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1

BOTANICAL EXTRACTS EXHIBIT DUAL ACTION AGAINST CULEX PIPIENS LARVAE AND BIOMPHALARIA ALEXANDRINA SNAILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some extracts of Euphorbia helioscopia (Euphorbiaceae), Calendula micrantha (Compositae) and Azadriachta indica (Meliaceae) were screened for the control of Culex pipiens larvae, the vector of Filariasis and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails the vector of Schistosomiasis in Egypt. These plants exhibit dual effect on both pests which share the same aquatic breeding habitat and are of medical importance. B. alexandrina snails were

W. M. ELYASSAKI; M. M. EL-SAYED

2

Energy allocation patterns in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails in response to cadmium exposure and Schistosoma mansoni infection.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to investigate the effects of both parasitism and environmental stress on the growth, reproduction, and survival of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Resource allocation strategies may be influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. Using the planorbid snail B. alexandrina and Schistosoma mansoni, this hypothesis was examined by raising snails fed the same diet under two stressors (infection and Cd exposure). The snails divided into four groups, uninfected, infected, Cd-exposed uninfected, and Cd-exposed infected snails. Egg production, growth, and survival of the snails were monitored over a 9-week period postinfection. Inhibition of snail reproductive activity by parasitism results in increased snail growth in the first week postinfection, termed gigantism, during which the snail is hypothesized to allocate excess energy normally used for reproduction to somatic growth. Infection status and Cd exposure had significant effects on snail growth and reproduction. The infected and Cd-exposed infected snails exhibiting reduced survival relative to snails of other treatments. It was found that parasite development influenced by Cd exposure. Results of this study suggest that energy allocation patterns are context-dependent in B. alexandrina snails, influenced by infection and Cd exposure. PMID:16256110

Ibrahim, Mohamed Moussa

2006-01-01

3

Potential Use of Biomphalaria alexandrina Snail Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni by Immunoblot Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of Biomphalaria alexandrina snail antigens in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni using enzyme linked immunolectrotransfere blot (EITB). Methods S. mansoni adult worm crude antigens (AWA), feet and visceral humps of B. alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus were used. Hyperimmune mice sera (HIS) versus each antigen were prepared for diagnosis of S. mansoni using western blot (WB). Results Snail foot antigens were more specific in antibodies detection than visceral hump antigens. Three of five polypeptides of B. alexandrina foot antigen identified by S. mansoni HIS showed specific positive reactivity. These polypeptides were at MW of 31/32 and 43 kDa. While, only one of the six polypeptides of B. alexandrina hepatopancrease antigen identified by S. mansoni HIS, at a MW of 43 kDa was specific. Similarly, 2 polypeptides at MW of 44 and 55 kDa were specific in detection of anti- S. haematobium antibodies. However, the antigenically active polypeptide of B. truncatus hepatopancrease antigen had no specific reactivity towards anti-S. haematobium antibodies. Conclusion B. alexandrina foot antigens were the most specific of the tested snail antigens in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni. PMID:23682262

Basyoni, Maha MA; EL-Wahab, Azza Abd

2013-01-01

4

Carboxylic Acids as Biomarkers of Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails Infected with Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Biomphalaria alexandrina snails play an indispensable role in transmission of schistosomiasis. Infection rates in field populations of snails are routinely determined by cercarial shedding neglecting prepatent snail infections, because of lack of a suitable method for diagnosis. The present study aimed at separation and quantification of oxalic, malic, acetic, pyruvic, and fumaric acids using ion-suppression reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to test the potentiality of these acids to be used as diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers. The assay was done in both hemolymph and digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) samples in a total of 300 B. alexandrina snails. All of the studied acids in both the hemolymph and tissue samples except for the fumaric acid in hemolymph appeared to be good diagnostic biomarkers as they provide not only a good discrimination between the infected snails from the control but also between the studied stages of infection from each other. The most sensitive discriminating acid was malic acid in hemolymph samples as it showed the highest F-ratio. Using the Z-score, malic acid was found to be a good potential therapeutic biomarker in the prepatency stage, oxalic acid and acetic acid in the stage of patency, and malic acid and acetic acid at 2 weeks after patency. Quantification of carboxylic acids, using HPLC strategy, was fast, easy, and accurate in prediction of infected and uninfected snails and possibly to detect the stage of infection. It seems also useful for detection of the most suitable acids to be used as drug targets. PMID:20585528

Abou Elseoud, Salwa M. F.; Ezz El Din, Hayam M.; Abdel Al, Hala; Mossalem, Hanan; Elleboudy, Noha

2010-01-01

5

Potential Correlation between Carboxylic Acid Metabolites in Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails after Exposure to Schistosoma mansoni Infection  

PubMed Central

Carboxylic acids play an important role in both aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways of both the snail and the parasite. Monitoring the effects of infection by schistosome on Biomphalaria alexandrina carboxylic acids metabolic profiles represents a promising additional source of information about the state of metabolic system. We separated and quantified pyruvic, fumaric, malic, oxalic, and acetic acids using ion-suppression reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect correlations between these acids in both hemolymph and digestive gland gonad complex (DGG's) samples in a total of 300 B. alexandrina snails (150 infected and 150 controls) at different stages of infection. The results showed that the majority of metabolite pairs did not show significant correlations. However, some high correlations were found between the studied acids within the control group but not in other groups. More striking was the existence of reversed correlations between the same acids at different stages of infection. Some possible explanations of the underlying mechanisms were discussed. Ultimately, however, further data are required for resolving the responsible regulatory events. These findings highlight the potential of metabolomics as a novel approach for fundamental investigations of host-pathogen interactions as well as disease surveillance and control. PMID:22711922

Abou Elseoud, Salwa M. F.; Ezz El Din, Hayam M.; Abdel Al, Hala; Mossalem, Hanan; Elleboudy, Noha

2012-01-01

6

Molluscicidal Activity of Some Solanum Species Extracts against the Snail Biomphalaria alexandrina  

PubMed Central

Background. Snails' species are associated with transmission parasitic disease as intermediate host. Biological control stands to be a better alternative to the chemical controls aimed against snails. The search of herbal preparations that do not produce any adverse effects in the non-target organisms and are easily biodegradable remains a top research issue for scientists associated with alternative molluscicides control. Method. Solvent extracts of fresh mature leaves of S. nigrum, S. villosum, and S. sinaicum were tested against Biomphalaria alexandrina, a common intermediate host of schistosoma mansoni. A phytochemical analysis of chloroform: ethanol extract was performed to search for active toxic ingredient. The lethal concentration was determined. Results. Extracts isolated from mature leaves of Solanum species were found to be having molluscicidal properties. S. nigrum extract was recorded as the highest mortality rate. When the mortality of different solvent extracts was compared, the maximum (P < .05) mortality was recorded at a concentration of 90?ppm of ethanol extract of S. nigrum. Conclusion. Extract of mature leaves of S. nigrum exhibited molluscicidal activity followed by S. sinaicum and the less one was S. villosum. The study provides considerable scope in exploiting local indigenous resources for snails' molluscicidal agents. PMID:20721329

El-Sherbini, Gehad T.; Zayed, Rawia A.; El-Sherbini, Eman T.

2009-01-01

7

Compatibility of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails to infection with Schistosoma mansoni after exposure to sublethal concentrations of Myrrh.  

PubMed

The effect of exposing B. alexandrina to sub-lethal dose (LC10 & LC20) of Myrrh, on its susceptibility to infection with S. mansoni miracidia were determined. Starting three weeks post miracidial exposure, cercarial shedding was monitored. No shedding of cercariae were observed from snails treated with LC20. In snails treated with LC10, longer prepatent cercarial and shorter cercarial production periods than those of control group were recorded. The number of infected snails and of shedding cercariae were decreased. The study revealed that sublethal values of myrrh decreased the compatibility of B. alexandrina to S. mansoni infection thus playing an important role in the control of schistosomiasis. PMID:15587324

Massoud, Ahmad; Metwally, Doreya M; Khalifa, Khalifa E; Habib, Faiza S M

2004-12-01

8

Heavy metal concentrations in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina uninfected or infected with cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and/or Echinostoma liei in Egypt: the potential use of this snail as a bioindicator of pollution.  

PubMed

In spite of using aquatic snails as bioindicators for water pollution, little attention has been paid to the effect of parasitism upon the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) in these organisms. The present study therefore aimed to compare the concentrations of heavy metals in trematode-infected Biomphalaria alexandrina collected from Kafer Alsheikh and Menofia provinces, Egypt, with uninfected snails from the same sites, in order to assess the effect of parasitism on the use of these snails as bioindicators. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soft parts and shells of snails were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the heavy metal profile in snails infected with Echinostoma liei was very different from that in snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The total concentration of heavy metals in E. liei-infected snails collected from Kafer Alsheikh or Menofia province was greater than in uninfected snails. In contrast, the total concentration of heavy metals in S. mansoni-infected snails was reduced compared with uninfected snails. In conclusion, the status of snails with respect to parasitic infection must be taken into consideration when these snails are used as bioindicators. PMID:23710821

Mostafa, O M S; Mossa, A-T H; El Einin, H M A

2014-12-01

9

Meta-analysis indicates lack of local adaptation of Schistosoma mansoni to Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt.  

PubMed

In Egypt, reclaiming portions of the desert using water from the Nile has resulted in large-scale invasion of Biomphalaria alexandrina in these regions. Studies exploring the local adaptation of Schistosoma mansoni to its snail host have been carried out to predict the extension of schistosomiasis to newly reclaimed areas. A meta-analysis of the relevant reports was conducted to compare the different biological characteristics of sympatric and allopatric Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria alexandrina using different experimental designs. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the biological characteristics of sympatric and allopatric populations. The experimental design of some of the studies analyzed was found to affect the total cercarial production. The distance between the origin of the parasite and that of the snail did not affect any of the biological characteristics. The results showed that there is no evidence of local adaptation between Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria alexandrina; however, the parasite is adapted to its intermediate host throughout the water bodies located in Egypt. The absence of local adaptation between Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria alexandrina is likely of critical importance in predicting public health risks engendered by future reclaimed agriculture projects. Indeed, these results could assist in determining the appropriate balance between the development of water resource projects and schistosomiasis control in Egypt. PMID:24442240

Abou-El-Naga, Iman Fathy

2014-03-01

10

Laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal activity of Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) on Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus and Lymnaea cailliaudi.  

PubMed

The molluscicidal properties of the oil extract of Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) were tested against Egyptian snail species: Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus and Limnaea cailliaudi. The impact of the extract on the egg cluches of B. alexandrina and L. cailliaudi was also evaluated. Snails and their eggs were exposed for 24 and 48 hr at 22-26 degrees C to various concentrations of the extract. The results showed different susceptibilities B. alexandrina showed higher LD50 and LD90 (155, 195 ppm) than B. truncatus (50, 95 ppm) and L. cailliaudi (50, 85 ppm) after 24 hr exposure. 100% mortality was obtained for the egg cluches of B. alexandrina and L. cailliaudi at concentrations of 100 ppm and 75 ppm respectively. Lower concentrations were needed to obtain the same results after 48 hr. The present laboratory studies demonstrated that Myrrh has a molluscicidal effect on the snail intermediate hosts, particularly on their eggs. Field studies are recommended. PMID:11775095

Allam, A F; el-Sayad, M H; Khalil, S S

2001-12-01

11

Population dynamics and schistosomal infection of Biomphalaria alexandrina in four irrigation canals in Egypt.  

PubMed

The natural growth, reproductivity, mortality and schistosomal infection of Biomphalaria alexandrina, the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt, were studied for one year in four irrigation canals, namely El-Khassa and Radwan (Giza Governorate) and Sendebis and Sanafeer (Qalyoubiya Governorate). Radwan canal contains a considerably dense Biomphalaria population and three generations of snails (parents generation and autumn and spring generations) were recognized. Two phases of growth were distinguished in both autumn and spring generations, a faster phase followed by a slower one. The faster phase extends from January to May and from March to August in the autumn and spring generations, respectively. The daily mortality rate of snails was highest in the hot season (June--September) and lowest in the cold months (December--April). Continuous reproductivity of Biomphalaria snails was observed allover the year with highest values of reproduction index from November to March. Biomphalaria snails collected from El Khassa and Radwan canals were free of S. mansoni infection, while snails of Sanafeer canal carried patent infection in September and October. Prepatent infection was also found in Sanafeer canal in July and September and in Sendebis canal in September. PMID:8308336

Yousif, F; Kamel, G; el Emam, M; Mohamed, S H

1993-12-01

12

Synthesis of New Uracil5Sulfonamide Derivatives and Immuno-Stimulatory Effect of a Chemically Modified Hemolymph of Biomphalaria alexandrina on Schistosoma mansoni Infected Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

SomeN-p-substituted phenyl uracil-5-sulphonamide derivatives have been synthesized to be evaluated as molluscicides againstBiomphalaria alexandrina snails, the intermediate host ofSchistosoma mansoni. Schistosoma mansoni infected mice were treated with hemolymph obtained from pre-treatedBiomphalaria alexandrina snails with the products4a, 10a, 10b and4b or obtained from non-treated snails. The selection of the concentration based on the predetermined dose which caused mortality\\u000a of less than

O. A. Fathalla; M. E. Haiba; A. S. Maghraby

2003-01-01

13

Ultrastructural study on Biomphalaria alexandrina haemocytes infected with Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt and its correlation with nitric oxide level.  

PubMed

Some snails of Biomphalaria alexandrina can resist the infection of Schistosoma mansoni so this study aimed to clearly this mechanism by using light and electron microscopy (EM) and determine the role of Nitric oxide in this mechanism. B. alexandrina snails used in this study were exposed individually to S. mansoni infection according to their response they were classified into susceptible group (shed cercariae) and resistant group (failed to shed cercariae). Snails not exposed to infection were included in this study as control group. Nitric oxide (NO) level was assayed directly in the soluble fraction of B. alexandrina haemolymph supernatants collected from each group of B. alexandrina snails were subjected to NO assay by the Greiss reaction. The level of NO in haemolymph of infected snails was significantly increased (p < 0.001) than both control and non infected snails groups, however, in non infected snails group had significantly (p < 0.05) compared to control group. This study when correlated the changes recognized by EM with NO level the pro apoptotic effect of high level of NO on the haemocytes. Characterization and identification of cell shape of haemocytes in both haemolymph and tissue were examined by light and electron microscopy. Examination of B. alexandrina snail's haemocytes revealed three types of different cells classified according to their shape and granular contents. These cells are granulocytes, amoebocytes and hyalineocytes. Electron microscope study also revealed the important role of granulocytes and amoebocytes as defense mechanism against snail infection. NO is considered an important anti parasite molecule; intra-molluscan stages of parasites switch off host NO defense response. PMID:24961016

Helal, Eman G; El-Dafrawy, Shadia M; Mohamed, Amira H; Abou-El-Nour, Basma M; Ibrahim, Samah

2014-04-01

14

Induced Changes in the Amino Acid Profile of Biomphalaria alexandrina Molluscan Host to Schistosoma mansoni Using Sublethal Concentrations of Selected Plant Molluscicides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acid profiles of control and Solanum nigrum, Ambrosia maritima, Thymelaea hirsute, Sinapis arvensis, Peganum haramala and Callistemon lanceolatus-treated Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were investigated in a trial to correlate the amino acid profile of treated snails to their previously reported molluscicidal and biological effects. Amino acid profiles of the snails were greatly manipulated with the treatment of dry powdered sublethal concentrations of the six studied plant molluscicides. The disturbed amino acid profiles of treated snails were discussed in relation to the decrease in snail's egg laying capacity, reduction of their compatibility for the development of the schistosome larvae and cercarial penetration of mammalian skin.

Sanad Soliman, Mahmoud; El-Ansary, Afaf

15

Bioactivity of Anagallis arvensis and Calendula micrantha plants, treated with ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium sulphate fertilizers, on Biomphalaria alexandrina.  

PubMed

The survival rate of B. alexandrina snails maintained in aqueous solutions of the two tested plants (Calendula micrantha and Anagallis arvensis) decreased gradually with time until the 9th week and 10th week where the survival rate was zero in the high concentration of A. arvensis and C. micrantha, respectively, meanwhile, the survival rate of the control was 20%. Also, the two plants caused reduction in hatchability of snails egg masses. Thus, the percent of hatching in A. arvensis (82 ppm) was 46% and in C. micrantha was 72% compared with control (97.29%). Both plants reduced the infection rate of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails with Schistosoma mansoni miracidia to 41.17% and 61.9%, respectively, compared with control (90%). C. micrantha caused much higher reduction in snail infection rate than A. arvensis. The prepatent period was significantly prolonged in snails maintained at higher concentration of both plants. The cercarial output (expressed as mean number/snail) revealed that, A. arevensis caused a significant reduction in cercarial production than control. While, high concentration (120 ppm) of C. micrantha caused a significant elevation in the mean number of cercariae/snail. However, the total number of cercariae produced by all snails in each group showed a reverse relation with the tested concentrations in both plants. PMID:11198390

Mostafa, B B; Tantawy, A A

2000-12-01

16

Localization of tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactivity in the nervous systems of Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria alexandrina, intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Planorbid snails of the genus Biomphalaria are major intermediate hosts for the digenetic trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Evidence suggests that levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) are reduced during the course of S. mansoni multiplication and transformation within the snail. This investigation used immunohistochemical methods to localize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, in the nervous system of Biomphalaria. The two species examined, Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria alexandrina, are the major intermediate hosts for S. mansoni in sub-Saharan Africa, where more than 90% of global cases of human intestinal schistosomiasis occur. TH-like immunoreactive (THli) neurons were distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and labeled fibers were present in all commissures, connectives, and nerves. Some asymmetries were observed, including a large distinctive neuron (LPeD1) in the pedal ganglion described previously in several pulmonates. The majority of TH-like immunoreactive neurons were detected in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), especially in lip and foot regions of the anterior integument. Independent observations supporting the dopaminergic phenotype of THli neurons included 1) block of LPeD1 synaptic signaling by the D2/3 antagonist sulpiride, and 2) the similar localization of aqueous aldehyde (FaGlu)-induced fluorescence. The distribution of THli neurons indicates that, as in other gastropods, dopamine functions as a sensory neurotransmitter and in the regulation of feeding and reproductive behaviors in Biomphalaria. It is hypothesized that infection could stimulate transmitter release from dopaminergic sensory neurons and that dopaminergic signaling could contribute to modifications of both host and parasite behavior. PMID:24477836

Vallejo, Deborah; Habib, Mohamed R; Delgado, Nadia; Vaasjo, Lee O; Croll, Roger P; Miller, Mark W

2014-08-01

17

Effect of various foods on Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus and their susceptibility to schistosome miracidia.  

PubMed

The tested foods are tropical fish food (tetramine), rat food, blue green algae, dried lettuce leaves and a mixture of all these foods. The results indicated that feeding of B. alexandrina on a mixture of foods increased their growth and survival rates and their susceptibility to S. mansoni. Tetramine elevated the egg-laying capacity of snails compared to other tested foods. The hatchability of eggs of B. alexandrina fed on algae for a period of 16 weeks showed the highest rate followed by snails fed on a mixture of foods and then tetramine. B. truncatus maintained on a mixture of foods for 16 weeks, exhibited an increase in their growth, egg-laying, survival rates and recorded the highest infection rate with S. haematobium than other foods. Among the used foods, the hatchability of eggs of B. truncatus fed on tetramine for 16 weeks was the highest one. PMID:11775118

Ismail, N M; Haroun, N H

2001-12-01

18

Influence of Capparis spinosa and Acacia arabica on certain biochemical haemolymph parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina.  

PubMed

The work investigated the molluscicidal potency of dried Capparis spinosa and Acacia arabica leaves on selected biochemical parameters of Bionimphalaria alexandrina, in order to render them, physiologically, unsuitable for S. mansoni infection or at least disturb the life-cycle of the parasite within its respective snail host. The effect of the two plants on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 5'-nucleotidase, acid phosphatase (AP), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose content were studied. This work was extended to evaluate the effect of these two plants on protein profile as well as total protein (TP) content of snail's in haemolymph after 24 hours and one week of snails plants feeding. The study revealed that both plants induced marked alteration in all the measured parameters, where LC50 of C. spinosa after fed one week showed the most potent effect. PMID:15287187

Mantawy, Mona M; Hamed, Manal A; Sammour, Elham M; Sanad, Mahmoud

2004-08-01

19

The ecology of Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina and its implications for the control of bilharziasis in the Egypt-49 project area  

PubMed Central

The respective vectors of the two forms of bilharziasis in Egypt do not have the same ecological distribution. Bulinus truncatus is most abundant in large canals, and decreases in density as the water approaches and flows into drains. Biomphalaria alexandrina is most abundant in drains, and decreases in density upstream from these habitats. Both species are most abundant in the presence of aquatic vegetation, but they differ in their respective associations with the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. Biomph. alexandrina reaches maximum abundance in the presence of this plant, but Bul. truncatus is as uncommon in the absence of plants as in the presence of E. crassipes. Calculation of life-table parameters from field data shows that, under optimum field conditions, both species can double their populations in 14-16 days. The reproductive rates of both species are greatest in March and the death rates in midsummer. The observed peak densities in May and June give a false impression of optima because of undercollection of young snails, which are most abundant in March and April. Control operations should take advantage of the findings on population parameters. A single area-wide treatment with molluscicide in April is recommended. During the remainder of the year, search for isolated foci of snail breeding and individual treatment of these will effect large savings of chemical and will be effective in controlling the transmission of the parasites. PMID:5297630

Dazo, B. C.; Hairston, Nelson G.; Dawood, I. K.

1966-01-01

20

The suitability of several aquatic snails as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen species of aquatic snails of four families were tested by quantitative technique under standardized conditions for their suitability as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis. These species were the planorbid snails Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbis intermixtus, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus contortus, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus and Helisoma sp.; the lymnaeid snails Lymnaea natalensis, Lymnaea tomentosa, Lymnaea stagnalis, and

Fouad Yousif; Georg Lämmler

1975-01-01

21

A simple method for culturing neonatal Biomphalaria glabrata snails.  

PubMed

A simplified method for the culture of neonatal Biomphalaria glabrata snails on a diet of the cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. has been developed. Previous studies reported using Nostoc sp. grown on a mud-based medium to feed neonatal snails; this medium is difficult to prepare and gives inconsistent growth between laboratories due to variations in the soil used in its preparation. Here, we report the use of Bg-11 medium supplemented with sodium nitrate for the culture of Nostoc sp. as a food source for neonatal B. glabrata snails. Bacteria grown in the medium may be maintained in continuous culture and used exclusively as the nutrient source for neonatal snails. Neonatal snails fed with these bacteria exhibit a growth rate of 1-2 mm per week and may be transferred to standard culture conditions after 2-3 wk. Survival of neonatal snails after 2 wk on the Nostoc sp. diet was 60-80%, while survival after switching to standard culture conditions approached 100%. Analysis of the growth rate and survival of neonatal snails maintained on Nostoc sp., as well as the growth rate, survival, and sexual maturation of the resulting juvenile snails, showed that snails maintained using this method are phenotypically comparable to those maintained under other standard laboratory conditions. PMID:21506830

Vasta, James D; Lesage, Karen E; Fried, Bernard

2011-08-01

22

Miracidia of an Egyptian strain of Schistosoma mansoni differentiate between sympatric snail species.  

PubMed

The host-finding behavior of miracidia of 2 strains of Schistosoma mansoni from Egypt and Brazil was studied by recording their responses to snail-conditioned water (SCW) from the Egyptian sympatric snails, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Physa acuta, Lymnaea cailliudi, and Balinus truncatus, as well as from Biomphalaria arabica and Biomphalaria glabrata. Miracidia of the Egyptian strain significantly preferred SCW from their compatible hosts B. alexandrina and B. arabica and showed no or a weak response to SCW from the other sympatric species, whereas miracidia of the Brazilian strain did not differentiate between SCW from different snail species. PMID:14740921

Hassan, A H M; Haberl, B; Hertel, J; Haas, W

2003-12-01

23

Semi field trials to control Biomphalaria alexandrina by different modes of exposure to certain plant and chemical molluscicides.  

PubMed

Semi-field trials were carried out in Snail Research Station under simulated natural conditions to evaluate different modes of exposure to Anagallis arvensis and Calendula micrantha as plant molluscicides and bayluscide and copper sulphate as chemical molluscicides. Firstly, B. alexandrina were exposed to the tested molluscicides alone and in addition to two densities of aquatic plants. No apparent effect of aquatic plants on the activity of both plant and chemical molluscicides, this may be due that the two densities of the aquatic plants used were insufficient to interfere with the molluscicides action. Secondly, snails were pre-exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations of the plant molluscicides for 24h then to three concentrations of the chemical molluscicides and vice versa. The results indicate that the pre-exposure increases the snail mortality significantly in all treatments of bayluscide and A. arvensis (except in the highest concentration when the snails firstly exposed to bayluscide then to A. arvensis, where the two compared treatment showed 100%) and in all treatments of bayluscide and C. micrantha. Also, in one treatment of copper sulphate and A. arvensis (in the highest concentration when the snails firstly exposed to A. arvensis then to copper sulphate) and in three treatments of copper sulphate and C. micrantha, (in least and moderate concentrations when snails firstly exposed to C. micrantha then to copper sulphate and in the highest concentration when snails firstly exposed to copper sulphate then to C. micrantha). Thirdly, snails were exposed to mixtures of six different ratios of bayluscide and each of A. arvensis and C. micrantha. The results indicated that the snail mortality increased significantly only in the first treatment of bayluscide and A. arvensis mixtures and in treatment number 6 of bayluscide and C. micrantha. PMID:16333900

Mostafa, Bayaumy B; el-Khayat, Hanaa M M; Ragab, Fawzy M A; Tantawy, Ahmed A A

2005-12-01

24

Histochemistry and Ultrastructure of the Epidermis and the Subepidermal Gland Cells of the Freshwater Snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria pfeifferi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidermis and the associated subepidermal gland cells of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria pfeifferi were studied by means of histochemical and electron microscope techniques.

U. Zylstra

1972-01-01

25

The effect of ecological parameters on the distribution of snail vectors of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

The infestation of the water courses showed 32.5% for Biomphalaria alexandrina and 8.75% for Bulinus truncatus. Ecological parameters, showed non significant variations in the water courses harbouring snail vectors and those free from snails except for conductivity in the habitats harbouring B. truncatus. This variation was more highly significant (p<0.001). Of the examined sites, 11.25% were harbouring B. alexandrina and Lymnaea natalenesis living together and 5% of the sites were harbouring B. truncatus and Physa acuta snails. Snail vectors were distributed with different degrees with aquatic plants reflecting the degree of species preference plants for snails' life. PMID:12557938

Kader, A A

2001-04-01

26

Electrophoretic patterns of protein fractionations in hemolymph and tissues of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus during course of schistosome infection.  

