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1

Inheritance of Schistosoma mansoni infection incompatibility in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.  

PubMed

In this study, we looked at the inheritance of susceptibility and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in the first generation of crossbred Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Our ultimate goal is to use such information to develop a biological method of controlling schistosomiasis. We infected laboratory-bred snails with S. mansoni miracidia and examined cercarial shedding to determine susceptibility and resistance. Five parental groups were used: Group I contained 30 susceptible snails, Group II contained 30 resistant snails, Group III contained 15 susceptible and 15 resistant snails, Group IV contained 27 susceptible and three resistant snails and Group V contained three susceptible and 27 resistant snails. The percentage of resistant snails in the resulting progeny varied according to the ratio of susceptible and resistant parents per group; they are 7%, 100%, 68%, 45% and 97% from Groups I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. On increasing the percentage of resistant parent snails, the percentage of resistant progeny increased, while cercarial production in their susceptible progeny decreased. PMID:20428673

El Naga, Iman F Abou; Eissa, Maha M; Mossallam, Shereen F; El-Halim, Safaa I Abd

2010-03-01

2

BOTANICAL EXTRACTS EXHIBIT DUAL ACTION AGAINST CULEX PIPIENS LARVAE AND BIOMPHALARIA ALEXANDRINA SNAILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some extracts of Euphorbia helioscopia (Euphorbiaceae), Calendula micrantha (Compositae) and Azadriachta indica (Meliaceae) were screened for the control of Culex pipiens larvae, the vector of Filariasis and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails the vector of Schistosomiasis in Egypt. These plants exhibit dual effect on both pests which share the same aquatic breeding habitat and are of medical importance. B. alexandrina snails were

W. M. ELYASSAKI; M. M. EL-SAYED

3

The relationship between genetic variability and the susceptibility of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails to Schistosoma mansoni infection.  

PubMed

In the present study, Biomphalaria snails collected from five Egyptian governorates (Giza, Fayoum, Kafr El-Sheikh, Ismailia and Damietta), as well as reference control Biomphalaria alexandrina snails from the Schistosome Biological Supply Center (SBSC) (Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Egypt), were subjected to species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify the collected species. All of the collected snails were found to be B. alexandrina and there was no evidence of the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR assays showed different fingerprints with varying numbers of bands for the first generation (F?) of B. alexandrina snail populations (SBSC, Giza, Fayoum, Kafr El-Sheikh, Ismailia and Damietta). The primer OPA-1 produced the highest level of polymorphism and amplified the greatest number of specific bands. The estimated similarity coefficients among the B. alexandrina populations based on the RAPD-PCR profiles ranged from 0.56 (between SBSC and Ismailia snails) to 0.72 (between Ismailia and Kafr El-Sheikh snails). Experimental infection of the F? of progeny from the collected snails with Schistosoma mansoni (SBSC strain) showed variable susceptibility rates ranging from 15% in the Fayoum snail group to 50.3% in SBSC snails. A negative correlation was observed between the infection rates in the different snail groups and the distances separating their corresponding governorates from the parasite source. The infection rates of the snail groups and their similarity coefficients with SBSC B. alexandrina snails were positively correlated. The variations in the rates of infection of different B. alexandrina groups with S. mansoni, as well as the differences in the similarity coefficients among these snails, are dependent not only on the geographical distribution of the snails and the parasite, but also on the genetic variability of the snails. Introduction of this variability into endemic areas may reduce the ability of the parasite to infect local hosts and consequently reduce schistosomiasis epidemiology. PMID:22510827

Mohamed, Azza H; El-Din, Ahmed T Sharaf; Mohamed, Ahmed M; Habib, Mohamed R

2012-05-01

4

Effect of Infection with Shistosoma mansoni on Some Biological Parameters in Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histological alterations in digestive gland as well as hematological and biochemical changes in haemolymph of Shistosoma mansoni infected Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were studied. The results showed great histological damages in tissues of the digestive gland of infected snails with large numbers of sporocysts and cercariae at several stages of development encircled by cycts in tissue of digestive gland. A detailed

Fayez A. Bakry

2009-01-01

5

Genetic variation between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection.  

PubMed

Much effort has been made to control schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. However, enduring effects from such strategies have not yet been achieved. In this study, we sought to determine the genetic variability related to the interaction between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni. Using RAPD-PCR with eight (10 mers) random primers, we were able to determine the polymorphic markers that differed between snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection using five primers out of the eight. Our results suggest that the RAPD-PCR technique is an efficient means by which to compare genomes and to detect genetic variations between schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. The RAPD technique with the above-noted primers can identify genomic markers that are specifically related to the Biomphalaria alexandrina/Schistosoma mansoni relationship in the absence of specific nucleotide sequence information. This approach could be used in epidemiologic surveys to investigate genetic diversity among Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. The ability to determine resistant markers in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails could potentially lead to further studies that use refractory snails as agents to control the spread of schistosomiasis. PMID:23878796

El-Nassery, Suzanne M F; Abou-El-Naga, Iman F; Allam, Sonia R; Shaat, Eman A; Mady, Rasha F M

2013-01-01

6

New scope on the relationship between rotifers and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of rotifer internalization into snail tissue on the development of schistosomes. Methods Susceptible laboratory-bred Biomphalaria alexandrina (B. alexandrina) snails were exposed to lab-maintained rotifers; Philodina spp., two weeks before and after being infected with Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) miracidia. The consequent histopathological impact on snail tissues and cercarial biology were investigated before and after emergence from snails. Results Contamination of B. alexandrina snails with philodina, two weeks before miracidial exposure, was found to hinder the preliminary development of S. mansoni cercariae inside the snail tissues. Furthermore, when snails were contaminated with rotifers two weeks post miracidial exposure; growth of already established cercariae was found to be retarded. The consequent influence of internalized rotifers within the snail tissue was clearly reflected on cercarial emergence, activity and infectivity along the four weeks duration of shedding. In the present study, comparison of snail histopathological findings and altered cercarial biology observed between the experimental and control groups indicated that the rotifers may have affected the levels of snail's energy reservoirs, which eventually was found to have had an adverse impact on reproduction, growth and survival of the parasite within the snail host, coupled with its performance outside the snail. Conclusions In future biological control strategies of schistosomiasis, ritifers should be considered as a parasitic scourge of humanity.

Mossallam, Shereen Farouk; Amer, Eglal Ibrahim; Abou-El-Naga, Iman Fathy

2013-01-01

7

Defense response of susceptible and resistant Biomphalaria alexandrina snails against Schistosoma mansoni infection.  

PubMed

In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. The fates of Schistosoma miracidia in the snails varies between different species of Biomphalaria. The internal defense system is one of the factors that influence the susceptibility pattern of the snails. The interaction between Biomphalaria snails and S. mansoni needs to be identified for each species, and even between the members of the same species with different degrees of susceptibility. In the present study, the first generation of susceptible and resistant parents of B. alexandrina was examined histologically at the 30th day post exposure. The study includes the characterization of the immune response, as expressed by tissue reactions, of susceptible and resistant B. alexandrina snails against S. mansoni. It was also designed to determine the impact of the resistance increase in parent snails, on the mechanisms of interaction of their offspring against infection. The results showed that the infection rate of the offspring from the susceptible parents was 92%. No susceptible offspring was produced from the resistant parents. When the parents were of equal number of susceptible and resistant snails, they gave an offspring with an infection rate of 20%. Susceptible snails that had susceptible parents showed a higher degree of susceptibility than those that had both susceptible and resistant parents. A common feature of the resistant snails was the absence of any viable parasites. The tissue reactions of the resistant snails having only resistant parents occurred at the site of miracidial penetration. In resistant snails for which susceptible ones were included in their parents, the reactions occurred in the deep tissues. These results characterized the immune response of B. alexandrina snails against Schistosoma infection which was found to occur by two different mechanisms. One type of defense occurs in highly resistant snails, and employs direct miracidial destruction soon after parasite penetration. The other type occurs in less resistant snails where a delayed resistance development occurs after the dissemination of the sporocysts in the snail tissues. It seems that B. alexandrina snails respond more or less similar to B. glabrata. The results also proved that the immune response of the internal defense system increased with increasing the number of the inherited resistant genes. PMID:23025090

Abou-El-Naga, Iman F; Radwan, Eman H

2012-09-01

8

Testosterone, gonadotropins and androgen receptor during spermatogenesis of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails (Pulmonata: Basommatophora).  

PubMed

Endocrine regulation of reproductive processes of the snail Biomphalaria alexandrina is poorly recognized. Thus, the aims of the study were: (1) to acquire histological images of the ovotestis; (2) to determine the hemolymph concentrations of testosterone (T) and gonadotropic hormones (luteinizing hormone: LH and follicle stimulating hormone: FSH), (3) to demonstrate androgen receptor (AR) immunolocalization in the ovotestis, and (4) to show LH and FSH protein expression in cerebral ganglia of small (diameter shell: 4-6mm), medium (7-11mm) and large (12-16mm) B. alexandrina snails. These three groups represented different reproductive stages of the snail. The AR immunoexpression was found in the periphery and inside the acini of small (immature) snails as well as in spermatocytes, spermatids, Sertoli cells, the interstitial cells and the acinus lining epithelium of medium (mature) snails. Low AR immunoexpression was demonstrated in the interstitial cells of large (aged) snails. The neurons at the periphery of the cerebral ganglia and connective sheath of the ganglia showed a positive FSH and LH immunostaining. T concentration in the hemolymph was higher in medium snails than in small and large snails. In contrast, LH concentration was higher in medium snails than in small and large snails. These data suggests that gonadotropins and T play a role in the gonadal development in B. alexandrina. PMID:23153701

Omran, Nahla El-Sayed El-Shazly

2012-11-01

9

Potential Use of Biomphalaria alexandrina Snail Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni by Immunoblot Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of Biomphalaria alexandrina snail antigens in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni using enzyme linked immunolectrotransfere blot (EITB). Methods S. mansoni adult worm crude antigens (AWA), feet and visceral humps of B. alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus were used. Hyperimmune mice sera (HIS) versus each antigen were prepared for diagnosis of S. mansoni using western blot (WB). Results Snail foot antigens were more specific in antibodies detection than visceral hump antigens. Three of five polypeptides of B. alexandrina foot antigen identified by S. mansoni HIS showed specific positive reactivity. These polypeptides were at MW of 31/32 and 43 kDa. While, only one of the six polypeptides of B. alexandrina hepatopancrease antigen identified by S. mansoni HIS, at a MW of 43 kDa was specific. Similarly, 2 polypeptides at MW of 44 and 55 kDa were specific in detection of anti- S. haematobium antibodies. However, the antigenically active polypeptide of B. truncatus hepatopancrease antigen had no specific reactivity towards anti-S. haematobium antibodies. Conclusion B. alexandrina foot antigens were the most specific of the tested snail antigens in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni.

Basyoni, Maha MA; EL-Wahab, Azza Abd

2013-01-01

10

Tissue responses exhibited by Biomphalaria alexandrina snails from different Egyptian localities following Schistosoma mansoni exposure.  

PubMed

Snails' susceptibilities to infection with Schistosoma mansoni were determined through observation of infection rates, total cercarial production and tissue responses of the first generation (F1) of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, originally collected from different Egyptian governorates (Giza, Fayoum, Kafr El-Sheikh, Ismailia and Damietta) and responses were compared between groups. The emergence of cercariae for a 3-month period and the calculation of survival and infection rates, in control (Schistosome Biological Supply Center; SBSC) and infected snails were evaluated. SBSC and Giza snails showed greater susceptibilities to infection and lower mortality rates. In addition, at 6 and 72 h post-exposure to miracidia all the snail groups showed no difference in the anatomical locations of sporocysts. The larvae were found in the head-foot, the mantle collar and the tentacles of the snails. Sporocysts showed normal development with low tissue reactions in SBSC and Giza snail groups infected with S. mansoni miracidia (SBSC). However, in Fayoum, Kafr El-Sheikh, Ismailia and Damietta snail groups, variable tissue responses were observed in which numerous hemocytes made direct contact with S. mansoni larvae forming capsules. The results suggested that, different responses of B. alexandrina snail's hemocytes towards S. mansoni are related to the degree of susceptibility of these snails. So this is important in planning the strategy of schistosomiasis control. PMID:21295031

Mohamed, Azza H; Sharaf El-Din, Ahmed T; Mohamed, Ahmed M; Habib, Mohamed R

2011-04-01

11

Effects of Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection on some inorganic elements in the snail host Biomphalaria alexandrina.  

PubMed

The alteration in the concentrations of metallic ion Pb, Zn, K, Na, Co, Fe, and Cu in the soft parts of the Biomphalaria alexandrina snails shedding Schistosoma mansoni cercariae was detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Six elements Pb, Zn, K, Na, Co, and Cu were found to be present at significantly higher concentrations in cercariae-shedding snails compared with uninfected snails. The concentration of Fe ion showed non-significant decrease in the tissues of cercariae-shedding snails. Variation in the present results compared with related previous studies lead to the suggestion that the effect of trematode parasitism on fresh-water snails should not be considered universal and might be varies according to the trematode-snail combination, the organs or the tissues analyzed and the analytical method used. PMID:20503598

Mostafa, Osama M S; Dajem, Saad M Bin

2010-04-01

12

Effect of Basudinm, Selecron and the Phytoalkaloid Colchicine (pesticides) on biological and molecular parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results showed that survival rates of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, reproductive potential and hatchability of eggs were evaluated post exposure to Basudin, Selecron and Colchicine. As well, DNA and RNA changes in the cells of ovotestis-digestive gland complex of treated snails were estimated. The current molluscicide Bayluscide was used as a reference compound.The result showed that the pesticide Selecron proved

Ahmed M. Mohamed; Mohamed A. El-Emam; Gamalat Y. Osman; Hoda Abdel-Hamid; Rasha E. M. Ali

13

Ecotoxicological Effect of Sublethal Exposure to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria alexandrina.  

PubMed

Freshwater snails are used as sensitive biomarkers of aquatic ecosystem pollution. The potential impacts of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on aquatic ecosystems have attracted special attention due to their unique properties. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the possible mechanisms of ecotoxicological effects of ZnONPs on freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina. ZnONPs showed molluscicidal activity against B. alexandrina snails, and the LC50 was 145 ?g/ml. Two tested concentrations of ZnONPs were selected: The first concentration was equivalent to LC10 (7 ?g/ml), and the second was equivalent to LC25 (35 ?g/ml). Exposure to ZnONPs (7 and 35 ?g/ml) for three consecutive weeks significantly induced malondialdehyde and nitric oxide with concomitant decreases in glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase levels in hemolymph and soft tissues of treated snails. Moreover, ZnONPs elicited a significant decrease in total protein and albumin contents coinciding with enhancement of total lipids and cholesterol levels as well as activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase in hemolymph and soft tissues of treated snails. This study highlights the potential ecological implications of ZnONP release in aquatic environments and may serve to encourage regulatory agencies in Egypt to more carefully monitor and regulate the industrial use and disposal of ZnONPs. PMID:24736985

Fahmy, Sohair R; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Bakry, Fayez A; Sayed, Dawlat A

2014-08-01

14

Genotyping natural infections of Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria alexandrina from Damietta, Egypt, with comparisons to natural snail infections from Kenya.  

PubMed

The distribution of Schistosoma genotypes among individuals in snail populations provides insights regarding the dynamics of transmission and compatibility between schistosome and snail hosts. A survey of Biomphalaria alexandrina from Damietta (Nile Delta, Egypt), an area subjected to persistent schistosomiasis control efforts, provided only 17 snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni (6.1% overall prevalence), each shown by microsatellite analysis to have a single genotype infection. By contrast, recent studies of uncontrolled S. mansoni transmission foci in Kenya revealed that 4.3% Biomphalaria pfeifferi and 20-25% Biomphalaria sudanica snails had multiple genotype infections. Compared with the 3 Kenyan populations, the Egyptian population of S. mansoni also showed a lesser degree of genetic variability and was genetically differentiated from them. We suggest that tracking of genotype diversity in infected snails could be further developed to serve as an additional and valuable independent indicator of efficacy of schistosomiasis control in Egypt and elsewhere. PMID:21348627

Lotfy, Wael M; Hanelt, Ben; Mkoji, Gerald M; Loker, Eric S

2011-02-01

15

Carboxylic acids as biomarkers of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Biomphalaria alexandrina snails play an indispensable role in transmission of schistosomiasis. Infection rates in field populations of snails are routinely determined by cercarial shedding neglecting prepatent snail infections, because of lack of a suitable method for diagnosis. The present study aimed at separation and quantification of oxalic, malic, acetic, pyruvic, and fumaric acids using ion-suppression reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to test the potentiality of these acids to be used as diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers. The assay was done in both hemolymph and digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) samples in a total of 300 B. alexandrina snails. All of the studied acids in both the hemolymph and tissue samples except for the fumaric acid in hemolymph appeared to be good diagnostic biomarkers as they provide not only a good discrimination between the infected snails from the control but also between the studied stages of infection from each other. The most sensitive discriminating acid was malic acid in hemolymph samples as it showed the highest F-ratio. Using the Z-score, malic acid was found to be a good potential therapeutic biomarker in the prepatency stage, oxalic acid and acetic acid in the stage of patency, and malic acid and acetic acid at 2 weeks after patency. Quantification of carboxylic acids, using HPLC strategy, was fast, easy, and accurate in prediction of infected and uninfected snails and possibly to detect the stage of infection. It seems also useful for detection of the most suitable acids to be used as drug targets. PMID:20585528

Abou Elseoud, Salwa M F; Abdel Fattah, Nashwa S; Ezz El Din, Hayam M; Abdel Al, Hala; Mossalem, Hanan; Elleboudy, Noha

2010-06-01

16

Carboxylic Acids as Biomarkers of Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails Infected with Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Biomphalaria alexandrina snails play an indispensable role in transmission of schistosomiasis. Infection rates in field populations of snails are routinely determined by cercarial shedding neglecting prepatent snail infections, because of lack of a suitable method for diagnosis. The present study aimed at separation and quantification of oxalic, malic, acetic, pyruvic, and fumaric acids using ion-suppression reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to test the potentiality of these acids to be used as diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers. The assay was done in both hemolymph and digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) samples in a total of 300 B. alexandrina snails. All of the studied acids in both the hemolymph and tissue samples except for the fumaric acid in hemolymph appeared to be good diagnostic biomarkers as they provide not only a good discrimination between the infected snails from the control but also between the studied stages of infection from each other. The most sensitive discriminating acid was malic acid in hemolymph samples as it showed the highest F-ratio. Using the Z-score, malic acid was found to be a good potential therapeutic biomarker in the prepatency stage, oxalic acid and acetic acid in the stage of patency, and malic acid and acetic acid at 2 weeks after patency. Quantification of carboxylic acids, using HPLC strategy, was fast, easy, and accurate in prediction of infected and uninfected snails and possibly to detect the stage of infection. It seems also useful for detection of the most suitable acids to be used as drug targets.

Abou Elseoud, Salwa M. F.; Ezz El Din, Hayam M.; Abdel Al, Hala; Mossalem, Hanan; Elleboudy, Noha

2010-01-01

17

Potential correlation between carboxylic acid metabolites in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails after exposure to Schistosoma mansoni infection.  

PubMed

Carboxylic acids play an important role in both aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways of both the snail and the parasite. Monitoring the effects of infection by schistosome on Biomphalaria alexandrina carboxylic acids metabolic profiles represents a promising additional source of information about the state of metabolic system. We separated and quantified pyruvic, fumaric, malic, oxalic, and acetic acids using ion-suppression reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect correlations between these acids in both hemolymph and digestive gland gonad complex (DGG's) samples in a total of 300 B. alexandrina snails (150 infected and 150 controls) at different stages of infection. The results showed that the majority of metabolite pairs did not show significant correlations. However, some high correlations were found between the studied acids within the control group but not in other groups. More striking was the existence of reversed correlations between the same acids at different stages of infection. Some possible explanations of the underlying mechanisms were discussed. Ultimately, however, further data are required for resolving the responsible regulatory events. These findings highlight the potential of metabolomics as a novel approach for fundamental investigations of host-pathogen interactions as well as disease surveillance and control. PMID:22711922

Abou Elseoud, Salwa M F; Abdel Fattah, Nashwa S; Ezz El Din, Hayam M; Abdel Al, Hala; Mossalem, Hanan; Elleboudy, Noha

2012-06-01

18

Potential of some monoterpenoids and their new N-methyl carbamate derivatives against Schistosomiasis snail vector, Biomphalaria alexandrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some monoterpenoids and their corresponding new N-methyl carbamate derivatives were used to study their molluscicidal effect on Biomphalaria alexandrina, the snail-vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt. Improving the efficacy of the tested monoterpenoids and\\/or their corresponding carbamates by either piperonyl butoxide (PBO) or triton X-100 (TX) was also performed. Thymol, ?-citronellol, carvacrol, and geraniol exhibited high molluscicidal activity against the

M. A. Radwan; S. R. El-Zemity; S. A. Mohamed; S. M. Sherby

2008-01-01

19

Molluscicidal Activity of Some Solanum Species Extracts against the Snail Biomphalaria alexandrina.  

PubMed

Background. Snails' species are associated with transmission parasitic disease as intermediate host. Biological control stands to be a better alternative to the chemical controls aimed against snails. The search of herbal preparations that do not produce any adverse effects in the non-target organisms and are easily biodegradable remains a top research issue for scientists associated with alternative molluscicides control. Method. Solvent extracts of fresh mature leaves of S. nigrum, S. villosum, and S. sinaicum were tested against Biomphalaria alexandrina, a common intermediate host of schistosoma mansoni. A phytochemical analysis of chloroform: ethanol extract was performed to search for active toxic ingredient. The lethal concentration was determined. Results. Extracts isolated from mature leaves of Solanum species were found to be having molluscicidal properties. S. nigrum extract was recorded as the highest mortality rate. When the mortality of different solvent extracts was compared, the maximum (P < .05) mortality was recorded at a concentration of 90 ppm of ethanol extract of S. nigrum. Conclusion. Extract of mature leaves of S. nigrum exhibited molluscicidal activity followed by S. sinaicum and the less one was S. villosum. The study provides considerable scope in exploiting local indigenous resources for snails' molluscicidal agents. PMID:20721329

El-Sherbini, Gehad T; Zayed, Rawia A; El-Sherbini, Eman T

2009-01-01

20

Molluscicidal Activity of Some Solanum Species Extracts against the Snail Biomphalaria alexandrina  

PubMed Central

Background. Snails' species are associated with transmission parasitic disease as intermediate host. Biological control stands to be a better alternative to the chemical controls aimed against snails. The search of herbal preparations that do not produce any adverse effects in the non-target organisms and are easily biodegradable remains a top research issue for scientists associated with alternative molluscicides control. Method. Solvent extracts of fresh mature leaves of S. nigrum, S. villosum, and S. sinaicum were tested against Biomphalaria alexandrina, a common intermediate host of schistosoma mansoni. A phytochemical analysis of chloroform: ethanol extract was performed to search for active toxic ingredient. The lethal concentration was determined. Results. Extracts isolated from mature leaves of Solanum species were found to be having molluscicidal properties. S. nigrum extract was recorded as the highest mortality rate. When the mortality of different solvent extracts was compared, the maximum (P < .05) mortality was recorded at a concentration of 90?ppm of ethanol extract of S. nigrum. Conclusion. Extract of mature leaves of S. nigrum exhibited molluscicidal activity followed by S. sinaicum and the less one was S. villosum. The study provides considerable scope in exploiting local indigenous resources for snails' molluscicidal agents.

El-Sherbini, Gehad T.; Zayed, Rawia A.; El-Sherbini, Eman T.

2009-01-01

21

Correlation between steroid sex hormones, egg laying capacity and cercarial shedding in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails after treatment with Haplophyllum tuberculatum.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is considered the second most pre-valiant worldwide parasitic disease ranked next to malaria. It has significant economic and public health consequences in many developing countries. Several ways have been practiced in order to bring the disease under an adequate control through the breakage of the life cycle of the parasite. Snail control could be regarded as a rapid and efficient of reducing or eliminating transmission and remains among the methods of choice for schistosomiasis control. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (family Rutaceae) as a plant molluscicide. The mortality rate of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were monitored after treatment with three extracts of the plant aerial parts; petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. Chloroform extract that recorded the most potent effect was further evaluated through measuring the toxicity pattern against B. alexandrina snails, egg laying capacity, cercarial shedding, phenol oxidase enzyme and the levels of steroid sex hormones. Histopathological examination of hepatopancreas and ovotestis of treated snails were also done for result confirmation. Treatment of snails by chloroform extract recorded reduction in egg laying capacity, decrease in cercarial shedding, diminution in phenol oxidase enzyme, disturbance in steroid sex hormones and sever alternation of the histopathological picture of snails tissue. In conclusion, H. tuberculatum recorded molluscicidal potency against B. alexandrina snails. Further studies are needed for its environmental applications. PMID:22771439

Rizk, Maha Z; Metwally, Nadia S; Hamed, Manal A; Mohamed, Azza M

2012-10-01

22

Potential of some monoterpenoids and their new N-methyl carbamate derivatives against Schistosomiasis snail vector, Biomphalaria alexandrina.  

PubMed

Some monoterpenoids and their corresponding new N-methyl carbamate derivatives were used to study their molluscicidal effect on Biomphalaria alexandrina, the snail-vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt. Improving the efficacy of the tested monoterpenoids and/or their corresponding carbamates by either piperonyl butoxide (PBO) or triton X-100 (TX) was also performed. Thymol, ?-citronellol, carvacrol, and geraniol exhibited high molluscicidal activity against the snails. Geraniol, ?-citronellol, and carvacrol were strongly synergized by PBO but, an opposite trend was found with TX. The molluscicidal activity of geraniol or ?-citronellol when mixed with PBO was as potent as copper sulfate. Another attempt to improve the bioactivity of monoterpenoids was through their structure modifications. Thus, conversion of the tested monoterpenoids into their corresponding carbamates led to enhancement in the activity of aliphatic monoterpenoids and reduction in the aromatics. PMID:17692915

Radwan, M A; El-Zemity, S R; Mohamed, S A; Sherby, S M

2008-11-01

23

Effect of the plant Cupressus macro-carpa (Cupressacea) on some haematolo-gical and biochemical parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.  

PubMed

The dry powder of the plant aereal part; Cupressus macro-carpa (Cupressacea) was tested against Biomphalaria alexandrina. LC50 & LC90 values were 59.5 & 98.8 ppm, respec-tively. Exposure of B. alexandrina to sublethal concentrations (LC0, LC10 & LC25) of C. macrocarpa for three weeks signi-ficantly decreased the number of circulating hemocytes. The magnitude of reduction was increased with increasing of the tested concentration. The main type of cell in the hemolymph of B. alexandrina was the granulocyte (71.8%), followed by large round cells or hyalinocytes (19.0%) and small round cells or undifferentiate cells (9.2%). The percentage of different hemocyte categories was changed in treated snails. In snails maintained at LC25, showed significantly higher percentages of small round cells than controls, 56.2% & 9.2% respectively. Maintainence of B. alexandrina in sublethal concentrations for three weeks significantly reduced protein & hemoglobin content in the hemolymph. Reduction in enzyme activities occurred in the hemolymph and tissues of treated snails. The enzymes were pyruvate kinase (PK), lactat dehydrogenase (LDH), hexokinase (HK) and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK) which are very important in metabolism of the protein and carbohydrate. The infectivity of Schistosoma mansoni miracidia was greatly reduced by exposure to the sublethal concentrations (LC0, LC10 & LC25) of Cupressus. Infection rate of B. alexandrina reached to 54.5%, 37.5% & 16.7%, respectively compared to control (81.25%). Duration of cercarial shedding and the total periodic cercarial production/snail showed significant reduction while the parasite incubation period was significantly longer (p<0.05). PMID:17153702

El-Sayed, Kamelia A

2006-12-01

24

Influence of certain fertilizers on the activity of some molluscicides against Biomphalaria alexandrina and Lymnaea natalensis snails.  

PubMed

Effect of the fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, potassium sulphate and urea) on molluscicidal activity of the molluscicides (copper sulphate, niclosamide & mollutox) against B. alexandrina and L. natalensis was investigated. The molluscicides were more potant than fertilizers. Snails were exposed for 24 hr to a fertilizers using LC0 (1/10 & LC50) then, to molluscicides. Pre-exposure to potassium sulphate caused a synergistic action with copper sulphate, niclosamide and mollutox on L. natalen-sis. Pre-exposure to urea caused an additive effect with niclo-samide and mollutox against L. natalensis and B. alexandrina respectively. Pre-exposure to ammonium nitrate caused an additive action to niclosamide on L. natalensis. Snails were exposed for 24hr to one molluscicide, then exposed to fertilizers, showed that pre-exposure to niclosamide or mollutox caused an additive effect with ammonium nitrate and potassium sulphate. Pre-exposure to mollutox caused an additive effect with urea on the two snails' sp. juvenile or adult B. alexandrina were ex-posed to LC0 of molluscicide-fertilizer mixture, showed that urea when mixed with each molluscicides showed greatly reduced on the growth rate percent (0.00), survival rate and snail fecundity. Molluscicides and fertilizers mixed at different ratios of LC (40:10, 30:20, 25:25, 20:30 & 10:40), the toxicity of the mixtures caused antagonistic effect on adult B. alexandrina, but a mixture of niclosamide-ammonium nitrate caused a potent effect (synergism or additive) except at ratio 20:30 which showed an antagonism on L. natalensis. Mixtures of copper sulphatepotassium sulphate (10:40), niclosamide-potassium sulphate (20:30), mollutox-ammonium nitrate (25:25) revealed an additive effect on L. natalensis. PMID:17153706

Ragab, Fawzy; Shoukry, Nahla M

2006-12-01

25

Biomphalaria alexandrina snails as immunogens against Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice.  

PubMed

Despite effective chemotherapy, schistosomiasis remains the second largest public health problem in the developing world. Currently, vaccination is the new strategy for schistosomiasis control. The presence of common antigenic fractions between Schistosoma mansoni and its intermediate host provides a source for the preparation of a proper vaccine. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the nucleoprotein extracted from either susceptible or resistant snails to protect against schistosomiasis. The vaccination schedule consisted of a subcutaneous injection of 50 µg protein of each antigen followed by another inoculation 15 days later. Analyses of marker enzymes for different cell organelles [succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase, acid phosphatase and 5'-nucleotidase] were carried out. Energetic parameters (ATP, ADP, AMP, phosphate potentials, inorganic phosphate, amino acids and LDH isoenzymes) were also investigated. The work was extended to record worm and ova counts, oogram determination in the liver and intestine and the histopathological pattern of the liver. The nucleoprotein of susceptible snails showed reduction in worm and ova counts by 70.96% and 51.31%, respectively, whereas the nucleoprotein of resistant snails showed reductions of 9.67% and 16.77%, respectively. In conclusion, we found that the nucleoprotein of susceptible snails was more effective in protecting against schistosomiasis. PMID:21120357

Hamed, Manal A; Ali, Sanaa A; Aly, Hanan F; El-Rigal, Nagy Saba; Rizk, Maha Z

2010-11-01

26

Heavy metal concentrations in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina uninfected or infected with cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and/or Echinostoma liei in Egypt: the potential use of this snail as a bioindicator of pollution.  

PubMed

In spite of using aquatic snails as bioindicators for water pollution, little attention has been paid to the effect of parasitism upon the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) in these organisms. The present study therefore aimed to compare the concentrations of heavy metals in trematode-infected Biomphalaria alexandrina collected from Kafer Alsheikh and Menofia provinces, Egypt, with uninfected snails from the same sites, in order to assess the effect of parasitism on the use of these snails as bioindicators. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soft parts and shells of snails were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the heavy metal profile in snails infected with Echinostoma liei was very different from that in snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The total concentration of heavy metals in E. liei-infected snails collected from Kafer Alsheikh or Menofia province was greater than in uninfected snails. In contrast, the total concentration of heavy metals in S. mansoni-infected snails was reduced compared with uninfected snails. In conclusion, the status of snails with respect to parasitic infection must be taken into consideration when these snails are used as bioindicators. PMID:23710821

Mostafa, O M S; Mossa, A-T H; El Einin, H M A

2013-05-28

27

THE CONTROL OF BIOMPHALARIA ALEXANDRINA BY THE SNAIL MARlSA CORNUAlUETlS. UNDER SEMI-ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN EGYPT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A study has been made of the effect of Alarisa cornuanetis on 4 populations of Biomphalaria alexandrina, exactly matching control po- pulations in size, number and season of nurture. The observations were made in a series ofartijicial earth-lined ditches with continuously flowing Nile water. Q)iantitative estimation of the densities of the experimental and control popula- tions was made by

Erian G. Kamel

28

The effect of temperature, darkness, starvation and various food types on growth, survival and reproduction of Helisoma duryi , Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helisoma duryi has been proposed as a biological control agent in schistosomiasis due to its superiority in laboratory competition experiments with various species of the intermediate host snails. Therefore it was considered important to evaluate the response of this snail species and the intermediate host species, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, to various physical, chemical and biological factors under laboratory

M. A. El-Emam; H. Madsen

1982-01-01

29

The molluscicidal efficacy of three products against Biomphalaria alexandrina and Lymnaea natalensis.  

PubMed

Toxicity of three local formulated products, Sol E.C (mineral oil), Sisi-6 (surfactant) and Castor bean oil E.C (plant oil) were tested against Biomphalaria alexandrina and Lymnaea natalensis, in two water sources. Results indicated that in dechlorinated water after 24 hr exposure, castor bean oil was the most toxic product against the snails, followed by Sisi-6 and sol (E.C) with LC90 of 250 ppm and 8 ppm against B. alexandrina and L. natalensis, respectively. When Nile water was used after 6 hr. exposure, a high concentration of castor bean oil (4 LC90) did not achieve 100% mortality of the snails. A 100% mortality was achieved by 2 LC90 of Sisi-6 with Nile water. On the other hand, caster bean oil was more fatal to eggs of the snails (LC90=660 ppm) than the other two products. In general, L. natalensis was more susceptible to the experimental products than B. alexandrina. PMID:12049265

Ragab, Fawzy M A; el-Sisi, Ahmad Gh; Maboud, Amina I Abdel

2002-04-01

30

Biomphalaria species in Alexandria water channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the several species of Biomphalaria snails worldwide that serve as the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, Biomphalaria alexandrina is a species that is indigenous to Egypt. Recently, there has been much debate concerning the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata and the hybrid of the species with Biomphalaria alexandrina. Due to this debate, the absence of a clear explanation for the

Iman F. Abou-El-Naga; Suzanne M. F. El-Nassery; Sonia R. Allam; Eman A. Shaat; Rasha F. M. Mady

2011-01-01

31

Fatty acids contents in Biomphalaria alexandrina during the course of infection with Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

The study examined the effects of larval trematode infection on the neutral lipid and phospholipid content of Biomphalaria alexandrina infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Uninfected snails were used as matched controls. As determined by qualitative high-performance silica gel thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), the major neutral lipids present in the whole bodies and digestive gland-gonad complexes in both infected and uninfected snail populations were free sterols, free fatty acids, and triacylglycerols, and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylcho-line and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Quantitative analysis by HPTLC with visible and UV scanning reflectance densitometry showed the snail's digestive gland lipid level was found to be almost halved in 20 days post infection; a more then 80% reduction being visible after the subsequent 40 and 60 days. PMID:24260830

Mahmoud, Momeana B; El-Sayed, Kamelia; El-Din, Ahmed T Sharaf

2013-08-01

32

Sublethal toxicity of Roundup to immunological and molecular aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina to Schistosoma mansoni infection.  

PubMed

The present study was performed to elucidate the cellular mechanisms of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails hemocytes against sublethal concentration (10 mg/L) of herbicide Roundup (48% Glyphosate) and/or Schistosoma mansoni infection during 7 days of exposure. Obtained results indicated that herbicide treatment and/or infection led to significant increase (P<0.05) in total hemocytes count during exposure period. Examination of hemocytes monolayers resulted in observation of 3 morphologically different cell types, round small, hyalinocytes and spreading hemocytes. Spreading hemocytes are the dominant, more responsive and highly phagocytic cell type in all experimental groups. Moreover, the exposure to herbicide, infection or both together led to a significant increase (P<0.05) of in vitro phagocytic activity against yeast cells during 7 days of exposure. In addition, flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle and comet assay, resulted in DNA damage in B. alexandrina hemocytes exposed to herbicide and/or S. mansoni infection when compared to control group. The immunological responses as well as molecular aspects in B. alexandrina snails have been proposed as biomarkers of exposure to environmental pollutants. PMID:21126764

Mohamed, Azza H

2011-05-01

33

Susceptibility of Biomphalaria spp. to infection with Schistosoma mansoni in sympatric and allopatric combinations with observations on the genetic variability between snails.  

PubMed

This investigation was carried out to study the susceptibility of Saudi Biomphalaria arabica to Egyptian Schistosoma mansoni in comparison with the susceptibility of Egyptian Biomphalaria alexandrina to the same parasite. This was in order to know the possibility that the parasite might be able to spread into Saudi Arabia and to determine the genetic variability between Egyptian B. alexandrina and Saudi Biomphalaria arabica snails. Lab bred Egyptian B. alexandrina and Saudi B. arabica snails were exposed individually to 10 freshly hatched Egyptian S. mansoni miracidia/snail. The mortality rate, infection rate, prepatent period, duration of cercarial shedding and cercariae production per snail were recorded in both the sympatric couple (Egyptian B. alexandrina and Egyptian S. mansoni) and in the allopatric combination (Saudi B. arabica and Egyptian S. mansoni). The results revealed that, the survival rate of snails exposed to Egyptian S. mansoni miracidia at 34th day post-exposure (at first cercarial shedding) was higher in B. arabica than in B. alexandrina. After shedding, the mortality rate was higher in the B. arabica, compared to B. alexandrina. The infection rate was higher in B. arabica than B. alexandrina; the mean of prepatent period was shorter in the B. arabica than in the B. alexandrina. However, the duration of cercarial shedding was longer in the Egyptian snails and the cercarial production per snail was higher in B. alexandrina snails than in B. arabica. To study the genetic variability between B. alexandrina and B. arabica, RAPD-PCR on the genomic DNA of snails was done. RAPD-PCR revealed significant variation between the two snail species. In conclusion, the results suggest that B. arabica can play a role in the transmission of Egyptian S. mansoni in Saudi Arabia and therefore this parasite might be able to spread into the Kingdom. In addition, the RAPD-PCR results demonstrated genetic variability between the two species which may be related to the differences in susceptibility of both Saudi and Egyptian Biomphalaria snails to Egyptian S. mansoni infection. PMID:21501930

Mostafa, Osama M S; El-Dafrawy, Shadia M

2011-08-25

34

Localization of tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactivity in the nervous systems of Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria alexandrina, intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Planorbid snails of the genus Biomphalaria are major intermediate hosts for the digenetic trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Evidence suggests that levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) are reduced during the course of S. mansoni multiplication and transformation within the snail. This investigation used immunohistochemical methods to localize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, in the nervous system of Biomphalaria. The two species examined, Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria alexandrina, are the major intermediate hosts for S. mansoni in sub-Saharan Africa, where more than 90% of global cases of human intestinal schistosomiasis occur. TH-like immunoreactive (THli) neurons were distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and labeled fibers were present in all commissures, connectives, and nerves. Some asymmetries were observed, including a large distinctive neuron (LPeD1) in the pedal ganglion described previously in several pulmonates. The majority of TH-like immunoreactive neurons were detected in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), especially in lip and foot regions of the anterior integument. Independent observations supporting the dopaminergic phenotype of THli neurons included 1) block of LPeD1 synaptic signaling by the D2/3 antagonist sulpiride, and 2) the similar localization of aqueous aldehyde (FaGlu)-induced fluorescence. The distribution of THli neurons indicates that, as in other gastropods, dopamine functions as a sensory neurotransmitter and in the regulation of feeding and reproductive behaviors in Biomphalaria. It is hypothesized that infection could stimulate transmitter release from dopaminergic sensory neurons and that dopaminergic signaling could contribute to modifications of both host and parasite behavior. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:2532-2552, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24477836

Vallejo, Deborah; Habib, Mohamed R; Delgado, Nadia; Vaasjo, Lee O; Croll, Roger P; Miller, Mark W

2014-08-01

35

Specific identification of Egyptian Biomphalaria species and possible hybrids using the polymerase chain reaction based on nuclear and mitochondrial loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

The snail historically implicated in the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt is Biomphalaria alexandrina. The problem of schistosomiasis in Egypt has been complicated in recent years by the introduction of Biomphalaria glabrata, which has been reported to hybridize with B. alexandrina. Both introduced and hybrid snails also pose a threat with respect to S. mansoni transmission. As morphological differentiation

Wael M. Lotfy; Randall J. DeJong; Brandee S. Black; Eric S. Loker

2005-01-01

36

The ecology of Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina and its implications for the control of bilharziasis in the Egypt-49 project area  

PubMed Central

The respective vectors of the two forms of bilharziasis in Egypt do not have the same ecological distribution. Bulinus truncatus is most abundant in large canals, and decreases in density as the water approaches and flows into drains. Biomphalaria alexandrina is most abundant in drains, and decreases in density upstream from these habitats. Both species are most abundant in the presence of aquatic vegetation, but they differ in their respective associations with the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. Biomph. alexandrina reaches maximum abundance in the presence of this plant, but Bul. truncatus is as uncommon in the absence of plants as in the presence of E. crassipes. Calculation of life-table parameters from field data shows that, under optimum field conditions, both species can double their populations in 14-16 days. The reproductive rates of both species are greatest in March and the death rates in midsummer. The observed peak densities in May and June give a false impression of optima because of undercollection of young snails, which are most abundant in March and April. Control operations should take advantage of the findings on population parameters. A single area-wide treatment with molluscicide in April is recommended. During the remainder of the year, search for isolated foci of snail breeding and individual treatment of these will effect large savings of chemical and will be effective in controlling the transmission of the parasites.

Dazo, B. C.; Hairston, Nelson G.; Dawood, I. K.

1966-01-01

37

Biomphalaria species in Alexandria water channels.  

PubMed

Of the several species of Biomphalaria snails worldwide that serve as the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, Biomphalaria alexandrina is a species that is indigenous to Egypt. Recently, there has been much debate concerning the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata and the hybrid of the species with Biomphalaria alexandrina. Due to this debate, the absence of a clear explanation for the presence of B. glabrata in Egyptian water channels and the probability that they may be reintroduced, we conducted this field study to identify Biomphalaria species present in Alexandria water channels. Laboratory-adapted susceptible snails to Schistosoma mansoni of the following species were used as a reference; Biomphalaria alexandrina, Biomphalaria glabrata and their hybrid. These snails were used to perpetuate the Schistosoma life cycle at the Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI), Cairo, Egypt. Morphological and molecular studies were conducted on these reference snails as well as on the first generation of Biomphalaria snails from two areas in the Alexandria governorate. The morphological study included both external shell morphology and internal anatomy of the renal ridge. The molecular study used a species-specific PCR technique. The results demonstrated that there was an absence of Biomphalaria glabrata and the hybrid from Alexandria water channels. Moreover, the susceptibility patterns of these reference snails were studied by measuring the different parasitological parameters. It was found that Biomphalaria glabrata and the hybrid were significantly more susceptible than Biomphalaria alexandrina to the Egyptian strain of Schistosoma mansoni. The results demonstrated that if Biomphalaria glabrata was reintroduced and adapted to the local environment in Egypt, it would have important epidemiologic impacts that would have a serious effect on the health of Egyptian people. PMID:21458594

Abou-El-Naga, Iman F; El-Nassery, Suzanne M F; Allam, Sonia R; Shaat, Eman A; Mady, Rasha F M

2011-09-01

38

Influence of Capparis spinosa and Acacia arabica on certain biochemical haemolymph parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina.  

PubMed

The work investigated the molluscicidal potency of dried Capparis spinosa and Acacia arabica leaves on selected biochemical parameters of Bionimphalaria alexandrina, in order to render them, physiologically, unsuitable for S. mansoni infection or at least disturb the life-cycle of the parasite within its respective snail host. The effect of the two plants on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 5'-nucleotidase, acid phosphatase (AP), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose content were studied. This work was extended to evaluate the effect of these two plants on protein profile as well as total protein (TP) content of snail's in haemolymph after 24 hours and one week of snails plants feeding. The study revealed that both plants induced marked alteration in all the measured parameters, where LC50 of C. spinosa after fed one week showed the most potent effect. PMID:15287187

Mantawy, Mona M; Hamed, Manal A; Sammour, Elham M; Sanad, Mahmoud

2004-08-01

39

Determination of allozyme, protein and schistosome susceptibility in Biomphalaria alexandrina progenies produced by self and cross fertilization.  

PubMed

The mating system of B. alexandrina was studied under laboratory condition by allozyme analysis and SDS-PAGE protein analysis for parent snails and their progenies of two successive generations produced by self and cross fertilization. Allozyme analysis detected 11 genetic loci in 3 enzymes; ACP (3 loci), LDH (2 loci) and EST (6 loci). The mean number of Allele (A), average heterozygosity over loci (H) and dendrogram from cluster analysis based on genetic distances between snail groups showed a genetic heterogeneity in parents and 1st generation higher than that in the 2nd generation. Cross-fertilization and genetic heterogeneity among snails decreased through generations. Snails practiced self-fertilization showed genetic alterations and genetic heterogeneity was either decreased or increased. SDS-PAGE profile of tissue protein revealed that the mating system in B. alexandrina showed specific bands, 204 & 214 KDa, in snails bred by self-fertilization. D value based on shared protein bands number and estimated similarity between parents and progenies showed that parents were approximately similar with self and cross progenies in 1st generation and only with cross progenies in 2nd generation as self progenies showed increase or decrease in similarity. B. alexandrina susceptibility to S. mansoni was not affected when snails were bred by cross or self fertilization. PMID:19209781

El-Khayat, Hanaa M M; Abu El Einin, Hanaa M; Gawish, Fathia A

2008-12-01

40

Molluscicidal effect of fungicide, herbicide and plant extract on some biological and physiological parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina.  

PubMed

In was found that the exposure of B. alexandrina to LC25 of fungicide (Isoprothiolane), herbicide (Anilofos) and plant extract (Euphorbia lactea) led to highly significantly elevated in the number of abnormal egg masses laid by treated snails in comparison with the control ones. The LC25 caused reduction in infection rate of B. alexandrina. It caused reduction in number of cercariae per snail during the patent period and reduction in the period of cercarial shedding. The results obtained showed that adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of tissue of snails was significantly increased in response to tested substances. The activity level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK) was significantly reduced in response to treatment. This reduction does not reflect on both D. lactate and pyruvate concentrations. PMID:12512815

Bakry, Fayez A; Sakrane, Adel A; Ismail, Nahed M M

2002-12-01

41

Bio-efficacy of bacterial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. as biological control agent against snails vectors of Schistosomiasis in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molluscicidal activity of Thuricide used as bacterial insecticide,Bacillus thuringiensis, againstBiomphalaria alexandrina andBulunus truncatus was tested.The obtained results indicate that Thuricide possess a mollus-cicidal activity against both snails species.B. truncatus was more sensitive to the action of Thuricide. However the slope function of the LC50 forB. alexandrina was significantly higher than that forB. truncatus. The mortality rate of exposedB. alexandrina

G. Y. Osman; A. M. Mohamed

1991-01-01

42

Electrophoretic patterns of protein fractionations in hemolymph and tissues of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus during course of schistosome infection.  

PubMed

Electrophoresis of plasma protein of B. alexandrina (uninfected & infected with S. mansoni) showed that the major dominant bands had molecular weights of 20, 44, 96, 139 & 205 KD in both types of snails. The 1day & 1 week post miracidial exposure (PME) groups were characterized by band 54 KD. All groups except a day PME were characterized by a common band of MW 65 KD. Three days PME group had. three bands of 123 KD, 150 &177 KD, not found in other groups. The highest similarity index in 2 weeks PME & 5 weeks PME groups (during cercarial shedding) was 0.667 and the lowest one was in 3-days PME (0.5). The 3-days PME had a unique band of MW 177.04 KD, not found in other groups. Similar electrophoretic pattern of B. alexandrina tissue protein was seen. The major dominant bands had molecular weights of 14, 21, 80 and 140 KD in both non-infected and infected snails. The 1day PME had a band of 48.483 KD, 3-days PME had a band of 87.985 KD, one-week PME group characterized by two bands 61.761 KD and 70.338 KD. The two-weeks PME had a band 91.111 KD. While, the 5 week PME (during cercarial production) was the only group that shared the common band of MW 115 KD with controls. The highest similarity index in 5 weeks PME (during cercarial shedding) group was 0.545 and the lowest one was in 1 week & 2 weeks PME (0.43). The electrophoresis of plasma protein of B. truncatus (uninfected & infected with S. haematobium) showed that the major dominant bands had molecular weights of 20, 30, 65, 80, 106, 117 & 170 KD in both type of snails. The 1day PME group was characterized by three bands of MWs 26.539, 51.891 & 91.509 KD. All experimental groups, except 5 weeks PME (during cercarial shedding) and control, had a common band of MW 45 KD. Three days PME group had a characteristic band of 113.72 KD which was not found in any other group. The highest similarity index was in one week PME group was 0.857 and the lowest one in 1-day PME (0.5). In B. truncatus tissue protein, the major dominant bands by electrophoretic pattern had molecular weights of 20, 45, 54, 80, 97 & 171 KD in both type of snails. A day PME had a band of 73.544 KD and a week PME had a band of MW 60.813 KD. Two and 5 weeks PME groups had 2 bands of MWs 27 & 62 KD. All experimental groups had a characteristic band not found in control of MW 141 KD. The highest similarity index in 3-days PME was 0.8 and the lowest one was in 5 weeks PME during cercarial shedding(0.545). PMID:17153696

El-Dafrawy, Shadia M; El-Din, A T Sharaf; Hamid, H Abdel

2006-12-01

43

Molluscicidal activities of certain pesticide and their mixtures against Biomphalaria alexandrina.  

