Common Database, which describes a set of encoded parameters (like Supported Languages, Geographic Regions, UMDNS Codes, etc) common to all subsystems and (b) the Short Description Database, which contains summarised descriptions of medical devices, including a text description, the codes of the manufacturer, UMDNS code, attribute values and links to the corresponding HTML pages of the HMC, VME and PMS servers. The Portal provides the MEDICOM user interface including services like end user profiling and registration, end user query forms, creation and hosting of newsgroups, links to online libraries, end user subscription to manufacturers' mailing lists, online information for the MEDICOM system and special messages or advertisements from manufacturers. Results Platform independence and interoperability characterise the system design. A general purpose RDBMS is used

  10. Optical fluid and biomolecule transport with thermal fields.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Franz M; Mast, Christof B; Braun, Dieter

    2011-06-01

    A long standing goal is the direct optical control of biomolecules and water for applications ranging from microfluidics over biomolecule detection to non-equilibrium biophysics. Thermal forces originating from optically applied, dynamic microscale temperature gradients have shown to possess great potential to reach this goal. It was demonstrated that laser heating by a few Kelvin can generate and guide water flow on the micrometre scale in bulk fluid, gel matrices or ice without requiring any lithographic structuring. Biomolecules on the other hand can be transported by thermal gradients, a mechanism termed thermophoresis, thermal diffusion or Soret effect. This molecule transport is the subject of current research, however it can be used to both characterize biomolecules and to record binding curves of important biological binding reactions, even in their native matrix of blood serum. Interestingly, thermophoresis can be easily combined with the optothermal fluid control. As a result, molecule traps can be created in a variety of geometries, enabling the trapping of small biomolecules, like for example very short DNA molecules. The combination with DNA replication from thermal convection allows us to approach molecular evolution with concurrent replication and selection processes inside a single chamber: replication is driven by thermal convection and selection by the concurrent accumulation of the DNA molecules. From the short but intense history of applying thermal fields to control fluid flow and biological molecules, we infer that many unexpected and highly synergistic effects and applications are likely to be explored in the future. PMID:21240434

  11. Production of biomolecule microarrays through laser induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Pradas, Juan Marcos; Serra, Pere; Colina, Monica; Morenza, Jose-Luis

    2004-10-01

    Biomolecule microarrays are a kind of biosensors that consist in patterns of different biological molecules immobilized on a solid substrate and capable to bind specifically to their complementary targets. In particular, DNA and protein microarrays have been revealed to be very efficient devices for genen and protein identification, what has converted them in powerful tools for many applications, like clinical diagnose, drug discovery analysis, genomics and proteomics. The production of these devices requires the manipulation of tiny amounts of a liquid solution containing biomolecules without damaging them. In this work laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) has been used for spotting a biomolecule in order to check the viability of this technique for the production of microarrays. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam (355 nm wavelength) has been used to transfer droplets of a biomolecule containing solution onto a solid slide. Optical microscopy of the transferred material has been carried out to investigate the morphological characteristics of the droplets obtained under different irradiation conditions. Afterwards, a DNA microarray has been spotted. The viability of the transference has been tested by checking the biological activity of the biomolecule in front of its specific complementary target. This has revealed that, indeed, the LIFT technique is adequate for the production of DNA microarrays.

  12. Design and Realization of Integrated Management System for Data Interoperability between Point-of-Care Testing Equipment and Hospital Information System

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Sang; Heo, Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to design an integrated data management system based on the POCT1-A2, LIS2-A, LIS2-A2, and HL7 standard to ensure data interoperability between mobile equipment, such as point-of-care testing equipment and the existing hospital data system, its efficiency was also evaluated. Methods The method of this study was intended to design and realize a data management system which would provide a solution for the problems that occur when point-of-care testing equipment is introduced to existing hospital data, after classifying such problems into connectivity, integration, and interoperability. This study also checked if the data management system plays a sufficient role as a bridge between the point-of-care testing equipment and the hospital information system through connection persistence and reliability testing, as well as data integration and interoperability testing. Results In comparison with the existing system, the data management system facilitated integration by improving the result receiving time, improving the collection rate, and by enabling the integration of disparate types of data into a single system. And it was found out that we can solve the problems related to connectivity, integration and interoperability through generating the message in standardized types. Conclusions It is expected that the proposed data management system, which is designed to improve the integration point-of-care testing equipment with existing systems, will establish a solid foundation on which better medical service may be provided by hospitals by improving the quality of patient service. PMID:24175121

  13. Decision Analysis for Equipment Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilliers, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    Equipment selection during process design is a critical aspect of chemical engineering and requires engineering judgment and subjective analysis. When educating chemical engineering students in the selection of proprietary equipment during design, the focus is often on the types of equipment available and their operating characteristics. The…

  14. Electronic Equipment Thermal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, R. L.; Jenkins, L. C.

    An assessment is made of the importance of thermal management in electronic equipment design, illustrating the ways in which CAD technology may be used to improve electronic equipment thermal management programs. Attention is given to the Electronic Equipment Thermal Management portion of the aircraft system-level Thermal Management Control (TMC) program. TMC establishes the process by which the airframe's environmental control system and the electronic equipment are integrated to optimize system reliability through life cycle cost minimization, by allocating available cooling capacity to system elements on the basis of derived benefits.

  15. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-08-25

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

  16. A Statewide Study Designed to Determine Methods of Reducing Injury in Interscholastic Football Competition by Equipment Modification. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, William T.; And Others

    Through an examination of data on injuries to the lower extremities of varsity high school players, this study sought to ascertain 1) whether modified cleats brought about a reduction in the number and/or severity of such injuries; and 2) whether there existed an optimum combination of equipment for reduction in the number and/or severity of such…

  17. Redefinition of Space and Equipment in the Kindergarten and Involving the Children in the Process of Designing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bika, Anastasia

    This research examined the extent to which 2.5- to 5-year-old children in three Kindergarten classrooms in Thessaloniki, Greece could be taught about the use of classroom space and equipment. The study combined the theoretical perspectives of Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner, and Frangos with the views of theater director Peter Brook. Mixed-age groups of…

  18. Constraint methods that accelerate free-energy simulations of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Perez, Alberto; MacCallum, Justin L; Coutsias, Evangelos A; Dill, Ken A

    2015-12-28

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of biomolecules are critical for generating narratives about biological mechanisms. The power of atomistic simulations is that these are physics-based methods that satisfy Boltzmann's law, so they can be used to compute populations, dynamics, and mechanisms. But physical simulations are computationally intensive and do not scale well to the sizes of many important biomolecules. One way to speed up physical simulations is by coarse-graining the potential function. Another way is to harness structural knowledge, often by imposing spring-like restraints. But harnessing external knowledge in physical simulations is problematic because knowledge, data, or hunches have errors, noise, and combinatoric uncertainties. Here, we review recent principled methods for imposing restraints to speed up physics-based molecular simulations that promise to scale to larger biomolecules and motions. PMID:26723628

  19. Identification of biomolecules by terahertz spectroscopy and fuzzy pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Mo, Wei

    2013-04-01

    An approach for automatic identification of terahertz (THz) spectra of biomolecules is proposed based on principal component analysis (PCA) and fuzzy pattern recognition in this paper, and THz transmittance spectra of some typical amino acid and saccharide biomolecular samples are investigated to prove its feasibility. Firstly, PCA is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the original spectrum data and extract features of the data. Secondly, instead of the original spectrum variables, the selected principal component scores matrix is fed into the model of fuzzy pattern recognition, where a principle of fuzzy closeness based optimization is employed to identify those samples. Results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy combined with PCA and fuzzy pattern recognition can be efficiently utilized for automatic identification of biomolecules. The proposed approach provides a new effective method in the detection and identification of biomolecules using THz spectroscopy.

  20. Identification of biomolecules by terahertz spectroscopy and fuzzy pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Mo, Wei

    2013-04-01

    An approach for automatic identification of terahertz (THz) spectra of biomolecules is proposed based on principal component analysis (PCA) and fuzzy pattern recognition in this paper, and THz transmittance spectra of some typical amino acid and saccharide biomolecular samples are investigated to prove its feasibility. Firstly, PCA is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the original spectrum data and extract features of the data. Secondly, instead of the original spectrum variables, the selected principal component scores matrix is fed into the model of fuzzy pattern recognition, where a principle of fuzzy closeness based optimization is employed to identify those samples. Results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy combined with PCA and fuzzy pattern recognition can be efficiently utilized for automatic identification of biomolecules. The proposed approach provides a new effective method in the detection and identification of biomolecules using THz spectroscopy. PMID:23357678

  1. Constraint methods that accelerate free-energy simulations of biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Alberto; MacCallum, Justin L.; Coutsias, Evangelos A.; Dill, Ken A.

    2015-12-28

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of biomolecules are critical for generating narratives about biological mechanisms. The power of atomistic simulations is that these are physics-based methods that satisfy Boltzmann’s law, so they can be used to compute populations, dynamics, and mechanisms. But physical simulations are computationally intensive and do not scale well to the sizes of many important biomolecules. One way to speed up physical simulations is by coarse-graining the potential function. Another way is to harness structural knowledge, often by imposing spring-like restraints. But harnessing external knowledge in physical simulations is problematic because knowledge, data, or hunches have errors, noise, and combinatoric uncertainties. Here, we review recent principled methods for imposing restraints to speed up physics-based molecular simulations that promise to scale to larger biomolecules and motions.

  2. The Research of Acupuncture Effective Biomolecules: Retrospect and Prospect

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lei-Miao; Xu, Yu-Dong; Lui, Yan-Yan; Ran, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is an effective, safe and convenient therapy that has been applied for 2,500 years. The acupuncture researches have obtained significant improvement with the technical support of the life sciences and the studies of acupuncture have in turn accelerated the development of biomedical science. The effects of acupuncture influence important physiopathologic and biological activities, including gene expression, protein-protein interactions, and other biological processes. Cerebrospinal fluid, serum, organs, and tissues are reported to be carriers of the biomolecules of the effects of acupuncture. The paper summarized the progress of acupuncture effective biomolecules researches and found that biomolecules play important roles in the mechanism of acupuncture. With the development of omics technologies and translational medicine, the acupuncture research will meet both opportunities and challenges. PMID:24302967

  3. Understanding small biomolecule-biomaterial interactions: a review of fundamental theoretical and experimental approaches for biomolecule interactions with inorganic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Costa, Dominique; Garrain, Pierre-Alain; Baaden, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Interactions between biomolecules and inorganic surfaces play an important role in natural environments and in industry, including a wide variety of conditions: marine environment, ship hulls (fouling), water treatment, heat exchange, membrane separation, soils, mineral particles at the earth's surface, hospitals (hygiene), art and buildings (degradation and biocorrosion), paper industry (fouling) and more. To better control the first steps leading to adsorption of a biomolecule on an inorganic surface, it is mandatory to understand the adsorption mechanisms of biomolecules of several sizes at the atomic scale, that is, the nature of the chemical interaction between the biomolecule and the surface and the resulting biomolecule conformations once adsorbed at the surface. This remains a challenging and unsolved problem. Here, we review the state of art in experimental and theoretical approaches. We focus on metallic biomaterial surfaces such as TiO(2) and stainless steel, mentioning some remarkable results on hydroxyapatite. Experimental techniques include atomic force microscopy, surface plasmon resonance, quartz crystal microbalance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, sum frequency generation and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Theoretical models range from detailed quantum mechanical representations to classical forcefield-based approaches. PMID:23015529

  4. Standardization and program effect analysis (Study 2.4). Volume 2: Equipment commonality analysis. [cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiokari, T.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft were investigated. The components analyzed were (1) large space telescope, (2) stratospheric aerosol and gas equipment, (3) mapping mission, (4) solar maximum mission, and (5) Tiros-N. It is concluded that flight-proven hardware can be used with not-too-extensive modification, and significant savings can be realized. The cost savings for each component are presented.

  5. Quantum chemistry and charge transport in biomolecules with superconducting circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Álvarez, L.; Las Heras, U.; Mezzacapo, A.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.; Lamata, L.

    2016-06-01

    We propose an efficient protocol for digital quantum simulation of quantum chemistry problems and enhanced digital-analog quantum simulation of transport phenomena in biomolecules with superconducting circuits. Along these lines, we optimally digitize fermionic models of molecular structure with single-qubit and two-qubit gates, by means of Trotter-Suzuki decomposition and Jordan-Wigner transformation. Furthermore, we address the modelling of system-environment interactions of biomolecules involving bosonic degrees of freedom with a digital-analog approach. Finally, we consider gate-truncated quantum algorithms to allow the study of environmental effects.

  6. Quantum chemistry and charge transport in biomolecules with superconducting circuits.

    PubMed

    García-Álvarez, L; Las Heras, U; Mezzacapo, A; Sanz, M; Solano, E; Lamata, L

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient protocol for digital quantum simulation of quantum chemistry problems and enhanced digital-analog quantum simulation of transport phenomena in biomolecules with superconducting circuits. Along these lines, we optimally digitize fermionic models of molecular structure with single-qubit and two-qubit gates, by means of Trotter-Suzuki decomposition and Jordan-Wigner transformation. Furthermore, we address the modelling of system-environment interactions of biomolecules involving bosonic degrees of freedom with a digital-analog approach. Finally, we consider gate-truncated quantum algorithms to allow the study of environmental effects. PMID:27324814

  7. Quantum chemistry and charge transport in biomolecules with superconducting circuits

    PubMed Central

    García-Álvarez, L.; Las Heras, U.; Mezzacapo, A.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.; Lamata, L.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient protocol for digital quantum simulation of quantum chemistry problems and enhanced digital-analog quantum simulation of transport phenomena in biomolecules with superconducting circuits. Along these lines, we optimally digitize fermionic models of molecular structure with single-qubit and two-qubit gates, by means of Trotter-Suzuki decomposition and Jordan-Wigner transformation. Furthermore, we address the modelling of system-environment interactions of biomolecules involving bosonic degrees of freedom with a digital-analog approach. Finally, we consider gate-truncated quantum algorithms to allow the study of environmental effects. PMID:27324814

  8. Design of a medical and laboratory equipment management program for the new standards certification achievement in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Franco-Clark, D; Pimentel-Aguilar, A B; Rodriguez-Vera, R

    2010-01-01

    Certification for healthcare institutions in Mexico is ruled by 2009 standards homologated with the Joint Commission International criteria. Nowadays, healthcare requires of medical equipment and devices, so it has become necessary to implement guidelines for its adequate management in order to reach the highest level of quality and safety at the lowest cost. The objective of this work was to develop a Medical and Laboratory Equipment Management Program, oriented to the improvement of quality, effectiveness and efficiency of the technological resources in order to meet the certification requirements. The result of this work allows to have an auto evaluation tool that focuses the efforts of the National Institute for Respiratory Diseases to the achievement of the new requirements established for the certification. PMID:21096126

  9. Design and realization of test system for testing parallelism and jumpiness of optical axis of photoelectric equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Sheng-bing; Chen, Zhen-xing; Qin, Shao-gang; Song, Chun-yan; Jiang, Yun-hong

    2014-09-01

    With the development of science and technology, photoelectric equipment comprises visible system, infrared system, laser system and so on, integration, information and complication are higher than past. Parallelism and jumpiness of optical axis are important performance of photoelectric equipment,directly affect aim, ranging, orientation and so on. Jumpiness of optical axis directly affect hit precision of accurate point damage weapon, but we lack the facility which is used for testing this performance. In this paper, test system which is used fo testing parallelism and jumpiness of optical axis is devised, accurate aim isn't necessary and data processing are digital in the course of testing parallelism, it can finish directly testing parallelism of multi-axes, aim axis and laser emission axis, parallelism of laser emission axis and laser receiving axis and first acuualizes jumpiness of optical axis of optical sighting device, it's a universal test system.

  10. Adaptation of components of systems for the computer-aided design of radio-electronic equipment (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, V. I.; Strel'Nikov, Iu. N.

    1989-01-01

    Current problems in the development of interactive CAD systems for radio-electronic equipment are examined, with emphasis on the general-system properties of the adaptive interaction between system components. A formal analysis of CAD processes is carried out with the aim of developing new concepts, architectural solutions, and system-organization requirements. The basic software and hardware elements of expert CAD systems are described, and examples of their realization are presented.

  11. Solvation dynamics of biomolecules: modeling and terahertz experiments.

    PubMed

    Leitner, David M; Gruebele, Martin; Havenith, Martina

    2008-12-01

    The role of water in biomolecule dynamics has attracted much interest over the past decade, due in part to new probes of biomolecule-water interactions and developments in molecular simulations. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, among the most recent experimental methods brought to bear on this problem, is able to detect even small solute induced changes of the collective water network dynamics at the biomolecule-water interface. THz measurements reveal that proteins influence up to 1000 water molecules in their surroundings, and that even small saccharides influence the dynamics of hundreds of surrounding water molecules. The THz spectrum of a protein is sensitive to mutation and depends on the surface charge and flexibility of the protein. Influence on the solvation shell appears most pronounced for native wildtype proteins and decreases upon partial unfolding or mutation. THz spectra of solvated saccharides reveal that the number of water molecules coupled dynamically to a saccharide, forming a dynamical hydration shell around it, is related to the number of exposed oxygen atoms on the solute. The thickness of this layer appears correlated with the bioprotection efficiency of the saccharide. All findings support the thesis of a long-range dynamic coupling between biomolecule and solvent. PMID:19436490

  12. Solvation dynamics of biomolecules: modeling and terahertz experiments

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, David M; Gruebele, Martin; Havenith, Martina

    2008-01-01

    The role of water in biomolecule dynamics has attracted much interest over the past decade, due in part to new probes of biomolecule-water interactions and developments in molecular simulations. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, among the most recent experimental methods brought to bear on this problem, is able to detect even small solute induced changes of the collective water network dynamics at the biomolecule-water interface. THz measurements reveal that proteins influence up to 1000 water molecules in their surroundings, and that even small saccharides influence the dynamics of hundreds of surrounding water molecules. The THz spectrum of a protein is sensitive to mutation and depends on the surface charge and flexibility of the protein. Influence on the solvation shell appears most pronounced for native wildtype proteins and decreases upon partial unfolding or mutation. THz spectra of solvated saccharides reveal that the number of water molecules coupled dynamically to a saccharide, forming a dynamical hydration shell around it, is related to the number of exposed oxygen atoms on the solute. The thickness of this layer appears correlated with the bioprotection efficiency of the saccharide. All findings support the thesis of a long-range dynamic coupling between biomolecule and solvent. PMID:19436490

  13. Photochemical Microscale Electrophoresis Allows Fast Quantification of Biomolecule Binding.

    PubMed

    Möller, Friederike M; Kieß, Michael; Braun, Dieter

    2016-04-27

    Intricate spatiotemporal patterns emerge when chemical reactions couple to physical transport. We induce electrophoretic transport by a confined photochemical reaction and use it to infer the binding strength of a second, biomolecular binding reaction under physiological conditions. To this end, we use the photoactive compound 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, which releases a proton upon 375 nm irradiation. The charged photoproducts locally perturb electroneutrality due to differential diffusion, giving rise to an electric potential Φ in the 100 μV range on the micrometer scale. Electrophoresis of biomolecules in this field is counterbalanced by back-diffusion within seconds. The biomolecule concentration is measured by fluorescence and settles proportionally to exp(-μ/D Φ). Typically, binding alters either the diffusion coefficient D or the electrophoretic mobility μ. Hence, the local biomolecule fluorescence directly reflects the binding state. A fit to the law of mass action reveals the dissociation constant of the binding reaction. We apply this approach to quantify the binding of the aptamer TBA15 to its protein target human-α-thrombin and to probe the hybridization of DNA. Dissociation constants in the nanomolar regime were determined and match both results in literature and in control experiments using microscale thermophoresis. As our approach is all-optical, isothermal and requires only nanoliter volumes at nanomolar concentrations, it will allow for the fast screening of biomolecule binding in low volume multiwell formats. PMID:27042755

  14. Analysis of heterogeneity in nonspecific PEGylation reactions of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Hakem, Ilhem F; Leech, Anna M; Bohn, Justin; Walker, Jeremy P; Bockstaller, Michael R

    2013-07-01

    The compositional heterogeneity associated with polymer conjugation reactions of biomolecules is analyzed for the particular case of nonspecific PEGylation reactions. It is shown that the distribution of the number of PEG moieties grafted to biomolecules such as proteins is a binomial-type function of two parameters-the reaction efficiency as well as the number of binding sites per biomolecule. The nature of this distribution implies that uniform compositions are favored for increasing number of coupling sites per biomolecule as well as for increasing efficiency of the modification process. Therefore, the binomial distribution provides a rationale for the pronounced heterogeneity that is observed for PEGylated small enzyme systems even at high coupling efficiencies. For the particular case of PEGylated trypsin it is shown that the heterogeneity results in a broad distribution of deactivation times that is captured by a stretched exponential decay model. The presented analysis is expected to apply to general modification processes of compounds in which partial functionalization of a fixed number of reactive sites is achieved by means of a nonspecific coupling reaction. PMID:23616211

  15. Recovery of biomolecules from food wastes--a review.

    PubMed

    Baiano, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extraction can proceed according to solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, pressurized fluid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction. Nevertheless, these techniques cannot be used indiscriminately and their choice depends on the type of biomolecules and matrix, the scale processing (laboratory or industrial), the ratio between production costs and economic values of the compounds to be extracted. The vegetable wastes include trimmings, peelings, stems, seeds, shells, bran, residues remaining after extraction of oil, starch, sugar, and juice. The animal-derived wastes include wastes from bred animals, wastes from seafood, wastes from dairy processing. The recovered biomolecules and by-products can be used to produce functional foods or as adjuvants in food processing or in medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. This work is an overview of the type and amounts of food wastes; food waste legislation; conventional and novel techniques suitable for extracting biomolecules; food, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of the recovered biomolecules and by-products, and future trends in these areas. PMID:25232705

  16. Detection in near-field domain of biomolecules adsorbed on a single metallic nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Barbillon, G; Bijeon, J-L; Bouillard, J-S; Plain, J; Lamy De la Chapelle, M; Adam, P-M; Royer, P

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we study the performances of nanosensors based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance in the context of biological sensing. We demonstrate the sensitivity and the selectivity of our designed nanosensors by studying the influence of the concentration of Streptavidin on the shift of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance wavelength. In addition, to study the detection of biomolecules on a single Au nanoparticle, we used a Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope. These results represent new steps for applications in biological research and medical diagnostics. PMID:18304084

  17. Seismic qualification of unanchored equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, T.J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes procedures used to design and qualify unanchored equipment to survive Seismic events to the PC = 4 level in a moderate seismic area. The need for flexibility to move experimental equipment together with the requirements for remote handling in a highly-radioactive non-reactor nuclear facility precluded normal equipment anchorage. Instead equipment was designed to remain stable under anticipated DBE floor motions with sufficient margin to achieve the performance goal. The equipment was also designed to accommodate anticipated sliding motions with sufficient. The simplified design criteria used to achieve these goals were based on extensive time-history simulations of sliding, rocking, and overturning of generic equipment models. The entire process was subject to independent peer review and accepted in a Safety Evaluation Report. The process provides a model suitable for adaptation to similar applications and for assessment of the potential for seismic damage of existing, unanchored equipment In particular, the paper describes: (1) Two dimensional sliding studies of deformable equipment subject to 3-D floor excitation as the basis for simplified sliding radius and sliding velocity design criteria. (2) Two dimensional rocking and overturning simulations of rigid equipment used to establish design criteria for minimum base dimensions and equipment rigidity to prevent overturning. (3) Assumed mode rocking analyses of deformable equipment models used to establish uplift magnitudes and subsequent impacts during stable rocking motions. The model used for these dynamic impact studies is reported elsewhere.