PubMed

Electrophoresis of plasma protein of B. alexandrina (uninfected & infected with S. mansoni) showed that the major dominant bands had molecular weights of 20, 44, 96, 139 & 205 KD in both types of snails. The 1day & 1 week post miracidial exposure (PME) groups were characterized by band 54 KD. All groups except a day PME were characterized by a common band of MW 65 KD. Three days PME group had. three bands of 123 KD, 150 &177 KD, not found in other groups. The highest similarity index in 2 weeks PME & 5 weeks PME groups (during cercarial shedding) was 0.667 and the lowest one was in 3-days PME (0.5). The 3-days PME had a unique band of MW 177.04 KD, not found in other groups. Similar electrophoretic pattern of B. alexandrina tissue protein was seen. The major dominant bands had molecular weights of 14, 21, 80 and 140 KD in both non-infected and infected snails. The 1day PME had a band of 48.483 KD, 3-days PME had a band of 87.985 KD, one-week PME group characterized by two bands 61.761 KD and 70.338 KD. The two-weeks PME had a band 91.111 KD. While, the 5 week PME (during cercarial production) was the only group that shared the common band of MW 115 KD with controls. The highest similarity index in 5 weeks PME (during cercarial shedding) group was 0.545 and the lowest one was in 1 week & 2 weeks PME (0.43). The electrophoresis of plasma protein of B. truncatus (uninfected & infected with S. haematobium) showed that the major dominant bands had molecular weights of 20, 30, 65, 80, 106, 117 & 170 KD in both type of snails. The 1day PME group was characterized by three bands of MWs 26.539, 51.891 & 91.509 KD. All experimental groups, except 5 weeks PME (during cercarial shedding) and control, had a common band of MW 45 KD. Three days PME group had a characteristic band of 113.72 KD which was not found in any other group. The highest similarity index was in one week PME group was 0.857 and the lowest one in 1-day PME (0.5). In B. truncatus tissue protein, the major dominant bands by electrophoretic pattern had molecular weights of 20, 45, 54, 80, 97 & 171 KD in both type of snails. A day PME had a band of 73.544 KD and a week PME had a band of MW 60.813 KD. Two and 5 weeks PME groups had 2 bands of MWs 27 & 62 KD. All experimental groups had a characteristic band not found in control of MW 141 KD. The highest similarity index in 3-days PME was 0.8 and the lowest one was in 5 weeks PME during cercarial shedding(0.545). PMID:17153696

El-Dafrawy, Shadia M; El-Din, A T Sharaf; Hamid, H Abdel

2006-12-01

27

Development of 10 microsatellite loci in the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria kuhniana (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized 10 variable microsatellite loci in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria kuhniana, as well as conditions for multiplexing and co-loading sets of loci. Two to five alleles were detected per locus over the two studied populations in Venezuela. High inbreeding coefficients suggest high selfing rates. Cross-species amplification provided some variability at eight and three loci in the other species belonging

VIRGINIE DUPUY; ANTOINE NICOT; PHILIPPE JARNE; PATRICE DAVID

2009-01-01

28

Molluscicidal activity of some Saudi Arabian euphorbiales against the snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi.  

PubMed

The comparative susceptibility of the snail vector of intestinal schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria pfeifferi to the action of extracts from Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales has been determined. Methanol and chloroform extracts of the plants tested (Jatropha glauca, Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia schimperiana) were the most promising from the molluscicidal point of view with LD(50) values in the range 10-100 ppm. PMID:10771201

Al-Zanbagi, N A; Banaja, A A; Barrett, J

2000-05-01

29

Molluscicidal activity of some Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales against the snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative susceptibility of the snail vector of intestinal schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria pfeifferi to the action of extracts from Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales has been determined. Methanol and chloroform extracts of the plants tested (Jatropha glauca, Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia schimperiana) were the most promising from the molluscicidal point of view with LD50 values in the range 10–100 ppm.

Najia A Al-Zanbagi; Abdul-Elah A Banaja; John Barrett

2000-01-01

30

Measurement of Selected Enzymatic Activities in Solanum nigrum-Treated Biomphalaria arabica Snails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, glucose, acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP), ?-amylase and lipase were measured for the first time in tissue homogenates of Biomphalaria arabica snails, molluscan intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia. Also, the effect of sublethal concentrations (LC25) of dry powdered Solanum nigrum leaf was tested as plant molluscicide against this snail species. The tested enzymes were altered in molluscicide-treated snails compared to control. While ALP and amylase were slightly affected, ACP and lipase were significantly altered. Glucose as an important energy source for a successful schistosome-snail relationship was significantly reduced in molluscicide-treated snails. In conclusion, sublethal concentration of the molluscicide showed potent effect in disturbing snail biochemistry which may render them physiologically unsuitable for the developing of schistosome parasite. This could be considered as a promising strategy to control the disease.

Al-Daihan, Sooad

31

Spot light survey on fresh-water snails of medical importance in Al Fayoum Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

In a survey carried out during Summer and Autumn of 2004, for snails of medical importance, nine species were recovered. These were Biomphalaria alexandrina, B. glabrata, B. pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, B. forskalii, Lymnaea natalensis, Bellamya (=Vivipara) unicolor, Physa acuta and Hydrobia musaensis. Parasitological examination revealed that B. alexandrina, B. glabrata and L. natalensis harboured immature stages of their concerned trematode parasites. Moreover, P. acuta harboured the immature stage of the nematode parasite Parastrongylus cantonensis. PMID:15880994

Abo-Madyan, Ahmed A; Morsy, Tosson A; Motawea, Saad M; El Garhy, Manal F; Massoud, Ahmed M A

2005-04-01

32

Compatibility of Ugandan Schistosoma mansoni isolates with Biomphalaria snail species from Lake Albert and Lake Victoria.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the capacity of being intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the Ugandan F1 generation of Biomphalaria snail species that were laboratory-bred from parent populations originally collected from either Lake Victoria or Lake Albert was challenged with sympatric and non-sympatric S. mansoni isolates. After a prepatent period of 20 days, a daily 10-hourly snail shedding for cercariae was done to determine the infection rate, cercarial production per hour and survival period of infected snails. The study suggests that when parasite strains from a different geographical origin is used for infection, survival of infected snails increase, leading to an increased transmission potential. Although earlier literature had indicated that the Lake Victoria Biomphalaria sudanica is refractory to S. mansoni, we showed that all Ugandan Biomphalaria spp., including B. sudanica from all locations, were highly susceptible to the S. mansoni isolates. Thus if B. choanomphala, which is an efficient intermediate host in Lake Victoria, is given an opportunity to occupy Lake Albert, it will most likely be compatible with the Albertine S. mansoni parasites. Equally, if B. stanleyi, currently restricted to Lake Albert invades Lake Victoria, it is likely to act as an efficient intermediate host. Future work should concentrate on intraspecific population-level differences in compatibility. PMID:23454225

Adriko, Moses; Standley, Claire J; Tinkitina, Benjamin; Mwesigwa, Gerald; Kristensen, Thomas K; Stothard, J Russell; Kabatereine, Narcis B

2013-11-01

33

Reversing the Resistance Phenotype of the Biomphalaria glabrata Snail Host Schistosoma mansoni Infection by Temperature Modulation  

PubMed Central

Biomphalaria glabrata snails that display either resistant or susceptible phenotypes to the parasitic trematode, Schistosoma mansoni provide an invaluable resource towards elucidating the molecular basis of the snail-host/schistosome relationship. Previously, we showed that induction of stress genes either after heat-shock or parasite infection was a major feature distinguishing juvenile susceptible snails from their resistant counterparts. In order to examine this apparent association between heat stress and snail susceptibility, we investigated the effect of temperature modulation in the resistant snail stock, BS-90. Here, we show that, incubated for up to 4 hrs at 32°C prior to infection, these resistant snails became susceptible to infection, i.e. shedding cercariae at 5 weeks post exposure (PE) while unstressed resistant snails, as expected, remained resistant. This suggests that susceptibility to infection by this resistant snail phenotype is temperature-sensitive (ts). Additionally, resistant snails treated with the Hsp 90 specific inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA) after heat stress, were no longer susceptible to infection, retaining their resistant phenotype. Consistently, susceptible snail phenotypes treated with 100 mM GA before parasite exposure also remained uninfected. These results provide direct evidence for the induction of stress genes (heat shock proteins; Hsp 70, Hsp 90 and the reverse transcriptase [RT] domain of the nimbus non-LTR retrotransposon) in B. glabrata susceptibility to S. mansoni infection and characterize the resistant BS-90 snails as a temperature-sensitive phenotype. This study of reversing snail susceptibility phenotypes to S. mansoni provides an opportunity to directly track molecular pathway(s) that underlie the B. glabrata snail's ability to either sustain or destroy the S. mansoni parasite. PMID:22577362

Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Knight, Matty

2012-01-01

34

Monoamines and their metabolites in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolism of the major monoamines and their functions were studied in the freshwater snail Biomphalariaglabrata. In both juvenile and adult snails, the plasma (cell-free hemolymph) appears to act as a reservoir for most of these monoamines and their metabolites including among others, l-dopa and dopamine as major constituents. Significant quantities of l-tryptophan, precursor of indoleamines, also was found in the

Venkatachari Santhanagopalan; Timothy P Yoshino

2000-01-01

35

Helobdella nilae and Alboglossiphonia conjugata leeches as biological agents for snails control.  

PubMed

The efficacy of leeches, as biological agents, in control of snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis (Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria alexandrina) and fascioliasis (Lymnaea natalensis) as well as their effect on the non-target snails Physa acuta, Melanioides tuberculata and Cleopatra bulimoides was evaluated. Two glossiphoniid snail leeches, Helobdella nilae and Alboglossiphonia conjugata were used. They destroyed egg masses and young snails more rapidly than adult ones. H. nilae showed a stronger destructive effect than A. conjugata. In a descending order, it preferred L. natalensis followed by B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata and lastly C. bulimoides. But, A. conjugata preferred L. natalensis followed by B. truncatus, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata, B. alexandrina and lastly C. bulimoides. The detailed diagnostic morphology and biology of the two leeches were given. PMID:19530628

Abd-Allah, Karim F; Saleh, Mohamed H; El-Hamshary, Azza M S; Negm-Eldin, Mohsen M; El-Fakahany, Amany F; Abdel-Tawab, Ahmed H; Abdel-Maboud, Amina I; Aly, Nagwa S M

2009-04-01

36

Molecular identification of symbionts from the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata in Brazil.  

PubMed

The icthyosporean, Capsaspora owczarzaki, a known predator of Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts in vitro, is more prevalent in laboratory-reared strains of the intermediate snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata resistant to S. mansoni, than from the susceptible M line strain. We examined whether B. glabrata resistant to the NIH-PR-1 strain of S. mansoni from 2 regions in Brazil were also host to C. owczarzaki. Symbiont presence was examined using hemolymph culturing and nested polymerase chain reaction of snail genomic DNA with primers designed to specifically amplify sequences from relatives of the Icthyosporea. All B. glabrata of the resistant Salvador strain from the laboratory of Dr. Lobato Paraense in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n = 46) tested negative for symbionts. Three of 18 semiresistant 10-R2 B. glabrata from the laboratory of Dr. Barbosa in Recife, Brazil tested positive for C. owczarzaki. Another icthyosporean, Anurofeca sp., was identified from 1, 10-R2 snail and from 2 of 12 field-collected B. glabrata from Praia do Forte Orange, Ilha de Itamaracá. Snails from 2 other sites, Hotel Colibri, Pontezinha and Praia do Sossego, Ilha de Itamaracá, were negative for Anurofeca. Two genera of ciliates were also identified. Paruroleptus sp. was found in 4, 10-R2 snails and Trichodina sp. was identified in 2 field-collected snails from Praia do Forte Orange and Praia do Sossego. PMID:15357065

Hertel, Lynn A; Barbosa, Contança S; Santos, Ricardo A A L; Loker, Eric S

2004-08-01

37

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediated siRNA gene silencing in the Schistosoma mansoni snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

An in vivo, non-invasive technique for gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, has been developed using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediated delivery of long double-stranded (ds) and small interfering (si) RNA. Cellular delivery was evaluated and optimized by using a 'mock' fluorescent siRNA. Subsequently, we used the method to suppress expression of Cathepsin B (CathB) with either the corresponding siRNA or dsRNA of this transcript. In addition, the knockdown of peroxiredoxin (Prx) at both RNA and protein levels was achieved with the PEI-mediated soaking method. B. glabrata is an important snail host for the transmission of the parasitic digenean platyhelminth, Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis in the neotropics. Progress is being made to realize the genome sequence of the snail and to uncover gene expression profiles and cellular pathways that enable the snail to either prevent or sustain an infection. Using PEI complexes, a convenient soaking method has been developed, enabling functional gene knockdown studies with either dsRNA or siRNA. The protocol developed offers a first whole organism method for host-parasite gene function studies needed to identify key mechanisms required for parasite development in the snail host, which ultimately are needed as points for disrupting this parasite mediated disease. PMID:21765961

Knight, Matty; Miller, Andre; Liu, Yijia; Scaria, Puthupparampil; Woodle, Martin; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn

2011-07-01

38

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) Mediated siRNA Gene Silencing in the Schistosoma mansoni Snail Host, Biomphalaria glabrata  

PubMed Central

An in vivo, non-invasive technique for gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, has been developed using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediated delivery of long double-stranded (ds) and small interfering (si) RNA. Cellular delivery was evaluated and optimized by using a ‘mock’ fluorescent siRNA. Subsequently, we used the method to suppress expression of Cathepsin B (CathB) with either the corresponding siRNA or dsRNA of this transcript. In addition, the knockdown of peroxiredoxin (Prx) at both RNA and protein levels was achieved with the PEI-mediated soaking method. B. glabrata is an important snail host for the transmission of the parasitic digenean platyhelminth, Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis in the neotropics. Progress is being made to realize the genome sequence of the snail and to uncover gene expression profiles and cellular pathways that enable the snail to either prevent or sustain an infection. Using PEI complexes, a convenient soaking method has been developed, enabling functional gene knockdown studies with either dsRNA or siRNA. The protocol developed offers a first whole organism method for host-parasite gene function studies needed to identify key mechanisms required for parasite development in the snail host, which ultimately are needed as points for disrupting this parasite mediated disease. PMID:21765961

Knight, Matty; Miller, Andre; Liu, Yijia; Scaria, Puthupparampil; Woodle, Martin; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn

2011-01-01

39

Incidence of Parastrongylus cantonensis larvae in different fresh water snails in Dakahlia Governorate.  

PubMed

Samples of snails were collected from different water bodies in Dakahlia governorate to assess a survey on the naturally infected snails and their infection rate with the Parastrongylus cantonensis larvae. The nematode P. cantonensis is associated in the etiology of eosinophilic meningeoencephalitis of man. Lanistes carinatus showed the highest rate of infection with 19-400 larvae per snail. Biomphalaria alexandrina, B. glabrata, Bulinus truncatus, Lymnaea cailliaudi (natalensis), L. alexandrina, and Cleopatra cyclostomoides were found naturally infected with the larvae of P. cantonensis for the first time in Egypt. The number of larvae per infected snail varied depending on the snail type. The highest rate (39.2%) of infected snails was collected from the end canals at Tanneekh and the lowest in the river Nile (12.5%). PMID:12214935

el-Shazly, A M; el-Hamshary, Eman M; el-Shewy, Khalid M; Rifaat, Manal M A; el-Sharkawy, Iman M A

2002-08-01

40

Effects of 17?-methyltestosterone on the reproduction of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

17-?-methyltestosterone (MT) is a synthetic hormone used in fish hatcheries to induce male monosex. Snails hold promise as possible test models to assess chemicals acting on the endocrine system. Biomphalaria glabrata is an aquatic gastropod mollusk (Pulmonata, Planorbidae) that can be easily maintained in aquaria, predisposing the species for use in ecotoxicological testing. This study evaluated the reproductive effects of MT on B. glabrata by examining histological changes and its reproductive performance. Ten snails per group were exposed for 4 weeks to different concentrations of MT (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/L). The total number of laid eggs, egg mass per group, size of type V oocytes, and production of spermatozoids were determined. Reproduction of B. glabrata was affected by MT. At the lowest concentration (0.01 mg/L), MT caused a statistically significant increase in the number of egg mass per snail compared with controls unexposed to MT. Histopathology analyses showed an increase in the sperm production at the higher MT concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. Chromatographic analyses of water samples showed that MT concentrations rapidly declined within a 96-h period. These results highlight the importance of giving more support to regulatory authorities, since MT is not registered for use on fish hatcheries in many countries around the world. Wastewater from fish farms discharged into aquatic ecosystems should be monitored for MT residues, since its presence could compromise the reproduction of other native snail species. PMID:24615026

Rivero-Wendt, C L G; Borges, A C; Oliveira-Filho, E C; Miranda-Vilela, A L; Ferreira, M F N; Grisolia, C K

2014-01-01

41

Synthesis of new uracil-5sulphonamide p -phenyl derivatives and their effect on Biomphalaria alexandrina snail’s nucleoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In continuation of the previous work (Fathalla, 1992) on the synthesis of some heterocycles containing uracil moiety, we report\\u000a herein the incorporation of uracil moiety into cyanopyridine thione, thiosemecarbazone, semicarbazone, cyanopyridine, aminocyano\\u000a pyridine, isoxazoline, pyrazoline, pyrimidine, triazolo pyrimidine, pyran, selena and thiazole derivatives which might modify\\u000a their biological activities.\\u000a \\u000a The biological studies revealed that the chemical compoundIII f showed high

O. A. Fathalla; H. S. M. Gad; A. S. Maghaby

2000-01-01

42

Schistosoma mansoni infection of juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata induces a differential stress response between resistant and susceptible snails.  

PubMed

Schistosomes develop successfully in susceptible snails but are encapsulated and killed in resistant ones. Mechanism(s) shaping these outcomes involves the parasites ability to evade the snail's defenses. RNA analysis from resistant (BS-90), non-susceptible (LAC2) and susceptible (NMRI) juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata to Schistosoma mansoni revealed that stress-related genes, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70) and reverse transcriptase (RT), were dramatically co-induced early in susceptible snails, but not in resistant/non-susceptible ones. These transcripts were, however, down regulated upon exposure to irradiated parasites although penetration behavior of irradiated vs. normal parasites were the same, indicating that Hsp 70 and RT regulation was elicited by infection and not injury. Understanding molecular events involved in stress response transcriptional regulation of Hsp 70 in juvenile snails could pave a way towards the identification of genes involved in schistosome/snail interactions. PMID:19660454

Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Nene, Rahul; Miller, André; Raghavan, Nithya; Lewis, Fred; Hodgson, Jacob; Knight, Matty

2009-11-01

43

The Structure of the Statocyst of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria Glabrata (Pulmonata, Basommatophora)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of the statocyst of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata has been examined by light and electron microscopy. The two statocysts are located on the dorsal-lateral side of the left and right pedal ganglion. The statocysts are spherical, fluid-filled capsules with a diameter of approximately 60 microns for young and 110 microns for adult snails. The wall of the cyst is composed of large receptor cells and many smaller supporting cells. The receptor cells bear cilia which are evenly distributed on the apical surface. The cilia have the typical 9+2 internal tubule configuration. Striate rootlets originate from the base of the basal body and run downward into the cytoplasm. Side-roots arise from one side of the basal body and a basal foot from the other. For each receptor cell, the basal foot always points to the periphery of the surface, indicating that the receptor cell is non-polarized. The receptor cells contain cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, compact Golgi bodies and multivesicular bodies. Supporting cells bearing microvilli are interposed between the receptor cells. The junction complex between the supporting cells and the receptor cells is composed of adherens and septate junctions, while between supporting cells only the adherens junctions are present. The static nerve arises from the lateral side of the cyst and contains axons in which parallel neurotubules and mitochondria are found. The axons arise directly from the base of the receptor cells without synapse. In the cyst lumen there are unattached statoconia. The statoconia have a plate-like or concentric membranous ring structure. Based on the morphology, the function of the statocyst in Biomphalaria is discussed.

Gao, Wenyuan; Wiederhold, Michael L.

1997-01-01

44

Thin layer chromatographic analysis of glucose and maltose in estivated Biomphalaria glabrata snails and those infected with Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Thin layer chromatography was used to analyze the glucose and maltose concentrations of the digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) of uninfected-estivated Biomphalaria glabrata snails and estivated B. glabrata patently infected with Schistosoma mansoni. All snails were estivated in a most chamber at a relative humidity of 98+/-1% and a temperature of 23+/-1 degrees C for 14 days. Carbohydrates were extracted from the DGG with 70% aqueous ethanol, and extracts were analyzed on silica gel preadsorbent plates using ethyl acetate-glacial acetic acid-methanol-water (60:15:15:10) mobile phase, alpha-naphthol-sulfuric acid detection reagent, and quantification by densitometry. The concentrations of glucose and maltose were significantly reduced in both uninfected-estivated snails and infected-estivated snails. PMID:17010650

Jarusiewicz, Jamie A; Sherma, Joseph; Fried, Bernard

2006-01-01

45

The effects of myrrh (Commiphora molmol) on the infected snails of Schistosoma sp. and their egg masses: effect on shedding of cercariae and on snail fecundity.  

PubMed

Myrrh has molluscicidal effect on infected Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails at low concentrations (10 & 20 ppm respectively) after 24 hours exposure. The number of dead-snails increased with prolongation of exposure time. All Schistosoma free cercariae were killed by 2.5 ppm within 15 minutes. One day-old egg masses were more susceptible to the ovicidal effect of Myrrh than the five-day old ones. Both types of eggs were more resistant to the effect of Myrrh than the adult snails, embryogenesis began to stop at 20 ppm and eggs were all killed at 60 & 80 ppm. Shedding of cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni from infected B. alexandrina stopped at 1 ppm and was suppressed at 0.8 ppm. Snail fecundity decreased at 1 ppm. PMID:14964669

Massoud, Ahmed M A; Habib, Faiza S M

2003-08-01

46

A study on biological control of six fresh water snails of medical and veterinary importance.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the molluscicidal effect of Commiphora mnolmol oil extract (Myrrh), on control of six fresh water snails (Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Physa acuta, Melania tuberculata and Cleopatra bulimoides). Also, the extract effect on the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta was evaluated. Snails and egg masses were exposed at 16-20 degrees C to various concentrations (conc.). LD50 after 24 hours expo-sure were 264/132, 283/195, 230/252, 200/224, 241/246 & 241/246 ppm for young/adult of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata and C. bulimnoides respectively. LDtoo after 24 hours exposure were 400/400 for L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, M. tuberculata and C. bulimoides, and 300/300 for Ph. acuta. Also, complete mortality (100%) was achieved for the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta at concentrations of 300, 200, 300 & 400 ppm respectively. Lower concentrations gave the same results after longer exposure. LD100 of C. molmol oil extract (Myrrh) had a rapid lethal effect on the six snail species and their egg masses in high conc. of 300 & 400 ppm. Commiphora molmol is a promising plant to be included with the candidate plant molluscicides. The oil extract of this plant showed a remarkable molluscicidal activity against used snail species. PMID:19530615

Abd-Allah, Karim F; Negm-Eldin, Mohsen M; Saleh, Mohamed H; El-Hamshary, Azza M S; El-Gozamy, Bothina M R; Aly, Nagwa S M

2009-04-01

47

Biomphalaria glabrata transcriptome: cDNA microarray profiling identifies resistant and susceptible-specific gene expression in haemocytes from snail strains exposed to Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate snail host for Schistosoma mansoni, one of the important schistosomes infecting man. B. glabrata\\/S. mansoni provides a useful model system for investigating the intimate interactions between host and parasite. Examining differential gene expression between S. mansoni-exposed schistosome-resistant and susceptible snail lines will identify genes and pathways that may be involved in snail defences. RESULTS:

Anne E Lockyer; Jenny Spinks; Richard A Kane; Karl F Hoffmann; Jennifer M Fitzpatrick; David Rollinson; Leslie R Noble; Catherine S Jones

2008-01-01

48

Identification of immediate response genes dominantly expressed in juvenile resistant and susceptible Biomphalaria glabrata snails upon exposure to Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Resistance or susceptibility of the snail host Biomphalaria glabrata to Schistosoma mansoni is determined by the genetics of both the snail and parasite. Although Mendelian genetics governs adult resistance to infection, juvenile resistance and susceptibility are complex traits. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to construct forward and reverse cDNA libraries to identify genes involved in the immediate response of juvenile resistant (BS-90), non-susceptible (LAC2) snails, and susceptible (NMRI) snails after early exposure to S. mansoni. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) were generated from the repertoire of enriched transcripts. In resistant snails, several ESTs corresponded to transcripts involved in immune regulation/defense response. While no defense related transcripts were found among juvenile susceptible snail ESTs, we detected transcripts involved in negative regulation of biological process/morphogenesis /proliferation. Differential gene expression and temporal regulation of representative transcripts were compared among snails pre- and post-exposure to either normal or attenuated miracidia using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Results showed that several transcripts, such as fibrinolytic C terminal domain, cytidine deaminase, macrophage expressed gene 1, protein kinase C receptor, anti- microbial peptide; theromacin and Fas remained up- regulated regardless of whether or not snails were exposed to normal or attenuated miracidia. While ESTs related to C- type lectin and low- density lipoprotein receptor were induced only by exposure to normal miracidia. By comparing changes in gene expression between resistant and susceptible juvenile snails responding either to normal or attenuated parasites, we can conclude that the transcription of genes associated with the intra-dermal penetration process of the snail host by invading miracidia may need to be taken into account when assessing differential gene expression between resistant and susceptible strains of B. glabrata in relation to S. mansoni exposure. PMID:19815034

Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Miller, Andre?; Myers, Jocelyn; Nene, Vish; El-Sayed, Najib M; Knight, Matty

2009-01-01

49

A longitudinal study of schistosome intermediate host snail populations and their trematode infection in certain areas of Egypt.  