PubMed

The niclosamide and uccmaluscide proved to be the most effective compounds, followed by copper sulphate. The second category of efficiency includes the anilofos, isoprothiolane and fluazifop-P-butyl. Moreover, Butachlor herbicide was the least potent compound. In general, the specific molluscicides showed more efficiency than the conventional tested herbicides and fungicides on treated snails. Pre-exposure to 1/10 LC50 of anilofos, butachlor and isoprothiolane showed synergistic effects to uccmaluscide. However, the same treatment with 1/10 LC50 of fluazifop-P-butyl, isoprothiolane and butachlor gave additive effect to copper sulphate and niclosamide on treated snails. Data indicated that when butachlor, anilofos, fluazifop-P-butyl or isoprothiolane added to copper sulphate at the ratios of 10:40, 20:30 of LC50 as well as anilofos when added to copper sulphate at 30:20 showed synergism in activity against snails. On the contrary, the tested mixtures with niclosamide resulted in antagonistic action, while pesticide uccmaluscide mixtures showed synergistic effect, except isoprothiolane-uccmaluscide mixture at ratio 40:10 of LC50 showed additive effect on snails. Determination of niclosamide by gas chromatography, indicated that niclosamide showed relatively slower degradation either in the case of niclosamide or it's mixture with butachlor. Meanwhile, it's mixture with anilofos or fluazifop-p-butyl or isoprothiolane showed rapid degradation. PMID:12049263

Zidan, Z H; Ragab, F M A; Mohamed, K H A

2002-04-01

44

Comparative ORESTES-sampling of transcriptomes of immune-challenged Biomphalaria glabrata snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Mollusca) is an important intermediate host for the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni (Digenea, Trematoda). Anti-pathogen responses of B. glabrata were studied towards a better understanding of snail immunity and host–parasite compatibility. Open reading frame ESTs (ORESTES) were sampled from different transcriptomes of M line strain B. glabrata, 12h post-challenge with Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), Micrococcus luteus

Ben Hanelt; Cheng Man Lun; Coen M Adema

2008-01-01

45

Compatibility of Ugandan Schistosoma mansoni isolates with Biomphalaria snail species from Lake Albert and Lake Victoria.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the capacity of being intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the Ugandan F1 generation of Biomphalaria snail species that were laboratory-bred from parent populations originally collected from either Lake Victoria or Lake Albert was challenged with sympatric and non-sympatric S. mansoni isolates. After a prepatent period of 20 days, a daily 10-hourly snail shedding for cercariae was done to determine the infection rate, cercarial production per hour and survival period of infected snails. The study suggests that when parasite strains from a different geographical origin is used for infection, survival of infected snails increase, leading to an increased transmission potential. Although earlier literature had indicated that the Lake Victoria Biomphalaria sudanica is refractory to S. mansoni, we showed that all Ugandan Biomphalaria spp., including B. sudanica from all locations, were highly susceptible to the S. mansoni isolates. Thus if B. choanomphala, which is an efficient intermediate host in Lake Victoria, is given an opportunity to occupy Lake Albert, it will most likely be compatible with the Albertine S. mansoni parasites. Equally, if B. stanleyi, currently restricted to Lake Albert invades Lake Victoria, it is likely to act as an efficient intermediate host. Future work should concentrate on intraspecific population-level differences in compatibility. PMID:23454225

Adriko, Moses; Standley, Claire J; Tinkitina, Benjamin; Mwesigwa, Gerald; Kristensen, Thomas K; Stothard, J Russell; Kabatereine, Narcis B

2013-11-01

46

Helobdella nilae and Alboglossiphonia conjugata leeches as biological agents for snails control.  

PubMed

The efficacy of leeches, as biological agents, in control of snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis (Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria alexandrina) and fascioliasis (Lymnaea natalensis) as well as their effect on the non-target snails Physa acuta, Melanioides tuberculata and Cleopatra bulimoides was evaluated. Two glossiphoniid snail leeches, Helobdella nilae and Alboglossiphonia conjugata were used. They destroyed egg masses and young snails more rapidly than adult ones. H. nilae showed a stronger destructive effect than A. conjugata. In a descending order, it preferred L. natalensis followed by B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata and lastly C. bulimoides. But, A. conjugata preferred L. natalensis followed by B. truncatus, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata, B. alexandrina and lastly C. bulimoides. The detailed diagnostic morphology and biology of the two leeches were given. PMID:19530628

Abd-Allah, Karim F; Saleh, Mohamed H; El-Hamshary, Azza M S; Negm-Eldin, Mohsen M; El-Fakahany, Amany F; Abdel-Tawab, Ahmed H; Abdel-Maboud, Amina I; Aly, Nagwa S M

2009-04-01

47

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) Mediated siRNA Gene Silencing in the Schistosoma mansoni Snail Host, Biomphalaria glabrata  

PubMed Central

An in vivo, non-invasive technique for gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, has been developed using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediated delivery of long double-stranded (ds) and small interfering (si) RNA. Cellular delivery was evaluated and optimized by using a ‘mock’ fluorescent siRNA. Subsequently, we used the method to suppress expression of Cathepsin B (CathB) with either the corresponding siRNA or dsRNA of this transcript. In addition, the knockdown of peroxiredoxin (Prx) at both RNA and protein levels was achieved with the PEI-mediated soaking method. B. glabrata is an important snail host for the transmission of the parasitic digenean platyhelminth, Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis in the neotropics. Progress is being made to realize the genome sequence of the snail and to uncover gene expression profiles and cellular pathways that enable the snail to either prevent or sustain an infection. Using PEI complexes, a convenient soaking method has been developed, enabling functional gene knockdown studies with either dsRNA or siRNA. The protocol developed offers a first whole organism method for host-parasite gene function studies needed to identify key mechanisms required for parasite development in the snail host, which ultimately are needed as points for disrupting this parasite mediated disease.

Knight, Matty; Miller, Andre; Liu, Yijia; Scaria, Puthupparampil; Woodle, Martin; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn

2011-01-01

48

Thin layer chromatographic analysis of glucose and maltose in estivated Biomphalaria glabrata snails and those infected with Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin layer chromatography was used to analyze the glucose and maltose concentrations of the digestive gland–gonad complex (DGG) of uninfected-estivated Biomphalaria glabrata snails and estivated B. glabrata patently infected with Schistosoma mansoni. All snails were estivated in a most chamber at a relative humidity of 98±1% and a temperature of 23±1 °C for 14 days. Carbohydrates were extracted from the DGG with

Jamie A. Jarusiewicz; Joseph Sherma; Bernard Fried

2006-01-01

49

Effect of Echinostoma friedi (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) experimental infection on longevity, growth and fecundity of juvenile Radix peregra (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) and Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Echinostoma friedi experimental infection on longevity, growth and fecundity of two susceptible first intermediate host snails, Radix peregra and Biomphalaria glabrata, was studied to contrast the level of compatibility. 120 R. peregra and 150 B. glabrata snails were used exposed to one, three or five miracidia and divided in three categories: INF (snails exposed and infected);\\u000a ENI

Carla Muñoz-Antoli; Antoni Marín; Rafael Toledo; José-Guillermo Esteban

2007-01-01

50

Ecology of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Lake Albert, Western Uganda: snail distributions, infection with schistosomes and temporal associations with environmental dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Lake Albert, an ecological study was conducted, between June 2000 and May 2003, which assessed snail population dynamics,\\u000a parasite infection patterns and interplay of environmental factors upon Biomphalaria. Monthly sampling surveys were conducted at 29 sites monitoring populations of Biomphalaria stanleyi and Biomphalaria sudanica. Altogether, a total of 21,715 B. stanleyi and 8452 B. sudanica were collected during the period. Both species

F. Kazibwe; B. Makanga; C. Rubaire-Akiiki; J. Ouma; C. Kariuki; N. B. Kabatereine; M. Booth; B. J. Vennervald; R. F. Sturrock; J. R. Stothard

2006-01-01

51

Larval digenean community parasitizing the freshwater snail, Biomphalaria peregrina (Pulmonata: Planorbidae), from a temporary pond in Patagonia, Argentina.  

PubMed

Knowledge of population dynamics of parasites in freshwater snails from South America is scarce. The objective of the present study was to describe the infection dynamics of larval digeneans in the planorbid snail, Biomphalaria peregrina , during 2 sampling periods in a Patagonian temporary pond. In total, 1,003 snails were examined. Rediae of Notocotylus biomphalariae and Echinoparyphium sp., sporocysts of Cotylurus sp., and metacercariae of the 2 latter species were found. The overall prevalence was significantly higher in the second sampling period, always as single-species infections in the hepatopancreas. The presence of larvae in the first sampled snails of the second hydroperiod indicated that parasitized snails survive drought. Both species exhibited different seasonal prevalence patterns, with Echinoparyphium sp. present in all sampling months. Metacercariae of Echinoparyphium sp. occurred in the heart and kidney, and those of Cotylurus sp. between organs. No significant differences in overall prevalence of metacercariae were found, and a progressive rise in prevalence from spring to summer for both species was observed. Almost all size classes of B. peregrina were infected with metacercariae of both species, but rediae and sporocysts were present only in snails larger than 3.1 mm. The predictability of the hydroperiod year after year, the tolerance of B. peregrina to drought, and the survival of infected specimens allows the parasite community to show a similar pattern of infection over time. This is the first study in Argentina analyzing the infection dynamics of digeneans of a pulmonate snail from a temporary pond. PMID:20557212

Flores, Verónica R; Semenas, Liliana G; Veleizán, Aylén A

2010-06-01

52

Distribution of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, within a St Lucian field habitat  

PubMed Central

A total of 6360 mud samples were obtained, in 62 collections made with an exhaustive sampling device, from banana drains on the West Indian island of St Lucia during fortnightly samplings over a 2½-year period. Analysis of counts of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata from these samples showed that this species had a contagious distribution. This finding is consistent with other evidence that banana drains form a rigorous habitat for B. glabrata. Its distribution was more contagious than that of Oncomelania quadrasi in certain Philippine habitats and several species of aquatic snail in various African irrigation canals. The exact transformation for normalizing the snail counts for standard statistical techniques was z = x0.287 but the more convenient cube root transformation is probably adequate. However, if too few snails are collected (15 or fewer per 100 samples) or if the frequency distribution of snail counts is discontinuous, with too many widely separated high frequency counts, neither transformation will be entirely satisfactory.

Sturrock, R. F.

1975-01-01

53

Effect of Echinostoma friedi (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) experimental infection on longevity, growth and fecundity of juvenile Radix peregra (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) and Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) snails.  

PubMed

The effect of Echinostoma friedi experimental infection on longevity, growth and fecundity of two susceptible first intermediate host snails, Radix peregra and Biomphalaria glabrata, was studied to contrast the level of compatibility. 120 R. peregra and 150 B. glabrata snails were used exposed to one, three or five miracidia and divided in three categories: INF (snails exposed and infected); ENI (exposed but not infected) and C (control or not miracidial-exposed snails). R. peregra INF snails' death process starts sooner, but in a prolonged extension, while B. glabrata INF snails have a much shorter life span. The infection and the miracidial exposure are able to reduce R. peregra normal development (stunting). B. glabrata INF snails' growth exceeds that of C snails (gigantism). E. friedi produces a total parasitic castration of R. peregra and B. glabrata INF snails. R. peregra would be considered as the required snail host, while B. glabrata only as an adequate snail host. PMID:17805574

Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Marín, Antoni; Toledo, Rafael; Esteban, José-Guillermo

2007-11-01

54

The Structure of the Statocyst of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria Glabrata (Pulmonata, Basommatophora)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of the statocyst of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata has been examined by light and electron microscopy. The two statocysts are located on the dorsal-lateral side of the left and right pedal ganglion. The statocysts are spherical, fluid-filled capsules with a diameter of approximately 60 microns for young and 110 microns for adult snails. The wall of the cyst is composed of large receptor cells and many smaller supporting cells. The receptor cells bear cilia which are evenly distributed on the apical surface. The cilia have the typical 9+2 internal tubule configuration. Striate rootlets originate from the base of the basal body and run downward into the cytoplasm. Side-roots arise from one side of the basal body and a basal foot from the other. For each receptor cell, the basal foot always points to the periphery of the surface, indicating that the receptor cell is non-polarized. The receptor cells contain cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, compact Golgi bodies and multivesicular bodies. Supporting cells bearing microvilli are interposed between the receptor cells. The junction complex between the supporting cells and the receptor cells is composed of adherens and septate junctions, while between supporting cells only the adherens junctions are present. The static nerve arises from the lateral side of the cyst and contains axons in which parallel neurotubules and mitochondria are found. The axons arise directly from the base of the receptor cells without synapse. In the cyst lumen there are unattached statoconia. The statoconia have a plate-like or concentric membranous ring structure. Based on the morphology, the function of the statocyst in Biomphalaria is discussed.

Gao, Wenyuan; Wiederhold, Michael L.

1997-01-01

55

A study on biological control of six fresh water snails of medical and veterinary importance.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the molluscicidal effect of Commiphora mnolmol oil extract (Myrrh), on control of six fresh water snails (Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Physa acuta, Melania tuberculata and Cleopatra bulimoides). Also, the extract effect on the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta was evaluated. Snails and egg masses were exposed at 16-20 degrees C to various concentrations (conc.). LD50 after 24 hours expo-sure were 264/132, 283/195, 230/252, 200/224, 241/246 & 241/246 ppm for young/adult of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata and C. bulimnoides respectively. LDtoo after 24 hours exposure were 400/400 for L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, M. tuberculata and C. bulimoides, and 300/300 for Ph. acuta. Also, complete mortality (100%) was achieved for the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta at concentrations of 300, 200, 300 & 400 ppm respectively. Lower concentrations gave the same results after longer exposure. LD100 of C. molmol oil extract (Myrrh) had a rapid lethal effect on the six snail species and their egg masses in high conc. of 300 & 400 ppm. Commiphora molmol is a promising plant to be included with the candidate plant molluscicides. The oil extract of this plant showed a remarkable molluscicidal activity against used snail species. PMID:19530615

Abd-Allah, Karim F; Negm-Eldin, Mohsen M; Saleh, Mohamed H; El-Hamshary, Azza M S; El-Gozamy, Bothina M R; Aly, Nagwa S M

2009-04-01

56

Study of the snail intermediate hosts for Schistosoma mansoni on Itamaracá Island in northeast Brazil: spatial displacement of Biomphalaria glabrata by Biomphalaria straminea.  

PubMed

In 2012 a malacological survey of the breeding sites of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea , the two intermediate host snails of Schistosoma mansoni , was carried out on Itamaraca Island in Pernambuco, Brazil. This study has now been extended by studying the competition between the two species. Snails were collected and dissected to identify the species and tests were performed to verify S. mansoni infection. Student's t test was used to compare the proportion between the two species and their breeding sites and a parasitological survey was conducted among local residents, using the Kato-Katz method. The spatial distribution of the two snail species was determined using TerraView, while a snail density map was constructed by Kernel estimate. The survey identified two breeding sites for B. glabrata with 17 specimens and 19 breeding sites for B. straminea with 459 snails, all of them negative for S. mansoni infection. The statistical analysis revealed that the proportion of the numbers of specimens and breeding sites of B. straminea (37.84 ± 9.01) were significantly greater than those of B. glabrata (8.50 ± 6.50). Parasitological examinations from 41 residents diagnosed two cases of schistosomiasis with parasite loads of 60 and 84 eggs per 1 g of stool, respectively. This indiction of a competitive process between the two snail species requires monitoring of schistosomiasis in the resident and travelling human populations occupying this environment, which could potentially result in social and economic changes on the island risking its attraction as a centre for eco-tourism. PMID:24893012

Barbosa, Constança S; Barbosa, Verônica S; Nascimento, Wheverton C; Pieri, Otavio S; Araújo, Karina C G M

2014-05-01

57

Oxygen binding and its allosteric control in hemoglobin of the pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

Pulmonate snails that experience extreme variations in gas tensions and temperatures possess extracellular, high-molecular mass ( approximately 1.7 x 10(6) Da) hemoglobins (Hbs) that are little known as regards oxygenation and allosteric characteristics. Biomphalaria glabrata hemolymph exhibits a high O2 affinity (half-saturation O2 tension = 6.1 mmHg; pH 7.7, 25 degreesC), pronounced Bohr effect (Bohr factor = -0.5), and pH-dependent cooperativity (Hill's cooperativity coefficient at half-saturation = 1.1-2.0). Divalent cations increase O2 affinity, Ca2+ exerting greater effect than Mg2+. Analyses in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model indicate novel O2 affinity control mechanisms. In contrast to vertebrate Hb, where organic phosphates and protons lower affinity via decreased O2 association equilibrium constant of Hb in low-affinity state (KT), and to extracellular annelid Hbs, where protons and cations primarily modulate O2 association equilibrium constant of Hb in high-affinity state (KR), in B. glabrata Hb, the Bohr effect is mediated predominantly via KR and the cation effect via KT, reflecting preferential, oxygenation-linked proton binding to oxygenated Hb and cation binding to deoxygenated Hb. CO2 has no specific (pH independent) effect. Nonlinear van't Hoff plots show temperature dependence of the overall heats of oxygenation, indicating oxy-deoxy heat capacity differences. The findings are related to possible physiological significance in pond habitats. PMID:9950911

Bugge, J; Weber, R E

1999-02-01

58

Determination of the Effects of Estivation and Starvation on Neutral Lipids and Phospholipids in Biomphalaria glabrata (NMRI Strain) and Helisoma trivolvis (Colorado Strain) Snails by Quantitative High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography?Densitometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) was used to determine neutral lipids and phospholipids in Biomphalaria glabrata (NMRI strain) and Helisoma trivolvis (Colorado strain) snails during estivation and starvation. Control snails were maintained on a diet of Romaine lettuce leaves. HPTLC analyses showed a significant (ANOVA, P<0.05) decrease in triacylglycerols in estivated and starved snails compared to the controls and

Meredith M. White; Bernard Fried; Joseph Sherma

2006-01-01

59

Nimbus (BgI): an active non-LTR retrotransposon of the Schistosoma mansoni snail host Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

The freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata is closely associated with the transmission of human schistosomiasis. An ecologically sound method has been proposed to control schistosomiasis using genetically modified snails to displace endemic, susceptible ones. To assess the viability of this form of biological control, studies towards understanding the molecular makeup of the snail relative to the presence of endogenous mobile genetic elements are being undertaken since they can be exploited for genetic transformation studies. We previously cloned a 1.95kb BamHI fragment in B. glabrata (BGR2) with sequence similarity to the human long interspersed nuclear element (LINE or L1). A contiguous, full-length sequence corresponding to BGR2, hereafter-named nimbus (BgI), has been identified from a B. glabrata bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Sequence analysis of the 65,764bp BAC insert contained one full-length, complete nimbus (BgI) element (element I), two full-length elements (elements II and III) containing deletions and flanked by target site duplications and 10 truncated copies. The intact nimbus (BgI) contained two open-reading frames (ORFs 1 and 2) encoding the characteristic hallmark domains found in non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons belonging to the I-clade; a nucleic acid binding protein in ORF1 and an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, reverse transcriptase and RNase H in ORF2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nimbus (BgI) is closely related to Drosophila (I factor), mosquito Aedes aegypti (MosquI) and chordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis (CiI) retrotransposons. Nimbus (BgI) represents the first complete mobile element characterised from a mollusk that appears to be transcriptionally active and is widely distributed in snails of the neotropics and the Old World. PMID:17521654

Raghavan, Nithya; Tettelin, Hervé; Miller, André; Hostetler, Jessica; Tallon, Luke; Knight, Matty

2007-10-01

60

Trans-generation study of the effects of nonylphenol ethoxylate on the reproduction of the snail Biomphalaria tenagophila.  

PubMed

Nonylphenols ethoxylates (NPEs) are surfactants used in a variety of products. They are found in domestic sewage, industrial effluents and as contaminants in water bodies. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of NPE with 9.5 ethoxylate units (NPE9.5; 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 mg/L) on the reproduction of the snail Biomphalaria tenagophila. Adult snails (F0 generation) were exposed to NPE for 8 weeks. The F1 generation continued to be exposed from embryo to reproductive maturity while their descendants (F2) were exposed until day 10 after spawning. We determined the effects of NPE9.5 on the fecundity (8-week production of eggs and egg masses) of mature F0 and F1 snails. Developmental toxicity was investigated in F1 and F2 embryos. The two highest concentrations of NPE9.5 reduced the fecundity of F0. In the F1 generation, the lowest concentration enhanced the number of eggs laid per snail while the intermediate concentration had no effect and the highest one decreased the fecundity thereby suggesting a biphasic effect of NPE9.5. Study-derived NOECs (no-observed-effect-concentrations) for NPE were: fecundity, F0=10 microg/L, F1<10 microg/L; developmental toxicity, F1=100 microg/L, F2<10 microg/L. Results, therefore, indicated that B. tenagophila is highly vulnerable to NPE and that trans-generation exposure to NPE9.5 aggravates its reproductive toxicity. PMID:18061673

Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Paumgartten, Francisco Jose Roma

2009-02-01

61

Contrasting the distribution of phenotypic and molecular variation in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Population differentiation was investigated by confronting phenotypic and molecular variation in the highly selfing freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. We sampled seven natural populations separated by a few kilometers, and characterized by different habitat regimes (permanent/temporary) and openness (open/closed). A genetic analysis based on five microsatellite markers confirms that B. pfeifferi is a selfer (s?0.9) and exhibits limited variation within populations. Most pairwise FST were significant indicating marked population structure, though no isolation by distance was detected. Families from the seven populations were monitored under laboratory conditions over two generations (G1 and G2), allowing to record several life-history traits, including growth, fecundity and survival, over 25 weeks. Marked differences were detected among populations for traits expressed early in the life cycle (up to sexual maturity). Age and size at first reproduction had high heritability values, but such a trend was not found for early reproductive traits. In most populations, G1 snails matured later and at a larger size than G2 individuals. Individuals from permanent habitats matured at a smaller size and were more fecund than those from temporary habitats. The mean phenotypic differentiation over all populations (QST) was lower than the mean genetic differentiation (FST), suggesting stabilizing selection. However, no difference was detected between QST and FST for both habitat regime and habitat openness.

Tian-Bi, Y-NT; Jarne, P; Konan, J-NK; Utzinger, J; N'Goran, E K

2013-01-01

62

A MOLECULAR SURVEY OF BIOMPHALARIA IN EGYPT: IS B. GLABRATA PRESENT?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of Biomphalaria are reported from Egypt, the indigenous Biomphalaria alexandrina and Biomphalaria glabrata, the latter believed to be introduced during the past few decades. Both are known to be excellent hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the human-infecting blood fluke common in Egypt. Given the concerns regarding the spread of the exotic B. glabrata, this study was carried out to

WAEL M. LOTFY; RANDALL J. DEJONG; AHMED ABDEL-KADER; ERIC S. LOKER

63

Evolutionary history and phylogeography of the schistosome-vector freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.  

PubMed

The phylogeography of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata remains poorly known, although this species is the major vector of schistosomiasis in the New World. It was here investigated in South America and the Lesser Antilles, based on partial mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit (16S rDNA) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2) gene sequences. Sampling included 17 populations from a large part of the current geographic range of the species (Brazil, Venezuela and Lesser Antilles). Substantial variability was detected, as well as a high amount of phylogenetically informative signal. The molecular phylogeny inferred splits B. glabrata into Northern and Southern clades separated by the Amazon river, and may even suggest a supra-specific status for B. glabrata. Brazilian populations were the most diverse and appeared basal to the other populations. Venezuelan haplotypes formed a single clade, albeit not strongly supported. Two Venezuelan haplotypes appear rather similar to Brazilian haplotypes. Similarly, Lesser Antilles haplotypes clustered in the same monophyletic clade, which suggests that the recent colonisation of the Antilles has a northern South American origin. However, the estimated divergence time between Antilles and Venezuelan sequences is extremely large (conservatively higher than 10(5) years). These results are discussed in the light of (i) phylogeographic patterns at South American scale, and (ii) recurrent introduction of molluscs, especially in the Antilles, as a consequence of human activities. PMID:12242642

Mavárez, J; Steiner, C; Pointier, J-P; Jarne, P

2002-10-01

64

Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426?mg/L and LC(50) 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94?mg/L, LC(50) 13.51?mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceição, Adilva S; Moura, Flávia de B Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

2012-01-01

65

Acetylcholine-Binding Protein in the Hemolymph of the Planorbid Snail Biomphalaria glabrata Is a Pentagonal Dodecahedron (60 Subunits)  

PubMed Central

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) play important neurophysiological roles and are of considerable medical relevance. They have been studied extensively, greatly facilitated by the gastropod acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBP) which represent soluble structural and functional homologues of the ligand-binding domain of nAChR. All these proteins are ring-like pentamers. Here we report that AChBP exists in the hemolymph of the planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrata (vector of the schistosomiasis parasite) as a regular pentagonal dodecahedron, 22 nm in diameter (12 pentamers, 60 active sites). We sequenced and recombinantly expressed two ?25 kDa polypeptides (BgAChBP1 and BgAChBP2) with a specific active site, N-glycan site and disulfide bridge variation. We also provide the exon/intron structures. Recombinant BgAChBP1 formed pentamers and dodecahedra, recombinant BgAChBP2 formed pentamers and probably disulfide-bridged di-pentamers, but not dodecahedra. Three-dimensional electron cryo-microscopy (3D-EM) yielded a 3D reconstruction of the dodecahedron with a resolution of 6 Å. Homology models of the pentamers docked to the 6 Å structure revealed opportunities for chemical bonding at the inter-pentamer interfaces. Definition of the ligand-binding pocket and the gating C-loop in the 6 Å structure suggests that 3D-EM might lead to the identification of functional states in the BgAChBP dodecahedron.

Kapetanopoulos, Katharina; Braukmann, Sandra; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Tenzer, Stefan; Markl, Jurgen

2012-01-01

66

The Effect of Simulating Different Intermediate Host Snail Species on the Link between Water Temperature and Schistosomiasis Risk  

PubMed Central

Introduction A number of studies have attempted to predict the effects of climate change on schistosomiasis risk. The importance of considering different species of intermediate host snails separately has never previously been explored. Methods An agent-based model of water temperature and Biomphalaria pfeifferi population dynamics and Schistosoma mansoni transmission was parameterised to two additional species of snail: B. glabrata and B. alexandrina. Results Simulated B. alexandrina populations had lower minimum and maximum temperatures for survival than B. pfeifferi populations (12.5–29.5°C vs. 14.0–31.5°C). B. glabrata populations survived over a smaller range of temperatures than either B. pfeifferi or B. alexandrina (17.0°C–29.5°C). Infection risk peaked at 16.5°C, 25.0°C and 19.0°C respectively when B. pfeifferi, B. glabrata and B. alexandrina were simulated. For all species, infection risk increased sharply once a minimum temperature was reached. Conclusions The results from all three species suggest that infection risk may increase dramatically with small increases in temperature in areas at or near the currents limits of schistosome transmission. The effect of small increases in temperature in areas where schistosomiasis is currently found will depend both on current temperatures and on the species of snail acting as intermediate host(s) in the area. In most areas where B. pfeifferi is the host, infection risk is likely to decrease. In cooler areas where B. glabrata is the host, infection risk may increase slightly. In cooler areas where B. alexandrina is the host, infection risk may more than double with only 2°C increase in temperature. Our results show that it is crucial to consider the species of intermediate host when attempting to predict the effects of climate change on schistosomiasis.

McCreesh, Nicky; Booth, Mark

2014-01-01

67

Infectivity of Echinostoma friedi miracidia to different snail species under experimental conditions.  

PubMed

The infectivity of Echinostoma friedi (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) miracidia was studied experimentally in a range of laboratory-reared snails that coexist in the same natural locality, namely Radix peregra, Lymnaea fuscus, L. truncatula (Lymnaeidae), Gyraulus chinensis, Helisoma duryi (Planorbidae) and Physella acuta (Physidae), and snails from different geographical origins acting naturally or experimentally as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma spp., namely Planorbarius metidjensis (from Málaga, Spain), Biomphalaria glabrata (Guadeloupe), B. alexandrina (Egypt) (Planorbidae), Bulinus cernicus (Mauritius), B. globosus (Zambia), B. natalensis (South Africa) and B. truncatus (Niger) (Bulinidae). Six species of snails were found to be susceptible, with the rate of infection ranging from 0 to 36.7%. The highest infection was detected in R. peregra. The low host specificity of E. friedi might have an epidemiological significance as a requisite for a recent establishment in a new geographical area. PMID:16923279

Muñoz-Antoli, C; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J G

2006-09-01

68

Effect of plant molluscicides on selected enzymes related to energy metabolism in Biomphalaria arabica snails molluscan hosts to Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is one of the most important human parasitic diseases. One of the possible methods for the control is through the molluscan intermediate host of the parasite. Biomphalaria arabica, molluscan hosts to Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia were treated with sublethal concentrations (LC25) of dry powdered leaves Solanum nigrum. Effect of plant on ectonucleotidases (NTPdases) (ADPase & ATPase), sodium/potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) and creatine kinase (CK) was traced. The plant molluscicide was potent in inhibiting the four investigated enzymes giving a percentage inhibition range between 45-55%. The effect of the inhibited enzymes on the compatibility of the snail hosts to schistosome parasite was discussed. In conclusion, the use of sublethal concentration of S. nigrum to disturb the biochemical profile of the snail hosts could be a promising and safe strategy to control the disease. PMID:20503597

Al-Daihan, Sooad

2010-04-01

69

The symbiont Capsaspora owczarzaki, nov. gen. nov. sp., isolated from three strains of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata is related to members of the Mesomycetozoea.  

PubMed

While investigating the resistance of some strains of Biomphalaria glabrata to infection with Schistosoma mansoni, a unicellular eukaryotic symbiont was noted in the snail haemolymph. It was similar in appearance to Nuclearia sp. reported from B. glabrata. Sequences comprising the 18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and the beginning of the 28S rDNA gene regions were obtained from symbionts isolated from three strains of B. glabrata, and compared with the same sequences obtained from a culture of Nuclearia sp. 18S rDNA sequences were identical for all four isolates. 18S rDNA sequences were used in a phylogenetic analysis to produce minimum evolution, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian trees. All four analyses indicated that the B. glabrata symbiont is not closely related to Nuclearia but instead to the Mesomycetozoea, a recently recognised clade of symbiotic eukaryotes. Based on phylogenetic analysis, life history and morphological differences, the symbiont is described as a new genus and species, Capsaspora owczarzaki. Distinguishing characters are the presence of life cycle stage(s) that occur within snail haemolymph; ability to kill and ingest digenetic trematode larvae; ability to undergo asexual fission to produce daughter cells; absence of flagella, a mucous sheath and membranes containing chitin, elastin, or collagen; and presence of long unbranching pseudopodia and a penetration process. Using both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culturing techniques, the S. mansoni-resistant Salvador and 13-16-R1 strains were found to be significantly more likely to harbour the symbiont than the susceptible M line strain. Small but consistent sequence differences were noted among symbiont isolates from different snail strains, raising the possibility that the symbiont has diverged in different snail lineages. This suggests further that the symbiont is not restricted to albino lab-reared snails. A role, if any, of the symbiont in resistance awaits further study. PMID:12117501

Hertel, Lynn A; Bayne, Christopher J; Loker, Eric S

2002-08-01

70

Molecular and functional characterization of a tandem-repeat galectin from the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a tandem-repeat type galectin was characterized from an embryonic cell line (Bge) and circulating hemocytes of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. The predicted B. glabrata galectin (BgGal) protein of 32 kDa possessed 2 carbohydrate recognition domains, each displaying 6 of 8 conserved amino acids involved in galactoside-binding activity. A recombinant BgGal (rBgGal) demonstrated hemagglutinating activity against rabbit erythrocytes, which was specifically inhibited by galactose-containing sugars (lacNAc/lac > galNAc/gal). Although native galectin was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of Bge cells and the plasma membrane of a subset of snail hemocytes (60%), it was not detected in cell-free plasma by Western blot analysis. The findings that rBgGal selectively recognizes the schistosome-related sugar, lacNAc, and strongly binds to hemocytes and the tegument of S. mansoni sporocysts in a sugar-inhibitable fashion suggest that hemocyte-bound galectin may be serving as pattern recognition receptor for this, or other pathogens possessing appropriate sugar ligands. Based on molecular and functional features, BgGal represents an authentic galectin, the first to be fully characterized in the medically-important molluscan Class Gastropoda.

Yoshino, Timothy P.; Dinguirard, Nathalie; Kunert, John; Hokke, Cornelius H.

2008-01-01

71

Resistance of Biomphalaria glabrata 13-16-R1 snails to Schistosoma mansoni PR1 is a function of haemocyte abundance and constitutive levels of specific transcripts in haemocytes.  

PubMed

Continuing transmission of human intestinal schistosomiasis depends on the parasite's access to susceptible snail intermediate hosts (often Biomphalaria glabrata). Transmission fails when parasite larvae enter resistant individuals in wild snail populations. The genetic basis for differences in snail susceptibility/resistance is being intensively investigated as a means to devise novel control strategies based on resistance genes. Reactive oxygen species produced by the snail's defence cells (haemocytes) are effectors of resistance. We hypothesised that genes relevant to production and consumption of reactive oxygen species would be expressed differentially in the haemocytes of snail hosts with different susceptibility/resistance phenotypes. By restricting the genetic diversity of snails, we sought to facilitate identification of resistance genes. By inbreeding, we procured from a 13-16-R1 snail population with both susceptible and resistant individuals 52 lines of B. glabrata (expected homozygosity ?87.5%), and determined the phenotype of each in regard to susceptibility/resistance to Schistosoma mansoni. The inbred lines were found to have line-specific differences in numbers of spreading haemocytes; these were enumerated in both juvenile and adult snails. Lines with high cell numbers were invariably resistant to S. mansoni, whereas lines with lower cell numbers could be resistant or susceptible. Transcript levels in haemocytes were quantified for 18 potentially defence-related genes. Among snails with low cell numbers, the different susceptibility/resistance phenotypes correlated with differences in transcript levels for two redox-relevant genes: an inferred phagocyte oxidase component and a peroxiredoxin. Allograft inflammatory factor (potentially a regulator of leucocyte activation) was expressed at higher levels in resistant snails regardless of spread cell number. Having abundant spreading haemocytes is inferred to enable a snail to kill parasite sporocysts. In contrast, snails with fewer spreading haemocytes seem to achieve resistance only if specific genes are expressed constitutively at levels that are high for the species. PMID:24681237

Larson, Maureen K; Bender, Randal C; Bayne, Christopher J

2014-05-01

72

Immunolocalization of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium antigens reacting with their Egyptian snail vectors.  

PubMed

The reaction of the haemolymph and the tissue of infected intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus to Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium antigens were investigated using the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A new technique, Agarose cell block was used in collection of haemolymph which helped in collecting plenty of well formed cells in comparison to the ordinary one using the cytospin. Collected haemolymph and prepared tissues of uninfected and infected B. alexandria and B. truncatus were fixed and then reacted with anti-S. mansoni and anti-S. haematobium IgG polyclonal antibodies. The haemolymph and tissue of infected B. alexandrina and B. truncatus gave a positive peroxidase reaction represented by a brown colour. In haemolymph, the positive peroxidase reaction was detected mainly in the cytoplasm of the amoebocytes. In the tissue, it was detected in epithelial cells lining the tubules, male cells in the lumen of the tubules and in female oogonia cells along the periphery of the tubules. The similarity in the strength and distribution of positive reaction in B. alexandrina and B. truncates was observed as compared to control. Thus, the immunoperoxidase technique proved to be an effective indicator for the schistosome-antigen in the snails. PMID:18383803

El-Dafrawy, Shadia M; Mohamed, Amira H; Hammam, Olfat A; Rabia, Ibrahim

2007-12-01

73

Characterization of immune genes from the schistosome host snail Biomphalaria glabrata that encode peptidoglycan recognition proteins and gram-negative bacteria binding protein  

PubMed Central

Peptidoglycan (PGN) recognition proteins (PGRPs) and gram-negative bacteria binding proteins (GNBPs) play an essential role in Toll/Imd signaling pathways in arthropods. The existence of homologous pathways involving PGRPs and GNBPs in other major invertebrate phyla such as the Mollusca remains unclear. In this paper, we report four full-length PGRP cDNAs and one full-length GNBP cDNA cloned from the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, designated as BgPGRPs and BgGNBP, respectively. Three transcripts are generated from a long form PGRP gene (BgPGRP-LA) by alternative splicing and one from a short form PGRP gene (BgPGRP-SA). BgGNBP encodes a putative secreted protein. Northern blots demonstrated that expression of BgPGRP-SA and BgGNBP was down-regulated in B. glabrata at 6 h after exposure to three types of microbes. No significant changes in expression were observed in snails at 2 days post-exposure (dpe) to the trematodes Echinostoma paraensei or S. mansoni. However, up-regulation of BgPGRP-SA in M line snails at later time points of infection with E. paraensei (i.e., 12 and 17 dpe) was observed. Our study revealed that exposure to either microbes or trematodes did not alter the expression levels of BgPGRP-LAs, which were consistently low. This study provides new insights into the potential pathogen recognition capabilities of molluscs, indicates that further studies of the Toll/Imd pathways in this phylum are in order, and provides additional ways to judge the importance of this pathway in the evolution of internal defense across the animal phyla.

Zeng, Yong; Loker, Eric S.

2013-01-01

74

The introduction of Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) to the island of Saint Lucia (West Indies) and its role in the decline of Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

A malacological survey was carried out in May 1992 in the whole hydrographic system of Saint Lucia 11 years after the end of a biological control programme to eliminate Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. A competitor snail, Melanoides tuberculata, was introduced to Saint Lucia in 1978 and field experiments in several habitats were conducted by Prentice between 1978 and 1986. At the present time M. tuberculata is the most common freshwater snail in Saint Lucia. The results of the survey, undertaken in sites where B. glabrata occurred in large populations in the past showed (i) the absence of the snail hosts from seven sites now extensively colonized by the competitor (ii) the presence of B. glabrata in low or very low densities in 17 sites together with the competitor and (iii) the presence of the intermediate hosts in large populations in only two sites where M. tuberculata was absent. These results confirm the positive results observed by Prentice. The presence of another planorbid snail, B. straminea, is reported for the first time in Saint Lucia. PMID:8103624

Pointier, J P

1993-06-01

75

Bioactivity of miltefosine against aquatic stages of Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium and their snail hosts, supported by scanning electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

Background Miltefosine, which is the first oral drug licensed for the treatment of leishmaniasis, was recently reported to be a promising lead compound for the synthesis of novel antischistosomal derivatives with potent activity in vivo against different developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni. In this paper an in vitro study was carried out to investigate whether it has a biocidal activity against the aquatic stages of Schistosoma mansoni and its snail intermediate host, Biomphalaria alexandrina , thus being also a molluscicide. Additionally, to see whether miltefosine can have a broad spectrum antischistosomal activity, a similar in vitro study was carried out on the adult stage of Schistosoma haematobium, the second major human species, its larval stages and snail intermediate host, Bulinus truncutes. This was checked by scanning electron microscopy. Results Miltefosine proved to have in vitro ovicidal, schistolarvicidal and lethal activity on adult worms of both Schistosoma species and has considerable molluscicidal activity on their snail hosts. Scanning electron microscopy revealed several morphological changes on the different stages of the parasite and on the soft body of the snail, which further strengthens the current evidence of miltefosine's activity. This is the first report of mollusicidal activity of miltefosine and its in vitro schistosomicidal activity against S.haematobium. Conclusions This study highlights miltefosine not only as a potential promising lead compound for the synthesis of novel broad spectrum schistosomicidal derivatives, but also for molluscicidals.

2011-01-01

76

5-methyl-cytosine and 5-hydroxy-methyl-cytosine in the genome of Biomphalaria glabrata, a snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Background Biomphalaria glabrata is the mollusc intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, a digenean flatworm parasite that causes human intestinal schistosomiasis. An estimated 200 million people in 74 countries suffer from schistosomiasis, in terms of morbidity this is the most severe tropical disease after malaria. Epigenetic information informs on the status of gene activity that is heritable, for which changes are reversible and that is not based on the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms generate variability that provides a source for potentially heritable phenotypic variation and therefore could be involved in the adaptation to environmental constraint. Phenotypic variations are particularly important in host-parasite interactions in which both selective pressure and rate of evolution are high. In this context, epigenetic changes are expected to be major drivers of phenotypic plasticity and co-adaptation between host and parasite. Consequently, with characterization of the genomes of invertebrates that are parasite vectors or intermediate hosts, it is also essential to understand how the epigenetic machinery functions to better decipher the interplay between host and parasite. Methods The CpGo/e ratios were used as a proxy to investigate the occurrence of CpG methylation in B. glabrata coding regions. The presence of DNA methylation in B. glabrata was also confirmed by several experimental approaches: restriction enzymatic digestion with isoschizomers, bisulfite conversion based techniques and LC-MS/MS analysis. Results In this work, we report that DNA methylation, which is one of the carriers of epigenetic information, occurs in B. glabrata; approximately 2% of cytosine nucleotides are methylated. We describe the methylation machinery of B. glabrata. Methylation occurs predominantly at CpG sites, present at high ratios in coding regions of genes associated with housekeeping functions. We also demonstrate by bisulfite treatment that methylation occurs in multiple copies of Nimbus, a transposable element. Conclusions This study details DNA methylation for the first time, one of the carriers of epigenetic information in B. glabrata. The general characteristics of DNA methylation that we observed in the B. glabrata genome conform to what epigenetic studies have reported from other invertebrate species.

2013-01-01

77

Genetics of Biomphalaria glabrata: Linkage analysis of genes for pigmentation, enzymes, and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

The snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, is a major intermediate host of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, in the Americas. The inheritance and linkage relationships of a gene enabling adult snails to resist infection by a Puerto Rican strain of the parasite were analyzed using two laboratory stocks that differed in susceptibility, pigmentation, and five electrophoretically detectable enzyme markers. Segregation ratios

Margaret Mulvey; David S. Woodruff

1985-01-01

78

Toxicity of Euphorbia milii Latex and Niclosamide to Snails and Nontarget Aquatic Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of Euphorbia milii molluscicidal latex and niclosamide (NCL) to target snails (Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila) and nontarget aquatic organisms is evaluated. Planorbidae snails were killed by very low concentrations of lyophilized latex (48-h LC50, mg\\/L: B. glabrata, 0.12; B. tenagophila, 0.09; Helisoma duryi, 0.10). Latex was less toxic (48-h LC50 or EC50, mg\\/L) to oligochaeta (Tubifex tubifex,

Eduardo C. Oliveira-Filho; Francisco J. R. Paumgartten

2000-01-01

79

Use of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems to model the distribution and abundance of snail intermediate hosts in Africa: a preliminary model for Biomphalaria pfeifferi in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Geographic information system (GIS) risk models for the snail-borne diseases caused by Schistosoma spp. and Fasciola spp. have recently been developed based on climate and satellite-retrieved data on temperature and vegetation coverage. By using these models, it was possible to describe a relationship between vegetation index (Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI)), land surface temperature (T(max)) and disease prevalence, but little reference was made to the distribution of the corresponding intermediate host snail. Presence of the intermediate host snail is a key factor determining distribution of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and a good snail distribution mode would probably mirror the endemic area of schistosomiasis. In the present analysis, it was shown that snail distribution data corresponds with schistosomiasis prevalence data in relation to a forecast model based on NDVI and T(max) data derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite series. The 'best fit' model included NDVI values from 125 to 145 and a T(max) data range of 10-32 degrees C. This model included 92.3, 90.4 and 94.6% of the positive snail sample sites in GIS query overlay areas extracted from annual, dry season and wet season composite maps, respectively. For other sites in Africa, other NDVI and T(max) ranges may be more appropriate, depending on the species of snail present, a topic that will be examined in further studies. PMID:11378143

Kristensen, T K; Malone, J B; McCarroll, J C

2001-04-27

80

Freshwater snails in Asser region, Saudi Arabia with special refernce to the zoonotic trematode.  

PubMed

The present study gave information about the recent distribution of freshwater snails in Asser region, and the current status of trematode infection specially schistosomiasis within the snails. Fifteen localities were visited from Septeinber 2007 to December 2008 and the collected snails were examined for the presence of trematode infection. Seven species of snails were collected: Biomphalaria arabica, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus beccari, Physa acuta, Lymnaea palustris, Lymnaea arabica and Melanoides tuberculata. The parasitological examination revealed none trematode immature stages. PMID:19795761

Bin Dajem, Saad M

2009-08-01

81

Quantification of parasite development in the host-parasite system Biomphalaria glabrata and Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visceral mass ofBiomphalaria glabrata uninfected or infected withSchistosoma mansoni was serially sectioned. The amount of hepatopancreas tissue and of parasite tissue was quantified. In pool-infected snails the volume of the whole visceral mass increased very significantly until week 6 and then decreased. Due to the growing parasites the volume of the visceral mass in infected snails was at most

A. Schwanbek; W. Becker; H. Rupprecht

1986-01-01

82

Effects of diet and larval trematode parasitism on lutein and ?-carotene concentrations in planorbid snails as determined by quantitative high performance reversed phase thin layer chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) was used to quantify the concentrations of ?-carotene and lutein in Biomphalaria glabrata and Helisoma trivolvis (Colorado and Pennsylvania strains) snails under various conditions. These conditions were: snails fed a lettuce (L) vs. a yolk (Y) diet; B. glabrata infected with Echinostoma caproni vs. uninfected snails; and H. trivolvis (PA) infected with Echinostoma trivolvis

Ryan T. Evans; Bernard Fried; Joseph Sherma

2004-01-01

83

Snail Snooping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students in grades 5-8 learn about snail reproduction by observing and charting the activities of land snails, freshwater snails, and slugs. Instructions to implement and extend the activity are provided. (MDH)

Miller, Dorothy

1993-01-01

84

Contribution to the histology of Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

A combination of histological techniques applied to the study of Biomphalaria glabrata yielded some interesting new data about the histology of this snail, a major intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil. Three kinds of pigments were identified: a dark pigment which bleached following oxidation with potassium permanganate; a lipofuchsin-like, diastase-resistant PAS-positive pigment and an iron-containing pigment, probably related to hemosiderin. Calcium was detected in small deposits within the connective tissue and forming a dense core inside the chitinous radular teeth. The presence of fibrils, staining with Sirius-red and birefringence under polarized light strongly suggest primitive collagen tissue. The radular apparatus appeared as a storing site for glycogen, while abundant Alcian-blue positive material (proteoglycans) was extremely concentrated in the radular sac. PMID:10495661

Lemos, Q T

1999-01-01

85

Effect of three dormant oils on schistosomiasis and fascioliasis vector snails and its relation with some non-target snails.  

PubMed

Three oils were tested for their molluscicidal activity, Caple-2, Kemasol and Super-max. Super-max had the strongest toxic effect on B. alexandrina and other snail species. Its LC50 was 0.53 ppm, meanwhile LC50 of Kemasol 3.2 ppm and 4.21 ppm for Caple 2. The LC50 & LC90 of the oils were lower in Lymneae natalensis as compared to B. alexandrina. The LC50 & LC90 of the oils against non-target snails (Physa acuta, Helisoma duryi, Planorbis planorbis and Melanoides tuberculata) were higher as compared to B. alexandrina. Hatchability of snails' eggs exposed to Super-max (3.0 & 5.0 ppm) was stopped completely and l.0 ppm showed the lower percent of egg hatchability 22.7 %. Caple 2 and Kemasol did not affect eggs hatchability. Supermax had the strongest harmful effect on both miracidia and cercariae of S. mansoni. 100% mortality values were obtained for both larval stages after 8 & 9 minutes respectively when maintained at LC50. 100% mortality of miracidia occurred after 35 & 155 minutes when maintained at LC50 of Kemasol & Caple 2 respectively. The infection rate of B. alexandrina with S. mansoni miracidia was greatly reduced by the sublethal concentrations of the oils. The reduction of infection rate was higher in snails treated with Supermax (42.9%). A highly significant reduction of total cercarial production per snail was in the experimental groups as compared with controls. The prepatent period of treated snails was prolonged compared to control. Moreover, Total protein content and enzyme activities of snails treated with LC10 of oils showed a significant reduction as compared with control in haemolymyph. There was an increase of protein contents in the tissue. AlkP enzyme activity was slightly increased in haemolymph of experimental groups than controls and was significantly higher in the tissues as compared to control. ALT enzyme activity in haemolymph of experimental groups was higher than control, but lower in tissue. AST enzyme activity was higher in haemolymph and tissue of experimental groups than controls. The SDS-PAGE pattern of tissue soluble proteins extracted from treated B. alexandrina and controls showed different oils effects on the synthesis of protein within snails yielded a complex pattern of polypeptides ranging in molecular weight between 13.775 to 156.7 kDa. Many bands were present in treated snails. At least, one band was detected for snails treated with each of the oils and not in controls. The difference in the similarity indices between treatment and control; for Kemasol was 0.86 & 0.64, for Caple 2 was 0.61 & 0.55 and for Supermax was 0.64 & 0.86. LC25 of Supermax did not cause any mortality to Daphnia after 6 hr. But, LC50 & LC90 caused lower mortality after 6 hr. Kemasol caused 100% mortality after 4 hr at LC50 and 2 hr in LC90. Caple 2 caused 50% mortality of Daphnia after 5 hr at LC25 &100% mortality after 30 minutes in LC50 & LC90. PMID:17153697

Mostafa, Bayaumy B

2006-12-01

86

Snail Tales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Snail Tales" is an inquiry-based exploratory lesson for students to investigate learning and memory using common garden snails. This classroom laboratory is based on research by neuroscientists and best classroom practice.