  18. Preliminary design of a special casing joint for a well equipped twin horizontal drainholes in the Oxnard field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Oxnard field is presently under production,with a typical average monthly oil production of about 70,000 B, of which the Vaca Tar sand represents more than half.It is Unitized and operated under cyclic steam injection.The hot Tar and produced water are lifted to the surface with rod pumps equipped for injection of a diluent. The produced WOR is about 2.5 and the GOR is about 150 scf/B. The Vaca Tar sand originally contained about 400 million STB. The estimated recoverable reserve under full-scale cyclic steam injection is 100 to 120 Million STB. Under steamflood, it might reach 240 million STB. The objectives of this field test are: (1) increase well productivity by using a vertical well equipped with twin horizontal drainholes, each of about 1,000 ft. reach; (2) maximize the well draw-down by locating the horizontal wells near the base of the sand layer; (3) reduce capital cost by using twin drainholes connected to the same vertical cased well; (4) reduce operating expenses by eliminating the need for a service rig to pull-out the rods and pump before each steam injection cycle; and (5) be adaptable to other operating modes.

  19. 21 CFR 225.30 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 225.30 Section 225.30 Food and Drugs... Equipment § 225.30 Equipment. (a) Equipment which is designed to perform its intended function and is properly installed and used is essential to the manufacture of medicated feeds. Such equipment...

  20. Lennox - Student Training Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    Presents a series of demonstration units designed by Lennox Industries for the purpose of training students to become familiar with Lennox mechanical equipment. Demonstrators are designed to present technical information in a clear simplified manner thus reducing frustration for the beginning trainee. The following demonstrators are available--(1)…

  1. Lithography equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.

    1996-07-01

    Until recently, lithography capability evolved consistently with Moore's law. It appears that semiconductor manufacturers are now deviating from Moore's law, which has implications for lithography equipment. DUV lithography is moving into production in a mix-and-match environment. Step- and-scan technology is the wave of the near-future, as a way to contend with the difficulty of manufacturing wide-field lenses. Resist processing equipment will undergo few fundamental changes, but will often be integrated with steppers, particularly for DUV applications. Metrology is being stretched beyond its limits for technologies below 250 nm. The move is on to 300 m diameter wafers, and 193 nm lithography is under consideration.

  2. Formation of noble metal nanocrystals in the presence of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Justin Lockheart

    One of the most promising, yet least studied routes for producing biocompatible nanostructures involves synthesis in the presence of biomolecules. I hypothesized that globular proteins could provide a suitable framework to regulate the formation of noble metal nanocrystals. As proof of concept, I designed two novel synthesis protocols utilizing bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein to regulate the formation of gold nanocrystals. In the first case, the standard protocol for polyol reduction was modified by replacing ethylene glycol with glycerin, replacing synthetic polymers with BSA as protecting agent, and decreasing the reaction temperature. In the second case, the Brust-Schiffrin two-phase reduction was modified by replacing alkylthiols with BSA as protecting agent, which facilitated a strictly aqueous phase synthesis. Due to superior product yield and rapid reduction at room temperature, the aqueous protocol became the foundation for subsequent studies. I extended this approach to produce well-dispersed ˜2nm silver, gold, and platinum nanocrystals. Having demonstrated the feasibility of BSA-functionalized nanocrystals, some potential uses were explored. BSA-functionalized silver nanocrystals were employed in a broader study on the interaction of silver nanocrystals with HIV. BSA-functionalized gold nanocrystals were utilized for in vivo dosage of a contrast enhancing agent to bacteria. BSA-functionalized platinum nanocrystals were studied as hydrogenation catalysts. Since many intriguing uses for protein-functionalized nanocrystals involve incorporation into biosystems, I sought to enhance biocompatibility by using ascorbic acid as reducing agent. Initial experiments revealed elongated and branched nanocrystals. Such structures were not observed in previous synthesis protocols with BSA, so I hypothesized ascorbic acid was driving their formation. To test my assertion, I reduced ionic gold in an aqueous solution of ascorbic acid, thereby discovering a new method

  3. Supramolecular Assembly in Cytoskeletal Filaments and their Associated Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2002-03-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the emerging proteomics era, the biosciences community is beginning the daunting task of understanding the functions of a large number of interacting proteins. Cellular activity, which is usually tightly regulated, results from protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, which often lead to the formation of very large assemblies of biomolecules for distinct functions. Examples include DNA condensation states during the cell cycle, and bundle and network formation of filamentous proteins in cell attachment, motility, and cytokinesis. We present recent synchrotron x-ray diffraction and optical imaging data, in cell-free systems of cytoskeletal filaments and their associated biomolecules, which reveal novel supramolecular assemblies, spanning lengths from the nanometer to the micrometer scale. Supported by NSF DMR-9972246 and NIH GM59288.

  4. Antifouling self-assembled monolayers on microelectrodes for patterning biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Noel, John; Teizer, Winfried; Hwang, Wonmuk

    2009-01-01

    We present a procedure for forming a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) trimethoxysilane self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a silicon substrate with gold microelectrodes. The PEG-SAM is formed in a single assembly step and prevents biofouling on silicon and gold surfaces. The SAM is used to coat microelectrodes patterned with standard, positive-tone lithography. Using the microtubule as an example, we apply a DC voltage to induce electrophoretic migration to the SAM-coated electrode in a reversible manner. A flow chamber is used for imaging the electrophoretic migration and microtubule patterning in situ using epifluorescence microscopy. This method is generally applicable to biomolecule patterning, as it employs electrophoresis to immobilize target molecules and thus does not require specific molecular interactions. Further, it avoids problems encountered when attempting to pattern the SAM molecules directly using lithographic techniques. The compatibility with electron beam lithography allows this method to be used to pattern biomolecules at the nanoscale. PMID:19707178

  5. Light-Triggered Release of Biomolecules from Diamond Nanowire Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Coffinier, Yannick; Li, Musen; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2016-06-28

    The controlled release of biomolecules from a substrate surface is a challenging task. Photocleavable linkers appear as attractive candidates for light-triggered delivery. We show here the possibility of creating photoactivable diamond nanowire interfaces, from which molecules can be photochemically released upon irradiation at 365 nm for several minutes. The approach is based on the covalent modification of boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs) with o-nitrobenzyl containing ligands, to which different biomolecules can be attached via amide bond formation. The photodecomposition reaction and the subsequent release of small proteins such as lysozyme or enzymes such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) are investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Using a colorimetric assay, we demonstrate that, while complete cleavage of HRP was achieved upon irradiation for 10 min at 1 W cm(-2), this exposure time resulted in a partial loss of enzymatic activity. PMID:27244476

  6. Conformational modes in biomolecules: Dynamics and approximate invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapov, Alex; Stepanova, Maria

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the physical mechanisms behind the folding and conformational dynamics of biomolecules is one of the major unsolved challenges of soft matter theory. In this contribution, a theoretical framework for biomolecular dynamics is introduced, employing selected aspects of statistical mechanics, dimensionality reduction, the perturbation theory, and the theory of matrices. Biomolecular dynamics is represented by time-dependent orthogonal conformational modes, the dynamics of the modes is investigated, and invariant properties that persist are identified. As an example, the dynamics of a human prion protein is considered. The theory provides a rigorous background for assessing the stable dynamical properties of biomolecules, such as their coarse-grained structure, through a multiscale approach using short subnanosecond segments of molecular dynamics trajectories. Furthermore, the paper offers a theoretical platform for models of conformational changes in macromolecules, which may allow complementing molecular dynamics simulations.

  7. Repulsive effects of hydrophobic diamond thin films on biomolecule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruslinda, A. Rahim; Ishiyama, Y.; Penmatsa, V.; Ibori, S.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-02-01

    The repulsive effect of hydrophobic diamond thin film on biomolecule detection, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trans-activator of transcription peptide protein detection, was investigated using a mixture of a fluorine-, amine-, and hydrogen-terminated diamond surfaces. These chemical modifications lead to the formation of a surface that effectively resists the nonspecific adsorption of proteins and other biomolecules. The effect of fluorine plasma treatment on elemental composition was also investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results revealed a fluorocarbon layer on the diamond thin films. The contact angle measurement results indicated that the fluorine-treated diamond thin films were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m.

  8. Thermo-responsive hydrogels for intravitreal injection and biomolecule release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapala, Pawel

    In this dissertation, we develop an injectable polymer system to enable localized and prolonged release of therapeutic biomolecules for improved treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Thermo-responsive hydrogels derived from N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and cross-linked with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) poly(L-Lactic acid) (PLLA) copolymer were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. These materials were investigated for (a) phase change behavior, (b) in-vitro degradation, (c) capacity for controlled drug delivery, and (d) biocompatibility. The volume-phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the PNIPAAm- co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels was adjusted using hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties so that it is ca. 33°C. These hydrogels did not initially show evidence of degradation at 37°C due to physical cross-links of collapsed PNIPAAm. Only after addition of glutathione chain transfer agents (CTA)s to the precursor did the collapsed hydrogels become fully soluble at 37°C. CTAs significantly affected the release kinetics of biomolecules; addition of 1.0 mg/mL glutathione to 3 mM cross-linker accelerated hydrogel degradation, resulting in 100% release in less than 2 days. This work also explored the effect of PEGylation in order to tether biomolecules to the polymer matrix. It was demonstrated that non-site-specific PEGylation can postpone the burst release of solutes (up to 10 days in hydrogels with 0.5 mg/mL glutathione). Cell viability assays showed that at least two 20-minute buffer extraction steps were needed to remove cytotoxic elements from the hydrogels. Clinically-used therapeutic biomolecules LucentisRTM and AvastinRTM were demonstrated to be both stable and bioactive after release form PNIPAAm-co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels. The thermo-responsive hydrogels presented here offer a promising platform for the localized delivery of proteins such as recombinant antibodies.

  9. Immobilization of different biomolecules by atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Micrometer resolution placement and immobilization of probe molecules is an important step in the preparation of biochips and a wide range of lab-on-chip systems. Most known methods for such a deposition of several different substances are costly and only suitable for a limited number of probes. In this article we present a flexible procedure for simultaneous spatially controlled immobilization of functional biomolecules by molecular ink lithography. Results For the bottom-up fabrication of surface bound nanostructures a universal method is presented that allows the immobilization of different types of biomolecules with micrometer resolution. A supporting surface is biotinylated and streptavidin molecules are deposited with an AFM (atomic force microscope) tip at distinct positions. Subsequent incubation with a biotinylated molecule species leads to binding only at these positions. After washing streptavidin is deposited a second time with the same AFM tip and then a second biotinylated molecule species is coupled by incubation. This procedure can be repeated several times. Here we show how to immobilize different types of biomolecules in an arbitrary arrangement whereas most common methods can deposit only one type of molecules. The presented method works on transparent as well as on opaque substrates. The spatial resolution is better than 400 nm and is limited only by the AFM's positional accuracy after repeated z-cycles since all steps are performed in situ without moving the supporting surface. The principle is demonstrated by hybridization to different immobilized DNA oligomers and was validated by fluorescence microscopy. Conclusions The immobilization of different types of biomolecules in high-density microarrays is a challenging task for biotechnology. The method presented here not only allows for the deposition of DNA at submicrometer resolution but also for proteins and other molecules of biological relevance that can be coupled to biotin. PMID

  10. Renewable-Biomolecule-Based Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yun; Yang, Jie; Lin, Jie; Guo, Lin

    2016-05-01

    A renewable-biomolecule-based full lithium-ion battery is successfully fabricated for the first time. Naturally derivable emodin and humic acid based electrodes are used as cathode and anode, respectively. The as-assembled batteries exhibit superb specific capacity and substantial operating voltage capable of powering a wearable electronic watch, suggesting the great potential for practical applications with the significant merits of sustainability and biocompatibility. PMID:26989989

  11. Optical Sensors for Biomolecules Using Nanoporous Sol-Gel Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Jonathan; Zhou, Jing C.; Lan, Esther H.; Dunn, Bruce; Gillman, Patricia L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    An important consideration for space missions to Mars is the ability to detect biosignatures. Solid-state sensing elements for optical detection of biological entities are possible using sol-gel based biologically active materials. We have used these materials as optical sensing elements in a variety of bioassays, including immunoassays and enzyme assays. By immobilizing an appropriate biomolecule in the sol-gel sensing element, we have successfully detected analytes such as amino acids and hormones. In the case of the amino acid glutamate, the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase was the immobilized molecule, whereas in the case of the hormone cortisol, an anti-cortisol antibody was immobilized in the sensing element. In this previous work with immobilized enzymes and antibodies, excellent sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated in a variety of formats including bulk materials, thin films and fibers. We believe that the sol-gel approach is an attractive platform for bioastronautics sensing applications because of the ability to detect a wide range of entities such as amino acids, fatty acids, hopanes, porphyrins, etc. The sol-gel approach produces an optically transparent 3D silica matrix that forms around the biomolecule of interest, thus stabilizing its structure and functionality while allowing for optical detection. This encapsulation process protects the biomolecule and leads to a more "rugged" sensor. The nanoporous structure of the sol-gel matrix allows diffusion of small target molecules but keeps larger, biomolecules immobilized in the pores. We are currently developing these biologically active sol-gel materials into small portable devices for on-orbit cortisol detection

  12. Structure, dynamics, and function of biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Frauenfelder, H.; Berendzen, J.R.; Garcia, A.; Gupta, G.; Olah, G.A.; Terwilliger, T.C.; Trewhella, J.; Wood, C.C.; Woodruff, W.H.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors enhanced Los Alamos' core competency in Bioscience and Biotechnology by building on present strengths in experimental techniques, theory, high-performance computing, modeling, and simulation applied to biomolecular structure, dynamics, and function. Specifically, the authors strengthened their capabilities in neutron/x-ray scattering, x-ray crystallography, NMR, laser, and optical spectroscopies. Initially they focused on supporting the Los alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in the design and implementation of new neutron scattering instrumentation, they developed new methods for analysis of scattering data, and they developed new projects to study the structures of biomolecular complexes. The authors have also worked to strengthen interactions between theory and experiment, and between the biological and physical sciences. They sponsored regular meetings of members from all interested LANL technical divisions, and supported two lecture series: ''Biology for Physicists'' and ''Issues in Modern Biology''. They also supported the formation of interdisciplinary/inter-divisional teams to develop projects in science-based bioremediation and an integrated structural biology resource. Finally, they successfully worked with a multidisciplinary team to put forward the Laboratory's Genome and Beyond tactical goal.

  13. Development of high temperature containerless processing equipment and the design and evaluation of associated systems required for microgravity materials processing and property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rey, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of high temperature containerless processing equipment and the design and evaluation of associated systems required for microgravity materials processing and property measurements are discussed. Efforts were directed towards the following task areas: design and development of a High Temperature Acoustic Levitator (HAL) for containerless processing and property measurements at high temperatures; testing of the HAL module to establish this technology for use as a positioning device for microgravity uses; construction and evaluation of a brassboard hot wall Acoustic Levitation Furnace; construction and evaluation of a noncontact temperature measurement (NCTM) system based on AGEMA thermal imaging camera; construction of a prototype Division of Amplitude Polarimetric Pyrometer for NCTM of levitated specimens; evaluation of and recommendations for techniques to control contamination in containerless materials processing chambers; and evaluation of techniques for heating specimens to high temperatures for containerless materials experimentation.

  14. SILEX Beacon equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepin, Pierre-Jean; Leblay, Pierrick; Haller, Regine; Tremillon, Isabelle; Sonon, Jean-Pierre

    1990-07-01

    The design of this equipment based on the use of nineteen 500 mW laser diodes is presented. The Beacon is a powerful and collimated optical source based upon semi-conductor lasers. This equipment is implemented in the SILEX GEO2 terminal and its function is to provide a continuous wave light beam towards the LEO or GEO1 satellites during the acquisition phases. The design was experimentally validated with a functional breadboard, and test results demonstrated the feasibility of every performance required by the SILEX system.

  15. Simulation Using Novel Equipment Designed to Explain Spirometric Abnormalities in Respiratory Disease Enhances Learning in Higher Cognitive Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, J. P.; Stewart, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of disorders of respiratory mechanics shown by spirometry provides insight into the pathophysiology of disease but some clinically important disorders have not been simulated and none have been formally evaluated for education. We have designed simple mechanical devices which, along with existing simulators, enable all the main…

  16. Project FIRES - Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System. Volume 3: Protective Ensemble Design and Procurement Specification, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Each of the subsystems comprising the protective ensemble for firefighters is described. These include: (1) the garment system which includes turnout gear, helmets, faceshields, coats, pants, gloves, and boots; (2) the self-contained breathing system; (3) the lighting system; and (4) the communication system. The design selection rationale is discussed and the drawings used to fabricate the prototype ensemble are provided. The specifications presented were developed using the requirements and test method of the protective ensemble standard. Approximate retail prices are listed.

  17. Development of a combined surface plasmon resonance/surface acoustic wave device for the characterization of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Florian; Roach, Paul; Tsortos, Achilleas; Papadakis, George; Newton, Michael I.; McHale, Glen; Gizeli, Electra

    2009-12-01

    It is known that acoustic sensor devices, if operated in liquid phase, are sensitive not just to the mass of the analyte but also to various other parameters, such as size, shape, charge and elastic constants of the analyte as well as bound and viscously entrained water. This can be used to extract valuable information about a biomolecule, particularly if the acoustic device is combined with another sensor element which is sensitive to the mass or amount of analyte only. The latter is true in good approximation for various optical sensor techniques. This work reports on the development of a combined surface plasmon resonance/surface acoustic wave sensor system which is designed for the investigation of biomolecules such as proteins or DNA. Results for the deposition of neutravidin and DNA are reported.

  18. Creating "living" polymer surfaces to pattern biomolecules and cells on common plastics.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Glidle, Andrew; Yuan, Xiaofei; Hu, Zhixiong; Pulleine, Ellie; Cooper, Jon; Yang, Wantai; Yin, Huabing

    2013-05-13

    Creating patterns of biomolecules and cells has been applied widely in many fields associated with the life sciences, including diagnostics. In these applications it has become increasingly apparent that the spatiotemporal arrangement of biological molecules in vitro is important for the investigation of the cellular functions found in vivo. However, the cell patterning techniques often used are limited to creating 2D functional surfaces on glass and silicon. In addition, in general, these procedures are not easy to implement in conventional biological laboratories. Here, we show the formation of a living poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) layer that can be patterned with visible light on plastic surfaces. This new and simple method can be expanded to pattern multiple types of biomolecule on either a previously formed PEG layer or a plastic substrate. Using common plastic wares (i.e., polyethylene films and polystyrene cell culture Petri-dishes), we demonstrate that these PEG-modified surfaces have a high resistance to protein adsorption and cell adhesion, while at the same time, being capable of undergoing further molecular grafting with bioactive motifs. With a photomask and a fluid delivery system, we illustrate a flexible way to immobilize biological functions with a high degree of 2D and 3D spatial control. We anticipate that our method can be easily implemented in a typical life science laboratory (without the need for specialized lithography equipment) offering the prospect of imparting desirable properties to plastic products, for example, the creation of functional microenvironments in biological studies or reducing biological adhesion to surfaces. PMID:23495918

  19. Design and testing of Ground Penetrating Radar equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications: ongoing activities in Working Group 1 of COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Manacorda, Guido; Persico, Raffaele

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 1 'Novel GPR instrumentation' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Working Group 1 (WG1) of the Action focuses on the development of innovative GPR equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications. It includes three Projects. Project 1.1 is focused on the 'Design, realisation and optimisation of innovative GPR equipment for the monitoring of critical transport infrastructures and buildings, and for the sensing of underground utilities and voids.' Project 1.2 is concerned with the 'Development and definition of advanced testing, calibration and stability procedures and protocols, for GPR equipment.' Project 1.3 deals with the 'Design, modelling and optimisation of GPR antennas.' During the first year of the Action, WG1 Members coordinated between themselves to address the state of the art and open problems in the scientific fields identified by the above-mentioned Projects [1, 2]. In carrying our this work, the WG1 strongly benefited from the participation of IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi, one of the biggest GPR manufacturers, as well as from the contribution of external experts as David J. Daniels and Erica Utsi, sharing with the Action Members their wide experience on GPR technology and methodology (First General Meeting, July 2013). The synergy with WG2 and WG4 of the Action was useful for a deep understanding of the problems, merits and limits of available GPR equipment, as well as to discuss how to quantify the reliability of GPR results. An

  20. Design and testing of Ground Penetrating Radar equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications: ongoing activities in Working Group 1 of COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Manacorda, Guido; Persico, Raffaele

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 1 'Novel GPR instrumentation' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Working Group 1 (WG1) of the Action focuses on the development of innovative GPR equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications. It includes three Projects. Project 1.1 is focused on the 'Design, realisation and optimisation of innovative GPR equipment for the monitoring of critical transport infrastructures and buildings, and for the sensing of underground utilities and voids.' Project 1.2 is concerned with the 'Development and definition of advanced testing, calibration and stability procedures and protocols, for GPR equipment.' Project 1.3 deals with the 'Design, modelling and optimisation of GPR antennas.' During the first year of the Action, WG1 Members coordinated between themselves to address the state of the art and open problems in the scientific fields identified by the above-mentioned Projects [1, 2]. In carrying our this work, the WG1 strongly benefited from the participation of IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi, one of the biggest GPR manufacturers, as well as from the contribution of external experts as David J. Daniels and Erica Utsi, sharing with the Action Members their wide experience on GPR technology and methodology (First General Meeting, July 2013). The synergy with WG2 and WG4 of the Action was useful for a deep understanding of the problems, merits and limits of available GPR equipment, as well as to discuss how to quantify the reliability of GPR results. An

  1. Disposable pen-shaped capillary gel electrophoresis cartridge for fluorescence detection of bio-molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirkhanian, Varoujan; Tsai, Shou-Kuan

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel and cost-effective capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) system utilizing disposable pen-shaped gelcartridges for highly efficient, high speed, high throughput fluorescence detection of bio-molecules. The CGE system has been integrated with dual excitation and emission optical-fibers with micro-ball end design for fluorescence detection of bio-molecules separated and detected in a disposable pen-shaped capillary gel electrophoresis cartridge. The high-performance capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) analyzer has been optimized for glycoprotein analysis type applications. Using commercially available labeling agent such as ANTS (8-aminonapthalene-1,3,6- trisulfonate) as an indicator, the capillary gel electrophoresis-based glycan analyzer provides high detection sensitivity and high resolving power in 2-5 minutes of separations. The system can hold total of 96 samples, which can be automatically analyzed within 4-5 hours. This affordable fiber optic based fluorescence detection system provides fast run times (4 minutes vs. 20 minutes with other CE systems), provides improved peak resolution, good linear dynamic range and reproducible migration times, that can be used in laboratories for high speed glycan (N-glycan) profiling applications. The CGE-based glycan analyzer will significantly increase the pace at which glycoprotein research is performed in the labs, saving hours of preparation time and assuring accurate, consistent and economical results.

  2. The structural design of the experimental equipment for unconventional heating water using heat transfer surfaces located in the heat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaduchová, K.; Lenhard, R.; Gavlas, S.; Jandačka, J.

    2013-04-01

    Flue gas temperature at throat of most industrially produced fireplaces is around 250 to 350 °C. It's quite interesting thermal potential, which can be even before sucking up the chimney back utilize. One of the potential uses of this device to heat the hot water. Article refers to the structural design of such a device, which works with the transfer of heat through a substance changes phase from liquid to steam in a sealed tube (heat pipe). Benefits of heat pipes is their light weight, the thermal effect of a rapid and low maintenance costs.

  3. Baffle aperture design study of hollow cathode equipped ion thrusters. M.S. Thesis Technical Report, 1 Dec. 1979 - 1 Oct. 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R., Jr.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple theoretical model which can be used as an aid in the design of the baffle aperture region of a hollow cathode equipped ion thruster was developed. An analysis of the ion and electron currents in both the main and cathode discharge chambers is presented. From this analysis a model of current flow through the aperture, which is required as an input to the design model, was developed. This model was verified experimentally. The dominant force driving electrons through the aperture was the force due to the electrical potential gradient. The diffusion process was modeled according to the Bolm diffusion theory. A number of simplifications were made to limit the amount of detailed plasma information required as input to the model to facilitate the use of the model in thruster design. This simplified model gave remarkably consistant results with experimental results obtained with a given thruster geometry over substantial changes in operating conditions. The model was uncertain to about a factor of two for different thruster cathode region geometries. The design usefulness was limited by this factor of two uncertainty and by the accuracy to which the plasma parameters required as inputs to the model were specified.