PubMed

Seasonal variation of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus populations and their infection rates with schistosome and other trematode cercariae were studied longitudinally in four water courses located in Giza and Faiyoum Governorates. Abundance of both species varied from year to year and according to the type of habitat. The mean prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria was 0.29%, that of S. haematobium in Bulinus was 1.36%. Seasonal variations of age structure of the 2 vector snails were monitored throughout the survey period. Infection rates with schistosome and other trematodes among Bulinus and Biomphalaria increased with the increase in snail size. Data suggest the occurrence of an antagonistic interaction between schistosome and non-human cercariae, especially echinostome, in infected snails. PMID:12739812

Ahmed, A H; Ruppel, A; Ramzy, R M R

2003-04-01

50

Schistosoma mansoni in susceptible and resistant snail strains Biomphalaria tenagophila: in vivo tissue response and in vitro hemocyte interactions.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that is highly prevalent, especially in developing countries. Biomphalaria tenagophila is an important invertebrate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, with some strains (e.g. Cabo Frio) being highly susceptible to the parasite, whereas others (e.g. Taim) are completely resistant to infection. Therefore, B. tenagophila is an important research model for studying immune defense mechanisms against S. mansoni. The internal defense system (IDS) of the snail comprises hemocytes and hemolymph factors acting together to recognize self from non-self molecular patterns to eliminate the threat of infection. We performed experiments to understand the cellular defenses related to the resistance and/or susceptibility of B. tenagophila to S. mansoni. During the early stages of infection, fibrous host cells of both snail strains were arranged as a thin layer surrounding the sporocysts. However, at later stages of infection, the cellular reactions in resistant snails were increasingly more intense, with thicker layers surrounding the parasites, in contrast to susceptible strains. All parasites were damaged or destroyed inside resistant snails after 10 h of infection. By contrast, parasites inside susceptible snails appeared to be morphologically healthy. We also performed experiments using isolated hemocytes from the two strains interacting with sporocysts. Hemocyte attachment started as early as 1 h after initial infection in both strains, but the killing of sporocysts was exclusive to hemocytes from the resistant strain and was time course dependent. The resistant strain was able to kill all sporocysts. In conclusion, our study revealed important aspects of the initial process of infection related to immune defense responses of strains of B. tenagophila that were resistant to S. mansoni compared with strains that were susceptible. Such information is relevant for the survival or death of the parasites and so is important in the development of control measures against this parasite. PMID:23049828

Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; de Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; Orfanó, Alessandra da Silva; Barbosa, Luciene; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech

2012-01-01

51

The suitability of several aquatic snails as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Sixteen species of aquatic snails of four families were tested by quantitative technique under standardized conditions for their suitability as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis. These species were the planorbid snails Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbis intermixtus, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus contortus, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus and Helisoma sp.; the lymnaeid snails Lymnaea natalensis, Lymnaea tomentosa, Lymnaea stagnalis, and Stagnicola elodes; the physid snail Physa acuta (an Egyptian and a German strain) and the ampullariid snails Marisa cornuarietis and Lanistes carinatus. All these snail species proved to be susceptible to infection with A. cantonensis, and first stage larvae reached the infective third stage in all of them. However, the rate and intensity of infection varied with different species. B. glabrata was the most susceptible snail species with a 100% infection rate and an average percentage recovery of third stage larvae of 26.1. This was followed by S. elodes and B. africanus, with a 100% infection rate and an average percentage recovery of third stage larvae of 15.6 and 14.6 respectively. The rest of snail species proved to be less susceptible. For comparative evaluation of the suitability of the various snail species as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis a "Capacity Index" was determined. This index should provide a useful method for the evaluation of the suitability of various snails as intermediate hosts of nematode parasites under standardized conditions in the laboratory. PMID:1189583

Yousif, F; Lämmler, G

1975-10-16

52

Contrasting the distribution of phenotypic and molecular variation in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Population differentiation was investigated by confronting phenotypic and molecular variation in the highly selfing freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. We sampled seven natural populations separated by a few kilometers, and characterized by different habitat regimes (permanent/temporary) and openness (open/closed). A genetic analysis based on five microsatellite markers confirms that B. pfeifferi is a selfer (s?0.9) and exhibits limited variation within populations. Most pairwise FST were significant indicating marked population structure, though no isolation by distance was detected. Families from the seven populations were monitored under laboratory conditions over two generations (G1 and G2), allowing to record several life-history traits, including growth, fecundity and survival, over 25 weeks. Marked differences were detected among populations for traits expressed early in the life cycle (up to sexual maturity). Age and size at first reproduction had high heritability values, but such a trend was not found for early reproductive traits. In most populations, G1 snails matured later and at a larger size than G2 individuals. Individuals from permanent habitats matured at a smaller size and were more fecund than those from temporary habitats. The mean phenotypic differentiation over all populations (QST) was lower than the mean genetic differentiation (FST), suggesting stabilizing selection. However, no difference was detected between QST and FST for both habitat regime and habitat openness. PMID:23321708

Tian-Bi, Y-NT; Jarne, P; Konan, J-NK; Utzinger, J; N'Goran, E K

2013-01-01

53

Biological studies on the snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis with a special emphasis on using larval echinostomes as biocontrol agent against larval schistosomes and snails.  

PubMed

The present investigation deals with the infectivity of the two snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus collected from nine drains in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. The rate of infection among the snails was general low being 0% in many drains. Regarding B. alexandrina, the rate of infection ranged from 4-16%, and in B. truncatus ranged from 4-8%. Infection with larval echinostomes was dominant over larval schistosomes in the two snail vectors. The distribution of larval schistosomes was restricted to the hepatopancreas of the two snail vectors, while larval echinostomes were distributed in head, foot, kidney, haemocoelic cavity, hepatopancreas...etc. The predation of larval schistosomes by larval echinostomes and the severe histopathological effects induced by larval ecbinostomes strongly enhances using them as biocontrol agent. The physico-chemical parameters and pollution condition in the drains seem to have no effect on the process of snails infectivity. It is concluded that larval echinostomes can resist the polluting conditions in the drain. The two snail vectors exhibit very minimal or rare host response against larval echinostomes. Probably, the toxicants and pollutants in the drain may act as stressor that makes the snails much more susceptible to infection by larval trematodes. PMID:12512810

Rashed, A A

2002-12-01

54

Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5-2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

Sokolow, Susanne H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

2014-04-01

55

Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426?mg/L and LC50 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94?mg/L, LC50 13.51?mg/L, and LC50 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Costa, Ana L. S.; Conceicao, Adilva S.; Moura, Flavia de B. Prado; Santana, Antonio Euzebio Goulart

2012-01-01

56

Acetylcholine-Binding Protein in the Hemolymph of the Planorbid Snail Biomphalaria glabrata Is a Pentagonal Dodecahedron (60 Subunits)  

PubMed Central

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) play important neurophysiological roles and are of considerable medical relevance. They have been studied extensively, greatly facilitated by the gastropod acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBP) which represent soluble structural and functional homologues of the ligand-binding domain of nAChR. All these proteins are ring-like pentamers. Here we report that AChBP exists in the hemolymph of the planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrata (vector of the schistosomiasis parasite) as a regular pentagonal dodecahedron, 22 nm in diameter (12 pentamers, 60 active sites). We sequenced and recombinantly expressed two ?25 kDa polypeptides (BgAChBP1 and BgAChBP2) with a specific active site, N-glycan site and disulfide bridge variation. We also provide the exon/intron structures. Recombinant BgAChBP1 formed pentamers and dodecahedra, recombinant BgAChBP2 formed pentamers and probably disulfide-bridged di-pentamers, but not dodecahedra. Three-dimensional electron cryo-microscopy (3D-EM) yielded a 3D reconstruction of the dodecahedron with a resolution of 6 Å. Homology models of the pentamers docked to the 6 Å structure revealed opportunities for chemical bonding at the inter-pentamer interfaces. Definition of the ligand-binding pocket and the gating C-loop in the 6 Å structure suggests that 3D-EM might lead to the identification of functional states in the BgAChBP dodecahedron. PMID:22916297

Kapetanopoulos, Katharina; Braukmann, Sandra; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Tenzer, Stefan; Markl, Jurgen

2012-01-01

57

[Life cycle of Clinostomum golvani n. sp. (Trematoda : Clinostomidae) a larval parasite of Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Guadeloupe (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The life cycle of a new species of Clinostomidae, Clinostomum golvani, described in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). The first intermediate host is the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni in this island, Biomphalaria glabrata, which can be sterilized by this parasite. Poecilia reticulata (guppy) serves as the second intermediate host. Adult worms were obtained under experimental conditions from Butorides virescens (the definitive host in nature), Nycticorax nycticorax and Ardea purpurea. The adult worm closely resembles Clinostomum complanatum but the larval stages (rediae and cercaria) show several differences. The chaetotaxic description of a cercaria of Clinostomidae is given for the first time. PMID:7224533

Nassi, H; Bayssade-Dufour, C

1980-01-01

58

Implications of water hardness in ecotoxicological assessments for water quality regulatory purposes: a case study with the aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).  

PubMed

Water hardness is a property depending on the presence of alkaline earth metals, mainly calcium and magnesium. Among the strategies for water quality monitoring, ecotoxicological assays are performed to minimize impacts and classify water bodies. For these laboratory evaluations parameters are previously defined in the guidelines, including water hardness for both cultivation and testing medium. The present work was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of water hardness on the survival and reproduction of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata and discuss the influence of natural water hardness on the results of ecotoxicological tests with these environmental samples. Comparing the groups it was possible to observe that those maintained in waters with least hardness had lower reproductive success, while the groups maintained in highest hardness showed better reproduction. These data show that waters with low hardness make the reproduction of the snail B. glabrata unfeasible, and this reveal a problem for ecotoxicity assays using natural water samples. PMID:25055099

Oliveira-Filho, E C; Caixeta, N R; Simplício, N C S; Sousa, S R; Aragão, T P; Muniz, D H F

2014-02-01

59

The Effect of Simulating Different Intermediate Host Snail Species on the Link between Water Temperature and Schistosomiasis Risk  

PubMed Central

Introduction A number of studies have attempted to predict the effects of climate change on schistosomiasis risk. The importance of considering different species of intermediate host snails separately has never previously been explored. Methods An agent-based model of water temperature and Biomphalaria pfeifferi population dynamics and Schistosoma mansoni transmission was parameterised to two additional species of snail: B. glabrata and B. alexandrina. Results Simulated B. alexandrina populations had lower minimum and maximum temperatures for survival than B. pfeifferi populations (12.5–29.5°C vs. 14.0–31.5°C). B. glabrata populations survived over a smaller range of temperatures than either B. pfeifferi or B. alexandrina (17.0°C–29.5°C). Infection risk peaked at 16.5°C, 25.0°C and 19.0°C respectively when B. pfeifferi, B. glabrata and B. alexandrina were simulated. For all species, infection risk increased sharply once a minimum temperature was reached. Conclusions The results from all three species suggest that infection risk may increase dramatically with small increases in temperature in areas at or near the currents limits of schistosome transmission. The effect of small increases in temperature in areas where schistosomiasis is currently found will depend both on current temperatures and on the species of snail acting as intermediate host(s) in the area. In most areas where B. pfeifferi is the host, infection risk is likely to decrease. In cooler areas where B. glabrata is the host, infection risk may increase slightly. In cooler areas where B. alexandrina is the host, infection risk may more than double with only 2°C increase in temperature. Our results show that it is crucial to consider the species of intermediate host when attempting to predict the effects of climate change on schistosomiasis. PMID:24988377

McCreesh, Nicky; Booth, Mark

2014-01-01

60

Infectivity of Echinostoma friedi miracidia to different snail species under experimental conditions.  

PubMed

The infectivity of Echinostoma friedi (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) miracidia was studied experimentally in a range of laboratory-reared snails that coexist in the same natural locality, namely Radix peregra, Lymnaea fuscus, L. truncatula (Lymnaeidae), Gyraulus chinensis, Helisoma duryi (Planorbidae) and Physella acuta (Physidae), and snails from different geographical origins acting naturally or experimentally as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma spp., namely Planorbarius metidjensis (from Málaga, Spain), Biomphalaria glabrata (Guadeloupe), B. alexandrina (Egypt) (Planorbidae), Bulinus cernicus (Mauritius), B. globosus (Zambia), B. natalensis (South Africa) and B. truncatus (Niger) (Bulinidae). Six species of snails were found to be susceptible, with the rate of infection ranging from 0 to 36.7%. The highest infection was detected in R. peregra. The low host specificity of E. friedi might have an epidemiological significance as a requisite for a recent establishment in a new geographical area. PMID:16923279

Muñoz-Antoli, C; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J G

2006-09-01

61

Correlation between snails and fish in fish ponds of World Fish Center (ICLARM) with special reference to snail vectors of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis.  

PubMed

The abundance of snail species in earthen fish ponds, irrigation and drainage canals at World Fish Center (ICLARM) in descending order was Bellamya unicolor (50.89%) > Physa acuta (18.94%) > Cleopatra bulimoides (7.6%) > Lanistes carinatus (6.73%) > Bulinus truncatus (5.19%) > Melanoides tuberculata (4.83%) > Lymnaea natalensis (3.14%) > Gabbiella senaariensis (0.9%) > Biomphalaria alexandrina (0.55%) > Lym naea truncatula (0.4%) > Planorbis planorbis and Succinea cleopatra (0.33%) > Ferrissia isseli (0.18%). Dead snails constituted about 5.19% of all the collected specimens. There were dramatic decrease in the total number of pulmonates in fish ponds which contained only Tilapia sp., and a very small number of cat fish, whereas the numbers of prosobranchia snails were much higher in these ponds. In fish ponds which accommodated a variety of fish species, the most dominant snail was B. unicolor followed by L. carinatus. However, pulmonate snails were absent in these ponds. B. truncatus was the only snail species found in concrete tank which contained only young tilapias with a very small size (5-8 cm in standard length). In irrigation canals, the number of snails and diversity was much higher than those in fish ponds. Out of 191 snails collected from inlet irrigation canal, 71 were dead, but in the outside irrigation canals, seven out of 564 snails were dead. P. acuta was absent in all examined fish ponds, but it was alive and in a high number (497 snails) in the outside irrigation canals. The number of snails collected from Bahnasawy drain was remarkably low (128 snails), however the diversity of snails was much higher compared to those in fish ponds and irrigation canals. Snail populations were stable with constant recruitment of young to adult snails for all the studied species. PMID:14964656

Ismail, Nahed M M; El Gamal, Abd El Rahman A

2003-08-01

62

Molluscicidal effect of three monoterpenes oils on schistosomiasis and fascioliasis vector snails in Egypt.  

PubMed

Thymol, Linalool and Eugenol showed considerable molluscicidal effect against Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus and Lymnneae natalensis. The thymol was the potent one at least LC50 and LC90) followed by euganol then linalool. L. natalensis were more sensitive to these compounds followed by B. truncatus and then B. alexandrina. The LC50 & LC90) of thymol were 22 and 34 ppm against B. alexaldrina, 20 and 30 ppm for B. truncatuts and 18 and 29 ppm for L. nalalensis. These values were higher with Eugenol, 28 and 48 ppm for B. alexuadrina, 24 and 44 ppm for B. truncatus and 22 and 40 ppm for L. natalensis. Linalool showed highest values of LCs5 and LC90 against B. alexandrina, 34 and 56 ppm, against B. truncatus 30 and 52 ppm and for L. natalensis 28 and 48 ppm, respectively. Maintaining of B. alexandrina at LC10 of Thymol for one week induced an inhibitory effect in the level of some enzymes (AchE, SDH). It led to increase in the activity of other enzymes (ACP, ALP & G-6-PD). Acetylcholine-sterase activity (AchE) of treated B. alexandrina was significantly reduced by 45.9% when compared to control. The results showed a significant decrease in succinate dehydrogenase activity (SDH) by 46.4% together with a concomitant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity level (G-6-PD) by 47.5% in comparison with control. The activities of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes were found to be higher in the treated snails than in control ones. The percentage increases were 47.2% & 73.2% respectively. The results also showed an elevation in the hemolymph glucose content of treated snails by 51.9% while the tissue glycogen content was reduced by 48.1%. The infection of B. alexandrina with S. mansoni miracidia was greatly reduced by thymol LC10 (sublethal dose). The infection rate reduction was 43.1%. The treated snails' prepatent period was prolonged (34.2 +/- 3.3 days) compared to control (28.4 +/- 1.2 days). A highly significant reduction of total cercarial production per snail occurred in experimental snails as compared to control. PMID:16927871

el-Din, Ahmed T Sharaf

2006-08-01

63

Incorporacao e eliminacao do Cesio - 134 pelo caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818). (Uptake and loss of Cesium - 134 by the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The uptake and loss of Cs-134 produced in IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN was observed in fresh water adult snails. Two activites were employed: 3.700 and 18.500 Bq/1. A monochannel analyses was used for radiactivity couting and the number of egg-laying and embryo...

O. K. Kikuchi, N. L. Mastro

1988-01-01

64

Biomphalaria glabrata transcriptome: cDNA microarray profiling identifies resistant- and susceptible-specific gene expression in haemocytes from snail strains exposed to Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Background Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate snail host for Schistosoma mansoni, one of the important schistosomes infecting man. B. glabrata/S. mansoni provides a useful model system for investigating the intimate interactions between host and parasite. Examining differential gene expression between S. mansoni-exposed schistosome-resistant and susceptible snail lines will identify genes and pathways that may be involved in snail defences. Results We have developed a 2053 element cDNA microarray for B. glabrata containing clones from ORESTES (Open Reading frame ESTs) libraries, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries and clones identified in previous expression studies. Snail haemocyte RNA, extracted from parasite-challenged resistant and susceptible snails, 2 to 24 h post-exposure to S. mansoni, was hybridized to the custom made cDNA microarray and 98 differentially expressed genes or gene clusters were identified, 94 resistant-associated and 4 susceptible-associated. Quantitative PCR analysis verified the cDNA microarray results for representative transcripts. Differentially expressed genes were annotated and clustered using gene ontology (GO) terminology and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. 61% of the identified differentially expressed genes have no known function including the 4 susceptible strain-specific transcripts. Resistant strain-specific expression of genes implicated in innate immunity of invertebrates was identified, including hydrolytic enzymes such as cathepsin L, a cysteine proteinase involved in lysis of phagocytosed particles; metabolic enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of polyamines, important in inflammation and infection processes, as well as scavenging damaging free radicals produced during production of reactive oxygen species; stress response genes such as HSP70; proteins involved in signalling, such as importin 7 and copine 1, cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) protein and transcription enzymes such as elongation factor 1? and EF-2. Conclusion Production of the first cDNA microarray for profiling gene expression in B. glabrata provides a foundation for expanding our understanding of pathways and genes involved in the snail internal defence system (IDS). We demonstrate resistant strain-specific expression of genes potentially associated with the snail IDS, ranging from signalling and inflammation responses through to lysis of proteinacous products (encapsulated sporocysts or phagocytosed parasite components) and processing/degradation of these targeted products by ubiquitination. PMID:19114004

Lockyer, Anne E; Spinks, Jenny; Kane, Richard A; Hoffmann, Karl F; Fitzpatrick, Jennifer M; Rollinson, David; Noble, Leslie R; Jones, Catherine S

2008-01-01

65

Notocotylus biomphalariae n. sp. (Digenea: Notocotylidae)from Biomphalaria peregrina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in Patagonia, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Notocotylus was found parasiting a freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria peregrina. Naturally infected snails were collected from two temporary ponds in the Nahuel Huapí National Park in Patagonia. The characteristics of the larval stages are presented. Experimental adults were recovered from the intestinal caeca of ducks and chicks. Adults of Notocotylus biomphalariae n. sp. exhibit an aspinose

Verónica Flores; Norma Brugni

2005-01-01

66

Impact of certain plants and synthetic molluscicides on some fresh water snails and fish.  

PubMed

The LC50 (78, 85 ppm) and LC90 (88, 135 ppm) of Anagalis arvensis and Calendula micrantha respectively against Biomphalaria alexandrina were higher than those of the non-target snails, Physa acuta, Planorbis planorbis, Helisoma duryi and Melanoides tuberculata. In contrast, the LC50 of Niclosamide (0.11 ppm) and Copper sulphate (CuSO4) (0.42 ppm) against B. alexandrina were lower than those of the non-target snails. The mortalities percentage among non-target snails ranged between 0.0 & 20% when sublethal concentrations of CuSO4 against B. alexandrina mixed with those of C. micrantha and between 0.0 & 40% when mixed with A. arvensis. Mortalities ranged between 0.0 & 50% when Niclosamide was mixed with each of A. arvensis and C. micrantha. A. arvensis induced 100% mortality on Oreochromis niloticus after 48 hrs exposure and after 24 hrs for Gambusia affinis. C. micrantha was non-toxic to the fish. The survival rate of O. niloticus and G. affinis after 48 hrs exposure to 0.11 ppm of Niclosamide were 83.3% & 100% respectively. These rates were 91.7% & 93.3% respectively when each of the two fish species was exposed to 0.42 ppm of CuSO4. Mixture of sub-lethal concentrations of A. arvensis against B. alexandrina and those of Niclosamide or CuSO4 at ratios 10:40 & 25:25 induced 66.6% mortalities on O. niloticus and 83.3% at 40:10. These mixtures caused 100% mortalities on G. affinis at all ratios. A. arvensis CuSO4 mixtures at 10:40 induced 83.3% & 40% mortalities on O. niloticus and G. affinis respectively and 100% mortalities on both fish species at ratios 25:25 & 40:10. A mixture of sub-lethal concentrations of C. micrantha against B. alexandrina and of Niclosamide or CuSO4 caused mortalities of O. niloticus between 0.0 & 33.3% and between 5% & 35% of G. affinis. The residue of Cu in O. niloticus were 4.69, 19.06 & 25.37 mg/1kgm fish after 24, 48 & 72 hrs exposure to LC0 of CuSO4 against B. alexandrina respectively. PMID:16333905

Mosta-Fa, B B; el-Deeb, Fatma A; Ismail, Nahid M; el-Said, K M

2005-12-01

67

Molecular and functional characterization of a tandem-repeat galectin from the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a tandem-repeat type galectin was characterized from an embryonic cell line (Bge) and circulating hemocytes of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. The predicted B. glabrata galectin (BgGal) protein of 32 kDa possessed 2 carbohydrate recognition domains, each displaying 6 of 8 conserved amino acids involved in galactoside-binding activity. A recombinant BgGal (rBgGal) demonstrated hemagglutinating activity against rabbit erythrocytes, which was specifically inhibited by galactose-containing sugars (lacNAc/lac > galNAc/gal). Although native galectin was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of Bge cells and the plasma membrane of a subset of snail hemocytes (60%), it was not detected in cell-free plasma by Western blot analysis. The findings that rBgGal selectively recognizes the schistosome-related sugar, lacNAc, and strongly binds to hemocytes and the tegument of S. mansoni sporocysts in a sugar-inhibitable fashion suggest that hemocyte-bound galectin may be serving as pattern recognition receptor for this, or other pathogens possessing appropriate sugar ligands. Based on molecular and functional features, BgGal represents an authentic galectin, the first to be fully characterized in the medically-important molluscan Class Gastropoda. PMID:18280060

Yoshino, Timothy P.; Dinguirard, Nathalie; Kunert, John; Hokke, Cornelius H.

2008-01-01

68

Immunolocalization of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium antigens reacting with their Egyptian snail vectors.  

PubMed

The reaction of the haemolymph and the tissue of infected intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus to Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium antigens were investigated using the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A new technique, Agarose cell block was used in collection of haemolymph which helped in collecting plenty of well formed cells in comparison to the ordinary one using the cytospin. Collected haemolymph and prepared tissues of uninfected and infected B. alexandria and B. truncatus were fixed and then reacted with anti-S. mansoni and anti-S. haematobium IgG polyclonal antibodies. The haemolymph and tissue of infected B. alexandrina and B. truncatus gave a positive peroxidase reaction represented by a brown colour. In haemolymph, the positive peroxidase reaction was detected mainly in the cytoplasm of the amoebocytes. In the tissue, it was detected in epithelial cells lining the tubules, male cells in the lumen of the tubules and in female oogonia cells along the periphery of the tubules. The similarity in the strength and distribution of positive reaction in B. alexandrina and B. truncates was observed as compared to control. Thus, the immunoperoxidase technique proved to be an effective indicator for the schistosome-antigen in the snails. PMID:18383803

El-Dafrawy, Shadia M; Mohamed, Amira H; Hammam, Olfat A; Rabia, Ibrahim

2007-12-01

69

Discriminant analysis of free fatty acids of some Egyptian snails as a step for schistosomiasis control: new trends.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is still the most common occupational health problem of rural workers in Egypt. The use of molluscicides, either chemical or biological, and environmental changing are the most successful methods of snail control. The new trend in Schistosoma control programs is to study the ecological factors that attract miracidium Schistosoma specific snails, to emphasizing to find out new environmental safe control methods. Since Schistosoma worms do not make fatty acids de novo, they require host lipids for survival and to complete their life cycle. Discriminate analysis of the estimated free fatty acids was done in this study in Biomphalaria alexandrina, Biomphalaria glabrata, and Bulinus truncatus, viz. Lymnaea truncatula and Physa acuta (Schistosoma intermediate and non-intermediate respectively). With the objective of determination of the biochemical difference that attract the infestation of Schistosoma miracidium to the target snails, as a step of the new control trends. Caprylic acid (C8:0), and Oleic acid (C18:1) are significantly lower in the tissues of Schistosoma intermediate snails compared to the non-intermediate snails. While, Capric acid (C10:0), Margaric acid (C17:0), and Lenoleic acid (C18:2) of the intermediate snails are significantly higher than that of non-intermediate snails. The percent of correct medical classification of snails are more than 80% according to Caprylic acid, Margaric acid, and Lenoleic acid, the other 15 fatty acids are less than 80%. These three free fatty acids could be chemoattractive of Schistosoma miracidium, and could be used as safe environmental control compounds, which needs further research. PMID:17219851

Saad, A; Sayed, N

2000-01-01

70

Calcium localization in the shell-forming tissue of the freshwater snail, Biomphalaria glabrata: a comparative study of various methods for localizing calcium.  

PubMed

The routes calcium might take across the mantle to the shell have been investigated with various electron-microscopical techniques in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae, Basommatophora). In chemically-fixed tissue, calcium was precipitated with a tannic acid-antimonate technique in predominantly the intercellular spaces of the outer mantle epithelium and the interstitium below it. Some vacuoles of the outer mantle epithelium and one type of mucus cell in the inner mantle epithelium also contained precipitate. The presence of calcium in the precipitates was proved by electron energy loss spectroscopy combined with electron spectroscopic imaging. Incubation with lead acetate and uranyl acetate revealed binding-sites for calcium in the intercellular spaces of the epithelia interstitium and the mucus cells of the inner mantle epithelium. Precipitates were also seen after all incubations in the calcium spherites of the connective tissue. The concentrations of calcium and other elements were analysed in freeze-dried ultrathin sections of cryofixed mantle tissue by means of energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Only in mitochondria of the musculature could high amounts of calcium and phosphorous be detected. PMID:1283386

Bielefeld, U; Zierold, K; Körtje, K H; Becker, W

1992-12-01

71

Habitat characteristics for different freshwater snail species as determined biologically through macroinvertebrate information.  