Phelps, Cynthia L.; Willcockson, Irmgard U.; Houtz, Lynne

2004-04-01

87

A Fresh Insight into Transmission of Schistosomiasis: A Misleading Tale of Biomphalaria in Lake Victoria  

PubMed Central

Lake Victoria is a known hot-spot for Schistosoma mansoni, which utilises freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria as intermediate hosts. Different species of Biomphalaria are associated with varying parasite compatibility, affecting local transmission. It is thought that two species, B. choanomphala and B. sudanica, inhabit Lake Victoria; despite their biomedical importance, the taxonomy of these species has not been thoroughly examined. This study combined analysis of morphological and molecular variables; the results demonstrated that molecular groupings were not consistent with morphological divisions. Habitat significantly predicted morphotype, suggesting that the different Lake Victorian forms of Biomphalaria are ecophentoypes of one species. The nomenclature should be revised accordingly; the names B. choanomphala choanomphala and B. c. sudanica are proposed. From a public health perspective, these findings can be utilised by policy-makers for better understanding of exposure risk, resulting in more effective and efficient control initiatives.

Standley, Claire J.; Wade, Christopher M.; Stothard, J. Russell

2011-01-01

88

Effects of temperature on the larval development of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature on the larval development ofAngiostrongylus cantonensis inBiomphalaria glabrata were studied under controlled conditions. WhenB. glabrata were maintained at different, constant temperatures, the first-stage larvae developed to third-stage larvae between 20° and 31° C. The velocity of development to the third-stage in the snail depended on the relationship,Y=-0.1281+0.0081X (Y velocity of development;X rearing temperature). The “threshold of

Akira I. Ishii

1984-01-01

89

Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of UVB on Juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Pulmonata)  

PubMed Central

Although Schistosoma mansoni occurs mainly in the tropics, where intense levels of solar radiation are present, the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on schistosome transmission is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of UVB (290–320 nm) on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of S. mansoni. Albino and wild type snails were exposed to doses of UVB from UV-fluorescent lamps, and the following were measured: survival, photoreactivation (light-mediated DNA repair), effects on feeding behavior, and morphological tissue abnormalities. Irradiation with UVB is lethal to B. glabrata in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to white light subsequent to UVB irradiation enhances survival, probably by photoreactivation. The shell offers some, but not complete, protection. Experiments in which UVB transmittance through the shell was blocked with black nail polish suggest that injury to both exposed (headfoot) and shell-enclosed (mantle and visceral mass) tissues contributes to mortality in lethally-irradiated snails. Wild-type (pigmented) snails are less susceptible to lethal effects of UVB than albino snails, and they may be more capable of photoreactivation. UVB exposure inhibits snail feeding behavior, and causes tentacle forks and growths on the headfoot. Thus, UVB may influence the life cycle of S. mansoni by both lethal and sub-lethal damage to the snail intermediate host. However, the ability of snails to photoreactivate may mitigate these effects.

Ruelas, Debbie S.; Karentz, Deneb; Sullivan, John T.

2007-01-01

90

Snail Trails  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The slime trails of snails lead the author's students to a better understanding of science as inquiry and the processes of science. During this five-day activity, students get up close and personal with one of her favorite creatures, the land snail. Students begin by observing the organism and recording their observations. After making initial…

Galus, Pamela

2002-01-01

91

The effect of a sublethal concentration of Solanum nigrum on some antioxidants in Biomphalaria arabica.  

PubMed

Schistosomisis is endemic in many rural areas of developing countries. The life cycle of schistosomes is complex with two hosts, an intermediate snail host and a definitive human host. Biomphalaria arabica is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia. One method of controlling the disease is to break the life cycle at the intermediate host snail stage using molluscicides. Snails kill schistosomes by a mechanism involving production of reactive oxygen species. In this study malondialdehyde (MDA), and the antioxidants glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GP(x)) were determined in tissue homogenates of B. arabica treated with sublethal concentration (LC25) of the plant molluscicide Solanum nigrum. MDA, GSH and CAT were significantly increased in molluscicide-treated snails compared to controls (p < 0.000). GP(x) was decreased in treated snails. It therefore appears that a sublethal concentration of S. nigrum increases both ability of snail tissue to generate cytotoxic ROS and antioxidants for protection of the tissue against the cytotoxicity. The increase in the level of ROS would decrease snail- schistosome compatibility. PMID:20503599

Al-Daihan, Sooad; Kaggwa, J S N; El-Ansary, Afaf K

2010-04-01

92

Ecology of freshwater snails in south-western Nigeria. I: Distribution and habitat preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry and rainy season investigations of diverse freshwater habitats in south-western Nigeria revealed fourteen species of snail comprised of nine pulmonates: Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krauss, Bulinus globosus Morelet, Bulinus rohlfsi Clessin, Lymnaea natalensis Krauss, Physa ( ˜ Aplexa) waterloti Germain, Bulinus forskali Ehrenberg, Gyraulus costulatus Krauss, Ferrissia sp, Segmentorbis sp. and five prosobranchs namely, Lanistes libycus Morelet, Lanistes ovum Peters, Pila

G. T. Ndifon; F. M. A. Ukoli

1989-01-01

93

Snails home  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many gardeners and horticulturalists seek non-chemical methods to control populations of snails. It has frequently been reported that snails that are marked and removed from a garden are later found in the garden again. This phenomenon is often cited as evidence for a homing instinct. We report a systematic study of the snail population in a small suburban garden, in which large numbers of snails were marked and removed over a period of about 6 months. While many returned, inferring a homing instinct from this evidence requires statistical modelling. Monte Carlo techniques demonstrate that movements of snails are better explained by drift under the influence of a homing instinct than by random diffusion. Maximum likelihood techniques infer the existence of two groups of snails in the garden: members of a larger population that show little affinity to the garden itself, and core members of a local garden population that regularly return to their home if removed. The data are strongly suggestive of a homing instinct, but also reveal that snail-throwing can work as a pest management strategy.

Dunstan, D. J.; Hodgson, D. J.

2014-06-01

94

Early Differential Gene Expression in Haemocytes from Resistant and Susceptible Biomphalaria glabrata Strains in Response to Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

The outcome of infection in the host snail Biomphalaria glabrata with the digenean parasite Schistosoma mansoni is determined by the initial molecular interplay occurring between them. The mechanisms by which schistosomes evade snail immune recognition to ensure survival are not fully understood, but one possibility is that the snail internal defence system is manipulated by the schistosome enabling the parasite to establish infection. This study provides novel insights into the nature of schistosome resistance and susceptibility in B. glabrata at the transcriptomic level by simultaneously comparing gene expression in haemocytes from parasite-exposed and control groups of both schistosome-resistant and schistosome-susceptible strains, 2 h post exposure to S. mansoni miracidia, using an novel 5K cDNA microarray. Differences in gene expression, including those for immune/stress response, signal transduction and matrix/adhesion genes were identified between the two snail strains and tests for asymmetric distributions of gene function also identified immune-related gene expression in resistant snails, but not in susceptible. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that genes involved in mitochondrial electron transport, ubiquinone biosynthesis and electron carrier activity were consistently up-regulated in resistant snails but down-regulated in susceptible. This supports the hypothesis that schistosome-resistant snails recognize schistosomes and mount an appropriate defence response, while in schistosome-susceptible snails the parasite suppresses this defence response, early in infection.

Lockyer, Anne E.; Emery, Aidan M.; Kane, Richard A.; Walker, Anthony J.; Mayer, Claus D.; Mitta, Guillaume; Coustau, Christine; Adema, Coen M.; Hanelt, Ben; Rollinson, David; Noble, Leslie R.; Jones, Catherine S.

2012-01-01

95

Distribution of freshwater snails in the river Niger basin in Mali with special reference to the intermediate hosts of schistosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snail surveys were carried out in various parts of Mali. All areas surveyed are part of the Niger basin being either affluents\\u000a or irrigation schemes fed by this river. The snail species present varied greatly between areas. The following potential hosts\\u000a of schistosomes were recorded: Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, B. globosus, B. umbilicatus, B. forskalii and B. senegalensis.\\u000a \\u000a In the

Henry Madsen; Godefroy Coulibaly; Peter Furu

1987-01-01

96

OVICIDAL EFFECT OF PIPERACEAE SPECIES ON Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni HOST  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease with public health importance in tropical and subtropical regions. An alternative to the disease control is the use of molluscicides to eliminate or reduce the intermediate host snail population causing a reduction of transmission in endemic regions. In this study nine extracts from eight Piperaceae species were evaluated against Biomphalaria glabrata embryos at blastula stage. The extracts were evaluated in concentrations ranging from 100 to 10 mg/L. Piper crassinervium and Piper tuberculatum extracts were the most active (100% of mortality at 20 mg/L and 30 mg/L respectively).

Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Lopes, Priscila Orechio de Moraes; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko; Nakano, Eliana

2013-01-01

97

Changes in the calcium metabolism of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Levels of calcium in the haemolymph and reserves in the shell of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined for the first time. At the same time, histochemical analyses of the digestive gland of infected and uninfected snails were performed to better understand the possible changes in metabolism of calcium in these organisms. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks of infection, the snails were dissected for collection of haemolymph and separation of tissues. The highest calcium concentrations in the haemolymph were found 2 weeks after infection, with a 39.61% increase in relation to the respective control group. However, there was a significant reduction in the concentration of this ion in the haemolymph of infected snails after 1 week of infection in relation to the uninfected specimens. In parallel, intense hypocalcification was shown in the shell of infected snails 1 and 2 weeks after infection, differing significantly in relation to the respective control groups. Morphological changes in the digestive gland of infected snails were also observed, confirming the role of this ion as an important element in the parasite encapsulation process. PMID:23290340

Tunholi-Alves, V M; Tunholi, V M; Garcia, J Silva; Costa-Neto, S F; Maldonado, A; Santos, M A J; Thiengo, S C; Pinheiro, J

2014-06-01

98

Physiological changes and molluscicidal effects of crude latex and Milin on Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

Euphorbian latex is commonly used as molluscicides and the Euphorbia milii latex was reported as most powerful molluscicidal agents. The physiological and lethal effects of the latex components of Euphorbia milii, on the intermediate host Biomphalaria spp., of the human liver parasite Schistosoma mansoni were described in this study. The standard methodologies for testing plant derived molluscicides formulated by World Health Organisation (WHO) were followed with some modifications. The young specimen of fresh water snails showed altered physiological and physical response towards latex components. The working concentration of non-proteinaceous fraction (up to 0.1%) of the latex reduced the active physiological behaviour but was non-lethal to young specimen of snails. However, proteinaceous fractions (0.1mg/l) of the latex were found lethal to snail population, and lethality was enhanced with small amount of the non-proteinaceous fraction (0.01%) of the latex. Milin, a serine protease(up to 0.1mg/l), isolated from the latex of Euphorbia milii significantly reduced the growth and feeding activity but was not lethal to young specimen of snails. With an addition of 0.01% of non-proteinaceous fractions to Milin, lethality result was similar to that of crude latex. Milin is likely to be responsible for alteration of normal physiological functions and lethality of snails, thus it may be used as a molluscicide to control transmission of the endemic disease schistosomiasis. PMID:18262588

Yadav, Subhash C; Jagannadham, M V

2008-04-01

99

Mitotic responses to injected extracts of larval and adult Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria glabrata: effects of dose and colchicine treatment.  

PubMed

Biomphalaria glabrata snails injected with extracts of Schistosoma mansoni miracidia, mother sporocyst excretory-secretory product, cercariae, and adults, showed increased mitotic activity in histological sections of the amebocyte-producing organ (APO) relative to water-injected controls. The mitotic response was generally higher to extracts adjusted to 1.0 mg protein/ml than to a 10-fold lower concentration, although in most cases this increase was not statistically significant. Colchicine treatment prior to fixation significantly increased the number of mitotic figures in APOs of all groups of extract-injected snails, both with respect to water-injected controls and, with 1 exception, relative to matched colchicine-untreated snails. Extracts of adult worms elicited a pronounced mitotic response, suggesting that adults may share a mitogenic molecule with larvae. The high variability in counts of mitotic figures may limit the usefulness of this histological method. PMID:17436970

Sullivan, John T

2007-02-01

100

Biochemical profile of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).  

PubMed

The effect of infection by Echinostoma paraensei on the activity of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata were investigated after exposure to five or 50 miracidia. The biochemical concentrations were measured weekly until the end of the fourth week after exposure. There was a significant decrease in the concentrations of total proteins in the snails exposed both to five and 50 miracidia, as well as an increase in the nitrogenous products of excretion, ALT and AST activities. The higher ALT activity in the hemolymph of the snails after infection with 50 miracidia suggests highest energetic requirement in these snails in relation to snails exposed to five miracidia. The results also suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities, frequently associated with tissue damages. This can be explained by damage due to penetration by the miracidia and subsequent development of intramolluscan sporocysts and rediae. PMID:21537991

Tunholi, Victor M; Lustrino, Danilo; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius M; Mello-Silva, Clélia C C; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de A

2011-09-01

101

Molluscicidal and ovicidal activities of plant extracts of the Piperaceae on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease caused by Schistosoma and occurs in 54 countries, mainly in South America, the Caribbean region, Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. Currently, 5 to 6 million Brazilian people are infected and 30,000 are under infection risk. Typical of poor regions, this disease is associated with the lack of basic sanitation and very frequently to the use of contaminated water in agriculture, housework and leisure. One of the most efficient methods of controlling the disease is application of molluscicides to eliminate or to reduce the population of the intermediate host snail Biomphalaria glabrata. Studies on molluscicidal activity of plant extracts have been stimulated by issues such as environmental preservation, high cost and recurrent resistance of snails to synthetic molluscicides. The aim of this study was to determine the molluscicide action of extracts from Piperaceae species on adult and embryonic stages of B. glabrata. Fifteen extracts from 13 Piperaceae species were obtained from stems, leaves and roots. Toxicity of extracts was evaluated against snails at two different concentrations (500 and 100 ppm) and those causing 100% mortality at 100 ppm concentration were selected to obtain the LC?? (lethal concentration of 90% mortality). Piper aduncum, P. crassinervium, P. cuyabanum, P. diospyrifolium and P. hostmannianum gave 100% mortality of adult snails at concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 ppm. These extracts were also assayed on embryonic stages of B. glabrata and those from P. cuyabanum and P. hostmannianum showed 100% ovicidal action at 20 ppm. PMID:20444299

Rapado, L N; Nakano, E; Ohlweiler, F P; Kato, M J; Yamaguchi, L F; Pereira, C A B; Kawano, T

2011-03-01

102

Prevalence and intensity of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in freshwater snails in relation to some ecological and biological factors.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to record different intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis and to determine the infection prevalence and intensity of this parasite in freshwater snails in relation to some ecological and biological factors. The study was conducted at Al-Salam irrigation Canal and Al-Abtal village (north Sinai) for one year, from March 2004 to February 2005. Thirteen species of freshwater snails of nine families were examined for A. cantonensis infection. Six species were found infected with A. cantonensis larvae. These species were L. carinatus, C. bulimoides, C. cyclostomoides, B. alexandrina, L. natalensis and M. tuberculta. The infection prevalence of A. cantonensis in the examined snails ranged from 0.63 to 2.24%. L. carinatus snail had the highest prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of A. cantonensis infection. Positive correlations were found between both prevalence and mean abundance of A. cantonensis and host size in L. carinatus and M. tuberculata. Negative correlations were detected between salinity and prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of larvae of A. cantonensis. The results demonstrated seasonal and spatial variation in the prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of infection among examined snails. In this study, A. cantonensis larvae were found in a wide range of freshwater snails and M. tuberculata snail was recorded as a new intermediate host for the first time. In conclusion, further investigations in other areas and controlled laboratory experiments of infection approaches are required to evaluate the possible threat of this parasite on humans. PMID:17432058

Ibrahim, M M

2007-03-01

103

2-aminoethylphosphonic Acid metabolism during embryonic development of the planorbid snail helisoma.  

PubMed

In freshly laid egg masses of Helisoma sp., more than 95 percent of the phosphorus is found in alkylphosphonic acids, as determined by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These compounds are metabolized during embryonic development, as shown by differential acid hydrolysis and experiments with phosphorus-33-labeled phosphoric acid. Further, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates phosphonic acid involvement in related snail families, including the schistosomal vector Biomphalaria glabrata. PMID:17811198

Miceli, M V; Henderson, T O; Myers, T C

1980-09-12

104

Molluscicidal activities of six species of Bignoniaceae from north-eastern Brazil, as measured against Biomphalaria glabrata under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

The molluscicidal profile and brine-shrimp bio-activity of the ethanolic extracts of plants from the Bignoniaceae family were determined. The six extracts investigated were of the stems of Melloa quadrivalvis and Tabebuia aurea, and whole plants of Adenocalymma comosum, Arrabidaea parviflora, Cuspidaria argentea and Clytostoma binatum. When tested in the laboratory, with Biomphalaria glabrata as the test snail, all six extracts gave median lethal concentrations (9-54 microg/ml) that fell well below the upper threshold, of 100 mug/ml, set for a potential molluscicide by the World Health Organization. PMID:17524251

Silva, T M S; Da Silva, T G; Martins, R M; Maia, G L A; Cabral, A G S; Camara, C A; Agra, M F; Barbosa-Filho, J M

2007-06-01

105

Development of species-specific primers for identification of Biomphalaria arabica, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Schistosoma mansoni is mediated through the intermediate host Biomphalaria arabica which lives in Saudi Arabia. Molecular characterization and identification of this intermediate host are important for epidemiological studies of schistosomiasis. The present work aimed to determine the molecular variations among the populations of B. arabica found in Southern part of Saudi Arabia, and to develop species-specific primers for identification of these snails as a first step in the development of multiplex PCR for simultaneously identifying the snails and diagnosing its infections in a single step. Five populations of Saudi B. arabica snails were collected from freshwater bodies. Three populations were collected from Asser and two populations were collected from AL-Baha. Genomic DNA was extracted from snails and was amplified using five different RAPD-PCR primers. The banding patterns of amplified materials by primers P1 and P5 were identical in all populations. However, the rest primers displayed intra-specific differences among populations with variable degrees. Largest sizes of RAPD-PCR products were cloned into TA cloning vector as a preparatory step for DNA sequence analysis. After sequencing, similarity searches of obtained DNA sequences revealed that there are no similar sequences submitted to genebank data bases and its associated banks. The results obtained will be helpful in the development of simultaneous identification of B. arabica snails and diagnosis of S. mansoni infection within it in a single step by an implementation of multiplex PCR. PMID:24596501

Al-Quraishy, Saleh A; Bin Dajem, Saad M; Mostafa, Osama M; Ibrahim, Essam H; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed

2014-01-01

106

Purification and characterization of a tetrameric alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitor from the gastropod mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed Central

The alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors (alpha Ms) are a family of proteins with the unique ability to inhibit a broad spectrum of proteinases. Whereas monomeric, dimeric and tetrameric alpha Ms have been identified in vertebrates, all invertebrate alpha Ms characterized so far have been dimeric. This paper reports the isolation and characterization of a tetrameric alpha M from the tropical planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrata. The sequence of 18 amino acids at the N-terminus indicates homology with other alpha Ms. The subunit mass of approx. 200 kDa was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and SDS/PAGE. The quaternary structure was determined by sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation and native pore-limit electrophoresis. Evidence for a thioester is provided by the fact that methylamine treatment prevents the autolytic cleavage of the snail alpha M subunit and results in the release of 4 mol of thiols per mol of snail alpha M. The snail alpha M inhibited the serine proteinase trypsin, the cysteine proteinase bromelain and the metalloproteinase thermolysin. The spectrum of proteinases inhibited, together with the demonstration of steric protection of the proteinase active site and a "slow to fast' conformational change after reacting with trypsin, all suggest that the inhibitory mechanism of the snail alpha M is similar to the "trap mechanism' of human alpha 2-macroglobulin.

Bender, R C; Bayne, C J

1996-01-01

107

Apple Snails (Ampullariidae)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides information on apple snails (family Ampullariidae), the largest living freshwater snails on earth, often kept as aquarium pets because of their attractive appearance and size. Topics include the care of apple snails, their anatomy, species and genera, and information on snail pests, embryology, and genetics. There is also a frequently-asked-questions feature, photos, links to web sites and literature, and an online discussion forum.

Ghesquiere, Stijn A.

108

Extra-cellular matrix changes in Schistosoma mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

Reactivity of snails against parasites exhibits a primitive focal reaction, with encapsulation, phagocytosis and destruction of parasite larvae by macrophage-like cells - the hemocytes. This reaction mimics granulomatous inflammation seen in higher animals. However, different from the latter, little is known about the participation of extra-cellular matrix in such snail defense reactions. Normal and Schistosoma mansoni-infected Biomphalaria glabrata of different strains were submitted to cytological, histological, ultrastructural and biochemical methods in order to investigate the behavior of extra-cellular tissues at the site of anti-parasite reactions. In spite of the presence of two cell-types in peripheral hemolymph, only one cell-type was present at the sites of tissue reactions. Although pre-existent collagen and elastic fibers and microfibrils sometimes appeared slightly compressed around focal reactions, no evidences of duplication, synthesis or deposition of connective-tissue extra-cellular components were observed within or around the zones of reactive cell accumulations. Thus, tissue reactions against S. mansoni in the snail B. glabrata appeared exclusively dependent on one specific population of hemocytes. PMID:12700871

Borges, Claudia Maria da Cunha; Andrade, Zilton A

2003-01-01

109

The Effect of Increasing Water Temperatures on Schistosoma mansoni Transmission and Biomphalaria pfeifferi Population Dynamics: An Agent-Based Modelling Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is increasing interest in the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. Little is known, however, about the likely effects of increasing water-body temperatures on transmission. Methods We have developed an agent-based model of the temperature-sensitive stages of the Schistosoma and intermediate host snail life-cycles, parameterised using data from S. mansoni and Biomphalaria pfeifferi laboratory and field-based observations. Infection risk is calculated as the number of cercariae in the model, adjusted for their probability of causing infection. Results The number of snails in the model is approximately constant between 15–31°C. Outside this range, snail numbers drop sharply, and the snail population cannot survive outside the range 14–32°C. Mean snail generation time decreases with increasing temperature from 176 days at 14°C to 46 days at 26°C. Human infection risk is highest between 16–18°C and 1pm and 6–10pm in calm water, and 20–25°C and 12–4pm in flowing water. Infection risk increases sharply when temperatures increase above the minimum necessary for sustained transmission. Conclusions The model suggests that, in areas where S. mansoni is already endemic, warming of the water at transmission sites will have differential effects on both snails and parasites depending on abiotic properties of the water-body. Snail generation times will decrease in most areas, meaning that snail populations will recover faster from natural population reductions and from snail-control efforts. We suggest a link between the ecological properties of transmission sites and infection risk which could significantly affect the outcomes of interventions designed to alter water contact behaviour – proposing that such interventions are more likely to reduce infection levels at river locations than lakes, where infection risk remains high for longer. In cooler areas where snails are currently found, increasing temperatures may significantly increase infection risk, potentially leading to new, high-intensity foci of infection.

McCreesh, Nicky; Booth, Mark

2014-01-01

110

Molecular evidence supports an african affinity of the neotropical freshwater gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata, say 1818, an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed Central

Freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria, Preston 1910, are the most important and widely distributed intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the blood fluke responsible for human intestinal schistosomiasis, in Africa and the Neotropics. S. mansoni is thought to have been imported repeatedly into the Americas during the last 500 years with the African slave trade. Surprisingly considering that the New and Old World separated 95-106 million years (Myr) ago, the disease rapidly became established due to the presence of endemic susceptible hosts. Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships within Biomphalaria may provide insights into the successful intercontinental spread of S. mansoni. Parsimony and distance analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear sequences show African taxa to be monophyletic and Neotropical species paraphyletic, with Biomphalaria glabrata forming a separate clade from other Neotropical Biomphalaria, and ancestral to the African taxa. A west to east trans-Atlantic dispersal of a B. glabrata-like taxon, possibly as recently as the Plio-Pleistocene (1.8-3.6 Myr ago) according to a general mitochondrial clock, would fit these observations. Vicariance or an African origin for B. glabrata followed by multiple introductions to South America over the past 500 years with the African slave trade seem unlikely explanations. Knowledge of the phylogenetic relationships among important intermediate host species may prove useful in furthering control measures which exploit genetic differences in susceptibility to parasites, and in elucidating the evolution of schistosome resistance.

Campbell, G; Jones, C S; Lockyer, A E; Hughes, S; Brown, D; Noble, L R; Rollinson, D

2000-01-01

111

Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria mollusks at São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using geostatistical procedures.  

PubMed

Geostatistics is used in this work to make inferences about the presence of the species of Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and/or B. straminea), intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, at the São Francisco River Basin, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of these geostatistical procedures, known as indicator kriging, allows the classification of categorical data, in areas where the data are not available, using a punctual sample set. The result is a map of species and risk area definition. More than a single map of the categorical attribute, the procedure also permits the association of uncertainties of the stochastic model, which can be used to qualify the inferences. In order to validate the estimated data of the risk map, a fieldwork in five municipalities was carried out. The obtained results showed that indicator kriging is a rather robust tool since it presented a very good agreement with the field findings. The obtained risk map can be thought as an auxiliary tool to formulate proper public health strategies, and to guide other fieldwork, considering the places with higher occurrence probability of the most important snail species. Also, the risk map will enable better resource distribution and adequate policies for the mollusk control. This methodology will be applied to other river basins to generate a predictive map for Biomphalaria species distribution for the entire state of Minas Gerais. PMID:19046937

Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Felgueiras, Carlos A; Moura, Ana C M; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

2009-03-01

112

Potential use of glycogen level as biomarker of chemical stress in Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

Biomphalaria glabrata, a freshwater gastropod mollusc, was tested as biondicator organism to assess cadmium, lead and arsenic exposure using acute laboratory bioassays. Modifications of glycogen levels were measured in different anatomical regions of B. glabrata in order to test the usefulness of this parameter as a general biomarker of chemical stress. The snails were exposed 96 h to different concentrations of the following contaminants: 0.1 and 0.05 mg Cd/L; 0.5, 0.1 and 0.05 mg Pb/L; 0.5, 0.1 and 0.05 mg As/L. Significant decreases in the polysaccharide content were observed in gonadal region for all treated animals. Arsenic and lead at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L level of exposure were also able to decrease the levels of glycogen in the pulmonary and digestive gland region. Glycogen content in the cephalopedal region of treated animals presented a significant decrease (p<0.05) when compared with control organisms only for arsenic at the highest level of exposure. To establish possible correlations between glycogen and contaminants accumulated by snails, analyses of the elements bioaccumulated in the different anatomical regions of B. glabrata were also performed. Cadmium and lead followed a similar pattern of bioaccumulation with highest values in the digestive gland region. Arsenic bioaccumulation, however, was highest in the gonadal region. PMID:16740351

Ansaldo, Martín; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Holmes-Brown, Eduardo; Agote, Marcos; Ansay, Cristina V; Guerrero, Noemí R Verrengia; Wider, Eva A

2006-07-01

113

Toxicity of Euphorbia milii latex and niclosamide to snails and nontarget aquatic species.  

PubMed

The toxicity of Euphorbia milii molluscicidal latex and niclosamide (NCL) to target snails (Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila) and nontarget aquatic organisms is evaluated. Planorbidae snails were killed by very low concentrations of lyophilized latex (48-h LC(50), mg/L: B. glabrata, 0.12; B. tenagophila, 0.09; Helisoma duryi, 0.10). Latex was less toxic (48-h LC(50) or EC(50), mg/L) to oligochaeta (Tubifex tubifex, 0.31), planktonic crustacea (Daphnia similis, 0.38; C. dubia, 1.07; Artemia sp., 0.93), and fishes (Danio rerio, 0.96; Poecilia reticulata, 1. 39), and considerably less toxic to Ampullariidae snails (Pomacea sp. , 10.55) and frog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana, 7.50). Latex (up to 100 mg/L) was not toxic to bacteria (P. putida and V. fischeri), algae (Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris), and mosquito larvae (Anopheles albitarsis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes fluviatilis). NCL was very toxic (48-h LC(50) or EC(50), mg/L) to Planorbidae snails (B. glabrata, 0.15, B. tenagophila, 0.13; H. duryi, 0.10), T. tubifex (0.11), crustacea (D. similis, 0.19; Ceriodaphnia dubia, 0.47; Artemia sp. 0.18), fishes (D. rerio, 0.25; P. reticulata, 0.29), R. catesbeiana (0.16), and Pomacea sp. (0.76). NCL was toxic to bacteria, algae (96-h IC(50), mg/L: S. capricornutum, 0.34; C. vulgaris, 1.23) and slightly toxic to mosquito larvae. In conclusion, E. milii latex, as compared with the reference molluscicide niclosamide, presents a higher degree of selectivity toward snails which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma trematodes. PMID:10903832

Oliveira-Filho, E C; Paumgartten, F J

2000-07-01

114

Differential transcriptomic responses of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Mollusca) to bacteria and metazoan parasites, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea, Platyhelminthes).  

PubMed

A 70-mer-oligonucleotide-based microarray (1152 features) that emphasizes stress and immune responses factors was constructed to study transcriptomic responses of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to different immune challenges. In addition to sequences with relevant putative ID and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, the array features non-immune factors and unknown B. glabrata ESTs for functional gene discovery. The transcription profiles of B. glabrata (3 biological replicates, each a pool of 5 snails) were recorded at 12h post-wounding, exposure to Gram negative or Gram positive bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus, respectively), or infection with compatible trematode parasites (Schistosoma mansoni or Echinostoma paraensei, 20 miracidia/snail), relative to controls, using universal reference RNA. The data were subjected to Significance Analysis for Microarrays (SAM), with a false positive rate (FPR) snails challenged with E. coli (83 up/20 down) or M. luteus (120 up/42 down), mostly showing up-regulation of defense and stress-related features. Significantly altered expression of selected immune features indicates that B. glabrata detects and responds differently to compatible trematodes. Echinostoma paraensei infection was associated mostly with down-regulation of many (immune-) transcripts (42 up/68 down), whereas S. mansoni exposure yielded a preponderance of up-regulated features (140 up/23 down), with only few known immune genes affected. These observations may reflect the divergent strategies developed by trematodes during their evolution as specialized pathogens of snails to negate host defense responses. Clearly, the immune defenses of B. glabrata distinguish and respond differently to various immune challenges. PMID:19962194

Adema, Coen M; Hanington, Patrick C; Lun, Cheng-Man; Rosenberg, George H; Aragon, Anthony D; Stout, Barbara A; Lennard Richard, Mara L; Gross, Paul S; Loker, Eric S

2010-01-01

115

Effect of cadmium, lead and arsenic on the oviposition, hatching and embryonic survival of Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

Biomphalaria glabrata is a widespread freshwater gastropod mollusc. The easy aquaculture of these organisms allow its use as an accessible tool for contamination bioassays. B. glabrata showed marked metabolic responses when exposed to cadmium, lead and arsenic. Those responses could also affect the reproduction of the snails. Taking into account this hypothesis, B. glabrata were exposed for 96 h (acute laboratory bioassays) to different concentrations of cadmium (0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L), lead (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L) and arsenic (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L). Snails were removed from the aquaria while eggs were left in the same contaminant concentrations. The effect of the assayed toxicants on snail reproduction was registered as the alterations of the total number of laid eggs (TNLE), hatching time and embryonic survival. At 0.10 mg/L cadmium significantly decreased the TNLE (p<0.05) and no embryos survived. The lowest assayed level (0.05 mg/L) of cadmium, delayed the hatching time twice when it was compared with the control group (p<0.01). Lead decreased the TNLE at 0.5 mg/L level (p<0.01). The other assayed doses (0.05 and 0.10 mg/L) also decreased embryonic survival significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively) and extended twice the time to hatching (p<0.01). The 0.50 mg/L level killed all embryos. Arsenic at all studied concentrations decreased the TNLE (p<0.05) while the hatching time was increased by 50%. Embryo survival only decreased at the highest level (0.5 mg/L) of arsenic assayed. In summary, the acute exposure (96 h) to cadmium lead and arsenic, altered the reproduction of B. glabrata, modifying the TNLE, hatching time and embryonic survival. PMID:19108873

Ansaldo, Martín; Nahabedian, Daniel E; Di Fonzo, Carla; Wider, Eva A

2009-03-01

116

Involvement of protein kinase C signalling and mitogen-activated protein kinase in the amebocyte-producing organ of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca).  

PubMed

Mechanisms that regulate hemocyte production in molluscs, at either the organismal or cellular levels, are not well understood. In the present study, 24-h saline cultures of the amebocyte-producing organ (APO) of the schistosome-transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata were used to test for the potential involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) signalling in hematopoiesis. Exposure to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an activator of PKC, resulted in an increase in the number of dividing hematopoietic cells in APOs from schistosome-resistant Salvador snails. PMA-induced cell division was blocked by treatment with U0126, an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, MEK1/2. These results suggest that PKC-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, ERK1/2, is involved in cell division in the APO. PMID:19183562

Salamat, Zahra; Sullivan, John T

2009-06-01

117

RoboSnail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a team from the Mechanical Engineering Department studies snail movement for inspiration that may lead to new forms of robotic locomotion.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2006-05-09

118

Large-scale determinants of intestinal schistosomiasis and intermediate host snail distribution across Africa: does climate matter?  

PubMed

The geographical ranges of most species, including many infectious disease agents and their vectors and intermediate hosts, are assumed to be constrained by climatic tolerances, mainly temperature. It has been suggested that global warming will cause an expansion of the areas potentially suitable for infectious disease transmission. However, the transmission of infectious diseases is governed by a myriad of ecological, economic, evolutionary and social factors. Hence, a deeper understanding of the total disease system (pathogens, vectors and hosts) and its drivers is important for predicting responses to climate change. Here, we combine a growing degree day model for Schistosoma mansoni with species distribution models for the intermediate host snail (Biomphalaria spp.) to investigate large-scale environmental determinants of the distribution of the African S. mansoni-Biomphalaria system and potential impacts of climatic changes. Snail species distribution models included several combinations of climatic and habitat-related predictors; the latter divided into "natural" and "human-impacted" habitat variables to measure anthropogenic influence. The predictive performance of the combined snail-parasite model was evaluated against a comprehensive compilation of historical S. mansoni parasitological survey records, and then examined for two climate change scenarios of increasing severity for 2080. Future projections indicate that while the potential S. mansoni transmission area expands, the snail ranges are more likely to contract and/or move into cooler areas in the south and east. Importantly, we also note that even though climate per se matters, the impact of humans on habitat play a crucial role in determining the distribution of the intermediate host snails in Africa. Thus, a future contraction in the geographical range size of the intermediate host snails caused by climatic changes does not necessarily translate into a decrease or zero-sum change in human schistosomiasis prevalence. PMID:22142789

Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope; Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Saarnak, Christopher F L; Simoonga, Christopher; Mubita, Patricia; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Rahbek, Carsten; Kristensen, Thomas K

2013-11-01

119

Electrophoretic studies on the digestive gland esterases of some biomphalarid and lymnaeid snails  

PubMed Central

Because of the problems encountered in the classification of snails of medical importance, biochemical methods have been sought to help clarify the situation. Of these, the separation of the enzymes of adult snails by electrophoresis seems the most promising but very few attempts have been made so far to use the results for taxonomic studies. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the use of the enzyme systems of neotropical planorbid and of lymnaeid snails to elucidate their taxonomy and also snail—schistosome relationships at the species and population levels. The findings show the characteristic electrophoretic patterns of digestive gland esterases of the planorbid and lymnaeid snails used, as well as their variation and the level of such variation among certain populations and the consistency of the patterns among others. The results also show that, in general, the extent of variation between some populations of the same species is greater than the differences between species of the same group. However, at the specific level, there are similarities suggesting close relationships between some populations of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila on the one hand, and of certain populations of B. peregrina and of B. obstructa on the other hand. The present study has thrown some light on the question of electrophoretic variation in enzymes, and the ways in which this can be applied to studies of the genetics of snails. A correlation is suggested between certain patterns that indicate biochemical similarities or differences among the planorbid snail populations and the susceptibility of the species or the population to infection with the schistosomes. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 2

Malek, Emile A.; File, Sharon K.

1971-01-01

120

Experimental evidence of size/age-biased infection of Biomphalaria glabrata (Pulmonata: Planorbidae) by an incompatible parasite species: consequences for biological control.  

PubMed

Because the digenetic trematode Plagiorchis elegans can elicit a rapid, severe and permanent suppression of the reproductive output in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, it is considered as a potential biological control agent of human schistosomiasis. This assumption however is derived from laboratory experiments that are poor approximations of what occurs in a natural ecosystem. In order to recreate conditions that resemble those found in nature, we exposed B. glabrata as individual populations composed of a young, juvenile and adult snails to various concentrations of P. elegans eggs to assess the probability of encountering the parasite eggs by the different snail sizes/age groups. We demonstrated that within populations composed of different size/age classes, larger/older snails displayed the negative effects typical of exposure to P. elegans, whereas smaller individuals appeared relatively unaffected, particularly at lower levels of exposure. These findings coupled with the difficulty of producing large quantities of parasite eggs suggest that P. elegans has limited efficiency as a biological control agent of human schistosomiasis. PMID:20601177

Daoust, Simon P; Mader, Brian J; Maure, Fanny; McLaughlin, J Daniel; Thomas, Frédéric; Rau, Manfred E

2010-10-01

121

Reduced Susceptibility of a Biomphalaria tenagophila Population to Schistosoma mansoni after Introducing the Resistant Taim/RS Strain of B. tenagophila into Herivelton Martins Stream  

PubMed Central

Studies performed in the last 30 years demonstrated that a strain of B. tenagophila from the Taim Biological Reserve is completely resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection. This resistance to parasite infection is a dominant characteristic during crossbreeding with susceptible B. tenagophila strains. These experiments also identified a 350 bp molecular marker that is exclusive to the Taim strain and does not occur in other geographic strains of this snail species. The Taim strain (Taim/RS) of Biomphalaria tenagophila was bred on a large scale, physically marked and introduced into a stream in which previous malacological analyses had revealed the presence of only parasite-susceptible B. tenagophila. Samples of offspring captured 4, 11 and 14 months after the introduction of the Taim strain were examined, and the susceptibility of the snails to S. mansoni infection dropped from 38.6–26.5% to 2.1% during the 14 months after the introduction of the Taim snail strain. A significant correlation was also observed between the absence of infection and the identification of the Taim molecular marker. These results demonstrate that the genetic marker from the Taim strain was successfully introduced into the wild snail population. In addition, a significant relationship exists between the marker and resistance to infection.

Marques, Daisymara Priscila de Almeida; Rosa, Florence Mara; Maciel, Engels; Negrao-Correa, Deborah; Teles, Horacio Manuel Santana; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Jannotti-Passos, Liana Konovaloff; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech

2014-01-01

122

Circulating Biomphalaria glabrata hemocyte subpopulations possess shared schistosome glycans and receptors capable of binding larval glycoconjugates  

PubMed Central

Host lectin-like recognition molecules may play an important role in innate resistance in Biomphalaria glabrata snails to larval schistosome infection, thus implicating parasite-expressed glycans as putative ligands for these lectin receptors. While host lectins may utilize specific glycan structures for parasite recognition, it also has been hypothesized that the parasite may use this system to evade immune detection by mimicking naturally-expressed host glycans, resulting in reduced immunorecognition capacity. By employing immunocytochemical (ICC) and Western blot assays using schistosome glycan-specific monoclonal antibodies (mABs) we sought to identify specific glycan epitopes (glycotopes) shared in common between larval S. mansoni and B. glabrata hemocytes, the primary immune effector cells in snails. Results confirmed the presence of selected larval glycotopes on subpopulations of hemocytes by ICC and association with numerous hemocyte proteins by Western blot analyses, including a trimannosyl core N-glycan (TriMan), and two fucosylated lacdiNAc (LDN) variants, F-LDN and F-LDN-F. Snail strain differences were seen in the prevalence of constitutively expressed F-LDN on hemocytes, and in the patterns of protein immunoreactivity with these mABs. In contrast, there was little to no hemocyte reactivity with mABs for Lewis X (LeX), LDN, LDN-F or LDN-DF. When intact hemocytes were exposed to larval transformation products (LTPs), distinct cell subpopulations displayed weak (LeX, LDN-DF) to moderate (LDN, LDN-F) glycotope reactivity by ICC, including snail strain differences in the prevalence of LDN-reactive cellular subsets. Far-Western blot analyses of the hemocytes following exposure to larval transformation proteins (LTPs) also revealed multiple mAB-reactive hemocyte protein bands for LeX, LDN, LDN-F, and LDN-DF. These results demonstrate the existence of complex patterns of shared larval glycan constitutively expressed on hemocytes and their proteins, as well as the ability or hemocytes to acquire shared glycans by the selective binding of parasite-released LTP. Unraveling the functional significance of these naturally expressed and acquired shared glycans on specific hemocyte populations represents an important challenge for future investigations.

Yoshino, Timothy P.; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Gonzalez, Laura A.; Hokke, Cornelis H.

2013-01-01

123

Modelling spatial distribution of snails transmitting parasitic worms with importance to human and animal health and analysis of distributional changes in relation to climate.  

PubMed

The environment, the on-going global climate change and the ecology of animal species determine the localisation of habitats and the geographical distribution of the various species in nature. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of such changes on snail species not only of interest to naturalists but also of importance to human and animal health. The spatial distribution of freshwater snail intermediate hosts involved in the transmission of schistosomiasis, fascioliasis and paramphistomiasis (i.e. Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis) were modelled by the use of a maximum entropy algorithm (Maxent). Two snail observation datasets from Zimbabwe, from 1988 and 2012, were compared in terms of geospatial distribution and potential distributional change over this 24-year period investigated. Climate data, from the two years were identified and used in a species distribution modelling framework to produce maps of predicted suitable snail habitats. Having both climate- and snail observation data spaced 24 years in time represent a unique opportunity to evaluate biological response of snails to changes in climate variables. The study shows that snail habitat suitability is highly variable in Zimbabwe with foci mainly in the central Highveld but also in areas to the South and West. It is further demonstrated that the spatial distribution of suitable habitats changes with variation in the climatic conditions, and that this parallels that of the predicted climate change. PMID:24893011

Pedersen, Ulrik B; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Soko, White; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Kristensen, Thomas K

2014-05-01

124

The interaction of light and gravity on the transmission of Echinostoma caproni (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) cercariae to the second intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).  

PubMed

The current experiments were designed to assess the interaction of light and gravity on the transmission of Echinostoma caproni cercariae to the second intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata. Transmission chambers were constructed of clear polyvinyl chloride pipe covered with a black sleeve to exclude light. Snails were constrained within the chamber to prevent movement, while permitting the cercariae to swim freely. A trial consisted of 2 infected B. glabrata shedding E. caproni cercariae placed at the center of the chamber with 5 uninfected B. glabrata placed 10 cm above and below the shedding snails as sentinels. Three experiments, consisting of 12 trials each, were conducted under the following lighting conditions, i.e., above and below the transmission chamber, and in complete darkness. In all 3 experiments, the proportion of metacercariae was significantly higher in snails at the top of the chamber. The results suggest that a negative geotaxis is the primary factor in the initial dispersal of E. caproni cercariae. Coupling negative geotaxis and positive phototaxis (light from above) resulted in a significantly higher proportion of metacercariae in sentinel snails at the top of the transmission chamber when corrected for cercarial density. There was no significant difference in the proportion of metacercariae in snails at the top or bottom of the transmission chamber with light at the bottom of the chamber or in complete darkness. Cercariae of E. caproni only respond to light in context, i.e., from above, and ignore the light stimulus when it comes from an unexpected location (bottom of the water column). Significantly greater numbers of cercariae were released from shedding snails when light was present, suggesting that emergence of cercariae from B. glabrata is dependent on light regardless of the position of the light source. PMID:19842717

Platt, Thomas R; Greenlee, Hali; Zelmer, Derek A

2010-04-01

125

Effects of Echinostoma caproni miracidia dose on the neutral and polar lipids of Biomphalaria glabrata as determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.  

PubMed

The effects of a 5 versus 25 miracidia exposure of Echinostoma caproni on the lipid composition of Biomphalaria glabrata was studied using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometry. A 50 miracidia dose was not used because such a high level of exposure caused severe snail mortality by 3 weeks post-exposure (PE). Lipids were determined in the digestive-gland gonad complex (DGG) of the exposed snails and in the uninfected matched controls at 2 and 4 weeks PE. Extraction of lipids from DGGs was carried out by the Folch method with chloroform-methanol (2:1), and extracts were analyzed on Analtech HPTLC-HLF pre-adsorbent silica gel plates with measurement of separated bands using a CAMAG Scanner 3. For neutral lipids the mobile phase was petroleum ether-diethyl ether-glacial acetic acid (80:20:1) and the detection reagent was 5% ethanolic phosphoric acid, and for polar lipids chloroform-methanol-deionized water (65:25:4) mobile phase and 10% cupric sulfate in 8% phosphoric acid detection reagent were used. No significant differences in the concentrations of free sterols, free fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine were seen at 2 weeks PE in any of the groups. At 4 weeks PE, the free fatty acid concentration increased significantly in the snails exposed to 25 miracidia compared to that of the 5 miracidia/snail group or the controls. Elevation of the free fatty acid fraction in the high dose snail group suggested that some changes occurred in the lipid metabolism of the snails in that group as a function of miracidia dose. PMID:24338329

Hunsberger, Alexandra; Fried, Bernard; Sherma, Joseph

2013-12-01

126

3D-Ultrastructure, Functions and Stress Responses of Gastropod (Biomphalaria glabrata) Rhogocytes  

PubMed Central

Rhogocytes are pore cells scattered among the connective tissue of different body parts of gastropods and other molluscs, with great variation in their number, shape and size. They are enveloped by a lamina of extracellular matrix. Their most characteristic feature is the “slit apparatus”, local invaginations of the plasma membrane bridged by cytoplasmic bars, forming slits of ca. 20 nm width. A slit diaphragm creates a molecular sieve with permeation holes of 20×20 nm. In blue-blooded gastropods, rhogocytes synthesize and secrete the respiratory protein hemocyanin, and it has been proposed–though not proven–that in the rare red-blooded snail species they might synthesize and secrete the hemoglobin. However, the cellular secretion pathway for respiratory proteins, and the functional role(s) of the enigmatic rhogocyte slit apparatus are still unclear. Additional functions for rhogocytes have been proposed, notably a role in protein uptake and degradation, and in heavy metal detoxification. Here we provide new structural and functional information on the rhogocytes of the red-blooded freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata. By in situ hybridization of mantle tissues, we prove that rhogocytes indeed synthesize hemoglobin. By electron tomography, the first three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the slit apparatus are provided, showing detail of highly dense material in the cytoplasmic bars close to the slits. By immunogold labelling, we collected evidence that a major component of this material is actin. By genome databank mining, the complete sequence of a B. glabrata nephrin was obtained, and localized to the rhogocytes by immunofluorescence microscopy. The presence of both proteins fit the ultrastructure-based hypothesis that rhogocytes are related to mammalian podocytes and insect nephrocytes. Reactions of the rhogocytes to deprivation of food and cadmium toxification are also documented, and a possible secretion pathway of newly synthesized respiratory proteins through the slit apparatus is discussed.

Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Guler, M. Alptekin; Lieb, Bernhard; Barbeck, Mike; Ghanaati, Shahram; Markl, Jurgen

2014-01-01

127

Comparative toxicity of Euphorbia milii latex and synthetic molluscicides to Biomphalaria glabrata embryos.  

PubMed

Plant molluscicides have been regarded as possible alternatives to the costly and environmentally hazardous molluscicides currently available. This study was undertaken to compare the developmental toxicity of a plant molluscicide (Euphorbia milii latex, LAT) with that of three synthetic molluscicidal compounds. Biomphalaria glabrata egg masses (0-15 h after spawning) were exposed to molluscicides for 96 h and thereafter examined up to the 14th day after spawning. Embryo deaths, abnormal embryo development (malformations) and the day of hatching were recorded. Although exhibiting a weak ovicidal effect, LAT markedly impaired the development of snail embryos at concentrations 1000 microg L(-1) and produced anomalies (EC(50)=2040 microg L(-1)) such as abnormal shells, hydropic embryos, cephalic and non-specific malformations. Embryolethal potencies of molluscicides were as follows: triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH; LC(50)=0.30 microg L(-1))>niclosamide (NCL; LC(50)=70 microg L(-1))>copper sulphate (CuSO(4); LC(50)=2190 microg L(-1)) > LAT (LC(50)=34030 microg L(-1)). A few malformations were recorded in embryos exposed to concentrations of TPTH within the range of lethal concentrations, while almost no anomalies were noted among those treated with NCL or CuSO(4). A hatching delay (hatching on day 10 after spawning or later) was observed among LAT-exposed embryos. The effects of NCL, TPTH and CuSO4 on hatching were to some extent masked by their marked embryolethality. The no-observed effect concentrations (NOEC) for embryotoxicity were as follows: TPTH, 0.1 microg L(-1); NCL, 25.0 microg L(-1); CuSO(4), 500.0 microg L(-1) and LAT, 500.0 microg L(-1). Results from this study suggest that, although LAT was not acutely embryolethal after a short-term exposure, it markedly disrupted snail development. The marked embryotoxicity of E. milii possibly contributes to its effectiveness as a molluscicide. PMID:20594574

Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo C; Geraldino, Barbara R; Coelho, Deise R; De-Carvalho, Rosângela R; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

2010-09-01

128

Small Snails, Enormous Elephants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 2 of PDF) introduces learners to the real size of animals using nonstandard measurement. Learners use Unifix cubes and yarn lengths to measure a variety of animals (photos), from the very small like a snail to the very large like an elephant. As an extension, learners can use the cubes to create a bar graph depicting the animals' lengths.

Museum, Chicago C.

2011-01-01

129

Biomphalaria straminea (Mollusca: Planorbidae) as an intermediate host of Ribeiroia sp. (Trematoda: Psilostomidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Species of Ribeiroia are trematode parasites of birds and mammals that have acquired notoriety since Ribeiroia ondatrae was identified as a cause of mortality and malformations in North American amphibians. Although species of Ribeiroia have been reported in vertebrate hosts in South America, the snails involved in its transmission remain unknown in Brazil. During malacological studies conducted at Pampulha Reservoir, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between January 2009 and February 2012, in total 14,264 specimens of Biomphalaria straminea were collected, of which 192 (1.35%) were infected with gymnocephalous cercariae. The larvae were used for experimental infection of laboratory-reared guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ); metacercariae obtained in these fishes were orally administered to domestic ducks (Cairina moschata); and adult parasites were obtained from the proventriculus 10 days after infection. Based on morphological and molecular analyses, the parasite was identified as Ribeiroia sp., a species morphologically similar to R. ondatrae , but distinctly different at the molecular level. This is the first report of larvae of Ribeiroia in Brazil and B. straminea as a new intermediate host for this genus. PMID:23421393

Pinto, H A; Jadin, R C; Orlofske, S A; Johnson, P T J; Melo, A L

2013-10-01

130

Reduction in transmission of Schistosoma mansoni by a four-year focal mollusciciding programme against Biomphalaria glabrata in Saint Lucia.  