  4. Small molecule-based ratiometric fluorescence probes for cations, anions, and biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Hee

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative determination of specific analytes is essential for a variety of applications ranging from life sciences to environmental monitoring. Optical sensing allows non-invasive measurements within biological milieus, parallel monitoring of multiple samples, and less invasive imaging. Among the optical sensing methods currently being explored, ratiometric fluorescence sensing has received particular attention as a technique with the potential to provide precise and quantitative analyses. Among its advantages are high sensitivity and inherent reliability, which reflect the self-calibration provided by monitoring two (or more) emissions. A wide variety of ratiometric sensing probes using small fluorescent molecules have been developed for sensing, imaging, and biomedical applications. In this research highlight, we provide an overview of the design principles underlying small fluorescent probes that have been applied to the ratiometric detection of various analytes, including cations, anions, and biomolecules in solution and in biological samples. This highlight is designed to be illustrative, not comprehensive. PMID:25286013

  5. Construction of an integrated biomodule composed of microfluidics and digitally controlled microelectrodes for processing biomolecules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagler, Patrick F.; Tangen, Uwe; Maeke, Thomas; Mathis, Harald P.; McCaskill, John S.

    2003-01-01

    This work focuses on the development of an online programmable microfluidic bioprocessing unit (BioModule) using digital logic microelectrodes for rapid pipelined selection and transfer of DNA molecules and other charged biopolymers. The design and construction technique for this hybrid programmable biopolymer processing device is presented along with the first proof of principle functionality. The electronically controlled collection, separation and channel transfer of the biomolecules is monitored by a sensitive fluorescence setup. This hybrid reconfigurable architecture couples electronic and biomolecular information processing via a single module combination of fluidics and electronics and opens new fields of applications not only in DNA computing and molecular diagnostics but also in applications of combinatorial chemistry and lab-on-a-chip biotechnology to the drug discovery process. Fundamentals of the design and silicon-PDMS-based construction of these electronic microfluidic devices and their functions are described as well as the experimental results.

  6. Microfabrication of a BioModule composed of microfluidics and digitally controlled microelectrodes for processing biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagler, Patrick F.; Tangen, Uwe; Maeke, Thomas; Mathis, Harald P.; McCaskill, John S.

    2003-10-01

    This work focuses on the development of an online programmable microfluidic bioprocessing unit (BioModule) using digital logic microelectrodes for rapid pipelined selection and transfer of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules and other charged biopolymers. The design and construction technique for this hybrid programmable biopolymer processing device is presented along with the first proof of principle functionality. The electronically controlled collection, separation and channel transfer of the biomolecules is monitored by a sensitive fluorescence set-up. This hybrid reconfigurable architecture couples electronic and biomolecular information processing via a single module combination of fluidics and electronics and opens new fields of applications not only in DNA computing and molecular diagnostics but also in applications of combinatorial chemistry and lab-on-a-chip biotechnology to the drug discovery process. Fundamentals of the design and silicon-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based construction of these electronic microfluidic devices and their functions are described as well as the experimental results.

  7. Fused deposition of ceramics: A comprehensive experimental, analytical and computational study of material behavior, fabrication process and equipment design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Anna

    Customer-driven product customization and continued demand for cost and time savings have generated a renewed interest in agile manufacturing based on improvements on Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies. The advantages of RP technologies are: (1) ability to shorten the product design and development time, (2) suitability for automation and decrease in the level of human intervention, (3) ability to build many geometrically complex shapes. A shift from "prototyping" to "manufacturing" necessitates the following improvements: (1) Flexibility in choice of materials; (2) Part integrity and built-in characteristics to meet performance requirements; (3) Dimensional stability and tolerances; (4) Improved surface finish. A project funded by ONR has been undertaken to develop an agile manufacturing technology for fabrication of ceramic and multi-component parts to meet various needs of the Navy, such as transducers, etc. The project is based on adaptation of a layered manufacturing concept since the program required that the new technology be developed based on a commercially available RP technology. Among various RP technologies available today, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) has been identified as the focus of this research because of its potential versatility in the choice of materials and deposition configuration. This innovative approach allows for designing and implementing highly complex internal architectures into parts through deposition of different materials in a variety of configurations in such a way that the finished product exhibit characteristics to meet the performance requirements. This implies that, in principle, one can tailor-make the assemble of materials and structures as per specifications of an optimum design. The program objectives can be achieved only through accurate process modeling and modeling of material behavior. Oftentimes, process modeling is based on some type of computational approach where as modeling of material behavior is based on

  8. Simulation using novel equipment designed to explain spirometric abnormalities in respiratory disease enhances learning in higher cognitive domains.

    PubMed

    Jamison, J P; Stewart, M T

    2015-10-01

    Simulation of disorders of respiratory mechanics shown by spirometry provides insight into the pathophysiology of disease but some clinically important disorders have not been simulated and none have been formally evaluated for education. We have designed simple mechanical devices which, along with existing simulators, enable all the main dysfunctions which have diagnostic value in spirometry to be simulated and clearly explained with visual and haptic feedback. We modelled the airways as Starling resistors by a clearly visible mechanical action to simulate intra- and extra-thoracic obstruction. A narrow tube was used to simulate fixed large airway obstruction and inelastic bands to simulate restriction. We hypothesized that using simulators whose action explains disease promotes learning especially in higher domain educational objectives. The main features of obstruction and restriction were correctly simulated. Simulation of variable extra-thoracic obstruction caused blunting and plateauing of inspiratory flow, and simulation of intra-thoracic obstruction caused limitation of expiratory flow with marked dynamic compression. Multiple choice tests were created with questions allocated to lower (remember and understand) or higher cognitive domains (apply, analyse and evaluate). In a cross-over design, overall mean scores increased after 1½ h simulation spirometry (43-68 %, effect size 1.06, P < 0.0001). In higher cognitive domains the mean score was lower before and increased further than lower domains (Δ 30 vs 20 %, higher vs lower effect size 0.22, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the devices successfully simulate various patterns of obstruction and restriction. Using these devices medical students achieved marked enhancement of learning especially in higher cognitive domains. PMID:25528245

  9. Adaptive Equipment from Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanche, Erna, O'Brian, Maryann

    1984-01-01

    The article presents four readily accessible inexpensive equipment designs to promote effective remedial body positioning for children with neuromotor or developmental delays. Assembly instructions are offered for the side lyer, the side sitter, the lab board, and the floor table. (CL)

  10. Engineer Equipment Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment operators. Addressed in the seven individual units of the course are the following topics: introduction to Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) 1345…

  11. Engineer Equipment Chief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment chiefs. Addressed in the five individual units of the course are the following topics: construction management (planning, scheduling, and supervision);…

  12. Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and power…

  13. Design and construction of a target chamber and associated equipments for the BARC Charged Particle Detector Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Bency; Kumar, S. Sunil; Kumar, Manish; Jangale, R. V.; Inkar, A. L.; Kinage, Lalit

    2012-11-01

    A 60 cm diameter spherical high-vacuum target-chamber with side-opening hemispherical-lids, two ancillary-chambers, beam-line-tubes, tees and other high-vacuum components, and chamber-lid handling systems have been designed, constructed and installed for the Charged Particle Detector Array in BARC-TIFR Pelletron-LINAC Facility, Mumbai. This array of several tens of Si-CsI detector modules and other ancillary-detectors will be used for investigations in fusion-fission dynamics, nuclear structure at elevated temperatures and angular momenta, exotic nuclear clusters and related fields. This paper describes the unique features of the system that aid different coincidence experiments, the chamber fabrication experience and the pump-down characteristics with a turbo molecular pump. Unlike many other target chambers in use, this chamber allows multiple overall geometrical configurations to be set to reach experimental goals. For instance, by replacing a hemispherical-lid from one side with a flat-lid, the overall configuration becomes hemispherical. This way, high geometrical efficiency can be provided to an ancillary gamma detector array by allowing it to move close to target from the flat-lid side, although with some sacrifice of geometrical efficiency for charged particles. In experiments where a further improvement of geometrical efficiency for a gamma array is desired, a third compact-cylinder configuration can also be arrived at. Thinned portion of the lids of the chamber also allow neutron coincidence measurements with charged particles and gamma rays.

  14. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of New Cathepsin B-Sensitive Camptothecin Nanoparticles Equipped with a Novel Multifuctional Linker.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Tang, Kaiyong; Wang, Hong; Liu, Yaqian; Bao, Bin; Fang, Yanfen; Zhang, Xiongwen; Lu, Wei

    2016-05-18

    Traditional antitumor drugs such as camptothecin and paclitaxel derivatives are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. However, the major defects of those agents include severe toxicity and poor water solubility. With these in mind, a novel multifunctional linker was designed and two Cathepsin B (CTB) sensitive CPT conjugates (9a and 9b) were synthesized. Through click chemistry, additional functional group mPEG2000 can be easily introduced into these conjugates. The introduction of mPEG2000 fragment resulted in the formation of nanoparticles 1a and 1b (average particle sizes were 216.9 and 257.9 nm, respectively) with significantly increased water solubility (more than 19 000-fold). The release of therapeutic drug SN-38 in the presence of CTB was confirmed by HPLC and prodrug 1a showed potent in vitro cytotoxicity against all tested cell lines. Impressively, compared with irinotecan, CTB sensitive prodrug 1a displayed similar in vivo efficacy with remarkable decreased in vivo toxicity. PMID:27070848

  15. Design, synthesis, and antitumor evaluation of novel histone deacetylase inhibitors equipped with a phenylsulfonylfuroxan module as a nitric oxide donor.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wenwen; Li, Jin; Inks, Elizabeth S; Chou, C James; Jia, Yuping; Chu, Xiaojing; Li, Xiaoyang; Xu, Wenfang; Zhang, Yingjie

    2015-05-28

    On the basis of the strategy of creating multifunctional drugs, a novel series of phenylsulfonylfuroxan-based hydroxamates with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory and nitric oxide (NO) donating activities were designed, synthesized, and evaluated. The most potent NO donor-HDAC inhibitor (HDACI) hybrid, 5c, exhibited a much greater in vitro antiproliferative activity against the human erythroleukemia (HEL) cell line than that of the approved drug SAHA (Vorinostat), and its antiproliferative activity was diminished by the NO scavenger hemoglobin in a dose-dependent manner. Further mechanism studies revealed that 5c strongly induced cellular apoptosis and G1 phase arrest in HEL cells. Animal experiment identified 5c as an orally active agent with potent antitumor activity in a HEL cell xenograft model. Interestingly, although compound 5c was remarkably HDAC6-selective at the molecular level, it exhibited pan-HDAC inhibition in a western blot assay, which is likely due to class I HDACs inhibition caused by NO release at the cellular level. PMID:25906087

  16. Rescue Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lifeshear cutter, a rescue tool for freeing accident victims from wreckage, was developed under the Clinton Administration's Technology Reinvestment Program. Prior cutting equipment was cumbersome and expensive; the new cutter is 50 percent lighter and 70 percent cheaper. The cutter is pyrotechnically-actuated, using a miniature version of the power cartridges used for separation devices on the Space Shuttle and other NASA spacecraft. Hi-Shear Technology Corporation developed the cutter with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and input from the City of Torrance (California) Fire Department.

  17. Quantum Simulations of Solvated Biomolecules Using Hybrid Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav

    2009-03-01

    One of the most important challenges in quantum simulations on biomolecules is efficient and accurate inclusion of the solvent, because the solvent atoms usually outnumber those in the biomolecule of interest. We have developed a hybrid method that allows for explicit quantum-mechanical treatment of the solvent at low computational cost. In this method, Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) is combined with an orbital-free (OF) DFT. Kohn-Sham (KS) DFT is used to describe the biomolecule and its first solvation shells, while the orbital-free (OF) DFT is employed for the rest of the solvent. The OF part is fully O(N) and capable of handling 10^5 solvent molecules on current parallel supercomputers, while taking only ˜ 10 % of the total time. The compatibility between the KS and OF DFT methods enables seamless integration between the two. In particular, the flow of solvent molecules across the KS/OF interface is allowed and the total energy is conserved. As the first large-scale applications, the hybrid method has been used to investigate the binding of copper ions to proteins involved in prion (PrP) and Parkinson's diseases. Our results for the PrP, which causes mad cow disease when misfolded, resolve a contradiction found in experiments, in which a stronger binding mode is replaced by a weaker one when concentration of copper ions is increased, and show how it can act as a copper buffer. Furthermore, incorporation of copper stabilizes the structure of the full-length PrP, suggesting its protective role in prion diseases. For alpha-synuclein, a Parkinson's disease (PD) protein, we show that Cu binding modifies the protein structurally, making it more susceptible to misfolding -- an initial step in the onset of PD. In collaboration with W. Lu, F. Rose and J. Bernholc.

  18. 46 CFR 197.460 - Diving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diving equipment. 197.460 Section 197.460 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.460 Diving equipment. The diving supervisor shall insure that the diving equipment designated for...

  19. 46 CFR 197.460 - Diving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diving equipment. 197.460 Section 197.460 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.460 Diving equipment. The diving supervisor shall insure that the diving equipment designated for...

  20. 46 CFR 197.460 - Diving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diving equipment. 197.460 Section 197.460 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.460 Diving equipment. The diving supervisor shall insure that the diving equipment designated for...

  1. 46 CFR 197.460 - Diving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diving equipment. 197.460 Section 197.460 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.460 Diving equipment. The diving supervisor shall insure that the diving equipment designated for...

  2. 46 CFR 197.460 - Diving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diving equipment. 197.460 Section 197.460 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.460 Diving equipment. The diving supervisor shall insure that the diving equipment designated for...

  3. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  4. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  5. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... Standards for Equipment for Packaging Frozen Desserts and Cottage Cheese. Quality Specifications for...

  6. Design and evaluation of a PEGylated lipopeptide equipped with drug-interactive motifs as an improved drug carrier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Lu, Jianqin; Huang, Yixian; Zhao, Wenchen; Zhang, Yifei; Zhang, Xiaolan; Li, Jiang; Venkataramanan, Raman; Gao, Xiang; Li, Song

    2014-01-01

    Micelles are attractive delivery systems for hydrophobic drugs due to their small size and the ease of application. However, the limited drug loading capacity and the intrinsic poor stability of drug-loaded formulations represent two major issues for some micellar systems. In this study, we designed and synthesized a micelle-forming PEG-lipopeptide conjugate with two Fmoc groups located at the interfacial region, and two oleoyl chains as the hydrophobic core. The significance of Fmoc groups as a broadly applicable drug-interactive motif that enhances the carrier-drug interaction was examined using eight model drugs of diverse structures. Compared with an analogue without carrying a Fmoc motif, PEG5000-(Fmoc-OA)₂ demonstrated a lower value of critical micelle concentration and three-fold increases of loading capacity for paclitaxel (PTX). These micelles showed tubular structures and small particle sizes (∼70 nm), which can be lyophilized and readily reconstituted with water without significant changes in particle sizes. Fluorescence quenching study illustrated the Fmoc/PTX π-π stacking contributes to the carrier/PTX interaction, and drug-release study demonstrated a much slower kinetics than Taxol, a clinically used PTX formulation. PTX/PEG5000-(Fmoc-OA)₂ mixed micelles exhibited higher levels of cytotoxicity than Taxol in several cancer cell lines and more potent inhibitory effects on tumor growth than Taxol in a syngeneic murine breast cancer model (4T1.2). We have further shown that seven other drugs can be effectively formulated in PEG5000-(Fmoc-OA)₂ micelles. Our study suggests that micelle-forming PEG-lipopeptide surfactants with interfacial Fmoc motifs may represent a promising formulation platform for a broad range of drugs with diverse structures. PMID:24281690

  7. Chemical tags for site-specific fluorescent labeling of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Freidel, Christoph; Kaloyanova, Stefka; Peneva, Kalina

    2016-06-01

    This review focuses on the various approaches to covalently attach a chromophore to a biomolecule of interest in site-specific manner. Novel methods like inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction, Pictet-Spengler ligation and enzyme tags like SNAP and Halo-tags are critically discussed and compared to established techniques like copper-free click reaction and native chemical ligation. Selected examples in which the tags have been exploited for in vitro or in vivo imaging are reviewed and evaluated. PMID:26969255

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Encapsulation of biomolecules in silica gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livage, Jacques; Coradin, Thibaud; Roux, Cécile

    2001-08-01

    A wide variety of biomolecules, ranging over proteins, enzymes, antibodies and even whole cells, have been embedded within sol-gel glasses. They retain their bioactivity and remain accessible to external reagents by diffusion through the porous silica. Sol-gel glasses can be cast into desired shapes and are optically transparent, so it is possible to couple optics and bioactivity to make photonic devices and biosensors. The high specificity and sensitivity of enzymes and antibodies allows the detection of traces of chemicals. Entrapped living cells can be used for the production of metabolites, the realization of immunoassays and even for cell transplantation.

  9. Electrochemical Methods for the Analysis of Clinically Relevant Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Labib, Mahmoud; Sargent, Edward H; Kelley, Shana O

    2016-08-24

    Rapid progress in identifying biomarkers that are hallmarks of disease has increased demand for high-performance detection technologies. Implementation of electrochemical methods in clinical analysis may provide an effective answer to the growing need for rapid, specific, inexpensive, and fully automated means of biomarker analysis. This Review summarizes advances from the past 5 years in the development of electrochemical sensors for clinically relevant biomolecules, including small molecules, nucleic acids, and proteins. Various sensing strategies are assessed according to their potential for reaching relevant limits of sensitivity, specificity, and degrees of multiplexing. Furthermore, we address the remaining challenges and opportunities to integrate electrochemical sensing platforms into point-of-care solutions. PMID:27428515

  10. Plume Image Profiling of UV Laser Desorbed Biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, T. L.; Hunniford, C.A.; McCullough, R. W.; Timson, D. J.; Catney, M.

    2008-12-08

    An experimental system, based upon the techniques of UV and IR laser desorption with time of flight mass spectrometry, has been constructed to enable the production and characterization of neutral biomolecular targets. The feasibility of the laser desorption technique for the purpose of radiation interaction experiments is investigated here. Fluorescent dye tagging and laser induced fluorescence imaging has been used to help characterize the laser produced plumes of biomolecules revealing their spatial density profiles and temporal evolution. Peak target thicknesses of 2x10{sup 12} molecules cm{sup -2} were obtained 30 {mu}s after laser desorption.

  11. Detection of prostate-specific antigen with biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia-dong; Cheng, Jun-jie; Miao, Bin; Wei, Xiao-wei; Xie, Jie; Zhang, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Zhi-qiang; Wu, Dong-min

    2014-07-01

    In order to improve the sensitivity of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) biosensors, a simple biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure was designed and successfully fabricated for prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection. UV/ozone was used to oxidize the GaN surface and then a 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTES) self-assembled monolayer was bound to the sensing region. This monolayer serves as a binding layer for attachment of the prostate specific antibody (anti-PSA). The biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT sensor shows a rapid and sensitive response when the target prostate-specific antigen in buffer solution was added to the antibody-immobilized sensing area. The current change showed a logarithm relationship against the PSA concentration from 0.1 pg/ml to 0.993 ng/ml. The sensitivity of 0.215% is determined for 0.1 pg/ml PSA solution. The above experimental result of the biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT biosensor suggested that this biosensor might be a useful tool for prostate cancer screening.

  12. Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Volume II. Appendix A. Conceptual designs and preliminary equipment specifications. Appendix B. Characterization of cogeneration systems (near-term technology). Appendix C. Optimized cogeneration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This appendix to a report which evaluates the technical, economic, and institutional aspects of industrial cogeneration for conserving energy in the food, chemical, textile, paper, and petroleum industries contains data, descriptions, and diagrams on conceptual designs and preliminary equipment specifications for cogeneration facilities; characterization of cogeneration systems in terms of fuel utilization, performance, air pollution control, thermal energy storage systems, and capital equipment costs; and optimized cogeneration systems for specific industrial plants. (LCL)

  13. Bicycle safety equipment.

    PubMed

    Ellis, T H; Streight, D; Mellion, M B

    1994-01-01

    It is important for the physician to understand bicycle safety equipment in order to prevent and treat bicycle-related injuries effectively. The physician should understand (1) the basic design and function of bicycles, (2) the relationship of improper bicycle fit to injuries, (3) the potential of the various forms of serious riding and racing for injury, and (4) bicycle safety equipment and the standards involved in its fit, manufacture, and care. A decision to use bicycle safety equipment is a decision to control the risk of injury. Physicians should accept a share of the responsibility for decreasing bicycling-related injuries, because they are viewed by the public as credible sources of information regarding the prevention of accidents and injuries. PMID:8111858

  14. Identification of Biomolecular Building Blocks by Recognition Tunneling: Stride towards Nanopore Sequencing of Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Suman

    DNA, RNA and Protein are three pivotal biomolecules in human and other organisms, playing decisive roles in functionality, appearance, diseases development and other physiological phenomena. Hence, sequencing of these biomolecules acquires the prime interest in the scientific community. Single molecular identification of their building blocks can be done by a technique called Recognition Tunneling (RT) based on Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM). A single layer of specially designed recognition molecule is attached to the STM electrodes, which trap the targeted molecules (DNA nucleoside monophosphates, RNA nucleoside monophosphates or amino acids) inside the STM nanogap. Depending on their different binding interactions with the recognition molecules, the analyte molecules generate stochastic signal trains accommodating their "electronic fingerprints". Signal features are used to detect the molecules using a machine learning algorithm and different molecules can be identified with significantly high accuracy. This, in turn, paves the way for rapid, economical nanopore sequencing platform, overcoming the drawbacks of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques. To read DNA nucleotides with high accuracy in an STM tunnel junction a series of nitrogen-based heterocycles were designed and examined to check their capabilities to interact with naturally occurring DNA nucleotides by hydrogen bonding in the tunnel junction. These recognition molecules are Benzimidazole, Imidazole, Triazole and Pyrrole. Benzimidazole proved to be best among them showing DNA nucleotide classification accuracy close to 99%. Also, Imidazole reader can read an abasic monophosphate (AP), a product from depurination or depyrimidination that occurs 10,000 times per human cell per day. In another study, I have investigated a new universal reader, 1-(2-mercaptoethyl)pyrene (Pyrene reader) based on stacking interactions, which should be more specific to the canonical DNA nucleosides. In addition

  15. Electrical biomolecule detection using nanopatterned silicon via block copolymer lithography.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang Kyu; Jin, Hyeong Min; Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Park, Tae Jung; Yoo, Hyeon Gyun; Koo, Min; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Kim, Sang Ouk; Lee, Keon Jae

    2014-01-29

    An electrical biosensor exploiting a nanostructured semiconductor is a promising technology for the highly sensitive, label-free detection of biomolecules via a straightforward electronic signal. The facile and scalable production of a nanopatterned electrical silicon biosensor by block copolymer (BCP) nano-lithography is reported. A cost-effective and large-area nanofabrication, based on BCP self-assembly and single-step dry etching, is developed for the hexagonal nanohole patterning of thin silicon films. The resultant nanopatterned electrical channel modified with biotin molecules successfully detects the two proteins, streptavidin and avidin, down to nanoscale molarities (≈1 nm). The nanoscale pattern comparable to the Debye screening length and the large surface area of the three-dimensional silicon nanochannel enable excellent sensitivity and stability. A device simulation confirms that the nanopatterned structure used in this work is effective for biomolecule detection. This approach relying on the scalable self-assembly principle offers a high-throughput manufacturing process for clinical lab-on-a-chip diagnoses and relevant biomolecular studies. PMID:23881835

  16. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis: Discovering Biomolecules for Environmental Bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Om V.; Chandel, Anuj K.