PubMed

Macro-invertebrates including freshwater snails collected from 643 sites over 8 successive seasons among the River Nile, branches, main canals and certain drains in eight Egyptian Governorates. Thirteen snail species and one bivalve species were identified. The most distributed were Lanistus carinatus and Physa acuta while the most abundant were Cleopatra bulimoides and Physa acuta during the whole study. The sites that harbored each snail species in all the examined water-courses were grouped seasonally and their biological assessment was determined by their minimum and maximum total point similarity percentage to that of the corresponded reference site and mean of the total points. Habitats for most snail species attained minimum total point's similarity percentage less than 21% (very poor habitat) during autumn and winter then spring while during summer very poor habitat was harbored by only few snail species. P. acuta was the only survived snails in habitat which attained 0 as a minimum total point's similarity percentage during two seasons and L. carinatus and Succinea cleopatra during one season. With respect to medically important snails very poor sites constituted 23% of Biomphalaria alexandrina sites, 14% of Lymnaea natalensis and 9.4% of Bulinus truncatus sites. The studied macroinvertebrate matrices, total number of organisms, taxa richness, the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) index, ratio of EPT index to chironomidae, ratio of scraper to filtering collector, contribution of dominant macroinvertebrate major group, comparison revealed descending tolerances from B. alexanrina followed by L. natalensis then B. truncates, but Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) showed the same tolerance to organic pollution. PMID:22435158

El-Khayat, Hanaa M M; Mahmoud, Kadria M A; Mostafa, Bayomy B; Tantawy, Ahmad A; El-Deeb, Fatma A; Ragb, Fawzy M; Ismail, Nahed M; El-Said, Kalil M; Taleb, Hoda M Abu

2011-12-01

72

Bioactivity of miltefosine against aquatic stages of Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium and their snail hosts, supported by scanning electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

Background Miltefosine, which is the first oral drug licensed for the treatment of leishmaniasis, was recently reported to be a promising lead compound for the synthesis of novel antischistosomal derivatives with potent activity in vivo against different developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni. In this paper an in vitro study was carried out to investigate whether it has a biocidal activity against the aquatic stages of Schistosoma mansoni and its snail intermediate host, Biomphalaria alexandrina , thus being also a molluscicide. Additionally, to see whether miltefosine can have a broad spectrum antischistosomal activity, a similar in vitro study was carried out on the adult stage of Schistosoma haematobium, the second major human species, its larval stages and snail intermediate host, Bulinus truncutes. This was checked by scanning electron microscopy. Results Miltefosine proved to have in vitro ovicidal, schistolarvicidal and lethal activity on adult worms of both Schistosoma species and has considerable molluscicidal activity on their snail hosts. Scanning electron microscopy revealed several morphological changes on the different stages of the parasite and on the soft body of the snail, which further strengthens the current evidence of miltefosine's activity. This is the first report of mollusicidal activity of miltefosine and its in vitro schistosomicidal activity against S.haematobium. Conclusions This study highlights miltefosine not only as a potential promising lead compound for the synthesis of novel broad spectrum schistosomicidal derivatives, but also for molluscicidals. PMID:21569375

2011-01-01

73

Update of fasciolosis-transmitting snails in Egypt (review and comment).  

PubMed

Several snail species may contribute in transmission of fasciolosis in Egypt. These molluscs show a variable sensibility to natural infections with Fasciola species. Radix natalensis is considered to be the essential intermediate host for F. gigantica based on field and experimental studies. Cercarial production from R. natalensis experimentally infected with F. gigantica is affected by the species of definitive host from which the eggs are obtained, as well as the different laboratory conditions. Another lymnaeid, Galba truncatula, may play a role in transmitting this parasite in Egypt, as it was found naturally infected with F. gigantica. Latter snail species, originated from France, was susceptible to experimental infections with Egyptian miracidia of F. gigantica and it had a cercarial production close to that of local R. natalensis. Two other snails, Pseudosuccinea columella and Biomphalaria alexandrina, were naturally found harboring larvae of Fasciola sp. At the level of intermediate hosts of F. gigantica, the conditions are thus favorable in Egypt to transmit fasciolosis which could also be caused by another fasciolid, F. hepatica, as the existance of this fluke was confirmed in Egypt. PMID:16083061

Dar, Y D; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

2005-08-01

74

INTRODUCTION Embryos of the freshwater common pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis  

E-print Network

4092 INTRODUCTION Embryos of the freshwater common pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis complete direct retention (Baldwin, 1935). Metamorphosis and shell formation have been observed for Lymnaea palustris (Morrill, 1982), L. stagnalis (Ebanks et al., 2010) and another freshwater pulmonate snail Biomphalaria

Grosell, Martin

75

The molluscicidal activity of niclosamide (Bayluscide WP70(R)) on Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae), a snail associated with habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity of niclosamide (Bayluscide (R)) on Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata under laboratory conditions. The latter species is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon 1917). M. tuberculata was successfully used as competitor of B. glabrata in biological control programs in French West Indies. Both molluscicide and biological control using M. tuberculata have proved to be successful in reducing the population density of B. glabrata. The associated use of molluscicide in this area would be an effective measure if M. tuberculata were less susceptibility to the molluscicide than B. glabrata. Three hundreds individuals each of B. glabrata and of M. tuberculata, collected in Sumidouro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were used in the experiment. The molluscs were exposed to 14 different concentrations of niclosamide as recommended by the World Health Organization. Probit analysis was used to determine the LC 50 and LC 90. The LC 50 and LC 90 values for B. glabrata were 0.077 mg/l and 0.175 mg/l, respectively and the LC 50 and LC 90 values for M. tuberculata were 0.082 mg/l and 0.221 mg/l respectively. As the lethal concentrations of niclosamide were approximately the same to both species, this could be a disadvantage when controlling B. glabrata with niclosamide in an area of M. tuberculata occurrence. It might therefore be preferable to utilize the latex extracted from the Euphorbia splendens, which presented a much higher efficiency for B. glabrata than to M. tuberculata. PMID:12219145

Giovanelli, Alexandre; Silva, Cesar Luiz Pinto Ayres Coelho da; Medeiros, Luisa; Vasconcellos, Maurício Carvalho de

2002-07-01

76

Spatial variation in infection by digenetic trematodes in a population of freshwater snails ( Potamopyrgus antipodarum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larval digenetic trematodes commonly castrate their first intermediate hosts, and should therefore impose strong selection on the timing and mode of host reproduction. Here we examine spatial variation in infection by trematodes in the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Snails were collected at 11 different sites at Lake Alexandrina on the South Island of New Zealand from transects that ran perpendicular

Jukka Jokela; Curtis M. Lively

1995-01-01

77

5-methyl-cytosine and 5-hydroxy-methyl-cytosine in the genome of Biomphalaria glabrata, a snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Background Biomphalaria glabrata is the mollusc intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, a digenean flatworm parasite that causes human intestinal schistosomiasis. An estimated 200 million people in 74 countries suffer from schistosomiasis, in terms of morbidity this is the most severe tropical disease after malaria. Epigenetic information informs on the status of gene activity that is heritable, for which changes are reversible and that is not based on the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms generate variability that provides a source for potentially heritable phenotypic variation and therefore could be involved in the adaptation to environmental constraint. Phenotypic variations are particularly important in host-parasite interactions in which both selective pressure and rate of evolution are high. In this context, epigenetic changes are expected to be major drivers of phenotypic plasticity and co-adaptation between host and parasite. Consequently, with characterization of the genomes of invertebrates that are parasite vectors or intermediate hosts, it is also essential to understand how the epigenetic machinery functions to better decipher the interplay between host and parasite. Methods The CpGo/e ratios were used as a proxy to investigate the occurrence of CpG methylation in B. glabrata coding regions. The presence of DNA methylation in B. glabrata was also confirmed by several experimental approaches: restriction enzymatic digestion with isoschizomers, bisulfite conversion based techniques and LC-MS/MS analysis. Results In this work, we report that DNA methylation, which is one of the carriers of epigenetic information, occurs in B. glabrata; approximately 2% of cytosine nucleotides are methylated. We describe the methylation machinery of B. glabrata. Methylation occurs predominantly at CpG sites, present at high ratios in coding regions of genes associated with housekeeping functions. We also demonstrate by bisulfite treatment that methylation occurs in multiple copies of Nimbus, a transposable element. Conclusions This study details DNA methylation for the first time, one of the carriers of epigenetic information in B. glabrata. The general characteristics of DNA methylation that we observed in the B. glabrata genome conform to what epigenetic studies have reported from other invertebrate species. PMID:23742053

2013-01-01

78

Biomphalaria havanensis Identified as a Potential Intermediate Host for the Digenetic Trematode Bolbophorus damnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The digenetic trematode Bolbophorus damnificus has been associated with mortalities in commercial channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the Mississippi Delta. In the life cycle of B. damnificus, the only confirmed first intermediate host is the ram's horn snail Planorbella trivolvis. Recently, the exotic snail Biomphalaria havanensis has been isolated in several channel catfish ponds in the Mississippi Delta. The aim

Marlena C. Yost; Linda M. Pote; David J. Wise; Brian S. Dorr; Terry D. Richardson

2009-01-01

79

O-Glycosylation of snails.  

PubMed

The glycosylation abilities of snails deserve attention, because snail species serve as intermediate hosts in the developmental cycles of some human and cattle parasites. In analogy to many other host-pathogen relations, the glycosylation of snail proteins may likewise contribute to these host-parasite interactions. Here we present an overview on the O-glycan structures of 8 different snails (land and water snails, with or without shell): Arion lusitanicus, Achatina fulica, Biomphalaria glabrata, Cepaea hortensis, Clea helena, Helix pomatia, Limax maximus and Planorbarius corneus. The O-glycans were released from the purified snail proteins by ?-elimination. Further analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and - for the main structures - by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Snail O-glycans are built from the four monosaccharide constituents: N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, mannose and fucose. An additional modification is a methylation of the hexoses. The common trisaccharide core structure was determined in Arion lusitanicus to be N-acetylgalactosamine linked to the protein elongated by two 4-O-methylated galactose residues. Further elongations by methylated and unmethylated galactose and mannose residues and/or fucose are present. The typical snail O-glycan structures are different to those so far described. Similar to snail N-glycan structures they display methylated hexose residues. PMID:22581130

Stepan, Herwig; Pabst, Martin; Altmann, Friedrich; Geyer, Hildegard; Geyer, Rudolf; Staudacher, Erika

2012-05-01

80

Freshwater snails in Asser region, Saudi Arabia with special refernce to the zoonotic trematode.  

PubMed

The present study gave information about the recent distribution of freshwater snails in Asser region, and the current status of trematode infection specially schistosomiasis within the snails. Fifteen localities were visited from Septeinber 2007 to December 2008 and the collected snails were examined for the presence of trematode infection. Seven species of snails were collected: Biomphalaria arabica, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus beccari, Physa acuta, Lymnaea palustris, Lymnaea arabica and Melanoides tuberculata. The parasitological examination revealed none trematode immature stages. PMID:19795761

Bin Dajem, Saad M

2009-08-01

81

Lethal and sub-lethal effects of UVB on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Pulmonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Schistosoma mansoni occurs mainly in the tropics, where intense levels of solar radiation are present, the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on schistosome transmission is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of UVB (290–320nm) on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of S. mansoni. Albino and wild-type snails were exposed to doses

Debbie S. Ruelas; Deneb Karentz; John T. Sullivan

2006-01-01

82

Snail Snooping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students in grades 5-8 learn about snail reproduction by observing and charting the activities of land snails, freshwater snails, and slugs. Instructions to implement and extend the activity are provided. (MDH)

Miller, Dorothy

1993-01-01

83

Infection of neonatal Biomphalaria glabrata with the miracidia of Echinostoma caproni.  

PubMed

We used a Biomphalaria glabrata snail model for our studies and investigated the suitability of B. glabrata neonates, reared on a Nostoc sp. diet, for infection with Echinostoma caproni miracidia. We found that neonatal snails could become infected with E. caproni miracidia with 31 ± 11% standard error (SE) of our exposed snails containing rediae infections at 4 wk post-exposure (PE). However, the survival of exposed neonates was significantly (P < 0.05, Student's t-test) less than that of the unexposed controls at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk PE. PMID:23083470

Balaban, Amanda E; Fried, Bernard

2013-06-01

84

Land and water snails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Land snails live on the land and water snails make water their habitat. Land snails have shells to protect them and so do water snails. Land snails have two sets of antennae, while water snails only have one set.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

85

Habitat preference of freshwater snails in relation to environmental factors and the presence of the competitor snail Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774).  

PubMed

Our objective is to evaluate the habitat preference of freshwater snails in relation to environmental factors and the presence of the competitor snail Melanoides tuberculatus. In the first phase, snails was collected at 12 sites. This sampling sites presented a degree of organic input. In the second phase 33 sampling sites were chosen, covering a variety of lotic and lentic environments. The snail species found at Guapimirim, state of Rio de Janeiro, displayed a marked habitat preference, specially in relation to the physical characteristics of each environment. Other limiting factors for snail distribution at the studied lotic environments were the water current velocity and the amount of organic matter, mainly to Physa marmorata, M. tuberculatus, and Biomphalaria tenagophila. The absence of interactions between M. tuberculatus and another snails could be associated to the distinct spatial distribution of those species and the instability of habitats. This later factor may favor the coexistence of M. tuberculatus with B. glabrata by reduction of population density. In areas of schistosomiasis transmission some habitat modification may add to the instability of the environment, which would make room for the coexistence of M. tuberculatus and Biomphalaria spp. In this way, some of the usual measures for the control of snail hosts would prevent the extinction of populations of Biomphalaria spp. by M. tuberculatus in particular habitats. PMID:16021304

Giovanelli, Alexandre; da Silva, Cesar Luiz Pinto Ayres Coelho; Leal, Geórgia Borges Eccard; Baptista, Darcílio Fernandes

2005-04-01

86

EFFECTS OF PLAGIORCHIS ELEGANS (DIGENEA: PLAGIORCHIIDAE) INFECTION OF BIOMPHALARIA GLABRATA (PULMONATA: PLANORBIDAE) ON A CHALLENGE INFECTION WITH SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (DIGENEA: SCHISTOSOMATIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior exposure of Biomphalaria glabrata to the eggs of an incompatible digenean, Plagiorchis elegans, rendered this snail host less suitable to a compatible species, Schistosoma mansoni. Although P. elegans failed to develop patent infections in B. glabrata, it reduced the production of S. mansoni cercariae by 88%. Concomitantly, host attributes such as reproduction, growth, and survival were compromised. The effect

M. Zakikhani; J. M. Smith; M. E. Rau

2003-01-01

87

Elucidating the temporal and spatial dynamics of Biomphalaria glabrata genetic diversity in three Brazilian villages  

PubMed Central

Objective The freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the principal intermediate host for the parasite Schistosoma mansoni within Brazil. We assessed the potential effects of snail population dynamics on parasite transmission dynamics via population genetics. Methods We sampled snail populations located within the confines of three schistosome-endemic villages in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Snails were collected from individual microhabitats following seasonal periods of flood and drought over the span of one year. Snail spatio-temporal genetic diversity and population differentiation of 598 snails from 12 sites were assessed at 7 microsatellite loci. Results Average genetic diversity was relatively low, ranging from 4.29 to 9.43 alleles per locus and, overall, subpopulations tended to exhibit heterozygote deficits. Genetic diversity was highly spatially partitioned among subpopulations, while virtually no partitioning was observed across temporal sampling. Comparison with previously published parasite genetic diversity data indicated that S. mansoni populations are significantly more variable and less subdivided than those of the B. glabrata intermediate hosts. Discussion Within individual Brazilian villages, observed distributions of snail genetic diversity indicate temporal stability and very restricted gene flow. This is contrary to observations of schistosome genetic diversity over the same spatial scale, corroborating the expectation that parasite gene flow at the level of individual villages is likely driven by vertebrate host movement. PMID:23911082

Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Correa-Oliveira, Guilherme; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Minchella, Dennis J.

2013-01-01

88

Schistosomes and snails: a molecular encounter.  

PubMed

Biomphalaria glabrata snails play an integral role in the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent for human schistosomiasis in the Western hemisphere. For the past two decades, tremendous advances have been made in research aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of the snail/parasite interaction. The growing concern that there is no vaccine to prevent schistosomiasis and only one effective drug in existence provides the impetus to develop new control strategies based on eliminating schistosomes at the snail-stage of the life cycle. To elucidate why a given snail is not always compatible to each and every schistosome it encounters, B. glabrata that are either resistant or susceptible to a given strain of S. mansoni have been employed to track molecular mechanisms governing the snail/schistosome relationship. With such snails, genetic markers for resistance and susceptibility were identified. Additionally, differential gene expression studies have led to the identification of genes that underlie these phenotypes. Lately, the role of schistosomes in mediating non-random relocation of gene loci has been identified for the first time, making B. glabrata a model organism where chromatin regulation by changes in nuclear architecture, known as spatial epigenetics, orchestrated by a major human parasite can now be investigated. This review will highlight the progress that has been made in using molecular approaches to describe snail/schistosome compatibility issues. Uncovering the signaling networks triggered by schistosomes that provide the impulse to turn genes on and off in the snail host, thereby controlling the outcome of infection, could also yield new insights into anti-parasite mechanism(s) that operate in the human host as well. PMID:25101114

Knight, Matty; Arican-Goktas, Halime D; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Odoemelam, Edwin C; Miller, André N; Bridger, Joanna M

2014-01-01

89

Schistosomes and snails: a molecular encounter  

PubMed Central

Biomphalaria glabrata snails play an integral role in the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent for human schistosomiasis in the Western hemisphere. For the past two decades, tremendous advances have been made in research aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of the snail/parasite interaction. The growing concern that there is no vaccine to prevent schistosomiasis and only one effective drug in existence provides the impetus to develop new control strategies based on eliminating schistosomes at the snail-stage of the life cycle. To elucidate why a given snail is not always compatible to each and every schistosome it encounters, B. glabrata that are either resistant or susceptible to a given strain of S. mansoni have been employed to track molecular mechanisms governing the snail/schistosome relationship. With such snails, genetic markers for resistance and susceptibility were identified. Additionally, differential gene expression studies have led to the identification of genes that underlie these phenotypes. Lately, the role of schistosomes in mediating non-random relocation of gene loci has been identified for the first time, making B. glabrata a model organism where chromatin regulation by changes in nuclear architecture, known as spatial epigenetics, orchestrated by a major human parasite can now be investigated. This review will highlight the progress that has been made in using molecular approaches to describe snail/schistosome compatibility issues. Uncovering the signaling networks triggered by schistosomes that provide the impulse to turn genes on and off in the snail host, thereby controlling the outcome of infection, could also yield new insights into anti-parasite mechanism(s) that operate in the human host as well. PMID:25101114

Knight, Matty; Arican-Goktas, Halime D.; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Odoemelam, Edwin C.; Miller, Andre N.; Bridger, Joanna M.

2014-01-01

90

Snails home  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many gardeners and horticulturalists seek non-chemical methods to control populations of snails. It has frequently been reported that snails that are marked and removed from a garden are later found in the garden again. This phenomenon is often cited as evidence for a homing instinct. We report a systematic study of the snail population in a small suburban garden, in which large numbers of snails were marked and removed over a period of about 6 months. While many returned, inferring a homing instinct from this evidence requires statistical modelling. Monte Carlo techniques demonstrate that movements of snails are better explained by drift under the influence of a homing instinct than by random diffusion. Maximum likelihood techniques infer the existence of two groups of snails in the garden: members of a larger population that show little affinity to the garden itself, and core members of a local garden population that regularly return to their home if removed. The data are strongly suggestive of a homing instinct, but also reveal that snail-throwing can work as a pest management strategy.

Dunstan, D. J.; Hodgson, D. J.

2014-06-01

91

Involvement of the Cytokine MIF in the Snail Host Immune Response to the Parasite Schistosoma mansoni  

E-print Network

. Wynn, NIAID/NIH, United States of America Received March 8, 2010; Accepted August 20, 2010; Published a Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) family member in the Lophotrochozoan invertebrate, Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. In mammals, MIF

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

Biomphalaria glabrata: respiration, calcium and end products of carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

1. Lactic acid and succinic acid (end products of anaerobiosis) also occur under aerobic conditions in the haemolymph and excretion products of Biomphalaria glabrata. This phenomenon has been investigated in more detail. 2. Experiments on oxygen uptake, and analyses of organic acid, amino acid and calcium were carried out under various aerating conditions, various temperatures and in various water qualities. 3. No differences were found in the concentrations of the organic acids and calcium in the haemolymph under different aerating conditions. 4. Neither snail-conditioned water, nor artificial crowding effects played a role in the initiation of anaerobic respiration. 5. A low exposure temperature (4 degrees C) initiated anaerobic respiration in spite of the aeration. PMID:2887362

Wolmarans, C T

1987-01-01

93

Epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni infection and its relationship to snail distribution in a village at the Nile bank south to Cairo.  

PubMed

The relationship between epidemiology of S. mansoni infection and snail distribution at a village, related to Guiza Governorate and lies south to Cairo, was investigated. A systematic random sample of houses was selected. All inhabitants of the houses were invited to share in the study. The Number examined was 704. Urine and stools were examined using Nucleopore filtration and standard Kato-Katz techniques, respectively. Snail collection was done from 35 sites along the water bodies related to the village. Snails collected were examined by cercariae shedding under light. Snail differentiation was done. The results showed that the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni human infection was 25.1 % and GMEC was 2.4 +/- 5.5. Schistosoma haematobium infection was zero percent. Biomphlaria alexandrina snail infection rate was 3.7% with density equal 0.5 +/- 1.3. Bulinus truncatus snail infection rate was zero percent. The pattern of S. mansoni human infection was closely related to snail distribution and infection. Presence of a hybrid species of B. alexandrina and B. glabrata may explain the epidemiological pattern found in the studied village. PMID:16916052

Sayed, Hanan A; El-Ayyat, Afaf; Kader, Ahmed Abdel; Sabry, Hoda Y; Amer, Neimat M

2004-01-01

94

Influence of Echinostoma paraensei (Lie and Basch, 1967) infection on the calcium content in Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).  

PubMed

The calcium content in the hemolymph and shell of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) was determined after exposure to different parasite burdens (5 and 50 miracidia) of Echinostoma paraensei (Lie and Basch, 1967). The snails were dissected 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after infection to collect the hemolymph and shell. An increase in calcemia was observed in snails infected with both miracidial doses. A significant decrease in the calcium ions in the shell was observed, coinciding with the calcemia peak in the hemolymph. This indicates greater mobilization of calcium between the shell and hemolymph to regulate the calcium content in the body when the snail is exposed to stress conditions, as has also been observed in some other infected snail species. The results obtained indicate that in this model, the calcium metabolism depends on the miracidial dose used. PMID:21820434

Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Lustrino, Danilo; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Mello-Silva, Clélia Christina Corrêa; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de Azevedo; Pinheiro, Jairo

2011-11-01

95

Early Differential Gene Expression in Haemocytes from Resistant and Susceptible Biomphalaria glabrata Strains in Response to Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

The outcome of infection in the host snail Biomphalaria glabrata with the digenean parasite Schistosoma mansoni is determined by the initial molecular interplay occurring between them. The mechanisms by which schistosomes evade snail immune recognition to ensure survival are not fully understood, but one possibility is that the snail internal defence system is manipulated by the schistosome enabling the parasite to establish infection. This study provides novel insights into the nature of schistosome resistance and susceptibility in B. glabrata at the transcriptomic level by simultaneously comparing gene expression in haemocytes from parasite-exposed and control groups of both schistosome-resistant and schistosome-susceptible strains, 2 h post exposure to S. mansoni miracidia, using an novel 5K cDNA microarray. Differences in gene expression, including those for immune/stress response, signal transduction and matrix/adhesion genes were identified between the two snail strains and tests for asymmetric distributions of gene function also identified immune-related gene expression in resistant snails, but not in susceptible. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that genes involved in mitochondrial electron transport, ubiquinone biosynthesis and electron carrier activity were consistently up-regulated in resistant snails but down-regulated in susceptible. This supports the hypothesis that schistosome-resistant snails recognize schistosomes and mount an appropriate defence response, while in schistosome-susceptible snails the parasite suppresses this defence response, early in infection. PMID:23300533

Lockyer, Anne E.; Emery, Aidan M.; Kane, Richard A.; Walker, Anthony J.; Mayer, Claus D.; Mitta, Guillaume; Coustau, Christine; Adema, Coen M.; Hanelt, Ben; Rollinson, David; Noble, Leslie R.; Jones, Catherine S.

2012-01-01

96

OVICIDAL EFFECT OF PIPERACEAE SPECIES ON Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni HOST  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease with public health importance in tropical and subtropical regions. An alternative to the disease control is the use of molluscicides to eliminate or reduce the intermediate host snail population causing a reduction of transmission in endemic regions. In this study nine extracts from eight Piperaceae species were evaluated against Biomphalaria glabrata embryos at blastula stage. The extracts were evaluated in concentrations ranging from 100 to 10 mg/L. Piper crassinervium and Piper tuberculatum extracts were the most active (100% of mortality at 20 mg/L and 30 mg/L respectively). PMID:24213196

Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Lopes, Priscila Orechio de Moraes; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko; Nakano, Eliana

2013-01-01

97

Effects of Plagiorchis elegans (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) infection on the reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata (Pulmonata: Planorbidae).  

PubMed

Infection with the digenean parasite Plagiorchis elegans dramatically reduced the reproductive output of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to the parasite as juveniles or adults. The total number of eggs produced by infected snails was reduced to approximately 7 and 13% of control values, respectively. Parasitic castration was attributed to the presence of mother sporocysts that readily established in the tissues of this incompatible host. Infection did not result in the production of cercariae but significantly shortened the life span of juvenile and adult B. glabrata by approximately 23 and 10%, respectively. Plagiorchis elegans also castrated its compatible host, Stagnicola elodes. PMID:9794632

Zakikhani, M; Rau, M E

1998-10-01

98

Changes in the calcium metabolism of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Levels of calcium in the haemolymph and reserves in the shell of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined for the first time. At the same time, histochemical analyses of the digestive gland of infected and uninfected snails were performed to better understand the possible changes in metabolism of calcium in these organisms. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks of infection, the snails were dissected for collection of haemolymph and separation of tissues. The highest calcium concentrations in the haemolymph were found 2 weeks after infection, with a 39.61% increase in relation to the respective control group. However, there was a significant reduction in the concentration of this ion in the haemolymph of infected snails after 1 week of infection in relation to the uninfected specimens. In parallel, intense hypocalcification was shown in the shell of infected snails 1 and 2 weeks after infection, differing significantly in relation to the respective control groups. Morphological changes in the digestive gland of infected snails were also observed, confirming the role of this ion as an important element in the parasite encapsulation process. PMID:23290340

Tunholi-Alves, V M; Tunholi, V M; Garcia, J Silva; Costa-Neto, S F; Maldonado, A; Santos, M A J; Thiengo, S C; Pinheiro, J

2014-06-01

99

Freshwater snails and Schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: IV - Sul Fluminense Mesoregion.  