PubMed

The effect of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni of a focal snail control programme was investigated over four years amongst approximately 1250 people living in five communities in the steep-sided Soufriere river valley, St. Lucia, West Indies. Bayer 6076 was applied from constant flow drip cans to 12 stream sections at a target dose of 8 mg/litre clonitralide every four weeks. Only proven and potential transmission sites were treated; marsh habitats, where Biomphalaria glabrata were widespread, were ignored. In the stream snail numbers were reduced by 94% in the first year and by 100% thereafter. Incidence of new S. mansoni infections amongst children fell from 18% in the last year before control to 6% and 9% after three and four years respectively. Amongst children and adults in the four years of control the conversion/reversion ratio declined leading to a lowering of the over-all prevalence from 40% to 22%. Parasitologically the results were similar to those of a previously evaluated area-wide mollusciciding programme. The mean annual cost per person protected was US $2.60. This figure is atypically high because the topography of the area severely limited the population size. PMID:7330940

Prentice, M A; Jordan, P; Bartholomew, R K; Grist, E

1981-01-01

131

No effect of mate novelty on sexual motivation in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: When mating effort (e.g. via ejaculates) is high, males are expected to strategically allocate their resources depending on the expected fitness gains from a given mating opportunity. One mechanism to achieve strategic mating is the Coolidge effect, where male sexual motivation declines across repeated encounters with a familiar partner, but resuscitates when encountering a novel female. Experimental tests of

Ines K Häderer; Johanna Werminghausen; Nico K Michiels; Nadine Timmermeyer; Nils Anthes

2009-01-01

132

Experimental evaluation of Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Crustacea: Ostracoda) in the biocontrol of Schistosomiasis mansoni transmission  

PubMed Central

Objective To test Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Baird) (C. novaezelandiae), sub-class Ostracoda, obtained from the Nile, Egypt for its predatory activity on snail, Biomphalaria alexandrina (B. alexandrina), intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) and on the free-living larval stages of this parasite (miracidia and cercariae). Methods The predatory activity of C. novaezelandiae was determined on B. alexandrina snail (several densities of eggs, newly hatched and juveniles). This activity was also determined on S. mansoni miracidia and cercariae using different volumes of water and different numbers of larvae. C. novaezelandiae was also tested for its effect on infection of snails and on the cercarial production. Results C. novaezelandiae was found to feed on the eggs, newly hatched and juvenile snails, but with significant reduction in the consumption in the presence of other diet like the blue green algae (Nostoc muscorum). This ostracod also showed considerable predatory activity on the free-living larval stages of S. mansoni which was affected by certain environmental factors such as volume of water, density of C. novaezelandiae and number of larvae of the parasite. Conclusions The presence of this ostracod in the aquatic habitat led to significant reduction of snail population, infection rate of snails with schistosme miracidia as well as of cercarial production from the infected snails. This may suggest that introducing C. novaezelandiae into the habitat at schistosome risky sites could suppress the transmission of the disease.

Yousif, Fouad; Hafez, Sherif; El Bardicy, Samia; Tadros, Menerva; Taleb, Hoda Abu

2013-01-01

133

The role of light and gravity in the experimental transmission of Echinostoma caproni (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) cercariae to the second intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).  

PubMed

Trematode cercariae inhabit predictable environments and respond to trigger cues with genetically fixed releaser responses when foraging for the upstream host. The effect of light and gravity on the transmission of Echinostoma caproni cercariae to Biomphalaria glabrata was investigated experimentally. Transmission chambers were constructed of clear polyvinyl chloride pipe. Snails were constrained within the chamber to prevent movement, while permitting the cercariae to swim freely. A trial consisted of 2 infected B. glabrata shedding E. caproni cercariae placed at the center of the chamber, with 5 uninfected B. glabrata placed 10 cm on either side (or above and below) of the shedding snails as sentinels. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection sentinel snails in either experiment (light vs. dark or top vs. bottom); however, mean intensity was significantly higher in sentinel snails in the dark portion of the chamber (42.5 vs. 10.4; P = 0.001) and the top of the transmission chamber (66.1 vs. 38.0; P = 0.0003). There was a high correlation between the number of metacercariae collected from sentinel snails and the total number of infective units (metacercariae + unsuccessful cercariae): r = 0.992 (light vs. dark) and r = 0.957 (top vs. bottom), respectively, at cercariae densities estimated from 22 to 3,304/L. The results suggest that cercariae of E. caproni exhibit negative photo- and geotaxis in searching for a second intermediate host. Stereotypical releaser responses to environmental trigger cues (light and gravity) allow E. caproni cercariae to exploit flexible strategies for completing the life cycle consistent with the broad range second intermediate and definitive hosts used by E. caproni cercariae and adults, respectively. PMID:18954154

Platt, Thomas R; Burnside, Lindsay; Bush, Elizabeth

2009-06-01

134

Baldomero Olivera: Cone Snail Peptides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever considered the venom of a snail? Most people think of snakes when they think of venom but overlook snails. There are, however, almost 10,000 species of venomous predatory snails according to this engaging lecture from Professor Baldomero Olivera. In his talk, Professor Olivera explores how these venoms have been used to understand the nervous system and develop new drugs. The lecture is divided into three different sections, and visitors shouldn't miss Part 2 ("How a Fish Hunting Snail Captures Its Prey"). Visitors are also welcome to download the entire lecture and the accompanying slides.

Olivera, Baldomero

135

Baldomero Olivera: Cone Snail Peptides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever considered the venom of a snail? Most people think of snakes when they think of venom but overlook snails. There are, however, almost 10,000 species of venomous predatory snails according to this engaging lecture from Professor Baldomero Olivera. In his talk, Professor Olivera explores how these venoms have been used to understand the nervous system and develop new drugs. The lecture is divided into three different sections, and visitors shouldn't miss Part 2 ("How a Fish Hunting Snail Captures Its Prey"). Visitors are also welcome to download the entire lecture and the accompanying slides.

Olivera, Baldomero

2012-01-31

136

A large-scale experiment in the control of aquatic snails by the use of molluscicides on a sugar estate in the Northern Region of Tanganyika*  

PubMed Central

The author describes a large-scale experiment in which the molluscicide Bayer 73 (Bayluscide) was used in an attempt to eliminate Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the snail host of Schistosoma mansoni, from an irrigation system in Tanganyika. Applied at a concentration of 1 p.p.m., the molluscicide gave a very high kill of snails and much of the treated area remained completely free of vector snails for seven months after treatment. However, there were a few survivors in small pockets associated with a drainage area that became flooded during heavy rains coincident with the application of molluscicide. From these survivors a dramatic resurgence of snails occurred in some of the treated canals. This resurgence may be analogous to similar phenomena observed in some insecticide work. The suggestion is made that removal of parasites and predators, in particular trematode parasites, by a molluscicide might increase the snail's capacity for repopulation. Studies of the seasonal fluctuations of snail population density in an adjacent, but separate, irrigation system suggest that molluscicide applications would be more effective if timed to coincide with the end of the rainy seasons. ImagesFIG. 2

Crossland, N. O.

1963-01-01

137

Modeling the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and host snails in Uganda using satellite sensor data and Geographical Information Systems.  

PubMed

The potential value of MODIS satellite sensor data on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperatures (LST) for describing the distribution of the Schistosoma mansoni-"Biomphalaria pfeifferi"/Biomphalaria sudanica parasite-snail system in inland Uganda, were tested by developing annual and seasonal composite models, and iteratively analysing for their relationship with parasite and snail distribution. The dry season composite model predicted an endemic area that produced the best fit with the distribution of schools with > or =5% prevalence. NDVI values of 151-174, day temperatures of 26-36 degrees C, and night temperatures of 15-20 degrees C were used as criteria for the prediction model. Using the same approach with host snail data indicated that most of Uganda is suitable "B. pfeifferi"/B. sudanica habitat, except for possibly the north-eastern region of the country. The parasite, however, appears to be restricted in its distribution in both the north-eastern and the south-western regions of Uganda. The absence of disease in the south-west can not be attributed to the absence of snail hosts. Results suggest a combination of satellite sensor data on temperature and standard climate data on precipitation, as the best ecological determinants of the S. mansoni-"B. pfeifferi"/B. sudanica system. Satellite composite models and logistic regression analysis, suggest low night time temperature as one of the significant factors inhibiting S. mansoni transmission in the south-western highland areas of Uganda. The developed models are, however, unique, representing species-specific ecologic preferences of the S. mansoni-"B. Pfeifferi"/B. sudanica system in inland Uganda. Further validation studies are needed to test the value of the model in other countries in East Africa. PMID:16044680

Stensgaard, A; Jørgensen, A; Kabatereine, N B; Malone, J B; Kristensen, T K

2005-03-01

138

Polymorphism in pleistocene land snails.  

PubMed

Under suitable conditions the colors and patterns of the shells of land snails may be preserved for thousands of years. In a late Pleistocene population of Limicolaria martensiana all the major color forms that occur in modern living snails may be distinguished, and the basic polymorphism is at least 8,000 to 10,000 year old. PMID:17830234

Owen, D F

1966-04-01

139

Involvement of the Cytokine MIF in the Snail Host Immune Response to the Parasite Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

We have identified and characterized a Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) family member in the Lophotrochozoan invertebrate, Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. In mammals, MIF is a widely expressed pleiotropic cytokine with potent pro-inflammatory properties that controls cell functions such as gene expression, proliferation or apoptosis. Here we show that the MIF protein from B. glabrata (BgMIF) is expressed in circulating immune defense cells (hemocytes) of the snail as well as in the B. glabrata embryonic (Bge) cell line that has hemocyte-like features. Recombinant BgMIF (rBgMIF) induced cell proliferation and inhibited NO-dependent p53-mediated apoptosis in Bge cells. Moreover, knock-down of BgMIF expression in Bge cells interfered with the in vitro encapsulation of S. mansoni sporocysts. Furthermore, the in vivo knock-down of BgMIF prevented the changes in circulating hemocyte populations that occur in response to an infection by S. mansoni miracidia and led to a significant increase in the parasite burden of the snails. These results provide the first functional evidence that a MIF ortholog is involved in an invertebrate immune response towards a parasitic infection and highlight the importance of cytokines in invertebrate-parasite interactions.

Baeza Garcia, Alvaro; Pierce, Raymond J.; Gourbal, Benjamin; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Colinet, Dominique; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Dissous, Colette; Coustau, Christine

2010-01-01

140

The ecological differences between Bulinus beccari, the intermediate host of Schistsoma haematobium and Biomphalaria pfeifferi the intermediate host of S. mansoni in in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Bulinus beccari, intermediate host of Schistsoma haematobium, and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, intermediate host of S. mansoni have different geographical distribution in Jazan Region. The role of rain fall, ionic composition of water. water temperature and pH Grades were studied. Fluctuation of snail population densities were accompanied with corresponding fluctuation rates of rainfall. B. pfeifferi showed a wider and heavier shell than B. beccari, which might enable it to resist the effects of flash floods. B. beccari showed a higher tolerance of total dissolved solids and calcium carbonate than B. pfeifferi. Average maximum tolerated concentration of dissolved solids and calcium carbonate for B. beccari was 1254ppm and 813ppm, while that of B. pfeifferi was 455ppm and 603ppm. Average water temperature of B. beccari habitats was 25-36.3 degrees C while that of B. pfeifferi was 25-28 degrees C. No significant statistical difference in different pH grades was observed. PMID:22435148

Al-Sheikh, Adel H; Dagal, M A

2011-12-01

141

Molluscicidal saponins from leaves of Hedera canariensis.  

PubMed

Activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of Hedera canariensis (var. Gloire de Maringo) Wild leaves afforded five saponins 1-5. Chemical and spectral methods (MS, 1HNMR, 13CNMR) showed that they are glycosides of hederagenin and oleanolic acid. The results showed that 4,5 exhibited molluscicidal properties, compound 1 was inactive. Mortality rate of exposed snails increased by increasing plant extract concentration. Lymnaea cailliaudi was more sensitive to plant extract than Biomphalaria alexandrina. The histopathological study revealed distinct damage in the structure of the stomach and ovotestis of treated L. cailliaudi snails. Saponin content was determined in term of haemolytic index. PMID:19143139

Abdel Rahman, E H; Hassan, Soad E

2008-04-01

142

Effect of crude lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli O127:B8 on the amebocyte-producing organ of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca).  

PubMed

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) to which the internal defense system (IDS) of both vertebrates and invertebrates responds. We measured the mitotic response of the hematopoietic tissue of the schistosome-transmitting snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, to crude LPS from Escherichia coli 0127:B8. In a dose-response study, snails were injected with a range of concentrations of crude LPS, and mitotic figures were enumerated in histological sections of amebocyte-producing organ (APO) fixed at 24h post-injection (PI) following a 6h treatment with 0.1% colchicine. In APOs from Salvador strain snails, which are genetically resistant to infection with Schistosoma mansoni, LPS concentrations of 0.01 mg/ml and above triggered a large increase in mitotic activity, whereas in APOs from schistosome-susceptible NIH albino snails, concentrations of 0.1mg/ml elicited a much smaller, but statistically significant increase. A time course study, without colchicine treatment, revealed that in Salvador APOs the mitotic response to 0.1mg/ml occurred by 18 h PI, peaked at 24h, and returned to control levels by 72 h; NIH albino APOs showed no detectible response. When Salvador APOs were exposed to crude LPS in vitro, no increase in mitotic activity occurred, a result suggesting the possible requirement for a peripheral tissue or hemolymph factor. The increased cell proliferation induced by crude LPS represents a novel systemic response of an invertebrate IDS to one or more PAMPs from a Gram-negative bacterium. PMID:21530581

Sullivan, John T; Bulman, Christina A; Salamat, Zahra

2011-11-01

143

Preliminary evaluation of some wild and cultivated plants for snail control in Machakos District, Kenya.  

PubMed

Fifty local medicinal, agricultural and wild growing deciduous plants, representing 49 species, 46 genera and 22 families, were screened as water extracts at 1:1000 concentration for molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria pfeifferi in Machakos District, Kenya. Forty-seven of the 50 (94%) plants and 106 of the 134 (79%) plant materials (roots, stems, leaves, fruits, flowers and seeds) were molluscicidal. The leaves of Pappea capensis (Sapindaceae), Steganotaenia araliacea (Umbelliferae), Zornia setosa subsp. obvata (Papilionaceae) and Terminalia kilimandscharica (Combretaceae), the flower pods of Hyptis pectinata (Labiatae), the seeds of Acacia nilotica (Mimosaceae) and the fruits and roots of Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae) gave 100% kill. Another 15 species produced mortality rates between 53% and 87%. Plants were evaluated for possible use in local snail control programmes by considering their growing characteristics, habitat requirements, toxicity in non-target organisms, abundance in the study area and competing uses. PMID:3656497

Kloos, H; Thiongo, F W; Ouma, J H; Butterworth, A E

1987-08-01

144

Identification of a genetic marker associated with the resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

In schistosomiasis, the host/parasite interaction remains not completely understood. Many questions related to the susceptibility of snails to infection by respective trematode still remain unanswered. The control of schistosomiasis requires a good understanding of the host/parasite association. In this work, the susceptibility/resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection within Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were studied starting one month post infection and continuing thereafter weekly up to 10 weeks after miracidia exposure. Genetic variations between susceptible and resistant strains to Schistosoma infection within B. alexandrina snails using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis technique were also carried out. The results showed that 39.8% of the examined field snails were resistant, while 60.2% of these snails showed high infection rates.In the resistant genotype snails, OPA-02 primer produced a major low molecular weight marker 430 bp. Among the two snail strains there were interpopulational variations, while the individual specimens from the same snail strain, either susceptible or resistant, record semi-identical genetic bands. Also, the resistant character was ascendant in contrast to a decline in the susceptibility of snails from one generation to the next. PMID:17293980

Abdel-Hamid, Abdel-Hamid Z; Rawi, Sayed M; Arafa, Azza F

2006-12-01

145

Inhibition of cholinesterases and carboxylesterases of two invertebrate species, Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus, by the carbamate pesticide carbaryl.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of sublethal concentrations of the carbamate carbaryl on the cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CES) activities present in the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and in the pigmented Biomphalaria glabrata gastropod were investigated. The results showed that ChE activity from both species was inhibited by in vivo and in vitro exposure to carbaryl, with EC(50) and IC(50) values approximately 20 times lower for the oligochaete than for the gastropod. On the other hand, the recovery process in uncontaminated media was more efficient in oligochaetes than in snails. Thus, in only 2h the oligochaetes showed no inhibition with respect to control values whereas the snails did not reach control values even after 48h of being in pesticide-free water. CES activity was investigated in whole body soft tissue homogenates using three different substrates: p-nitrophenyl butyrate, 1-naphthyl acetate (NA) and 2-NA. In addition, the presence of multiple CES isozymes in L. variegatus and B. glabrata extracts, with activity towards 1- and 2-NA, was confirmed by native polyacrylamide electrophoresis. In both species, the activities measured using the naphthyl substrates were higher than the activity towards p-nitrophenyl butyrate. In addition, B. glabrata showed a higher CES activity than L. variegatus independently of the substrate used. In L. variegatus, in vivo CES activity towards the different substrates was less sensitive to carbaryl inhibition than ChE activity. In contrast, in B. glabrata, CES activity towards p-nitrophenyl butyrate was inhibited at lower insecticide concentrations than ChE. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the sensitivity of non-target freshwater invertebrate Type B-esterases towards pesticides. PMID:19879661

Kristoff, Gisela; Guerrero, Noemi R Verrengia; Cochón, Adriana C

2010-01-31

146

Effect of crude extract of Solanum xanthocarpum against snails and mosquito larvae.  

PubMed

The ethanolic crude extract from Solanum xanthocarpum was investigated for its molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, and Indoplanorbis exustus, the snail vector of intestinal echinostomiasis and Schistosoma spindale, together with the larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti, mosquito vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever and Culex quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of urban bancroftian filariasis. The bioassays were carried out following the methods recommended by the World Health Organization. For molluscicidal activity, the LC50 against Bi. glabrata and I. exustus were reported at 163.85 and 198.00 mg/l while the LC90 were 219.33 and 236.80 mg/l, respectively. Regarding mosquito larvicidal activity, the LC50 against the larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 788.10 and 573.20 mg/l, while the LC90 were 1288.91 and 1066.93 mg/l, respectively. These results suggest a preparation of ingredients from this plant may be used as a biological larvicide for these vectors in the field. PMID:20578514

Changbunjong, Tanasak; Wongwit, Waranya; Leemingsawat, Somjai; Tongtokit, Yuwadee; Deesin, Vanida

2010-03-01

147

Red blood with blue-blood ancestry: intriguing structure of a snail hemoglobin.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic enigma of snail hemoglobin, its isolated occurrence in a single gastropod family, the Planorbidae, and the lack of sequence data, stimulated the present study. We present here the complete cDNA and predicted amino acid sequence of two hemoglobin polypeptides from the planorbid Biomphalaria glabrata (intermediate host snail for the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni). Both isoforms contain 13 different, cysteine-free globin domains, plus a small N-terminal nonglobin "plug" domain with three cysteines for subunit dimerization (total M(r) approximately 238 kDa). We also identified the native hemoglobin molecule and present here a preliminary 3D reconstruction from electron microscopical images (3 nm resolution); it suggests a 3 x 2-mer quaternary structure (M(r) approximately 1.43 MDa). Moreover, we identified a previously undescribed rosette-like hemolymph protein that has been mistaken for hemoglobin. We also detected expression of an incomplete hemocyanin as trace component. The combined data show that B. glabrata hemoglobin evolved from pulmonate myoglobin, possibly to replace a less-efficient hemocyanin, and reveals a surprisingly simple evolutionary mechanism to create a high molecular mass respiratory protein from 78 similar globin domains. PMID:16877545

Lieb, Bernhard; Dimitrova, Konstantina; Kang, Hio-Sun; Braun, Sabrina; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Martin, Andreas; Hanelt, Ben; Saenz, Steven A; Adema, Coen M; Markl, Jürgen

2006-08-01

148

Water regulation in aestivating snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aestivating snails form abundant lamellate vesicles in the cells of the mantle collar, an epithelium known to regulate the rate at which water is lost from its surface. Since lamellate vesicles are much reduced in hydrated mantle tissue of recently stimulated animals it is tentatively concluded that the vesicles, and their contents, form a barrier to water movement within these

P. F. Newell; J. Machin

1976-01-01

149

Fungal farming in a snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria

Brian R. Silliman; Steven Y. Newell

2003-01-01

150

Analysis of snail genes in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis: insight into snail gene family evolution.  

PubMed

The transcriptional repressor snail was first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, where it initially plays a role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation, and later plays a role in neurogenesis. Among arthropods, this role of snail appears to be conserved in the insects Tribolium and Anopheles gambiae, but not in the chelicerates Cupiennius salei and Achaearanea tepidariorum, the myriapod Glomeris marginata, or the Branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna. These data imply that within arthropoda, snail acquired its role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation in the insect lineage. However, crustaceans are a diverse group with several major taxa, making analysis of more crustaceans necessary to potentially understand the ancestral role of snail in Pancrustacea (crustaceans + insects) and thus in the ancestor of insects as well. To address these questions, we examined the snail family in the Malacostracan crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We found three snail homologs, Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2 and Ph-snail3, and one scratch homolog, Ph-scratch. Parhyale snail genes are expressed after gastrulation, during germband formation and elongation. Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2, and Ph-snail3 are expressed in distinct patterns in the neuroectoderm. Ph-snail1 is the only Parhyale snail gene expressed in the mesoderm, where its expression cycles in the mesodermal stem cells, called mesoteloblasts. The mesoteloblasts go through a series of cycles, where each cycle is composed of a migration phase and a division phase. Ph-snail1 is expressed during the migration phase, but not during the division phase. We found that as each mesoteloblast division produces one segment's worth of mesoderm, Ph-snail1 expression is linked to both the cell cycle and the segmental production of mesoderm. PMID:22466422

Hannibal, Roberta L; Price, Alivia L; Parchem, Ronald J; Patel, Nipam H

2012-05-01

151

Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ? MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ? TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ? MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ? MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of key enzymes. This results in enhanced glucose dependency and leads to cell death under low-glucose conditions. On the other hand, the reduced requirements for oxygen and nutrients from the surrounding environment, might confer the resistance to cell death induced by hypoxia and malnutrition.

Haraguchi, Misako, E-mail: haraguci@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Indo, Hiroko P. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Iwasaki, Yasumasa [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan)] [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoichiro [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Fukushige, Tomoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Majima, Hideyuki J. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Furukawa, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ozawa, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

2013-03-22

152

Celss nutrition system utilizing snails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

153

Fungal farming in a snail.  

PubMed

Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria irrorata grazes fungus-infected wounds on live marsh grass throughout its range. Field experiments demonstrate a facultative, farming mutualism between Littoraria and intertidal fungi. Snails graze live grass primarily not to feed but to prepare substrate for fungal growth and consume invasive fungi. Fungal removal experiments show that snails and fungi act synergistically to suppress marsh grass production. These results provide a case of fungus farming in the marine environment and outside the class Insecta and reveal a previously undemonstrated ecological mechanism (i.e., facilitation of fungal invasion) by which grazers can exert top-down control of marine plant production. PMID:14657360

Silliman, Brian R; Newell, Steven Y

2003-12-23

154

Synthesis and molluscicidal activity of some new thiophene, thiadiazole and pyrazole derivatives.  

PubMed

The base-catalyzed reaction of benzoyl acetone 1 with phenyl isothiocyanate yields the non-isolable intermediate 2. Treatment of 2 with dilute HCl afforded the corresponding thiocarbamoyl derivative 3. Reaction of the intermediate 2 with phenacyl bromide, ethyl bromoacetate, chloroacetonitrile, chloroacetyl chloride, bromodiethyl malonate and chloroacetone afforded the corresponding thiophene derivatives 5, 8, 15 and 17. The thiocarbamoyl derivative 3 reacts with arylazophenacyl bromide and/or hydrazine hydrate to afford the corresponding thiadiazole and pyrazole derivatives 20a-c and 22, respectively. These new synthesized compounds show generally a moderate molluscicidal activity to Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. PMID:18930566

Fadda, Ahmed A; Abdel-Latif, E; el-Mekawy, Rasha E

2009-03-01

155

Molluscicidal and schistosomicidal activities of a steroidal saponin containing fraction from Dracaena fragrans (L.).  

PubMed

The steroidal saponin-containing fraction from methanolic extract of Dracaena fragrans (Family: Agavaceae) was tested for molluscicidal and ovicidal activities against Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, the snail vectors of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in Egypt, respectively. It was also tested for schistosemicidal activity in vitro on adult S. mansoni and against the free-living miracidia and cercariae of the parasite. The homogenated soft body of B. alexandrina was used to determine the effect of the saponin fraction on total protein, albumen, aminotransferase enzymes and acetylcholin esterase. The results showed that the saponin fraction had considerable molluscicidal activity; LC50 & LC90 were 2.7 ppm & 3.7 ppm for B. alexandrina and 2 ppm & 2.5 ppm for B. truncatus, respectively. Snail eggs did not hatch in concentration as low as half molluscicidal LC50 (1.35 ppm). The LC50 killed all miracidia and cercariae in 30 seconds and after 22 & 40 minutes at a very low concentration (0.165 ppm) respectively, and had in vitro lethal effect on adults with LC50 18.4 microg/ml 4 days post-exposure. The snail tissue homogenate showed significant increase in total protein content & albumen, in aminotransferases and acetylcholinesterase activities. PMID:18853630

Tadros, M M; Ghaly, N S; Moharib, M N

2008-08-01

156

Laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal and cercaricidal activities of the Egyptian weed, Solanum nigrum L.  

PubMed

The molluscicidal properties of Solanum nigrum L. were tested against three Egyptian snail species (Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus and Lymnaea natalensis), each an intermediate host of parasites causing human schistosomiasis or fascioliasis. The plant was collected in two regions within Egypt: Fayium and Giza. Snails were exposed for 24 and 48 h, to the dry powdered fruits and leaves or to crude water extracts of the powders, and mortality was recorded. The water extract of the leaves collected in Fayium (FLWE) had the highest molluscicidal activity, with median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 18.6 mg/litre for Bi. alexandrina, 14.5 mg/litre for Bu. truncatus and 17.7 mg/litre for L. natalensis. When Bi. alexandrina infected with Schistosoma mansoni were exposed to FLWE (20 or 25 mg/litre), they shed significantly fewer cercariae than unexposed snails (P < 0.02). The cercaricidal properties of FLWE were directly tested against S. haematobium, S. mansoni and Fasciola gigantica cercariae and a time-concentration relationship was observed; the concentrations needed to kill all cercariae (LC100) within 30 min of exposure were 30 mg/litre for both S. haematobium and S. mansoni and 40 mg/litre for F. gigantica. PMID:9579213

Ahmed, A H; Ramzy, R M

1997-12-01

157

Land Snails of the Lucile Caves ACEC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A land snail survey was conducted on the Lucile Caves ACES and vicinity in 1993-1994 as part of a larger survey of the Lower Salmon River valley land snail fauna. Information gathered from earlier surveys in 1989 - 1993 was also included. The area was kno...

T. J. Frest E. J. Johannes

1997-01-01

158

Environmental calcium modifies induced defences in snails.  

PubMed Central

Inducible defences are adaptive phenotypes that arise in response to predation threats. Such plasticity incurs costs to individuals, but there has been little interest in how such induced traits in animals may be constrained by environmental factors. Here, we demonstrate that calcium availability interacts with predation cues to modify snail shell growth and form. Small snails increased their growth and were heavier when exposed to fish chemical cues, but this response was calcium limited. There was also an interactive effect of fish cues and calcium on the shell growth of larger snails, but shell strength and aperture narrowness were affected by calcium alone. For small snails, behavioural avoidance was greatest for snails exhibiting least morphological plasticity, suggesting a trade-off. There was no trade-off of somatic growth with plasticity. We suggest that the expression of defensive traits in molluscs can be constrained by calcium availability, which has implications for molluscan ecology and evolution.

Rundle, Simon D; Spicer, John I; Coleman, Ross A; Vosper, Jo; Soane, Julie

2004-01-01

159

Identification and characterisation of functional expressed sequence tags-derived simple sequence repeat (eSSR) markers for genetic linkage mapping of Schistosoma mansoni juvenile resistance and susceptibility loci in Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

Biomphalaria glabrata susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni has a strong genetic component, offering the possibility for investigating host-parasite interactions at the molecular level, perhaps leading to novel control approaches. The identification, mapping and molecular characterisation of genes that influence the outcome of parasitic infection in the intermediate snail host is, therefore, seen as fundamental to the control of schistosomiasis. To better understand the evolutionary processes driving disease resistance/susceptibility phenotypes, we previously identified polymorphic random amplification of polymorphic DNA and genomic simple sequence repeats from B. glabrata. In the present study we identified and characterised polymorphic expressed simple sequence repeats markers (Bg-eSSR) from existing B. glabrata expressed sequence tags. Using these markers, and with previously identified genomic simple sequence repeats, genetic linkage mapping for parasite refractory and susceptibility phenotypes, the first known for B. glabrata, was initiated. Data mining of 54,309 expressed sequence tag, produced 660 expressed simple sequence repeats of which dinucleotide motifs (TA)n were the most common (37.88%), followed by trinucleotide (29.55%), mononucleotide (18.64%) and tetranucleotide (10.15%). Penta- and hexanucleotide motifs represented <3% of the Bg-eSSRs identified. While the majority (71%) of Bg-eSSRs were monomorphic between resistant and susceptible snails, several were, however, useful for the construction of a genetic linkage map based on their inheritance in segregating F2 progeny snails derived from crossing juvenile BS-90 and NMRI snails. Polymorphic Bg-eSSRs assorted into six linkage groups at a logarithm of odds score of 3. Interestingly, the heritability of four markers (Prim1_910, Prim1_771, Prim6_1024 and Prim7_823) with juvenile snail resistance were, by t-test, significant (P<0.05) while an allelic marker, Prim24_524, showed linkage with the juvenile snail susceptibility phenotype. On the basis of our results it is possible that the gene(s) controlling juvenile resistance and susceptibility to S. mansoni infection in B. glabrata are not only on the same linkage group but lie within a short distance (42cM) of each other. PMID:23643514

Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Miller, André; Su, Xin-zhuan; Mu, Jianbing; Bhusudsawang, Ganlayarat; Ukoskit, Kitipat; Knight, Matty

2013-07-01

160

Identification and characterisation of functional expressed sequence tags-derived simple sequence repeat (eSSR) markers for genetic linkage mapping of Schistosoma mansoni juvenile resistance and susceptibility loci in Biomphalaria glabrata  

PubMed Central

Biomphalaria glabrata susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni has a strong genetic component, offering the possibility for investigating host–parasite interactions at the molecular level, perhaps leading to novel control approaches. The identification, mapping and molecular characterisation of genes that influence the outcome of parasitic infection in the intermediate snail host is, therefore, seen as fundamental to the control of schistosomiasis. To better understand the evolutionary processes driving disease resistance/susceptibility phenotypes, we previously identified polymorphic random amplification of polymorphic DNA and genomic simple sequence repeats from B. glabrata. In the present study we identified and characterised polymorphic expressed simple sequence repeats markers (Bg-eSSR) from existing B. glabrata expressed sequence tags. Using these markers, and with previously identified genomic simple sequence repeats, genetic linkage mapping for parasite refractory and susceptibility phenotypes, the first known for B. glabrata, was initiated. Data mining of 54,309 expressed sequence tag, produced 660 expressed simple sequence repeats of which dinucleotide motifs (TA)n were the most common (37.88%), followed by trinucleotide (29.55%), mononucleotide (18.64%) and tetranucleotide (10.15%). Penta- and hexanucleotide motifs represented <3% of the Bg-eSSRs identified. While the majority (71%) of Bg-eSSRs were monomorphic between resistant and susceptible snails, several were, however, useful for the construction of a genetic linkage map based on their inheritance in segregating F2 progeny snails derived from crossing juvenile BS-90 and NMRI snails. Polymorphic Bg-eSSRs assorted into six linkage groups at a logarithm of odds score of 3. Interestingly, the heritability of four markers (Prim1_910, Prim1_771, Prim6_1024 and Prim7_823) with juvenile snail resistance were, by t-test, significant (P < 0.05) while an allelic marker, Prim24_524, showed linkage with the juvenile snail susceptibility phenotype. On the basis of our results it is possible that the gene(s) controlling juvenile resistance and susceptibility to S. mansoni infection in B. glabrata are not only on the same linkage group but lie within a short distance (42 cM) of each other.

Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Miller, Andre; Su, Xin-zhuan; Mu, Jianbing; Bhusudsawang, Ganlayarat; Ukoskit, Kitipat; Knight, Matty

2013-01-01

161

Snail Protein Family in Drosophila Neurogenesis: a Dissertation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Snail protein functions as a transcriptional regulator to establish early mesodermal cell fate in Drosophila. Later, in germ band-extended embryos, Snail is considered a pan-neural protein based on its extensive expression in neuroblasts. The evidence presented in thesis links snail expression and function in CNS. Cloning and functional characterization of a novel snail homologue, in Drosophila, are also described

Shovon I. Ashraf

2001-01-01

162

Susceptibility of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) from Serra da Mesa Dam, Goiás, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907.  

PubMed

Ecological changes from water resources development projects often affect the epidemiology of water-associated diseases. In order to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area of influence of the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric a survey has been performed since 1997 and revealed the occurrence of well-established populations of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) in the 8 municipalities surrounding the lake. Areas of epidemiologic risk for schistosomiasis were selected and studies of parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using specimens from 19 populations of B. straminea and 3 strains (CM, EC and PB) originally isolated from B. straminea. Among 1,135 specimens used 15 became infected (infection index of 1.3%) and 8 populations were susceptible to the schistosome strains: B. straminea from Campinorte (Castelão, susceptible to CM and EC strains, and Planeta Agua, EC strain), Colinas (Tocantinzinho river, CM and EC strains), Minaçu (Canabrava river, EC strain), Niquelândia (Codemin, CM and PB strains, and Almas river, CM strain), Uruaçu (touristic area, PB strain) and Santa Rita do Novo Destino (Maranhão river, CM and EC strains). These results, associated with marked social and ecological changes occurred, strongly suggest the possibility of B. straminea coming to act as a vector of schistosomiasis in the studied area. PMID:12426596

Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

2002-01-01

163

Snail Destabilizes Cell Surface Crumbs3a  

PubMed Central

During Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), cells modulate expression of proteins resulting in loss of apical-basal polarity. Effectors of this EMT switch target the polarity protein Crumbs3a, a small transmembrane protein that is essential for generation of the apical membrane and tight junctions of mammalian epithelial cells. We previously showed that the Crumbs3 gene is a direct target of transcriptional regulation by Snail, a potent inducer of EMT. However, Snail has also been shown to have multiple non-transcriptional roles, including regulation of cell adhesion, proliferation and survival. Using SNAP-tag labeling, we determined that cell surface Crumbs3a has a half-life of approximately 3 hours and that this cell surface half-life is significantly reduced when EMT is induced by Snail. We further observe that Snail induces differential glycosylation of Crumbs3a, including sialylation, suggesting a mechanism by which Crumbs3a may be destabilized. These results indicate that Crumbs3a is a post-translational target of Snail, in addition to being a transcriptional target. We conclude that Snail’s ability to post-translationally modify and destabilize Crumbs3a augments the depolarizing process of EMT.

Harder, Jennifer L.; Whiteman, Eileen L.; Pieczynski, Jay N.; Liu, Chia-Jen; Margolis, Ben

2012-01-01

164

[Remarks on the ecological adaptation of the snail aquatic fauna in saline medium of the Dallol ponds. (Republique du Niger) (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Human vesical and intestinal bilharziasis, bovine fasciolosis and paramphistomosis, equine gastrodiscosis and ovine carmyeriosis, are frequent in the Dallols'region, (12 degrees - 13 degrees 30 N. lat. ; 3 degrees E. long.), Republique du Niger, Africa. Dallols are fossil valleys pouring water from late Saharian lakes. They are also tributaries of the Niger River. During the dry season, they become dry and many residual ponds of varied dimensions; from tens feet to one or two miles long, are lying along the valley bottom. The water is sometimes fresh but more frequently salt, (sodium, calcium and potassium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates and bicarbonate), are in solution of variable proportions. From november to april, the total salt concentration is increasing by high evaporation and the medium becomes non likely to live for aquatic vector snails, Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus forskalii, Lymnaea natalensis and Afrogyrus coretus. PMID:1221913

Gretillat, S; Gaston, G

1975-01-01

165

Large-scale snail control trial with trifenmorph in the Gezira irrigation scheme, Sudan  

PubMed Central

A large-scale field trial was carried out during December 1973 to assess the effect of trifenmorph on Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi in 379 000 feddans (?159 000 ha) of the Gezira irrigation system in the Sudan. The commercial formulation used (Frescon) is an emulsifiable concentrate containing 16.5% trifenmorph. Five dispensers were used to add the commercial product to the water continuously for 7.5 days; 18 121 litres were used to treat 28.4 million m3 of water. In addition, each minor canal was hand-sprayed from the tail to 300 m upstream of the last open field outlet pipe; 360 litres of the commercial formulation were used for this operation. A minimum concentration of 0.035 mg trifenmorph per litre of water was produced at the head of each minor canal. The use of caged snails showed that a concentration as low as 0.015 mg/litre was sufficient to produce 100% mortality in B. truncatus in 7.5 days; this is equivalent to a concentration × time product of 0.12 mg/litre days.

Amin, M. A.; Fenwick, A.; Osgerby, J. M.; Warley, A. P.; Wright, A. N.

1976-01-01

166

Freshwater snail consumption and angiostrongyliasis in Malaya.  

PubMed

A survey of the freshwater snails, Pila scutata and Bellamyia ingallsiana, as food consumed by the local population was carried out in Peninsular Malaysia. Of these two species the first is preferred; the sizes favoured are between 25--40 mm. Pila snails were found to be consumed by the three communities, viz. Malay, Chinese and Indian, in different ways. The various methods of preparing the snails for consumption are described. P. scutata is an intermediate host of the rat-lung worm, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis. As this worm presumably is the causative agent of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, the eating habits of the three races in consuming the snail in relation to the epidemiology of the disease was also discussed. PMID:726037

Liat, L B; Fong, Y L; Krishnansamy, M; Ramachandran, P; Mansor, S

1978-06-01

167

Cercarial Dermatitis Transmitted by Exotic Marine Snail  

PubMed Central

Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer’s itch) is caused by the penetration of human skin by cercariae of schistosome parasites that develop in and are released from snail hosts. Cercarial dermatitis is frequently acquired in freshwater habitats, and less commonly in marine or estuarine waters. To investigate reports of a dermatitis outbreak in San Francisco Bay, California, we surveyed local snails for schistosome infections during 2005–2008. We found schistosomes only in Haminoea japonica, an Asian snail first reported in San Francisco Bay in 1999. Genetic markers place this schistosome within a large clade of avian schistosomes, but do not match any species for which there are genetic data. It is the second known schistosome species to cause dermatitis in western North American coastal waters; these species are transmitted by exotic snails. Introduction of exotic hosts can support unexpected emergence of an unknown parasite with serious medical or veterinary implications.

Cohen, Andrew N.; James, David; Hui, Lucia; Hom, Albert; Loker, Eric S.

2010-01-01

168

Epigenetic regulation of EMT: the Snail story.  

PubMed

While the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a fundamental role during development, its deregulation can adversely promote tumor metastasis. The phenotypic and cellular plasticity of EMT indicates that it is subject to epigenetic regulation. A hallmark of EMT is E-cadherin suppression. In this review, we try to embrace recent findings on the transcription factor Snail-mediated epigenetic silencing of E-cadherin. Our studies as well as those of others independently demonstrated that Snail can recruit various epigenetic machineries to the E-cadherin promoter. Based on these results, we propose a model of epigenetic regulation of EMT governed by Snail. Briefly, recruitment of the LSD1/HDAC complex by Snail facilitates histone H3K4 demethylation and H3/H4 deacetylation. Histone deacetylation may promote subsequent recruitment of PRC2 to methylate H3K27, while H3K4 demethylation favors the association of H3K9 methyltransferases G9a and Suv39H1. Finally, DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) can be recruited to the promoter area in a G9a/Suv39H1-dependent manner. Together, these chromatin-modifying enzymes function in a Snail-mediated, highly orchestrated fashion to suppress E-cadherin. Disruption of the connection between Snail and these epigenetic machineries may represent an efficient strategy for the treatment of EMT-related diseases, including tumor metastasis. PMID:23888971

Lin, Yiwei; Dong, Chenfang; Zhou, Binhua P

2014-01-01

169

The role of Snail in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the sixth leading cause of death from cancer in men. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which cancer cells invade and migrate, and is characterized by loss of cell-cell adhesion molecules such as E-cadherin and increased expression of mesenchymal proteins such as vimentin; EMT is also associated with resistance to therapy. Snail, a master regulator of EMT, has been extensively studied and reported in cancers such as breast and colon; however, its role in prostate cancer is not as widely reported. The purpose of this review is to put together recent facts that summarize Snail signaling in human prostate cancer. Snail is overexpressed in prostate cancer and its expression and activity is controlled via phosphorylation and growth factor signaling. Snail is involved in its canonical role of inducing EMT in prostate cancer cells; however, it plays a role in non-canonical pathways that do not involve EMT such regulation of bone turnover and neuroendocrine differentiation. Thus, studies indicate that Snail signaling contributes to prostate cancer progression and metastasis and therapeutic targeting of Snail in prostate cancer holds promise in ?future.

Smith, Bethany N.; Odero-Marah, Valerie A.

2012-01-01

170

New Pest Response Guidelines: Giant African Snails: Snail Pests in the Family Achatinidae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use New Pest Response Guidelines. Giant African Snails: Snail Pests in the Family Achatinidae as a guide when designing a program to detect, monitor, control, contain, or eradicate an infestation of achatinids. If these pests are detected in the United St...

2007-01-01

171

Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria mollusks at São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using geostatistical procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geostatistics is used in this work to make inferences about the presence of the species of Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and\\/or B. straminea), intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, at the São Francisco River Basin, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of these geostatistical procedures, known as indicator kriging, allows the classification of categorical data, in areas where the data are

Ricardo J. P. S. Guimarães; Corina C. Freitas; Luciano V. Dutra; Carlos A. Felgueiras; Ana C. M. Moura; Ronaldo S. Amaral; Sandra C. Drummond; Ronaldo G. C. Scholte; Guilherme Oliveira; Omar S. Carvalho

2009-01-01

172

Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. In order to attain this objective, the method of bait formulation in order to contain an attractant and a molluscicide is an expedient approach to lure the target snail population to the molluscicide. This study identifies certain carbohydrates, namely sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and starch, for preparing such baits. These were tested on Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the digenean trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The behavioural responses of snails to these carbohydrates were examined. Significant variations in behavioural responses were observed in the snail even when the five carbohydrates were used in low concentrations in snail-attractant pellets. Starch emerged as the strongest attractant for Lymnaea acuminata, followed by maltose.

Tiwari, Farindra; Singh, D. K.

173

Recovery of Pasteurella multocida from experimentally-exposed freshwater snails.  

PubMed

We determined how long Pasteurella multocida could survive in experimentally-exposed freshwater snails. Physa virginea were collected from the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Glenn County, California (USA), an enzootic site for avian cholera. Exposure to water containing up to 10(7) P. multocida per ml did not produce observable changes or mortality in snails. A minimum of 84 P. multocida per snail was necessary for detection among the normal snail bacterial flora. When snails were exposed to P. multocida in vials containing 10(7) bacteria per ml, P. multocida was detected for up to 72 hours in snails. When uninoculated snails were placed in aquaria containing 10(6) P. multocida per ml, P. multocida was not detected within the snails; further, P. multocida was detected in the water for only 24 hours at this level. Based on these results, we propose that P. virginea is not an effective reservoir for P. multocida. PMID:8592357

Miller, S L; Botzler, R G

1995-07-01

174

Snail depletes the tumorigenic potential of glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive brain malignancy characterized by high heterogeneity and invasiveness. It is increasingly accepted that the refractory feature of GBM to current therapies stems from the existence of few tumorigenic cells that sustain tumor growth and spreading, the so-called glioma-initiating cells (GICs). Previous studies showed that cytokines of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family induce differentiation of the GICs, and thus act as tumor suppressors. Molecular pathways that explain this behavior of BMP cytokines remain largely elusive. Here, we show that BMP signaling induces Smad-dependent expression of the transcriptional regulator Snail in a rapid and sustained manner. Consistent with its already established promigratory function in other cell types, we report that Snail silencing decreases GBM cell migration. Consequently, overexpression of Snail increases GBM invasiveness in a mouse xenograft model. Surprisingly, we found that Snail depletes the GBM capacity to form gliomaspheres in vitro and to grow tumors in vivo, both of which are important features shared by GICs. Thus Snail, acting downstream of BMP signaling, dissociates the invasive capacity of GBM cells from their tumorigenic potential.

Savary, K; Caglayan, D; Caja, L; Tzavlaki, K; Bin Nayeem, S; Bergstrom, T; Jiang, Y; Uhrbom, L; Forsberg-Nilsson, K; Westermark, B; Heldin, C-H; Ferletta, M; Moustakas, A

2013-01-01

175

Larval trematodes: double infections in common mud-flat snail.  

PubMed

Larvae of the trematode Zoogonus lasius are involved in most double infections of Nassarius obsoleta. The two most common trematode parasites of this snail do not occur together in double infections. Double infections were found in 14 of 340 infected snails in a total sample of 5025 snails. PMID:5770621

Vernberg, W B; Vernberg, F J; Beckerdite, F W

1969-06-13

176

Extinction or survival: partulid tree snails in American Samoa?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four partulid tree snail species are known from American Samoa. In 1998, we surveyed the recently established National Park (units on three islands: Tutuila, Tau, Ofu) and neighboring areas for partulids. On Tutuila, Samoana abbreviata, previously considered probably extinct, was extremely rare (15 snails seen); Samoana conicawas more common (288 snails) but still rare; Eua zebrina was the most common

ROBERT H. COWIE; ROBERT P. COOK

2001-01-01

177

Epigenetic Regulation of EMT: The Snail Story  

PubMed Central

While the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a fundamental role during development, its deregulation can adversely promote tumor metastasis. The phenotypic and cellular plasticity of EMT indicates that it is subject to epigenetic regulation. In this review, we try to embrace recent findings on the mechanisms of the transcription factor Snail-mediated E-cadherin silencing, which is a hallmark of EMT. Our studies as well as those of others have clearly demonstrated that Snail can recruit multiple chromatin enzymes including LSD1, HDAC1/2, PRC2, G9a and Suv39H1 to the E-cadherin promoter. These enzymes function in a highly orchestrated fashion to generate heterochromatin and promote DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-mediated DNA methylation at the promoter region. Disruption of the connection between Snail and these chromatin-modifying enzymes may represent an efficient strategy for the treatment of EMT-related diseases.

Lin, Yiwei; Dong, Chenfang; Zhou, Binhua P.

2014-01-01

178

Mate desertion in the snail kite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mate desertion during the breeding cycle was documented at 28 of 36 (78%) snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis nests in Florida between 1979 and 1983. Offspring mortality occurred at only one deserted nest, however. Parents that were deserted by their mates continued to care for their young until independence (3?5 additional weeks) and provided snails at a rate similar to that of both parents combined before desertion. Males and females deserted with nearly equal frequency, except in 1982 when more females deserted. No desertion occurred during drought years, whereas desertion occurred at nearly every nest during favourable conditions. The occurrence of mate desertion was generally related to indirect measures of snail abundance: foraging range, snail delivery rates to the young and growth rates. Small broods were deserted more frequently by females than by males and tended to be deserted earlier than large ones. After desertion, deserters had the opportunity to re-mate and nest again since breeding seasons were commonly lengthy, but whether they did so was impossible to determine conclusively in most cases. The deserted bird sometimes incurred increased energetic costs and lost breeding opportunities during periods of monoparental care.

Beissinger, S.R.; Snyder, N.F.R.

1988-01-01

179

MADAGASCAR'S BIOGEOGRAPELICALLY MOST INFORMATIVE LAND SNAIL TAXA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Madagascar's known native land-snail fauna is currently classified into 540 species (97% endemic) in 68 genera (29% endemic) in 25 families (0% endemic). Recent survey work throughout the island may as much as double this number of species and should provide, for the first time, adequate material and distributional data for robust cladistic and biogeographic analyses. Preliminary analysis of existing

Kenneth C. EMBERTON; Max F. RAKOTOMALALA

1996-01-01

180

What happens when snails get sick?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists used to think that the two major groups of animals, vertebrates and invertebrates, protected themselves from getting sick in very different ways. A new study in snails suggests that both groups' immune systems might be slightly more similar than previously thought.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2004-07-09

181

Field tests of hexabutyldistannoxane (TBTO) in slow-release formulations against Biomphalaria spp.  