    Environmental contamination has been viewed as an ecological malaise for which bioremediation can be prescribed as a “perfect medicine.” The solution to the problems with bioremediation lies in analyzing to what extent the microbes’ physiological machinery contributes to the degradation process and which biomolecules and their mechanisms are responsible for regulatory factors within the degradation system, such as protein, metabolite, and enzymatic chemical transformation. In the post-genomic era, recent advances in proteomics have allowed us to elucidate many complex biological mechanisms. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS) can be utilized to identify the biomolecules and their molecular mechanisms in bioremediation. A set of highly abundant global proteins over a pI range 4-7 was separated and compared by size fractionation (25-100 kDa) on 2DE. We identified a set of catabolic proteins, enzymes, and heat shock molecular chaperones associated with the regulatory network that was found to be overexpressed under phenol-stressed conditions. This chapter also offers optimized ideal directions for 2DE, followed by easy-to-follow directions for a protein identification strategy using MALDI-TOF and targeting novel proteins/enzymes for a universal set of experiments.

  17. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  18. On biomolecules and semiconductors: Analytical studies of interface dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, John William Joseph

    The studies discussed here were undertaken to examine the use of III-V semiconducting materials as templates for biomolecules, to be applied in such technologies as Field-Effect Transistor (FET) and Light-emitting Diode (LED) biosensors. Materials application requires an informed analysis of interactions between chemical environments. Specific to surfaces, this means investigating the molecular interactions between the substrate and the bonding moieties. The analytical tools used to probe these interactions, and the changes that such communication causes on specific substrates are specifically discussed. Surface analysis tools included in this review are Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Nanoindentation, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman Microscopy. The interaction of biomolecules - deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), proteins adhered to nanoparticles, and amino acids - on semiconductor surfaces is also examined. Proper investigation follows, as well, the methods of applying these biomolecular structures to the specified surfaces, through procedures such as solution phase transfer, as well as Dip-pen Nanolithography (DPN). The stretching and enzymatic cleavage of DNA, on silicon oxide surfaces, was studied to determine the recognition properties of dual-enzymatic systems on surfaces. Fundamental questions such as the interaction of functional groups with InAs(100) surfaces, the mechanical properties of protein modified systems, and the DPN application of biologically relevant linker molecules to InAs(100) surfaces were explored. These studies provide information applicable to the development of novel sensing platforms in the future.

  19. The biomolecule ubiquinone exerts a variety of biological functions.

    PubMed

    Nohl, Hans; Staniek, Katrin; Kozlov, Andrey V; Gille, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of ubiquinone allows reversible addition of single electrons and protons. This unique property is used in nature for aerobic energy gain, for unilateral proton accumulation, for the generation of reactive oxygen species involved in physiological signaling and a variety of pathophysiological events. Since several years ubiquinone is also considered to play a major role in the control of lipid peroxidation, since this lipophilic biomolecule was recognized to recycle alpha-tocopherol radicals back to the chain-breaking form, vitamin E. Ubiquinone is therefore a biomolecule which has increasingly focused the interest of many research groups due to its alternative pro- and antioxidant activity. We have intensively investigated the role of ubiquinone as prooxidant in mitochondria and will present experimental evidences on conditions required for this function, we will also show that lysosomal ubiquinone has a double function as proton translocator and radical source under certain metabolic conditions. Furthermore, we have addressed the antioxidant role of ubiquinone and found that the efficiency of this activity is widely dependent on the type of biomembrane where ubiquinone exerts its chain-breaking activity. PMID:14695917

  20. Towards Single Biomolecule Imaging via Optical Nanoscale Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Boretti, Alberto; Rosa, Lorenzo; Castelletto, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a physical marvel in which electromagnetic radiation is charged and discharged by nuclei in a magnetic field. In conventional NMR, the specific nuclei resonance frequency depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms. NMR is routinely utilized in clinical tests by converting nuclear spectroscopy in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and providing 3D, noninvasive biological imaging. While this technique has revolutionized biomedical science, measuring the magnetic resonance spectrum of single biomolecules is still an intangible aspiration, due to MRI resolution being limited to tens of micrometers. MRI and NMR have, however, recently greatly advanced, with many breakthroughs in nano-NMR and nano-MRI spurred by using spin sensors based on an atomic impurities in diamond. These techniques rely on magnetic dipole-dipole interactions rather than inductive detection. Here, novel nano-MRI methods based on nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond are highlighted, that provide a solution to the imaging of single biomolecules with nanoscale resolution in-vivo and in ambient conditions. PMID:26113221

  1. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  2. Food Service Equipment and Appurtenances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Equipment design specifications are presented relating to tables of all kinds, counters, sinks and drainboards, bins, shelves, drawers, hoods and similar kitchen appurtenances, not including baking, roasting, toasting, broiling or frying equipment, food preparation machinery such as slicers, choppers, and cutters, mixers and grinders, steam…

  3. Heavy Equipment Mechanic Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    Designed to train an entry-level mechanic, this heavy equipment mechanic program guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a heavy equipment mechanic program. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

  4. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... accessible for cleaning. The design and operation of the machine shall in no way contaminate the container...

  5. 46 CFR 153.484 - Prewash equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prewash equipment. 153.484 Section 153.484 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Design and Equipment for Pollution Control § 153.484...

  6. Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

  7. Integrative self-assembly of functional hybrid nanoconstructs by inorganic wrapping of single biomolecules, biomolecule arrays and organic supramolecular assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Avinash J.; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Synthesis of functional hybrid nanoscale objects has been a core focus of the rapidly progressing field of nanomaterials science. In particular, there has been significant interest in the integration of evolutionally optimized biological systems such as proteins, DNA, virus particles and cells with functional inorganic building blocks to construct mesoscopic architectures and nanostructured materials. However, in many cases the fragile nature of the biomolecules seriously constrains their potential applications. As a consequence, there is an on-going quest for the development of novel strategies to modulate the thermal and chemical stabilities, and performance of biomolecules under adverse conditions. This feature article highlights new methods of ``inorganic molecular wrapping'' of single or multiple protein molecules, individual double-stranded DNA helices, lipid bilayer vesicles and self-assembled organic dye superstructures using inorganic building blocks to produce bio-inorganic nanoconstructs with core-shell type structures. We show that spatial isolation of the functional biological nanostructures as ``armour-plated'' enzyme molecules or polynucleotide strands not only maintains their intact structure and biochemical properties, but also enables the fabrication of novel hybrid nanomaterials for potential applications in diverse areas of bionanotechnology.

  8. HVAC equipment and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Cerami, V.J.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to define how the selection of HVAC equipment and layout impact the achievable noise criteria (NC) levels in occupied spaces. It will focus on the design of HVAC systems that employ floor-by-floor air handling/air conditioning units and their acoustical ramifications. This is of increasing importance since tenants require incorporation of noise limits in lease agreements.

  9. Click-EM for imaging metabolically tagged nonprotein biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Ngo, John T; Adams, Stephen R; Deerinck, Thomas J; Boassa, Daniela; Rodriguez-Rivera, Frances; Palida, Sakina F; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Ellisman, Mark H; Tsien, Roger Y

    2016-06-01

    EM has long been the main technique for imaging cell structures with nanometer resolution but has lagged behind light microscopy in the crucial ability to make specific molecules stand out. Here we introduce click-EM, a labeling technique for correlative light microscopy and EM imaging of nonprotein biomolecules. In this approach, metabolic labeling substrates containing bioorthogonal functional groups are provided to cells for incorporation into biopolymers by endogenous biosynthetic machinery. The unique chemical functionality of these analogs is exploited for selective attachment of singlet oxygen-generating fluorescent dyes via bioorthogonal 'click chemistry' ligations. Illumination of dye-labeled structures generates singlet oxygen to locally catalyze the polymerization of diaminobenzidine into an osmiophilic reaction product that is readily imaged by EM. We describe the application of click-EM in imaging metabolically tagged DNA, RNA and lipids in cultured cells and neurons and highlight its use in tracking peptidoglycan synthesis in the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:27110681

  10. Electrophoretic transport of biomolecules across liquid-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Thomas; Münchow, Götz; Hardt, Steffen

    2011-05-11

    The mass transfer resistance of a liquid-liquid interface in an aqueous two-phase system composed of poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran is investigated. Different types of proteins and DNA stained with fluorescent dyes serve as probes to study the transport processes close to the interface. A microfluidic device is employed to enable the electrophoretic transport of biomolecules from one phase to another. The results obtained for proteins can be explained solely via the different electrophoretic mobilities and different affinities of the molecules to the two phases, without any indications of a significant mass transfer resistance of the liquid-liquid interface. By contrast, DNA molecules adsorb to the interface and only desorb under an increased electric field strength. The desorption process carries the signature of a thermally activated escape from a metastable state, as reflected in the exponential decay of the fluorescence intensity at the interface as a function of time. PMID:21508474

  11. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for biomolecule detection and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston Chen, C. H.; Sammartano, L. J.; Isola, N. R.; Allman, S. L.

    2001-08-01

    During the past few years, we developed and used laser desorption mass spectrometry for biomolecule detections. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) was successfully used to detect DNA fragments with the size larger than 3000 base pairs. It was also successfully used to sequence DNA with both enzymatic and chemical degradation methods to produce DNA ladders. We also developed MALDI with fragmentation for direct DNA sequencing for short DNA probes. Since laser desorption mass spectrometry for DNA detection has the advantages of fast speed and no need of labeling, it has a great potential for molecular diagnosis for disease and person identification by DNA fingerprinting. We applied laser desorption mass spectrometry to succeed in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and several other nerve degenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. We also succeeded in demonstrating DNA typing for forensic applications.

  12. Interactions of model biomolecules. Benchmark CC calculations within MOLCAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Miroslav; PitoÅák, Michal; Neogrády, Pavel; Dedíková, Pavlína; Hobza, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    We present results using the OVOS approach (Optimized Virtual Orbitals Space) aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of the Coupled Cluster calculations. This approach allows to reduce the total computer time required for large-scale CCSD(T) calculations about ten times when the original full virtual space is reduced to about 50% of its original size without affecting the accuracy. The method is implemented in the MOLCAS computer program. When combined with the Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals and suitable parallelization it allows calculations which were formerly prohibitively too demanding. We focused ourselves to accurate calculations of the hydrogen bonded and the stacking interactions of the model biomolecules. Interaction energies of the formaldehyde, formamide, benzene, and uracil dimers and the three-body contributions in the cytosine - guanine tetramer are presented. Other applications, as the electron affinity of the uracil affected by solvation are also shortly mentioned.

  13. Efficient extraction strategies of tea (Camellia sinensis) biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Satarupa; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-06-01

    Tea is a popular daily beverage worldwide. Modulation and modifications of its basic components like catechins, alkaloids, proteins and carbohydrate during fermentation or extraction process changes organoleptic, gustatory and medicinal properties of tea. Through these processes increase or decrease in yield of desired components are evident. Considering the varied impacts of parameters in tea production, storage and processes that affect the yield, extraction of tea biomolecules at optimized condition is thought to be challenging. Implementation of technological advancements in green chemistry approaches can minimize the deviation retaining maximum qualitative properties in environment friendly way. Existed extraction processes with optimization parameters of tea have been discussed in this paper including its prospects and limitations. This exhaustive review of various extraction parameters, decaffeination process of tea and large scale cost effective isolation of tea components with aid of modern technology can assist people to choose extraction condition of tea according to necessity. PMID:26028699

  14. Interactions of model biomolecules. Benchmark CC calculations within MOLCAS

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Miroslav; Pitoňák, Michal; Neogrády, Pavel; Dedíková, Pavlína; Hobza, Pavel

    2015-01-22

    We present results using the OVOS approach (Optimized Virtual Orbitals Space) aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of the Coupled Cluster calculations. This approach allows to reduce the total computer time required for large-scale CCSD(T) calculations about ten times when the original full virtual space is reduced to about 50% of its original size without affecting the accuracy. The method is implemented in the MOLCAS computer program. When combined with the Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals and suitable parallelization it allows calculations which were formerly prohibitively too demanding. We focused ourselves to accurate calculations of the hydrogen bonded and the stacking interactions of the model biomolecules. Interaction energies of the formaldehyde, formamide, benzene, and uracil dimers and the three-body contributions in the cytosine – guanine tetramer are presented. Other applications, as the electron affinity of the uracil affected by solvation are also shortly mentioned.

  15. Platinum(II) complexes as spectroscopic probes for biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ratilla, E.

    1990-09-21

    The use of platinum(II) complexes as tags and probes for biomolecules is indeed advantageous for their reactivities can be selective for certain purposes through an interplay of mild reaction conditions and of the ligands bound to the platinum. The use of {sup 195}Pt NMR as a method of detecting platinum and its interactions with biomolecules was carried out with the simplest model of platinum(II) tagging to proteins. Variable-temperature {sup 195}Pt NMR spectroscopy proved useful in studying the stereodynamics of complex thioethers like methionine. The complex, Pt(trpy)Cl{sup +}, with its chromophore has a greater potential for probing proteins. It is a noninvasive and selective tag for histidine and cysteine residues on the surface of cytochrome c at pH 5. The protein derivatives obtained are separable, and the tags are easily quantitated and differentiated through the metal-to-ligand charge transfer bands which are sensitive to the environment of the tag. Increasing the pH to 7.0 led to the modification by Pt(trpy)Cl{sup +}of Arg 91 in cytochrome c. Further studies with guanidine-containing ligands as models for arginine modification by Pt(trpy)Cl{sup +} showed that guanidine can act as a terminal ligand and as a bridging ligand. Owing to the potential utility of Pt(trpy)L{sup n+} as electron dense probes of nucleic acid structure, interactions of this bis-Pt(trpy){sup 2+} complex with nucleic acids was evaluated. Indeed, the complex interacts non-covalently with nucleic acids. Its interactions with DNA are not exactly the same as those of its precedents. Most striking is its ability to form highly immobile bands of DNA upon gel electrophoresis. 232 refs.

  16. Heating and Cooling Equipment Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    This is one of a series of technology fact sheets created to help housing designers and builders adopt a whole-house design approach and energy efficient design practices. The fact sheet helps people choose the correct equipment for heating and cooling to reduce initial costs, increase homeowner comfort, increase operating efficiency, and greatly reduce utility costs.

  17. Near-infrared dyes and upconverting phosphors as biomolecule labels and probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patonay, Gabor; Strekowski, Lucjan; Nguyen, Diem-Ngoc; Seok, Kim Jun

    2007-02-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) absorbing chromophores have been used in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry extensively, including for determination of properties of biomolecules, DNA sequencing, immunoassays, capillary electrophoresis (CE) separations, etc. The major analytical advantages of these dyes are low background interference and high molar absorptivities. NIR dyes have additional advantages due to their sensitivity to microenvironmental changes. Spectral changes induced by the microenvironment are not desirable if the labels are used as a simple reporting group, e.g., during a biorecognition reaction. For these applications upconverting phosphors seem to be a better choice. There are several difficulties in utilizing upconverting phosphors as reporting labels. These are: large physical size, no reactive groups and insolubility in aqueous systems. This presentation will discuss how these difficulties can be overcome for bioanalytical and forensic applications. During these studies we also have investigated how to reduce physical size of the phosphor by simple grinding without losing activity and how to attach reactive moiety to the phosphor to covalently bind to the biomolecule of interest. It has to be emphasized that the described approach is not suitable for medical applications and the results of this research are not applicable in medical applications. For bioanalytical and forensic applications upconverting phosphors used as reporting labels have several advantages. They are excited with lasers that are red shifted respective to phosphorescence, resulting in no light scatter issues during detection. Also some phosphors are excited using eye safe lasers. In addition energy transfer to NIR dyes is possible, allowing detection schemes using donor-acceptor pairs. Data is presented to illustrate the feasibility of this phenomenon. If microenvironmental sensitivity is required, then specially designed NIR dyes can be used as acceptor labels. Several novel dyes

  18. Orthogonal Patterning of Multiple Biomolecules Using an Organic Fluorinated Resist and Imprint Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Midthun, Kari M.; Taylor, Priscilla G.; Newby, Carol; Chatzichristidi, Margarita; Petrou, Panagiota S.; Lee, Jin-Kyun; Kakabakos, Sotiris E.; Baird, Barbara A.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to spatially deposit multiple biomolecules onto a single surface with high-resolution while retaining biomolecule stability and integrity is critical to the development of micro- and nanoscale bio-devices. While conventional lithographic patterning methods are attractive for this application, they typically require the use of UV exposure and/or harsh solvents and imaging materials, which may be damaging to fragile biomolecules. Here, we report the development of a new patterning process based on a fluorinated patterning material that is soluble in hydrofluoroether solvents, which we show to be benign to biomolecules, including proteins and DNA. We demonstrate the implementation of these materials into an orthogonal processing system for patterning multi-biomolecule arrays by imprint lithography at room temperature. We further showcase this method’s capacity for fabricating patterns of receptor-specific ligands for fundamental cell studies. PMID:23439033

  19. Thiol-based, site-specific and covalent immobilization of biomolecules for single-molecule experiments.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Julia L; Nicolaus, Thomas; Neuert, Gregor; Blank, Kerstin

    2010-06-01

    The success of single-molecule (SM) experiments critically depends on the functional immobilization of the biomolecule(s) to be studied. With the continuing trend of combining SM fluorescence with SM force experiments, methods are required that are suitable for both types of measurements. We describe a general protocol for the site-specific and covalent coupling of any type of biomolecule that can be prepared with a free thiol group. The protocol uses a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer, which carries an N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) group on one end and a maleimide group on the other. After reacting the NHS group with an amino-functionalized surface, the relatively stable but highly reactive maleimide group allows the coupling of the biomolecule. This protocol provides surfaces with low fluorescence background, low nonspecific binding and a large number of reactive sites. Surfaces containing immobilized biomolecules can be obtained within 6 h. PMID:20448543

  20. Oxidative destruction of biomolecules by gasoline engine exhaust products and detoxifying effects of the three-way catalytic converter.

    PubMed

    Blaurock, B; Hippeli, S; Metz, N; Elstner, E F

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of engine exhaust condensation products were derived from cars powered by diesel or four-stroke gasoline engines (with and without three-way catalytic converter). The cars were operated on a static test platform. Samples of the different exhaust solutions accumulated in a Grimmer-type distillation trap (VDI 3872) during standard test programs (Federal Test Procedure) were incubated with important biomolecules. As indicators of reactive oxygen species or oxidative destruction, ascorbic acid, cysteine, glutathione, serum albumin, the enzymes glycerinaldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase, and the oxygen free-radical indicator keto-methylthiobutyrate were used. During and after the incubations, oxygen activation (consumption) and oxidative destruction were determined. Comparison of the oxidative activities of the different types of exhaust condensates clearly showed that the exhaust condensate derived from the four-stroke car equipped with a three-way catalytic converter exhibited by far the lowest oxidative and destructive power. PMID:1283938

  1. On-chip micro-electromagnets for magnetic-based bio-molecules separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Qasem; Samper, Victor; Poenar, Daniel; Yu, Chen

    2004-10-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive theoretical, finite element and measurement analysis of different designs of planar micro-electromagnets for bio-molecular manipulation. The magnetic field due to current flowing in complex shapes of current-carrying conductors have been calculated analytically, simulated using finite-element analysis (FEA), and measured using the superconducting quantum interference device technique (SQUID). A comparison of the theoretical and measured magnetic field strength and patterns is presented. The planar electromagnets have been fabricated using patterned Al 2 μm thick. The aim of the study is to explore and optimize the geometrical and structural parameters of planar electromagnets that give rise to the highest magnetic fields and forces for magnetic micro-beads manipulation. Magnetic beads are often used in biochemical assays for separation of bio-molecules. Typical beads are 0.2-10 μm in diameter and have superparamagnetic properties. Increasing the intensity of the magnetic field generated by a coil by injection a larger current is not the most suitable solution as the maximum current is limited by Joule heating. Consequently, in order to maximize the field for a given current, one should optimize the geometry of the coil, as this is an extremely significant factor in determining the magnetic field intensity in 2D planar designs. The theoretical and measured results of this work show that the meander micro-electromagnet with mesh-shaped winding profile produces the strongest magnetic field (about 2.7 μT for a current intensity of 6 mA) compared with other meander designs, such as the serpentine and rosette-shaped ones. The magnetic fields of these three types of meander-shaped micro-electromagnets were compared theoretically with that produced by a spiral micro-electromagnet whose technological realization is more complicated and costly due to the fact that it requires an additional insulation layer with a contact window and a

  2. Maintaining gas cooling equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, J.D.

    1997-05-01

    An often overlooked key to satisfactory operation and longevity of any mechanical device is proper operation and maintenance in accordance with the manufacturer`s written instructions. Absorption chillers, although they use a different technology than the more familiar vapor compression cycle to produce chilled water, operate successfully in a variety of applications if operated and maintained properly. Maintenance procedures may be more frequent than those required for vapor compression chillers, but they are also typically less complex. The goal of this article is to describe the basic operation of an absorption chiller to provide an understanding of the relatively simple tasks required to keep the machine operating at maximum efficiency for its design life and beyond. A good starting point is definitions. Gas cooling equipment is generally defined as alternative energy, non-electric cooling products. This includes absorption chillers, engine-drive chillers and packaged desiccant units, among others. Natural gas combustion drives the equipment.

  3. Formation of simple biomolecules from alanine in ocean by impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Y.; Sekine, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Kakegawa, T.; Kobayashi, T.

    2013-12-01

    The biomolecules on the Earth are thought either to have originated from the extraterrestrial parts carried with flying meteorites or to have been formed from the inorganic materials on the Earth through given energy. From the standpoint to address the importance of impact energy, it is required to simulate experimentally the chemical reactions during impacts, because violent impacts may have occurred 3.8-4.0 Gyr ago to create biomolecules initially. It has been demonstrated that shock reactions among ocean (H2O), atmospheric nitrogen, and meteoritic constitution (Fe) can induce locally reduction environment to form simple bioorganic molecules such as ammonia and amino acid (Nakazawa et al., 2005; Furukawa et al., 2009). We need to know possible processes for alanine how chemical reactions proceed during repeated impacts and how complicated biomolecules are formed. Alanine can be formed from glycine (Umeda et al., in preparation). In this study, we carried out shock recovery experiments at pressures of 4.4-5.7 GPa to investigate the chemical reactions of alanine. Experiments were carried out with a propellant gun. Stainless steel containers (30 mm in diameter, 30 mm long) with 13C-labeled alanine aqueous solution immersed in olivine or hematite powders were used as targets. Air gap was present in the sample room (18 mm in diameter, 2 mm thick) behind the sample. The powder, solution, and air represent meteorite, ocean, and atmosphere on early Earth, respectively. Two powders of olivine and hematite help to keep the oxygen fugacity low and high during experiments, respectively in order to investigate the effect of oxygen fugacity on chemical processes of alanine. The recovered containers, after cleaned completely, were immersed into liquid nitrogen to freeze sample solution and then we drilled on the impact surface to extract water-soluble run products using pure water. Thus obtained products were analyzed by LC/MS for four amino acids (glycine, alanine, valine, and

  4. Comprehensive spectroscopic studies on the interaction of biomolecules with surfactant detached multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Gajalakshmi; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates the interaction of ten diverse biomolecules with surfactant detached Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) using multiple spectroscopic methods. Declining fluorescence intensity of biomolecules in combination with the hyperchromic effect in UV-Visible spectra confirmed the existence of the ground state complex formation. Quenching mechanism remains static and non-fluorescent. 3D spectral data of biomolecules suggested the possibilities of disturbances to the aromatic microenvironment of tryptophan and tyrosine residues arising out of CNTs interaction. Amide band Shifts corresponding to the secondary structure of biomolecules were observed in the of FTIR and FT-Raman spectra. In addition, there exists an increased Raman intensity of tryptophan residues of biomolecules upon interaction with CNTs. Hence, the binding of the aromatic structures of CNTs with the aromatic amino acid residues, in a particular, tryptophan was evidenced. Far UV Circular spectra have showed the loss of alpha-helical contents in biomolecules upon interaction with CNTs. Near UV CD spectra confirmed the alterations in the tryptophan positions of the peptide backbone. Hence, our results have demonstrated that the interaction of biomolecules with OH-MWCNTs would involve binding cum structural changes and alteration to their aromatic micro-environment. PMID:25707749

  5. Watching Conformations of Biomolecules: a Microwave Spectroscopy Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, J. C.