PubMed

In this paper, the forth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Sul Fluminense Mesoregion from 2000 to 2002 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 18 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria peregrina; Biomphalaria straminea; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex; Drepanotrema lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; Physa marmorata; Pomacea sordida and Pomacea sp. As to the snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni the most frequent species was B. tenagophila, found in all municipalities surveyed, except Parati. Besides new records the present study extends the distribution of B. peregrina and B. straminea in the state. No specimens were found harbouring larval forms of S. mansoni although different kinds of cercariae had been observed. An account about the current schistosomiasis transmission sites in this Mesoregion is presented as well. PMID:15273799

Thiengo, Silvana C; Mattos, Aline C; Boaventura, M Fernanda; Fernandez, Monica A

2004-05-01

100

Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883), Gundlachia radiata (Guilding, 1828), Helisoma (=Planorbella) trivolvis (Say, 1817), Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774), Neritina punctulata Lamarck, 1816, and Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as G. radiata and H. trivolvis are established on Dominica, West Indies. We tested a limited number

Will K. Reeves; Robert T. Dillon; Gregory A. Dasch

2008-01-01

101

Effect of Commiphora molmol on adults, egg masses and egg-deposition of Biomphalaria arabica under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) has molluscicidal effect on Biomphalaria arabica snails at low concentration (40 ppm) after 48 hours exposure. The number of dead-snails increased with increasing the time of exposure. One day-old egg masses were more susceptible (death 100% with 80ppm) to the ovicidal effect of C. molmol than the five-day old ones (Death 95% with 80ppm). However, the eggs were more resistant to the C. molmol effect than the adult snails, embryogenesis began to stop at 20 ppm and eggs were all killed at 60 & 80 ppm. B. arabica fecundity decreased at 1 ppm. Based on safety to man and animals, C. molmol is recommended as a safe molluscidide. PMID:16605120

Al-Mathal, Ebtesam Mohammad; Fouad, Mahmoud Ali Hassan

2006-04-01

102

DIFFERENCES IN CYSTEINE PROTEASE ACTIVITY IN SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI-RESISTANT AND -SUSCEPTIBLE BIOMPHALARIA GLABRATA AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HEPATOPANCREAS CATHEPSIN B FULL-LENGTH cDNA  

PubMed Central

Biomphalaria glabrata snails are known to display a wide range of susceptibility phenotypes to Schistosoma mansoni infection depending on the genetics of both the snail and the invading parasite. Evidence exists for a role of hydrolytic enzymes in the defense of molluscs against invading parasites. To elucidate the role of these enzymes in the outcome of infection in the snail, proteolysis was examined in parasite-resistant and -susceptible snails. Zymographs of extracts from the whole snail or hepatopancreas indicated higher proteolytic activity in resistant, compared with susceptible, snails. Lytic activity coincided with a high-molecular-weight smear (220 to 66 kDa) that was abrogated by the cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane. Quantitative flourimetric assays showed 3.5-fold higher activity in resistant than in susceptible snails. From a hepatopancreas cDNA library, several cysteine protease encoding expressed sequence tags including the full-length cDNA for cathepsin B were identified. Sequence analysis revealed that this cathepsin B belonged to the C1A family of peptidases characterized by the presence of the catalytic cysteine–histidine dyad, the “occluding loop,” signal sequence, and cleavage sites for the prepro and propeptides. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed higher up-regulation of cathepsin B transcript in resistant than in the susceptible snail after parasite exposure. PMID:18605796

Myers, Jocelyn; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Raghavan, Nithya; Miller, Andre; Knight, Matty

2008-01-01

103

Differences in the Gene Expression Profiles of Haemocytes from Schistosome-Susceptible and -Resistant Biomphalaria glabrata Exposed to Schistosoma mansoni Excretory-Secretory Products  

PubMed Central

During its life cycle, the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni uses the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host to reproduce asexually generating cercariae for infection of the human definitive host. Following invasion of the snail, the parasite develops from a miracidium to a mother sporocyst and releases excretory-secretory products (ESPs) that likely influence the outcome of host infection. To better understand molecular interactions between these ESPs and the host snail defence system, we determined gene expression profiles of haemocytes from S. mansoni-resistant or -susceptible strains of B. glabrata exposed in vitro to S. mansoni ESPs (20 ?g/ml) for 1 h, using a 5K B. glabrata cDNA microarray. Ninety-eight genes were found differentially expressed between haemocytes from the two snail strains, 57 resistant specific and 41 susceptible specific, 60 of which had no known homologue in GenBank. Known differentially expressed resistant-snail genes included the nuclear factor kappa B subunit Relish, elongation factor 1?, 40S ribosomal protein S9, and matrilin; known susceptible-snail specific genes included cathepsins D and L, and theromacin. Comparative analysis with other gene expression studies revealed 38 of the 98 identified genes to be uniquely differentially expressed in haemocytes in the presence of ESPs, thus identifying for the first time schistosome ESPs as important molecules that influence global snail host-defence cell gene expression profiles. Such immunomodulation may benefit the schistosome, enabling its survival and successful development in the snail host. PMID:24663063

Davies, Angela J.; Kirk, Ruth S.; Emery, Aidan M.; Rollinson, David; Jones, Catherine S.; Noble, Leslie R.; Walker, Anthony J.

2014-01-01

104

Biology of Kalipharynx sp. (Trematoda: Digenea) metacercariae in Biomphalaria (Gasteropoda: Planorbidae) from northeastern Argentina.  

PubMed

In Argentina, no ecological studies have been reported on the infection parameters of Kalipharynx sp. metacercariae in planorbid snails. To this end, the aims of this study were: (i) to provide information on the population biology of Kalipharynx sp. metacercariae in the planorbid snails Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. occidentalis through the study of prevalence and intensity of larval infection during a seasonal cycle; (ii) to evaluate the effects of host shell size on prevalence and infection intensity, (iii) to evaluate the effect of infection intensity on cyst size. Samples were taken between June 2010 and April 2011 (encompassing all seasons) from a subtropical permanent pond in Corrientes City, Corrientes, Argentina. A total of 362 metacercariae (n=262 and n=100; from B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis respectively) were collected from 616 snails (n=466 and n=150 from B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis respectively). The metacercarial cysts were found in the digestive gland, mantle cavity, intestine and ovotestis. B. tenagophila showed a range of infection from 1 to 60 cysts per snail (mean = 4.5 +/- SD=9.9), and cyst diameter ranging between 255 and 705 microm (466.4 +/- 119); while, B. occidentalis showed a range of infection from 1 to 23 (5.5 +/- 5.6), and cyst diameter ranging between 310 to 900 microm (554.5 +/- 150). Results obtained indicated that, although absent in autumn, metacercariae of Kalipharynx sp. were present most of the year in both species of Biomphalaria, showing high values in both warm-season. Furthermore, both the infection intensity and host shell size varied significantly between seasons, although no seasonal variation was observed with respect to metacercarial cyst size, suggesting the possibility of more than one peak of cercariae emergence during the year. The prevalence of infection was significantly and positively correlated with snail size in both host species (p<0.05). The smallest host size class harbouring a metacercarial infection was 7.1-8.0 mm and 11.1-12.0 mm in B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis, respectively. The mean intensity of infection was positively correlated with snail size, but this relation was significant only in B. tenagophila (p < 0.05). However, non-significant negative correlations were observed for intensity of infection vs. cyst size in both host species (p > 0.05). The results of this study show a significant influence of host size on prevalence and infection intensity, and a tendency towards density-dependent reductions in the growth of cysts. This is the first study in Argentina analyzing the population biology of Kalipharynx sp. metacercariae. PMID:24432525

Fernádez, María Virginia; Hamann, Monika Inés; Kehr, Arturo Ignacio

2013-12-01

105

Toxic activities of the plant Jatropha curcas against intermediate snail hosts and larvae of schistosomes.  

PubMed

The aim of studies on plant molluscicides is to complement methods for controlling snails acting as intermediate hosts of schistosomes. We report on the toxic activity of extracts from Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) against snails transmitting Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. We studied different extracts' effects on infectious larvae, cercariae and miracidia of S. mansoni. Compared to aqueous extract, methanol extract showed the highest toxicity against all tested organisms with LC100-values of 25 p.p.m. for cercariae and the snail Biomphalaria glabrata and 1 p.p.m. for the snails Bulinus truncatus and B. natalensis. Attenuation of cercariae leading to reduced infectivity in mice could be achieved in concentrations below those exerting acute toxicity. In view of our results and the ongoing exploitation of J. curcas for other purposes, this plant could become an affordable and effective component of an integrated approach to schistosomiasis control. PMID:10929142

Rug, M; Ruppel, A

2000-06-01

106

Freshwater snail diversity in Benin (West Africa) with a focus on human schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale freshwater snail survey in Benin to assess the malacological diversity and the larval trematode infections with a focus on Schistosoma genus. We conducted 82 freshwater snail surveys in 35 sites ranked in 4 types and belonging to 9 out of 12 departments. Among 19,200 collected snails, 11 species of freshwater snails were identified. Four species of human schistosome transmitting snails, Bulinus forskalii, B. globosus, B. truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi and seven species of non-human schistosome transmitting snails. Although B. forskalii and B. globosus were the most largely distributed snails, none of the Bulinus snails were found naturally infected by schistosomes. B. pfeifferi was found naturally infected by S. mansoni only in one site with a 0.56% prevalence. The most risky areas were Borgou and the four coastal departments. Preliminary contempory information on human schistosomiasis was provided from three different sites. Schistosoma haematobium was found with 57.1%, 96% and 100% prevalences (two of which were new records for this species in Benin) while S. mansoni was restricted to one site (Toho-Todougba) with 74.3% prevalence. Our data showed that both schistosomiasis haematobium and mansoni prevalences increased during the last nineteen years in Toho-Todougba site. PMID:19426659

Ibikounlé, M; Mouahid, G; Sakiti, N G; Massougbodji, A; Moné, H

2009-07-01

107

Bibliotheca Alexandrina--Reviving a Legacy of the Past for a Brighter Common Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the ancient library at Alexandria and describes plans for the development of the new Bibliotheca Alexandrina. The administrative organization is discussed; the building design is explained; international cooperation between Egypt, UNESCO, UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), and the library community is described; and future…

Tocatlian, Jacques

1991-01-01

108

Development of species-specific primers for identification of Biomphalaria arabica, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Schistosoma mansoni is mediated through the intermediate host Biomphalaria arabica which lives in Saudi Arabia. Molecular characterization and identification of this intermediate host are important for epidemiological studies of schistosomiasis. The present work aimed to determine the molecular variations among the populations of B. arabica found in Southern part of Saudi Arabia, and to develop species-specific primers for identification of these snails as a first step in the development of multiplex PCR for simultaneously identifying the snails and diagnosing its infections in a single step. Five populations of Saudi B. arabica snails were collected from freshwater bodies. Three populations were collected from Asser and two populations were collected from AL-Baha. Genomic DNA was extracted from snails and was amplified using five different RAPD–PCR primers. The banding patterns of amplified materials by primers P1 and P5 were identical in all populations. However, the rest primers displayed intra-specific differences among populations with variable degrees. Largest sizes of RAPD–PCR products were cloned into TA cloning vector as a preparatory step for DNA sequence analysis. After sequencing, similarity searches of obtained DNA sequences revealed that there are no similar sequences submitted to genebank data bases and its associated banks. The results obtained will be helpful in the development of simultaneous identification of B. arabica snails and diagnosis of S. mansoni infection within it in a single step by an implementation of multiplex PCR. PMID:24596501

Al-Quraishy, Saleh A.; Bin Dajem, Saad M.; Mostafa, Osama M.; Ibrahim, Essam H.; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed

2013-01-01

109

Ultrastructural characterization of cells in primary cultures from different adult tissues of Biomphalaria tenagophila TAIM, a strain that is absolutely resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection.  

PubMed

The etiological agent of schistosomiasis in Brazil, Schistosoma mansoni, requires an obligatory passage through Biomphalaria snails to complete its life cycle. In these intermediate hosts, interaction with the parasite is mediated by humoral factors and hemocytes by mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Extant studies exploring these processes are usually conducted through experimental infection of Biomphalaria with S. mansoni miracidia. Thus, tissue-derived cultures of Biomphalaria may be useful in increasing the understanding of that interaction at cellular level. However, in the absence of morphological characterization of those cells in culture, the application of such models is delayed. In the present work, we cultured different tissues of B. tenagophila, the second most important host of S. mansoni in Brazil, using a strain that is naturally and absolutely resistant to S. mansoni infection. This decision was driven by the view that this strain might be provided with the most effective response against parasite infection. Primary cultures were successfully established from nine Biomphalaria tissues and the respective cells in culture were ultra structurally described. Attention was particularly devoted to cells derived from mantle cavity and kidney tissues. Although they have been considered important centers for hemocyte production in Biomphalaria, no detailed cell characterization is available in the pertinent literature. Herein, kidney-derived cells partially shared hematoblast characteristics. Moreover, under optical microscopy, kidney cells in culture were very similar to those derived from amebocyte-producing organ (APO) cultures, which have been recently shown to be capable of eliminating S. mansoni sporocysts in vitro. Based on the close resemblance of those cultures and their anatomical proximity inside the mantle cavity, we suggest the effective participation of Biomphalaria kidney cells in hematopoiesis and in host response to S. mansoni infection. PMID:25016171

Silva-Neto, Aristeu; Silva, Luciana Maria; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Brayner, Fábio André; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech

2014-12-01

110

Analysis of Circulating Haemocytes from Biomphalaria glabrata following Angiostrongylus vasorum Infection Using Flow Cytometry  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus vasorum is an emerging parasite of dogs and related to carnivores that have an indirect life cycle, with a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic gastropods as the obligatory intermediate host. Unfortunately, the relationship between A. vasorum and their snail hosts remains poorly understood. Circulating haemocytes are the main line of cellular defence involved in the destruction of helminths in snails. Aiming to further characterize the haemocyte subsets in Biomphalaria snails, we have performed a flow cytometric analysis of whole haemolymph cellular components using a multiparametric dual colour labelling procedure. Our findings demonstrated that B. glabrata infected with A. vasorum have two major circulating haemocyte subsets, referred to as small and large haemocytes. Differences in the cell proportion occurred over time. The development of better invertebrate infection control strategies would certainly result in the better control of human diseases caused by other species of the genus Angiostrongylus. Such knowledge will assist in the establishment of novel control strategies aimed at parasites that use molluscs as intermediate hosts and clarify new aspects of the parasite-host relationship regarding cell recognition and activation mechanisms, which are also found in the innate response of vertebrates. PMID:22545202

Barcante, Thales A.; Barcante, Joziana M. P.; Fujiwara, Ricardo T.; Lima, Walter S.

2012-01-01

111

The Effect of Increasing Water Temperatures on Schistosoma mansoni Transmission and Biomphalaria pfeifferi Population Dynamics: An Agent-Based Modelling Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is increasing interest in the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. Little is known, however, about the likely effects of increasing water-body temperatures on transmission. Methods We have developed an agent-based model of the temperature-sensitive stages of the Schistosoma and intermediate host snail life-cycles, parameterised using data from S. mansoni and Biomphalaria pfeifferi laboratory and field-based observations. Infection risk is calculated as the number of cercariae in the model, adjusted for their probability of causing infection. Results The number of snails in the model is approximately constant between 15–31°C. Outside this range, snail numbers drop sharply, and the snail population cannot survive outside the range 14–32°C. Mean snail generation time decreases with increasing temperature from 176 days at 14°C to 46 days at 26°C. Human infection risk is highest between 16–18°C and 1 pm and 6–10 pm in calm water, and 20–25°C and 12–4 pm in flowing water. Infection risk increases sharply when temperatures increase above the minimum necessary for sustained transmission. Conclusions The model suggests that, in areas where S. mansoni is already endemic, warming of the water at transmission sites will have differential effects on both snails and parasites depending on abiotic properties of the water-body. Snail generation times will decrease in most areas, meaning that snail populations will recover faster from natural population reductions and from snail-control efforts. We suggest a link between the ecological properties of transmission sites and infection risk which could significantly affect the outcomes of interventions designed to alter water contact behaviour – proposing that such interventions are more likely to reduce infection levels at river locations than lakes, where infection risk remains high for longer. In cooler areas where snails are currently found, increasing temperatures may significantly increase infection risk, potentially leading to new, high-intensity foci of infection. PMID:24987963

McCreesh, Nicky; Booth, Mark

2014-01-01

112

A longitudinal study of schistosome vector snail populations in Liberia.  

PubMed

Seasonal changes in populations of Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Bulinus globosus were observed at 62 locations in Liberia, West Africa. All varieties of water in both urban and rural locations were sampled. A wet season decrease and dry season increase of B. globosus populations in both urban and rural locations, similar to that reported elsewhere in West Africa, was observed. Similar fluctuations of B. pfeifferi populations were noted. The prevalence of schistosome infected vector snails varied markedly between rural and urban locations. At rural sites parasite prevalence followed the appropriate vector snail prevalence. At urban sites a portion of the vector snail population appeared relatively unaffected by seasonal changes. This stable population harbors a reservoir of infected snails that sustain year round transmission. Human infection was sampled in school children in the study area and prevalence of approximately 50% was found for both Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. Added to the malacologic information this suggests less than hyperendemic transmission. The data suggest that urban environments should receive priorities for control programs. PMID:572150

Sodeman, W A

1979-05-01

113

Apparent competition through facilitation between Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata and the control of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Interactions between two species that result in reduced growth rates for both and extinction of one of the species are generally considered cases of asymmetric interspecific competition. Exploitative or interference competition is the usual mechanism invoked. Here we describe another mechanism producing the same result, named apparent competition through facilitation (ACF), observed between Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata populations. The superior competitor actually gives some benefit to the other species, whose population becomes unstable with progressively increasing oscillations, leading to extinction. A model of ACF using difference equations suggests initial dynamics distinct from traditional interspecific competition. The dynamics of two freshwater snails in the field and in laboratory experiments suggest ACF, and these relations should be considered in studies of schistosomiasis control. ACF could occur in natural populations, but might have gone undetected because the final result is similar to traditional interspecific competition. PMID:12886429

Giovanelli, Alexandre; Vieira, Marcus Vinicius; da Silva, Cesar Luiz Pinto Ayres Coelho

2003-04-01

114

Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria mollusks at São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using geostatistical procedures.  

PubMed

Geostatistics is used in this work to make inferences about the presence of the species of Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and/or B. straminea), intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, at the São Francisco River Basin, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of these geostatistical procedures, known as indicator kriging, allows the classification of categorical data, in areas where the data are not available, using a punctual sample set. The result is a map of species and risk area definition. More than a single map of the categorical attribute, the procedure also permits the association of uncertainties of the stochastic model, which can be used to qualify the inferences. In order to validate the estimated data of the risk map, a fieldwork in five municipalities was carried out. The obtained results showed that indicator kriging is a rather robust tool since it presented a very good agreement with the field findings. The obtained risk map can be thought as an auxiliary tool to formulate proper public health strategies, and to guide other fieldwork, considering the places with higher occurrence probability of the most important snail species. Also, the risk map will enable better resource distribution and adequate policies for the mollusk control. This methodology will be applied to other river basins to generate a predictive map for Biomphalaria species distribution for the entire state of Minas Gerais. PMID:19046937

Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Felgueiras, Carlos A; Moura, Ana C M; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

2009-03-01

115

Localization of Serotonin in the Nervous System of Biomphalaria glabrata, an Intermediate Host for Schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

The digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni that causes the form of schistosomiasis found in the Western Hemisphere requires the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as its primary intermediate host. It has been proposed that the transition from the free-living S. mansoni miracidium to parasitic mother sporocyst depends on uptake of biogenic amines, e.g. serotonin, from the snail host. However, little is known about potential sources of serotonin in B. glabrata tissues. This investigation examined the localization of serotonin-like immunoreactivity (5HTli) in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues of B. glabrata. Emphasis was placed on the cephalic and anterior pedal regions that are commonly the sites of S. mansoni miracidium penetration. The anterior foot and body wall were densely innervated by 5HTli fibers but no peripheral immunoreactive neuronal somata were detected. Within the CNS, clusters of 5HTli neurons were observed in the cerebral, pedal, left parietal, and visceral ganglia, suggesting that the peripheral serotonergic fibers originate from the CNS. Double-labeling experiments (biocytin backfill × serotonin immunoreactivity) of the tentacular nerve and the three major pedal nerves (Pd n. 10, Pd n. 11, and Pd n. 12) disclosed central neurons that project to the cephalopedal periphery. Overall, the central distribution of 5HTli neurons suggests that, as in other gastropods, serotonin regulates the locomotion, reproductive, and feeding systems of Biomphalaria. The projections to the foot and body wall indicate that serotonin may also participate in defensive, nociceptive, or inflammation responses. These observations identify potential sources of host-derived serotonin in this parasite-host system. PMID:22434538

Delgado, Nadia; Vallejo, Deborah; Miller, Mark W.

2013-01-01

116

A comparative study of hemocytes from six different snails: morphology and functional aspects.  

PubMed

Hemocytes taken from six different gastropod snails, Achatina achatina, A. fulica, Biomphalaria glabrata, Bulinus natalensis, Helix aspersa, and Lymnaea stagnalis, were compared for morphology, peroxidase activity, and, using methods developed for L. stagnalis, the ability to generate reactive oxygen inermediates upon phagocytic stimulation. Numbers of hemocytes per milliliter hemolymph and hemocytes' microscopical morphology showed some variation among the snail species. Peroxidase activity was demonstrated in all snail hemocytes except in those of B. glabrata and A. fulica. Hemocytes of all species generated superoxide upon phagocytic stimulation with zymosan (tested by superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium). When tested, hemocytes of A. achatina and of A. fulica displayed luminol-dependent chemiluminescence activity. PMID:1311738

Adema, C M; Harris, R A; van Deutekom-Mulder, E C

1992-01-01

117

Screening for novel plant sources of prenyloxyanthraquinones: Senna alexandrina Mill. and Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.  

PubMed

As a continuation of our ongoing studies aimed to reveal the presence of oxyprenylated anthraquinones in plants claimed to have a laxative effect, in this article, we describe the extraction and HPLC separation of madagascin (3-isopentenyloxyemodin) and 3-geranyloxyemodine from dried leaves and fruits of Senna alexandrina Mill. (Leguminosae) and leaves and gel of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Xanthorrhoeaceae). Both compounds are described herein for the first time as components of extracts of the title plants. PMID:25342202

Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Genovese, Salvatore

2015-01-01

118

Distribution and abundance of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis host snails along the Mara River in Kenya and Tanzania.  

PubMed

We purposively selected 39 sampling sites along the Mara River and its two perennial tributaries of Amala and Nyangores and sampled snails. In addition, water physicochemical parameters (temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, alkalinity, salinity and pH) were taken to establish their influence on the snail abundance and habitat preference. Out of the 39 sites sampled, 10 (25.6%) had snails. The snail species encountered included Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krauss - the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, Bulinus africanus - the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, and Lymnaea natalensis Krauss - the intermediate host of both Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica Cobbold. Ceratophallus spp., a non-vector snail was also encountered. Most (61.0%) of the snails were encountered in streamside pools. Schistosomiasis-transmitting host snails, B. pfeifferi and B. africanus, were fewer than fascioliasis-transmitting Lymnaea species. All the four different snail species were found to be attached to different aquatic weeds, with B. pfeifferi accounting for over half (61.1%) of the snails attached to the sedge, followed by B. africanus and Lymnaea spp., accounting for 22.2 and 16.7%, respectively. Ceratophallus spp. were non-existent in sedge. The results from this preliminary study show that snails intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis exists in different habitats, in few areas along the Mara River, though their densities are still low to have any noticeable impacts on disease transmission in case they are infected. The mere presence of the vector snails in these focal regions calls for their immediate control and institution of proper regulations, management, and education among the locals that can help curtail the spread of the snails and also schistosomiasis and fascioliasis within the Mara River basin. PMID:25405008

Dida, Gabriel O; Gelder, Frank B; Anyona, Douglas N; Matano, Ally-Said; Abuom, Paul O; Adoka, Samson O; Ouma, Collins; Kanangire, Canisius K; Owuor, Phillip O; Ofulla, Ayub V O

2014-01-01

119

Distribution and abundance of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis host snails along the Mara River in Kenya and Tanzania  

PubMed Central

We purposively selected 39 sampling sites along the Mara River and its two perennial tributaries of Amala and Nyangores and sampled snails. In addition, water physicochemical parameters (temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, alkalinity, salinity and pH) were taken to establish their influence on the snail abundance and habitat preference. Out of the 39 sites sampled, 10 (25.6%) had snails. The snail species encountered included Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krauss – the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, Bulinus africanus – the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, and Lymnaea natalensis Krauss – the intermediate host of both Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica Cobbold. Ceratophallus spp., a non-vector snail was also encountered. Most (61.0%) of the snails were encountered in streamside pools. Schistosomiasis-transmitting host snails, B. pfeifferi and B. africanus, were fewer than fascioliasis-transmitting Lymnaea species. All the four different snail species were found to be attached to different aquatic weeds, with B. pfeifferi accounting for over half (61.1%) of the snails attached to the sedge, followed by B. africanus and Lymnaea spp., accounting for 22.2 and 16.7%, respectively. Ceratophallus spp. were non-existent in sedge. The results from this preliminary study show that snails intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis exists in different habitats, in few areas along the Mara River, though their densities are still low to have any noticeable impacts on disease transmission in case they are infected. The mere presence of the vector snails in these focal regions calls for their immediate control and institution of proper regulations, management, and education among the locals that can help curtail the spread of the snails and also schistosomiasis and fascioliasis within the Mara River basin.

Dida, Gabriel O.; Gelder, Frank B.; Anyona, Douglas N.; Matano, Ally-Said; Abuom, Paul O.; Adoka, Samson O.; Ouma, Collins; Kanangire, Canisius K.; Owuor, Phillip O.; Ofulla, Ayub V. O.

2014-01-01

120

The geographic mosaic of sex and infection in lake populations of a New Zealand snail at multiple spatial scales.  

PubMed

Understanding how sexual and asexual forms of the same species coexist is a challenge for evolutionary biology. The Red Queen hypothesis predicts that sex is favored by parasite-mediated selection against common asexual genotypes, leading to the coexistence of sexual and asexual hosts. In a geographic mosaic, where the risk of infection varies in space, the theory also predicts that sexual reproduction would be positively correlated with disease prevalence. We tested this hypothesis in lake populations of a New Zealand freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, by comparing pairwise difference matrices for infection frequency and male frequency using partial Mantel tests. We conducted the test at three spatial scales: among lakes on the South Island, among depths within an intensively sampled lake (Lake Alexandrina), and within depths at Lake Alexandrina. We found that the difference in infection risk and the difference in the proportion of sexual snails were significantly and positively correlated at all spatial scales. Our results thus suggest that parasite-mediated selection contributes to the long-term coexistence of sexual and asexual individuals in coevolutionary hotspots, and that the "warmth" of hotspots can vary on small spatial scales. PMID:24021401

Vergara, Daniela; Lively, Curtis M; King, Kayla C; Jokela, Jukka

2013-10-01

121

Models of Snail Locomotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All snails move over a thin layer of mucus using periodic deformations of their muscular foot. This unusual mode of locomotion can be modeled as a thin film of viscous fluid sandwiched between a flexible membrane and a rigid substrate. We present theoretical, numerical and experimental studies of locomotion via viscous stresses generated in thin films. Study of snail locomotion led us to design and construct several mechanical models: RoboSnail 1 which mimics snail locomotion incorrectly, but still proves to be a valid propulsion device over a thin viscous fluid layer and RoboSnail 2 which mimics land snails and uses forward-propagating compression waves on the base of the foot. Experimental results from the prototype machines are compared with long wavelength numerical and theoretical models.