PubMed

Hexabutyldistannoxane (TBTO) in an asphalt base was found to retain molluscicidal activity for more than a year in the field. It was not deactivated by immersion in mud or by drying and exposure to the sun. Complete elimination of planorbid snails was achieved and maintained when repopulation pressure was sporadic, but control of a continuously entering population was not practicable. Fixing the product at the site is important, and a formulation in fragments of rubber that floated failed after 1-2 months. TBTO apparently acts cumulatively in snails, but is only initially toxic to aquatic insects and fish, which return to repopulate treated areas that remain snail-free. PMID:4548389

Gilbert, B; Paesleme, L A; Ferreira, A M; Bulhões, M S; Castleton, C

1973-01-01

182

Field tests of hexabutyldistannoxane (TBTO) in slow-release formulations against Biomphalaria spp  

PubMed Central

Hexabutyldistannoxane (TBTO) in an asphalt base was found to retain molluscicidal activity for more than a year in the field. It was not deactivated by immersion in mud or by drying and exposure to the sun. Complete elimination of planorbid snails was achieved and maintained when repopulation pressure was sporadic, but control of a continuously entering population was not practicable. Fixing the product at the site is important, and a formulation in fragments of rubber that floated failed after 1-2 months. TBTO apparently acts cumulatively in snails, but is only initially toxic to aquatic insects and fish, which return to repopulate treated areas that remain snail-free.

Gilbert, B.; Leme, L. A. Paes; Ferreira, A. M.; Bulhoes, M. S.; Castleton, C.

1973-01-01

183

A 3' enhancer controls snail expression in melanoma cells.  

PubMed

The snail gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that functions during animal development and in cancer progression to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transitions. Strict spatial and temporal boundaries of Snail expression in development imply precise transcriptional control, which becomes inappropriately activated in many cancer subtypes. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism(s) governing transcriptional control of Snail, we analyze chromatin structural changes associated with Snail transcription in melanoma cells. Regardless of transcriptional status, the Snail promoter displays three constitutive DNase hypersensitive sites (HS) and a moderate level of histone H3 Lys(4) dimethylation. A robust HS is found in the 3' region of A375 melanoma cells, in which Snail is highly expressed, but is absent in cells not expressing Snail. This element is conserved throughout the mammalian lineage and strongly activates expression of a reporter in A375 and Colo829 melanoma cells, but not in keratinocytes or primary melanocytes. Activity of this enhancer is associated with enrichment of H3 Lys(4) dimethylation and H3 acetylation at both the enhancer and the promoter. Additionally, enhancer activity is associated with H3 Lys(4) trimethylation at the promoter. A physical interaction between the 3' enhancer and promoter was observed in Snail-expressing cells, demonstrating a direct role for the enhancer in Snail expression. These results suggest a model in which the Snail promoter is constitutively packaged in a poised chromatin structure that can be activated in melanoma cells by a tissue-specific enhancer, which physically contacts the promoter. PMID:17616667

Palmer, Matthew B; Majumder, Parimal; Green, Myesha R; Wade, Paul A; Boss, Jeremy M

2007-07-01

184

Is Schistosoma mansoni replacing Schistosoma haematobium in the Fayoum?  

PubMed

Schistosoma mansoni is progressively replacing S. haematobium along the Nile River in Egypt. This change has occurred in the past 15-20 years following construction of the Aswan High Dam in the 1960s. The cause is a shift in relative abundance of the snail vectors Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus. Biomphalaria is increasing while the latter has disappeared from a village in the Fayoum where formerly only schistosomiasis haematobia was endemic. A cross-sectional household survey in this village in 1991 showed the following prevalence values: S. mansoni, 22.3%; S. haematobium, 3.4%; and mixed infections, 2.8%. Only two children less than 10 years of age had S. haematobium infections. A review of the local Ministry of Health records showed that 1) both species were parasitologically diagnosed during the past 7.5 years, 2) Biomphalaria had been abundantly present in the local waterways for the past 10 years and has been found infected with S. mansoni since 1985, 3) Bulinus has not been detected in the local canals and drains since 1986 and the few found between 1981 and 1985 were not infected, and 4) Biomphalaria in this village and in two others in the Fayoum were believed infected by laborers from the Delta who helped build schools in 1984. This change in the distribution of schistosomiasis will impact upon public health and medical practice in Middle and Upper Egypt as it already has in Lower Egypt. PMID:8279637

Abdel-Wahab, M F; Yosery, A; Narooz, S; Esmat, G; el Hak, S; Nasif, S; Strickland, G T

1993-12-01

185

Effect of non target snails on some biological of Lymnaea natalensis snails and their infection to Fasciola gigantica.  

PubMed

The influence of non-target freshwater snails (Melanoides tuberculata and Planorbis planorbis) on the capacity of Fasciola egg production F. gigantica miracidia to infect Lymnaea natalensis and their effect on mortality and growth rates showed that the snails exhibited a competitive ability against L. natalensis. The mortality rate existed in mixed cultures with snails was greatly increased, and increased with increase of snails number. The egg production and growth rate were negatively affected by the presence of M. tuberculata and P. planorbis which was more pronounced when snails were at higher ratio lL: 10D. Also, the snails showed significant degree of reduction in infection rate of L. natalensis with F. gigantica miracidia. PMID:17153707

Bakry, Fayez A; Hamdi, Salwa A H

2006-12-01

186

The Biological Control of the Snail Hosts of Schistosomes: The Role of Competitor Snails and Biological Invasions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biological control of the snail hosts of schistosomes has been ­considered in the last few decades as an alternative to molluscicides.\\u000a Several groups of organisms have been proposed to control snail hosts, but very few have proven their efficacy in the field.\\u000a Competitor snails can be considered as the most efficient biological control agents and numerous promising laboratory studies\\u000a and

Jean-Pierre Pointier; Patrice David; Philippe Jarne

187

Crayfish predation on the common pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis): the effect of habitat complexity and snail size on foraging efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal foraging theory was used to explain selective foraging by the introduced signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus)\\u000a on the thin-shelled common pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). Crayfish predation efficiency was studied in relation to habitat\\u000a complexity and snail size. In a pool experiment (area 1.3 m2) single adult crayfish were allowed to feed on four size classes of snails for one week.

Per Nyström; Jose R. Pérez

1998-01-01

188

Supercharged Snails for Stream Ecology & Water-Quality Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gill-breathing freshwater snails (Family "Pleuroceridae") are ecologically important, abundant in many streams in the United States, and easy to collect and maintain under classroom conditions. These snails can be used in classroom tests to demonstrate effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. In more advanced classes, students can cage the…

Stewart, Arthur J.; Ryon, Michael G.

2003-01-01

189

Effects of Molluscicidal Constituents in Spices on Reproduction in Snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sublethal treatment (20% and 60% of 24 hr LC50) of young snails (Lymnaea acuminata) with the active molluscicidal constituents ferulic acid and umbelliferone from Ferula asafoetida, eugenol from Syzygium aromaticum, and limonene from Carum carvi caused a significant reduction in the fecundity, hatchability, and survival of the snails. Treatment with the constituents also increased the length of time to hatching

Pradeep Kumar; Vinay K. Singh; Chandra P. M. Tripathi; Dinesh K. Singh

2010-01-01

190

Outgrowths from Pieces of Helix aspersa, the Common Snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN connexion with a cytological problem now being investigated, an attempt has been made to culture snail tissue. It is well known that snails are able to repair extensive injuries under what must be extremely septic conditions. The epithelium beneath the shell and elsewhere is not keratinised or otherwise protected, except perhaps for its faculty to produce mucus. It follows

J. Brontë Gatenby

1931-01-01

191

Phenotypic Plasticity of the Introduced New Zealand Mud Snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Compared to Sympatric Native Snails  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic plasticity is likely to be important in determining the invasive potential of a species, especially if invasive species show greater plasticity or tolerance compared to sympatric native species. Here in two separate experiments we compare reaction norms in response to two environmental variables of two clones of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, isolated from the United States, (one invasive and one not yet invasive) with those of two species of native snails that are sympatric with the invader, Fossaria bulimoides group and Physella gyrina group. We placed juvenile snails in environments with high and low conductivity (300 and 800 mS) in one experiment, and raised them at two different temperatures (16°C and 22°C) in a second experiment. Growth rate and mortality were measured over the course of 8 weeks. Mortality rates were higher in the native snails compared to P. antipodarum across all treatments, and variation in conductivity influenced mortality. In both experiments, reaction norms did not vary significantly between species. There was little evidence that the success of the introduced species is a result of greater phenotypic plasticity to these variables compared to the sympatric native species.

Levri, Edward P.; Krist, Amy C.; Bilka, Rachel; Dybdahl, Mark F.

2014-01-01

192

Black Rat ( Rattus rattus ) Predation on Nonindigenous Snails in Hawai‘i: Complex Management Implications 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding interactions among nonindigenous species that pose a threat to native species is crucial to effectively preserve native biodiversity. Cap- tive feeding trials demonstrated that the black rat, Rattus rattus, will readily con- sume two of the most destructive nonindigenous snails, the giant African snail, Achatina fulica (100% predation), and the predatory snail Euglandina rosea (80% predation). Rats consumed snails

Wallace M. Meyer; Aaron B. Shiels

2009-01-01

193

Relationship between Snail Population Density and Infection Status of Snails and Fish with Zoonotic Trematodes in Vietnamese Carp Nurseries  

PubMed Central

Background Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are a food safety and health concern in Vietnam. Humans and other final hosts acquire these parasites from eating raw or under-cooked fish with FZT metacercariae. Fish raised in ponds are exposed to cercariae shed by snail hosts that are common in fish farm ponds. Previous risk assessment on FZT transmission in the Red River Delta of Vietnam identified carp nursery ponds as major sites of transmission. In this study, we analyzed the association between snail population density and heterophyid trematode infection in snails with the rate of FZT transmission to juvenile fish raised in carp nurseries. Methodology/Principal Findings Snail population density and prevalence of trematode (Heterophyidae) infections were determined in 48 carp nurseries producing Rohu juveniles, (Labeo rohita) in the Red River Delta area. Fish samples were examined at 3, 6 and 9 weeks after the juvenile fish were introduced into the ponds. There was a significant positive correlation between prevalence of FZT metacercariae in juvenile fish and density of infected snails. Thus, the odds of infection in juvenile fish were 4.36 and 11.32 times higher for ponds with medium and high density of snails, respectively, compared to ponds where no infected snails were found. Further, the intensity of fish FZT infections increased with the density of infected snails. Interestingly, however, some ponds with no or few infected snails were collected also had high prevalence and intensity of FZT in juvenile fish. This may be due to immigration of cercariae into the pond from external water sources. Conclusions/Significance The total number and density of potential host snails and density of host snails infected with heterophyid trematodes in the aquaculture pond is a useful predictor for infections in juvenile fish, although infection levels in juvenile fish can occur despite low density or absence infected snails. This suggests that intervention programs to control FZT infection of fish should include not only intra-pond snail control, but also include water sources of allochthonous cercariae, i.e. canals supplying water to ponds as well as snail habitats outside the pond such as rice fields and surrounding ponds.

Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, K. Darwin; Phan Thi, Van; Nguyen Manh, Hung; Viet, Khue Nguyen; Dalsgaard, Anders

2012-01-01

194

Influence of Age and Body Size on Alarm Responses in a Freshwater Snail Pomacea canaliculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypothesis that size selection of prey by predators elicits size-specific responses from prey was examined. Freshwater snails, Pomacea canaliculata, ages 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, or 60 days, were given an extract of 3-day-old snails, and 3-day-old snails were given extracts of snails of the other ages or eggs. Snails 15 days or younger crawled out of the water

Katsuya Ichinose

2002-01-01

195

Potential impacts of the invasive flatworm Platydemus manokwari on arboreal snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the snail-eating flatworm Platydemus manokwari (Tricladida: Rhynchodemidae) has been considered a cause of the extinction of native land snails on several Pacific islands.\\u000a Although P. manokwari is known to attack land snails on the ground, whether P. manokwari attacks snails on trees remains unclear. To clarify the effect of P. manokwari on arboreal snails, we examined survival rates of land

Shinji Sugiura; Yuichi Yamaura

2009-01-01

196

Potential impacts of the invasive flatworm Platydemus manokwari on arboreal snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The introduction of the snail-eating flatworm Platydemus manokwari (Tricladida: Rhyn-chodemidae) has been considered a cause of the extinction of native land snails on several Pacific islands.\\u000a Although P. manokwari is known to attack land snails on the ground, whether P. manokwari attacks snails on trees remains unclear. To clarify the effect of P. manokwari on arboreal snails, we examined survival

Shinji Sugiura; Yuichi Yamaura

197

Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits  

PubMed Central

Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus) and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi), we examined three components of this interaction: 1) spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2) whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3) whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity) and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses.

Johnson, Steven G; Hulsey, C Darrin; de Leon, Francisco J Garcia

2007-01-01

198

Biological control of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and the snail Biomphalaria glabrata , using Gramicidin S and D and molluscicidal strains of Bacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Applications of Final Whole Culture (FWC) or primary powder material from strains of each of four Bacillus species (B. alvei, B. brevis, B. circulans, B. laterosporus) used singly, as well as the antibiotics Gramicidin S (GS) and Gramicidin D (GD) used singly, were found to be molluscicidal\\u000a against several life cycle stages of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Combinations of

S Singer; A L Van Fleet; J J Viel; E E Genevese

1997-01-01

199

[Study on morphological and functional characterization of hemocytes in snails].  

PubMed

Snails are the intermediate host of Schistosoma and they play an important role in the transmission of schistosomiasis. The snails in different areas present various susceptibilities, which are related to the different hemocytes in the snails. There is not a common standard in the classification of hemocytes, and generally the hemocytes are divided into two categories: a granulocyte and a hyalinocyte. The granulocyte plays an important role in immunization, while hyalinocyte shows a less effect. Besides, soluble factors may also play a role in immunization. PMID:24490414

Zheng, Sheng-Bang; Zhou, Yi-Biao; Jiang, Qing-Wu

2013-12-01

200

The Role of Snail in EMT and Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved process in which polarized, immotile epithelial cells lose adherent and tight junctions, and become migratory mesenchymal cells. As a key transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin expression in EMT, Snail plays an important role in embryonic development and cancer progression. Emerging evidences indicate that Snail confers tumor cells with cancer stem cell-like traits, and promotes drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. In this review, we summarize recent developments underlying the regulation and functions of Snail in tumor progression, and discuss new approaches against EMT in preventing metastatic cancers.

Chai, Kequn; Ying, Xuhua; Zhou, Binhua P.

2014-01-01

201

Seasonal changes in cryoprotectants concentrations in Helix pomatia snails.  

PubMed

Terrestrial snails are often exposed to freezing. Therefore, we investigated seasonal shifts in hemolymph concentrations of cryoprotectants such as glycerol and glucose. We also investigated whether summer acclimation to cold and short-day photoperiod induced synthesis of cryoprotectants in Helix pomatia snails. Concentrations of the both cryoprotectants were elevated in winter and reduced in summer. These changes, however, were not correlated with shifts in liver glycogen content. Summer acclimation to cold (5 degrees C) and short-day photoperiod evoked a selective increase in glycerol concentration. In conclusion, glycerol may play a role in adaptation of the snails to winter cold and glucose is rather unlikely to provide the cryoprotection. PMID:17242476

Nowakowska, A; Caputa, M; Rogalska, J

2006-11-01

202

Taxonomy: A Precursor to Understanding Ecological Interactions among Schistosomes, Snail Hosts, and Snail-Eating Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed a dramatic decrease in the abundance of snail-eating fishes and an increase in the prevalence of schistosomiasis among village residents and expatriate tourists at Lake Malawi, Africa, over the past two decades. We hypothesized that these observations were linked by a cause-and-effect relationship and that the observed decrease in fish molluscivores permitted an increase in the abundance

Jay Richard Stauffer Jr; Henry Madsen; Adrianus Konings; Paul Bloch; Cecilia Paola Ferreri; Jeremy Likongwe; Kenneth R. McKaye; Kristin E. Black

2007-01-01

203

Energy saving through trail following in a marine snail  

PubMed Central

Most snails and slugs locomote over a layer of mucus and although the resultant mucus trail is expensive to produce, we show that this expense can be reduced by trail following. When tracking over fresh conspecific trails, the marine intertidal snail Littorina littorea (L.) produced only approximately 27% of the mucus laid by marker snails. When tracking over weathered trails, snails adjusted their mucus production to recreate a convex trail profile of similar shape and thickness to the trail as originally laid. Maximum energy saving occurs when following recently laid trails which are little weathered. Many and diverse ecological roles for trail following have been proposed. Energy saving is the only role that applies across the Gastropoda and so may help to explain why trail following is such a well-established behaviour.

Davies, Mark S; Blackwell, Janine

2007-01-01

204

Astronomers Follow Distant Galaxy at a Snail's Pace  

NSF Publications Database

... Astronomers Follow Distant Galaxy at a Snail's Pace M33 tracked across the sky, rather than toward ... s press release. -NSF- Media Contacts Dave Finley, NRAO (505) 835-7302 dfinley@nrao.edu M. Mitchell ...

205

Transfer RNA editing in land snail mitochondria.  

PubMed

Some mitochondrial tRNA genes of land snails show mismatches in the acceptor stems predicted from their gene sequences. The majority of these mismatches fall in regions where the tRNA genes overlap with adjacent downstream genes. We have synthesized cDNA from four circularized tRNAs and determined the sequences of the 5' and 3' parts of their acceptor stems. Three of the four tRNAs differ from their corresponding genes at a total of 13 positions, which all fall in the 3' part of the acceptor stems as well as the discriminator bases. The editing events detected involve changes from cytidine, thymidine, and guanosine to adenosine residues, which generally restore base-pairing in the stems. However, in one case an A-A mismatch is created from an A-C mismatch. It is suggested that this form of RNA editing may involve polyadenylylation of the maturing tRNAs as an intermediate. PMID:7479799

Yokobori, S; Pääbo, S

1995-10-24

206

Respiration rates and population metabolism of woodland snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were done to measure the respiration rates of twenty species of terrestrial snail. Acclimatization phenomena were sought in two species, Discus rotundatus and Hygromia striolata, but not detected. The Q10s between 5 and 15° C for the twenty species varied between 1.20 and 4.27, with a mean Q10 of 2.21. Q10 was higher in larger snail species. There was

C. F. Mason; Botanic Gardens

1971-01-01

207

Rapid spread of an invasive snail in South America: the giant African snail, Achatina fulica , in Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning around 1800, but primarily since the early and mid-twentieth century, the giant African snail, Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, has been introduced throughout the tropics and subtropics and has been considered the most important snail\\u000a pest in these regions. In Brasil, specimens probably brought from Indonesia were introduced into the state of Paran? in the\\u000a 1980s for commercial purposes

Silvana C. Thiengo; Fábio André Faraco; Norma C. Salgado; Robert H. Cowie; Monica A. Fernandez

2007-01-01

208

Inhibition of cholinesterases and carboxylesterases of two invertebrate species, Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus, by the carbamate pesticide carbaryl  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of sublethal concentrations of the carbamate carbaryl on the cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CES) activities present in the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and in the pigmented Biomphalaria glabrata gastropod were investigated. The results showed that ChE activity from both species was inhibited by in vivo and in vitro exposure to carbaryl, with EC50 and IC50 values

Gisela Kristoff; Noemi R. Verrengia Guerrero; Adriana C. Cochón

2010-01-01

209

Inhibition of cholinesterase activity by azinphos-methyl in two freshwater invertebrates: Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, some biochemical features and the extent of inhibition induced by the organophosphorous pesticide azinphos-methyl on the cholinesterase (ChE) activity present in whole soft tissue of two freshwater invertebrate species, the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata and the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus were investigated. Both invertebrate organisms presented marked differences in ChE activity, type of enzymes and subcellular location. Acetylthiocholine was

Gisela Kristoff; Noemi Verrengia Guerrero; Ana María Pechén de D’Angelo; Adriana C. Cochón

2006-01-01

210

Effects of azinphos-methyl exposure on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azinphos-methyl is an organophosphate insecticide used for pest control on a number of food crops in many parts of the world. The oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and pigmented and non-pigmented specimens of the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata are freshwater invertebrates that have been recommended for contamination studies. Recently, it has been shown that L. variegatus worms exhibit a higher cholinesterase (ChE) activity

Gisela Kristoff; Noemí R. Verrengia Guerrero; Adriana C. Cochón

2008-01-01

211

Sediment copper bioavailability to freshwater snails in south Florida: risk implications for the Everglade snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus).  

PubMed

Many properties being acquired as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) are heavily contaminated with copper. Estimated copper bioaccumulation in the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) has led to the prediction of risk to the Everglade snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) at some CERP projects. Field study results presented in this paper examine the relationship between copper levels in sediments, snails, and other biota. Copper concentrations in all biota (snails, aquatic vascular plants, and periphyton) were strongly correlated with those in sediments. No correlation with water copper concentrations was evident. Mean copper concentrations in snails ranged from 23.9 mg/kg at the reference site to 732 mg/kg at a high copper site. Calculated biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) ranged from 36.7 to 7.0 over the range of copper levels in sediments. BSAFs were highest at low copper levels in sediments and declined sharply as copper levels in sediment increased. Risk for the snail kite is discussed in light of the results of this study. PMID:18679796

Frakes, Robert A; Bargar, Timothy A; Bauer, Emily A

2008-10-01

212

Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.  

PubMed

The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio. PMID:20578482

Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima

2010-01-01

213

A conserved role for Snail as a potentiator of active transcription  

PubMed Central

The transcription factors of the Snail family are key regulators of epithelial–mesenchymal transitions, cell morphogenesis, and tumor metastasis. Since its discovery in Drosophila ?25 years ago, Snail has been extensively studied for its role as a transcriptional repressor. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila Snail can positively modulate transcriptional activation. By combining information on in vivo occupancy with expression profiling of hand-selected, staged snail mutant embryos, we identified 106 genes that are potentially directly regulated by Snail during mesoderm development. In addition to the expected Snail-repressed genes, almost 50% of Snail targets showed an unanticipated activation. The majority of “Snail-activated” genes have enhancer elements cobound by Twist and are expressed in the mesoderm at the stages of Snail occupancy. Snail can potentiate Twist-mediated enhancer activation in vitro and is essential for enhancer activity in vivo. Using a machine learning approach, we show that differentially enriched motifs are sufficient to predict Snail's regulatory response. In silico mutagenesis revealed a likely causative motif, which we demonstrate is essential for enhancer activation. Taken together, these data indicate that Snail can potentiate enhancer activation by collaborating with different activators, providing a new mechanism by which Snail regulates development.

Rembold, Martina; Ciglar, Lucia; Yanez-Cuna, J. Omar; Zinzen, Robert P.; Girardot, Charles; Jain, Ankit; Welte, Michael A.; Stark, Alexander; Leptin, Maria; Furlong, Eileen E.M.

2014-01-01

214

Effects of Dietary Exposure to Forest Pesticides on the Brown Garden Snail 'Helix aspersa' Mueller.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brown garden snails, Helix aspersa, were fed prepared diets with 12 pesticides used in forest spraying practices where endangered arboreal and terrestrial snails may be at risk. Acephate, atrazine, glyphosate, hexazinone, and picloram were not lethal at c...

G. S. Schuytema A. V. Nebeker W. L. Griffis

1994-01-01

215

Angiostrongylus cantonensis : morphological and behavioral investigation within the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the main causative agent for human eosinophilic encephalitis, can be acquired through the consumption of the freshwater\\u000a snail Pomacea canaliculata. This snail also provides a suitable model to study the developmental morphology and behavior of A. cantonensis larvae, facilitated by the snail’s distinct lung structure. We used microanatomy for studying the natural appearance and\\u000a behavior

Shan Lv; Yi Zhang; He-Xiang Liu; Chao-Wei Zhang; Peter Steinmann; Xiao-Nong Zhou; Jürg Utzinger

2009-01-01

216

MTA3 regulates CGB5 and Snail genes in trophoblast.  

PubMed

Secreted by the placental trophoblast, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important hormone during pregnancy and is required for the maintenance of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that dys-regulation of hCG expression is associated with preeclampsia. However, the exact relationship between altered hCG levels and development of preeclampsia is unknown. Metastasis associated protein 3 (MTA3), a chromatin remodeling protein, is abundantly expressed in the placental trophoblasts, but its function is unknown. In breast cancer, MTA3 has been shown to repress the expression of Snail and cell migration. However, whether MTA3 acts similarly in the trophoblast has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the role of MTA3 in regulating the hCG ?-subunit gene (gene name: CGB5) and Snail expression in the trophoblast cell line, BeWo, as well as its relevance to the high hCG expression levels seen in preeclampsia. First, we investigated MTA3 expression in preeclamptic placenta as compared to normal control placenta via gene expression microarray and qRT-PCR and found that MTA3 was significantly down-regulated, whereas both CGB5 and Snail were up-regulated in preeclamptic placenta. Secondly, we knocked down MTA3 gene in trophoblast cell line BeWo and found Snail and hCG were both up-regulated, suggesting that MTA3 represses Snail and hCG gene expression in trophoblasts. Next, we cloned the CGB5 and Snail promoters into the pGL3-basic vector individually and found that silencing of MTA3 by siRNA resulted in an increase of both CGB5 and Snail promoter activities. To confirm that this MTA3 inhibition is a direct effect, we performed a chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) assay and found that MTA3 occupied the proximal promoter regions of both Snail and hCG within BeWo cells. Furthermore, we examined MTA3 expression in placental trophoblast by immunohistochemistry and found that MTA3 expression was higher in villous cytotrophoblasts versus syncytiotrophoblasts, which supports an inverse association of MTA3 with hCG expression. Lastly, using the well-characterized trophoblast fusion model, we examined MTA3 and hCG levels in forskolin-treated BeWo cells and found that MTA3 down-regulation was accompanied by an up-regulation of hCG. These data further suggest that MTA3 is repressing placental hCG expression. In summary, MTA3 plays a critical role in repressing hCG and Snail in placenta trophoblast and its deregulation is associated with preeclampsia. PMID:23510993

Chen, Ying; Miyazaki, Jun; Nishizawa, Haruki; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Leach, Richard; Wang, Kai

2013-04-19

217

Antioxidants and oxidative stress in Helix pomatia snails during estivation.  

PubMed

Estivation enables land snails to survive a prolonged dryness but the return to active state imposes conditions of oxidative stress on internal organs due to a transient large increase in oxygen consumption, which augments mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, activities of antioxidant enzymes, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and TBARS as an index of lipid peroxidation, were evaluated in Helix pomatia snails (i) during summer activity, (ii) during estivation, which was induced experimentally, (iii) at the start of arousal from estivation, and (iv) being aroused for 24 h. Estivation induced significant decreases in activity of catalase in the kidney and hepatopancreas and glutathione peroxidase in the kidney. Activity of glutathione reductase was unaffected by estivation/arousal cycle. Summer-active and estivating snails maintained high activity of glutathione transferase. Concentration of GSH was organ-dependent and was positively affected by estivation. Lack of increase in TBARS concentration during estivation/arousal cycle suggests that antioxidant defence system of H. pomatia snails is highly efficacious. In conclusion, permanent maintenance of relatively high activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the high concentration of GSH in H. pomatia snails indicate that they have well-developed strategy of defence against oxidative injury. PMID:19632354

Nowakowska, Anna; Swiderska-Ko?acz, Grazyna; Rogalska, Justyna; Caputa, Micha?

2009-11-01

218

Flux balance models for the oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of land snail shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple flux balance model with a diffusive, evaporative boundary layer indicates that the time constant (characteristic time) for approach to oxygen isotope steady state in the body fluid of land snails is ?19 min or less. These comparatively short times support an assumption that the snail’s aragonitic shell is commonly precipitated from a body fluid that is at, or

Meena Balakrishnan; Crayton J. Yapp

2004-01-01

219

Water vapour sorption by the pedal mucus trail of a land snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrophilicity of pedal mucus trails deposited by snails influences the settlement of marine organisms and can potentially influence the trailing and homing mechanisms of terrestrial snails. The composition of pedal mucus deposited as a trail on a solid substrate by the giant African land snail (Achatina marginata) has been probed non-invasively using infrared ellipsometry. The primary chemical groups in

B. J. Lincoln; T. R. E. Simpson; J. L. Keddie

2004-01-01

220

Helix and Drugs: Snails for Western Health Care From Antiquity to the Present  

PubMed Central

The land helix, or snail, has been used in medicine since antiquity and prepared according to several formulations. This historical report traces the understanding of their properties from the time of Hippocrates, who proposed the use of snail mucus against protoccle and Pliny who thought that the snail increased the speed of delivery and was “a sovereign remedy to treat pain related to burns, abscesses and other wounds”, Galien recommended snails against hydrops foetails. In the 18th century, various snail “preparations” were also recommended for external use with dermatological disorders and internally for symptoms associated with tuberculosis and nephritis. Surprisingly, the 19th century saw a renewed interest in the pharmaceutical and medical use of snails with numerous indications for snail preparations. This interest in snails did not stop at the end of the 19th century. The 1945 edition of Dorvault devotes an entire paragraph to snails, indicating that the therapeutic usage of snails was still alive at that time. Recently the FDA has also shown an interest in snails. Ziconotide (SNXIII), a synthetic peptide coming from snail venom, has been under FDA review since 1999. Pre-clinical and clinical studies of this new drug are promising.

2005-01-01

221

Lats2 kinase potentiates Snail1 activity by promoting nuclear retention upon phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Snail1 is a central regulator of epithelial cell adhesion and movement in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) during embryo development; a process reactivated during cancer metastasis. While induction of Snail1 transcription precedes EMT induction, post-translational regulation of Snail1 is also critical for determining Snail1's protein level, subcellular localization, and capacity to induce EMT. To identify novel post-translational regulators of Snail1, we developed a live cell, bioluminescence-based screen. From a human kinome RNAi screen, we have identified Lats2 kinase as a novel regulator of Snail1 protein level, subcellular localization, and thus, activity. We show that Lats2 interacts with Snail1 and directly phosphorylates Snail1 at residue T203. This occurs in the nucleus and serves to retain Snail1 in the nucleus thereby enhancing its stability. Lats2 was found to positively influence cellular EMT and tumour cell invasion, in a Snail1-dependent manner. Indeed during TGF?-induced EMT Lats2 is activated and Snail1 phosphorylated at T203. Analysis in mouse and zebrafish embryo development confirms that Lats2 acts as a positive modulator of Snail1 protein level and potentiates its in vivo EMT activity. PMID:21952048

Zhang, Kun; Rodriguez-Aznar, Eva; Yabuta, Norikazu; Owen, Robert J; Mingot, Jose M; Nojima, Hiroshi; Nieto, M Angela; Longmore, Gregory D

2012-01-01

222

Building a better snail: Lubrication and adhesive locomotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many gastropods, such as slugs and snails, crawl via an unusual mechanism known as adhesive locomotion. We investigate this method of propulsion using two mathematical models: one for direct waves and one for retrograde waves. We then test the effectiveness of both proposed mechanisms by constructing two mechanical crawlers. Each crawler uses a different mechanical strategy to move on a thin layer of viscous fluid. The first uses a flexible flapping sheet to generate lubrication pressures in a Newtonian fluid, which in turn propel the mechanical snail. The second generates a wave of compression on a layer of Laponite, a non-Newtonian, finite-yield stress fluid with characteristics similar to those of snail mucus. This second design can climb smooth vertical walls and perform an inverted traverse.

Chan, Brian; Balmforth, N. J.; Hosoi, A. E.

2005-11-01

223

MTA3 regulates CGB5 and Snail genes in trophoblast  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Impaired MTA3, raised CGB5 and Snail expression are associated with preeclampsia. •Knock-down of MTA3 causes up-regulation of CGB5 and Snail genes in BeWo cells. •MTA3 occupies CGB5 and Snail gene promoters in BeWo cells. -- Abstract: Secreted by the placental trophoblast, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important hormone during pregnancy and is required for the maintenance of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that dys-regulation of hCG expression is associated with preeclampsia. However, the exact relationship between altered hCG levels and development of preeclampsia is unknown. Metastasis associated protein 3 (MTA3), a chromatin remodeling protein, is abundantly expressed in the placental trophoblasts, but its function is unknown. In breast cancer, MTA3 has been shown to repress the expression of Snail and cell migration. However, whether MTA3 acts similarly in the trophoblast has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the role of MTA3 in regulating the hCG ?-subunit gene (gene name: CGB5) and Snail expression in the trophoblast cell line, BeWo, as well as its relevance to the high hCG expression levels seen in preeclampsia. First, we investigated MTA3 expression in preeclamptic placenta as compared to normal control placenta via gene expression microarray and qRT-PCR and found that MTA3 was significantly down-regulated, whereas both CGB5 and Snail were up-regulated in preeclamptic placenta. Secondly, we knocked down MTA3 gene in trophoblast cell line BeWo and found Snail and hCG were both up-regulated, suggesting that MTA3 represses Snail and hCG gene expression in trophoblasts. Next, we cloned the CGB5 and Snail promoters into the pGL3-basic vector individually and found that silencing of MTA3 by siRNA resulted in an increase of both CGB5 and Snail promoter activities. To confirm that this MTA3 inhibition is a direct effect, we performed a chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) assay and found that MTA3 occupied the proximal promoter regions of both Snail and hCG within BeWo cells. Furthermore, we examined MTA3 expression in placental trophoblast by immunohistochemistry and found that MTA3 expression was higher in villous cytotrophoblasts versus syncytiotrophoblasts, which supports an inverse association of MTA3 with hCG expression. Lastly, using the well-characterized trophoblast fusion model, we examined MTA3 and hCG levels in forskolin-treated BeWo cells and found that MTA3 down-regulation was accompanied by an up-regulation of hCG. These data further suggest that MTA3 is repressing placental hCG expression. In summary, MTA3 plays a critical role in repressing hCG and Snail in placenta trophoblast and its deregulation is associated with preeclampsia.

Chen, Ying [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Miyazaki, Jun [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan) [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Nishizawa, Haruki [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Kurahashi, Hiroki [Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan)] [Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.Leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States) [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai, E-mail: Kai.Wang@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States)

2013-04-19

224

Seasonal fluctuation of invasive flatworm predation pressure on land snails: Implications for the range expansion and impacts of invasive species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of the snail-eating flatworm Platydemus manokwari has caused extinction and decline of native land snails on tropical and subtropical islands. As the factors influencing flatworm predation pressure on land snails remain unclear, I examined the effects of seasonal variation in flatworm predation pressure on land snail survival in the wild on a subtropical island. I also examined the feeding

Shinji Sugiura

2009-01-01

225

Efficacy of Euphorbia hirta latex as plant derived molluscicides against freshwater snails.  

PubMed

The toxic effect of binary and tertiary combinations of Euphorbia hirta Linn latex powder with other plant molluscicidal compounds, were evaluated against the freshwater snails Lymnaea (Radix) acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus in pond. These combinations showed significant time and dose dependent effect against both the snails. These compounds at higher doses were also lethal to freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) (Channidae {Ophicephalidae}), which shares the habitat with these snails, but the LC90 (24h) doses of snails have no apparent killing properties in fish populations when treated in mixed population of snails and fish. PMID:21537758

Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

2011-01-01

226

Euparyphium albuferensis and Echinostoma friedi (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae): experimental cercarial transmission success in sympatric snail communities.  

PubMed

Euparyphium albuferensis and Echinostoma friedi cercarial infectivity to four species of sympatric snails was examined under single- or multiple-choice laboratory conditions to show the level of parasite-snail host compatibility. Radix peregra, Lymnaeafuscus, Physella acuta and Gyraulus chinensis act as second intermediate hosts of both parasite species although different cercarial transmission success (CTS) was observed. In single-host experiments, R. peregra and P. acuta showed a high degree of compatibility with E. albuferensis, while only P. acuta in the case of E. friedi. In two-choice snail communities, a snail with high CTS increased the values of another with low compatibility, in both parasite species. In multiple-choice snail communities, high CTS of some hosts decreased, while low CTS of other hosts increased. The degree of parasite-host compatibility of each snail species could be determined by the presence of other snails in the community. PMID:18666415

Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Marin, Antoni; Vidal, Amparo; Toledo, Rafael; Esteban, José Guillermo

2008-06-01

227

Snail as a potential target molecule in cardiac fibrosis: paracrine action of endothelial cells on fibroblasts through snail and CTGF axis.  

PubMed

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to myocardium induces death of cardiomyocytes and destroys the vasculature, leading to cardiac fibrosis that is mainly mediated by the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the collagen deposition. Snail involvement in fibrosis is well known; however, the contribution of Snail to cardiac fibrosis during I/R injury and its underlying mechanisms have not been defined. We showed that I/R injury to mouse hearts significantly increases the expression of Snail. An in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (Hy/Reoxy) experiment showed that the cell source of Snail induction is endothelial cells rather than cardiac fibroblasts (cFibroblasts) or cardiomyoblasts. When Snail was overexpressed in endothelial cells, they underwent endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) but showed very poor capacity for collagen synthesis. Instead, reoxygenation- or Snail overexpression-mediated EndMT-like cells noticeably stimulated transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts via secretion of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). The injection of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist, a selective Snail inhibitor, remarkably suppressed collagen deposition and cardiac fibrosis in mouse I/R injury, and significantly improved cardiac function and reduced Snail and CTGF expression in vivo. Our findings suggested a new mechanism of cell-to-cell communication between EndMT-like cells and fibroblasts for fibrosis induction and implicated Snail as a potential target molecule in cardiac fibrosis after I/R injury. PMID:23760445

Lee, Sae-Won; Won, Joo-Yun; Kim, Woo Jean; Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Youn, Seock-Won; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyo-Soo

2013-09-01

228

In vitro mitotic responses of the amebocyte-producing organ of Biomphalaria glabrata to extracts of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Amebocyte-producing organs (APOs) of Biomphalaria glabrata were maintained in nonnutritive saline with, or without, extracts of miracidia and adults of Schistosoma mansoni, and examined histologically. The hematopoietic cells remained viable and showed measurable mitotic activity for up to 6 days, with little evidence of tissue death. APOs accumulated fluid and became swollen by as soon as 24 hr, but no cell exomigration was observed. Parasite extracts elicited an increase in the number of dividing cells in the APO, suggesting that the extract may directly stimulate a response from the hematopoietic cells by providing either nutrients or mitogenic growth factors. PMID:18973421

Salamat, Zahra; Sullivan, John T

2008-10-01

229

Demography of the Snail Kite in Blue Cypress Marsh Complex.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents data on the snail kites that use the Blue Cypress Marsh Complex (BCMC). This report will concentrate on demographic data collected in 2005, but will also synthesize data collected since 2001 in BCMC. The number of birds observed on ea...

A. Bowling C. Cattau D. Huser J. Martin M. Conners W. Kitchens

2005-01-01

230

Peptide Neurotoxins from Fish-Hunting Cone Snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

To paralyze their more agile prey, the venomous fish-hunting cone snails (Conus) have developed a potent biochemical strategy. They produce several classes of toxic peptides (contoxins) that attack a series of successive physiological targets in the neuromuscular system of the fish. The peptides include presynaptic omega -conotoxins that prevent the voltage-activated entry of calcium into the nerve terminal and release

Baldomero M. Olivera; William R. Gray; Regina Zeikus; J. Michael McIntosh; Janos Varga; Jean Rivier; Victoria de Santos; Lourdes J. Cruz

1985-01-01

231

Sperm allocation in the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Arianta arbustorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the idea that individuals of the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snailArianta arbustorumcan control the number of spermatozoa in their spermatophores, we investigated whether they differentially release sperm to virgin or nonvirgin partners with respect to the potential risk of sperm competition in a given mating. The number of sperm transferred ranged from 802620 to 3968800 (X= 2185100;N=91), but was

BRUNO BAUR; ROLF LOCHER; ANETTE BAUR

1998-01-01

232

Arsenic speciation in freshwater snails and its life cycle variation.  

PubMed

Terrestrial snails are consumed by humans occasionally and they are an important food source for many creatures including fish and birds. Little is known about arsenic speciation in these gastropods, let alone life cycle variations. Here we report on the arsenic speciation in freshwater snails from Pender Island and Vancouver Island, B.C., Canada, which was determined on methanol/water extracts (43-59% extraction efficiency) by using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The tetramethylarsonium ion, oxo-arsenosugars and thio-arsenosugars are the main arsenic species encountered. Arsenobetaine, which is commonly found in the marine environment, is minor. Live bearing snails Viviparidae sp. from Pender Island were maintained in aquaria and the arsenic speciation in the unborn, newly born, and adult animals was monitored. Oxo-arsenosugars predominate in the adults, whereas thio-arsenosugars seem to predominate in juveniles, suggesting that these arsenicals are snail metabolites. PMID:22193982

Lai, Vivian W-M; Kanaki, Katerina; Pergantis, Spiros A; Cullen, William R; Reimer, Kenneth J

2012-03-01

233

Food induced esterase phenocopies in the snail Cepaea nemoralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatopancreatic extracts from the snail Cepaea nemoralis, assayed straight from the field, often contain three or four heavily staining esterase zones which migrate to the cathodal end of polyacrylamide disc gels during electrophoresis Previous breeding results showed that the heavily straining zones appeared allelic but to incorporate these multibanded phenotypes, a super gene of five closely linked loci was tentatively

G S Oxford

1975-01-01

234

Systematic review of the land snails of the Pitcairn Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The land snails (and semi-terrestrial molluscs) of the four islands that comprise the Pitcairn group are reviewed and the indigenous species illustrated. The strictly terrestrial molluscan faunas from the two atolls (Oeno and Ducie) are poor, like many other atolls in the Pacific. Each supports less than six species with wide geographical ranges. In contrast, the terrestrial molluscan fauna from

R. PREECE

1995-01-01

235

Snail-Induced Sulfonation Pathway in Breast Cancer Metastasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This projects seeks to establish a key role for cellular sulfonation enzymes in the metastatic progression of breast cancer. To this end we have accomplished the following tasks in this first year of support: 1. Creation Tetracycline inducible WT Snail an...

I. F. Rauscher

2012-01-01

236

Snail Shells in a Practical Application of Statistical Procedures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based upon a laboratory exercise designed for biology students in secondary schools or those taking introductory biology laboratory courses in colleges and universities. This exercise requires a set of calipers, a calculator and populations of snail shells collected either from the wild or obtained from a biological supply house. The…

Banks, Stephen W.; Shepherd, Deborah K.; Williams-Hart, Tara; Gossett, Dalton R.; Crnkovic, Amanda C.

2007-01-01

237

Antioxidants and oxidative stress in Helix pomatia snails during estivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estivation enables land snails to survive a prolonged dryness but the return to active state imposes conditions of oxidative stress on internal organs due to a transient large increase in oxygen consumption, which augments mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, activities of antioxidant enzymes, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and TBARS as an index of lipid peroxidation, were evaluated

Anna Nowakowska; Gra?yna ?widerska-Ko?acz; Justyna Rogalska; Micha? Caputa

2009-01-01

238

Food Choice in the Common Snail (Helix Aspersa).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The easily obtained common snail shows interesting dietary preferences which can be the source of several simple experiments. Specific student instructions are given for quantitative and comparative studies using cabbage, lettuce, carrot, rutabaga, and onion. Suggestions for laboratory setup and further work are included. (DH)

Gill, John; Howell, Pauline

1985-01-01

239

Flying shells: historical dispersal of marine snails across Central America.  

PubMed

The geological rise of the Central American Isthmus separated the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans about 3 Ma, creating a formidable barrier to dispersal for marine species. However, similar to Simpson's proposal that terrestrial species can 'win sweepstakes routes'-whereby highly improbable dispersal events result in colonization across geographical barriers-marine species may also breach land barriers given enough time. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether intertidal marine snails have crossed Central America to successfully establish in new ocean basins. We used a mitochondrial DNA genetic comparison of sister snails (Cerithideopsis spp.) separated by the rise of the Isthmus. Genetic variation in these snails revealed evidence of at least two successful dispersal events between the Pacific and the Atlantic after the final closure of the Isthmus. A combination of ancestral area analyses and molecular dating techniques indicated that dispersal from the Pacific to the Atlantic occurred about 750 000 years ago and that dispersal in the opposite direction occurred about 72 000 years ago. The geographical distribution of haplotypes and published field evidence further suggest that migratory shorebirds transported the snails across Central America at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in southern Mexico. Migratory birds could disperse other intertidal invertebrates this way, suggesting the Central American Isthmus may not be as impassable for marine species as previously assumed. PMID:21920976

Miura, Osamu; Torchin, Mark E; Bermingham, Eldredge; Jacobs, David K; Hechinger, Ryan F

2012-03-22

240

Schistosomiasis Control Using Piplartine against Biomphalaria glabrata at Different Developmental Stages  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most significant diseases in tropical countries and affects almost 200 million people worldwide. The application of molluscicides to eliminate the parasite's intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata, from infected water supplies is one strategy currently being used to control the disease. Previous studies have shown a potent molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from Piper species, with extracts from Piper tuberculatum being among the most active. Methods and Findings The molluscicidal activity of P. tuberculatum was monitored on methanolic extracts from different organs (roots, leaves, fruit and stems). The compounds responsible for the molluscicidal activity were identified using 1H NMR and ESIMS data and multivariate analyses, including principal component analysis and partial least squares. These results indicated that the high molluscicidal activity displayed by root extracts (LC50 20.28 µg/ml) was due to the presence of piplartine, a well-known biologically-active amide. Piplartine was isolated from P. tuberculatum root extracts, and the molluscicidal activity of this compound on adults and embryos of B. glabrata was determined. The compound displayed potent activity against all developmental stages of B. glabrata. Next, the environmental toxicity of piplartine was evaluated using the microcrustacean Daphnia similis (LC50 7.32 µg/ml) and the fish Danio rerio (1.69 µg/ml). The toxicity to these organisms was less compared with the toxicity of niclosamide, a commercial molluscicide. Conclusions The development of a new, natural molluscicide is highly desirable, particularly because the commercially available molluscicide niclosamide is highly toxic to some organisms in the environment (LC50 0.25 µg/ml to D. similis and 0.12 µg/ml to D. rerio). Thus, piplartine is a potential candidate for a natural molluscicide that has been extracted from a tropical plant species and showed less toxic to environment.

Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sa; Lopes, Priscila Orechio de Moraes Victor; Fokoue, Harold Hilarion; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Marques, Joaquim Vogt; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Braganca; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Nakano, Eliana; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko

2013-01-01

241

Targeted Inactivation of Snail Family EMT Regulatory Factors by a Co(III)-Ebox Conjugate  

PubMed Central

Snail family proteins are core EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) regulatory factors that play essential roles in both development and disease processes and have been associated with metastasis in carcinomas. Snail factors are required for the formation of neural crest stem cells in most vertebrate embryos, as well as for the migratory invasive behavior of these cells. Snail factors have recently been linked to the formation of cancer stem cells, and expression of Snail proteins may be associated with tumor recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We report that Co(III)-Ebox is a potent inhibitor of Snail- mediated transcriptional repression in breast cancer cells and in the neural crest of Xenopus. We further show that the activity of Co(III)-Ebox can be modulated by temperature, increasing the utility of this conjugate as a Snail inhibitor in model organisms. We exploit this feature to further delineate the requirements for Snail function during neural crest development, showing that in addition to the roles that Snail factors play in neural crest precursor formation and neural crest EMT/migration, inhibition of Snail function after the onset of neural crest migration leads to a loss of neural crest derived melanocytes. Co(III)-Ebox-mediated inhibition therefore provides a powerful tool for analysing the function of these core EMT factors with unparalleled temporal resolution. Moreover, the potency of Co(III)-Ebox as a Snail inhibitor in breast cancer cells suggests its potential as a therapeutic inhibitor of tumor progression and metastasis.

Harney, Allison S.; Meade, Thomas J.; LaBonne, Carole

2012-01-01

242

The human Lgl polarity gene, Hugl-2, induces MET and suppresses Snail tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Lethal giant larvae proteins have key roles in regulating polarity in a variety of cell types and function as tumour suppressors. A transcriptional programme initiated by aberrant Snail expression transforms epithelial cells to potentially aggressive cancer cells. Although progress in defining the molecular determinants of this programme has been made, we have little knowledge as to how the Snail-induced phenotype can be suppressed. In our studies we identified the human lethal giant larvae homologue 2, Hugl-2, (Llgl2/Lgl2) polarity gene as downregulated by Snail. Snail binds E-boxes in the Hugl-2 promoter and represses Hugl-2 expression, whereas removal of the E-boxes releases Hugl-2 from Snail repression. We demonstrate that inducing Hugl-2 in cells with constitutive Snail expression reverses the phenotype including changes in morphology, motility, tumour growth and dissemination in vivo, and expression of epithelial markers. Hugl-2 expression reduced the nuclear localization of Snail and thus binding of Snail to its target promoters. Our results placing Hugl-2 within the Snail network as well as its ability to suppress Snail carcinogenesis identifies Hugl-2 as a target molecule driving cascades, which may have preventative and therapeutic promise to minimize cancer progression. PMID:22580609

Kashyap, A; Zimmerman, T; Ergül, N; Bosserhoff, A; Hartman, U; Alla, V; Bataille, F; Galle, P R; Strand, S; Strand, D

2013-03-14

243

Snail2 controls mesodermal BMP/Wnt induction of neural crest  

PubMed Central

The neural crest is an induced tissue that is unique to vertebrates. In the clawed frog Xenopus laevis, neural crest induction depends on signals secreted from the prospective dorsolateral mesodermal zone during gastrulation. The transcription factors Snail2 (Slug), Snail1 and Twist1 are expressed in this region. It is known that Snail2 and Twist1 are required for both mesoderm formation and neural crest induction. Using targeted blastomere injection, morpholino-based loss of function and explant studies, we show that: (1) Snail1 is also required for mesoderm and neural crest formation; (2) loss of snail1, snail2 or twist1 function in the C2/C3 lineage of 32-cell embryos blocks mesoderm formation, but neural crest is lost only in the case of snail2 loss of function; (3) snail2 mutant loss of neural crest involves mesoderm-derived secreted factors and can be rescued synergistically by bmp4 and wnt8 RNAs; and (4) loss of snail2 activity leads to changes in the RNA levels of a number of BMP and Wnt agonists and antagonists. Taken together, these results identify Snail2 as a key regulator of the signals involved in mesodermal induction of neural crest.