    2011-06-01

    The combination of laser ablation with Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets (LA-MB-FTMW) has made possible the gas-phase study of solid biomolecules with high melting points. In the experiment, solids are efficiently vaporized by a high-energy laser pulse, supersonically expanded into a evacuated Fabry-Perot cavity and characterised by their rotational spectra. Recent improvements such as the use of picosecond pulse lasers, new ablation nozzles and the extension of the range of the spectrometers to low frequecy have notably increased the sensitivity of our experimental setup. To date different α-, β- and γ-amino acids have been studied using this technique, making possible the characterization of their preferred conformations and gaining insight in the role of intramolecular interactions. Even in conformationally challenging systems the different rotamers of such biomolecules can be identified by rotational spectroscopy as can be illustrated by the assignment of six low-energy conformers in cysteine and aspartic acid, seven in serine and threonine,^a and nine in γ-amino butyric acid (GABA). In all cases the low-energy conformers have been conclusive identified from their experimental rotational and 14N quadrupole coupling constants. The spectra of neurotransmitters and of the nucleic acid bases uracil, thymine, cytosine and guanine have also been studied and their preferred conformers or tautomeric forms determined. The complexes between amino acids and nucleic acid bases with water have also been investigated to obtain information on the possible changes induced in the conformational or tautomeric preferences by the addition of solvent molecules. J. L. Alonso, C. Pérez, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, S. Blanco, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 617-627 (2009) and references therein M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 3573-3578 (2010) S. Blanco, J. C. López, S. Mata and J. L. Alonso, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 9187

  6. Si Nanopores Development for External Control of Transport of Biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ileri, N; Tringe, J; Letant, S; Palozoglu, A; Stroeve, P; Faller, R

    2008-06-13

    Nazar Ileri has been involved in an independent, multidisciplinary effort to create a new class of molecular sieves for proteins and viruses. Her experimental work has been performed concurrently at two campuses, LLNL and UC Davis, while theoretical components have been largely accomplished at UC Davis. As will be described, the devices she is creating have great potential to improve very significantly the efficiency and selectivity of molecular transport over what is presently available from state-of-the-art membranes. Our biotechnology training program is based on an integrated study of the transport of biomolecules through conically-shaped, nanoporous silicon membranes. The overall objective of this effort is to demonstrate an efficient, highly selective membrane technology that is manufacturable for macroscopic areas and can be employed in sensing, diagnostic and biomedical applications. Our specific aims are to (1) fabricate and characterize the physical characteristics of the membranes, (2) to demonstrate their utility for molecular transport and separation, and (3) to develop models that will facilitate understanding of these devices as well as improved performance of the next generation of devices. We have proposed that the conical pores have superior performance characteristics compared to other porous filters. To study this hypothesis, complementary approaches from different disciplines, such as membrane synthesis, experiment, and molecular simulation need to be combined. This provides an ideal training environment for a future leader in biotechnology. Hence, for this study, Nazar Ileri has started to carry out a full range of experimental and theoretical investigations under our guidance. First, she has begun fabrication of filters with conical/pyramidal pores. She characterized the pores by AFM and SEM, and analyzed the images using wavelets and other mathematical tools. She has also started to conduct biomolecule transport experiments to compare the

  7. Novel functionalized fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles for immobilization of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Swati; Chattopadhyay, Sruti; Jackeray, Richa; Abid, C. K. V. Zainul; Singh, Harpal

    2013-07-01

    Novel, size controlled fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles (FPNP) were synthesized having acetoacetoxy functionality on the surface for immobilization of biomolecules which can be utilized as biomarkers and labels in fluoroimmunoassays. Core-shell nanoparticles of poly(styrene, St-methyl methacrylate, MMA-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate, AAEM), stabilized by various concentrations of surfactant, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), were obtained by facile miniemulsion co-polymerization encapsulated with pyrene molecules in their hydrophobic core. Analytical, spectroscopic and imaging characterization techniques revealed the formation of stable, monodisperse, spherical nano sized particles exhibiting high luminescence properties. Particles with 1% SLS (S1) showed good dispersion stability and fluorescence intensity and were chosen as ideal candidates for further immobilization studies. Steady state fluorescence studies showed 10 times higher fluorescence intensity of S1 nanoparticles than that of pyrene solution in solvent-toluene at the same concentration. Environmental factors such as pH, ionic strength and time were found to have no effect on fluorescence intensity of FPNPs. Surface β-di-ketone groups were utilized for the covalent immobilization of enzyme conjugated antibodies without any activation or pre-treatment of nanoparticles.Novel, size controlled fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles (FPNP) were synthesized having acetoacetoxy functionality on the surface for immobilization of biomolecules which can be utilized as biomarkers and labels in fluoroimmunoassays. Core-shell nanoparticles of poly(styrene, St-methyl methacrylate, MMA-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate, AAEM), stabilized by various concentrations of surfactant, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), were obtained by facile miniemulsion co-polymerization encapsulated with pyrene molecules in their hydrophobic core. Analytical, spectroscopic and imaging characterization techniques revealed the formation of stable

  8. Cold atmospheric plasma sterilization: from bacteria to biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Although ionized gases have been known to have biological effects for more than 100 years, their impact on the practice in healthcare service became very significant only recently. Today, plasma-based surgical tools are used for tissue reduction and blood coagulation as surgical procedures. Most significant however is the speed at which low-temperature gas plasmas are finding new applications in medicine and biology, including plasma sterilization, wound healing, and cancer therapies just to name a few. In the terminology of biotechnology, the ``pipeline'' is long and exciting. This presentation reviews the current status of the field with a particular emphasis on plasma inactivation of microorganisms and biomolecules, for which comprehensive scientific evidence has been obtained. Some of the early speculations of biocidal plasma species are now being confirmed through a combination of optical emission spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence, mass spectrometry, fluid simulation and biological sensing with mutated bacteria. Similarly, fundamental studies are being performed to examine cell components targeted by gas plasmas, from membrane, through lipid and membrane proteins, to DNA. Scientific challenge is significant, as the usual complexity of plasma dynamics and plasma chemistry is compounded by the added complication that cells are live and constantly evolving. Nevertheless, the current understanding of plasma inactivation currently provides strong momentum for plasma decontamination technologies to be realized in healthcare. We will discuss the issue of protein and tissue contaminations of surgical instruments and how cold atmospheric plasmas may be used to degrade and reduce their surface load. In the context of plasma interaction with biomolecules, we will consider recent data of plasma degradation of adhesion proteins of melanoma cells. These adhesion proteins are important for cancer cell migration and spread. If low-temperature plasmas could be used to

  9. 7 CFR 51.58 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment. 51.58 Section 51.58 Agriculture Regulations... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.58 Equipment. All equipment used for receiving, washing, grading, packaging or storing shall be of such design, material...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  15. TRANSPORT AND EMPLACEMENT EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    1997-09-29

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) Transport and Emplacement in the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. The Transport and Emplacement equipment described in this document consists of the following: (1) WP Transporter; (2) Reusable Rail Car; (3) Emplacement Gantry; (4) Gantry Carrier; and (5) Transport Locomotive.

  16. Diatom-based label-free optical biosensor for biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Viji, S; Anbazhagi, M; Ponpandian, N; Mangalaraj, D; Jeyanthi, S; Santhanam, P; Devi, A Shenbaga; Viswanathan, C

    2014-10-01

    Diatoms are unicellular algae, which fabricates ornate biosilica shells called frustules that possess a surface rich in reactive silanol (Si-OH) groups. The intrinsic patterned porous structure of diatom frustules at nanoscale can be exploited in the effective detection of biomolecules. In this study, the frustules of a specific diatom Amphora sp. has been functionalized to detect bovine serum albumin (BSA). The functionalization of the diatom frustule substrate is achieved by using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES). The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results showed an ornately patterned surface of the frustule valve ordered at nanoscale. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra confirmed the N-H bending and stretching of the amine group after amine functionalization. The emission peaks in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the amine-functionalized diatom biosilica selectively enhanced the intensity by a factor of ten when compared to that of a bare diatom biosilica. The result showed a significant quenching of PL intensity of BSA at around 445 nm due to the interaction of amine-functionalized diatom-BSA protein complex. The detection limit was found to be 3 × 10(-5) M of BSA protein. Hence, the study proves that the functionalized frustule of Amphora sp. is an effective quantitative analytical tool for optical label-free biosensing applications. PMID:24989453

  17. Polyacrylamide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules

    DOEpatents

    Madabhushi, Ramakrishna S.; Gammon, Stuart A.

    2003-11-11

    A polyacryalmide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The polyacryalmide medium comprises high molecular weight polyacrylamides (PAAm) having a viscosity average molecular weight (M.sub.v) of about 675-725 kDa were synthesized by conventional red-ox polymerization technique. Using this separation medium, capillary electrophoresis of BigDye DNA sequencing standard was performed. A single base resolution of .about.725 bases was achieved in .about.60 minute in a non-covalently coated capillary of 50 .mu.m i.d., 40 cm effective length, and a filed of 160 V/cm at 40.degree. C. The resolution achieved with this formulation to separate DNA under identical conditions is much superior (725 bases vs. 625 bases) and faster (60 min. vs. 75 min.) to the commercially available PAAm, such as supplied by Amersham. The formulation method employed here to synthesize PAAm is straight-forward, simple and does not require cumbersome methods such as emulsion polymerizaiton in order to achieve very high molecular weights. Also, the formulation here does not require separation of PAAm from the reaction mixture prior to reconstituting the polymer to a final concentration. Furthermore, the formulation here is prepared from a single average mol. wt. PAAm as opposed to the mixture of two different average mo. wt. PAAm previously required to achieve high resolution.

  18. Hydration Dynamics of Biomolecules from Co-solvents to Crowding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubarych, Kevin

    Biomolecules self-assemble into complex functional structures with high fidelity largely due to interactions between the macromolecules and water. Once folded, the dynamics of water molecules in the vicinity of extended macromolecular interfaces can be altered relative to the bulk, leading to complex, heterogeneous and distance-dependent transport properties near these surfaces. Using a strategy based on transition metal carbonyl vibrational probes covalently conjugated to the protein surface, we have been able to use ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy to probe the dynamics from this most important perspective. In a series of studies, we have found these probes to be primarily sensitive to the orientational dynamics of the hydrating water molecules, and have studied both protein/water and membrane/water interfaces. Several key finding have emerged, including a modest 2-3-fold slowdown of hydration water's reorientational dynamics relative to the bulk, and a dynamical transition that occurs due to collective hydration induced by macromolecular crowding. We will summarize our progress to-date, as well as present our newest results on the effects of ions and the dynamical signatures of preferential solvation.

  19. Functionalization of Biomolecules with Nanostructured Porous Silicon for Biomedical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyakumar, P.; Saravanakumar, S. S.; Kulathuraan, K.; Ramadas, V.; Natarajan, B.

    2015-02-01

    Porous silicon (PS) fabrication, changes in the optical properties and surface modification in the oxidized PS (dipped into the Glucose oxide) due to the infiltration of biomolecules using Luminescence Spectrophotometer [Photoluminescence (PL)], Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were studied. The surface morphology of oxidized PS (OPS) and treated with Glucose have been studied by SEM. Spontaneous imbibition weight was calculated theoretically using imbibition equation for the porous medium using glucose solution as the wetting liquid. FTIR analysis revealed that, the strong Si-H, Si-O-Si bonds which covered most of the OPS surface. In the glucose treated PS layer, the amide I (C=O) stretch and amide II (C=N) stretch (1690 cm-1 and 1551 cm-1) groups were appeared in the spectrum which confirmed the coupling reaction. Efficient visible Photoluminescence was obtained at around 624 nm from glucose treated porous silicon. The functionalization of glucose with nano structured PS, changes light emission over the surface of OPS. It can be applied in optical biosensor and which can be used in biomedical applications.

  20. Microfluidic Droplet Dehydration for Concentrating Processes in Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anna, Shelley

    2014-03-01

    Droplets in microfluidic devices have proven useful as picoliter reactors for biochemical processing operations such as polymerase chain reaction, protein crystallization, and the study of enzyme kinetics. Although droplets are typically considered to be self-contained, constant volume reactors, there can be significant transport between the dispersed and continuous phases depending on solubility and other factors. In the present talk, we show that water droplets trapped within a microfluidic device for tens of hours slowly dehydrate, concentrating the contents encapsulated within. We use this slow dehydration along with control of the initial droplet composition to influence gellation, crystallization, and phase separation processes. By examining these concentrating processes in many trapped drops at once we gain insight into the stochastic nature of the events. In one example, we show that dehydration rate impacts the probability of forming a specific crystal habit in a crystallizing amino acid. In another example, we phase separate a common aqueous two-phase system within droplets and use the ensuing two phases to separate DNA from an initial mixture. We further influence wetting conditions between the two aqueous polymer phases and the continuous oil, promoting complete de-wetting and physical separation of the polymer phases. Thus, controlled dehydration of droplets allows for concentration, separation, and purification of important biomolecules on a chip.

  1. Anharmonic IR Spectra of Biomolecules: Nucleobases and Their Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Vincenzo; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Bloino, Julien; Carnimeo, Ivan; Fornaro, Teresa

    2014-06-01

    Computational spectroscopy techniques have become in the last years effective means to predict and characterize spectra, such as infrared, for molecular systems of increasing dimensions with account for different environments. We are actively developing a comprehensive and robust computational protocol, set within a perturbative vibrational framework [1], aimed at a quantitative reproduction of the spectra of biomolecules. In order to model the vibrational spectra of weakly bound molecular complexes, dispersion interactions should be taken into proper account. In this work, we present critical assessment of dispersion-corrected DFT approaches for anharmonic vibrational frequency calculations. It is shown that fully anharmonic IR spectra, simulated through full and reduced-dimensionality generalized second-order vibrational perturbation theory (GVPT2)[1] with the potential energy surfaces computed with the B3LYP-D3 approach, may be used to interpret experimental data of nucleobases and their complexes[2] by the direct comparison of experimental IR spectra with their theoretical anharmonic counterpart, taking into account also overtones and combination bands. [1] V. Barone, M. Biczysko, J. Bloino, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014,16, 1759-1787 [2] T. Fornaro, M. Biczysko, S. Monti, V. Barone, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, DOI: 10.1039/C3CP54724H

  2. Small biomolecule immunosensing with plasmonic optical fiber grating sensor.

    PubMed

    Ribaut, Clotilde; Voisin, Valérie; Malachovská, Viera; Dubois, Valentin; Mégret, Patrice; Wattiez, Ruddy; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2016-03-15

    This study reports on the development of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical fiber biosensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating technology for direct detection of small biomarkers of interest for lung cancer diagnosis. Since SPR principle relies on the refractive index modifications to sensitively detect mass changes at the gold coated surface, we have proposed here a comparative study in relation to the target size. Two cytokeratin 7 (CK7) samples with a molecular weight ranging from 78 kDa to 2.6 kDa, respectively CK7 full protein and CK7 peptide, have been used for label-free monitoring. This work has first consisted in the elaboration and the characterization of a robust and reproducible bioreceptor, based on antibody/antigen cross-linking. Immobilized antibodies were then utilized as binding agents to investigate the sensitivity of the biosensor towards the two CK7 antigens. Results have highlighted a very good sensitivity of the biosensor response for both samples diluted in phosphate buffer with a higher limit of detection for the larger CK7 full protein. The most groundbreaking nature of this study relies on the detection of small biomolecule CK7 peptides in buffer and in the presence of complex media such as serum, achieving a limit of detection of 0.4 nM. PMID:26432194

  3. Direct patterning of nanoparticles and biomolecules by liquid nanodispensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabié, Laure; Agostini, Pierre; Stopel, Martijn; Blum, Christian; Lassagne, Benjamin; Subramaniam, Vinod; Ondarçuhu, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    We report on the localized deposition of nanoparticles and proteins, nano-objects commonly used in many nanodevices, by the liquid nanodispensing (NADIS) technique which consists in depositing droplets of a solution through a nanochannel drilled at the apex of an AFM tip. We demonstrate that the size of spots can be adjusted from microns down to sub-50 nm by tuning the channel diameter, independently of the chemical nature of the solute. In the case of nanoparticles, we demonstrated the ultimate limit of the method and showed that large arrays of single (or pairs of) nanoparticles can be reproducibly deposited. We further explored the possibility to deposit different visible fluorescent proteins using NADIS without loss of protein function. The intrinsic fluorescence of these proteins is characteristic of their structural integrity; the retention of fluorescence after NADIS deposition demonstrates that the proteins are intact and functional. This study demonstrates that NADIS can be a viable alternative to other scanning probe lithography techniques since it combines high resolution direct writing of nanoparticles or biomolecules with the versatility of liquid lithography techniques.

  4. Hybrid carbon nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurila, Tomi

    2015-09-01

    Electrochemical detection of different biomolecules in vivo is a promising path towards in situ monitoring of human body and its functions. However, there are several major obstacles, such as sensitivity, selectivity and biocompatiblity, which must be tackled in order to achieve reliably and safely operating sensor devices. Here we show that by utilizing hybrid carbon materials as electrodes to detect two types of neurotransmitters, dopamine and glutamate, several advantages over commonly used electrode materials can be achieved. In particular, we will demonstrate here that it is possible to combine the properties of different carbon allotropes to obtain hybrid materials with greatly improved electrochemical performance. Three following examples of the approach are given: (i) diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film electrodes with different layer thicknesses, (ii) multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown directly on top of DLC and (iii) carbon nanofibres synthesized on top of DLC thin films. Detailed structural and electrochemical characterization is carried out to rationalize the reasons behind the observed behvior. In addition, results from the atomistic simulations are utilized to obtain more information about the properties of the amorphous carbon thin films.

  5. Natural Biomolecules and Protein Aggregation: Emerging Strategies against Amyloidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sgarbossa, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Biomolecular self-assembly is a fundamental process in all organisms. As primary components of the life molecular machinery, proteins have a vast array of resources available to them for self-assembly in a functional structure. Protein self-assembly, however, can also occur in an aberrant way, giving rise to non-native aggregated structures responsible for severe, progressive human diseases that have a serious social impact. Different neurodegenerative disorders, like Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, and spongiform encephalopathy diseases, have in common the presence of insoluble protein aggregates, generally termed “amyloid,” that share several physicochemical features: a fibrillar morphology, a predominantly beta-sheet secondary structure, birefringence upon staining with the dye Congo red, insolubility in common solvents and detergents, and protease resistance. Conformational constrains, hydrophobic and stacking interactions can play a key role in the fibrillogenesis process and protein–protein and peptide–peptide interactions—resulting in self-assembly phenomena of peptides yielding fibrils—that can be modulated and influenced by natural biomolecules. Small organic molecules, which possess both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties able to bind to peptide/protein molecules through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic and aromatic interactions, are potential candidates against amyloidogenesis. In this review some significant case examples will be critically discussed. PMID:23242152

  6. Conductive Paper with Antibody-Like Film for Electrical Readings of Biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Ana P. M.; Ferreira, Nádia S.; Truta, Liliana A. A. N. A.; Sales, M. Goreti F.

    2016-01-01

    This work reports a novel way of producing an inexpensive substrate support to assemble a sensing film, designed for the electrical transduction of an intended biomolecule. The support uses cellulose paper as substrate, made hydrophobic with solid wax and covered by a home-made conductive ink having graphite as core material. The hydrophobicity of the paper was confirmed by contact angle measurements and the conductive ink composition was optimized with regard to its adhesion, conductivity, and thermal stability. This support was further modified targeting its application in quantitative analysis. Carnitine (CRT) was selected as target compound, a cancer biomarker. The recognition material consisted of an antibody-like receptor film for CRT, tailored on the support and prepared by electrically-sustained polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) or dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBS). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of the polymeric film on the support, and the performance of the devices was extensively evaluated with regard to linear response ranges, selectivity, applicability, and reusability. Overall, the paper-based sensors offer simplicity of fabrication, low cost and excellent reusability features. The design could also be extended to other applications in electrical-based approaches to be used in point-of-care (POC). PMID:27210055

  7. Conductive Paper with Antibody-Like Film for Electrical Readings of Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, Ana P. M.; Ferreira, Nádia S.; Truta, Liliana A. A. N. A.; Sales, M. Goreti F.

    2016-05-01

    This work reports a novel way of producing an inexpensive substrate support to assemble a sensing film, designed for the electrical transduction of an intended biomolecule. The support uses cellulose paper as substrate, made hydrophobic with solid wax and covered by a home-made conductive ink having graphite as core material. The hydrophobicity of the paper was confirmed by contact angle measurements and the conductive ink composition was optimized with regard to its adhesion, conductivity, and thermal stability. This support was further modified targeting its application in quantitative analysis. Carnitine (CRT) was selected as target compound, a cancer biomarker. The recognition material consisted of an antibody-like receptor film for CRT, tailored on the support and prepared by electrically-sustained polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) or dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBS). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of the polymeric film on the support, and the performance of the devices was extensively evaluated with regard to linear response ranges, selectivity, applicability, and reusability. Overall, the paper-based sensors offer simplicity of fabrication, low cost and excellent reusability features. The design could also be extended to other applications in electrical-based approaches to be used in point-of-care (POC).

  8. Conductive Paper with Antibody-Like Film for Electrical Readings of Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Ana P M; Ferreira, Nádia S; Truta, Liliana A A N A; Sales, M Goreti F

    2016-01-01

    This work reports a novel way of producing an inexpensive substrate support to assemble a sensing film, designed for the electrical transduction of an intended biomolecule. The support uses cellulose paper as substrate, made hydrophobic with solid wax and covered by a home-made conductive ink having graphite as core material. The hydrophobicity of the paper was confirmed by contact angle measurements and the conductive ink composition was optimized with regard to its adhesion, conductivity, and thermal stability. This support was further modified targeting its application in quantitative analysis. Carnitine (CRT) was selected as target compound, a cancer biomarker. The recognition material consisted of an antibody-like receptor film for CRT, tailored on the support and prepared by electrically-sustained polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) or dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBS). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of the polymeric film on the support, and the performance of the devices was extensively evaluated with regard to linear response ranges, selectivity, applicability, and reusability. Overall, the paper-based sensors offer simplicity of fabrication, low cost and excellent reusability features. The design could also be extended to other applications in electrical-based approaches to be used in point-of-care (POC). PMID:27210055

  9. User Perceptions of ¡Protéjase!: An Intervention Designed to Increase Protective Equipment Use Among Mexican Immigrant and Mexican American Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Ishino, Francisco A; Smyth, Joshua M; Murphy, Dennis J; Miranda, Patricia Y; Davis, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Background Farmworkers’ exposures to pesticides are reduced when they wear personal protective equipment (PPE), and mobile health (mHealth) platforms can potentially deliver information to farmworkers to help promote PPE use. However, little is known about the feasibility of using mHealth platforms to promote farmworkers’ use of PPE. Objective The objective of the study was to describe the development and feasibility-testing of Protect Yourself! (¡Protéjase!), an intervention designed to increase PPE use. As the vast majority of farmworkers in the United States are from Mexico, we examined the intervention in a primarily Mexican-origin farmworker population. Methods ¡Protéjase was developed in several steps. First, we performed ethnographic observations to understand what prevents PPE use. Next, we developed program components that met the challenges uncovered in the ethnographic observations, seeking direct feedback from farmworkers on each component. Feasibility was assessed using surveys and focus groups. Material was provided in Spanish or English at the preference of the participant. Finally, we pilot tested each component of the intervention, including: (1) PPE that was provided to each worker for their personal use during the intervention trial, and (2) delivery of an application-based tool that promoted the use of PPE through daily individualized messaging. Results 55 farmworkers enrolled in the study, but only 41 of 55 (75%) completed the entire pilot intervention trial. Results focus on the evaluation of the intervention, and include only those who completed the entire trial. Among farmworkers who completed the entire intervention trial, all but two farmworkers were born in Mexico and were Spanish speaking. Still, all study participants self-identified as Mexican or Mexican-American. When asked what changes were needed in the intervention’s messaging or delivery to increase user satisfaction, 22 out of 41 participants (54%) felt that no changes

  10. Synthesis of vaterite and aragonite crystals using biomolecules of tomato and capsicum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Xu, Wang-Hua; Zhao, Ying-Guo; Kang, Yan; Liu, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Zai-Yong

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of biomolecules of two vegetables-tomato and capsicum is investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to characterize the CaCO3 obtained. The biomolecules in the extracts of two vegetables are determined by UV-vis or FTIR. The results indicate that a mixture of calcite and vaterite spheres constructed from small particles is produced with the extract of tomato, while aragonite rods or ellipsoids are formed in the presence of extract of capsicum. The possible formation mechanism of the CaCO3 crystals with tomato biomolecules can be interpreted by particle-aggregation based non-classical crystallization laws. The proteins and/or other biomolecules in tomato and capsicum may control the formation of vaterite and aragonite crystals by adsorbing onto facets of them.