Chan, Brian; Hosoi, Anette

2003-11-01

122

Simultaneous infection of Schistosoma mansoni and S. rodhaini in Biomphalaria glabrata: impact on chronobiology and cercarial behaviour  

PubMed Central

Background The chances of a schistosome cercaria encountering a suitable definitive host may be enhanced by emergence from the molluscan intermediate host with maximal glycogen stores and by an appropriate chronobiological rhythm. This study aimed to identify and characterize the effects of potential competitive interactions in the snail host Biomphalaria glabrata, between the closely-related Schistosoma mansoni and S. rodhaini, on phenotypic behavioural traits. It was predicted that inter-specific competition would affect chronobiological emergence rhythms and reduce the activity of schistosome swimming behavioural traits. Biomphalaria glabrata snails (120) were exposed to either S. mansoni or S. rodhaini single infections, or a mixed infection of both species simultaneously and the resulting cercarial phenotypic traits were characterised. Cercariae were identified from co-exposed snails by amplification and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1). Results S. mansoni and S. rodhaini largely maintained their distinct chronobiological rhythms after mixed exposures and infections. However, inter-specific competition appeared to result in a restriction of the shedding pattern of S. rodhaini and slight shift in the shedding pattern of S. mansoni. Inter-specific competition also significantly lowered hourly cercarial production for both parasite species in comparison to single exposures and infections and reduced cercarial swimming activity. Conclusion Inter-specific competition was shown to influence cercarial production, chronobiology and activity and should therefore be investigated further in field situations to determine the effects of these changes on parasite fitness (incorporating both host finding and infectivity) where these two species overlap. Importantly this competition did not result in a large change in chronobiological emergence of cercariae for either species indicating that it would not have a large influence on the species of hosts available for infection at time of emergence. This study has furthermore demonstrated the potential for phenotypic measures to provide markers for species-specific identification even in conditions of co-infection. PMID:19055722

Norton, Alice; Rollinson, David; Richards, Louisa; Webster, Joanne

2008-01-01

123

Lipid levels in Biomphalaria glabrata infected with different doses of Echinostoma paraensei miracidia.  

PubMed

The effect of experimental exposure of Biomphalaria glabrata to different doses (5 and 50) of Echinostoma paraensei miracidia on the total levels of cholesterol and triglycerides circulating in the hemolymph and the neutral lipids in the digestive gland-gonad (DGG) complex were studied. The snails were dissected one, two, three and four weeks after infection to collect the hemolymph and DGG tissue, to measure the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the hemolymph and neutral lipids in the tissue. The results for the hemolymph showed a similar order of variation for both substrates tested in the first week after infection. The reduced levels of these lipids in the infected snails indicate intense use of these substrates both by the intermediate host and the parasite, suggesting its probable participation in the energy metabolism and structural construction of the developing larval stages. Alterations in the profile of neutral lipids in the DGG were also found. The results obtained indicate that in this model, the lipid metabolism depends on the miracidial dose used. PMID:21439956

Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Gôlo, Patrícia; Lustrino, Danilo; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de Azevedo; Pinheiro, Jairo

2011-07-01

124

Differential transcriptomic responses of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Mollusca) to bacteria and metazoan parasites, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea, Platyhelminthes)  

PubMed Central

A 70-mer oligonucleotide-based microarray (1152 features) that emphasizes stress and immune responses factors was constructed to study transcriptomic responses of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to different immune challenges. In addition to sequences with relevant putative ID and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, the array features non-immune factors and unknown B. glabrata ESTs for functional gene discovery. The transcription profiles of B. glabrata (3 biological replicates, each a pool of 5 snails) were recorded at 12 hours post wounding, exposure to Gram negative or Gram positive bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus, respectively), or infection with compatible trematode parasites (S. mansoni or E. paraensei, 20 miracidia/snail), relative to controls, using universal reference RNA. The data were subjected to Significance Analysis for Microarrays (SAM), with a false positive rate (FPR) ?10%. Wounding yielded a modest differential expression profile (27 up/21 down) with affected features mostly dissimilar from other treatments. Partially overlapping, yet distinct expression profiles were recorded from snails challenged with E. coli (83 up/20 down) or M. luteus (120 up/42 down), mostly showing up-regulation of defense and stress-related features. Significantly altered expression of selected immune features indicates that B. glabrata detects and responds differently to compatible trematodes. Echinostoma paraensei infection was associated mostly with down regulation of many (immune-) transcripts (42 up/68 down), whereas S. mansoni exposure yielded a preponderance of up-regulated features (140 up/23 down), with only few known immune genes affected. These observations may reflect the divergent strategies developed by trematodes during their evolution as specialized pathogens of snails to negate host defense responses. Clearly, the immune defenses of B. glabrata distinguish and respond differently to various immune challenges. PMID:19962194

Adema, Coen M; Hanington, Patrick C.; Lun, Cheng-Man; Rosenberg, George H.; Aragon, Anthony D; Stout, Barbara A; Richard, Mara L. Lennard; Gross, Paul S.; Loker, Eric S

2009-01-01

125

Usnic Acid Potassium Salt: An Alternative for the Control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)  

PubMed Central

In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata. PMID:25375098

Lima, Vera L. M.; Pereira, Eugenia C.; Falcao, Emerson P. S.; Melo, Ana M. M. A.; da Silva, Nicacio Henrique

2014-01-01

126

Usnic Acid Potassium Salt: An Alternative for the Control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).  

PubMed

In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata. PMID:25375098

Martins, Mônica C B; Silva, Monique C; Silva, Luanna R S; Lima, Vera L M; Pereira, Eugênia C; Falcão, Emerson P S; Melo, Ana M M A; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

2014-01-01

127

Schistosoma mansoni: resistant specific infection-induced gene expression in Biomphalaria glabrata identified by fluorescent-based differential display.  

PubMed

The freshwater tropical snail Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of human intestinal schistosomiasis, and strains differ in their susceptibility to parasite infection. Changes in gene expression in response to parasite infection have been simultaneously examined in a susceptible strain (NHM1742) and a resistant strain (NHM1981) using a newly developed fluorescent-based differential display method. Such RNA profiling techniques allow the examination of changes in gene expression in response to parasite infection, without requiring previous sequence knowledge, or selecting candidate genes that may be involved in the complex neuroendocrine or defence systems of the snail. Thus, novel genes may be identified. Ten transcripts were initially identified, present only in the profiles derived from snails of the resistant strain when exposed to infection. The differential expression of five of these genes, including HSP70 and several novel transcripts with one containing at least two globin-like domains, has been confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. PMID:15208043

Lockyer, Anne E; Noble, Leslie R; Rollinson, David; Jones, Catherine S

2004-01-01

128

The origins, fate, and ecological significance of free amino compounds released by freshwater pulmonate snails.  

PubMed

The mass-specific accumulation rates (MSAR) of both total (TFAC) and individual free amino compounds (FAC) in conditioned media were measured by HPLC, using the orthophthaldialdehyde (OPA) methods, in the following cases: (a) laboratory-reared freshwater snails (B. glabrata) with chemosterilized shells; (b) Biomphalaria glabrata with non-chemosterilized shells; (c) B. glabrata faeces; (d) isolated shells of B. glabrata; and (e) 10 other species of freshwater gastropods from the Lewes Brooks, East Sussex, U.K. The MSAR values for B. glabrata show that 95% of the TFAC's (predominantly ethanolamine, phosphoserine, and the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, valine, aspartic acid, and glycine/threonine) originated from the snails themselves as the faeces and shells contributed only 5.0 and 0%, respectively. In contrast, epizootic organisms on the shells of all 10 snail species from the Lewes Brooks released significant amounts of FAC with the two smallest species (Planorbis vortex and Planorbis contortus) having the highest MSAR values. The MSAR for isolated B. glabrata mucus was 42.45 micromol x g(-1)h(-1). As 500 mg snails can release 16.67 mg of mucus daily, this could potentially result in the daily loss of 707.5 micromol of FAC. The cost/benefits of mucus secretion and the various anatomical, physiological, biochemical, and ecological mechanisms which allow freshwater snails to recover FAC's lost as a result of a high rate of urine production in their hypotonic environment, are discussed. PMID:11253805

Thomas, J D; Eaton, P

1998-01-01

129

A Somatically Diversified Defense Factor, FREP3, Is a Determinant of Snail Resistance to Schistosome Infection  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease, owes its continued success to freshwater snails that support production of prolific numbers of human-infective cercariae. Encounters between schistosomes and snails do not always result in the snail becoming infected, in part because snails can mount immune responses that prevent schistosome development. Fibrinogen-related protein 3 (FREP3) has been previously associated with snail defense against digenetic trematode infection. It is a member of a large family of immune molecules with a unique structure consisting of one or two immunoglobulin superfamily domains connected to a fibrinogen domain; to date fibrinogen containing proteins with this arrangement are found only in gastropod molluscs. Furthermore, specific gastropod FREPs have been shown to undergo somatic diversification. Here we demonstrate that siRNA mediated knockdown of FREP3 results in a phenotypic loss of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in 15 of 70 (21.4%) snails of the resistant BS-90 strain of Biomphalaria glabrata. In contrast, none of the 64 control BS-90 snails receiving a GFP siRNA construct and then exposed to S. mansoni became infected. Furthermore, resistance to S. mansoni was overcome in 22 of 48 snails (46%) by pre-exposure to another digenetic trematode, Echinostoma paraensei. Loss of resistance in this case was shown by microarray analysis to be associated with strong down-regulation of FREP3, and other candidate immune molecules. Although many factors are certainly involved in snail defense from trematode infection, this study identifies for the first time the involvement of a specific snail gene, FREP3, in the phenotype of resistance to the medically important parasite, S. mansoni. The results have implications for revealing the underlying mechanisms involved in dictating the range of snail strains used by S. mansoni, and, more generally, for better understanding the phenomena of host specificity and host switching. It also highlights the role of a diversified invertebrate immune molecule in defense against a human pathogen. It suggests new lines of investigation for understanding how susceptibility of snails in areas endemic for S. mansoni could be manipulated and diminished. PMID:22479663

Hanington, Patrick C.; Forys, Michelle A.; Loker, Eric S.

2012-01-01

130

Large-scale determinants of intestinal schistosomiasis and intermediate host snail distribution across Africa: does climate matter?  

PubMed

The geographical ranges of most species, including many infectious disease agents and their vectors and intermediate hosts, are assumed to be constrained by climatic tolerances, mainly temperature. It has been suggested that global warming will cause an expansion of the areas potentially suitable for infectious disease transmission. However, the transmission of infectious diseases is governed by a myriad of ecological, economic, evolutionary and social factors. Hence, a deeper understanding of the total disease system (pathogens, vectors and hosts) and its drivers is important for predicting responses to climate change. Here, we combine a growing degree day model for Schistosoma mansoni with species distribution models for the intermediate host snail (Biomphalaria spp.) to investigate large-scale environmental determinants of the distribution of the African S. mansoni-Biomphalaria system and potential impacts of climatic changes. Snail species distribution models included several combinations of climatic and habitat-related predictors; the latter divided into "natural" and "human-impacted" habitat variables to measure anthropogenic influence. The predictive performance of the combined snail-parasite model was evaluated against a comprehensive compilation of historical S. mansoni parasitological survey records, and then examined for two climate change scenarios of increasing severity for 2080. Future projections indicate that while the potential S. mansoni transmission area expands, the snail ranges are more likely to contract and/or move into cooler areas in the south and east. Importantly, we also note that even though climate per se matters, the impact of humans on habitat play a crucial role in determining the distribution of the intermediate host snails in Africa. Thus, a future contraction in the geographical range size of the intermediate host snails caused by climatic changes does not necessarily translate into a decrease or zero-sum change in human schistosomiasis prevalence. PMID:22142789

Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope; Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Saarnak, Christopher F L; Simoonga, Christopher; Mubita, Patricia; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Rahbek, Carsten; Kristensen, Thomas K

2013-11-01

131

Electrophoretic studies on the digestive gland esterases of some biomphalarid and lymnaeid snails  

PubMed Central

Because of the problems encountered in the classification of snails of medical importance, biochemical methods have been sought to help clarify the situation. Of these, the separation of the enzymes of adult snails by electrophoresis seems the most promising but very few attempts have been made so far to use the results for taxonomic studies. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the use of the enzyme systems of neotropical planorbid and of lymnaeid snails to elucidate their taxonomy and also snail—schistosome relationships at the species and population levels. The findings show the characteristic electrophoretic patterns of digestive gland esterases of the planorbid and lymnaeid snails used, as well as their variation and the level of such variation among certain populations and the consistency of the patterns among others. The results also show that, in general, the extent of variation between some populations of the same species is greater than the differences between species of the same group. However, at the specific level, there are similarities suggesting close relationships between some populations of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila on the one hand, and of certain populations of B. peregrina and of B. obstructa on the other hand. The present study has thrown some light on the question of electrophoretic variation in enzymes, and the ways in which this can be applied to studies of the genetics of snails. A correlation is suggested between certain patterns that indicate biochemical similarities or differences among the planorbid snail populations and the susceptibility of the species or the population to infection with the schistosomes. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 2 PMID:5317015

Malek, Emile A.; File, Sharon K.

1971-01-01

132

WITHDRAWN: Comparative study of the karyotypes and electrophoretic patterns of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus and the ova of their corresponding trematode hosts.  

PubMed

The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published, doi:10.1016/j.parint.2011.05.006. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn. PMID:21658469

Bakry, Fayez A; El Garhy, Manal F

2011-05-31

133

Reduced Susceptibility of a Biomphalaria tenagophila Population to Schistosoma mansoni after Introducing the Resistant Taim/RS Strain of B. tenagophila into Herivelton Martins Stream  

PubMed Central

Studies performed in the last 30 years demonstrated that a strain of B. tenagophila from the Taim Biological Reserve is completely resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection. This resistance to parasite infection is a dominant characteristic during crossbreeding with susceptible B. tenagophila strains. These experiments also identified a 350 bp molecular marker that is exclusive to the Taim strain and does not occur in other geographic strains of this snail species. The Taim strain (Taim/RS) of Biomphalaria tenagophila was bred on a large scale, physically marked and introduced into a stream in which previous malacological analyses had revealed the presence of only parasite-susceptible B. tenagophila. Samples of offspring captured 4, 11 and 14 months after the introduction of the Taim strain were examined, and the susceptibility of the snails to S. mansoni infection dropped from 38.6–26.5% to 2.1% during the 14 months after the introduction of the Taim snail strain. A significant correlation was also observed between the absence of infection and the identification of the Taim molecular marker. These results demonstrate that the genetic marker from the Taim strain was successfully introduced into the wild snail population. In addition, a significant relationship exists between the marker and resistance to infection. PMID:24941324

Marques, Daisymara Priscila de Almeida; Rosa, Florence Mara; Maciel, Engels; Negrao-Correa, Deborah; Teles, Horacio Manuel Santana; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Jannotti-Passos, Liana Konovaloff; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech

2014-01-01

134

Reduced susceptibility of a Biomphalaria tenagophila population to Schistosoma mansoni after introducing the resistant Taim/RS strain of B. tenagophila into Herivelton Martins stream.  

PubMed

Studies performed in the last 30 years demonstrated that a strain of B. tenagophila from the Taim Biological Reserve is completely resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection. This resistance to parasite infection is a dominant characteristic during crossbreeding with susceptible B. tenagophila strains. These experiments also identified a 350 bp molecular marker that is exclusive to the Taim strain and does not occur in other geographic strains of this snail species. The Taim strain (Taim/RS) of Biomphalaria tenagophila was bred on a large scale, physically marked and introduced into a stream in which previous malacological analyses had revealed the presence of only parasite-susceptible B. tenagophila. Samples of offspring captured 4, 11 and 14 months after the introduction of the Taim strain were examined, and the susceptibility of the snails to S. mansoni infection dropped from 38.6-26.5% to 2.1% during the 14 months after the introduction of the Taim snail strain. A significant correlation was also observed between the absence of infection and the identification of the Taim molecular marker. These results demonstrate that the genetic marker from the Taim strain was successfully introduced into the wild snail population. In addition, a significant relationship exists between the marker and resistance to infection. PMID:24941324

Marques, Daisymara Priscila de Almeida; Rosa, Florence Mara; Maciel, Engels; Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah; Teles, Horácio Manuel Santana; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Jannotti-Passos, Liana Konovaloff; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech

2014-01-01

135

Mechanisms underlying digenean-snail specificity: role of miracidial attachment and host plasma factors.  

PubMed

Digenetic trematodes usually show a high degree of specificity for their molluscan intermediate hosts. A panel of 4 digenean species (Echinostoma paraensei, E. trivolvis, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosomatium douthitti) and 5 snail species (Biomphalaria glabrata, Helisoma trivolvis, Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola elodes, and Helix aspersa representing 3 gastropod families) was used to assess the relative contributions of miracidial behavior, host plasma osmolality, and host plasma factors in dictating specificity. Additional experiments were undertaken with a fifth digenean, Echinoparyphium sp. Expected patterns of compatibility were first confirmed; each parasite species produced patent infections in its known snail host, but not in the other snail species. One exception was S. douthitti, which unexpectedly did not infect L. stagnalis. As judged by direct observation and by noting their disappearance after exposure to snails, miracidia were generally less likely to attach to or penetrate incompatible than compatible hosts. However, over half of the miracidia of each parasite species attached to or attempted penetration of both compatible and incompatible hosts, suggesting that under the experimental conditions used, miracidial host location and attachment behaviors were not of overriding importance in dictating observed patterns of specificity. For each digenean species, the percentage of larvae that became immobile, rounded, showed tegumental damage, or died over a 6-hr interval in plasma of the various snails was assessed. In no case was plasma from a compatible host harmful to sporocysts or rediae. In contrast, in 8 of 16 (50%) incompatible combinations, snail plasma had a significant negative effect on sporocyst condition. In 4 of 12 (33%) incompatible combinations, plasma had a significant negative effect on rediae. In 9 of 10 combinations tested, lymnaeid plasma was toxic for the parasites of planorbid snails and in 2 of 4 combinations, planorbid plasma was toxic for the parasites of lymnaeid snails. Toxicity was not attributable to differences in plasma osmolality between snail species. The ability of plasma from incompatible snails to affect viability of both sporocysts and rediae was surprisingly strong, suggesting that humoral factors play a greater role in dictating patterns of digenean-snail specificity than previously appreciated. PMID:11128473

Sapp, K K; Loker, E S

2000-10-01

136

Circulating Biomphalaria glabrata hemocyte subpopulations possess shared schistosome glycans and receptors capable of binding larval glycoconjugates  

PubMed Central

Host lectin-like recognition molecules may play an important role in innate resistance in Biomphalaria glabrata snails to larval schistosome infection, thus implicating parasite-expressed glycans as putative ligands for these lectin receptors. While host lectins may utilize specific glycan structures for parasite recognition, it also has been hypothesized that the parasite may use this system to evade immune detection by mimicking naturally-expressed host glycans, resulting in reduced immunorecognition capacity. By employing immunocytochemical (ICC) and Western blot assays using schistosome glycan-specific monoclonal antibodies (mABs) we sought to identify specific glycan epitopes (glycotopes) shared in common between larval S. mansoni and B. glabrata hemocytes, the primary immune effector cells in snails. Results confirmed the presence of selected larval glycotopes on subpopulations of hemocytes by ICC and association with numerous hemocyte proteins by Western blot analyses, including a trimannosyl core N-glycan (TriMan), and two fucosylated lacdiNAc (LDN) variants, F-LDN and F-LDN-F. Snail strain differences were seen in the prevalence of constitutively expressed F-LDN on hemocytes, and in the patterns of protein immunoreactivity with these mABs. In contrast, there was little to no hemocyte reactivity with mABs for Lewis X (LeX), LDN, LDN-F or LDN-DF. When intact hemocytes were exposed to larval transformation products (LTPs), distinct cell subpopulations displayed weak (LeX, LDN-DF) to moderate (LDN, LDN-F) glycotope reactivity by ICC, including snail strain differences in the prevalence of LDN-reactive cellular subsets. Far-Western blot analyses of the hemocytes following exposure to larval transformation proteins (LTPs) also revealed multiple mAB-reactive hemocyte protein bands for LeX, LDN, LDN-F, and LDN-DF. These results demonstrate the existence of complex patterns of shared larval glycan constitutively expressed on hemocytes and their proteins, as well as the ability or hemocytes to acquire shared glycans by the selective binding of parasite-released LTP. Unraveling the functional significance of these naturally expressed and acquired shared glycans on specific hemocyte populations represents an important challenge for future investigations. PMID:23085445

Yoshino, Timothy P.; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Gonzalez, Laura A.; Hokke, Cornelis H.

2013-01-01

137

Effects of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium infections on calcium content in their intermediate hosts.  

PubMed

Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was performed to determine the alteration of calcium concentration in the soft parts and shells of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus due to the infection with Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively. The results showed significant lowering in the calcium content of the shells of cercariae shedding B. alexandrina and B. truncatus relative to the calcium content in the shells of uninfected ones. In contrast, the calcium content in the soft parts of cercariae shedding snails was higher than in the soft parts of uninfected snails; the differences were statistically significant. Generally, calcium content was significantly higher in the shells than in the soft parts of the snails, regardless infected or uninfected. The results obtained and the hypothesis of hypercalcification in shells of infected snails were discussed. PMID:17497170

Mostafa, Osama Mohammad Sayed

2007-09-01

138

Modelling spatial distribution of snails transmitting parasitic worms with importance to human and animal health and analysis of distributional changes in relation to climate.  

PubMed

The environment, the on-going global climate change and the ecology of animal species determine the localisation of habitats and the geographical distribution of the various species in nature. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of such changes on snail species not only of interest to naturalists but also of importance to human and animal health. The spatial distribution of freshwater snail intermediate hosts involved in the transmission of schistosomiasis, fascioliasis and paramphistomiasis (i.e. Bulinus globosus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis) were modelled by the use of a maximum entropy algorithm (Maxent). Two snail observation datasets from Zimbabwe, from 1988 and 2012, were compared in terms of geospatial distribution and potential distributional change over this 24-year period investigated. Climate data, from the two years were identified and used in a species distribution modelling framework to produce maps of predicted suitable snail habitats. Having both climate- and snail observation data spaced 24 years in time represent a unique opportunity to evaluate biological response of snails to changes in climate variables. The study shows that snail habitat suitability is highly variable in Zimbabwe with foci mainly in the central Highveld but also in areas to the South and West. It is further demonstrated that the spatial distribution of suitable habitats changes with variation in the climatic conditions, and that this parallels that of the predicted climate change. PMID:24893011

Pedersen, Ulrik B; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Soko, White; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Kristensen, Thomas K

2014-05-01

139

3D-Ultrastructure, Functions and Stress Responses of Gastropod (Biomphalaria glabrata) Rhogocytes  

PubMed Central

Rhogocytes are pore cells scattered among the connective tissue of different body parts of gastropods and other molluscs, with great variation in their number, shape and size. They are enveloped by a lamina of extracellular matrix. Their most characteristic feature is the “slit apparatus”, local invaginations of the plasma membrane bridged by cytoplasmic bars, forming slits of ca. 20 nm width. A slit diaphragm creates a molecular sieve with permeation holes of 20×20 nm. In blue-blooded gastropods, rhogocytes synthesize and secrete the respiratory protein hemocyanin, and it has been proposed–though not proven–that in the rare red-blooded snail species they might synthesize and secrete the hemoglobin. However, the cellular secretion pathway for respiratory proteins, and the functional role(s) of the enigmatic rhogocyte slit apparatus are still unclear. Additional functions for rhogocytes have been proposed, notably a role in protein uptake and degradation, and in heavy metal detoxification. Here we provide new structural and functional information on the rhogocytes of the red-blooded freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata. By in situ hybridization of mantle tissues, we prove that rhogocytes indeed synthesize hemoglobin. By electron tomography, the first three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the slit apparatus are provided, showing detail of highly dense material in the cytoplasmic bars close to the slits. By immunogold labelling, we collected evidence that a major component of this material is actin. By genome databank mining, the complete sequence of a B. glabrata nephrin was obtained, and localized to the rhogocytes by immunofluorescence microscopy. The presence of both proteins fit the ultrastructure-based hypothesis that rhogocytes are related to mammalian podocytes and insect nephrocytes. Reactions of the rhogocytes to deprivation of food and cadmium toxification are also documented, and a possible secretion pathway of newly synthesized respiratory proteins through the slit apparatus is discussed. PMID:24971744

Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Guler, M. Alptekin; Lieb, Bernhard; Barbeck, Mike; Ghanaati, Shahram; Markl, Jurgen

2014-01-01

140

Biomphalaria straminea (Mollusca: Planorbidae) as an intermediate host of Ribeiroia sp. (Trematoda: Psilostomidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Species of Ribeiroia are trematode parasites of birds and mammals that have acquired notoriety since Ribeiroia ondatrae was identified as a cause of mortality and malformations in North American amphibians. Although species of Ribeiroia have been reported in vertebrate hosts in South America, the snails involved in its transmission remain unknown in Brazil. During malacological studies conducted at Pampulha Reservoir, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between January 2009 and February 2012, in total 14,264 specimens of Biomphalaria straminea were collected, of which 192 (1.35%) were infected with gymnocephalous cercariae. The larvae were used for experimental infection of laboratory-reared guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ); metacercariae obtained in these fishes were orally administered to domestic ducks (Cairina moschata); and adult parasites were obtained from the proventriculus 10 days after infection. Based on morphological and molecular analyses, the parasite was identified as Ribeiroia sp., a species morphologically similar to R. ondatrae , but distinctly different at the molecular level. This is the first report of larvae of Ribeiroia in Brazil and B. straminea as a new intermediate host for this genus. PMID:23421393

Pinto, H A; Jadin, R C; Orlofske, S A; Johnson, P T J; Melo, A L

2013-10-01

141

Lichen Endozoochory by Snails  

PubMed Central

Endozoochory plays a prominent role for the dispersal of seed plants. However, for most other plant taxa it is not known whether this mode of dispersal occurs at all. Among those other taxa, lichens as symbiotic associations of algae and fungi are peculiar as their successful dispersal requires movement of propagules that leaves the symbiosis functional. However, the potential for endozoochorous dispersal of lichen fragments has been completely overlooked. We fed sterile thalli of two foliose lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria and Physcia adscendens) differing in habitat and air-quality requirements to nine snail species common in temperate Europe. We demonstrated morphologically that L. pulmonaria regenerated from 29.0% of all 379 fecal pellets, whereas P. adscendens regenerated from 40.9% of all 433 fecal pellets, showing that lichen fragments survived gut passage of all snail species. Moreover, molecular analysis of regenerated lichens confirmed the species identity for a subset of samples. Regeneration rates were higher for the generalist lichen species P. adscendens than for the specialist lichen species L. pulmonaria. Furthermore, lichen regeneration rates varied among snail species with higher rates after gut passage of heavier snail species. We suggest that gastropods generally grazing on lichen communities are important, but so far completely overlooked, as vectors for lichen dispersal. This opens new ecological perspectives and questions the traditional view of an entirely antagonistic relationship between gastropods and lichens. PMID:21533256

Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Werth, Silke; Ruetschi, Jorg; Fischer, Markus

2011-01-01

142

Small Snails, Enormous Elephants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 2 of PDF) introduces learners to the real size of animals using nonstandard measurement. Learners use Unifix cubes and yarn lengths to measure a variety of animals (photos), from the very small like a snail to the very large like an elephant. As an extension, learners can use the cubes to create a bar graph depicting the animals' lengths.

Museum, Chicago C.