Shi, Jianli; Severson, Courtney; Yang, Jianxia; Wedlich, Doris; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

2011-01-01

244

Localization and characterization of acharan sulfate in the body of the giant African snail Achatina fulica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acharan sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG), having the structure ?4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-?-d-glucopyranose(1?4)-2-sulfo-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid (1?, isolated from the body of the giant African snail Achatina fulica. This GAG represents 3–5% of the dry weight of this snail's soft body tissues. Frozen sections and polyester wax sections of the snail's body were stained by Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff's reagent (PAS) to localize acharan sulfate. Alcian

Jia Jeong; Toshihiko Toidab; Yuki Munetab; Ichiro Kosiishi; Toshio Imanari; Robert J. Linhardt; Hyung Seok Choia; Song Ji Wua; Yeong Shik Kim

2001-01-01

245

Creosote compounds in snails obtained from Pensacola Bay, Florida, near an onshore hazardous-waste site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Snails, Thais haemostoma, were collected from two areas offshore in Pensacola Bay, Florida, near an onshore hazardous-waste site. Tissue from the snails was extracted to isolate the lipophilic compounds and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Along with naturally occurring compounds, the snail tissue contained large concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds, such as phenanthrene, acridine, dibenzothiophene, dibenzofuran, and benzo[a]pyrene. Many of these compounds were characteristic of creosote contamination associated with the onshore hazardous-waste site.

Rostad, C. E.; Pereira, W. E.

1987-01-01

246

Growth and development of the rare land snail Paryphanta busbyi watti (Eupulmonata : Rhytididae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rare carnivorous land snail Paryphanta busbyi watti was investigated by following marked snails over a study period of 6.3 years. Large snails were fitted with harmonic radar transponders to aid in locating them. This species is iteroparous and has determinate growth. Shells had maximum diameters of 49.6-61.2 mm. Two to eight large eggs, representing 5%-23% of the live weight

M. J. McLeanB; G. C. ArnoldC; R. MontefioreE

247

Studies on Lymnaea snails and their trematode parasites in Abis II village, Alexandria.  

PubMed

Lymnaea snails in Abis II village were studied as regard their species, monthly distribution, density and infection rates in different water bodies. The trematode parasites in L. cailliaudi, the only species of Lymnaea in Abis II village were xiphidio in 40% of snails and Fasciola in 10%. Echinostome cercariae were detected from few snails outside Abis II village. The morphological characters of the different larval stages of the detected parasites were described. PMID:8376865

Salem, A I; Osman, M M; el-Daly, S; Farahat, A

1993-08-01

248

Determination of wing cell fate by the escargot and snail genes in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Inset appendages such as the wing and the leg are formed in response to inductive signals in the embryonic field. In Drosophila, cells receiving such signals initiate developmental programs which allow them to become imaginal discs. Subsequently, these discs autonomously organize patterns specific for each appendage. We here report that two related transcription factors, Escargot and Snail that are expressed in the embryonic wing disc, function as intrinsic determinants of the wing cell fate. In escargot or snail mutant embryos, wing-specific expression of Snail, Vestigial and beta-galactosidase regulated by escargot enhancer were found as well as in wild-type embryos. However, in escargot snail double mutant embryos, wing development proceeded until stage 13, but the marker expression was not maintained in later stages, and the invagination of the primordium was absent. From such analyses, it was concluded that Escargot and Snail expression in the wing disc are maintained by their auto- and crossactivation. Ubiquitous escargot or snail expression induced from the hsp70 promoter rescued the escargot snail double mutant phenotype with the effects confined to the prospective wing cells. Similar DNA binding specificities of Escargot and Snail suggest that they control the same set of genes required for wing development. We thus propose the following scenario for early wing disc development. Prospective wing cells respond to the induction by turning on escargot and snail transcription, and become competent for regulation by Escargot and Snail. Such cells initiate auto- and crossregulatory circuits of escargot and snail. The sustained Escargot and Snail expression then activates vestigial and other target genes that are essential for wing development. This maintains the commitment to the wing cell fate and induces wing-specific cell shape change. PMID:8620833

Fuse, N; Hirose, S; Hayashi, S

1996-04-01

249

Seasonal modulation of free radical metabolism in estivating land snails Helix aspersa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the regulation of free radical metabolism in Helix aspersa snails during a cycle of 20-day estivation and 24-h arousal in summer in comparison with estivation\\/arousal in winter-snails. In winter-snails (J. Exp. Biol. 206, 675–685, 2003), we had already observed an increase in the selenium-dependent glutathione-peroxidase (Se-GPX) activity in foot muscle and hepatopancreas and in the contents of hepatopancreas

Gabriella R. Ramos-Vasconcelos; Luciano A. Cardoso; Marcelo Hermes-Lima

2005-01-01

250

Remodeling of phospholipid fatty acids in mitochondrial membranes of estivating snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of estivation on the phospholipid-specific fatty acid composition of mitochondrial membranes in the hepatopancreas\\u000a of the terrestrial snail Cepaea nemoralis were investigated. The fatty acid composition of all phospholipids was significantly altered in snails estivating for 6 wk,\\u000a indicating that substantial remodeling occurs. The most profound changes occurred in cardiolipin (CL). CL of estivating snails\\u000a was 13-fold more

J. A. Stuart; T. E. Gillis; J. S. Ballantyne

1998-01-01

251

Experimental infections with Fasciola in snails, mice and rabbits.  

PubMed

Experimental infection trails of Lymnaea (cailliaudi) natalensis snails with miracidia of Fasciola hepatica revealed neither cercariae nor larval stages shed. Infection of white mice with metacercariae from field-collected snails proved to be negative for Fasciola eggs and immature juveniles or adults after 84 days post infection. The infection of eight rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has succeeded; two rabbits were infected, with a very low infection rate. Faeces of rabbits were negative for eggs. The worm burden was one and three worms from 40 fed metacercariae. The obtained fluke measures 23 mm in length by 4 mm in width. The tegument is covered with sharp-ending spines. The uterus contains few eggs. The intrauterine eggs measured 158 microm x 80 microm. According to the morphological characters of these flukes, they belong to F. gigantica. PMID:18246370

Hussein, Abdel-Nasser A; Khalifa, R M A

2008-05-01

252

Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)  

SciTech Connect

Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century. Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem`s food web. Recent research by Malley et al. has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A. [National Biological Services, Laurel, MD (United States)] [National Biological Services, Laurel, MD (United States); Bennetts, R.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1997-05-01

253

Intertidal snail-trematode communities on the southern Thailand before and after the South Asia tsunami.  

PubMed

Intertidal snail-trematode communities in southern Thailand were examined before and after the South Asia tsunami. Infection rates and species diversity of cercaria in the host snail Cerithidea in tidal zones did not change significantly from one year before to one month after the tsunami. However, the host snails C. quadrata, C. alata and C. obtusa disappeared from greatly damaged sites. It is important to follow up on the intertidal snail-trematode community recovery process after destruction of the intertidal ecosystem. PMID:17883003

Harada, Masakazu; Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Lohachit, Chantima; Fujimoto, Chigusa; Arif-Ul- Hasan; Itaki, Rodney; Suguri, Setsuo; Chusongsang, Yupa; Chusongsang, Phiraphol

2007-07-01

254

Poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent regulation of Snail1 protein stability.  

PubMed

Snail1 is a master regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and has been implicated in key tumor biological processes such as invasion and metastasis. It has been previously shown that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) knockdown, but not PARP inhibition, downregulates the expression of Snail1. In this study we have characterized a novel regulatory mechanism controlling Snail1 protein expression through poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The effect is not only limited to repression of Snail1 transcription but also to downregulated Snail1 protein stability. PARP-1 (but not PARP-2) poly(ADP) ribosylates Snail1, both in vivo and in vitro, and interacts with Snail1, an association that is sensitive to PARP inhibitors. PARP inhibition has also clear effects on EMT phenotype of different tumor cells, including Snail1 downregulation, E-cadherin upregulation, decreased cell elongation and invasiveness. Therefore, this study reveals a new regulatory mechanism of Snail1 activation through poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation with consequences in malignant transformation through EMT. PMID:21577210

Rodríguez, M I; González-Flores, A; Dantzer, F; Collard, J; de Herreros, A G; Oliver, F J

2011-10-20

255

A predatory land snail invades central-western Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulmonate land snail, Rumina decollata, is a highly invasive gastropod adapted to arid conditions, and native from the Mediterranean area. It was recorded for the\\u000a first time in Argentina in 1988, in the northeastern Pampas of the Buenos Aires Province, a region characterized by a humid\\u000a mesothermal climate with no water deficit. In the present contribution, we report the

Claudio G. De Francesco; Humberto Lagiglia

2007-01-01

256

REPRODUCTION AND DEMOGRAPHY OF THE FLORIDA EVERGLADE (SNAIL) KITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 1 S-year study of reproduction and survival of the Florida Everglade (Snail) Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) has revealed the following: extremely poor nesting success (only 13.6% of nests found at the nest-building stage successful); extremely long breeding seasons (some reproductive activity in almost all months in good years); frequent multiple brooding and frequent renesting after failure; low egg hatchability

NOEL F. R. SNYDER; STEVEN R. BEISSINGER; RODERICK E. CHANDLER

257

Clonal diversity driven by parasitism in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

One explanation for the widespread abundance of sexual reproduction is the advantage that genetically diverse sexual lineages have under strong pressure from virulent coevolving parasites. Such parasites are believed to track common asexual host genotypes, resulting in negative frequency-dependent selection that counterbalances the population growth-rate advantage of asexuals in comparison with sexuals. In the face of genetically diverse asexual lineages, this advantage of sexual reproduction might be eroded, and instead sexual populations would be replaced by diverse assemblages of clonal lineages. We investigated whether parasite-mediated selection promotes clonal diversity in 22 natural populations of the freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata. We found that infection prevalence explains the observed variation in the clonal diversity of M. tuberculata populations, whereas no such relationship was found between infection prevalence and male frequency. Clonal diversity and male frequency were independent of snail population density. Incorporating ecological factors such as presence/absence of fish, habitat geography and habitat type did not improve the predictive power of regression models. Approximately 11% of the clonal snail genotypes were shared among 2-4 populations, creating a web of 17 interconnected populations. Taken together, our study suggests that parasite-mediated selection coupled with host dispersal ecology promotes clonal diversity. This, in return, may erode the advantage of sexual reproduction in M. tuberculata populations. PMID:24118641

Dagan, Y; Liljeroos, K; Jokela, J; Ben-Ami, F

2013-11-01

258

Phenoloxidase activity of Helix aspersa maxima (garden snail, gastropod) hemocyanin.  

PubMed

The oxygen-transporting protein, hemocyanin (Hc), of the garden snail Helix aspersa maxima (HaH) was isolated and kinetically characterized. Kinetic parameters of the reaction of catalytic oxidation of catechol to quinone, catalyzed by native HaH were determined: the V max value amounted to 22 nmol min(-1) mg(-1), k cat to 1.1 min(-1). Data were compared to those reported for other molluscan Hcs and phenoloxidases (POs). The o-diphenoloxidase activity of the native HaH is about five times higher than the activity determined for the Hcs of the terrestrial snail Helix pomatia and of the marine snail Rapana thomasiana (k cat values of 0.22 and 0.25 min(-1), respectively). The K m values obtained for molluscan Hcs from different species are comparable to those for true POs, but the low catalytic efficiency of Hcs is probably related to inaccessibility of the active sites to potential substrates. Upon treatment of HaH with subtilisin DY, the enzyme activity against substrate catechol was considerably increased. The relatively high proteolytically induced o-diPO activity of HaH allowed using it for preparation of a biosensor for detection of catechol. PMID:24243490

Raynova, Yuliana; Doumanova, Lyuba; Idakieva, Krassimira Nikolova

2013-12-01

259

Plagiorchis elegans (Trematoda) and incompatible snail hosts: implications for snail life history traits and biocontrol of human schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of Plagiorchis elegans on egg production and survival on Bulinus truncatus and Helisoma trivolvis trivolvis. Both species are incompatible hosts for P. elegans. Helisoma t. trivolvis occurs sympatrically with P. elegans; B. truncatus does not. Overall, P. elegans had no effect on survivorship or egg production in H. t. trivolvis or on the survivorship of B. truncatus. Its effect on egg production in B. truncatus was transitory; egg production was reduced by 50% for 5 wk following exposure but returned to normal thereafter. Neither egg production nor survivorship was affected in adult H. t. trivolvis. Egg production ceased at 14 wk post-exposure (PE), but resumed when the snails were paired. Young H. t. trivolvis also produced eggs after exposure, but later than the adults and only after they had been paired with another snail. This suggests that a need for periodic cross-fertilization in H. t. trivolvis rather than the effect of the parasite is responsible for the cessation of egg production in this species. Survivorship in young H. t. trivolvis was significantly higher in exposed snails between wk 7 to 10 PE than in controls. PMID:19566345

Daoust, Simon P; Mader, Brian J; McLaughlin, J Daniel; Rau, Manfred E

2009-12-01

260

Characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State Nigeria. The interview schedule was used to collect data from 60 snail farmers randomly selected from six cells in the study area. Information on the socioeconomic status of the farmers, production system, management practices and production constraints in the snail farms were elicited. The constraints were determined using a four-point Likert-type scale; a mean score of ? 2.5 was considered as a production constraint. Majority (85.0 %) of the respondents were part-time snail farmers. The major species of snails reared were Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata, reared by 43.3 and 26.7 % of the farmers, respectively. Semi-intensive system of production was practised by 40.0 % of the farmers. Majority (78.0 %) of the respondents used car tyres to house their snails. About 56 % of the respondents kept their snails for 1-2 years before sale. Up to 51.7 % of the respondents separated their snails into different pens according to their size/age. The most commonly used feeds were vegetables (71.2 %), plant leaves (67.8 %) and kitchen waste (59.3 %). Records of snail production activities were kept by 75.0 % of respondents. The major constraints identified were lack of capital (3.31), inability to get good laying stock (3.00), lack of formulated feed to buy (2.98) and slow growth rate of snails (2.52). The potentials of snail farming in the study area have not been fully exploited as farmers produced at subsistence level. PMID:23011673

Chah, Jane Mbolle; Inegbedion, Grace

2013-02-01

261

Transcription factor snail1 expression and poor survival in pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Snail1, a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), plays an important role in tumour progression. Previous studies of snail1 have mainly focused on the epithelial tumour cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of snail1 protein in endothelial cells, stromal myofibroblasts and malignant epithelial cells of pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (PSCC), as well as its relation to clinicopathological features and survival. One hundred and ten tissue microarray samples were analyzed for snail1 expression using immunohistochemistry. In endothelial cells snail1 expression was observed in 51 (48%) of 107 cases and it predicted reduced disease specific survival (DSS) (p=0.009). In 49 (46%) tumour samples snail1 immunostaining was detected in stromal myofibroblasts and there was a tendency to poorer DSS in that group (p=0.067). Snail1 expression in endothelial cells and stromal myofibroblasts is also associated with hypopharyngeal tumours (p=0.01 and p=0.038 respectively), increasing T category (T3-4) (p=0.005, p=0.037 respectively) and poorer general condition of the patient (Karnofsky performance status score <70; p=0.029, p=0.039 respectively). Moreover endothelial expression correlated with advanced stage (III-IV) (p=0.005) and poorer differentiation (grade 2-3; p=0.012). In malignant epithelial cells snail1 immunostaining was detected in 75 of 110 cases (68%). Expression of the protein was more common in hypopharyngeal tumours (p=0.044). Snail1 positive tumours associated with a lower Karnofsky performance status score (p=0.039) and regional failure (p=0.042). Our findings indicate that snail1 protein expression in endothelial cells and to some extent also in tumour stromal myofibroblasts seems to be a predictor of poor survival in PSCC. The presence of snail1 protein in tumour microenvironment rather than in malignant epithelial tumour cells may induce tissue remodelling and tumour progression. PMID:21360437

Jouppila-Mättö, Anna; Tuhkanen, Hanna; Soini, Ylermi; Pukkila, Matti; Närkiö-Mäkelä, Mervi; Sironen, Reijo; Virtanen, Ismo; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti

2011-04-01

262

Characterisation of the human snail ( SNAI1 ) gene and exclusion as a major disease gene in craniosynostosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Snail family of proteins in vertebrates comprises two zinc-finger transcription factors, Snail and Slug, which are thought to be involved in the formation of the mesoderm and neural crest. Here, we describe the isolation and characterisation of the human Snail (SNAI1) gene and a related Snail-like pseudogene, SNAI1P. SNAI1 spans approximately 6.4 kb, contains three exons and has a

Stephen R. F. Twigg; Andrew O. M. Wilkie

1999-01-01

263

Controlled Chaos of Polymorphic Mucins in a Metazoan Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) Interacting with Its Invertebrate Host (Biomphalaria glabrata)  

PubMed Central

Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites. Consequently, the generally accepted arms race hypothesis predicts that molecular diversity and polymorphism also exist in parasites of invertebrates. We investigated the diversity and polymorphism of parasite molecules (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins, SmPoMucs) that are key factors for the compatibility of schistosomes interacting with their host, the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. We have elucidated the complex cascade of mechanisms acting both at the genomic level and during expression that confer polymorphism to SmPoMuc. We show that SmPoMuc is coded by a multi-gene family whose members frequently recombine. We show that these genes are transcribed in an individual-specific manner, and that for each gene, multiple splice variants exist. Finally, we reveal the impact of this polymorphism on the SmPoMuc glycosylation status. Our data support the view that S. mansoni has evolved a complex hierarchical system that efficiently generates a high degree of polymorphism—a “controlled chaos”—based on a relatively low number of genes. This contrasts with protozoan parasites that generate antigenic variation from large sets of genes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Our data support the view that the interaction between parasites and their invertebrate hosts are far more complex than previously thought. While most studies in this matter have focused on invertebrate host diversification, we clearly show that diversifying mechanisms also exist on the parasite side of the interaction. Our findings shed new light on how and why invertebrate immunity develops.

Roger, Emmanuel; Grunau, Christoph; Pierce, Raymond J.; Hirai, Hirohisa; Gourbal, Benjamin; Galinier, Richard; Emans, Remi; Cesari, Italo M.; Cosseau, Celine; Mitta, Guillaume

2008-01-01

264

Inhibition of egg hatching with apple wax solvent as a novel method for controlling golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is an important pest of rice in Asia. Among chemicals screened for ability to inhibit hatching of snail eggs, morpholine which is a solvent of apple wax was very effective in suppressing hatching of snail eggs. At a concentration of 60%, or higher, morpholine completely suppressed egg hatching in the laboratory and outdoor conditions. Scanning

Der-Chung Wu; Jih-Zu Yu; Bing-Huei Chen; Chien-Yih Lin; Wen-Hsiung Ko

2005-01-01

265

The Application of Electric Shock as a Novel Pest Control Method for Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, brought to Japan from Taiwan for human consumption in the 1980s, has come to be considered as deleterious for rice cultivation. The snail is unable to injure young rice plants while receiving electric shock because the snail retracts its entire body into its shell and shuts its aperture with its operculum. Electric shock should be

Yoshihito Yagyu; Satoshi Tsuji; Saburoh Satoh; Chobei Yamabe

2005-01-01

266

Increased response to cadmium and Bacillus thuringiensis maize toxicity in the snail Helix aspersa infected by the nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita.  

PubMed

To determine the effect of nematode infection on the response of snails to selected toxins, we infected Helix aspersa with 0-, 0.25-, 1-, or 4-fold the recommended field dose of a commercial nematode application for agricultural use. In the first experiment, the snails also were exposed to cadmium via food and soil at concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 120, or 240 mg/kg in a full-factorial design. In the second experiment, snails were infected with nematodes and also fed either Bt (expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) maize or non-Bt maize. The snails were weighed at the beginning and end (after four weeks) of the experiments, and mortality was checked daily. Neither exposure of snails to nematodes nor exposure of snails to cadmium or Bt toxin affected the survival rates of snails. The number of dead snails was highest for combinations of nematode treatments with cadmium concentrations of 120 and 240 mg/kg. In both experiments (Bt and cadmium), the growth rate decreased with increasing nematode dose. The Bt maize was not harmful to the snails in the absence of nematodes, but infected snails grew faster when fed non-Bt maize. The growth rate of snails exposed to cadmium decreased with exposure to increasing Cd concentrations and differed significantly between the no-nematode treatment and the treatments with nematode doses of one- and fourfold the recommended field dose. Snails treated with the highest dose of nematodes accumulated the highest cadmium concentrations. PMID:17269462

Kramarz, Paulina E; de Vaufleury, Annette; Zygmunt, Piotr M S; Verdun, Cyrille

2007-01-01

267

Occurrence of a blood group Alike substance in eggs of the prosobranch snail Pomacea canaliculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the eggs of the prosobranch snailsPomacea canaliculata andPomacea insularum a blood group A-like substance has been detected by anti-A from the snailsHelix pomatia, Helix aspersa andCepaea nemoralis.

G. Uhlenbruck; G. Steinhausen; D. F. Cheesman; B. Helm

1976-01-01

268

Physiological response to low temperature in the freshwater apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).  

PubMed

Cold hardiness of the freshwater apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, varies seasonally. We investigated lethal factors and physiological changes arising from exposure of P. canaliculata to low temperatures. Snails did not survive freezing. The supercooling point of cold-acclimated (cold tolerant) snails (-6.6+/-0.8 degrees C) did not differ significantly from that of non-acclimated ones (-7.1+/-1.5 degrees C) under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, snails died even under more moderately low temperatures approaching 0 degrees C. These results indicate that indirect chilling injury is a factor in the death of P. canaliculata at low temperatures. Regardless of whether the snails were acclimated to low temperatures, all of the dead, and even some of the snails still alive at 0 degrees C, had injured mantles, indicating that the mantle may be the organ most susceptible to the effects of low temperatures. The concentration of glucose in the posterior chamber of the kidney and concentration of glycerol in the digestive gland were significantly higher in cold-acclimated snails than in non-acclimated ones, suggesting carbohydrate metabolic pathways are altered in snails during cold acclimation. PMID:19648400

Matsukura, Keiichiro; Tsumuki, Hisaaki; Izumi, Yohei; Wada, Takashi

2009-08-01

269

Herbivory on aquatic vascular plants by the introduced golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata ) in Lao PDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of naturally found densities of the exotic and herbivorous golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) on three dominant aquatic plants – duckweed (Lemna minor), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica) – was assessed in a wetland survey and quantified in a field experiment in Laos in southeast Asia. Snail grazing reduced plant biomass, but plant species

Nils O. L. Carlsson; Jean O. Lacoursière

2005-01-01

270

Notch1 increases Snail expression under high reactive oxygen species conditions in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Abstract Notch1 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate important pathways associated with tumor development and progression. Notably, Notch1 expression is upregulated in 41.8% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and ROS levels increases as HCC progresses from Grade I to Grade III. It has been established that Notch1 and ROS modulate Snail expression in malignant tumors; however, the mechanism regulating Snail protein expression is not yet known. In this study, we observed that Notch1 and ROS cooperatively increase the levels of Snail protein in Huh7 (hepatoma) cells. On its own, signaling through Notch1 increases transcription of Snail without changing protein levels. In contrast, the combined activation of the Notch1 and ROS-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways resulted in the high expression of Snail protein. This increase in Snail expression was associated with increased Huh7 cells invasiveness. Furthermore, we observed that correlation between Snail and Notch1 expression was the strongest in advanced grade HCC tissue. In conclusion, Notch1 and ROS-induced PI3K/Akt signals cooperatively increase Snail expression and may induce malignancy in HCC. PMID:24684482

Kim, H S; Jung, G

2014-07-01

271

The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail  

PubMed Central

Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures.

Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M.; Garcia de Leon, Francisco J.; Johnson, Steven G.

2012-01-01

272

Snail Contributes to the Maintenance of Stem Cell-Like Phenotype Cells in Human Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Snail, a potent repressor of E-cadherin expression, plays a key role in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cancer. Recently, EMT and stemness programs are found linked together. In the current study, the expression of Snail and its contribution to cancer stem cell (CSC) marker expression, invasiveness, self-renewal, clonogenicity, and tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells were studied. Our results showed that Snail was highly expressed in CSChigh cell line Panc-1. Stable, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated Snail knockdown decreased invasion in Panc-1 cells, in line with increased E-cadherin expression and its translocation from the nucleus to the membrane. Snail silencing in Panc-1 also inhibited CSC marker ALDH expression, together with decreased sphere and colony forming capacity, which was highly consistent with the expression of stem cell associated transcription factors like Sox2 and Oct4. In mouse xenograft models, knockdown of Snail led to a reduced number of tumor-bearing mice and a reduced average size of tumors, which had a stronger membrane staining of E-cadherin and lighter staining of Oct4. Collectively, these findings implicate Snail is required for the maintenance of stem cell-like phenotype in pancreatic cancer, and inhibition of Snail could be an efficient strategy to treat pancreatic cancer by targeting CSCs.

Zhou, Wei; Lv, Ran; Qi, Weilin; Wu, Di; Xu, Yunyun; Liu, Wei; Mou, Yiping; Wang, Liewei

2014-01-01

273

Effects of desiccation on two life stages of an invasive snail and its native cohabitant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species are of critical concern as they have the potential to rapidly alter biotic systems around the globe. The\\u000a upper Mississippi River (UMR) system has been recently invaded by the aquatic snail, Bithynia tentaculata, which spread from the Great Lakes region. In addition to potentially impacting native aquatic snails, B. tentaculata also carries three parasites which kill thousands of

Allison M. Wood; Cody R. Haro; Roger J. Haro; Gregory J. Sandland

274

Influence of Snail on Integrin Beta l Expression/Activity in Breast Carcinoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We provide the first evidence that Snail-1, a tumor progression factor 1-3, influences breast tumor cell adhesion to matrix proteins. Specifically, we show that Snail-1 reduces alpha2 beta1 integrin expression levels in breast tumor cells. This novel Snai...

R. E. Bachelder

2008-01-01

275

Influence of Snail on Integrin Beta 1 Expression/Activity in Breast Carcinoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We provide the first evidence that Snail-1, a tumor progression factor 1-3, influences breast tumor cell adhesion to matrix proteins. Specifically, we show that Snail-1 reduces alpha2 beta1 integrin expression levels in breast tumor cells. This novel Snai...

R. E. Bachelder

2008-01-01

276

Snail contributes to the maintenance of stem cell-like phenotype cells in human pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Snail, a potent repressor of E-cadherin expression, plays a key role in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cancer. Recently, EMT and stemness programs are found linked together. In the current study, the expression of Snail and its contribution to cancer stem cell (CSC) marker expression, invasiveness, self-renewal, clonogenicity, and tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells were studied. Our results showed that Snail was highly expressed in CSC(high) cell line Panc-1. Stable, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated Snail knockdown decreased invasion in Panc-1 cells, in line with increased E-cadherin expression and its translocation from the nucleus to the membrane. Snail silencing in Panc-1 also inhibited CSC marker ALDH expression, together with decreased sphere and colony forming capacity, which was highly consistent with the expression of stem cell associated transcription factors like Sox2 and Oct4. In mouse xenograft models, knockdown of Snail led to a reduced number of tumor-bearing mice and a reduced average size of tumors, which had a stronger membrane staining of E-cadherin and lighter staining of Oct4. Collectively, these findings implicate Snail is required for the maintenance of stem cell-like phenotype in pancreatic cancer, and inhibition of Snail could be an efficient strategy to treat pancreatic cancer by targeting CSCs. PMID:24489910

Zhou, Wei; Lv, Ran; Qi, Weilin; Wu, Di; Xu, Yunyun; Liu, Wei; Mou, Yiping; Wang, Liewei

2014-01-01

277

Accumulation and excretion of DDT by the terrestrial snail, Cepaea hortensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial gastropods (snails and slugs) have been shown to accumulate considerable quantities of the organochlorine insecticide DDT, with no noticeable toxic effect. These invertebrates serve as a source of this concentrated pesticide to vertebrate predators. Snails and slugs as non-target organisms accumulate DDT residues at concentrations equal to or considerably higher than the surrounding environment. Such information from the literature

Daniel L. Dindal; Karl-Hans Wurzinger

1971-01-01

278

The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in Asian rice farming systems: Present impact and future threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mesogastropoda: Pilidae), has recently been introduced to several Asian countries where it has unexpectedly developed into a pest of rice. Reasons for the introduction as well as the economic and ecological impact of the snail are described. Most farmers have resorted to chemical control, with implications for human health and the environment.

Matthias Halwart

1994-01-01

279

Environmental impact of the golden snail (Pomacea sp.) on rice farming systems in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary report of the workshop held at the Freshwater Aquaculture Center, Central Luzon State University, Nueva Ecija, Philippines, on 9-10 November 1989. It discusses the effects wrought by the golden snail since its introduction to the Philippines, particularly on rice farming systems. Ways to control the snail are presented.

B. Acosta; R. S. V. Pullin

280

EFFECTS OF DIETARY EXPOSURE TO FOREST PESTICIDES ON THE BROWN GARDEN SNAIL HELIX ASPERSA MULLER  

EPA Science Inventory

Brown garden snails, Helix aspersa, were fed prepared diets with 12 pesticides used in forest spraying practices where endangered arboreal and terrestrial snails may be at risk. cephate, atrazine, glyphosate, hexazinone, and picloram were not lethal at concentrations of 5,000 mg/...

281

The influence of TCS on the growth and behavior of the freshwater snail, Physa acuta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triclosan (TCS) is among the top 10 most persistent contaminants found in U.S. rivers, streams, lakes, and aquifers. Although TCS has not been found to be hazardous to humans, it can be toxic to aquatic environments and animals. The effects of TCS on growth rates and the locomotive behavior of the freshwater snail, Physa acuta, were studied by exposing snails

Jenell Brown; Melody J. Bernot; Randall J. Bernot

2012-01-01

282

Dissociation of sexual arousal and sexual proclivity in the garden snail, Helix aspersa.  

PubMed

Sexual arousal (intensity of courtship) and sexual proclivity (tendency to court) in Helix aspersa can be reliably measured using externally observable correlates. Snails with sexual proclivity are significantly more likely to turn toward an anesthetized conspecific after contacting it than are sexually unreceptive snails. Sexual arousal can be inferred from the stage of a snail's genital eversion, which appears only during courtship. The higher the stage of the eversion, the shorter the time required to complete introductory courtship behavior and the higher the rate of successful copulation, the fewer the number of breaks and pauses during courtship, and the longer the time a snail will spend in contact with an anesthetized conspecific. Sexual proclivity has no effect on feeding or locomotory behavior; however, sexual arousal inhibits feeding and increases locomotor activity. Snails that were allowed daily contact with conspecifics required less time to complete introductory courtship behavior relative to snails that were isolated from conspecifics for 1 week. This suggests that daily contact increases sexual arousal. A greater percentage of isolated snails exhibited courtship behavior than did snails which had experienced daily conspecific contact. This suggests that isolation increases sexual proclivity. These differences indicate that sexual arousal is not merely due to an increase in sexual proclivity. PMID:2241758

Adamo, S A; Chase, R

1990-09-01

283

Tests of the Ability of Five Disinfectants to Kill New Zealand Mud Snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exposed New Zealand mud snails (NZMS), Potamopyrgus antipodarum, to various concentrations of four different quaternary ammonium-based disinfectants (Roccal D-Plus, Hyamine 1622, benzalkonium chloride, and Stepanquat 50 NF) and to liquid dish soap (Dawn) for 15 min. After 24 h of recovery in water, survival of the exposed snails was determined. Generally, mortality increased with increased chemical concentration. A concentration

Randall W. Oplinger; Eric Wagner

2011-01-01

284

A Snail1/Notch1 signalling axis controls embryonic vascular development.  

PubMed

Notch1-Delta-like 4 (Dll4) signalling controls vascular development by regulating endothelial cell (EC) targets that modulate vessel wall remodelling and arterial-venous specification. The molecular effectors that modulate Notch signalling during vascular development remain largely undefined. Here we demonstrate that the transcriptional repressor, Snail1, acts as a VEGF-induced regulator of Notch1 signalling and Dll4 expression. EC-specific Snail1 loss-of-function conditional knockout mice die in utero with defects in vessel wall remodelling in association with losses in mural cell investment and disruptions in arterial-venous specification. Snail1 loss-of-function conditional knockout embryos further display upregulated Notch1 signalling and Dll4 expression that is partially reversed by inhibiting ?-secretase activity in vivo with Dll4 identified as a direct target of Snail1-mediated transcriptional repression. These results document a Snail1-Dll4/Notch1 axis that controls embryonic vascular development. PMID:24894949

Wu, Zhao-Qiu; Rowe, R Grant; Lim, Kim-Chew; Lin, Yongshun; Willis, Amanda; Tang, Yi; Li, Xiao-Yan; Nor, Jacques E; Maillard, Ivan; Weiss, Stephen J

2014-01-01

285

[Neurochemical mechanisms of food aversion conditioning consolidation in snail Helix lucorum].  

PubMed

Effects of cycloheximide, protein synthesis inhibitors, as well as serotonin receptor antagonist and NMDA receptor antagonist on food aversion conditioning consolidation were studied in snail Helix lucorum. Food aversion conditioning was absent in snails after application of cycloheximide. Repeated produced no food aversion conditioning for the same type of food in these snails without cycloheximide application. Food aversion conditioning was absent in snails after applications of metiotepin, nonselective serotonin receptors antagonist, or after MK-801, NMDA glutamate receptors antagonist. At the same time, repeated training produced facilitated food aversion conditioning for the same type of food in these snails. Our experiments were the first which showed that effect on different molecular mechanisms evoked reversible or irreversible disruption of long-term memory consolidation during the same learning. It was suggested that suppression of retrieval produced reversible effect, whereas disruption of memory storage initiated irreversible effect on long-term memory consolidation. PMID:19140302

Solntseva, S V; Nikitin, v P

2008-11-01

286

[Neurochemical mechanisms of food aversion conditioning consolidation in snail helix lucorum].  

PubMed

Effects of cycloheximide, protein synthesis inhibitor as well as serotonin receptor antagonist and NMDA receptor antagonist, on food aversion conditioning consolidation were studied in snail Helix lucorum. Food aversion conditioning was absent in snails after application of cycloheximide. Repeated training produced no food aversion conditioning for the same type of food in these snails without cycloheximide application. Food aversion conditioning was absent in snails after metiotepin, nonselective serotonin receptors antagonist, or after MK-801, NMDA glutamate receptors antagonist, applications. At the same time, repeated training produced facilitated food aversion conditioning for the same type of food in these snails. Our experiments were the first which showed that effect on different molecular mechanisms evoked reversible or irreversible disruption of long-term memory consolidation during the same learning. It was suggested that suppression of retrieval produced reversible effect whereas disruption of memory storage initiated irreversible effect on long-term memory consolidation. PMID:18825927

Solntseva, S V; Nikitin, V P

2008-08-01

287

Use of a saponin based molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata snails in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Pomacea canaliculata snails pose a severe problem to direct seeded rice cultivated in Southern Brazil. Control of this snail is nowadays performed with toxic chemicals such as copper sulfate and fungicides such as fentin. A novel natural molluscicide based on alkali modified quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) saponins was tested under laboratory conditions. Snails were collected in rice fields close to Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul) and in Brusque (State of Santa Catarina, 400 km north of Porto Alegre). In Santa Catarina the product was very effective, while in Porto Alegre it had no effect. This unexpected behavior was probably due to the respiratory habits of the snails under different contents of dissolved oxygen in the water. Near Porto Alegre the water used in rice fields is heavily polluted, with dissolved oxygen levels of 1-2 ppm, and the snails rely primarily on their siphon and lungs to breathe. Since saponin control is probably due to an interaction between saponins with the sterols present in the cell walls in the gills, no control was observed. By contrast, in Santa Catarina the dissolved oxygen level of the water is 5-6 ppm, and the snails remain mostly underwater, breathing with their gills. In this case the snails died within 24 h at a dose of 20 and 30 ppm of product. To test this observation, snails grown in polluted waters were forced to remain underwater in saponin solutions and water (control) preventing the use of their siphon to breathe. The snails exposed to saponin solutions died, while the control snails survived, indicating that they were still able to use their gills to breathe. These results indicate that the use of the saponin product is limited to rice fields not irrigated with heavily polluted waters. PMID:19911565

San Martíns, R; Gelmi, Claudio; de Oliveira, Jaime Vargas; Galo, José Luis; Pranto, Honorio

2009-10-01

288

Snail1 expression in colorectal cancer and its correlation with clinical and pathological parameters  

PubMed Central

Background Snail1 is a transcription regulator of E-cadherin. The loss of E-cadherin seems to be a crucial step in the process of Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT initiates invasion and proliferation in many tumours. Overexpression of Snail1 is known to be associated with poor outcome in several solid tumours. The aim of this study was to analyse its expression profile and prognostic significance in colorectal cancer. Methods Tissue microarrays (TMA) containing paraffin-embedded primary colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue samples from 251 patients were used in this study. The expression of Snail1 and E-cadherin was assessed by immunohistochemistry in different tumour compartments, corresponding lymph node metastases and normal colonic mucosa. Intensity of staining was classified according to the Remmele score (standardized scoring system) as well as the semiquantitative score established by Blechschmidt et al. Results Snail1 expression was observed in 76% of the CRC. Loss of E-cadherin was noted in 87% of the CRC. Snail1 positive tumours were significantly correlated with Snail1 positive lymph node metastases (p=0.03). There was no significant correlation between loss of E-cadherin and Snail1 expression, or between N-stage or grading and Snail1 expression. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis identified no prognostic impact of Snail1 expression on overall survival. Conclusion Snail1 expression was detectable in most of the CRC but showed no significant association with E-cadherin loss, clinical pathological characteristics or overall survival. The observed loss of E-cadherin could be explained by effects of other important EMT pathways, such as the Wnt-signalling cascade.

2013-01-01

289

Snails and slugs damaging the cut foliage, Cordyline fruticosa and use of biorationals towards their management.  

PubMed

Snails and slugs became a serious molluscan pests and damaging leaves of purple compacta, Cordyline fruticosa extensively grown for export at Green Farm Ltd, Sri Lanka. The export quality of leaves of C. fruticosa is lowered due to feeding of snails, Achantina fulica (Bowditch), Opeas pyrgula Schmacker and Boettgerx and Helix aspersa Muller and slugs incurring great loss to cut foliage industry. Paucity of information is available to understand snails and slugs damage and their host range that limits to develop suitable management practices. Therefore this study was aimed to determine damage, alternate hosts and to develop possible management practices. Snails and slugs damaged mainly fresh leaves of C. fruticosa. The severity of damage was 44.5% in infested field based on the visual rating method. Leaves of cassava, sting bean, okra, cucumber, passion fruit, papaya, Glyricidia and shoe flower were identified as alternate hosts and neem, Ixora and Dracaena spp were not served as alternate hosts. Among the plant materials tested for their repellence against snails and slugs revealed that neem seed powder was an irritant; neem leaves, mint leaves and Lantana leaves were acted as anti-feedant and Salt as chemical repellent. Among the barrier and bait experiments Bordeaux mixture exhibited a significant barrier effect against horizontal movement of snails. Baits made out of Metaldehyde bait, vegetables bait and jaggery had a strong effect in repelling the snails and slugs. Mulching with Madhuca longifolia punnac was the best to reduce the snails and slugs population compared to M. longifolia seed kernel powder. Oil from M. longifolia failed to reduce their population. Hence the results revealed that saponin containing M. longifolia punnac helped to eliminate snails and slugs when used as mulch. Metaldehyde, vegetable and jaggery baits are also useful to minimize their colonization further. Hence combination of these methods will help to prevent snails and slugs from damaging C. fruticosa and benefit to the cut foliage industry to sustain its export quality. PMID:23885439

Karthiga, S; Jegathambigai, V; Karunarathne, M D S D; Svinningen, A; Mikunthan, G

2012-01-01

290

Protumorigenic effects of Snail-expression fibroblasts on colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Snail1 is a transcriptional factor that plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and in the acquisition of invasive properties by epithelial cells. In colon tumors, Snail1 expression in the stroma correlates with lower specific survival of cancer patients. However, the role(s) of Snail1 expression in stroma and its association with patients' survival have not been determined. We used human primary carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) or normal fibroblasts (NFs) and fibroblast cell lines to analyze the effects of Snail1 expression on the protumorigenic capabilities in colon cancer cells. Snail1 expression was higher in CAFs than in NFs and, as well as ?-SMA, a classic marker of activated CAFs. Moreover, in tumor samples from 50 colon cancer patients, SNAI1 expression was associated with expression of other CAF markers, such as ?-SMA and fibroblast activation protein. Interestingly, coculture of CAFs with colon cells induced a significant increase in epithelial cell migration and proliferation, which was associated with endogenous SNAI1 expression levels. Ectopic manipulation of Snail1 in fibroblasts demonstrated that Snail1 expression controlled migration as well as proliferation of cocultured colon cancer cells in a paracrine manner. Furthermore, expression of Snail1 in fibroblasts was required for the coadjuvant effect of these cells on colon cancer cell growth and invasion when coxenografted in nude mice. Finally, cytokine profile changes, particularly MCP-3 expression, in fibroblasts are put forward as mediators of Snail1-derived effects on colon tumor cell migration. In summary, these studies demonstrate that Snail1 is necessary for the protumorigenic effects of fibroblasts on colon cancer cells. PMID:24242829

Herrera, Alberto; Herrera, Mercedes; Alba-Castellón, Lorena; Silva, Javier; García, Vanesa; Loubat-Casanovas, Jordina; Alvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Miguel García, José; Rodriguez, Rufo; Gil, Beatriz; Ma Jesús Citores; Ma Jesús Larriba; Ignacio Casal, J; de Herreros, Antonio García; Bonilla, Félix; Peña, Cristina

2014-06-15

291

Changes in Frequency of Spontaneous Oscillations in Procerebrum Correlate to Behavioural Choice in Terrestrial Snails  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study was to understand functional significance of spontaneous oscillations of local field potential in the olfactory brain lobe of terrestrial snail, the procerebrum (PC). We compared changes in frequency of oscillations in semi-intact preparations from snails trained to percept the same conditioned odor as positive (associated with food reinforcement) or negative (associated with noxious reinforcement). In vivo recordings in freely behaving naïve snails showed a significant decrease of spontaneous PC oscillations frequency during a stage of tentacle withdrawal to odor presentation. In in vitro preparations from naïve snails, a similar decrease in frequency of the PC oscillations to odor presentation was observed. Changes in frequency of the oscillations to cineole presentations in the “aversive” group of snails (demonstrating withdrawal) were much more pronounced than in naïve snails. No significant difference in responses to 5% and 20% cineole was noted. Changes in the spontaneous oscillations frequency in the snails trained to respond with positive reaction (approach) to cineole depended on the concentration of the applied odor, and these responses were qualitatively similar to responses of other groups during the first 10?s of responses to odor, but significantly different (increase in PC oscillations frequency) from the responses of the aversively trained and naïve snails in the interval 11–30?s, which corresponds to the end of the tentacle withdrawal and timing of decision making (approach or escape) in the free behaving snails. Obtained results suggest that frequency of the PC lobe spontaneous oscillations correlate to the choice of behavior in snails: withdrawal (decrease in frequency) or approach (increase in frequency) to the source of odor.

Samarova, Elena; Balaban, Pavel

2009-01-01

292

Refuge function of marine algae complicates selection in an intertidal snail.  

PubMed

Species with restricted gene flow often show trait-shifts from one type of environment to another. In those rock-dwelling marine gastropods that lack larval dispersal, size generally decreases in wave-exposed habitats reducing risk of dislodgement, while increases in less exposed habitats to resist crab-crushing. In Littorina fabalis, however, snails of moderately exposed shores are generally much larger (11-14 mm) than snails of sheltered shores (5-8 mm). Observations from the White Sea (where crabs are not present) indicate that in the absence of crabs snails are small (6-7 mm) in both habitats. We assumed that the optimal size for L. fabalis in the absence of crabs is less than 8 mm, and thus that increased size in moderately exposed habitats in areas with crabs might be a response to crab predation. In a crab-rich area (Sweden) we showed that crab predation is an important mortality factor for this snail species in both sheltered and moderately exposed habitats. In sheltered habitats, snails were relatively more protected from crab-predation when dwelling on their habitual substrate, fucoid algae, than if experimentally tethered to rocks below the algae. This showed that algae function as snail refuges. Snail dislodgement increased, however, with wave exposure but tethering snails in moderately exposed habitats showed that large snails survived equally well on rocks under the algae as in the canopy of the algae. Thus in sheltered habitats a small snail size is favored, probably due to life-history reasons, while increased risk of being dislodged from the algae refuges promotes a large size in moderately exposed habitats. This study shows an example of selection of a trait depends on complex interactions of different factors (life-history optimization, crab predation, wave induced dislodgement and algal refuges). PMID:15711994

Kemppainen, Petri; van Nes, Solveig; Ceder, Christofer; Johannesson, Kerstin

2005-04-01

293

Population studies on Oncomelania quadrasi, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, in the Philippines. 5. Quantitative analysis on successful snail control by land reclamation.  

PubMed

For the control of Oncomelania quadrasi, environmental modifications, i.e., clearing of vegetation, leveling of swampy depression and draining of stagnant water by channeling and excavation were carried out at 3 areas in Leyte, Philippines from 1974 to 1977. The change of snail population resulted in the land reclamation was evaluated by the methods previously developed by the population studies on this snail. As a result of statistical analysis based on y = log(x + 0.01) transformation and the antilogarithmic mean density A-y = (antilog -y) -0.01, the reduction of snail population was observed at 13 out of 18 sites studied at 3 project areas and the significant reduction was statistically confirmed at 9 sites of them. Particularly at Dagami area, which was a wide and heavily snail-infested land adjacent to Dagami Poblacion, the reduction rate of snail density reached 87.7% to 99.2% and some wet depressions have been converted into good rice fields with little snail infestation at the last survey. PMID:3090317

Makiya, K; Tanaka, H; Bañez, E; Blas, B L; Santos, A T

1986-04-01

294

A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory.  

PubMed

Dietary consumption of flavonoids (plant phytochemicals) may improve memory and neuro-cognitive performance, though the mechanism is poorly understood. Previous work has assessed cognitive effects in vertebrates; here we assess the suitability of Lymnaea stagnalis as an invertebrate model to elucidate the effects of flavonoids on cognition. (-)Epicatechin (epi) is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. We studied its effects on basic snail behaviours (aerial respiration and locomotion), long-term memory (LTM) formation and memory extinction of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behaviour. We found no significant effect of epi exposure (15 mg l(-1)) on either locomotion or aerial respiration. However, when snails were operantly conditioned in epi for a single 0.5 h training session, which typically results in memory lasting ~3 h, they formed LTM lasting at least 24 h. Snails exposed to epi also showed significantly increased resistance to extinction, consistent with the hypothesis that epi induces a more persistent LTM. Thus training in epi facilitates LTM formation and results in a more persistent and stronger memory. Previous work has indicated that memory-enhancing stressors (predator kairomones and KCl) act via sensory input from the osphradium and are dependent on a serotonergic (5-HT) signalling pathway. Here we found that the effects of epi on LTM were independent of osphradial input and 5-HT, demonstrating that an alternative mechanism of memory enhancement exists in L. stagnalis. Our data are consistent with the notion that dietary sources of epi can improve cognitive abilities, and that L. stagnalis is a suitable model with which to elucidate neuronal mechanisms. PMID:23014569

Fruson, Lee; Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

2012-10-15

295

Speciation and Gene Flow between Snails of Opposite Chirality  

PubMed Central

Left-right asymmetry in snails is intriguing because individuals of opposite chirality are either unable to mate or can only mate with difficulty, so could be reproductively isolated from each other. We have therefore investigated chiral evolution in the Japanese land snail genus Euhadra to understand whether changes in chirality have promoted speciation. In particular, we aimed to understand the effect of the maternal inheritance of chirality on reproductive isolation and gene flow. We found that the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of Euhadra is consistent with a single, relatively ancient evolution of sinistral species and suggests either recent “single-gene speciation” or gene flow between chiral morphs that are unable to mate. To clarify the conditions under which new chiral morphs might evolve and whether single-gene speciation can occur, we developed a mathematical model that is relevant to any maternal-effect gene. The model shows that reproductive character displacement can promote the evolution of new chiral morphs, tending to counteract the positive frequency-dependent selection that would otherwise drive the more common chiral morph to fixation. This therefore suggests a general mechanism as to how chiral variation arises in snails. In populations that contain both chiral morphs, two different situations are then possible. In the first, gene flow is substantial between morphs even without interchiral mating, because of the maternal inheritance of chirality. In the second, reproductive isolation is possible but unstable, and will also lead to gene flow if intrachiral matings occasionally produce offspring with the opposite chirality. Together, the results imply that speciation by chiral reversal is only meaningful in the context of a complex biogeographical process, and so must usually involve other factors. In order to understand the roles of reproductive character displacement and gene flow in the chiral evolution of Euhadra, it will be necessary to investigate populations in which both chiral morphs coexist.

2005-01-01

296

Toxicity of botanical insecticides on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).  

PubMed

The molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from five highly potential plants, Annona squamosa seed, Nerium indicum Leaves, Stemona tuberose root, Cyperus rotundus corm and Derris elliptica root was assessed to Pomacea canaliculata. D. elliptica root and C. rotundus corm extracts showed the highest toxicity against 3-month old snails which have LC50 as 23.68 +/- 2.96 mg/l and 133.20 +/- 7.94 mg/l, respectively. The C. rotundus corm extracts were chosen for detoxification enzyme in vivo assay which shows esterase and glutathione S-transferase activity in stomach, intestinal tracts and digestive glands of survival treated P. canaliculata were inhibited. PMID:21542482

Ruamthum, W; Visetson, S; Milne, J R; Bullangpoti, V

2010-01-01

297

Metabolism of Carotenoids in the Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding experiments with ?,?-carotene, canthaxanthin, (3R,3?R)-zeaxanthin, (3R,3?R,6?R)-lutein and racemic astaxanthin on the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata were investigated. Based on the experimental results, ?,?-carotene was oxidatively metabolized, and the resulting principal metabolic product (3S,3?S)-astaxanthin along with other keto carotenoids such as (3S)-3-hydroxy-?-echinenone, canthaxanthin, (3S,3?R)-4-ketozeaxanthin and (3S)-phoenicoxanthin was accumulated in the gonad. Similarly, (3R,3?R,6?R)-lutein was converted into fritschiellaxanthin [(3S,3?R,6?R)-3,3?-dihydroxy-?, ?-caroten-4-one]. It

Miyuki Tsushima; Masaaki Katsuyama; Takao Matsuno

1997-01-01

298

Exposure to parasites increases promiscuity in a freshwater snail  

PubMed Central

Under the Red Queen hypothesis, outcrossing can produce genetically variable progeny, which may be more resistant, on average, to locally adapted parasites. Mating with multiple partners may enhance this resistance by further increasing the genetic variation among offspring. We exposed Potamopyrgus antipodarum to the eggs of a sterilizing, trematode parasite and tested whether this altered mating behaviour. We found that exposure to parasites increased the number of snail mating pairs and the total number of different mating partners for both males and females. Thus, our results suggest that, in host populations under parasite-mediated selection, exposure to infective propagules increases the rate of mating and the number of mates.