  11. Surface energy modified chips for detection of conformational states and enzymatic activity in biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Asberg, Peter; Nilsson, K Peter R; Inganäs, Olle

    2006-02-28

    A novel patterning method for anchoring biomolecules and noncovalent assembled conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE)/biomolecule complexes to a chip surface is presented. The surface energy of a hydrophilic substrate is modified using an elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp, containing a relief pattern. Modification takes place on the parts where the PDMS stamp is in conformal contact with the substrate and leaves low molecular weight PDMS residues on the surface resulting in a hydrophobic modification, and then biomolecules and CPE/biomolecule complexes are then adsorbed in a specific pattern. The method constitutes a discrimination system for different conformations in biomolecules using CPEs as reporters and the PDMS modified substrates as the discriminator. Detection of different conformations in two biomacromolecules, a synthetic peptide (JR2E) and a protein (calmodulin), reported by the CPE and resolved by fluorescence was demonstrated. Also, excellent enzyme activity in patterned CPE/horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme was shown, demonstrating that this method can be used to pattern biomolecules with their activity retained. The method presented could be useful in various biochip applications, such as analyzing proteins and peptides in large-scale production, in making metabolic chips, and for making multi-microarrays. PMID:16489808

  12. Bio-NCs - the marriage of ultrasmall metal nanoclusters with biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Nirmal; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Xie, Jianping

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasmall metal nanoclusters (NCs) have attracted increasing attention due to their fascinating physicochemical properties. Today, functional metal NCs are finding growing acceptance in biomedical applications. To achieve a better performance in biomedical applications, metal NCs can be interfaced with biomolecules, such as proteins, peptides, and DNA, to form a new class of biomolecule-NC composites (or bio-NCs in short), which typically show synergistic or novel physicochemical and physiological properties. This feature article focuses on the recent studies emerging at the interface of metal NCs and biomolecules, where the interactions could impart unique physicochemical properties to the metal NCs, as well as mutually regulate biological functions of the bio-NCs. In this article, we first provide a broad overview of key concepts and developments in the novel biomolecule-directed synthesis of metal NCs. A special focus is placed on the key roles of biomolecules in metal NC synthesis. In the second part, we describe how the encapsulated metal NCs affect the structure and function of biomolecules. Followed by that, we discuss several unique synergistic effects observed in the bio-NCs, and illustrate them with examples highlighting their potential biomedical applications. Continued interdisciplinary efforts are required to build up in-depth knowledge about the interfacial chemistry and biology of bio-NCs, which could further pave their ways toward biomedical applications.

  13. Geometric Measures of Large Biomolecules: Surface, Volume and Pockets

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Paul; Koehl, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Geometry plays a major role in our attempt to understand the activity of large molecules. For example, surface area and volume are used to quantify the interactions between these molecules and the water surrounding them in implicit solvent models. In addition, the detection of pockets serves as a starting point for predictive studies of biomolecule-ligand interactions. The alpha shape theory provides an exact and robust method for computing these geometric measures. Several implementations of this theory are currently available. We show however that these implementations fail on very large macromolecular systems. We show that these difficulties are not theoretical; rather, they are related to the architecture of current computers that rely on the use of cache memory to speed up calculation. By rewriting the algorithms that implement the different steps of the alpha shape theory such that we enforce locality, we show that we can remediate these cache problems; the corresponding code, UnionBall has an apparent (n) behavior over a large range of values of n (up to tens of millions), where n is the number of atoms. As an example, it takes 136 seconds with UnionBall to compute the contribution of each atom to the surface area and volume of a viral capsid with more than five million atoms on a commodity PC. UnionBall includes functions for computing the surface area and volume of the intersection of two, three and four spheres that are fully detailed in an appendix. UnionBall is available as an OpenSource software. PMID:21823134

  14. An analytical method for computing atomic contact areas in biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Mach, Paul; Koehl, Patrice

    2013-01-15

    We propose a new analytical method for detecting and computing contacts between atoms in biomolecules. It is based on the alpha shape theory and proceeds in three steps. First, we compute the weighted Delaunay triangulation of the union of spheres representing the molecule. In the second step, the Delaunay complex is filtered to derive the dual complex. Finally, contacts between spheres are collected. In this approach, two atoms i and j are defined to be in contact if their centers are connected by an edge in the dual complex. The contact areas between atom i and its neighbors are computed based on the caps formed by these neighbors on the surface of i; the total area of all these caps is partitioned according to their spherical Laguerre Voronoi diagram on the surface of i. This method is analytical and its implementation in a new program BallContact is fast and robust. We have used BallContact to study contacts in a database of 1551 high resolution protein structures. We show that with this new definition of atomic contacts, we generate realistic representations of the environments of atoms and residues within a protein. In particular, we establish the importance of nonpolar contact areas that complement the information represented by the accessible surface areas. This new method bears similarity to the tessellation methods used to quantify atomic volumes and contacts, with the advantage that it does not require the presence of explicit solvent molecules if the surface of the protein is to be considered. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22965816

  15. Some matters concerned with selecting steam parameters and process-circuit solutions to optimize the parameters of steam turbine equipment and engineering design developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Polyaeva, E. N.

    2014-12-01

    The possibility and advantages of increasing steam pressure in the steam-turbine low-pressure loop for combined-cycle power plants are considered. The question about the advisability of developing and manufacturing steam turbines for being used in combined-cycle power units equipped with modern class F gas turbines for supercritical and ultrasupercritical steam parameters is raised.

  16. A molecular dynamics study on the transport of a charged biomolecule in a polymeric adsorbent medium and its adsorption onto a charged ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, E.; Wang, J.-C.; Liapis, A. I.

    2010-08-01

    findings have significant practical implications to the design and construction of polymeric porous adsorbent media for effective bioseparations and to the synthesis and operation of processes employed in the separation of biomolecules. The modeling and analysis methods presented in this work could also be suitable for the study of biocatalysis where an enzyme is immobilized on the surface of the pores of a porous medium.

  17. A molecular dynamics study on the transport of a charged biomolecule in a polymeric adsorbent medium and its adsorption onto a charged ligand.

    PubMed

    Riccardi, E; Wang, J-C; Liapis, A I

    2010-08-28

    findings have significant practical implications to the design and construction of polymeric porous adsorbent media for effective bioseparations and to the synthesis and operation of processes employed in the separation of biomolecules. The modeling and analysis methods presented in this work could also be suitable for the study of biocatalysis where an enzyme is immobilized on the surface of the pores of a porous medium. PMID:20815591

  18. Probes for biomolecules detection based on RET-enhanced fluorescence polarization.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dahai; Wang, Jun; Wang, Bin; You, Zheng

    2016-05-15

    Fluorescent probes based on the principle of resonance energy transfer (RET) or the principle of fluorescence polarization (FP) are already used to detect biomolecules independently. However, there were no in-depth studies about the impact of RET on FP. Also, very few studies gave a comprehensive analysis on how to effectively design such a fluorescent probe. Based on the principle of resonance energy transfer (RET), we constructed fluorescent probes (SA-488-sub-nanogold) using streptavidin labeled Alexa488 (SA-488), nanogold and biotinylated substrate peptide (biotin-subpeptide). The influence of the structure and the ingredients of the substrate peptide were discussed. After SA-488 was combined with the biotin-subpeptide and the nanogold, its fluorescence intensity (FI) would be suppressed due to the energy transfer, leading to an increase in its volume and mass. The suppression of the FI led to a decrease in SA-488's effective concentration, and the increase in the volume or mass prolonged the SA-488's rotational relaxation time. Both changes increased SA-488's polarization in the solution. Therefore, the FP performance of the probe is enhanced by the RET. Using the probe, trypsin and biotin were detected by the change in both fluorescence intensity and fluorescence polarization, showing higher reliability, higher sensitivity, and a lower detection limit. PMID:26774994

  19. Electrochemical plasmonic sensing system for highly selective multiplexed detection of biomolecules based on redox nanoswitches.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Anne-Marie; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Meunier, Michel

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, we present the development of a nanoswitch-based electrochemical surface plasmon resonance (eSPR) transducer for the multiplexed and selective detection of DNA and other biomolecules directly in complex media. To do so, we designed an experimental set-up for the synchronized measurements of electrochemical and electro-plasmonic responses to the activation of multiple electrochemically labeled structure-switching biosensors. As a proof of principle, we adapted this strategy for the detection of DNA sequences that are diagnostic of two pathogens (drug-resistant tuberculosis and Escherichia coli) by using methylene blue-labeled structure-switching DNA stem-loop. The experimental sensitivity of the switch-based eSPR sensor is estimated at 5 nM and target detection is achieved within minutes. Each sensor is reusable several times with a simple 8M urea washing procedure. We then demonstrated the selectivity and multiplexed ability of these switch-based eSPR by simultaneously detecting two different DNA sequences. We discuss the advantages of the proposed eSPR approach for the development of highly selective sensor devices for the rapid and reliable detection of multiple molecular markers in complex samples. PMID:25889347

  20. Study, design and integration of an FPGA-based system for the time-of-flight calculation applied to PET equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar Talens, D. Albert

    Nuclear Medicine has undergone significant advances in recent years due to improvements in materials, electronics, software techniques, processing etc., which has allowed to considerably extend its application. One technique that has progressed in this area has been the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) based on a non-invasive method with its especial relevance in the evaluation of cancer diagnosis and assessment, among others. This system is based on the principle of data collection and processing from which images of the spatial and temporal distribution of the metabolic processes that are generated inside the body are obtained. The imaging system consists of a set of detectors, normally placed in a ring geometry, so that each one provides information about events that have occurred inside. One of the reasons that have significantly evolved in PET systems is the development of techniques to determine the Time-of-Flight (TOF) of the photons that are generated due to the annihilation of positrons with their antiparticle, the electron. Determining TOF allows one for a more precise location of the events that are generated inside the ring and, therefore, facilitates the task of image reconstruction that ultimately use the medical equipment for the diagnosis and/or treatment. This Thesis begins with the assumption of developing a system based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) for the integration of a Time- to-Digital Converter (TDC) in order to precisely carry out time measurements. This would permit the estimation of the TOF of the gamma particles for subsequent application in PET systems. First of all, the environment for the application is introduced, justifying the need of the purposed system. Following, the basic principles of PET and the state-of-the-art of similar systems are introduced. Then, the principles of Time-of-Flight based on FPGAs are discussed, and the adopted scheme explained, going into detail in each of its parts. After the development

  1. Heavy Equipment Operator: General Equipment Operator. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Laborn J.; Sawatzky, Joyce

    Developed through close coordination between contractors, construction workers, and vocational educators, this instructor's manual is designed to help heavy equipment instructors present materials in a systematic format. The instructional materials in the manual are written in terms of student performance, using measurable behavioral objectives.…

  2. Equipping the Open-Plan School, Equipping for Open Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassiter, Frank

    The performance specifications of furniture and equipment for open education and open-plan schools differ from conventional classroom furniture in that it must be easily moved, have a range of dimensions, contain multipurpose interchangeable components, and be designed to accommodate a variety of student/teacher uses. The author suggests some…

  3. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2E: Commercial equipment utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. G. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Examination of commercial equipment technologies revealed that the functional performance requirements of space processing equipment could generally be met by state-of-the-art design practices. Thus, an apparatus could be evolved from a standard item or derived by custom design using present technologies. About 15 percent of the equipment needed has no analogous commercial base of derivation and requires special development. This equipment is involved primarily with contactless heating and position control. The derivation of payloads using commercial equipment sources provides a broad and potentially cost-effective base upon which to draw. The derivation of payload equipment from commercial technologies poses other issues beyond that of the identifiable functional performance, but preliminary results on testing of selected equipment testing appear quite favorable. During this phase of the SPA study, several aspects of commercial equipment utility were assessed and considered. These included safety, packaging and structural, power conditioning (electrical/electronic), thermal and materials of construction.

  4. Lawn and Garden Equipment Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack; And Others

    This publication is designed to supplement the Comprehensive Small Engine Rapair guide by covering in detail all aspects of lawn and garden equipment repair not included in general engine repair or the repair of other small engines. It consists of instructional materials for both teachers and students, written in terms of student performance using…

  5. Housing, Home Furnishings, and Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    Designed for use in consumer and homemaking education in Texas, this curriculum guide is on the subject of housing, home furnishings, and equipment. An introduction to the guide, covering its use and program and curriculum planning, provides a list of suggested readings. Information on teaching handicapped and disadvantaged students follows. The…

  6. Room temperature ionic liquids interacting with bio-molecules: an overview of experimental and computational studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Antonio; Ballone, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    We briefly review experimental and computational studies of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) interacting with important classes of biomolecules, including phospholipids, peptides and proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates. Most of these studies have been driven by the interest for RTILs applications as solvents. Thus, available experimental data cover primarily thermodynamic properties such as the reciprocal solubility of RTILs and bio-molecules, as well as phase boundaries. Less extensive data are also available on transport properties such as diffusion and viscosity of homogeneous binary (RTILs/biomolecules) and ternary (RTIL/biomolecules/water) solutions. Most of the structural information at the atomistic level, of interest especially for biochemical, pharmaceutical and nanotechnology applications, has been made available by molecular dynamics simulations. Major exceptions to this statement are represented by the results from NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy, by selected neutron and X-ray scattering data, and by recent neutron reflectometry measurements on lipid bilayers on surfaces, hydrated by water-RTIL solutions. A final section of our paper summarizes new developments in the field of RTILs based on amino acids, that combine in themselves the two main aspects of our discussion, i.e. ionic liquids and bio-molecules.

  7. Modelling of diffraction grating based optical filters for fluorescence detection of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Kovačič, M; Krč, J; Lipovšek, B; Topič, M

    2014-07-01

    The detection of biomolecules based on fluorescence measurements is a powerful diagnostic tool for the acquisition of genetic, proteomic and cellular information. One key performance limiting factor remains the integrated optical filter, which is designed to reject strong excitation light while transmitting weak emission (fluorescent) light to the photodetector. Conventional filters have several disadvantages. For instance absorbing filters, like those made from amorphous silicon carbide, exhibit low rejection ratios, especially in the case of small Stokes' shift fluorophores (e.g. green fluorescent protein GFP with λ exc = 480 nm and λ em = 510 nm), whereas interference filters comprising many layers require complex fabrication. This paper describes an alternative solution based on dielectric diffraction gratings. These filters are not only highly efficient but require a smaller number of manufacturing steps. Using FEM-based optical modelling as a design optimization tool, three filtering concepts are explored: (i) a diffraction grating fabricated on the surface of an absorbing filter, (ii) a diffraction grating embedded in a host material with a low refractive index, and (iii) a combination of an embedded grating and an absorbing filter. Both concepts involving an embedded grating show high rejection ratios (over 100,000) for the case of GFP, but also high sensitivity to manufacturing errors and variations in the incident angle of the excitation light. Despite this, simulations show that a 60 times improvement in the rejection ratio relative to a conventional flat absorbing filter can be obtained using an optimized embedded diffraction grating fabricated on top of an absorbing filter. PMID:25071964

  8. Personal protective equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... protective equipment. Available at: www.cdc.gov/niosh/ppe . Accessed October 27, 2015. Holland MG, Cawthon D. Personal protective equipment and decontamination of adults and children. Emerg Med Clin N ...

  9. Medical Issues: Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At School At Home ... Diagnosed Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life Grief & Loss Community & Local ...

  10. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... on any object the person touched or on equipment that was used during their care. Some germs ... why it is important to disinfect supplies and equipment. To disinfect something means to clean it to ...

  11. 46 CFR 108.177 - Electrical equipment in classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical equipment in classified locations. 108.177... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Classified Locations § 108.177 Electrical equipment in classified locations. Electrical equipment and devices installed in spaces made...

  12. 46 CFR 108.177 - Electrical equipment in classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical equipment in classified locations. 108.177... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Classified Locations § 108.177 Electrical equipment in classified locations. Electrical equipment and devices installed in spaces made...

  13. 46 CFR 108.177 - Electrical equipment in classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical equipment in classified locations. 108.177... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Classified Locations § 108.177 Electrical equipment in classified locations. Electrical equipment and devices installed in spaces made...

  14. 46 CFR 108.177 - Electrical equipment in classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical equipment in classified locations. 108.177... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Classified Locations § 108.177 Electrical equipment in classified locations. Electrical equipment and devices installed in spaces made...

  15. 46 CFR 108.177 - Electrical equipment in classified locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical equipment in classified locations. 108.177... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Classified Locations § 108.177 Electrical equipment in classified locations. Electrical equipment and devices installed in spaces made...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the...

  18. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the manufacturer where...

  19. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the manufacturer where...

  20. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 57.14205... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the manufacturer where...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14205 - Machinery, equipment, and tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Machinery, equipment, and tools. 56.14205... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14205 Machinery, equipment, and tools. Machinery, equipment, and tools shall not be used beyond the design capacity intended by the manufacturer where...

  4. 47 CFR 2.925 - Identification of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Application Procedures for Equipment Authorizations § 2.925 Identification of equipment. (a) Each equipment covered in an application... Laboratory to reject a nameplate design proposed in any particular application within this time period...

  5. Unattended optical surveillance equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, D. L.; Johnson, C. S.; Schneider, S. L.

    In many security situations, it is necessary to utilize unattended optical surveillance systems. Sandia National Laboratories has developed three optical surveillance systems which operate in the unattended surveillance mode. The first of these systems is known as the Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS). The MIVS is a microprocessor controlled video system which records scenes at selectable intervals. Each scene consists of six to ten frames recorded on a 8 mm videotape. A MIVS video recorder has the capacity to record approximately 26,000 scenes. Scenes can be recorded at intervals ranging from 1 to 99 minutes between recordings. The unit has been designed for permanent installation with facility power. The camera can be located up to 30 m from the recording module with the authentication technology protecting the cable connecting the camera to the recording unit. The Portable Surveillance unit (PSU) is a second system which has been designed for unattended operation. The PSU is designed for situations where quick set up of an optical surveillance device is required. The PSU operates in a manner similar to the MIVS and can be operated off of facility power for long time periods, or from an internal battery pack for short term surveillance applications. The Video Surveillance Unit (VSU) provides similar capabilities for permanent rack mounted installations. This paper describes the MIVS, the PSU, and the VSU, and discusses potential applications for the system. Equipment for reviewing the videotapes produced by the systems is also described.

  6. Robot Would Reconfigure Modular Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    1993-01-01

    Special-purpose sets of equipment, packaged in identical modules with identical interconnecting mechanisms, attached to or detached from each other by specially designed robot, according to proposal. Two-arm walking robot connects and disconnects modules, operating either autonomously or under remote supervision. Robot walks along row of connected modules by grasping successive attachment subassemblies in hand-over-hand motion. Intended application for facility or station in outer space; robot reconfiguration scheme makes it unnecessary for astronauts to venture outside spacecraft or space station. Concept proves useful on Earth in assembly, disassembly, or reconfiguration of equipment in such hostile environments as underwater, near active volcanoes, or in industrial process streams.

  7. Advanced deep sea diving equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danesi, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Design requirements are generated for a deep sea heavy duty diving system to equip salvage divers with equipment and tools that permit work of the same quality and in times approaching that done on the surface. The system consists of a helmet, a recirculator for removing carbon dioxide, and the diver's dress. The diver controls the inlet flow by the recirculatory control valve and is able to change closed cycle operation to open cycle if malfunction occurs. Proper function of the scrubber in the recirculator minimizes temperature and humidity effects as it filters the returning air.

  8. Large dynamic range digital nanodot gradients of biomolecules made by low-cost nanocontact printing for cell haptotaxis.

    PubMed

    Ricoult, Sébastien G; Pla-Roca, Mateu; Safavieh, Roozbeh; Lopez-Ayon, G Monserratt; Grütter, Peter; Kennedy, Timothy E; Juncker, David

    2013-10-11

    A novel method is introduced for ultrahigh throughput and ultralow cost patterning of biomolecules with nanometer resolution and novel 2D digital nanodot gradients (DNGs) with mathematically defined slopes are created. The technique is based on lift-off nanocontact printing while using high-resolution photopolymer stamps that are rapidly produced at a low cost through double replication from Si originals. Printed patterns with 100 nm features are shown. DNGs with varying spacing between the dots and a record dynamic range of 4400 are produced; 64 unique DNGs, each with hundreds of thousands of dots, are inked and printed in 5.5 min. The adhesive response and haptotaxis of C2C12 myoblast cells on DNGs demonstrated their biofunctionality. The great flexibility in pattern design, the massive parallel ability, the ultra low cost, and the extreme ease of polymer lift-off nanocontact printing will facilitate its use for various biological and medical applications. PMID:23606620

  9. Mobile Equipment Expands Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, Robert L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Mobile Equipment Modules (MEM) system in Duluth, Minnesota. MEM is a way to hold down costs and increase learning opportunities by consolidating purchases of expensive shop equipment within the school district, grouping the equipment in modules, and scheduling and moving it from school to school as needed. (MF)

  10. Investigation of biomolecules trapped in fluid inclusions inside halite crystals by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Osterrothová, Kateřina; Jehlička, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy was tested for the identification of biomolecules (glycine, L-alanine, β-alanine, L-serine, and γ-aminobutyric acid) trapped in fluid inclusions inside halite model crystals. The investigated biomolecules represent important targets for future astrobiological missions. We know from terrestrial conditions that organic molecules and microorganisms can be sealed within fluid inclusions and can survive intact even for hundreds of millions of years. Raman spectroscopy is currently being miniaturized for future extraterrestrial planetary exploration (ExoMars 2018). Raman spectroscopy has shown the ability to detect investigated aminoacids nondestructively without any sample preparation, in short measurement times, and in relatively low concentrations. The number of registered Raman bands of investigated aminoacids and their intensity clearly correlate with the given concentration of biomolecules within fluid inclusions. PMID:21930419

  11. Composite Scaffold of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) and Interfacial Polyelectrolyte Complexation Fibers for Controlled Biomolecule Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cutiongco, Marie Francene A.; Choo, Royden K. T.; Shen, Nathaniel J. X.; Chua, Bryan M. X.; Sju, Ervi; Choo, Amanda W. L.; Le Visage, Catherine; Yim, Evelyn K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled delivery of hydrophilic proteins is an important therapeutic strategy. However, widely used methods for protein delivery suffer from low incorporation efficiency and loss of bioactivity. The versatile interfacial polyelectrolyte complexation (IPC) fibers have the capacity for precise spatiotemporal release and protection of protein, growth factor, and cell bioactivity. Yet its weak mechanical properties limit its application and translation into a viable clinical solution. To overcome this limitation, IPC fibers can be incorporated into polymeric scaffolds such as the biocompatible poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel (PVA). Therefore, we explored the use of a composite scaffold of PVA and IPC fibers for controlled biomolecule release. We first observed that the permeability of biomolecules through PVA films were dependent on molecular weight. Next, IPC fibers were incorporated in between layers of PVA to produce PVA–IPC composite scaffolds with different IPC fiber orientation. The composite scaffold demonstrated excellent mechanical properties and efficient biomolecule incorporation. The rate of biomolecule release from PVA–IPC composite grafts exhibited dependence on molecular weight, with lysozyme showing near-linear release for 1 month. Angiogenic factors were also incorporated into the PVA–IPC grafts, as a potential biomedical application of the composite graft. While vascular endothelial growth factor only showed a maximum cumulative release of 3%, the smaller PEGylated-QK peptide showed maximum release of 33%. Notably, the released angiogenic biomolecules induced endothelial cell activity thus indicating retention of bioactivity. We also observed lack of significant macrophage response against PVA–IPC grafts in a rabbit model. Showing permeability, mechanical strength, precise temporal growth factor release, and bioinertness, PVA–IPC fibers composite scaffolds are excellent scaffolds for controlled biomolecule delivery in soft tissue

  12. Decoupling criteria for multi-connected equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, G.R.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Suzuki, Kohei

    1996-12-01

    Nuclear Power Plant structures generally support equipment, piping systems, computing/controlling systems etc. These equipment and structures may interact with each other during an earthquake. This results in variation in the uncoupled response wherein uncoupled response is calculated for equipment and structure separately. The best way of accounting for interaction effects of structure and equipment is by coupling together and analyzing for a given earthquake load. However, it may not be practicable to couple all the equipment to the structure because of three main reasons. These are: firstly, at the initial design stage of power plant structure all the details of equipment may not be available, secondly, coupling all the equipment may lead to numerical problems in computation because of large difference in stiffness and thirdly, the cost of computation may become very high and time consuming because by coupling all the equipment, size (e.g. number of numerical equations) of the problem becomes very large. In this paper the authors endeavor to present a decoupling model for multi-connected structure-equipment. The applicability of the model will be demonstrated with practical problems like reactor building and equipment. Here onwards equipment is referred as Secondary System (S.S) and structure of Primary System (P.S).