2011-01-01

143

Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca): adaptation to desiccation and susceptibility to infection with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907.  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out to test the susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila to the infection with strain SJ of Schistosoma mansoni in the F1, F2 and non-selected parental generation. The potential adaptation of B. tenagophila to desiccation, in healthy mollusks and those exposed to the larvae of S. mansoni of the F1, F2 and non-selected parental generations was also studied. The presence of mucus and soil, at the shell opening, protected the snails against desiccation, favoring survival. The healthy mollusks performed more attempts against desiccation than those exposed to the larvae of the parasite. The mortality rate, during desiccation, was higher among mollusks that remained buried and with the shell opening unobstructed. During the desiccation period the stage of development of the parasite was influenced by the weight loss and the survival of the snails. The longer the period of desiccation, the greater was the weight loss observed, abbreviating survival. The non-selected parental generation was more sensitive to desiccation than the F1 and F2 generations, both in healthy mollusks and in those exposed to S. mansoni larvae. Healthy mollusks were more resistant to desiccation than those exposed to the larvae of the S. mansoni. Desiccation did not interrupt the development of S. mansoni larvae in mollusks, causing a delay in the cercariae elimination. The susceptibility of B. tenagophila to the SJ strain of S. mansoni, in mollusks maintained in water during the larvae incubation period, was similar in all three generations. PMID:12219110

Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Kawano, Toshie

2002-01-01

144

Biochemical and morphological pathology of the foot of the schistosome vector Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Infection by Schistosoma mansoni resulted in morphological and biochemical changes to the foot of its intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata. Migration through, and emergence of cercariae from, the foot was observed and evidenced by lesions on the ciliated foot surface. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the velocity of movement by infected individuals. In vivo 31P NMR spectral analyses demonstrated that the foot of infected snails had a lower phosphoarginine (PA)/adenosine 5' triphosphate (ATP) ratio than that of uninfected controls. Moreover, kinetic experiments, employing saturation transfer, demonstrated the pseudo-first-order rate constant for the arginine kinase-catalysed exchange reaction in the forward direction, that is, PA-->ATP was decreased by infection. The reverse reaction was not observed by the NMR methods used. PA was depleted upon exposure to hypoxic conditions suggesting its traditional role in preserving ATP level. Partly oxidized metabolic end-products were not observed in snails maintained under aerobic conditions, but succinate, propionate, acetate and lactate rapidly accumulated under hypoxic conditions. PMID:8233591

Thompson, S N; Lee, R W; Mejia-Scales, V; Shams el-Din, M

1993-09-01

145

Eye to Eye With Garden Snails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Snail Unit encourages students to explore the external characteristics and behavior of snails. It effectively gets students past the "ugh, slime" reaction to recognizing individual differences in snails and challenges students to learn enough about the snail to be able to predict their behavior under a variety of conditions. Detailed observations are requested as are preparation and testing of hypotheses. This unit works very well with all levels of students and with heterogeneously grouped students. This Snail Unit consists of six lessons: (1) Introduction to a Snail (2) How do snails move? How fast is a snail's pace? (3) What and how do snails eat? (4) Are snails attracted to, or repelled by particular substances? (5) Can snails be enticed to travel faster or in a certain direction? (6) How are snails like other animals? How are they different?

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Kathy Liu N:Liu;Kathy ORG:Access Excellence REV:2005-04-19 END:VCARD

1994-07-30

146

Activation of anaerobic metabolism in Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae) by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

The activity of lactate dehydrogenase and the concentrations of glucose in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis were evaluated. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the hemolymph concentrations of some carboxylic acids (oxalic, piruvic, lactic and succinic). After one, two and three weeks of infection, the snails were dissected to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. A significant reduction of the levels of glucose in the hemolymph was observed as of the first week of infection in relation to the control group. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of the infected group was significantly higher than the average of the control group. This increase was accompanied by a reduction of the levels of piruvic acid and an increase in the levels of lactic acid in the hemolymph of the parasited snails, confirming the acceleration of the anaerobic metabolism, necessary for the host to obtain energy and maintain its redox balance. In parallel, there was a decrease in the glycogen content of the storage tissues, with that reduction being significantly greater in the cephalopedal mass than the digestive gland, demonstrating that in this interaction system, the mobilization of glycogen was not sufficient to maintain and reestablish the normal glycemia of the infected snails. PMID:24042059

Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Castro, Rosane N; Sant'Ana, Luiza D'Oliveira; Santos-Amaral, Luciana; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Martins; Garcia, Juberlan; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Pinheiro, Jairo; Maldonado, Arnaldo

2014-02-01

147

Baldomero Olivera: Cone Snail Peptides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever considered the venom of a snail? Most people think of snakes when they think of venom but overlook snails. There are, however, almost 10,000 species of venomous predatory snails according to this engaging lecture from Professor Baldomero Olivera. In his talk, Professor Olivera explores how these venoms have been used to understand the nervous system and develop new drugs. The lecture is divided into three different sections, and visitors shouldn't miss Part 2 ("How a Fish Hunting Snail Captures Its Prey"). Visitors are also welcome to download the entire lecture and the accompanying slides.

Olivera, Baldomero

148

Baldomero Olivera: Cone Snail Peptides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever considered the venom of a snail? Most people think of snakes when they think of venom but overlook snails. There are, however, almost 10,000 species of venomous predatory snails according to this engaging lecture from Professor Baldomero Olivera. In his talk, Professor Olivera explores how these venoms have been used to understand the nervous system and develop new drugs. The lecture is divided into three different sections, and visitors shouldn't miss Part 2 ("How a Fish Hunting Snail Captures Its Prey"). Visitors are also welcome to download the entire lecture and the accompanying slides.

Olivera, Baldomero

2012-01-31

149

Experimental evaluation of Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Crustacea: Ostracoda) in the biocontrol of Schistosomiasis mansoni transmission  

PubMed Central

Objective To test Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Baird) (C. novaezelandiae), sub-class Ostracoda, obtained from the Nile, Egypt for its predatory activity on snail, Biomphalaria alexandrina (B. alexandrina), intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) and on the free-living larval stages of this parasite (miracidia and cercariae). Methods The predatory activity of C. novaezelandiae was determined on B. alexandrina snail (several densities of eggs, newly hatched and juveniles). This activity was also determined on S. mansoni miracidia and cercariae using different volumes of water and different numbers of larvae. C. novaezelandiae was also tested for its effect on infection of snails and on the cercarial production. Results C. novaezelandiae was found to feed on the eggs, newly hatched and juvenile snails, but with significant reduction in the consumption in the presence of other diet like the blue green algae (Nostoc muscorum). This ostracod also showed considerable predatory activity on the free-living larval stages of S. mansoni which was affected by certain environmental factors such as volume of water, density of C. novaezelandiae and number of larvae of the parasite. Conclusions The presence of this ostracod in the aquatic habitat led to significant reduction of snail population, infection rate of snails with schistosme miracidia as well as of cercarial production from the infected snails. This may suggest that introducing C. novaezelandiae into the habitat at schistosome risky sites could suppress the transmission of the disease. PMID:23620849

Yousif, Fouad; Hafez, Sherif; El Bardicy, Samia; Tadros, Menerva; Taleb, Hoda Abu

2013-01-01

150

Obtaining Ilyanassa snail embryos.  

PubMed

The marine gastropod Ilyanassa obsoleta is a long-standing and very useful model for studies of embryonic development. It is an especially important model for spiralian development, and for studies of asymmetric cell division. The embryos are amenable to classic embryological manipulation techniques as well as a growing number of molecular approaches. Ilyanassa is also an important model for studies of metamorphosis, the ecology of parasitism, the effects of environmental contaminants on morphology and sexual function, and comparative neurobiology. Ilyanassa adults are readily obtainable and easy to keep in the laboratory. Although the normal spawning season for Ilyanassa is during early summer, they can produce high-quality embryos nearly year-round in the laboratory. Snails collected in the late fall, winter, or spring can be induced to deposit zygotes before the natural spawning season by warming them to room temperature, and snails collected before the natural spawning season can be made to postpone zygote deposition until needed (up to at least 6 mo) by maintaining them in tanks in a cold room at 4 degrees C-8 degrees C. This protocol describes how to induce embryo production in Ilyanassa snails, collect the embryos, and rear them to the stage required for study. PMID:20147126

Gharbiah, Maey; Cooley, James; Leise, Esther M; Nakamoto, Ayaki; Rabinowitz, Jeremy S; Lambert, J David; Nagy, Lisa M

2009-04-01

151

Aerobic to anaerobic transition in Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) infected with different miracidial doses of Echinostoma paraensei (Lie and Basch, 1967) by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

The glucose content in the hemolymph and glycogen content in the digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to different parasite doses (5 and 50 miracidia) of Echinostoma paraensei as well as the activity of lactate dehydrogenase were evaluated. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) analyses were also performed to determine the concentrations of four organic acids (oxalic, succinic, pyruvic and lactic) present in the hemolymph of infected and uninfected snails, to better understand the effect of infection on the host's energetic/oxidative metabolism. The snails were dissected 1-4 weeks after infection to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. There was alteration in the glycemia of the snails at both parasite doses, with a significant increase of glycemia from of the third week after infection in comparison to the control group. Changes were also observed in the lactate dehydrogenase activity, with increased activity as the infection progressed. In parallel, there was a decrease in the glycogen content in the storage tissues, with a markedly greater reduction in the digestive gland-gonad complex (larval development site) in comparison with the cephalopedal mass. Additionally, the infection by both miracidial doses resulted in an increase of oxalic and lactic acid levels, as well as in a decline of piruvic and succinic acid levels in B. glabrata, thus explaining the reduction of the oxidative decarboxylation rate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and acceleration of the anaerobic degradation of carbohydrates in the snails, through lactic fermentation, which is essential to ensure energy supply and success of the infection. PMID:23376444

Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Lustrino, Danilo; Castro, Rosane N; Sant'Ana, Luiza D'Oliveira; Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Maldonado, Arnaldo; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; de Lurdes de Azevedo Rodrigues, Maria; Pinheiro, Jairo

2013-04-01

152

Interaction of Schistosoma mansoni Sporocysts and Hemocytes of Biomphalaria  

PubMed Central

Human infection by Schistosoma mansoni affects more than 100 million people worldwide, most often in populations of developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The transmission of S. mansoni in human populations depends on the presence of some species of Biomphalaria that act as an intermediate host. The compatibility between S. mansoni and its intermediate host is influenced by behavioral, physiological, and genetical factors of the mollusc and the parasite. The susceptibility level of the mollusc has been attributed to the capacity of internal defense system (IDS)—hemocytes and soluble components of the hemolymph—to recognize and destroy the parasite, and this will be the center of interest of this paper. The schistosome-resistant Biomphalaria can be an alternative strategy for the control of schistosomiasis. PMID:22811885

Negrão-Corrêa, D.; Mattos, A. C. A.; Pereira, C. A. J.; Martins-Souza, R. L.; Coelho, P. M. Z.

2012-01-01

153

A comparative study of mechanisms underlying digenean-snail specificity: in vitro interactions between hemocytes and digenean larvae.  

PubMed

A panel of 4 digenetic trematode species (Echinostoma paraensei, E. trivolvis, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosomatium douthitti) and 5 snail species (Biomphalaria glabrata, Helisoma trivolvis, Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola elodes, and Helix aspersa) was examined to determine if known patterns of host specificity could be explained by the tendency of digenean larvae to be bound by snail hemocytes, or by the ability of larvae to influence the spreading behavior of hemocytes. In short-term (1 hr) in vitro adherence assays, there was no overall pattern to suggest that sporocysts were more likely to be bound by hemocytes from incompatible than compatible snails. Compared with the other parasites, sporocysts of E. paraensei were less likely to be bound by hemocytes from any of the snail species tested. All rediae examined, including those of another species Echinoparyphium sp., were also remarkably refractory to binding by hemocytes from any of the snails. Of all the larvae examined, only sporocysts and young daughter rediae of E. paraensei caused hemocytes to round up in their presence. This was true for hemocytes from the compatible species B. glabrata and the incompatible lymnaeid species S. elodes and L. stagnalis. The patterns of host specificity shown by this particular panel of parasites and snails were not predicted by either the extent of hemocyte adherence to digenean larvae or by the ability of larvae to affect hemocyte spreading behavior. The results of this study suggest that a role for hemocytes, although likely, may require different assays, possibly of a more prolonged nature, for its detection. Also, different parasite species (notably E. paraensei) and intramolluscan stages have distinctive interactions with host hemocytes, suggesting that the determinants of specificity vary with the host-parasite combination, and with the parasite life cycle stage. PMID:11128474

Sapp, K K; Loker, E S

2000-10-01

154

Structure of the extracellular hemoglobin of Biomphalaria glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemoglobin of Biomphalaria glabrata was purified to homogeneity by gel filtration column followed by anion exchange chromatography. The dissociation products were analyzed by a 5–15% gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) giving a band of 270 kDa and a band of 180 kDa after reduction with ?-mercaptoethanol. The same profile was obtained in a 3.5% agarose

Márcio H. L Arndt; Marcelo M Santoro

1998-01-01

155

Inhibition of cholinesterases and carboxylesterases of two invertebrate species, Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus, by the carbamate pesticide carbaryl.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of sublethal concentrations of the carbamate carbaryl on the cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CES) activities present in the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and in the pigmented Biomphalaria glabrata gastropod were investigated. The results showed that ChE activity from both species was inhibited by in vivo and in vitro exposure to carbaryl, with EC(50) and IC(50) values approximately 20 times lower for the oligochaete than for the gastropod. On the other hand, the recovery process in uncontaminated media was more efficient in oligochaetes than in snails. Thus, in only 2h the oligochaetes showed no inhibition with respect to control values whereas the snails did not reach control values even after 48h of being in pesticide-free water. CES activity was investigated in whole body soft tissue homogenates using three different substrates: p-nitrophenyl butyrate, 1-naphthyl acetate (NA) and 2-NA. In addition, the presence of multiple CES isozymes in L. variegatus and B. glabrata extracts, with activity towards 1- and 2-NA, was confirmed by native polyacrylamide electrophoresis. In both species, the activities measured using the naphthyl substrates were higher than the activity towards p-nitrophenyl butyrate. In addition, B. glabrata showed a higher CES activity than L. variegatus independently of the substrate used. In L. variegatus, in vivo CES activity towards the different substrates was less sensitive to carbaryl inhibition than ChE activity. In contrast, in B. glabrata, CES activity towards p-nitrophenyl butyrate was inhibited at lower insecticide concentrations than ChE. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the sensitivity of non-target freshwater invertebrate Type B-esterases towards pesticides. PMID:19879661

Kristoff, Gisela; Guerrero, Noemi R Verrengia; Cochón, Adriana C

2010-01-31

156

Demographic responses to multi-generation cadmium exposure in two strains of the freshwater gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata.  

SciTech Connect

A life table response experiment (LTRE) was used to quantify the population-level effects of continuous, multi-generation cadmium exposure on two strains of the freshwater gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata; the parasite resistant BS90 and parasite susceptible NMRI strains. Snails were exposed to waterborne cadmium for three consecutive generations. Survival, growth and reproduction were measured empirically and incorporated into a stage-based, deterministic population model. Cadmium significantly affected hatching success, time to maturity and juvenile and adult survival in both strains. There were significant effects of generation on fecundity, hatching success time to maturity and juvenile survival in NMRI and time to maturity and adult survival in BS90. Cadmium significantly affected the population growth rate, lambda (?), in BS90. Cadmium, generation and the cadmium x generation interaction had significant effects on ? in NMRI. At the high cadmium exposure, ? for NMRI showed a decrease from generation 1 to generation 2 followed by and increase from generation 2 to 3. Lambda in high cadmium BS90 steadily decreased over the three generations while NMRI at this same concentration was similar to the controls. The results indicated that strain-specific differences in response to multi-generation cadmium exposure are evident in B. glabrata. Moreover, effects seen in the first generation are not necessarily indicative of effects in subsequent generations. Changes in ? over the course of the three-generation exposure suggest that acclimation and/or adaptation to cadmium may have occurred, particularly in NMRI at the high cadmium exposure level.

Salice, Christopher J.; Miller, Thomas J.; Roesijadi, Guritno

2008-08-20

157

A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species.  

PubMed

Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Methods Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study) and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study). Results Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae). In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso) during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%). Conclusions The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity. PMID:25229292

Fernandez, Monica Ammon; de Mattos, Aline Carvalho; da Silva, Elizangela Feitosa; Santos, Sonia Barbosa Dos; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

2014-07-01

158

[Molluscacide activity of piquerol A isolated from Piqueria trinervia (Compositae) on 8 species of pulmonate snails].  

PubMed

In laboratory trials an aqueous solution of Piquerol A from Piqueria trinervia, collected in several regions of Mexico, showed a molluscicide action on the adults of eight different pulmonates snails species: Fossaria (Fossaria) humilis, F. (Bakerilymnaea) sp., Pseudosuccinea columella and Stagnicola attenuata from Mexico; F. (B.) cubensis and Physa cubensis from Cuba; P. columella and Biomphalaria glabrata from Brazil; B. glabrata from Puerto Rico; and S. elodes from U.S.A. The solution was tested at 50, 25 and 5 ppm concentration, for two periods of 6 and 24 hours, at room temperature (20-22 degrees C). A 100% mortality was obtained for all species at 50 ppm concentration after 6 hours of exposure; the same percentage at 25 ppm after 24 hours; and 60 to 100% mortality at 5 ppm concentration during 24 hours of exposure. No recovery was observed among any of the treated snails. Piquerol A is a sesquiterpene with low stability in nature and has previously only been tested as an insecticide and as an inhibitor of metabolism in cell cultures: no field trails have been made on its toxicity to other aquatic fauna as yet, but it is believed Piquerol A could be an excellent molluscicide for use in areas where focal transmission of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis are taking place. This is the first time experiments on molluscicides have been carried out in Mexico. PMID:2319950

Cruz-Reyes, A; Chavarin, C; Campos Arias, M P; Taboada, J; Jimenez, M

1989-01-01

159

Red blood with blue-blood ancestry: Intriguing structure of a snail hemoglobin  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic enigma of snail hemoglobin, its isolated occurrence in a single gastropod family, the Planorbidae, and the lack of sequence data, stimulated the present study. We present here the complete cDNA and predicted amino acid sequence of two hemoglobin polypeptides from the planorbid Biomphalaria glabrata (intermediate host snail for the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni). Both isoforms contain 13 different, cysteine-free globin domains, plus a small N-terminal nonglobin “plug” domain with three cysteines for subunit dimerization (total Mr ? 238 kDa). We also identified the native hemoglobin molecule and present here a preliminary 3D reconstruction from electron microscopical images (3 nm resolution); it suggests a 3 × 2-mer quaternary structure (Mr ? 1.43 MDa). Moreover, we identified a previously undescribed rosette-like hemolymph protein that has been mistaken for hemoglobin. We also detected expression of an incomplete hemocyanin as trace component. The combined data show that B. glabrata hemoglobin evolved from pulmonate myoglobin, possibly to replace a less-efficient hemocyanin, and reveals a surprisingly simple evolutionary mechanism to create a high molecular mass respiratory protein from 78 similar globin domains. PMID:16877545

Lieb, Bernhard; Dimitrova, Konstantina; Kang, Hio-Sun; Braun, Sabrina; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Martin, Andreas; Hanelt, Ben; Saenz, Steven A.; Adema, Coen M.; Markl, Jurgen

2006-01-01

160

Representation of an immune responsive gene family encoding fibrinogen-related proteins in the freshwater mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata, an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) are found in the hemolymph of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, are up-regulated following exposure to digenetic trematode parasites, and bind to trematode larval surfaces, suggestive of a role in internal defense. Southern blot and degenerate-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were undertaken to better understand the diversity of the FREP-encoding gene family. Probes corresponding to the N-terminal IgSF domains of specific FREP gene subfamilies (FREPs 2, 3, 4, 7, 12 and 13) revealed between 1 to 8 loci per subfamily on Southern blots. Probes representing the relatively conserved C-terminal fibrinogen domain of FREPs bound many sequences in Southern blots of genomic DNA from B. glabrata, and from two related gastropod species, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Helisoma trivolvis. Using degenerate-PCR, we obtained 42 unique fibrinogen-encoding sequences from 180 clones derived from a single individual of the M-line strain of B. glabrata, further supporting the notion of their abundant representation in the B. glabrata genome. The fibrinogen-encoding sequences of FREPs encoding one or two IgSF domains tended to separate into distinct clades, but bootstrap support for this separation was low. A novel category of fibrinogen-encoding sequence was also revealed. This study provides the approximate number of gene copies in several FREP subfamilies, confirms the existence of a diverse FREP gene family, reports additional unusual sequences encoding fibrinogen-like molecules, and provides further justification to explore the functional roles of FREPs in both B. glabrata and B. pfeifferi, both important intermediate hosts of the human pathogen, Schistosoma mansoni. PMID:15474308

Zhang, Si-Ming; Loker, Eric S.

2013-01-01

161

Uma nova espécie de Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838 (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) em Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864) (Mollusca: Planorbidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838 (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) in Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864) (Mollusca: Gastropoda). A new species of Peritrichida found in Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864) is described. This new species is characterized by a reticular central area of the adhesive disc and a horseshoe-shaped macronucleus, a 80.0 ± 7 µm-diameter celular body and a 41.4 ± 2.9 µm

Hudson A. Pinto; Alfredo H. Wieloch; Alan L de Melo

162

Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: VI--Noroeste Fluminense Mesoregion.  

PubMed

In this paper, the last of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Noroeste Fluminense Mesoregion from 2002 to 2005 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; B. straminea; B. tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; D. cimex; D. depressissimum; D. lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Idiopyrgus sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; P. marmorata; Plesiophysa guadeloupensis; Pomacea lineata; and Pomacea sp. Concerning the snail hosts of schistosomiasis the three natural vectors were identified and, although no specimens were found harbouring larval forms of Schistosoma mansoni, different kinds of cercariae had been observed. PMID:17308776

Thiengo, Silvana C; Mattos, Aline C; Santos, Sonia B; Fernandez, Monica A

2006-09-01

163

Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: V -- Norte Fluminense Mesoregion.  

PubMed

In this paper, the fifth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Norte Fluminense Mesoregion from 2002 to 2003 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 19 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Burnupia sp.; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex; Drepanotrema depressissimum; Drepanotrema lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Hebetancylus moricandi; Idiopyrgus sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; Physa marmorata; Pomacea sordida, and Pomacea sp. Concerning the snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni only B. tenagophila was found, in contrast with other previuosly studied mesoregions.No specimens were found harbouring larval forms of S. mansoni although different kinds of cercariae had been observed. An account about the current schistosomiasis transmission sites in this Mesoregion is presented as well. PMID:15486644

Thiengo, Silvana C; Mattos, Aline C; Boaventura, M Fernanda; Loureiro, Márcio S; Santos, Sonia B; Fernandez, Monica A

2004-01-01

164

Analysis of snail genes in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis: insight into snail gene family evolution.  

PubMed

The transcriptional repressor snail was first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, where it initially plays a role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation, and later plays a role in neurogenesis. Among arthropods, this role of snail appears to be conserved in the insects Tribolium and Anopheles gambiae, but not in the chelicerates Cupiennius salei and Achaearanea tepidariorum, the myriapod Glomeris marginata, or the Branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna. These data imply that within arthropoda, snail acquired its role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation in the insect lineage. However, crustaceans are a diverse group with several major taxa, making analysis of more crustaceans necessary to potentially understand the ancestral role of snail in Pancrustacea (crustaceans + insects) and thus in the ancestor of insects as well. To address these questions, we examined the snail family in the Malacostracan crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We found three snail homologs, Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2 and Ph-snail3, and one scratch homolog, Ph-scratch. Parhyale snail genes are expressed after gastrulation, during germband formation and elongation. Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2, and Ph-snail3 are expressed in distinct patterns in the neuroectoderm. Ph-snail1 is the only Parhyale snail gene expressed in the mesoderm, where its expression cycles in the mesodermal stem cells, called mesoteloblasts. The mesoteloblasts go through a series of cycles, where each cycle is composed of a migration phase and a division phase. Ph-snail1 is expressed during the migration phase, but not during the division phase. We found that as each mesoteloblast division produces one segment's worth of mesoderm, Ph-snail1 expression is linked to both the cell cycle and the segmental production of mesoderm. PMID:22466422

Hannibal, Roberta L; Price, Alivia L; Parchem, Ronald J; Patel, Nipam H

2012-05-01

165

Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ? MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ? TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ? MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ? MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of key enzymes. This results in enhanced glucose dependency and leads to cell death under low-glucose conditions. On the other hand, the reduced requirements for oxygen and nutrients from the surrounding environment, might confer the resistance to cell death induced by hypoxia and malnutrition.

Haraguchi, Misako, E-mail: haraguci@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Indo, Hiroko P. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Iwasaki, Yasumasa [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan)] [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoichiro [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Fukushige, Tomoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Majima, Hideyuki J. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Furukawa, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ozawa, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

2013-03-22

166

Fungal farming in a snail  

PubMed Central

Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria irrorata grazes fungus-infected wounds on live marsh grass throughout its range. Field experiments demonstrate a facultative, farming mutualism between Littoraria and intertidal fungi. Snails graze live grass primarily not to feed but to prepare substrate for fungal growth and consume invasive fungi. Fungal removal experiments show that snails and fungi act synergistically to suppress marsh grass production. These results provide a case of fungus farming in the marine environment and outside the class Insecta and reveal a previously undemonstrated ecological mechanism (i.e., facilitation of fungal invasion) by which grazers can exert top-down control of marine plant production. PMID:14657360

Silliman, Brian R.; Newell, Steven Y.

2003-01-01

167

Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: V - Norte fluminense mesoregion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the forth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Sul Fluminense Mesoregion from 2000 to 2002 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 18 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria peregrina; Biomphalaria straminea; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex;

Silvana C Thiengo; Aline C Mattos; M Fernanda Boaventura; Monica A Fernandez; Sonia B Santos

2004-01-01

168

Production of apple snail for space diet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g of body weight within two or three month from its egg. Several hundreds of egg are laid by one snail. It start egg laying after three months from hatching. In order to harvest 50 g for every day's meal, 3 m2 is required for rearing space. Eating apple snail and establishing its rearing system might save the food crisis on Earth.

Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

169

Molluscicidal and schistosomicidal activities of a steroidal saponin containing fraction from Dracaena fragrans (L.).  

PubMed

The steroidal saponin-containing fraction from methanolic extract of Dracaena fragrans (Family: Agavaceae) was tested for molluscicidal and ovicidal activities against Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, the snail vectors of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in Egypt, respectively. It was also tested for schistosemicidal activity in vitro on adult S. mansoni and against the free-living miracidia and cercariae of the parasite. The homogenated soft body of B. alexandrina was used to determine the effect of the saponin fraction on total protein, albumen, aminotransferase enzymes and acetylcholin esterase. The results showed that the saponin fraction had considerable molluscicidal activity; LC50 & LC90 were 2.7 ppm & 3.7 ppm for B. alexandrina and 2 ppm & 2.5 ppm for B. truncatus, respectively. Snail eggs did not hatch in concentration as low as half molluscicidal LC50 (1.35 ppm). The LC50 killed all miracidia and cercariae in 30 seconds and after 22 & 40 minutes at a very low concentration (0.165 ppm) respectively, and had in vitro lethal effect on adults with LC50 18.4 microg/ml 4 days post-exposure. The snail tissue homogenate showed significant increase in total protein content & albumen, in aminotransferases and acetylcholinesterase activities. PMID:18853630

Tadros, M M; Ghaly, N S; Moharib, M N

2008-08-01

170

Schistosomiasis in newly reclaimed areas in Egypt. 2--Patterns of transmission.  