Soper, D. M.; King, K. C.; Vergara, D.; Lively, C. M.

2014-01-01

299

Exposure to parasites increases promiscuity in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Under the Red Queen hypothesis, outcrossing can produce genetically variable progeny, which may be more resistant, on average, to locally adapted parasites. Mating with multiple partners may enhance this resistance by further increasing the genetic variation among offspring. We exposed Potamopyrgus antipodarum to the eggs of a sterilizing, trematode parasite and tested whether this altered mating behaviour. We found that exposure to parasites increased the number of snail mating pairs and the total number of different mating partners for both males and females. Thus, our results suggest that, in host populations under parasite-mediated selection, exposure to infective propagules increases the rate of mating and the number of mates. PMID:24759366

Soper, D M; King, K C; Vergara, D; Lively, C M

2014-01-01

300

Selective and universal primers for trematode barcoding in freshwater snails.  

PubMed

Trematodes are significant pathogens of high medical, veterinary, and environmental importance. They are hard to isolate from their intermediate hosts, and their early life stages are difficult to identify morphologically. Therefore, primers were developed for trematodes to create a species barcoding system and allow selective PCR amplification in mixed samples. The specific oligonucleotide primer was universal for trematodes that infected several freshwater snail species in Israel. The diagnostic tool is based on the 18S rDNA gene. In contrast to morphological identification, trematode barcoding is rapid as it is based on a sequence of only 800 bp, and it classifies species accurately due to high polymorphism between conserved areas. PMID:24781022

Routtu, J; Grunberg, D; Izhar, R; Dagan, Y; Guttel, Y; Ucko, M; Ben-Ami, F

2014-07-01

301

[Equipment for biological experiments with snails aboard piloted orbital stations].  

PubMed

To fly biological experiments aboard piloted orbital stations, research equipment was built up of an incubation container, filter system and automatic temperature controller. Investigations included analysis of the makeup and concentrations of gases produced by animals (snails) during biocycle, and emitted after death. Filters are chemisorption active fibrous materials (AFM) with high sorption rate and water receptivity (cation exchange fiber VION-KN-1 and anion exchange fiber VION-AS-1), and water-repellent carbon adsorbent SKLTS. AFM filters were effective in air cleaning and practically excluded ingress of chemical substances from the container into cabin atmosphere over more than 100 days. PMID:21033402

Gorgiladze, G I; Korotkova, E V; Kuznetsova, E E; Mukhamedieva, L N; Begrov, V V; Pepeliaev, Iu V

2010-01-01

302

The repressor function of snail is required for Drosophila gastrulation and is not replaceable by Escargot or Worniu.  

PubMed

Mesoderm formation in the Drosophila embryo depends on the maternal Toll signaling pathway. The Toll pathway establishes the Dorsal nuclear gradient, which regulates many zygotic genes to establish the mesodermal fate and promote the invagination of ventral cells. An important target gene of Dorsal is snail, which is required for proper mesoderm invagination. The Snail protein contains five zinc fingers and is a transcriptional repressor. However, it is not clear whether repressing target genes is a requirement for Snail to control ventral invagination. To examine such requirement, we conducted a series of genetic rescue experiments in snail mutant embryos. Snail, Worniu, and Escargot are closely related zinc-finger proteins and have equal functions during neuroblast development. However, among these three proteins, only Snail can rescue the mesoderm invagination phenotype. Moreover, the ability of various Snail mutant constructs to repress gene expression correlates with their ability to control invagination. This unique property of Snail in mesoderm formation can be attributed mostly to the CtBP co-repressor interaction motifs in the N-terminus, not to the C-terminal DNA-binding zinc fingers. Ectopic expression of Snail outside the ventral domain is not sufficient to induce cell movement even though repression of target genes still occurs. Together, the results show that the repressor function of Snail is essential for gastrulation. The repression of target genes by Snail may permit other factors in the ventral cells to positively promote mesoderm invagination. PMID:15110709

Hemavathy, Kirugaval; Hu, Xiaodi; Ashraf, Shovon I; Small, Stephen J; Ip, Y Tony

2004-05-15

303

Snail expression and outcome in T1 high-grade and T2 bladder cancer: a retrospective immunohistochemical analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been shown to have benefit in T1 high-grade or T2 bladder cancer. However, neoadjuvant chemotherapy fails in some patients. Careful patient selection for neoadjuvant chemotherapy is therefore needed. Several reports show that Snail is associated with resistance to chemotherapy. We hypothesized that Snail expression could predict survival in T1 high-grade and T2 bladder cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods The participants were 44 patients with T1 high-grade and T2 bladder cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to determine Snail expression in specimens of bladder cancer obtained by transurethral resection before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The relationships between Snail expression and patients’ outcomes were analyzed. Results Snail expression was positive in 15 of the 44 patients (34.1%) and negative in 29 (65.9%). Disease-free survival was significantly shorter for the Snail-positive group than for the Snail-negative group (p?=?0.014). In addition, disease-specific survival was also significantly shorter for the Snail-positive group than for the Snail-negative group (p?=?0.039). In multivariate analysis, Snail expression level was identified as an independent prognostic factor for disease-specific survival (p?=?0.020). Conclusions The results indicate that Snail expression may predict poor outcome in T1 high-grade and T2 bladder cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

2013-01-01

304

The Influence of Plagiorchis mutationis Larval Infection on the Cellular Immune Response of the Snail Host Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

Abstract : The effects of trematode Plagiorchis mutationis parasitism on the cellular immune responses of the snail host Lymnaea stagnalis were investigated. The number of spreading blood cells (hemocytes) from infected snails was significantly less (69.5%) than in uninfected individuals (79.2%). The phagocytic activity of blood cells in infected snails was also significantly less (17.2%) compared to uninfected snails (27.8%). The hemocytes from the infected snails did not form a complete capsule around Sephadex beads in vitro. The protective reactions of the snail hosts were independent of the parasite load (daily cercariae production). In vitro, dead cercariae of P. mutationis were encapsulated by hemocytes from uninfected snails. The hemocytes of the infected snails formed a complete capsule around only 20% of dead cercariae in vitro, with remaining cercariae either unencapsulated (50% of cercariae) or incompletely encapsulated (30% of cercariae). The total number of hemocytes in the infected snails was twofold less than in uninfected individuals. The results of this study showed that the cellular response of snail host L. stagnalis to P. mutationis trematode infection is similar to the previously studied snail-trematode model systems. PMID:24428684

Kryukova, Natalia A; Yurlova, Natalia I; Rastyagenko, Natalia M; Antonova, Elena V; Glupov, Viktor V

2014-06-01

305

The p65 subunit of NF-?B and PARP1 assist Snail1 in activating fibronectin transcription.  

PubMed

Snail1 is a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin that triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we report assisted Snail1 interaction with the promoter of a typical mesenchymal gene, fibronectin (FN1), both in epithelial cells undergoing EMT and in fibroblasts. Together with Snail1, the p65 subunit of NF-?B and PARP1 bound to the FN1 promoter. We detected nuclear interaction of these proteins and demonstrated the requirement of all three for FN1 transcription. Moreover, other genes involved in cell movement mimic FN1 expression induced by Snail1 or TGF-?1 treatment and recruit p65NF-?B and Snail1 to their promoters. The molecular cooperation between Snail1 and NF-?B in transcription activation provides a new insight into how Snail1 can modulate a variety of cell programs. PMID:22223884

Stanisavljevic, Jelena; Porta-de-la-Riva, Montserrat; Batlle, Raquel; de Herreros, Antonio García; Baulida, Josep

2011-12-15

306

Characterizations of Cholinesterases in Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata).  

PubMed

Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive alien species harmful to rice and other crops. The ChE(s) in this animal, which has been found recently, but poorly characterized thus far, could serve as biomarker(s) for environmental surveillance as well as a potential target for the pest control. In this study, the tissue distribution, substrate preference, sensitivity to ChE inhibitors, and molecular species of ChEs in P. canaliculata were investigated. It was found that the activities of both AChE and BChE were present in all test tissues. The intestine had the most abundant ChE activities. Both enzymes had fair activities in the head, kidney, and gills. The BChE activity was more sensitive to tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than the AChE. Only one BChE molecular species, 5.8S, was found in the intestine and head, whereas two AChE species, 5.8S and 11.6S, were found there. We propose that intestine ChEs of this snail may be potential biomarkers for manipulating pollutions. PMID:24217797

Zou, Xiang-Hui; Xie, Heidi Qun-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Chen, Vicky Ping; Sun, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Luk, Wilson Kin-Wai

2014-07-01

307

Imposex in the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) was introduced into Taiwan intentionally in the early 1980s and has become a recurring pest that seriously threatens aquatic crops. In this study, a field description of imposex with a developed penis sheath and penis in female golden apple snails from crop/domestic wastewater drainage sites and a six-order river is presented for the first time. Based on the five field collections and the aquarium group, the vas deferens sequence (VDS) of P. canaliculata in imposex development was categorized into four stages, i.e., stage 0: without male genital system; stage 1: with rudimentary penis; stage 2: with rudimentary penis and penis sheath; and stage 3: the rudimentary penis developing into penis pouch and penis. The VDS indices varied between 1.07 and 2.82 and were lowest in the aquarium group and Yuanlin2. Regarding the severity of imposex, the aquarium group was less pronounced, as illustrated by the length of penis sheath and penis length, than the field collections (p<0.05). In respect of the penis length, males of the most imposex-affected site were up to 15% shorter than that of the aquarium group. Negative correlations between male penis length and female imposex characters (i.e., penis length and penis sheath length) were also observed. PMID:17023028

Liu, Wen-Hui; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Ming-Yie; Lee, Ching-Chang; Liu, Li-Lian

2006-12-01

308

Reproduction and demography of the Florida Everglade (Snail) Kite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An 18-year study of reproduction and survival of the Florida Everglade (Snail) Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) has revealed the following: extremely poor nesting success (only 13.6% of nests found at the nest-building stage successful); extremely long breeding seasons (some reproductive activity in almost all months in good years); frequent multiple brooding and frequent multiple brooding and frequent renesting after failure; low egg hatchability (81%); high failure rates due to nest collapse, desertion, and predation; extremely high survival of juveniles and adults under good water conditions; and high vulnerability to drought due to near total dependency on a single species of drought-sensitive snail for food. Despite low nesting success, the species has increased rapidly under good conditions, mainly because of multiple nesting attempts within long breeding seasons and high survival rates of free-flying birds. Nesting success varied significantly between regions and nest substrates, but not as a function of seasons or solitary vs. colonial nesting. While nesting success was reduced in low water years, this effect was at least partly due to heavy use of poor nest substrates under such conditions. Clutch size and numbers of young per successful nest varied with regions, but not as a function of seasons or water levels. The effects of coloniality on clutch size and numbers of young were inconsistent. Significant effects of nest-substrate types on clutch size and numbers of young were apparently artifacts of substrate differences between regions.

Snyder, N.F.R.; Beissinger, S.R.; Chandler, R.E.

1989-01-01

309

The slipper snail, Crepidula: an emerging lophotrochozoan model system.  

PubMed

Recent developmental and genomic research focused on "slipper snails" in the genus Crepidula has positioned Crepidula fornicata as a de facto model system for lophotrochozoan development. Here we review recent developments, as well as earlier reports demonstrating the widespread use of this system in studies of development and life history. Recent studies have resulted in a well-resolved fate map of embryonic cell lineage, documented mechanisms for axis determination and D quadrant specification, preliminary gene expression patterns, and the successful application of loss- and gain-of-function assays. The recent development of expressed sequence tags and preliminary genomics work will promote the use of this system, particularly in the area of developmental biology. A wealth of comparative information on phylogenetic relationships, variation in mode of development within the family, and numerous studies on larval biology and metamorphosis, primarily in Crepidula fornicata, make these snails a powerful tool for studies of the evolution of the mechanisms of development in the Mollusca and Lophotrochozoa. By bringing a review of the current state of knowledge of Crepidula life histories and development together with some detailed experimental methods, we hope to encourage further use of this system in various fields of investigation. PMID:20570845

Henry, Jonathan J; Collin, Rachel; Perry, Kimberly J

2010-06-01

310

Snail up-regulates pro-inflammatory mediators and inhibits differentiation in oral keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional repressor, Snail2, is over-expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) relative to non-malignant head and neck mucosal epithelium, and in locally recurrent relative to non-recurrent HNSCCs. We investigated the mechanisms by which Snails might contribute to the pathogenesis of HNSCCs using cell biological and molecular analyses. Oral keratinocytes that expressed Snails acquired an enhanced ability to attract monocytes and to invade a dense interstitial collagen matrix. They were also found to up-regulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), which have previously been shown to correlate with malignancy. Induction of nuclear factor-kappa B transcriptional activity by Snails was weak and not sufficient to account for the elevated levels of COX2, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 or CXCL1. In addition, expression of Snails in oral keratinocytes impaired desquamation in vitro and strongly repressed expression of both ELF3 and matriptase-1, which play important roles in the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. Re-expression of matriptase-1 in Snail-expressing cells partially rescued desquamation. This implicates Snails as contributing to malignancy both at the early stages, by impeding terminal differentiation, and at later stages, when invasion and inflammation are important.

Lyons, J. Guy; Patel, Vyomesh; Roue, Naomi C.; Fok, Sandra Y.; Soon, Lilian L.; Halliday, Gary M.; Gutkind, J. Silvio

2008-01-01

311

A molecular role for lysyl oxidase-like 2 enzyme in Snail regulation and tumor progression  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor Snail controls epithelial–mesenchymal transitions (EMT) by repressing E-cadherin expression and other epithelial genes. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of Snail function are not fully understood. Here we show that lysyl-oxidase-like 2 and 3 (LOXL2 and LOXL3), two members of the lysyl-oxidase gene family, interact and cooperate with Snail to downregulate E-cadherin expression. Snail's lysine residues 98 and 137 are essential for Snail stability, functional cooperation with LOXL2/3 and induction of EMT. Overexpression of LOXL2 or LOXL3 in epithelial cells induces an EMT process, supporting their implication in tumor progression. The biological importance of LOXL2 is further supported by RNA interference of LOXL2 in Snail-expressing metastatic carcinoma cells, which led to a strong decrease of tumor growth associated to increased apoptosis and reduced expression of mesenchymal and invasive/angiogenic markers. Taken together, these results establish a direct link between LOXL2 and Snail in carcinoma progression.

Peinado, Hector; del Carmen Iglesias-de la Cruz, Maria; Olmeda, David; Csiszar, Katalin; Fong, Keith S K; Vega, Sonia; Nieto, Maria Angela; Cano, Amparo; Portillo, Francisco

2005-01-01

312

The mesoderm determinant snail collaborates with related zinc-finger proteins to control Drosophila neurogenesis.  

PubMed

The Snail protein functions as a transcriptional regulator to establish early mesodermal cell fate. Later, in germ band-extended embryos, Snail is also expressed in most neuroblasts. Here we present evidence that this expression of Snail is required for central nervous system (CNS) development. The neural function of snail is masked by two closely linked genes, escargot and worniu. Both Escargot and Worniu contain zinc-finger domains that are highly homologous to that of Snail. Although not affecting expression of early neuroblast markers, the deletion of the region containing all three genes correlates with loss of expression of CNS determinants including fushi tarazu, pdm-2 and even-skipped. Transgenic expression of each of the three Snail family proteins can rescue efficiently the fushi tarazu defects, and partially the pdm-2 and even-skipped CNS patterns. These results demonstrate that the Snail family proteins have essential functions during embryonic CNS development, around the time of ganglion mother cell formation. PMID:10562554

Ashraf, S I; Hu, X; Roote, J; Ip, Y T

1999-11-15

313

Epidemiology of cercarial stage of trematodes in freshwater snails from Chiang Mai province, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the epidemiological situation of cercarial trematodes infection in freshwater snails from different water resources in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Methods The snail specimens were collected from 13 districts of Chiang Mai province during April 2008 to February 2012. The prevalence of cercarial infection in snails was investigated using the crushing method. The drawing was done with the help of a camera lucida for the morphological study. Results A total of 2?479 snail individuals were collected and classified into 7 families, 11 genera, and 14 species, Among them, 8 snails species were found to be infected with an overall prevalence of 17.27% (428/2?479), which infected with nine groups of cercariae; gymnocephalous cercaria, strigea cercaria, megalurous cercaria, monostome cercaria, parapleurolophocercous cercaria (Haplorchis cercaria), pleurolophocercous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria (Transversotrema cercaria), xiphidiocercaria, and virgulate cercaria. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found to be the dominant type among the cercarial infection in the snails (64.25%). Conclusions The various species of snails found in the research location act as the intermediate hosts for the high prevalence of parasitic infection of many species of mammals. This work will provide new information on both the distribution and first intermediate host of trematodes.

Chontananarth, Thapana; Wongsawad, Chalobol

2013-01-01

314

The influence of TCS on the growth and behavior of the freshwater snail, Physa acuta.  

PubMed

Triclosan (TCS) is among the top 10 most persistent contaminants found in U.S. rivers, streams, lakes, and aquifers. Although TCS has not been found to be hazardous to humans, it can be toxic to aquatic environments and animals. The effects of TCS on growth rates and the locomotive behavior of the freshwater snail, Physa acuta, were studied by exposing snails to a range of environmentally-relevant trace concentrations previously documented in freshwater ecosystems. Effects of TCS on snail growth were calculated using a non-linear regression model, and effects on behavior were determined using a two-way analysis of variance. Environmentally relevant concentrations of TCS (0.5 to 1.0 ?g/L) enhanced Physa growth rates at low concentrations, but slowed growth rates at concentrations greater than 5 ?g/L. Acute exposure did not affect immediate snail behavior; however, chronically exposed snails moved more slowly than naïve snails. These data indicate that concentrations of TCS currently found in freshwater ecosystems can potentially affect the growth and behavior of snails. PMID:22702822

Brown, Jenell; Bernot, Melody J; Bernot, Randall J

2012-01-01

315

Acute combined exposure to heavy metals (Zn, Cd) blocks memory formation in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

The effect of heavy metals on species survival is well documented; however, sublethal effects on behaviour and physiology are receiving growing attention. Measurements of changes in activity and respiration are more sensitive to pollutants, and therefore a better early indicator of potentially harmful ecological impacts. We assessed the effect of acute exposure (48 h) to two heavy metals at concentrations below those allowable in municipal drinking water (Zn: 1,100 ?g/l; Cd: 3 ?g/l) on locomotion and respiration using the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. In addition we used a novel assessment method, testing the ability of the snail to form memory in the presence of heavy metals in both intact snails, and also snails that had the osphradial nerve severed which connects a chemosensory organ, the osphradium, to the central nervous system. Aerial respiration and locomotion remained unchanged by acute exposure to heavy metals. There was also no effect on memory formation of these metals when administered alone. However, when snails were exposed to these metals in combination memory formation was blocked. Severing the osphradial nerve prevented the memory blocking effect of Zn and Cd, indicating that the snails are sensing these metals in their environment via the osphradium and responding to them as a stressor. Therefore, assessing the ability of this species to form memory is a more sensitive measure of heavy metal pollution than measures of activity, and indicates that the snails' ability to demonstrate behavioural plasticity may be compromised by the presence of these pollutants. PMID:22218978

Byzitter, Jovita; Lukowiak, Ken; Karnik, Vikram; Dalesman, Sarah

2012-04-01

316

Radix natalensis: the effect of Fasciola hepatica infection on the reproductive activity of the snail  

PubMed Central

Experimental infections of Egyptian Radix natalensis (shell height at miracidial exposure: 4 mm) with a French isolate of Fasciola hepatica were carried out under laboratory conditions at 22 °C to specify the characteristics and follow the dynamics of their egg-laying. Controls constituted unexposed R. natalensis of the same size. No significant difference between controls and the uninfected snails of the exposed group was noted, whatever the parameter considered. In controls and exposed snails, the dates of the first egg masses were close to each other (56.4–65.3 days). In contrast, the life span of snails and the length of the egg-laying period were significantly shorter and egg production was significantly lower in infected R. natalensis than in controls and uninfected snails. In infected R. natalensis, but without cercarial shedding (NCS snails), egg production was irregular throughout the egg-laying period. In cercarial-shedding (CS) snails, the first egg masses were laid before the first cercarial emergence (at a mean of 56 days and 67 days, respectively). Thereafter, egg mass production of CS snails was irregular up to day 72 of the experiment, stopped during the following two weeks and started again after day 88 for a single snail. In conclusion, the F. hepatica infection of R. natalensis reduced the reproductive activity in both NCS and CS snails. The pattern noted for egg production in infected R. natalensis seems to be species-specific because of the high shell size of this lymnaeid and its role as an atypical intermediate host in the life cycle of the parasite.

Dar, Yasser; Vignoles, Philippe; Rondelaud, Daniel; Dreyfuss, Gilles

2014-01-01

317

Expression of Snail is associated with myofibroblast phenotype development in oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Snail is a regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and considered crucial to carcinoma metastasis, myofibroblast transdifferentiation, and fibroblast activation. To investigate the role of Snail in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), its immunohistochemical expression was analysed in 129 OSCC samples and correlated to nodal metastasis, histological grade, E-cadherin, and alpha smooth-muscle-actin (alpha SMA). The results were compared to findings in 23 basal cell carcinomas (BCC). Additionally, the influence of TGF beta 1 and EGF on Snail, E-cadherin, vimentin, and alpha SMA expression was analysed in two OSCC cell lines. As a result, Snail-positive cells were mainly found in the stroma of the OSCC invasive front without statistically significant correlation to histological grade or nodal metastasis. Snail was co-localised to alpha SMA but not to E-cadherin or cytokeratin and showed a significant correlation to the loss of membranous E-cadherin. All BCCs were Snail negative. In OSCC culture, the growth-factor-mediated EMT-like phenomenon was accompanied by alpha SMA down-regulation. In summary, Snail expression in OSCC is a stromal phenomenon associated with the myofibroblast phenotype and not related to growth-factor-mediated transdifferentiation of the carcinoma cells themselves. Consequently, Snail immunohistochemistry cannot contribute to the prediction of the metastatic potential. Furthermore, stromal Snail expression is suggested to be the result of mutual paracrine interaction of fibro-/myofibroblasts and dedifferentiated carcinoma cells leading to the generation of a special type of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts. PMID:19198871

Franz, Marcus; Spiegel, Karin; Umbreit, Claudia; Richter, Petra; Codina-Canet, Carolina; Berndt, Angela; Altendorf-Hofmann, Annelore; Koscielny, Sven; Hyckel, Peter; Kosmehl, Hartwig; Virtanen, Ismo; Berndt, Alexander

2009-05-01

318

Snail2 promotes osteosarcoma cell motility through remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton and regulates tumor development  

PubMed Central

The function of Snail2 in mesenchymal tumors is, to date unknown. Using knockdown and overexpression studies, we show that Snail2 regulates migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. Knockdown resulted in significantly decreased motility, remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton, and loss of cellular protrusions. Over-expression increased motility, formation of actin-rich cellular protrusions, and altered expression of some non-canonical Wnt pathway components whilst decreasing expression of the adhesion molecule OB-cadherin. Unexpectedly, knockdown also resulted in significantly smaller tumors in an in vivo CAM assay. Therefore Snail2 may be a potential therapeutic target for clinical intervention of osteosarcoma.

Sharili, Amir-Shaya; Allen, Steve; Smith, Ken; Price, Joanna; McGonnell, Imelda M.

2013-01-01

319

Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells: Pomacea Canaliculata Lamarck and Fossilized Snail Shell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study paramagnetic Mn2+ ions present in the nowadays shells of univalve freshwater snails of Pomacea canaliculata lamarck (PCL) and the fossilized freshwater snail (FFS), Viviparus. All these shells are abundant in Thailand. The PCL shells were ground into fine powder. A set of seven samples were then separately annealed for 2 h in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures while the FFS powder was characterized as-received. The PCL shells mainly consist of aragonite and a fraction of calcite. The heat treatments of the PCL powder samples at temperature higher than 450 degrees C resulted in an irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. However, it is found that the FFS shell is mainly made of calcite, with a minor fraction of aragonite. The crystal structure of the high-temperature-annealed PCL samples are quite similar to that of FFS, which indicates that the metamorphosis (aragonite ? calcite) in the FFS shell had occurred but was not yet completed, although it had remained under the pressure and temperature of the Earth's crusts over millions of years. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of PCL and FFS show that Mn2+ ions enter the Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Simulated ESR parameters of PCL-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are reported. It is surprising to find that the ratio of Mn2+ concentration present in FFS to those in PCL shells evaluated from ESR spectra is as much as 10:1.

Udomkan, N.; Meejoo, S.; Limsuwan, P.; Winotai, P.; Chaimanee, Y.

2005-07-01

320

Susceptibility of Saudi Bulinus truncatus to infection with Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium with observations on protein electrophoretic pattern of the snails.  

PubMed

A laboratory-based susceptibility study was carried out on snails Bulinus truncatus collected from highland Abha, Asser, Saudi Arabia to Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium to investigate the potential role of Saudi B. truncatus in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium and to know the possibility that the parasite might be able to spread into Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that, compared to Egyptian snails, survival of snails at day 25 post-exposure was significantly higher in Saudi B. truncatus ones. The infection rate was higher in Saudi snails as compared to Egyptian ones. The incubation period was shorter in Saudi snails but the duration of cercarial shedding was longer in the Egyptian than in the Saudi snails. The production of S. haematobium cercariae per snail was higher in Egyptian snails than in Saudi ones. These results suggest that Saudi B. truncatus can play a role in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium in Saudi Arabia and therefore this parasite might be able to spread into the Kingdom. In addition, electrophoretic analysis of tissue soluble proteins was done to determine the effects of the parasite on both the Egyptian and Saudi snails. The electrophoretic analysis revealed the occasional presence or absence of certain bands in infected snails in comparison with non-infected one. PMID:19329256

Mostafa, Osama M S; Bin Dajem, Saad M; Abu El Einin, Hanaa M

2009-05-12

321

Transforming growth factor beta-1 induces snail transcription factor in epithelial cell lines: mechanisms for epithelial mesenchymal transitions.  

PubMed

The Snail transcription factor has been described recently as a strong repressor of E-cadherin in epithelial cell lines, where its stable expression leads to the loss of E-cadherin expression and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and an invasive phenotype. The mechanisms regulating Snail expression in development and tumor progression are not yet known. We show here that transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta1) induces Snail expression in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transitions by a mechanism dependent on the MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, TGFbeta1 induces the activity of Snail promoter, whereas fibroblast growth factor-2 has a milder effect but cooperates with TGFbeta1 in the induction of Snail promoter. Interestingly, TGFbeta1-mediated induction of Snail promoter is blocked by a dominant negative form of H-Ras (N17Ras), whereas oncogenic H-Ras (V12Ras) induces Snail promoter activity and synergistically cooperates with TGFbeta1. The effects of TGFbeta1 on Snail promoter are dependent of MEK1/2 activity but are apparently independent of Smad4 activity. In addition, H-Ras-mediated induction of Snail promoter, alone or in the presence of TGFbeta1, depends on both MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activities. These data support that MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways are implicated in TGFbeta1-mediated induction of Snail promoter, probably through Ras activation and its downstream effectors. PMID:12665527

Peinado, Hector; Quintanilla, Miguel; Cano, Amparo

2003-06-01

322

Suppression of SCARA5 by Snail1 is essential for EMT-associated cell migration of A549 cells  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence indicates that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) might be a key event for cancer progression. The upregulation of Snail1, one of the most extensively studied EMT regulators, has been implicated in cancer metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to identify that Snail1 targets regulating EMT-associated cancer cell migration. Human lung carcinoma A549 cells were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1), and EMT-associated phenotypic and functional alterations were monitored. TGF-?1 induced typical EMT-like morphological changes, ‘cadherin switching' and cell migration in A549 cells. TGF-?1 stimulation induced rapid and persistent upregulation of Snail1. Moreover, Snail1 upregulation was required for EMT-associated cell migration. Several metastasis suppressors with putative Snail1-binding sites in their promoters were dramatically repressed in A549 cells during TGF-?1-induced EMT. Gain- and loss-of Snail1 function experiments demonstrated that scavenger receptor class A member 5 (SCARA5) was negatively regulated by Snail1. Importantly, SCARA5 downregulation was essential for EMT-induced migration in A549 cells. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Snail1 could bind to the E-box elements in SCARA5 promoter, implying that SCARA5 is a direct Snail1 target modulating cancer cell mobility during EMT. In addition, we showed that DNA methyltransferase 1 was physically associated with Snail1 to silence SCARA5 expression with an unidentified DNA methylation-independent mechanism, suggesting the complexity of Snail1-mediated epigenetic regulation. Collectively, our data demonstrated that EMT-regulator Snail1 suppresses the expression of SCARA5 to promote cancer progression, highlighting the possibility to target Snail1 and SCARA5 for cancer treatment.

Liu, J; Hu, G; Chen, D; Gong, A-Y; Soori, G S; Dobleman, T J; Chen, X-M

2013-01-01

323

Habitat structure effects on size selection of snail kites ( Rostrhamus sociabilis ) and limpkins ( Aramus guarauna ) when feeding on apple snails ( Pomacea spp.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumer density can influence foraging patterns such as prey-size selection, but few studies have evaluated its effects in field conditions. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that habitat structure influences forager density, and that this in turn influences the size of prey consumed by two avian predators. The sizes of two apple snail species available to, and consumed by, snail kites and limpkins were determined at sites with high and low densities of snail kite foraging perches. Sites with more perches had higher densities of snail kites, but not of limpkins. Both predators consumed prey larger than those available in the marshes, but habitat structure influenced the probability of consumption of different prey sizes. Limpkins consumed larger prey at low-density sites when compared with high-density sites, in contrast to other studies that found no size selection. Thus, limpkins can present prey-size selectivity but the presence of other predators can influence the range of prey sizes consumed. When a wider range of prey sizes is available, limpkins can select larger prey; alternatively, higher densities of other predators can result in higher foraging risk, favoring the capture of smaller, easier to handle prey. Snail kites incorporated smaller prey to their diet at low-density sites than at high-density ones, probably due to the higher costs of carrying large prey, differential age distribution, or lower foraging risks. Thus, habitat structure can influence consumer density and foraging patterns in complex ways, influencing predator-prey interactions in natural systems.

Tanaka, Marcel O.; Souza, Andréa L. T.; Módena, Érica S.

2006-07-01

324

Sciomyzid Flies: Another Approach to Biological Control of Snail-Borne Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sciomyzid flies (Diptera) are predators and parasitoids of molluscs, most commonly of aquatic and terrestrial snail, and some species prey upon fingernail clams and slugs. The use of introduced species of sciomyzid flies to control populations of disease-...

L. Knutson

1976-01-01

325

Pesticide Fact Sheet: Neu 1165M Slug and Snail Bait; Iron (Ferric) Phosphate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Iron phosphate is to be used as the pesticidal active ingredient in a slug and snail bait formulation, on terrestrial, non-commercial food crops (vegetables, berries, fruit trees including citrus), domestic outdoor ornamental, domestic lawn and garden use...

1997-01-01

326

A faunistic survey of cercariae isolated from lymnaeid snails in central areas of Mazandaran, Iran.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to elucidate the species diversity of larva trematodes in the Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 3,266 lymnaeid snails from 3 species were collected from different parts of streams, swamps, rice fields and rivers in the central areas of Mazandaran Province (Sari, Neka, Qaemshahr and Savad-Koh cities), during April to September, 2008. The samples were tested by crushing and emerging methods. From the total of examined snails, 119 (3.6%) were found to be infected with the lymnaeid snails. Lymnaea gedrosiana were found to be infected with the Furcocercariae of Diplostomidae, Clinostomidae, Echinostomatidae and also cercariae of the Plagiorchiidae. The latest infection was found to be in L. palustris. The Mazandaran Province with its temperate climate is a suitable place for living of snails, particularly lymnaeidae, that could have a significant role as an intermediate host of diseases. PMID:20437681

Sharif, M; Daryani, A; Karimi, S A

2010-02-15

327

Dynamic Chromatin Modification Sustains Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition following Inducible Expression of Snail-1  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to contribute to cancer metastasis, but its underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To define early steps in this cellular transformation, we analyzed human mammary epithelial cells with tightly regulated expression of Snail-1, a master regulator of EMT. After Snail-1 induction, epithelial markers were repressed within 6 hr, and mesenchymal genes were induced at 24 hr. Snail-1 binding to its target promoters was transient (6–48 hr) despite continued protein expression, and it was followed by both transient and long-lasting chromatin changes. Pharmacological inhibition of selected histone acetylation and demethylation pathways suppressed the induction as well as the maintenance of Snail-1-mediated EMT. Thus, EMT involves an epigenetic switch that may be prevented or reversed with the use of small-molecule inhibitors of chromatin modifiers.

Javaid, Sarah; Zhang, Jianmin; Anderssen, Endre; Black, Josh C.; Wittner, Ben S.; Tajima, Ken; Ting, David T.; Smolen, Gromoslaw A.; Zubrowski, Matthew; Desai, Rushil; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Whetstine, Johnathan R.; Haber, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

328

Reciprocal Repression between Sox3 and Snail Transcription Factors Defines Embryonic Territories at Gastrulation  

PubMed Central

Summary In developing amniote embryos, the first epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs at gastrulation, when a subset of epiblast cells moves to the primitive streak and undergoes EMT to internalize and generate the mesoderm and the endoderm. We show that in the chick embryo this decision to internalize is mediated by reciprocal transcriptional repression of Snail2 and Sox3 factors. We also show that the relationship between Sox3 and Snail is conserved in the mouse embryo and in human cancer cells. In the embryo, Snail-expressing cells ingress at the primitive streak, whereas Sox3-positive cells, which are unable to ingress, ensure the formation of ectodermal derivatives. Thus, the subdivision of the early embryo into the two main territories, ectodermal and mesendodermal, is regulated by changes in cell behavior mediated by the antagonistic relationship between Sox3 and Snail transcription factors.

Acloque, Herve; Ocana, Oscar H.; Matheu, Ander; Rizzoti, Karine; Wise, Clare; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Nieto, M. Angela

2011-01-01

329

Evolution of whole-body enantiomorphy in the tree snail genus Amphidromus  

PubMed Central

Diverse animals exhibit left–right asymmetry in development. However, no example of dimorphism for the left–right polarity of development (whole-body enantiomorphy) is known to persist within natural populations. In snails, whole-body enantiomorphs have repeatedly evolved as separate species. Within populations, however, snails are not expected to exhibit enantiomorphy, because of selection against the less common morph resulting from mating disadvantage. Here we present a unique example of evolutionarily stable whole-body enantiomorphy in snails. Our molecular phylogeny of South-east Asian tree snails in the genus Amphidromus indicates that enantiomorphy has likely persisted as the ancestral state over a million generations. Enantiomorphs have continuously coexisted in every population surveyed spanning a period of 10 years. Our results indicate that whole-body enantiomorphy is maintained within populations opposing the rule of directional asymmetry in animals. This study implicates the need for explicit approaches to disclosure of a maintenance mechanism and conservation of the genus.

SUTCHARIT, C; ASAMI, T; PANHA, S

2007-01-01

330

Toxicity of imidazolium-based ionic liquids on Physa acuta and the snail antioxidant stress response.  

PubMed

In the present study, the acute and developmental toxicities of imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) with different alkyl chain lengths, as well as the antioxidant response and lipid peroxidation levels were evaluated in the snail, Physa acuta. Longer alkyl chains corresponded to increased IL toxicity in snails. Long-term IL exposure at lower concentrations inhibited snail growth and reproduction. We also found that IL inhibited the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), promoted the activity of catalase (CAT), and increased the glutathione content. However, SOD, GST, and CAT activities returned to control levels after 96 h of recovery. In addition, malondialdehyde levels were increased in treatment groups compared with the control and did not return to control levels even after a recovery period, indicating that ILs induced lipid peroxidation in snail viscera. These results suggest that oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation may be involved in the mechanism of toxicity for ILs. PMID:24497176

Ma, Junguo; Dong, Xiangyi; Fang, Qian; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jianji

2014-02-01

331

Results of White Garden Snail Environmental Monitoring Program. Spring and Fall 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The white garden snail (Theba pisana Muller) is believed to have originated in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean and has invaded California on three separate occasions. Two infestations were successfully eradicated before 1970 and a third occurrence ...

B. Turner, M. Bisbiglia, N. Miller, K. Hefner, N. Carr

1988-01-01

332

Biology and Control of White Snails (Mollusca: Helicidae), Introduced Pests in Australia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Introduced white snails (Helicidae) such as Theba pisana, Cernuella virgata, Cochlicella acuta and C. barbara have long been regarded as significant agricultural pests in Australia. They feed upon foul crops and pastures. The native distributions of white...

G. H. Baker

1986-01-01

333

Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain  

PubMed Central

Background Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM) exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH), relative shell height (RSH), and whorl number (WN). Results Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil–plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas. Conclusions The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability in soil. Long-term exposure to HMs via contaminated food might influence the variability of shell traits in snail populations. Therefore, our results highlight the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) potential to be used in environmental monitoring studies as bioindicator of HM pollution.

2012-01-01

334

Pesticide concentrations in snail kite eggs and nestlings in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1970-1977, unhatched snail kite eggs and young that were found dead at nests in Florida were analyzed by gas chromatography for residues of organochlorine pollutants. The 1970 and 1974 material showed measurable amounts of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, and dieldrin. Dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues were less than 0.1 ppm in the eggs and were detected in only one sample of muscle tissue at 0.11 ppm. Concentrations in ppm wet weight of p,p'-DDE, p,p' DDD, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, and PCB for two samples of muscle and three of brain tissue (all 1977 material) were not detected at the limit of quantification (0.05 ppm).

Sykes, P.W., Jr.

1985-01-01

335

Evening roosts of the snail kite in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A total of 36 roost sites of the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were studied in southern Florida, of which four (11%) were used regularly for 6 or more years. Major roosts were also used as nesting sites. All roosts were in flooded marshes and 33 (91.6%) were in stands of coastal-plain willow. Population increase and the number of roosts were strongly correlated. The number of kites arriving at roosts before sunset was smaller than arriving after sunset (37.8:62.2%), and gray birds (adult and subadult males) generally went to roost earlier than brown birds (all females and immature males). Rites tended to go to roost earlier on cloudy days. Morning departure from roosts was over a much shorter time than arrivals in the afternoon. Ninety-two percent of the kite roosts were also used by other species of birds for roosting, 8 1% of which were eight species of herons.

Sykes, P.W., Jr.

1985-01-01

336

Associative learning phenomena in the snail (Helix aspersa): conditioned inhibition.  

PubMed

Two experiments using garden snails (Helix aspersa) showed conditioned inhibition using both retardation and summation tests. Conditioned inhibition is a procedure by which a stimulus becomes a predictor of the absence of a relevant event--the unconditioned stimulus (US). Typically, conditioned inhibition consists of pairings between an initially neutral conditioned stimulus, CS(2), and an effective excitatory conditioned stimulus, CS(1), in the absence of the US. Retardation and summation tests are required in order to confirm that CS(2) has acquired inhibitory properties. Conditioned inhibition has previously been found in invertebrates; however, these demonstrations did not use the retardation and summation tests required for an unambiguous demonstration of inhibition, allowing for alternative explanations. The implications of our results for the fields of comparative cognition and invertebrate physiological models of learning are discussed. PMID:21877176

Acebes, Félix; Solar, Patricia; Moris, Joaquín; Loy, Ignacio

2012-03-01

337

Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, 1819) in Sabah, Malaysia - Current Situation and Management Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the control operation of the golden apple snail in Sabah implemented by the Department of Agriculture following the outbreak of the pest in the 1990s. The snail was sighted in Keningau in 1992. Two years later it mushroomed to most of the rice-growing districts with a total infested area of about 5,000 ha. The control operation employed

Su Sin

338

Dysregulated expression of Snail and E-cadherin correlates with gastrointestinal stromal tumor metastasis.  

PubMed

Snail, a zinc finger structure transcription inhibitory factor, has been reported to play an important role in the metastatic progression of several types of cancer. The aim of the study was to identify potential biomarkers for metastasis in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) by examining the expression levels of Snail, E-cadherin, and Vimentin in GISTs and investigate their clinical significance. The protein expression of Snail, E-cadherin, and Vimentin in 74 GIST specimens was detected by immunohistochemical analysis, and the correlation between expression levels and clinicopathological data was analyzed. Snail, E-cadherin, and Vimentin were positively expressed in 51.4% (38/74), 32.4% (24/74), and 68.9% (51/74) of GIST tissue samples, respectively. Snail protein expression was significantly higher in GISTs with distant metastasis compared with GISTs without distant metastasis (P<0.05). E-cadherin expression level was significantly lower in cases of GIST with distant metastasis compared with those without distant metastasis (P<0.05), whereas the expression level of Vimentin did not significantly change according to clinical and pathological characteristics (all P>0.05). Snail expression was significantly negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression (r's=-0.276, P=0.017) but not with Vimentin expression (r's=0.041, P=0.728) in GISTs. High Snail expression and low E-cadherin expression were significantly correlated with metastasis in GISTs, and Snail, because of positive correlation, is potentially a biomarker of GIST with distant metastasis. PMID:24999604

Liu, Sheng; Liao, Guoqing; Ding, Jie; Ye, Ke; Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Liang; Chen, Senlin

2014-09-01

339

Regulation of glycolysis in the land snail Oreohelix during estivation and artificial hypercapnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiration rates, hemolymph acid-base variables, and metabolite levels were measured in the land snail Oreohelix during a brief period of estivation (4 days) and during exposure of non-estivating snails to elevated levels of ambient CO2 (34 and 58 mmHg). Respiration rate dropped during entry into estivation reflecting decreased glycolytic flux. Analyses of metabolite levels in foot muscle and digestive gland

Bernard B. Rees; Steven C. Hand

1991-01-01

340

Polymorphism and Population Density in the African Land Snail, Limicolaria martensiana.  

PubMed

In natural populations of the African land snail, Limicolaria martensiana, the degree of polymorphism in color and pattern may vary with the density of the population. This could occur because predators eat the snails selectively and use past experience as a guide in finding further prey. Hence contrasting color forms may be at an advantage in dense populations where predators would have ample opportunity to learn to recognize prey. PMID:17737105

Owen, D F

1963-05-10

341

[Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis].  

PubMed

Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri country, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on. PMID:9515269

Teles, H M; Vaz, J F; Fontes, L R; Domingos, M de F

1997-06-01

342

OVERWINTERING OF SPIDERS IN EMPTY LAND-SNAIL SHELLS IN XERIC HABITATS OF SOUTHERN MORAVIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our first objective was to find, which species of s piders overwinter in the land-snail shells in the x eric habitats of Southern Moravia (Czech Republic). During the winter 2008\\/2009 we collected 2448 empty land-snail shells from 31 xeric localities. Land-sn ail shells were represented by three species from t hree genera ( Cepea , Helix and Helicella ). Alltogether

343

The Giant Snail Achatina fulica as a Candidate Species for Advanced Bioregenerative Life Support Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Rational nutrition is a resource for mitigating the influence of unfavorable conditions. The insufficiency of vegetarian diet has been examined by the Japanese, Chinese and U.S. developers of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). Hence, inclusion of animals such as silkworm in BLSS looks justified. The giant snail is currently under studying as a source of animal food and a species of reducing waste in BLSS. An experimental system to conduct cultivation of giant snail was developed. It was established that there are some reasons to use the giant snails in BLSS. It could be a source of delicious meat. A. fulica is capable of consuming a wide range of feedstuffs including plant residues. Cultivation of snail in the limited volume does not demand the big expenditures of labor. The production of crude edible biomass and protein of A. fulica was 60±15 g and 7±1.8 g respectively per 1 kg of consumed forage (fresh salad leaves, root and leafy tops of carrot). To satisfy daily animal protein needs (30-35 g) a crewman has to consume 260-300 g of snail meat. To produce such amount of snail protein it takes to use 4.3-5.0 kg of plant forage daily. The nutritional composition of A. fulica whole bodies (without shell) and a meal prepared in various ways was quantitatively determined. Protein, carbohydrate, fat acid and ash content percentages were different among samples prepared in various ways. The protein content was highest (68 %) in the dry sample washed with CH3 COOH solution. Taking into consideration the experimental results a conceptual configuration of BLSS with inclusion of giant snail was developed and mass flow rates between compartments were calculated. Keywords: animal food; protein; giant snail; BLSS; conceptual configuration.

Verbitskaya, Olga; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

344

Snail is a repressor of RKIP transcription in metastatic prostate cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diminished expression of the metastasis suppressor protein RKIP was previously reported in a number of cancers. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show that the expression of RKIP negatively correlates with that of Snail zinc-transcriptional repressor, a key modulator of normal and neoplastic epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) program. With a combination of loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches, we showed that Snail

S Beach; H Tang; A S Dhillon; E T Keller; W Kolch; K C Yeung

2008-01-01

345

Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rats and Snails after an Outbreak of Human Eosinophilic Meningitis, Jamaica  

PubMed Central

After an outbreak in 2000 of eosinophilic meningitis in tourists to Jamaica, we looked for Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and snails on the island. Overall, 22% (24/109) of rats harbored adult worms, and 8% (4/48) of snails harbored A. cantonensis larvae. This report is the first of enzootic A. cantonensis infection in Jamaica, providing evidence that this parasite is likely to cause human cases of eosinophilic meningitis.

Lindo, John F.; Waugh, Cecilia; Hall, John; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette; Ashley, Deanna; Sullivan, James J.; Bishop, Henry S.; Robinson, David G.; Holtz, Timothy; Robinson, Ralph D.

2002-01-01

346

Deterministic assembly of land snail communities according to species size and diet.  

PubMed

1. We investigated whether coexisting snail species in 145 treeless fen communities in the Western Carpathian Mountains differed more in size and diet than would be expected by chance, as predicted for traits commonly associated with competition and differential resource acquisition under limiting similarity theory. 2. Contrary to expectations, coexisting snail species were no more different in body size than expected by chance under a null model. However, variation in body size played a significant role in structuring snail communities: coexisting snail species were significantly more similar with respect to body size. 3. We developed two new test statistics to expand our investigation of limiting similarity to include diet, a nominal trait. We tested whether communities of snails were characterized by a greater richness of diet, and whether different diets were represented more or less evenly within communities. Communities of snails were significantly less evenly distributed than expected by chance, with detritivores being over-represented relative to predatory strategies. 4. We also examined the effect of water pH and conductivity, herbaceous cover, and bryophyte and vascular plant richness, on these trends by examining how the effect size of our tests varied across these gradients. Convergence in species size increased with increasing habitat pH. Specifically, smaller snail species were over-represented in fen communities in general, and this effect was accentuated in increasingly calcareous fens. 5. Theory predicts that traits related strongly to environmental conditions are more likely to be convergent. Our findings support this suggestion, as small snail species have an advantage in tolerating freezing conditions over winter when refuges are limited. 6. These results add to the growing body of literature demonstrating that variation in body size and diet play a strong role in structuring communities, although frequently in ways not predicted by limiting similarity theory. Finally, our results increase our understanding of how species are assembled non-randomly into communities with respect to important traits. PMID:20345504

Schamp, Brandon; Horsák, Michal; Hájek, Michal

2010-07-01

347

Acid phosphatase activity in the Indian apple snail, Pila globosa (Swainson), during aestivation and starvation stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid phosphatase activity has been studied in hepatopancreas and foot tissues of the Indian apple snail,Pila globosa (Swainson), with reference to aestivation and starvation. The enzyme activity in the tissues of control snails is higher\\u000a in hepatopancreas, than in foot. The activity of acid phosphatase increased in hepatopancreas and decreased in foot during\\u000a starvation while it decreased in both the

P Aruna; C Sreeramulu Chetty; R Chandramohan Naidu; K S Swami

1979-01-01

348

Doxorubicin enhances Snail/LSD1-mediated PTEN suppression in a PARP1-dependent manner.  

PubMed

The transcription factor Snail not only functions as a master regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), but also mediates cell proliferation and survival. While previous studies have showed that Snail protects tumor cells from apoptosis through transcriptional repression of PTEN, the specific mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Snail cooperates with LSD1 to repress PTEN in a PARP1-dependent manner. Upon doxorubicin treatment, Snail becomes tightly associated with PARP1 through its pADPr-binding motif and is subject to poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This modification can enhance Snail-LSD1 interaction and promote the recruitment of LSD1 to PTEN promoter, where LSD1 removes methylation on histone H3 lysine 4 for transcription repression. Furthermore, treatment of tumor cells with PARP1 inhibitor AZD2281 can compromise doxorubicin-induced PTEN suppression and enhance the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin. Together, we proposed a tentative drug-resistant mechanism through which tumor cells defend themselves against DNA damage-induced apoptosis. PARP1 inhibitors in combination with DNA damaging reagents might represent a promising treatment strategy targeting tumors with over-activated Snail and LSD1. PMID:24675890

Lin, Yiwei; Kang, Tiebang; Zhou, Binhua P

2014-06-01

349

Biochemical responses to the toxicity of the biocide abamectin on the freshwater snail Physa acuta.  