  13. A new method for immobilization of biomolecules using preirradiation grafting at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang Chang; Hoffman, Allan S.

    A new method of biomolecule immobilization is described in which a monomer-conjugated enzyme (asparaginase, Asp) is grafted together with free monomer (acrylamide, AAm) onto a cellulose sheet which had been preirradiated in a 60Co source. The preirradiation and grafting steps are carried out in air at - 78°C and in vacuum at 0°C respectively. The grafting is probably caused by trapped radicals. The immobilized enzyme retains significant activity and is stable to storage. The technique is applicable to immobilization of a wide variety of biomolecules, such as enzymes, antibodies and drugs. The products may be used for therapeutic or diagnostic applications.

  14. Metal Stable Isotope Tagging: Renaissance of Radioimmunoassay for Multiplex and Absolute Quantification of Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Shixi; Wei, Chao; Xing, Zhi; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2016-05-17

    The unambiguous quantification of biomolecules is of great significance in fundamental biological research as well as practical clinical diagnosis. Due to the lack of a detectable moiety, the direct and highly sensitive quantification of biomolecules is often a "mission impossible". Consequently, tagging strategies to introduce detectable moieties for labeling target biomolecules were invented, which had a long and significant impact on studies of biomolecules in the past decades. For instance, immunoassays have been developed with radioisotope tagging by Yalow and Berson in the late 1950s. The later languishment of this technology can be almost exclusively ascribed to the use of radioactive isotopes, which led to the development of nonradioactive tagging strategy-based assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescent immunoassay, and chemiluminescent and electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. Despite great success, these strategies suffered from drawbacks such as limited spectral window capacity for multiplex detection and inability to provide absolute quantification of biomolecules. After recalling the sequences of tagging strategies, an apparent question is why not use stable isotopes from the start? A reasonable explanation is the lack of reliable means for accurate and precise quantification of stable isotopes at that time. The situation has changed greatly at present, since several atomic mass spectrometric measures for metal stable isotopes have been developed. Among the newly developed techniques, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is an ideal technique to determine metal stable isotope-tagged biomolecules, for its high sensitivity, wide dynamic linear range, and more importantly multiplex and absolute quantification ability. Since the first published report by our group, metal stable isotope tagging has become a revolutionary technique and gained great success in biomolecule quantification. An exciting research highlight in this area

  15. Nanofluidic concentration devices for biomolecules utilizing ion concentration polarization: theory, fabrication, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Jae; Song, Yong-Ak; Han, Jongyoon

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a new type of electrokinetic concentration devices has been developed in a microfluidic chip format, which allows efficient trapping and concentration of biomolecules by utilizing ion concentration polarization near nanofluidic structures. These devices have drawn much attention not only due to their potential application in biomolecule sensing, but also due to the rich scientific content related to ion concentration polarization, the underlying physical phenomenon for the operation of these electrokinetic concentration devices. This tutorial review provides an introduction to the scientific and engineering advances achieved, in-depth discussion about several interesting applications of these unique concentration devices, and their current limitations and challenges. PMID:20179814

  16. Effect of ski geometry and standing height on kinetic energy: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic injuries in alpine downhill ski racing

    PubMed Central

    Gilgien, Matthias; Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background Injuries in downhill (DH) are often related to high speed and, therefore, to high energy and forces which are involved in injury situations. Yet to date, no study has investigated the effect of ski geometry and standing height on kinetic energy (EKIN) in DH. This knowledge would be essential to define appropriate equipment rules that have the potential to protect the athletes’ health. Methods During a field experiment on an official World Cup DH course, 2 recently retired world class skiers skied on 5 different pairs of skis varying in width, length and standing height. Course characteristics, terrain and the skiers’ centre of mass position were captured by a differential Global Navigational Satellite System-based methodology. EKIN, speed, ski–snow friction force (FF), ground reaction force (FGRF) and ski–snow friction coefficient (CoeffF) were calculated and analysed in dependency of the used skis. Results In the steep terrain, longer skis with reduced width and standing height significantly decreased average EKIN by ∼3%. Locally, even larger reductions of EKIN were observed (up to 7%). These local decreases in EKIN were mainly explainable by higher FF. Moreover, CoeffF differences seem of greater importance for explaining local FF differences than the differences in FGRF. Conclusions Knowing that increased speed and EKIN likely lead to increased forces in fall/crash situations, the observed equipment-induced reduction in EKIN can be considered a reasonable measure to improve athlete safety, even though the achieved preventative gains are rather small and limited to steep terrain. PMID:26702013

  17. Evaluation of computer-aided foundation design techniques for fossil fuel power plants. Final report. [Includes list of firms involved, equipment, software, etc

    SciTech Connect

    Kulhawy, F.H.; Dill, J.C.; Trautmann, C.H.

    1984-11-01

    The use of an integrated computer-aided drafting and design system for fossil fuel power plant foundations would offer utilities considerable savings in engineering costs and design time. The technology is available, but research is needed to develop software, a common data base, and data management procedures. An integrated CADD system suitable for designing power plant foundations should include the ability to input, display, and evaluate geologic, geophysical, geotechnical, and survey field data; methods for designing piles, mats, footings, drilled shafts, and other foundation types; and the capability of evaluating various load configurations, soil-structure interactions, and other construction factors that influence design. Although no such integrated system exists, the survey of CADD techniques showed that the technology is available to computerize the whole foundation design process, from single-foundation analysis under single loads to three-dimensional analysis under earthquake loads. The practices of design firms using CADD technology in nonutility applications vary widely. Although all the firms surveyed used computer-aided drafting, only two used computer graphics in routine design procedures, and none had an integrated approach to using CADD for geotechnical engineering. All the firms had developed corporate policies related to system security, supervision, overhead allocation, training, and personnel compensation. A related EPRI project RP2514, is developing guidelines for applying CADD systems to entire generating-plant construction projects. 4 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

  18. Anaesthesia equipment malfunction.

    PubMed

    Holley, H S; Carroll, J S

    1985-01-01

    Anaesthetic equipment was studied to determine whether the accuracy was improved and failure rate decreased by routine maintenance and calibration by a biomedical technician. Each piece was evaluated, and then repaired and rechecked at intervals by the same technician. Equipment failures were divided into three types: first, equipment that was completely nonfunctional; second, equipment that was functional but inaccurate; and third, equipment that was functional and accurate but needed minor repairs. The percentage of equipment failures in each group was compared on initial evaluation and after 6 months. Of the 311 pieces of equipment, 40% needed repair at the time of the initial survey; 80% was nonfunctional, and 18% was functional but inaccurate. After six months on a maintenance schedule, only 15% of the equipment needed repair, 3% was nonfunctional, and 6% was functional but inaccurate. The difference between the total percentage of equipment failure initially and after six months was statistically significant. After a regular maintenance, calibration, and checkout schedule by a biomedical technician was instituted, there was a significant improvement in the accuracy of the equipment and a reduction in the percentage of equipment needing repair. PMID:3970340

  19. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  20. 46 CFR 154.1005 - Equipment approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... definition in § 110.15-100(i) of this chapter. (d) Electrical equipment that must be explosion proof to meet § 154.1010 must meet § 110.15-65(e) of this chapter. ... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment...

  1. Development of Equipment for Use in Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David

    2012-01-01

    No one has ever been able to create a running shoe that can make one run faster, but in other sports the design of equipment has the potential to offer considerable enhancement. Judgement has to be made as to whether such advantage becomes unfair. This article indicates many possible sports in which the equipment plays an important part in the…

  2. 33 CFR 143.405 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.405 Equipment. (a) Standby vessels... searchlights. (3) For vessels certificated under Subchapter H of 46 CFR Chapter I, a line throwing appliance that meets the requirements in 46 CFR 75.45. (4) For vessels certificated under subchapters I or T...

  3. An Automated Movable Equipment Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Larry G.; Beringer, Jeff

    1983-01-01

    Effective management of movable equipment in a large institutional environment requires a readily accessible database containing accurate up-to-date information. The design and maintenance of an equipment database at the University of Illinois School of Chemical Sciences are discussed. (MLW)

  4. Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2012-02-01

    The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

  5. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-04

    Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

  6. WP EMPLACEMENT CONTROL AND COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    N.T. Raczka

    1997-10-02

    The objective and scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major control and communication equipment necessary for waste package emplacement at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the required equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. This task was evaluated in accordance with QAP-2-0 and found not to be quality affecting. Therefore, this document was prepared in accordance with NAP-MG-012. The following control and communication equipment are addressed in this document: (1) Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC's); (2) Leaky Feeder Radio Frequency Communication Equipment; (3) Slotted Microwave guide Communication Equipment; (4) Vision Systems; (5) Radio Control Equipment; and (6) Enclosure Cooling Systems.

  7. Equipment management user's handbook for property custodians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Equipment Management User's Handbook for Property Custodians is issued as an instructional guide for personnel designated as property custodians and technical personnel involved in the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This handbook provides general information and basic operational procedures for processing equipment transactions through the agency-wide NASA Equipment Management System (NEMS). Each NASA installation must prepare supplementary instructions for local requirements beyond the scope of NASA-wide policies and procedures contained herein, or as specified for local implementation in NHB 4200.1, 'NASA Equipment Management Manual.' NHB 4200.1 sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This handbook is a controlled document, issued in loose-leaf form and revised by page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

  8. Extraction of Biomolecules Using Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids + K3PO4 Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Louros, Cláudia L. S.; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M.; Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Pauly, Jérôme; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form ABS with aqueous K3PO4 solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K3PO4 at 298 K, were measured and are reported. The studied phosphonium-based ILs have shown to be more effective in promoting ABS compared to the imidazolium-based counterparts with similar anions. Moreover, the extractive capability of such systems was assessed for distinct biomolecules (including amino acids, food colourants and alkaloids). Densities and viscosities of both aqueous phases, at the mass fraction compositions used for the biomolecules extraction, were also determined. The evaluated IL-based ABS have been shown to be prospective extraction media, particularly for hydrophobic biomolecules, with several advantages over conventional polymer-inorganic salt ABS. PMID:20480041

  9. Nanohybrid structure analysis and biomolecule release behavior of polysaccharide-CDHA drug carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Ying; Liu, Ting-Yu; Liu, Tse-Ying; Mevold, Andreas; Hardiansyah, Andri; Liao, Hung-Chou; Lin, Chin-Ching; Yang, Ming-Chien

    2013-10-01

    Nanoscaled polymer composites were prepared from polysaccharide chitosan (CS) and Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). CS-CDHA nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ precipitation at pH 9, and the CS-CDHA carriers were then fabricated by ionic cross-linking methods using tripolyphosphate and chemical cross-linking methods by glutaraldehyde and genipin. Certain biomolecules such as vitamin B12, cytochrome c, and bovine serum albumin were loaded into the CS-CDHA carriers, and their release behaviors were investigated. Furthermore, these CS-CDHA carriers were examined by transmission electron microscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The release behavior of the biomolecules was controlled by the CS/CDHA ratios and cross-linked agents. By increasing the concentration of CS and the concentration of the cross-linking agents, cross-linking within carriers increases, and the release rate of the biomolecules is decreased. Moreover, the release rate of the biomolecules from the CS-CDHA carriers at pH 4 was higher than that at pH 10, displaying a pH-sensitive behavior. Therefore, these CS-CDHA hydrogel beads may be useful for intelligent drug release and accelerate bone reconstruction.

  10. Cellular Viscosity in Prokaryotes and Thermal Stability of Low Molecular Weight Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Cuecas, Alba; Cruces, Jorge; Galisteo-López, Juan F; Peng, Xiaojun; Gonzalez, Juan M

    2016-08-23

    Some low molecular weight biomolecules, i.e., NAD(P)H, are unstable at high temperatures. The use of these biomolecules by thermophilic microorganisms has been scarcely analyzed. Herein, NADH stability has been studied at different temperatures and viscosities. NADH decay increased at increasing temperatures. At increasing viscosities, NADH decay rates decreased. Thus, maintaining relatively high cellular viscosity in cells could result in increased stability of low molecular weight biomolecules (i.e., NADH) at high temperatures, unlike what was previously deduced from studies in diluted water solutions. Cellular viscosity was determined using a fluorescent molecular rotor in various prokaryotes covering the range from 10 to 100°C. Some mesophiles showed the capability of changing cellular viscosity depending on growth temperature. Thermophiles and extreme thermophiles presented a relatively high cellular viscosity, suggesting this strategy as a reasonable mechanism to thrive under these high temperatures. Results substantiate the capability of thermophiles and extreme thermophiles (growth range 50-80°C) to stabilize and use generally considered unstable, universal low molecular weight biomolecules. In addition, this study represents a first report, to our knowledge, on cellular viscosity measurements in prokaryotes and it shows the dependency of prokaryotic cellular viscosity on species and growth temperature. PMID:27558730

  11. Nanocoating for biomolecule delivery using layer-by-layer self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, M.; Jiang, X. Y.; Yamane, M.; Lee, M.; Goodman, S.

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction in the early 1990s, layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of films has been widely used in the fields of nanoelectronics, optics, sensors, surface coatings, and controlled drug delivery. The growth of this industry is propelled by the ease of film manufacture, low cost, mild assembly conditions, precise control of coating thickness, and versatility of coating materials. Despite the wealth of research on LbL for biomolecule delivery, clinical translation has been limited and slow. This review provides an overview of methods and mechanisms of loading biomolecules within LbL films and achieving controlled release. In particular, this review highlights recent advances in the development of LbL coatings for the delivery of different types of biomolecules including proteins, polypeptides, DNA, particles and viruses. To address the need for co-delivery of multiple types of biomolecules at different timing, we also review recent advances in incorporating compartmentalization into LbL assembly. Existing obstacles to clinical translation of LbL technologies and enabling technologies for future directions are also discussed. PMID:27099754

  12. Large pore mesoporous silica nanomaterials for application in delivery of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knežević, Nikola Ž.; Durand, Jean-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Various approaches for the synthesis of mesoporous silicate nanoparticles (MSN) with large pore (LP) diameters (in the range of 3-50 nm) are reviewed in this article. The work also covers the construction of magnetic analogues of large pore-mesoporous silica nanoparticles (LPMMSN) and their biomedical applications. The constructed materials exhibit vast potential for application in the loading and delivery of large drug molecules and biomolecules. Literature reports on the application of LPMSN and LPMMSN materials for the adsorption and delivery of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, and nucleic acids are covered in depth, which exemplify their highly potent characteristics for use in drug and biomolecule delivery to diseased tissues.Various approaches for the synthesis of mesoporous silicate nanoparticles (MSN) with large pore (LP) diameters (in the range of 3-50 nm) are reviewed in this article. The work also covers the construction of magnetic analogues of large pore-mesoporous silica nanoparticles (LPMMSN) and their biomedical applications. The constructed materials exhibit vast potential for application in the loading and delivery of large drug molecules and biomolecules. Literature reports on the application of LPMSN and LPMMSN materials for the adsorption and delivery of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, and nucleic acids are covered in depth, which exemplify their highly potent characteristics for use in drug and biomolecule delivery to diseased tissues. Dedicated to Professor Jeffrey I. Zink on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  13. Implementation of an ex situ stabilization technique at the Sand Springs superfund site to solidify and stabilize acid tar sludges involving a quick-lime based stabilization process and innovative equipment design

    SciTech Connect

    McManus, R.W.; Grajczak, P.; Wilcoxson, J.C.; Webster, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    An old refinery site was safely remediated a year before schedule and for 25% less than final engineering estimates for the stabilization remedy thanks to energetic project management and innovative design involving ex situ stabilization/solidification of acid tar sludges. A quicklime based process, Dispersion by Chemical Reaction (DCR{trademark}), was employed to solidify and stabilize (SS) over 103,000 cubic meters (135,000 cubic yards) of petroleum waste, mostly acidic tarry sludge. The SS process was selected over competing methods because it afforded minimal volume increase, could readily achieve Record of Decision (ROD) specified physical and chemical treatment goals, could be implemented with treatment equipment that minimized emissions, and could be performed with low reagent usage and at low cost. To ensure treatment goals were achieved and an accelerated schedule met, a custom designed and fabricated transportable treatment unit (TTU) was employed to implement the process. The treated material was visually soil-like in character, it was left in stockpiles for periods of time, and it was placed and compacted in the on site landfill using standard earth-moving equipment.

  14. Minimum Weight Design of a Leaf Spring Tapered in Thickness and Width for the Hubble Space Telescope-Space Support Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P. I.

    1990-01-01

    A linear elastic solution to the problem of minimum weight design of cantilever beams with variable width and depth is presented. The solution shown is for the specific application of the Hubble Space Telescope maintenance mission hardware. During these maintenance missions, delicate instruments must be isolated from the potentially damaging vibration environment of the space shuttle cargo bay during the ascent and descent phases. The leaf springs are designed to maintain the isolation system natural frequency at a level where load transmission to the instruments in a minimum. Nonlinear programming is used for the optimization process. The weight of the beams is the objective function with the deflection and allowable bending stress as the constraint equations. The design variables are the width and depth of the beams at both the free and the fixed ends.

  15. ITER tokamak buildings and equipment layout

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlfeld, C.E.; Dilling, D.A.; Ishimoto, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Stoner, S.

    1996-12-31

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design has evolved to a level of maturity that has enabled the building designers to define the major dimensions and characteristics of the cluster of buildings that contain the tokamak and adjacent support equipment. Three-dimensional building models developed in a CATIA database provide the framework for the equipment layout. This article describes the preliminary layout of all major pieces of equipment, large bore pipes, ducts, busbars and other services. It is anticipated that some features of the layout will change as equipment design is advanced and future decisions are made, but these changes are not expected to alter the basic building design and any necessary changes are facilitated by the 3-D CATIA models. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  16. Effect of ski geometry on aggressive ski behaviour and visual aesthetics: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic knee injuries in alpine giant slalom ski racing

    PubMed Central

    Kröll, Josef; Spörri, Jörg; Gilgien, Matthias; Schwameder, Hermann; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Aggressive ski-snow interaction is characterised by direct force transmission and difficulty of getting the ski off its edge once the ski is carving. This behaviour has been suggested to be a main contributor to severe knee injuries in giant slalom (GS). The aim of the current study was to provide a foundation for new equipment specifications in GS by considering two perspectives: Reducing the ski's aggressiveness for injury prevention and maintaining the external attractiveness of a ski racer's technique for spectators. Methods Three GS ski prototypes were defined based on theoretical considerations and were compared to a reference ski (Pref). Compared to Pref, all prototypes were constructed with reduced profile width and increased ski length. The construction radius (sidecut radius) of Pref was ≥27 m and was increased for the prototypes: 30 m (P30), 35 m (P35), and 40 m (P40). Seven World Cup level athletes performed GS runs on each of the three prototypes and Pref. Kinetic variables related to the ski-snow interaction were assessed to quantify the ski's aggressiveness. Additionally, 13 athletes evaluated their subjective perception of aggressiveness. 15 sports students rated several videotaped runs to assess external attractiveness. Results Kinetic variables quantifying the ski's aggressiveness showed decreased values for P35 and P40 compared to Pref and P30. Greater sidecut radius reduced subjectively perceived aggressiveness. External attractiveness was reduced for P40 only. Conclusions This investigation revealed the following evaluation of the prototypes concerning injury prevention and external attractiveness: P30: no preventative gain, no loss in attractiveness; P35: substantial preventative gain, no significant loss in attractiveness; P40: highest preventative gain, significant loss in attractiveness. PMID:26603647

  17. The Modification of Educational Equipment and Curriculum for Maximum Utilization by Physically Disabled Persons; Design of a School for Physically Disabled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuker, Harold E.; And Others

    Elements of modified school design for the physically disabled are considered, including mobility, classrooms, science laboratories, applied skill areas, the library, the swimming pool, and sanitary facilities. Also discussed are the cafeteria (food service, seating, and other considerations), recreational areas (play grounds,…

  18. STS ancillary equipment study. User reference book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plough, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A record of what is currently known about STS ancillary equipment is presented in this user-oriented design so that a potential user may evaluate whether he could use the described ancillary equipment or if he would need to design and fabricate a payload-unique item. References that the user can use to obtain additional details and requirements to aid in his evaluation and decision are included.

  19. Waste Handling Equipment Devleopment Test and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Tome

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify candidate Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface waste handling equipment for development testing. This study will also identify strategies for performing the development tests. Development testing shall be implemented to support detail design and reduce design risks. Development testing shall be conducted to confirm design concepts, evaluate alternative design concepts, show the availability of needed technology, and provide design documentation. The candidate equipment will be selected from MGR surface waste handling equipment that is the responsibility of the Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) Surface Design Department. The equipment identified in this study is based on Viability Assessment (VA) design. The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Test and Evaluation Plan'' (MGR T&EP), Reference 5.1, was used as a basis for this study. The MGR T&EP reflects the extent of test planning and analysis that can be conducted, given the current status of the MGR requirements and latest VA design information. The MGR T&EP supports the appropriate sections in the license application (LA) in accordance with 10 CFR 60.2 1(c)(14). The MGR T&EP describes the following test activities: site characterization to confirm, by test and analysis, the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for housing a geologic repository; development testing to investigate and document design concepts to reduce risk; qualification testing to verify equipment compliance with design requirements, specifications, and regulatory requirements; system testing to validate compliance with MGR requirements, which include the receipt, handling, retrieval, and disposal of waste; periodic performance testing to verify preclosure requirements and to demonstrate safe and reliable MGR operation; and performance confirmation modeling, testing, and analysis to verify adherence to postclosure regulatory requirements. Development test activities can be planned and

  20. Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, H.; Abeles, F.

    1978-01-01

    The Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System (Project FIRES) is a joint National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program for the development of an 'ultimate' firefighter's protective ensemble. The overall aim of Project FIRES is to improve firefighter protection against hazards, such as heat, flame, smoke, toxic fumes, moisture, impact penetration, and electricity and, at the same time, improve firefighter performance by increasing maneuverability, lowering weight, and improving human engineering design of his protective ensemble.