PubMed

The toxic effects of abamectin (ABM), an anthelmintic drug, on the snail, Physa Acuta, and the biochemical responses to the exposure stress were evaluated. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in snail soft tissues (head, foot, visceral mass, and the mantle) for up to 96h of exposure to 3.4, 9.6, 19.2, or 27.4?gL(-1) of ABM. The results showed that SOD and GST activities were promoted by ABM-exposure at the earlier periods of treatment (12-48h) while these activites were inhibited at the end of test. The tendency of CAT activity was similar to that of SOD, but it increased at the end of test. MDA levels of the snail soft tissues increased in all treatment groups, including the recovery group, indicating that lipid peroxidation occurred in snail soft tissues. ABM-exposure inhibited AChE activity. However, NOS activities increased by ABM-exposure. In addition, activities of antioxidant enzymes and AChE from the snail soft tissues resumed the normal levels after 96h of recovery period, but MDA level did not attain the original level. This study provides information on the biochemical mechanism of ABM toxicity on the snail. PMID:24507123

Ma, Junguo; Zhou, Chune; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaoyu

2014-03-01

350

The collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor 2 stabilizes SNAIL1 to facilitate breast cancer metastasis.  

PubMed

Increased stromal collagen deposition in human breast tumours correlates with metastases. We show that activation of the collagen I receptor DDR2 (discoidin domain receptor 2) regulates SNAIL1 stability by stimulating ERK2 activity, in a Src-dependent manner. Activated ERK2 directly phosphorylates SNAIL1, leading to SNAIL1 nuclear accumulation, reduced ubiquitylation and increased protein half-life. DDR2-mediated stabilization of SNAIL1 promotes breast cancer cell invasion and migration in vitro, and metastasis in vivo. DDR2 expression was observed in most human invasive ductal breast carcinomas studied, and was associated with nuclear SNAIL1 and absence of E-cadherin expression. We propose that DDR2 maintains SNAIL1 level and activity in tumour cells that have undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), thereby facilitating continued tumour cell invasion through collagen-I-rich extracellular matrices by sustaining the EMT phenotype. As such, DDR2 could be an RTK (receptor tyrosine kinase) target for the treatment of breast cancer metastasis. PMID:23644467

Zhang, Kun; Corsa, Callie A; Ponik, Suzanne M; Prior, Julie L; Piwnica-Worms, David; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Keely, Patricia J; Longmore, Gregory D

2013-06-01

351

Parasites alter host phenotype and may create a new ecological niche for snail hosts  

PubMed Central

By modifying the behaviour and morphology of hosts, parasites may strongly impact host individuals, populations and communities. We examined the effects of a common trematode parasite on its snail host, Batillaria cumingi (Batillariidae). This widespread snail is usually the most abundant invertebrate in salt marshes and mudflats of the northeastern coast of Asia. More than half (52.6%, n=1360) of the snails in our study were infected. We found that snails living in the lower intertidal zone were markedly larger and exhibited different shell morphology than those in the upper intertidal zone. The large morphotypes in the lower tidal zone were all infected by the trematode, Cercaria batillariae (Heterophyidae). We used a transplant experiment, a mark-and-recapture experiment and stable carbon isotope ratios to reveal that snails infected by the trematode move to the lower intertidal zone, resume growth after maturation and consume different resources. By simultaneously changing the morphology and behaviour of individual hosts, this parasite alters the demographics and potentially modifies resource use of the snail population. Since trematodes are common and often abundant in marine and freshwater habitats throughout the world, their effects potentially alter food webs in many systems.

Miura, Osamu; Kuris, Armand M; Torchin, Mark E; Hechinger, Ryan F; Chiba, Satoshi

2006-01-01

352

Effects of dietary exposure to forest pesticides on the brown garden snail Helix aspersa mueller  

SciTech Connect

Brown garden snails, Helix aspersa, were fed prepared diets with 12 pesticides used in forest spraying practices where endangered arboreal and terrestrial snails may be at risk. Acephate, atrazine, glyphosate, hexazinone, and picloram were not lethal at concentrations of 5,000 mg/kg in 14-day screening tests. The remaining seven pesticides, lethal to 13-100% of the tested snails at 5,000 mg/kg, were evaluated in 10-day definitive feeding tests. Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) and aminocarb were the most toxic, with 10-day LC50s of 188 and 313 mg/kg, respectively. Paraquat, trichlorfon and fenitrothion had 10-day LC50s of 659, 664, and 7,058 mg/kg respectively. Avoidance of pesticide-containing foods occurred, e.g., 10-day LC50s of >10,000 mg/kg for carbaryl and ethyl parathion. Significant descreases (p<0.05) in snail weight (total, shell-only, body-only) or shell diameter were accompanied by a significant decrease in the amount of food consumed/snail/day. Concentrations of pesticide in tissues were measured in snails exposed to atrazine and azinphosmethyl; there was no bioaccumulation. (Copyright (c) 1994 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.)

Schuytema, G.S.; Nebeker, A.V.; Griffis, W.L.

1994-01-01

353

Snail plays an oncogenic role in glioblastoma by promoting epithelial mesenchymal transition  

PubMed Central

Background: The factors affecting glioblastoma progression are of great clinical importance since dismal outcomes have been observed for glioblastoma patients. The Snail gene is known to coordinate the regulation of tumor progression in diverse tumors through induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT); however, its role in glioblastoma is still uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to further define its role in vitro. Methods and results: The small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique was employed to knock down Snail expression in three glioblastoma cell lines (KNS42, U87, and U373). Specific inhibition of Snail expression increased E-cadherin expression but decreased vimentin expression in all cell lines. In addition, inhibition of the expression of Snail significantly reduced the proliferation, viability, invasion, and migration of glioblastoma cells as well as increased the number of cells in the G1 phase. Conclusions: Knockdown of Snail suppresses the proliferation, viability, migration, and invasion of cells as well as inhibits cell cycle progression by promoting EMT induction. The findings suggest that expression of this gene facilitates glioblastoma progression. Therefore, these results indicate the clinical significance of Snail for use as a potential therapeutic target for glioblastoma.

Myung, Jae Kyung; Choi, Seung Ah; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Park, Sung-Hye

2014-01-01

354

Biological characteristics and control of intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum.  

PubMed

Except for imported cases, we have had no new Schistosoma japonicum infection in Japan since 1977. But there are still two habitats of the intermediate snail host: Oncomelania nosophora in the previous endemic areas of Kofu Basin and Obitsu. O. nosophora from Kofu Basin and Obitsu are susceptible to Chinese and Philippine strains of S. japonicum. The number of immigrants from current endemic areas in China or the Philippines is increasing. In order to prevent re-emerging of S. japonicum infections in Japan, we should continue monitoring on those existing snail hosts and investigate an adequate quarantine system. In Japan, elimination of schistosomiasis has been mainly accomplished by control of the snail host. As measures of snail control, cement-lining of ditches and chemical mollusciciding were most effective in Japan. But the cost of this joint program is too expensive compared with health budget in almost developing countries. In endemic areas of Japan, land reformation from paddy field to fruit farm was also effective. The intermediate snail host in the Philippines, Oncomelania quadrasi is much more aquatic than O. nosophora. For control of O. quadrasi, small drainage of the water and land reclamation from swampy field to rice-field were effective. Based on biological characteristics of Oncomelania spp., we can modify the past successful snail control program in Japan to be adapted ecologically and economically to each endemic area of developing countries. PMID:14665400

Ohmae, Hiroshi; Iwanaga, Yuzuru; Nara, Takeshi; Matsuda, Hajime; Yasuraoka, Kazuo

2003-12-01

355

Correlation of Snail expression with histological grade and lymph node status in breast carcinomas.  

PubMed

Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor that triggers the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by directly repressing E-cadherin expression. Snail is required for mesoderm and neural crest formation during embryonic development and has recently been implicated in the EMT associated with tumour progression. In a series of human breast carcinomas, we have analysed the expression of Snail and that of molecules of the E-cadherin/catenin complexes. We have also correlated these data with the pathological features of the tumours. We show that Snail expression inversely correlates with the grade of differentiation of the tumours and that it is expressed in all the infiltrating ductal carcinomas (IDC) presenting lymph node metastases that were analysed. In addition, Snail is expressed in some dedifferentiated tumours with a negative nodal status. Considering that Snail is involved in the induction of the invasive and migratory phenotype in epithelial cells, these results indicate that it is also involved in the progression of breast ductal tumours, where it could additionally serve as a marker of the metastatic potential. PMID:12082640

Blanco, Maria J; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Sarrio, David; Locascio, Annamaria; Cano, Amparo; Palacios, José; Nieto, M Angela

2002-05-01

356

Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica).  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum ?-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely ?-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. PMID:23233413

Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

2012-12-01

357

Intrinsic metabolic depression in cells isolated from the hepatopancreas of estivating snails.  

PubMed

Many animals across the phylogenetic scale are routinely capable of depressing their metabolic rate to 5-15% of that at rest, remaining in this state sometimes for years. However, despite its widespread occurrence, the biochemical processes associated with metabolic depression remain obscure. We demonstrate here the development of an isolated cell model for the study of metabolic depression. The isolated cells from the hepatopancreas (digestive gland) of the land snail (Helix aspersa) are oxygen conformers; i.e., their rate of respiration depends on pO(2). Cells isolated from estivating snails show a stable metabolic depression to 30% of control (despite the long and invasive process of cell isolation) when metabolic rate at the physiological pH and pO(2) of the hemolymph of estivating snails is compared with metabolic rate at the physiological pH and pO(2) of the hemolymph of control snails. When the extrinsic effects of pH and pO(2) are excluded, the intrinsic metabolic depression of the cells from estivating snails is still to below 50% of control snails. The in vitro effect of pO(2) on metabolic rate is independent of pH and state (awake or estivating), but the effects of pH and state significantly interact. This suggests that pH and state change affect metabolic depression by similar mechanisms but that the metabolic depression by hypoxia involves a separate mechanism. PMID:10783155

Guppy, M; Reeves, D C; Bishop, T; Withers, P; Buckingham, J A; Brand, M D

2000-05-01

358

Small mammals cause non-trophic effects on habitat and associated snails in a native system.  

PubMed

Legacy effects occur when particular species or their interactions with others have long-lasting impacts, and they are increasingly recognized as important determinants of ecological processes. However, when such legacy effects have been explicitly explored, they most often involve the long-term direct effects of species on systems, as opposed to the indirect effects. Here, we explore how a legacy of small mammal exclusion on the abundance of a shrub, bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus), influences the abundance of a native land snail (Helminthoglypta arrosa) in coastal prairie and dune habitats in central California. The factors that limit populations of land snails are very poorly known despite the threats to the persistence of this group of species. In grasslands, prior vole (Microtus californicus) exclusion created long-lasting gains in bush lupine abundance, mediated through the seedbank, and was associated with increased snail numbers (10×) compared to control plots where mammals were never excluded. Similar plots in dune habitat showed no difference in snail numbers due to previous mammal exclusion. We tested whether increased competition for food, increased predation, and/or lower desiccation explained the decline in snail numbers in plots with reduced lupine cover. Tethering experiments supported the hypothesis that voles can have long-lasting impacts as ecosystem engineers, reducing woody lupine habitat required for successful aestivation by snails. These results add to a growing list of studies that have found that non-trophic interactions can be limiting to invertebrate consumers. PMID:21691854

Huntzinger, Mikaela; Karban, Richard; Maron, John L

2011-12-01

359

Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica)  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum ?-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely ?-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state.

Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

2012-01-01

360

The biocide tributyltin reduces the accumulation of testosterone as fatty acid esters in the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta).  

PubMed Central

Imposex, the development of male sex characteristics by female gonochoristic snails, has been documented globally and is causally associated with exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT). Elevated testosterone levels in snails also are associated with TBT, and direct exposure to testosterone has been shown to cause imposex. We discovered previously that the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta)biotransforms and retains excess testosterone primarily as fatty acid esters. The purpose of this study was to determine whether TBT interferes with the esterification of testosterone, resulting in the elevated free (unesterified) testosterone levels associated with imposex. Exposure of snails to environmentally relevant concentrations of TBT (> or = 1.0 ng/L as tin) significantly increased the incidence of imposex. Total (free + esterified) testosterone levels in snails were not altered by TBT; however, free testosterone levels increased with increasing exposure concentration of TBT. TBT-exposed snails were given [14C

Gooding, Meredith P; Wilson, Vickie S; Folmar, Leroy C; Marcovich, Dragoslav T; LeBlanc, Gerald A

2003-01-01

361

Influence of Copper on the Feeding Rate, Growth and Reproduction of the Golden Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of copper on feeding rate, growth, and reproduction of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck was evaluated. Ten days of exposure to copper of relatively high concentration (67.5 ?g\\/L) reduced the snails’ feeding\\u000a rate and retarded their growth. Exposure to 20 ?g\\/L after 36 days increased feeding rate to 28%. After 20 days of exposure\\u000a at 30 ?g\\/L, snail’s growth was significant but thereafter

Silvia C. Peña; Glorina N. Pocsidio

2007-01-01

362

Density-dependent growth and reproduction of the apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata : a density manipulation experiment in a paddy field  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine density dependence in the survival, growth, and reproduction of Pomacea canaliculata, we conducted an experiment in which snail densities were manipulated in a paddy field. We released paint-marked snails of\\u000a 15–20 mm shell height into 12 enclosures (pens) of 16 m2 at one of five densities – 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 snails per pen. The survival

Koichi Tanaka; Tomonari Watanabe; Hiroya Higuchi; Kenji Miyamoto; Yoichi Yusa; Toru Kiyonaga; Hirotsugu Kiyota; Yoshito Suzuki; Takashi Wada

1999-01-01

363

Population structure and sex-change in the coral-inhabiting snail Coralliophila violacea at Hsiao-Liuchiu, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of the coral-inhabiting snailCoralliophila violacea (Lamarck) (=C. neritoidea Kiener) were made on shallow fringing reefs (40 cm in diameter were more likely to bear patches of snails than smaller colonies, and also to have more snails. The coralliophilids ranged from 5 to 30 mm in aperture length. The sex ratio of the population was biased toward males (539:279), with

K. Soong; J.-L. Chen

1991-01-01

364

[Occurrence of the flagellated protozoan, Cryptobia helicis Leidy, 1846 (Kinetoplasta: Bodonea: Cryptobiidae) in the garden snail, Helix aspersa].  

PubMed

In this survey, the prevalence and cytological features of the flagellated protozoan, Cryptobia helicis living in the bursa copulatrix of the garden snail, Helix aspersa Müller 1774 found in the vicinity of Izmir, Turkey was investigated. The prevalence of Cryptobia helicis in garden snails collected in the spring of 2005 was found to be 68.65%. This study is the first record of the occurrence of Cryptobia helicis in the garden snail Helix aspersa found in Turkey. PMID:18351561

Göçmen, Bayram; Gürelli, Gözde

2008-01-01

365

Insights into the evolution of the snail superfamily from metazoan wide molecular phylogenies and expression data in annelids  

PubMed Central

Background An important issue concerning the evolution of duplicated genes is to understand why paralogous genes are retained in a genome even though the most likely fate for a redundant duplicated gene is nonfunctionalization and thereby its elimination. Here we study a complex superfamily generated by gene duplications, the snail related genes that play key roles during animal development. We investigate the evolutionary history of these genes by genomic, phylogenetic, and expression data studies. Results We systematically retrieved the full complement of snail related genes in several sequenced genomes. Through phylogenetic analysis, we found that the snail superfamily is composed of three ancestral families, snail, scratchA and scratchB. Analyses of the organization of the encoded proteins point out specific molecular signatures, indicative of functional specificities for Snail, ScratchA and ScratchB proteins. We also report the presence of two snail genes in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii, which have distinct expression patterns in the developing mesoderm, nervous system, and foregut. The combined expression of these two genes is identical to that of two independently duplicated snail genes in another annelid, Capitella spI, but different aspects of the expression patterns are differentially shared among paralogs of Platynereis and Capitella. Conclusion Our study indicates that the snail and scratchB families have expanded through multiple independent gene duplications in the different bilaterian lineages, and highlights potential functional diversifications of Snail and ScratchB proteins following duplications, as, in several instances, paralogous proteins in a given species show different domain organizations. Comparisons of the expression pattern domains of the two Platynereis and Capitella snail paralogs provide evidence for independent subfunctionalization events which have occurred in these two species. We propose that the snail related genes may be especially prone to subfunctionalization, and this would explain why the snail superfamily underwent so many independent duplications leading to maintenance of functional paralogs.

Kerner, Pierre; Hung, Johanne; Behague, Julien; Le Gouar, Martine; Balavoine, Guillaume; Vervoort, Michel

2009-01-01

366

Micro-habitat scale survey of land snails in dolines of the Alsó-hegy, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

> Abstract We present results of a micro-habitat scale land snail survey replicated in 16 dolines (karstic depressions, sometimes re- ferred as sinkholes with larger extent) in the Aggtelek National Park, Hungary. Snails were collected by time restricted direct search. We found that micro-habitat types greatly infl uenced the land snail assemblages. Most of the species preferred single micro-habitat type,

PÉTER SÓLYMOS; ROLAND FARKAS; ZITA KEMENCEI; BARNA PÁLL-GERGELY; FERENC VILISICS; ANTAL NAGY; MÁTÉ KISFALI; ELISABETH HORNUNG

2009-01-01

367

Effect of Sodium Chloride, Tricaine Methanesulfonate, and Light on New Zealand Mud Snail Behavior, Survival of Snails Defecated from Rainbow Trout, and Effects of Epsom Salt on Snail Elimination Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Zealand mud snail (NZMS) Potamopyrgus antipodarum is an invasive species that threatens fish populations in North America. Establishment of NZMS in fish hatcheries is particularly problematic because NZMS could be inadvertently spread through fish stocking. Herein, we present the results of tests conducted to improve our understanding of (1) the risk of stocking fish from NZMS-infested hatcheries and

Randall W. Oplinger; Pat Brown; Eric J. Wagner

2009-01-01

368

Histochemical changes of carbohydrate and protein contents in the digestive gland cells of the land snail Monacha cartusiana following starvation.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate histochemically the detection of carbohydrate and protein in the normally feeding snails and after 15 and 30 days of starvation. Generally, abundant carbohydrate and protein materials were detected in the component cells of the digestive gland of normally feeding snails. The results of this investigation revealed a pronounced decline of carbohydrates in the digestive gland cells of Monacha cartusiana snails after starvation. Severe decline in carbohydrate content was observed especially after 30 days of starvation. Moreover, protein inclusions have exhibited a week stainability in the digestive gland cells of these snails as a consequence of starvation. PMID:23961042

Sharaf, Hesham M

2009-07-01

369

Influence of copper on the feeding rate, growth and reproduction of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck.  

PubMed

The influence of copper on feeding rate, growth, and reproduction of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck was evaluated. Ten days of exposure to copper of relatively high concentration (67.5 microg/L) reduced the snails' feeding rate and retarded their growth. Exposure to 20 microg/L after 36 days increased feeding rate to 28%. After 20 days of exposure at 30 microg/L, snail's growth was significant but thereafter declined. Growth of all snails including control was negligible by day 50 when snails were in the reproductive state. Copper did not affect reproduction. PMID:17999015

Peña, Silvia C; Pocsidio, Glorina N

2007-12-01

370

Adaptive Radiation in the Larval Feeding Habits of the Snail-Killing Fly Genus Tetanocera (Diptera: Sciomyzidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genus Tetanocera consists of 29 species in North America. The genus is unusual in that its larvae occupy five of the 17 feeding groups recognized in the family, as most other genera of the family occupy only one or two trophic guilds. Seven species have larvae that attack pulmonate aquatic snails, three species attack pulmonate snails stranded on shorelines, four species attack amber snails of the family Succineidae, three species attack slugs, and two species are predators of terrestrial snails. The larval feeding behavior of representative species of each of the five trophic guilds will be described and illustrated.

Foote, B. A.

2005-05-01

371

[Thermal compensation of respiration in pulmonate snails (Pulmonata) of Arion and Deroceras genera living in polar and temperate climatic zone].  

PubMed

Comparison of respiration rate in pulmonate snails living in various climatic zones demonstrated higher constant a in representatives of Arion genus (A. subfucus and A. fasciatus) from Polar Area (Murmansk Region) as compared to inhabitants of temperate latitudes (Moscow Region). The snails of Deroceras genus (D. reticulatum) from these two climatic zones were indistinguishable by relative standard metabolism. Different effects of climatic thermal conditions on respiration rates in representatives of these two snail genera can be due to their specific biology. Representatives of Deroceras genus are short-cycle synanthropic species, while the snails of Arion genus are long-cycle species living mostly in the forest zone. PMID:12400380

Zotin, A A; Ozerniuk, N D

2002-01-01

372

Distribution of trematodes in snails in ponds at integrated small-scale aquaculture farms.  

PubMed

In integrated small-scale aquaculture farming, animal and human excreta maybe used as fish feed and pond fertilizer, thereby enhancing transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) from final hosts, like humans, pigs and chickens, to snails. Areas within a pond could vary in trematode egg-load due to the immediate bordering land, and this might provide implications for control of these trematodes or sampling in field studies measuring FZT prevalence in snails. We therefore estimated the effect of bordering land use on prevalence and FZT burden in snails in different areas within small-scale aquaculture ponds. Nine sampling areas within a pond were assigned in six ponds. For each sampling area, about 120 Melanoides tuberculata snails were collected. Based on land use bordering a sampling area, these were categorized in 5 risk-categories: low-risk (road, rice planted in pond, agriculture, or middle of pond), human access point to pond, livestock sty (pigs or poultry), both human access point and livestock sty, and water connection to canal. In total, 5392 snails were collected. Percentages of snails with parapleurolophocercous cercariae varied between 6% in areas categorized as low-risk and areas with livestock sty only to 15% in areas with both human access point and livestock sty; only this 15% was significantly different from the prevalence in the low-risk category. Percentages of snails with xiphidio cercariae did not differ between risk-categories and varied between 5% and 10%. Mean snail size was 15.2mm, and was significantly associated with both the probability of infection as well as parasite burden. Very small differences in parasite burden were found at different land use areas; the maximum difference was about 11 cercariae. This study demonstrated only small differences between areas surrounding a pond on risk of snails to be infected with fish-borne trematodes within different pond areas. In field studies on FZTs in M. tuberculata snails in ponds, sampling from ponds can therefore be done without considering areas within ponds. PMID:23200642

Boerlage, Annette S; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Verreth, Johan A; de Jong, Mart C M

2013-03-01

373

Discrete movements of foot epithelium during adhesive locomotion of a land snail.  

PubMed

During the adhesive locomotion of land snails a series of short dark transverse bands, called pedal or foot waves, is visible ifa moving snail's ventral surface is observed through a sheet of glass. Moreover, the mucus secreted from the pedal glands and some pedal epithelial cells forms a thin layer which acts as a glue augmenting adherence, while also acting as a lubricant under the moving parts of the snail's foot. The relationships between velocity and the frequency of pedal waves as well as changes in the volume of small air bubbles under foot waves were analyzed by means of digital recordings made through a glass sheet on which the snails were moving. On the ventral surface of a moving snail foot, the adhering parts of the foot constituted about 80% of the total area, while several moving parts only about 20%. The single moving region of the foot (the pedal wave) amounted to about 3% of snail length. The epithelium in the region of the pedal wave was arched above the substrate and was also more wrinkled than the stationary epithelium, which enabled the forward motion of each specific point of epithelium during the passage of a pedal wave above it. The actual area of epithelium engaged by a pedal wave was at least 30% greater than the area of the epithelium as recorded through a glass sheet. In the region of the pedal wave, the tiny subepithelial muscles acting on the epithelium move it up in the front part of the wave, and then down at the end of the wave, operating vertically in relation to the substrate. In the middle part of the wave, the epithelium only moves forward. In summary, during the adhesive locomotion of snails, the horizontal movement of the ventral surface epithelium proceeds as temporally separate phases of upward, forward and downward movement. PMID:22428315

Tyrakowski, Tomasz; Kaczorowski, Piotr; Paw?owicz, Wojciech; Zió?kowski, Marcin; Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Trojanowska, Iwona; Marsza?ek, Andrzej; Zebrowska, Ma?gorzata; Lutowska, Monika; Kopczy?ska, Ewa; Lampka, Magdalena; Ho?y?ska-Iwan, Iga; Piskorska, Elzbieta

2012-01-01

374

The Molluscicidal Activity of Melia azadirchta on The Fresh water snail Physa acuta ( Draparnaud , 1805 ) A snail Associated with habitat of Lymnaea auricularia ( L )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molluscicidal effect of Melia azadirachta was evaluated against the fresh water snail Physa acuta at juvenile freshly hatched stage. Calculating values of different concentrations ( Lc50 - Lc90 ) showed that melia was toxic against juvenile stage . The use of Melia azadirchta fruit extract was considered as an effective control method for Physa acuta in Mosul area .

Talib Hussen Ali; Azhar Abul; Jabbar Hamed

375

The Application of Electric Shock as a Novel Pest Control Method for Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, brought to Japan from Taiwan for human consumption in the 1980s, has come to be considered as deleterious for rice cultivation. The snail is unable to injure young rice plants while receiving electric shock because the snail retracts its entire body into its shell and shuts its aperture with its operculum. Electric shock should be applied intermittently to reduce the amount of energy that is wasted when the snail is in its shell made of one of the insulator. The minimum electric shock required for controlling snails and the time required for movement after application of electric shock to determine the frequency of each electric shock were investigated using two methods; vertical and horizontal application of the electrical stimulation. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between the strength of electric shock and the reaction of the snails, and electric shock made snails inactive when it was applied 0.35 A/m2 in the horizontal direction and 0.45 A/m2 in the vertical direction with water of 11 mS/m. A positive correlation was also found between electric shock and the reaction of the snails and shell height. In comparison with larger snails, the smaller snails had higher threshold levels against electric current density because their shorter feet tended to have lower voltage dorp. Moreover, the frequency of electric shock should be chosen the minimum duration for the inactive condition, and it was approximately 10 seconds. Consequently the direction of electric current should be in the horizontal direction above 0.35 A/m2 and the frequency of electric shock should be less than 10 seconds for practical use. However, electric shock would have to be maintained at greater than 0.35 A/m2 because snails might become habituated to electric shock and water in paddy field would have high electric conductivity.

Yagyu, Yoshihito; Tsuji, Satoshi; Satoh, Saburoh; Yamabe, Chobei

376

HNRNPAB Induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Promotes Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Transcriptionally Activating SNAIL.  

PubMed

Expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein AB (HNRNPAB) has been reported to be dysregulated in tumors, but its specific contributions to tumor formation and progression are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that HNRNPAB is overexpressed in highly metastatic cells and tumor tissues from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with recurrence. We found that HNRNPAB overexpression promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a manner associated with HCC metastasis in vitro and in vivo. RNA interference-mediated silencing of the EMT factor SNAIL attenuated HNRNPAB-enhanced cell invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, HNRNPAB acted to transactivate SNAIL1 transcription, which in turn inhibited transcription of the pivotal SNAIL target gene E-cadherin. Overexpression of HNRNPAB in HCC samples correlated with higher SNAIL levels, shorter overall survival, and higher tumor recurrence. HNRNPAB overexpression, alone or in combination with SNAIL, was found to be a significant independent risk factor for recurrence and survival after curative resection. In conclusion, our findings define HNRNPAB as an activator of EMT and metastasis in HCC that predicts poor clinical outcomes. Cancer Res; 74(10); 2750-62. ©2014 AACR. PMID:24638979

Zhou, Zheng-Jun; Dai, Zhi; Zhou, Shao-Lai; Hu, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Qing; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Shi, Ying-Hong; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Wei-Zhong; Qiu, Shuang-Jian; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia

2014-05-15

377

Fascioliasis control: in vivo and in vitro phytotherapy of vector snail to kill fasciola larva.  

PubMed

Snail is one of the important components of an aquatic ecosystem, it acts as intermediate host of Fasciola species. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. Life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria in the snail body. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of the plant products and their active component such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin, and allicin against larva of Fasciola in infected snail Lymnaea acuminata were tested. Mortality of larvae were observed at 2?h, 4?h, 6?h, and 8?h, of treatment. In in vivo treatment, azadirachtin caused highest mortality in redia and cercaria larva (8?h, LC(50) 0.11, and 0.05?mg/L) whereas in in vitro condition allicin was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8?h, LC(50) 0.01, and 0.009?mg/L). Toxicity of citral was lowest against redia and cercaria larva. PMID:22132306

Sunita, Kumari; Singh, D K

2011-01-01

378

The effects of endosulfan on the great ramshorn snail Planorbarius corneus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata): a histopathological study.  

PubMed

In this study the great ramshorn snail (Planorbarius corneus), one of the most abundant gastropod of Turkish limnic systems, was investigated to determine the histopathological effects of endosulfan on the digestive gland, foot and mantle under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected from small artificial pools in Karaot at Gelendost-Isparta (southwest of Turkey), where agricultural activities are widespread. The snails were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of endosulfan (0.4 and 0.8 mg/l) for periods of 10, 20 and 30 days. Fifteen snails were kept in 2.5 l glass jars containing dechlorinated tap water and exposed under semi-static test (daily exchange of test water). All the testing was carried out on adult specimens, and snails were maintained on a photothermal period with 16 light hours at 22 +/- 2 degrees C. The histopathological examinations revealed the following changes: amoebocytes infiltration, dilatation in hemolymphatic spaces between the tubules, degeneration of cells, abnormal lumen, necrosis of cells and atrophy in the connective tissue of digestive gland; desquamation of the epithelium cells, changes in the number of mucocytes and protein gland cells, lipid vacuolus and atrophy of the columnar muscle fibers of the foot and mantle tissues. Pycnotic state of cells was also seen in the mantle tissues. Endosulfan caused significant histopathological alterations in the digestive gland, foot and mantle tissues of the snail, irrespective of concentrations of the pesticide and its exposure periods. The results are discussed, particularly in comparison to those of other aquatic organisms. PMID:15234168

Otludil, Birgül; Cengiz, Elif Ipek; Yildirim, M Zeki; Unver, Ozkan; Unlü, Erhan

2004-08-01

379

The Drosophila gene escargot encodes a zinc finger motif found in snail-related genes.  

PubMed

Two independent P-element enhancer detection lines were obtained that express lacZ in a pattern of longitudinal stripes early in germband elongation. In this paper, molecular and genetic characterization of a gene located near these transposons is presented. Sequence analysis of a cDNA clone from the region reveals that this gene has a high degree of similarity with the Drosophila snail gene (Boulay et al., 1987). The sequence similarity extends over 400 nucleotides, and includes a region encoding five tandem zinc finger motifs (72% nucleotide identity; 76% amino acid identity). This region is also conserved in the snail homologue from Xenopus laevis (76% nucleotide identity; 83% amino acid identity) (Sargent and Bennett, 1990). We have named the Drosophila snail-related gene escargot (esg), and the region of sequence conservation common to all three genes the 'snailbox'. A number of Drosophila genomic DNA fragments cross-hybridize to a probe from the snailbox region suggesting that snail and escargot are members of a multigene family. The expression pattern of escargot is dynamic and complex. Early in germband elongation, escargot RNA is expressed in a pattern of longitudinal stripes identical to the one observed in the two enhancer detection lines. Later in development, escargot is expressed in cells that will form the larval imaginal tissues, escargot is allelic with l(2)35Ce, an essential gene located near snail in the genome. PMID:1571289

Whiteley, M; Noguchi, P D; Sensabaugh, S M; Odenwald, W F; Kassis, J A

1992-02-01

380

Snail-type zinc finger proteins prevent neurogenesis in Scutoid and transgenic animals of Drosophila.  

PubMed

Scutoid is a classical dominant gain-of-function mutation of Drosophila, causing a loss of bristles and roughening of the compound eye. Previous genetic and molecular analyses have shown that Scutoid is associated with a chromosomal transposition resulting in a fusion of no-oceli and snail genes. How this gene fusion event leads to the defects in neurogenesis was not known until now. Here have found that snail is ectopically expressed in the eye-antennal and wing imaginal discs in Scutoid larvae, and that this expression is reduced in Scutoid revertants. We have also shown that the expressivity of Scutoid is enhanced by zeste mutations. snail and escargot encode evolutionarily conserved zinc-finger proteins involved in the development of mesoderm and limbs. Snail and Escargot proteins share a common target DNA sequence with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type proneural gene products. When expressed in the developing external sense organ precursors of the thorax and the eye, these proteins cause a loss of mechanosensory bristles in the thorax and perturbed the development of the compound eye. Such phenotypes resemble those associated with Scutoid. Furthermore, the effect of ectopic Escargot on bristle development is antagonized by coexpression of the bHLH gene asense. Thus, our results suggest that the Scutoid phenotype is due to an ectopic snail expression under the control of no-oceli enhancer, antagonizing neurogenesis through its inhibitory interaction with bHLH proteins. PMID:10552298

Fuse, N; Matakatsu, H; Taniguchi, M; Hayashi, S

1999-10-01

381

Tales of two snails: sexual selection and sexual conflict in Lymnaea stagnalis and Helix aspersa.  

PubMed

Sexual selection and sexual conflict have been shown to play key roles in the evolution of species with separate sexes. Experimental evidence is accumulating that this is also true for simultaneous hermaphrodites. For example, many species of land snails forcefully stab their mating partners with love darts. In the brown garden snail (Helix aspersa, now called Cantareus asperses), this dart increases sperm storage and paternity, probably via the transfer of an allohormone that inhibits sperm digestion. A recent interspecies comparison of dart-possessing land snails revealed coevolution between darts and spermatophore-receiving organs that is consistent with counteradaptation against an allohormonal manipulation. The great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) seems to use a seminal product to manipulate its partner and mates in the male role when enough seminal fluid is available in the prostate gland. Receipt of semen not only initiates egg laying in virgin animals, but also feminizes the mating partner later in life. These increases in the female function have been shown to go at the expense of growth and seminal fluid production of the sperm recipient. Although in Helix, and probably also Lymnaea, the sperm donor benefits from the induced changes through increased fertilization success, the sperm recipient may experience injury, imposed reallocation of resources, and altered sperm storage. These findings support the existence of sexual conflict in simultaneously hermaphroditic snails, and its importance for the evolution of mating behaviors and reproductive morphologies is discussed. PMID:21672754

Koene, Joris M

2006-08-01

382

How subcellular partitioning can help to understand heavy metal accumulation and elimination kinetics in snails.  

PubMed

To understand bioaccumulation kinetics of metals within biota inhabiting industrially contaminated soils, toxicokinetic dynamics and subcellular fractionation were carried out with the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa in a long-term (six-month) laboratory experiment. Accumulation and elimination kinetics were determined for Cd, Pb, and Zn in both viscera and foot of snails and were described accurately by one-compartment models. The subcellular fractions were obtained by sequential centrifugations and were analyzed by isolating metal-rich granules, tissue fragments, and cytosolic fractions. Different fractions showed metal-specific binding capacities that might be useful in identifying the biological significance of accumulated metal levels in snails. Cadmium was retrieved mainly from the cytosolic fraction, where it was stored in the long term and not excreted, thus explaining the linear accumulation patterns. Most of the accumulated Pb was found in the granular fraction, and snails appeared able to excrete these concretions, leading to achievement of a steady state in internal Pb body burdens. Significant levels of Pb, however, were retrieved at the end of the depuration phase and retained in the cell debris fraction. Zinc showed affinities for both cytosolic and granular fractions, leading to intermediate uptake and excretion patterns. The dynamics of the different sequestration forms at the subcellular level support the observed kinetics of metal body burdens and, in association with the determination of uptake fluxes, allow precise assessment of metal accumulation in snails. PMID:18229974

Gimbert, Frédéric; Vijver, Martina G; Coeurdassier, Michaël; Scheifler, Renaud; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Badot, Pierre-Marie; de Vaufleury, Annette

2008-06-01

383

Neurogenesis in the procerebrum of the snail Helix aspersa: a quantitative analysis.  

PubMed

The procerebrum, a specialized structure for olfaction in terrestrial pulmonate molluscs, contains 20,000 to 50,000 small, uniformly sized neurons that increase in number with age. Here I show the likely source of neurons added to the procerebrum of Helix aspersa and that the rate of neuron addition depends on snail weight. After hatching, during the initial exponential growth phase, H. aspersa adds neurons to the procerebral apex by mitosis and from a cerebral tube. In the logistic growth phase beginning 30-40 days post-hatch, neurons also seem to be added to the procerebrum from the peritentacular and olfactory nerves, causing the rate of neuron addition to approximately double; but as in the earlier exponential growth phase, this rate remains a function of snail weight. This neuron addition throughout the life of the snail can be predicted by snail weight. In the two growth phases, the number of neurons in the procerebrum is given by logarithmic functions of snail weight. The results here for H. aspersa provide the basis for experiments to determine the peripheral origin and destination of neuronal precursors that are added to the procerebrum and to determine how neuron addition affects the function of the procerebrum. PMID:22042440

Longley, Roger D

2011-10-01

384

Do ice nucleating agents limit the supercooling ability of the land snail Cornu aspersum?  

PubMed

The supercooling ability of adults and eggs of the partially freezing tolerant land snail Cornu aspersum remains limited to high subzero temperatures (ca. -5 degree C) whatever the conditions, suggesting the presence of ice nucleating agents (INAs). In this study, we investigated the nucleation activity of the digestive tract of adult snails, eggs and their direct environment: food, faeces and soil. The mucous ribbon always present in the distal intestine of adults exhibited a heat-sensitive (i.e. organic) nucleation activity, close to that of the entire snails during dormant states (aestivation and hibernation). However, a microbial nature of these INAs could not be established in inactive snails. The food provided to active snails contained ice nucleating bacteria, which followed the digestive tract to be found in the intestine and in the faeces, but with a decreasing concentration along the transit. Eggshells also presented a heat-sensitive nucleation activity, which could be related to its structure. Moreover, eggs are laid directly in the soil which contained both organic and mineral INAs. This study is the first to demonstrate the implication of organic INAs in the cold hardiness of a terrestrial gastropod. PMID:20818461

Ansart, A; Nicolai, A; Vernon, P; Madec, L

2010-01-01

385

Heat shock proteins and survival strategies in congeneric land snails (Sphincterochila) from different habitats.  

PubMed

Polmunate land snails are subject to stress conditions in their terrestrial habitat, and depend on a range of behavioural, physiological and biochemical adaptations for coping with problems of maintaining water, ionic and thermal balance. The involvement of the heat shock protein (HSP) machinery in land snails was demonstrated following short-term experimental aestivation and heat stress, suggesting that land snails use HSPs as part of their survival strategy. As climatic variation was found to be associated with HSP expression, we tested whether adaptation of land snails to different habitats affects HSP expression in two closely related Sphincterochila snail species, a desert species Sphincterochila zonata and a Mediterranean-type species Sphincterochila cariosa. Our study suggests that Sphincterochila species use HSPs as part of their survival strategy following desiccation and heat stress, and as part of the natural annual cycle of activity and aestivation. Our studies also indicate that adaptation to different habitats results in the development of distinct strategies of HSP expression in response to stress, namely the reduced expression of HSPs in the desert-inhabiting species. We suggest that these different strategies reflect the difference in heat and aridity encountered in the natural habitats, and that the desert species S. zonata relies on mechanisms and adaptations other than HSP induction thus avoiding the fitness consequences of continuous HSP upregulation. PMID:22528052

Mizrahi, Tal; Heller, Joseph; Goldenberg, Shoshana; Arad, Zeev

2012-09-01

386

A phylogeny of the land snails (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).  

PubMed Central

We have undertaken the first large-scale molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Stylommatophora. Sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene-cluster were examined in 104 species of snails and slugs from 50 families, encompassing all the currently recognized major groups. It allows an independent test of the present classification based on morphology. At the level of families our molecular phylogeny closely supports the current taxonomy, but the deep branches within the tree do not. Surprisingly, a single assemblage including the families Achatinidae, Subulinidae and Streptaxidae lies near the base of the tree, forming a sister group to all remaining stylommatophorans. This primary division into 'achatinoid' and 'non-achatinoid' taxa is unexpected, and demands a radical reinterpretation of early stylommatophoran evolution. In particular, the Orthurethra appear to be relatively advanced within the 'non-achatinoid clade', and broadly equivalent to other super-familial clusters. This indicates that supposedly primitive features such as the orthurethran kidney are derived. The molecular tree also suggests that the origin of the Stylommatophora is much earlier than the main period of their diversification.

Wade, C. M.; Mordan, P. B.; Clarke, B.

2001-01-01

387

The snail's love-dart delivers mucus to increase paternity  

PubMed Central

Many of the seemingly bizarre animal behaviours can be understood only by acknowledging the power of sex to shape evolution. A case in point is the so-called love-dart that some terrestrial molluscs shoot at their prospective sexual partners. Given that the likelihood of copulation is not different after solid hits than after complete misses, why do these suitors act so violently towards their chosen mates? Previously, it was shown that successful dart shooting enhances paternity. We conducted an experiment to determine whether the dart achieves its effect by a purely mechanical action or by transferring a bioactive substance. We found that injections of mucus from a gland associated with the dart more than doubled paternity relative to injections of saline. These results support the hypothesis that the dart transfers a substance capable of reconfiguring the spermatophore-receiving organs. While dart shooting probably evolved as the result of sperm competition, a role for cryptic female choice cannot be excluded. Our results imply that if cryptic female choice is operating in this system, it is likely to be based on the properties of the mucus and not on properties of the dart itself. Since we also found evidence of early-male sperm precedence, we conclude that snails can optimize their reproductive success by mating with virgins and shooting their darts accurately.

Chase, Ronald; Blanchard, Katrina C

2006-01-01

388

Decline and homogenization of Pacific faunas: the land snails of American Samoa ? ? Contribution number 2000-019 of Bishop Museum’s Pacific Biological Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native Pacific island biotas are disappearing rapidly. Among these native biotas the land snails are especially recognized not only for their high diversity and high levels of endemism but also for being under severe threat, with many species already extinct. Many non-indigenous snail species are being introduced, leading to a homogenization of land snail faunas across the Pacific. Field survey

Robert H. Cowie

2001-01-01

389

Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Cause and Effect Analysis in Conjunction with ISO 22000 to a Snails (Helix aspersa) Processing Plant; A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) has been applied for the risk assessment of snails manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the snails industry was attempted in conjunction with ISO 22000.Preliminary Hazard Analysis was used to analzse and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (snails processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and\\/or interactions

Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Theodoros H. Varzakas

2009-01-01

390

Evaluation of different duck varieties for the control of the golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata) in transplanted and direct seeded rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the potential of ducks for the control of the golden apple snail in irrigated rice. The varieties of duck recommended for the biological control of snail in decreasing preference were William Siam > Taiwan > Mallard > Peking > Muscovy. Cherry Valley, a variety with a bigger body size was not suitable for snail control because of

Su Sin Teo

2001-01-01

391

Predatory Potential of Freshwater Animals on an Invasive Agricultural Pest, the Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae), in Southern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata is an invasive species and a serious pest of rice in many Asian countries. We studied predatory activities of various animals living in Japanese freshwater habitats, by keeping each individual of a potential predator species with 36 snails of various sizes for three days in the aquarium. Forty-six species were tested, and 26 in eight

Yoichi Yusa; Naoyuki Sugiura; Takashi Wada

2006-01-01

392

Strategies for Controlling the Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae) in Japanese Direct-Sown Paddy Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata becomes a much more serious pest in direct-sown rice fields than in transplanted fields. In south Japan, it represents an important constraint on the implementation of direct seeding. Described here are possible measures to control the snails and suggestions for its management in Japanese direct-sown rice fields. Crop rotation with upland crops is a practical

Takashi WADA

2004-01-01

393

Lethal and non-lethal effects of multiple indigenous predators on the invasive golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. We investigated the individual and combined effects of two predators (the climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, and the wetland crab, Esanthelphusa nimoafi) indigenous to wetlands in Laos, on the behaviour and survival of the invasive South American golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata). The snail is considered a pest, consuming large amounts of rice and other aquatic vegetation in the

Nils Carlsson; Asa Kestrup; Monica Martensson; Per Nystrom

2004-01-01

394

Thermal Compensation of Respiration in Pulmonate Snails (Pulmonata) of Arion and Deroceras Genera Living in Polar and Temperate Climatic Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of respiration rate in pulmonate snails living in various climatic zones demonstrated higher constant a in representatives of Arion genus (A. subfuscus and A. fasciatus) from Polar Area (Murmansk Region) as compared to inhabitants of temperate latitudes (Moscow Region). The snails of Deroceras genus (D. reticulatum) from these two climatic zones were indistinguishable by relative standard metabolism. Different effects

A. A. Zotin; N. D. Ozernyuk

2002-01-01

395

Alterations of biochemical indicators in hepatopancreas of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, from paddy fields in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The freshwater golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, is one of the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snails' wide distribution, high abundance, and sensitivity to environmental pollution make them a potential bioindicator for environmental contamination. In this study, the biochemical status of golden apple snails collected from paddy fields throughout the island of Taiwan was examined. This study found that the biochemical status of apple snails collected from paddy fields differed from that of animals bred and maintained in the laboratory. Furthermore, certain biochemical endpoints of the snails collected from the paddy fields before and after agricultural activities were also different-hemolymphatic vitellogenin protein was induced in male snail after exposure to estrogen-like chemicals, the hepatic monooxygenase (1.97 +/- 0.50 deltaA(650mm) 30 min(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) and glutathione S transferase (0.02 +/- 0.01 delta A(340mm) 30 min(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) snails exposed to pesticides, as well as the hepatopancreatic levels of aspartate aminotransferase (450.00 +/- 59.40 U mg(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) and alanine aminotransferase (233.27 +/- 42.09 U mg(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) decreased the indicating that xenobiotics destroyed hepatopancreatic. The above findings reveal that apple snail could be used as a practical bioindicator to monitor anthropogenic environmental pollution. PMID:25004751

Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wu, Jui-Pin; Hsieh, Tsung-Chih; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji

2014-07-01

396

Failure of transmission of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus between Mallards and freshwater snails: an experimental evaluation.  

PubMed

In aquatic bird populations, the ability of avian influenza (AI) viruses to remain infectious in water for extended periods provides a mechanism that allows viral transmission to occur long after shedding birds have left the area. However, this also exposes other aquatic organisms, including freshwater invertebrates, to AI viruses. Previous researchers found that AI viral RNA can be sequestered in snail tissues. Using an experimental approach, we determined whether freshwater snails (Physa acuta and Physa gyrina) can infect waterfowl with AI viruses by serving as a means of transmission between infected and naïve waterfowl via ingestion. In our first experiment, we exposed 20 Physa spp. snails to an AI virus (H3N8) and inoculated embryonated specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken eggs with the homogenized snail tissues. Sequestered AI viruses remain infectious in snail tissues; 10% of the exposed snail tissues infected SPF eggs. In a second experiment, we exposed snails to water contaminated with feces of AI virus-inoculated Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to evaluate whether ingestion of exposed freshwater snails was an alternate route of AI virus transmission to waterfowl. None of the immunologically naïve Mallards developed an infection, indicating that transmission via ingestion likely did not occur. Our results suggest that this particular trophic interaction may not play an important role in the transmission of AI viruses in aquatic habitats. PMID:24502718

Oesterle, Paul T; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Orahood, Darcy; Mooers, Nicole; Sullivan, Heather; Franklin, Alan B; Root, J Jeffrey

2013-10-01

397

BIOTIC INTERACTIONS MODIFY THE TRANSFER OF CESIUM137 IN A SOIL–EARTHWORM–PLANT–SNAIL FOOD WEB  

Microsoft Academic Search

137 Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq\\/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Stan- dardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence

Clémentine Fritsch; Renaud Scheifler; Karine Beaugelin-Seiller; Philippe Hubert; Michaël Cœurdassier; Annette de Vaufleury; Pierre-Marie Badot

2008-01-01

398

Community structures of soil animals and survival of land snails on an island of the Ogasawara Archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Chichijima, one of the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands located in the Western Pacifi c Ocean, land snails have declined, the suggested cause being predation pressure by an invasive fl atworm ( Platydemus manokwari ). Soil fauna were investigated in areas where the snail survives, and where it has become extinct. Much of the fauna, dominated by introduced earthworms and ants,

Motohiro Hasegawa; Shinji Sugiura; Masamichi T. Ito; Aska Yamaki; Keiko Hamaguchi; Toshio Kishimoto; Isamu Okochi

2009-01-01

399

The repressor function of Snail is required for Drosophila gastrulation and is not replaceable by Escargot or Worniu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoderm formation in the Drosophila embryo depends on the maternal Toll signaling pathway. The Toll pathway establishes the Dorsal nuclear gradient, which regulates many zygotic genes to establish the mesodermal fate and promote the invagination of ventral cells. An important target gene of Dorsal is snail, which is required for proper mesoderm invagination. The Snail protein contains five zinc fingers

Kirugaval Hemavathy; Xiaodi Hu; Shovon I Ashraf; Stephen J Small; Y. Tony Ip

2004-01-01

400

A positive role for Myc in TGFbeta-induced Snail transcription and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.  

PubMed

Myc and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signaling are mutually antagonistic, that is Myc suppresses the activation of TGFbeta-induced genes, whereas TGFbeta represses c-myc transcription. Here, we report a positive role for Myc in the TGFbeta response, consisting in the induction of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the activation of the EMT-associated gene Snail. Knockdown of either Myc or the TGFbeta effectors SMAD3/4 in epithelial cells eliminated Snail induction by TGFbeta. Both Myc and SMAD complexes targeted the Snail promoter in vivo, DNA binding occurring in a mutually independent manner. Myc was bound prior to TGFbeta treatment, and was required for rapid Snail activation upon SMAD binding induced by TGFbeta. On the other hand, c-myc downregulation by TGFbeta was a slower event, occurring after Snail induction. The response of Snail to another cytokine, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), also depended on Myc and SMAD4. Thus, contrary to their antagonistic effects on Cip1 and INK4b, Myc and SMADs cooperate in signal-dependent activation of Snail in epithelial cells. Although Myc also targeted the Snail promoter in serum-stimulated fibroblasts, it was dispensable for its activation in these conditions, further illustrating that the action of Myc in transcriptional regulation is context-dependent. Our findings suggest that Myc and TGFbeta signaling may cooperate in promoting EMT and metastasis in carcinomas. PMID:18978814

Smith, A P; Verrecchia, A; Fagà, G; Doni, M; Perna, D; Martinato, F; Guccione, E; Amati, B

2009-01-22

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