  1. Vibration budget for observatory equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Thompson, Hugh

    2015-07-01

    Vibration from equipment mounted on the telescope and in summit support buildings has been a source of performance degradation at existing astronomical observatories, particularly for adaptive optics performance. Rather than relying only on best practices to minimize vibration, we present here a vibration budget that specifies allowable force levels from each source of vibration in the observatory (e.g., pumps, chillers, cryocoolers, etc.). This design tool helps ensure that the total optical performance degradation due to vibration is less than the corresponding error budget allocation and is also useful in design trade-offs, specifying isolation requirements for equipment, and tightening or widening individual equipment vibration specifications as necessary. The vibration budget relies on model-based analysis of the optical consequences that result from forces applied at different locations and frequencies, including both image jitter and primary mirror segment motion. We develop this tool here for the Thirty Meter Telescope but hope that this approach will be broadly useful to other observatories, not only in the design phase, but for verification and operations as well.

  2. Right-Size Heating and Cooling Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    This is one of a series of technology fact sheets created to help housing designers and builders adopt a whole-house design approach and energy efficient design practices. The fact sheet helps people choose the correct equipment size for heating and cooling to improve comfort and reduce costs, maintenance, and energy use.

  3. Crew equipment applications - Firefighter's Breathing System.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) represents a significant step in applying NASA's crew equipment technologists and technologies to civilian sector problems. This paper describes the problem, the utilization of user-design committees as a forum for development of design goals, the design of the FBS, and the field test program to be conducted.

  4. Design of an adaptive-passive dynamic vibration absorber composed of a string-mass system equipped with negative stiffness tension adjusting mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, M. A.; Yilmaz, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a new adaptive-passive dynamic vibration absorber design is discussed. The proposed design is composed of a string under variable tension with a central mass attachment as an undamped dynamic vibration absorber (DVA), a negative stiffness mechanism as a string tension adjustment aid and a tuning controller to make it adaptive. The dependency of the natural frequencies of this system on the string tension is determined analytically and verified using the finite element method. It is analytically shown that with the help of a negative stiffness element, the tuning force requirement is almost zero throughout the whole operation range. A string tension adjustment algorithm is proposed, which tunes the DVA system depending on the magnitude and frequency of the most dominant component of the vibration signal. Finally, a prototype of the system is built and a series of experiments are conducted on the prototype that validate the analytical and numerical calculations.

  5. Equipment Operator 1 & C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Program Development Center, Pensacola, FL.

    The Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package to assist Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief in fulfilling the requirements of their rating. (Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief direct and coordinate efforts of individuals and crews in construction, earthmoving, roadbuilding, quarrying, and…

  6. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents several new products and equipment for teaching college science courses such as laser optics bench, portable digital thermometer, solar energy furnaces and blackboard optics kit. A description of all equipment or products, cost, and addresses of manufacturers are also included. (HM)

  7. Troubleshooting rotating equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.F. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that equipment problems in a Peruvian refinery illustrate the process engineer's role as a troubleshooter. Examples show that rotating equipment problems can stem from mechanical or process factors and involve both inspection/maintenance specialists and process engineers.

  8. Shipboard Electronic Equipments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

  9. Photographic Equipment Test System (PETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Photographic Equipment Test System is presented. The device is a mobile optical system designed for evaluating performance of various sensors in a laboratory, in a vacuum chamber or on a flight line. The carriage is designed to allow elevation as well as azimuth control of the direction of the light from the collimator. The pneumatic tires provide an effective vibration isolation system. A target/illumination system is mounted on a motor driven linear slide, and focusing and exposure control can be operated remotely from the small electronics control console.

  10. On the Need for Reliable Seismic Input Assessment for Optimized Design and Retrofit of Seismically Isolated Civil and Industrial Structures, Equipment, and Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Based on the experience of recent violent earthquakes, the limits of the methods that are currently used for the definition of seismic hazard are becoming more and more evident to several seismic engineers. Considerable improvement is felt necessary not only for the seismic classification of the territory (for which the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment—PSHA—is generally adopted at present), but also for the evaluation of local amplification. With regard to the first item, among others, a better knowledge of fault extension and near-fault effects is judged essential. The aforesaid improvements are particularly important for the design of seismically isolated structures, which relies on displacement. Thus, such a design requires an accurate definition of the maximum value of displacement corresponding to the isolation period, and a reliable evaluation of the earthquake energy content at the low frequencies that are typical of the isolated structures, for the site and ground of interest. These evaluations shall include possible near-fault effects even in the vertical direction; for the construction of high-risk plants and components and retrofit of some cultural heritage, they shall be performed for earthquakes characterized by very long return periods. The design displacement shall not be underestimated, but neither be excessively overestimated, at least when using rubber bearings in the seismic isolation (SI) system. In fact, by decreasing transverse deformation of such SI systems below a certain value, their horizontal stiffness increases. Thus, should a structure (e.g. a civil defence centre, a masterpiece, etc.) protected in the aforesaid way be designed to withstand an unnecessarily too large earthquake, the behaviour of its SI system will be inadequate (i.e. it will be too stiff) during much more frequent events, which may really strike the structure during its life. Furthermore, since SI can be used only when the room available to the structure

  11. Animal Health Equipment Management.

    PubMed

    Rethorst, David N

    2015-07-01

    Proper health equipment management requires significant attention to detail. Establishing and following protocols during processing (eg, cleaning and disinfecting equipment at the end of the work day) is required to ensure a safe product that is free of defects and residues. Overall cleanliness of equipment and facilities is important not only from a food safety standpoint but many view these as an overall indicator of attention to detail in the entire production system. Ensuring that needles are changed, implant guns are managed properly, vaccine is handled in an acceptable manner, and that proper chute operation occurs is essential. PMID:26139191

  12. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration. [performance tests of remote control equipment for roving vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gisser, D. G.; Frederick, D. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    Problems related to the design and control of an autonomous rover for the purpose of unmanned exploration of the planets were considered. Building on the basis of prior studies, a four wheeled rover of unusual mobility and maneuverability was further refined and tested under both laboratory and field conditions. A second major effort was made to develop autonomous guidance. Path selection systems capable of dealing with relatively formidable hazard and terrains involving various short range (1.0-3.0 meters), hazard detection systems using a triangulation detection concept were simulated and evaluated. The mechanical/electronic systems required to implement such a scheme were constructed and tested. These systems include: laser transmitter, photodetectors, the necessary data handling/controlling systems and a scanning mast. In addition, a telemetry system to interface the vehicle, the off-board computer and a remote control module for operator intervention were developed. Software for the autonomous control concept was written. All of the systems required for complete autonomous control were shown to be satisfactory except for that portion of the software relating to the handling of interrupt commands.

  13. The controlled display of biomolecules on nanoparticles: a challenge suited to bioorthogonal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Algar, W Russ; Prasuhn, Duane E; Stewart, Michael H; Jennings, Travis L; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B; Dawson, Philip E; Medintz, Igor L

    2011-05-18

    Interest in developing diverse nanoparticle (NP)-biological composite materials continues to grow almost unabated. This is motivated primarily by the desire to simultaneously exploit the properties of both NP and biological components in new hybrid devices or materials that can be applied in areas ranging from energy harvesting and nanoscale electronics to biomedical diagnostics. The utility and effectiveness of these composites will be predicated on the ability to assemble these structures with control over NP/biomolecule ratio, biomolecular orientation, biomolecular activity, and the separation distance within the NP-bioconjugate architecture. This degree of control will be especially critical in creating theranostic NP-bioconjugates that, as a single vector, are capable of multiple functions in vivo, including targeting, image contrast, biosensing, and drug delivery. In this review, a perspective is given on current and developing chemistries that can provide improved control in the preparation of NP-bioconjugates. The nanoscale properties intrinsic to several prominent NP materials are briefly described to highlight the motivation behind their use. NP materials of interest include quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, viral capsids, liposomes, and NPs composed of gold, lanthanides, silica, polymers, or magnetic materials. This review includes a critical discussion on the design considerations for NP-bioconjugates and the unique challenges associated with chemistry at the biological-nanoscale interface-the liabilities of traditional bioconjugation chemistries being particularly prominent therein. Select bioorthogonal chemistries that can address these challenges are reviewed in detail, and include chemoselective ligations (e.g., hydrazone and Staudinger ligation), cycloaddition reactions in click chemistry (e.g., azide-alkyne cyclyoaddition, tetrazine ligation), metal-affinity coordination (e.g., polyhistidine), enzyme driven modifications (e.g., HaloTag, biotin

  14. Real-time monitoring and manipulation of single bio-molecules in free solution

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hung-Wing

    2005-08-01

    The observation and manipulation of single biomolecules allow their dynamic behaviors to be studied to provide insight into molecular genetics, biochip assembly, biosensor design, DNA biophysics. In a PDMS/glass microchannel, a nonuniform electroosmotic flow (EOF) was created. By using a scanning confocal fluorescence microscope and total internal-reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM), we demonstrated that negatively charged DNA molecules were focused by the nonuniform EOF into a thin layer at the glass surface. This phenomenon was applied to selectively detect target DNA molecules without requiring the separation of excessive probes and can be applied continuously to achieve high throughput. A variable-angle-TIRFM was constructed for imaging single DNA molecule dynamics at a solid/liquid interface. Implications we have are that the measured intensities cannot be used directly to determine the distances of molecules from the surface and the experimental counting results depict the distance-dependent dynamics of molecules near the surface; Molecules at low ionic strengths experience electrostatic repulsion at distances much further away from the surface than the calculated thickness of the electrical double layer. {delta}-DNA was employed as a nanoprobe for different functionalized surfaces to elucidate adsorption in chromatography. The 12-base unpaired ends of this DNA provide exposed purine and pyrimidine groups for adsorption. Patterns of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and patterns of metal oxides are generated. By recording the real-time dynamic motion of DNA molecules at the SAMs/aqueous interface, the various parameters governing the retention of an analyte during chromatographic separation can be studied. Even subtle differences among adsorptive forces can be revealed. Dynamic conformational changes of the prosthetic group, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), in flavoprotein NADH peroxidase, in thioredoxin reductase, and in free solution were monitored

  15. Leveraging zinc interstitials and oxygen vacancies for sensitive biomolecule detection through selective surface functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Chaudhry, Shajee; Prasad, Shalini

    2015-03-01

    In this study, functionally engineered EIS technique was implemented to investigate the influence of surface functionalization on sensitivity of biomolecule detection using nanostructured ZnO platform. Organic molecules with thiol and carboxylic functional groups were chosen to control biomolecule immobilization on zinc and oxygen-terminated 2D planar and 1D nanostructured ZnO surfaces. The amount of functionalization and its influence on charge perturbations at the ZnO-electrolyte interface were studied using fluorescence and EIS measurements. We observed the dependence of charge transfer on both the polarity of platform and concentration of cross-linker molecules. Such selectively modified surfaces were used for detection of cortisol, a major stress indicator. Results demonstrated preferential binding of thiol groups to Zn terminations and thus leveraging ZnO interstitials increases the sensitivity of detection over larger dynamic range with detection limit at 10fg/mL.

  16. Deducing fast electron density changes in randomly orientated uncrystallized biomolecules in a pump-probe experiment.

    PubMed

    Pande, K; Schwander, P; Schmidt, M; Saldin, D K

    2014-07-17

    We propose a method for deducing time-resolved structural changes in uncrystallized biomolecules in solution. The method relies on measuring the angular correlations of the intensities, when averaged over a large number of diffraction patterns from randomly oriented biomolecules in solution in a liquid solvent. The experiment is somewhat like a pump-probe version of an experiment on small angle X-ray scattering, except that the data expected by the algorithm are not just the radial variation of the averaged intensities. The differences of these correlation functions as measured from a photoexcited and dark structure enable the direct calculation of the difference electron density with a knowledge of only the dark structure. We exploit a linear relation we derive between the difference in these correlation functions and the difference electron density, applicable for small structural changes. PMID:24914159

  17. Antioxidants from defatted Indian Mustard (Brassica Juncea) protect biomolecules against in vitro oxidation.

    PubMed

    Dua, Anita; Chander, Subhash; Agrawal, Sharad; Mahajan, Ritu

    2014-10-01

    Indian mustard seeds were defatted by distillation with hexane and the residue extracted with methanol was analyzed for potential antioxidants; ascorbate, riboflavin, and polyphenols. Gallic acid (129.796 μg), caffeic acid (753.455 μg), quercetin (478.352 μg) and kaempferol (48.060 μg)/g dry seeds were identified by HPLC analysis of the extract. DPPH free radical scavenging activity and protection of lipids, proteins and DNA against metal induced oxidation was examined. Defatted mustard seed remnant had excellent free radical scavenging activity and protects biomolecules with IC50 value 2.0-2.25 mg dry seed weight. Significant content of polyphenols in methanol extract of defatted seeds accounts for high antioxidant potential. We are the first to report the detailed analysis of antioxidant composition and protection of biomolecules against oxidative damage by methanol extract of mustard seed remnant after oil extraction. PMID:25320478

  18. Deducing fast electron density changes in randomly orientated uncrystallized biomolecules in a pump–probe experiment

    PubMed Central

    Pande, K.; Schwander, P.; Schmidt, M.; Saldin, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for deducing time-resolved structural changes in uncrystallized biomolecules in solution. The method relies on measuring the angular correlations of the intensities, when averaged over a large number of diffraction patterns from randomly oriented biomolecules in solution in a liquid solvent. The experiment is somewhat like a pump–probe version of an experiment on small angle X-ray scattering, except that the data expected by the algorithm are not just the radial variation of the averaged intensities. The differences of these correlation functions as measured from a photoexcited and dark structure enable the direct calculation of the difference electron density with a knowledge of only the dark structure. We exploit a linear relation we derive between the difference in these correlation functions and the difference electron density, applicable for small structural changes. PMID:24914159

  19. Analysis of gate underlap channel double gate MOS transistor for electrical detection of bio-molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajay; Narang, Rakhi; Saxena, Manoj; Gupta, Mridula

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an analytical model for gate drain underlap channel Double-Gate Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (DG-MOSFET) for label free electrical detection of biomolecules has been proposed. The conformal mapping technique has been used to derive the expressions for surface potential, lateral electric field, energy bands (i.e. conduction and valence band) and threshold voltage (Vth). Subsequently a full drain current model to analyze the sensitivity of the biosensor has been developed. The shift in the threshold voltage and drain current (after the biomolecules interaction with the gate underlap channel region of the MOS transistor) has been used as a sensing metric. All the characteristic trends have been verified through ATLAS (SILVACO) device simulation results.

  20. Development of high harmonic generation spectroscopy of organic molecules and biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marangos, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    In this review we will discuss the topic of high order harmonic generation (HHG) from samples of organic and bio-molecules. The possibility to extract useful dynamical and structural information from the measurement of the HHG emission, a technique termed high harmonic generation spectroscopy (HHGS), will be the special focus of our discussions. We will begin by introducing the salient facts of HHG from atoms and simple molecules and explaining the principles behind HHGS. Next the technical difficulties associated with HHG from samples of organic molecules and biomolecules, principally the low sample density and the low ionization potential, will be examined. Then we will present some recent experiments where HHG spectra from samples of these molecules have been measured and discuss what has been learned from these measurements. Finally we will look at the future prospects for HHG spectroscopy of organic molecules, discussing some of the technical and in principle limits of the technique and methods that may ameliorate these limits.

  1. Study of Large Multimeric Biomolecules by Single-Molecule Manipulation and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Kai; Wijeratne, Sitara S.; Martinez, Jerahme; Yeh, Hui-Chun; Moake, Joel; Dong, Jing-Fei; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Kiang, Ching-Hwa

    2012-02-01

    Single-molecule manipulation enables us to study the properties of long chain, multimeric biomolecules. Perlecan, a giant secreted heparin sulfate proteoglycan, is a major component of basement membrane, bone stroma and blood vessels. It is involved in processes such as cell adhesion, migration and modulation of apoptosis. The changes in its synthesis and function are closely associated with many diseases, including cancer. Von Willebrand factor is a large multimeric protein circulating in blood, and is crucial for initiation of blood coagulation. We use atomic force microscope to obtain force curves and images of these proteins. We characterized the mechanical property of perlecan as well as the domain conformational changes of von Willebrand factor. The results demonstrate that single-molecule manipulation can probe directly the dynamics of large biomolecules that are usually not accessible with other methods.

  2. Biomolecule detection based on Si single-electron transistors for practical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Anri; Kudo, Takashi; Furuse, Sadaharu

    2013-07-01

    Experimental and theoretical analyses demonstrated that ultra-sensitive biomolecule detection can be achieved using a Si single-electron transistor (SET). A multi-island channel structure was used to enable room-temperature operation. Coulomb oscillation increases transconductance without increasing channel width, which increases detection sensitivity to a charged target. A biotin-modified SET biosensor was used to detect streptavidin at a dilute concentration. In addition, an antibody-functionalized SET biosensor was used for immunodetection of prostate-specific antigen, demonstrating its suitability for practical use. The feasibility of ultra-sensitive detection of biomolecules for practical use by using a SET biosensor was clearly proven through this systematic study.

  3. Tiny Grains Give Huge Gains: Nanocrystal–Based Signal Amplification for Biomolecule Detection

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Sheng; Ren, Binbin; Zheng, Zhilan; Shen, Han; Bao, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystals, despite their tiny sizes, contain thousands to millions of atoms. Here we show that the large number of atoms packed in each metallic nanocrystal can provide a huge gain in signal amplification for biomolecule detection. We have devised a highly sensitive, linear amplification scheme by integrating the dissolution of bound nanocrystals and metal-induced stoichiometric chromogenesis, and demonstrated that signal amplification is fully defined by the size and atom density of nanocrystals, which can be optimized through well-controlled nanocrystal synthesis. Further, the rich library of chromogenic reactions allows implementation of this scheme in various assay formats, as demonstrated by the iron oxide nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (ILISA) and blotting assay developed in this study. Our results indicate that, owing to the inherent simplicity, high sensitivity and repeatability, the nanocrystal based amplification scheme can significantly improve biomolecule quantification in both laboratory research and clinical diagnostics. This novel method adds a new dimension to current nanoparticle-based bioassays. PMID:23659350

  4. A review on recent developments for biomolecule separation at analytical scale using microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Tetala, Kishore K R; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2016-02-01

    Microfluidic devices with their inherent advantages like the ability to handle 10(-9) to 10(-18) L volume, multiplexing of microchannels, rapid analysis and on-chip detection are proving to be efficient systems in various fields of life sciences. This review highlights articles published since 2010 that reports the use of microfluidic devices to separate biomolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) using chromatography principles (size, charge, hydrophobicity and affinity) along with microchip capillary electrophoresis, isotachophoresis etc. A detailed overview of stationary phase materials and the approaches to incorporate them within the microchannels of microchips is provided as well as a brief overview of chemical methods to immobilize ligand(s). Furthermore, we review research articles that deal with microfluidic devices as analytical tools for biomolecule (DNA, RNA and protein) separation. PMID:26772122

  5. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

  6. Selecting Library Furniture & Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Media & Methods, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Offers suggestions for selecting school library furniture and equipment. Describes various models of computer workstations; reading tables and chairs; and shelving. Sidebar lists names and addresses of library furniture manufactures and distributors. (AEF)

  7. Tracking equipment on hire

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    The first comprehensive computer-based system for managing large inventories of rental equipment in the North Sea has been commissioned by British oilfield services group Expro. Now, after a year of operations in which the system has proved its worth in improving the efficiency of Expro's well testing and other services, it is being offered for sale to other oil industry companies with problems in controlling movement of capital equipment. The computer-based inventory control system to is described.

  8. Preservation of key biomolecules in the fossil record: current knowledge and future challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Bada, J L; Wang, X S; Hamilton, H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a model based on the analyses of modern and Pleistocene eggshells and mammalian bones which can be used to understand the preservation of amino acids and other important biomolecules such as DNA in fossil specimens. The model is based on the following series of diagenetic reactions and processes involving amino acids: the hydrolysis of proteins and the subsequent loss of hydrolysis products from the fossil matrix with increasing geologic age; the racemization of amino acids which produces totally racemized amino acids in 10(5)-10(6) years in most environments on the Earth; the introduction of contaminants into the fossil that lowers the enantiomeric (D:L) ratios produced via racemization; and the condensation reactions between amino acids, as well as other compounds with primary amino groups, and sugars which yield humic acid-like polymers. This model was used to evaluate whether useful amino acid and DNA sequence information is preserved in a variety of human, amber-entombed insect and dinosaur specimens. Most skeletal remains of evolutionary interest with respect to the origin of modern humans are unlikely to preserve useful biomolecular information although those from high latitude sites may be an exception. Amber-entombed insects contain well-preserved unracemized amino acids, apparently because of the anhydrous nature of the amber matrix, and thus may contain DNA fragments which have retained meaningful genetic information. Dinosaur specimens contain mainly exogenous amino acids, although traces of endogenous amino acids may be present in some cases. Future ancient biomolecule research which takes advantage of new methologies involving, for example, humic acid cleaving reagents and microchip-based DNA-protein detection and sequencing, along with investigations of very slow biomolecule diagenetic reactions such as the racemization of isoleucine at the beta-carbon, will lead to further enhancements of our understanding of biomolecule

  9. Submicron machining and biomolecule immobilization on porous silicon by electron beam

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional submicrometric structures and biomolecular patterns have been fabricated on a porous silicon film by an electron beam-based functionalization method. The immobilized proteins act as a passivation layer against material corrosion in aqueous solutions. The effects' dependence on the main parameters of the process (i.e., the electron beam dose, the biomolecule concentration, and the incubation time) has been demonstrated. PMID:23009218

  10. Sulfide synthesis through copper-catalyzed C-S bond formation under biomolecule-compatible conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yonghong; Li, Yiming; Zhang, Xiaomei; Jiang, Xuefeng

    2015-01-18

    We report here an efficient and mild method for constructing C-S bonds. The reactions were carried out with Na2S2O3 as a sulfurating reagent, CuSO4 as a catalyst, and water as solvent without any surfactant. The products were achieved in moderate to excellent yields at room temperature under air. Notably, this reaction is compatible with various biomolecules including amino acids, oligosaccharides, nucleosides, proteins, and cell lysates. PMID:25435202

  11. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and associated equipment. (a) Each length of fire hose in a fire main system must be— (1) Of 11/2 or 21/2 inch nominal...

  12. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and associated equipment. (a) Each length of fire hose in a fire main system must be— (1) Of 11/2 or 21/2 inch nominal...

  13. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and associated equipment. (a) Each length of fire hose in a fire main system must be— (1) Of 11/2 or 21/2 inch nominal...

  14. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and associated equipment. (a) Each length of fire hose in a fire main system must be— (1) Of 11/2 or 21/2 inch nominal...

  15. 46 CFR 108.425 - Fire hoses and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hoses and associated equipment. 108.425 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.425 Fire hoses and associated equipment. (a) Each length of fire hose in a fire main system must be— (1) Of 11/2 or 21/2 inch nominal...

  16. 46 CFR 184.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. A vessel must comply with the applicable design, equipment, personnel, procedures, and record requirements of 33 CFR parts 151, 155, and 156. ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures....

  17. 46 CFR 184.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. A vessel must comply with the applicable design, equipment, personnel, procedures, and record requirements of 33 CFR parts 151, 155, and 156. ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures....

  18. 46 CFR 184.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. A vessel must comply with the applicable design, equipment, personnel, procedures, and record requirements of 33 CFR parts 151, 155, and 156. ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures....

  19. 46 CFR 128.110 - Equipment and systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment and systems. 128.110 Section 128.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS General § 128.110 Equipment and systems. (a) Except as provided by this part, the design, installation, testing, and...

  20. 46 CFR 184.702 - Pollution prevention equipment and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pollution prevention equipment and procedures. A vessel must comply with the applicable design, equipment, personnel, procedures, and record requirements of 33 CFR parts 151, 155, and 156. ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pollution prevention equipment and procedures....