PubMed

The distribution, abundance and seasonality of infected Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus were studied for 2 years (1992-1994) in two newly reclaimed areas, namely El Manayef and El-Morra areas located on both sides of Suez Canal near Ismailia City. The results confirm the occurrence of transmission of both Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium since infected snails of both species were recovered in these areas. This consequently proves that reclamation of parts of the desert utilizing Nile water had led to spread of schistosomiasis to these areas. Analysis of the data shows that the infected snails, especially B. alexandrina, were found clustered in a relatively few numbers of transmission sites and furthermore the greater majority of these sites were found located within a less number of transmission foci. This pattern of focality is clearly demonstrated by Geographical Information System (GIS) produced maps. Infected B. alexandrina snails fluctuated seasonally showing 2 peaks, a minor peak in August and a higher one in November. Only one peak of infected B. truncatus was recognized in July. PMID:10605512

Yousif, F; el-Emam, M; Abdel Kader, A; el-Din, A S; el-Hommossany, K; Shiff, C

1999-08-01

171

Studies on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Liberia: the prevalence and intensity of schistosomal infections in Bong County and the bionomics of the snail intermediate hosts.  

PubMed

Urine samples from 3548 individuals residing in six of the eight districts which comprise Bong County, Liberia, the project area of the Bong County Agricultural Development Project (BCADP), and fecal specimens from 3408 of these individuals were examined for schistosome ova. A total of 164 water sites, including rice paddies, were surveyed for schistosome vector snails and monthly changes in snail population density and infection rate were determined in selected water sites. Bulinus globosus was more widely distributed than Biomphalaria pfeifferi but the latter species showed a higher infection prevalence (12.3%) than the former one (10.3%). Snail population density and infection rate fluctuated with season, being higher in the dry season and lower during periods of heavy rainfall. Dessication and/or heat stress may have contributed to the contraction of snail population size at the end of the dry season. More water sites contained infected snails during December through February than at any other time of the year. In selected water sites examined at monthly intervals, mean snail density was higher in rice paddies than in other water contact sites but the latter showed a higher prevalence of infected snails than the former. The overall prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni (24.8%) was significantly higher than that of S. haematobium (22.7%) but the difference in prevalence rates of two species in school children was not statistically significant. The intensity of S. haematobium infection (13.2 means G) was significantly higher than that of S. mansoni (6.3 means G). Mixed infections in school children did not have a significant effect on egg output. The prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium showed a dramatic decline between the age groups 0-15 and 20-50 + years old; the differences between these age groups in S. mansoni infection were unremarkable. In Zota, Jorquelle and Kokoya Districts, prevalence rates of S. haematobium were higher than those of S. mansoni; the reverse was observed in Suakoko and Panta-Kpai Districts but relative prevalence rates varied according to specific locality in each district. A south to north stratification of schistosomal infection prevalence was observed similar to the west to east gradient reported by Saladin et al. (1980). New rice paddies developed during the three year operational period of the BCADP contained little or no vector snails and schistosomal infections in farm families of these paddies reflected the characteristic of the disease in corresponding localities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6138973

Dennis, E; Vorkpor, P; Holzer, B; Hanson, A; Saladin, B; Saladin, K; Degrémont, A

1983-09-01

172

A penta-substituted pyridine alkaloid from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica (Pohl) Muell. Arg. is active against Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

Jatropha elliptica is a shrub distributed throughout the north and west of Brazil and reputedly possesses a wide range of therapeutical properties. The roots of this plant possess molluscicidal activity and contain terpenoids, coumarin, lignoid, steroids and alkaloid. In the present study, we assessed the schistosomicidal, miracicidal and cercaricidal activities (against Schistosoma mansoni) and molluscicidal activities (against adults and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata) of the alkaloid diethyl 4-phenyl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate, isolated from the ethanol extract of the rhizome of J. elliptica, have been determined. The alkaloid was 100% lethal to adult schistosomes within 4 days at a concentration of 50 ?g/mL. Alterations were observed in the schistosome tegument occasioned by treatment with the alkaloid, such as formation of vesicles and vacuolisation. The extent of tegumental damage of the worm was proportional to the time of incubation and to the concentration of compound. The alkaloid also exhibited a potent cercaricidal activity (LC100 = 2 ?g/mL); it was totally ineffective against miracicidal forms of the parasite. Moreover, the alkaloid presented strong activity against adult snails (LC90 = 36.43 ?g/mL) but was inactive against their egg masses. It is observed then the potential of this compound for the development of new therapies for the treatment of schistosomiasis. PMID:24500523

dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Fonseca, Saskya Araújo; César, Fernanda Andrade; de Azevedo Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessoa; Santana, José Valfrido; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

2014-03-01

173

Schistosomiasis in Kano State, Nigeria. I. Human infections near dam sites and the distribution and habitat preferences of potential snail intermediate hosts.  

PubMed

Stool and urine samples from 813 schoolchildren and adults from the Tomas and Rimin Gado dam areas of Kano State, Nigeria, showed Schistosoma haematobium to be present at both localities with prevalences of 26.6 and 36.8%, respectively. No cases of S. mansoni were found. The prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium was low and similar in both study areas. Statistical analysis revealed a correlation between prevalence and location, but no evident association with professed patterns of water contact. Investigation of 165 freshwater habitats throughout the state revealed the presence of a number of potential snail intermediate host species, namely Bulinus senegalensis, B. forskali, B. globosus, B. rohlfsi and Biomphalaria pfeifferi. The most widespread species was Bulinus senegalensis, which inhabited shallow pools and excavations on a variety of substrata. Its habitats were typically devoid of aquatic vegetation and included those with highly turbid waters and conductivities as low as 11 microseconds. Bulinus forskali was by contrast relatively rare, occurring in more permanent water courses, although it was often found in mixed populations with B. senegalensis. Bulinus globosus also occurred in seasonally rainfilled pools, but was confined to areas south of the 12 degrees N parallel, and its habitats tended to have a well-developed aquatic flora and clear water. The dominant species in man-made lakes was B. rohlfsi, which occurred in both the Tomas and Rimin Gado reservoirs. Biomphalaria pfeifferi was also primarily lake dwelling, although all species save B. senegalensis were found in irrigation canals. PMID:3256277

Betterton, C; Ndifon, G T; Bassey, S E; Tan, R M; Oyeyi, T

1988-12-01

174

Cercarial Dermatitis Transmitted by Exotic Marine Snail  

PubMed Central

Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer’s itch) is caused by the penetration of human skin by cercariae of schistosome parasites that develop in and are released from snail hosts. Cercarial dermatitis is frequently acquired in freshwater habitats, and less commonly in marine or estuarine waters. To investigate reports of a dermatitis outbreak in San Francisco Bay, California, we surveyed local snails for schistosome infections during 2005–2008. We found schistosomes only in Haminoea japonica, an Asian snail first reported in San Francisco Bay in 1999. Genetic markers place this schistosome within a large clade of avian schistosomes, but do not match any species for which there are genetic data. It is the second known schistosome species to cause dermatitis in western North American coastal waters; these species are transmitted by exotic snails. Introduction of exotic hosts can support unexpected emergence of an unknown parasite with serious medical or veterinary implications. PMID:20735918

Cohen, Andrew N.; James, David; Hui, Lucia; Hom, Albert; Loker, Eric S.

2010-01-01

175

Molluscicidal activity of Solanum species of the Northeast of Brazil on Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

Seven species of Solanum were screened for their molluscicidal properties against Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediated host of Schistosoma mansoni, Solanum agrarium, S. jabrense, S. melissarum, S. megalonyx, S. paludosum, S. paraibanum and S. stipulaceum. Four extracts showed molluscicidal activity with LC(50) from 22 to 56 microg/ml. PMID:16842935

Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Câmara, Celso Amorim; Agra, Maria de Fátima; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo; Frana, Marli Terezinha; Brandoline, Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco; da Silva Paschoal, Luciana; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

2006-09-01

176

Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria mollusks at São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using geostatistical procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geostatistics is used in this work to make inferences about the presence of the species of Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and\\/or B. straminea), intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, at the São Francisco River Basin, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of these geostatistical procedures, known as indicator kriging, allows the classification of categorical data, in areas where the data are

Ricardo J. P. S. Guimarães; Corina C. Freitas; Luciano V. Dutra; Carlos A. Felgueiras; Ana C. M. Moura; Ronaldo S. Amaral; Sandra C. Drummond; Ronaldo G. C. Scholte; Guilherme Oliveira; Omar S. Carvalho

2009-01-01

177

Snail1 Expression Is Required for Sarcomagenesis12  

PubMed Central

Snail1 transcriptional repressor is a major inducer of epithelial-to mesenchymal transition but is very limitedly expressed in adult animals. We have previously demonstrated that Snail1 is required for the maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), preventing their premature differentiation. Now, we show that Snail1 controls the tumorigenic properties of mesenchymal cells. Increased Snail1 expression provides tumorigenic capabilities to fibroblastic cells; on the contrary, Snail1 depletion decreases tumor growth. Genetic depletion of Snail1 in MSCs that are deficient in p53 tumor suppressor downregulates MSC markers and prevents the capability of these cells to originate sarcomas in immunodeficient SCID mice. Notably, an analysis of human sarcomas shows that, contrarily to epithelial tumors, these neoplasms display high Snail1 expression. This is particularly clear for undifferentiated tumors, which are associated with poor outcome. Together, our results indicate a role for Snail1 in the generation of sarcomas. PMID:24947186

Alba-Castellon, Lorena; Batlle, Raquel; Franci, Clara; Fernandez-Acenero, Maria J.; Mazzolini, Rocco; Pena, Raul; Loubat, Jordina; Alameda, Francesc; Rodriguez, Rufo; Curto, Josue; Albanell, Joan; Munoz, Alberto; Bonilla, Felix; Ignacio Casal, J.; Rojo, Federico; Garcia de Herreros, Antonio

2014-01-01

178

Histopathological effects of copper on selected epithelial tissues of snails  

SciTech Connect

The exposure of freshwater snails to copper sulfate has several harmful effects on the snails. These effects include several physiological disturbances as well as certain behavioral and histological changes. On the strength of these findings it was decided to investigate, by means of transmission electron microscopy, whether histological changes occur in the surface epithelium of the snail Bulinus tropicus after exposure to copper sulfate.

Wolmarans, C.T.; van Aardt, W.J.; Coetzee, J.

1986-06-01

179

Snail–periphyton interactions in a prairie lacustrine wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of nutrients and macrophytes on snail grazers and periphyton in a prairie wetland food web. Snails (Gyraulus circumstriatus) and periphyton in large enclosures in a lacustrine wetland, Delta Marsh, MB, Canada were subjected to two experimental treatments, nutrient addition (nitrogen, phosphorus) and macrophyte exclusion (using a porous geotextile carpet) during July and August. Snail biomass

B. J. Hann; C. J. Mundy; L. G. Goldsborough

2001-01-01

180

Snail-periphyton interactions in a prairie lacustrine wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of nutrients and macrophytes on snail grazers and periphyton in a prairie wetland food web. Snails (Gyraulus circumstriatus) and periphyton in large enclosures in a lacustrine wetland, Delta Marsh, MB, Canada were subjected to two experimental treatments, nutrient addition (nitrogen, phosphorus) and macrophyte exclusion (using a porous geotextile carpet) during July and August. Snail biomass

B. J. Hann; C. J. Mundy; L. G. Goldsborough

2001-01-01

181

Epigenetic Regulation of EMT: The Snail Story  

PubMed Central

While the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a fundamental role during development, its deregulation can adversely promote tumor metastasis. The phenotypic and cellular plasticity of EMT indicates that it is subject to epigenetic regulation. In this review, we try to embrace recent findings on the mechanisms of the transcription factor Snail-mediated E-cadherin silencing, which is a hallmark of EMT. Our studies as well as those of others have clearly demonstrated that Snail can recruit multiple chromatin enzymes including LSD1, HDAC1/2, PRC2, G9a and Suv39H1 to the E-cadherin promoter. These enzymes function in a highly orchestrated fashion to generate heterochromatin and promote DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-mediated DNA methylation at the promoter region. Disruption of the connection between Snail and these chromatin-modifying enzymes may represent an efficient strategy for the treatment of EMT-related diseases. PMID:23888971

Lin, Yiwei; Dong, Chenfang; Zhou, Binhua P.

2014-01-01

182

[Temporary and permanent breeding sites for Biomphalaria in Jaboatão dos Guararapes, PE].  

PubMed

A malacological survey of permanent and temporary breeding sites was conducted in the Piedade neighborhood of Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, between November 2006 and November 2007, with the aim of determining the malacological fauna at this locality, along with the potential for Schistosomiasis mansoni transmission. In addition to Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818), the molluscs Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1837), Pomacea sp and Melanoides tuberculatus (Muller, 1774) were collected. Among the specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata that were collected, 1,490 were found alive, and 74 (5%) were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. The largest numbers of molluscs collected, and all of the specimens that were positive for Schistosoma mansoni, were collected during the annual rainy season. The presence of larvae of other trematodes infecting the Biomphalaria glabrata molluscs was also observed. These trematodes were from the families Strigeidae and Diplostomatidae and, at first sight, they presented morphology that could lead to confusion with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Thus, knowledge of these trematodes becomes essential for the differential diagnosis of the etiological agent for schistosomiasis. PMID:18719804

Souza, Marco Antônio Andrade de; Barbosa, Verônica Santos; Wanderlei, Tereza Neuma Guedes; Barbosa, Constança Simões

2008-01-01

183

Novel pharmacological targets from Indian cone snails.  

PubMed

The oceans are a source of combinatorial library of unique natural products, 'not found in the terrestrial environment'. Marine invertebrates such as sponges, molluscs, bryozoans, tunicates (Urochordata) and their associated microorganisms are the major representatives of promising bioactive compounds. Among these, the predatory molluscan cone snails have evolved with highly structured small and complex array of peptides (more than 50,000) linked to their prey capture and defence. These peptides have become a valuable source of neuro pharmacological targets as many of them selectively modulate ion channels and transporters. A group of scientists from United States, Europe, Australia, Israel and China have been characterized drugs for neuropathic pain and pharmacological targets from the peptides of a few cone snail species. Several are now in Clinical and preclinical development. Less than 1% of the cono peptides are pharmacologically characterized. India has a diversity of 20-30% of total cone snail species distributed worldwide. A group of Indian Scientists have made promising drug discovery programs from Conus peptides. This review will focus on the Conus peptides from Indian cone snails species, their neuro pharmacological targets and future directions. PMID:21222583

Ramasamy, M Santhana; Manikandan, S

2011-02-01

184

Mate desertion in the snail kite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mate desertion during the breeding cycle was documented at 28 of 36 (78%) snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis nests in Florida between 1979 and 1983. Offspring mortality occurred at only one deserted nest, however. Parents that were deserted by their mates continued to care for their young until independence (3?5 additional weeks) and provided snails at a rate similar to that of both parents combined before desertion. Males and females deserted with nearly equal frequency, except in 1982 when more females deserted. No desertion occurred during drought years, whereas desertion occurred at nearly every nest during favourable conditions. The occurrence of mate desertion was generally related to indirect measures of snail abundance: foraging range, snail delivery rates to the young and growth rates. Small broods were deserted more frequently by females than by males and tended to be deserted earlier than large ones. After desertion, deserters had the opportunity to re-mate and nest again since breeding seasons were commonly lengthy, but whether they did so was impossible to determine conclusively in most cases. The deserted bird sometimes incurred increased energetic costs and lost breeding opportunities during periods of monoparental care.

Beissinger, S.R.; Snyder, N.F.R.

1988-01-01

185

Seasonality in the transmission of schistosomiasis and in populations of its snail intermediate hosts in and around a sugar irrigation scheme at Richard Toll, Senegal.  

PubMed

Irrigation for intensive sugar cultivation started in the early 1980s at Richard Toll, some 100 km from the mouth of the Senegal River. Infections with Schistosoma mansoni were first seen in late 1988. This study records quantitative snail surveys for over 3 years from 1992 at sites representing different habitats in and around the irrigation scheme. Populations of both Biomphalaria pfeifferi (the intermediate host of S. mansoni) and Bulinus spp. (mainly B. truncatus, the local host of S. boris) peaked in late 'spring' or early 'summer', depending on the habitat, and then remained low until the following spring', B. pfeifferi favoured smaller, man-made habitats with most transmission between May and August each year. The less abundant Bulinus spp. favoured larger natural and man-made habitats with most S. bovis transmission between April and July. S. mansoni infections were more, but S. bovis infections were less abundant than other trematodes in their respective snail hosts. Ecological changes in the early 1980s due to sugar irrigation pre-dated similar, more widespread changes in the late 1980s when the completion of dams across the Senegal River prevented seasonal rain fed floods and sea water intrusion. S. mansoni has since spread rapidly around Richard Toll. The incompatibility of the local S. haematobium strains with the dominant bulinid snails has so far prevented an epidemic of urinary schistosomiasis at Richard Toll, but the invasion of similar downstream habitats by susceptible B. globosus is worrying. The principal control measure, chemotherapy, given in the 'winter' would minimise the rate of reinfection. It could be reinforced by judicious mollusciciding within the sugar irrigation scheme but not elsewhere. PMID:11769294

Sturrock, R F; Diaw, O T; Talla, I; Niang, M; Piau, J P; Capron, A

2001-01-01

186

Biogeography: molecular trails from hitch-hiking snails.  

PubMed

Darwin was fascinated by the transportation of land snails across great swathes of open ocean by birds--he even immersed snails in sea water to see how long they would survive. Here we follow a molecular phylogenetic trail that reveals the incredible transequatorial dispersal of the land snail Balea from Europe to the Azores and the Tristan da Cunha islands, and back again. This long-distance dispersal is unexpected for what are proverbially considered the most pedestrian of creatures. PMID:16437103

Gittenberger, Edmund; Groenenberg, Dick S J; Kokshoorn, Bas; Preece, Richard C

2006-01-26

187

Author's personal copy Exposure of the snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to herbicide  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Exposure of the snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to herbicide boosts output investigated the effect of exposure of infected snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, to different concentrations

Poulin, Robert

188

Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

2013-01-01

189

A monosynaptic connection between identified snail neurons.  

PubMed

Electrophysiological and morphological studies of a monosynaptic connection are performed on specimens of the isolated CNS of the snail Achatina fulica, using the standard techniques of intracellular leading-off and neuron stimulation and intracellular pressure injection of cobalt chloride. The presence of a monosynaptic connection between two identified neurons is demonstrated both in the physiological experiment and by means of the intracellular dye. PMID:2366937

Berezhnaya, L A; Balaban, P M

1990-01-01

190

Karyological Studies of Biomphalaria tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835) (Gastropoda: Planobidae) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The karyotypes of Biomphalaria tenagophila collected from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied using the air-drying method. Somatic cells of this species had 2n=36. The 18 chromosome pairs were identified and classified into 3 groups. The diploid cell has 7 pairs of metacentric, 8 pairs of submetacentric, and 3 pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Observed chromosomes ranged from 2.4 to 6.4 µm, and the total length was 122.3 µm. This is the first report on the chromosome of B. tenagophila. PMID:25246727

Yong, Tai-Soon

2014-01-01

191

How a single gene twists a snail.  

PubMed

The gastropod Lymnaea has unique features, that is, chirality, sinistrality, or dextrality, is displayed externally as well as internally, and is hereditary, being determined by a single-locus that functions maternally at the very early embryonic stage. Both sinistral and dextral snails exist in nature with the dextral one being dominant. Thus, the genus Lymnaea is an ideal target for studying chiromorphogenesis. This article gives a brief overview of the current state of research on chiromorphogenesis of Lymnaea (L.) stagnalis, mainly focusing on our own studies. Breeding experiments were performed and embryonic development was closely observed for the both chiralities. By fluorescently labeling filamentous actin and microtubules, cytoskeletal dynamics of spiral cleavages for the sinistral and dextral embryos were shown not to be mirror images of each other at the critical third-cleavage. The spiral deformation and spindle inclination were uniquely observed only in the dominant dextral embryos, and they were shown to be strongly linked to the gene determining the direction of chirality. Based on these findings, we created fertile snails of situs inversus by micromanipulation at the third-cleavage. Surprisingly, the arrangement of the blastomere regulates asymmetric expression of nodal-Pitx genes in later development. The expression patterns display interesting similarity and dissimilarity with those of the vertebrates. Thus, study of L. stagnalis has given an insight into "how a single gene twists a snail." PMID:24994072

Kuroda, Reiko

2014-10-01

192

Dragonfly predators influence biomass and density of pond snails.  

PubMed

Studies in lakes show that fish and crayfish predators play an important role in determining the abundance of freshwater snails. In contrast, there are few studies of snails and their predators in shallow ponds and marshes. Ponds often lack fish and crayfish but have abundant insect populations. Here we present the results of field surveys, laboratory foraging trials, and an outdoor mesocosm experiment, testing the hypothesis that insects are important predators of pulmonate snails. In laboratory foraging trials, conducted with ten species of insects, most insect taxa consumed snails, and larval dragonflies were especially effective predators. The field surveys showed that dragonflies constitute the majority of the insect biomass in fishless ponds. More focused foraging trials evaluated the ability of the dragonflies Anax junius and Pantala hymenaea to prey upon different sizes and species of pulmonate snails (Helisoma trivolvis, Physa acuta, and Stagnicola elodes). Anax junius consumed all three species up to the maximum size tested. Pantala hymenaea consumed snails with a shell height of 3 mm and smaller, but did not kill larger snails. P. acuta were more vulnerable to predators than were H. trivolvis or S. elodes. In the mesocosm experiment, conducted with predator treatments of A. junius, P. hymenaea, and the hemipteran Belostoma flumineum, insect predators had a pronounced negative effect on snail biomass and density. A. junius and B. flumineum reduced biomass and density to a similar degree, and both reduced biomass more than did P. hymenaea. Predators did not have a strong effect on species composition. A model suggested that A. junius and P. hymenaea have the largest effects on snail biomass in the field. Given that both pulmonate snails and dragonfly nymphs are widespread and abundant in marshes and ponds, snail assemblages in these water bodies are likely regulated in large part by odonate predation. PMID:17457617

Turner, Andrew M; Chislock, Michael F

2007-08-01

193

Barriers, repellents and antifeedants for slug and snail control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of various products with potential for slug and snail control in horticulture and agriculture. The products tested were cinnamamide, copper ammonium carbonate, garlic, aluminium and copper foil, a mulch, ureaformaldehyde and the proprietary products SnailBan® and Tex-R® matting. The trials were carried out using the slug Deroceras panormitanum (Lessona and Pollonera,

I Schüder; G. Port; J. Bennison

2003-01-01

194

Vineyard snail Cernuella virgata Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Vineyard snail Cernuella virgata Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. The vineyard snail

195

Predation Risk and Avoidance Behavior in Two Freshwater Snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the predator avoidance behav- iors of two common freshwater snails, Physella virgata and Planorbella trivolvis, to the crayfish Procambarus simulans. In response to crayfish predation, the snails crawled above the waterline for several hours, then re- turned to the water. A significant size-dependent rela- tionship existed between crawlout (vertical migration above the waterline) and vulnerability to predation. All

JAMES E. ALEXANDER; ALAN P. COVICH

1991-01-01

196

Supercharged Snails for Stream Ecology & Water-Quality Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gill-breathing freshwater snails (Family "Pleuroceridae") are ecologically important, abundant in many streams in the United States, and easy to collect and maintain under classroom conditions. These snails can be used in classroom tests to demonstrate effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. In more advanced classes, students can cage the…

Stewart, Arthur J.; Ryon, Michael G.

2003-01-01

197

Snail silencing effectively suppresses tumour growth and invasiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor Snail has been recently proposed as an important mediator of tumour invasion because of its role in downregulation of E-cadherin and induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transitions (EMT). This behaviour has led to the consideration of Snail as a potential therapeutic target to block tumour progression. In this report, we provide evidence for this hypothesis. We show that silencing

D Olmeda; M Jordá; H Peinado; Á Fabra; A Cano

2007-01-01

198

Phenotypic plasticity of the introduced New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, compared to sympatric native snails.  

PubMed

Phenotypic plasticity is likely to be important in determining the invasive potential of a species, especially if invasive species show greater plasticity or tolerance compared to sympatric native species. Here in two separate experiments we compare reaction norms in response to two environmental variables of two clones of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, isolated from the United States, (one invasive and one not yet invasive) with those of two species of native snails that are sympatric with the invader, Fossaria bulimoides group and Physella gyrina group. We placed juvenile snails in environments with high and low conductivity (300 and 800 mS) in one experiment, and raised them at two different temperatures (16 °C and 22 °C) in a second experiment. Growth rate and mortality were measured over the course of 8 weeks. Mortality rates were higher in the native snails compared to P. antipodarum across all treatments, and variation in conductivity influenced mortality. In both experiments, reaction norms did not vary significantly between species. There was little evidence that the success of the introduced species is a result of greater phenotypic plasticity to these variables compared to the sympatric native species. PMID:24699685

Levri, Edward P; Krist, Amy C; Bilka, Rachel; Dybdahl, Mark F

2014-01-01

199

The Mitochondrial Genome of the Venomous Cone Snail Conus consors  

PubMed Central

Cone snails are venomous predatory marine neogastropods that belong to the species-rich superfamily of the Conoidea. So far, the mitochondrial genomes of two cone snail species (Conus textile and Conus borgesi) have been described, and these feed on snails and worms, respectively. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the fish-hunting cone snail Conus consors and describe a novel putative control region (CR) which seems to be absent in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of other cone snail species. This possible CR spans about 700 base pairs (bp) and is located between the genes encoding the transfer RNA for phenylalanine (tRNA-Phe, trnF) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). The novel putative CR contains several sequence motifs that suggest a role in mitochondrial replication and transcription. PMID:23236512

Brauer, Age; Kurz, Alexander; Stockwell, Tim; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Heidler, Juliana; Wittig, Ilka; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Stocklin, Reto; Remm, Maido

2012-01-01

200

North American Paleozoic land snails with a summary of other Paleozoic nonmarine snails  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land snails from the Paleozoic of North America are known from the coal fields of eastern Canada, from the Dunkard basin west of the Allegheny Mountains, and from the western margin of the Illinois basin. The earliest finds were made about 125 years ago; essentially no new information has been recorded for a century. Large collections of Anthracopupa from the Dunkard basin sparked inquiry into the land snails from the other two areas. Studies using the SEM (scanning electron microscope) have provided considerable insight into microdetails of shell structure, which allow systematic assignment of these gastropods. All may be assigned to extant families, except one, for which insufficient material allows only superfamily assignment. The prosobranch Dawsonella is confirmed as being a terrestrial neritacean gastropod. To date, it is known only from the upper Middle Pennsylvanian of Illinois and Indiana. All the other Paleozoic land snails are stylommatophoran pulmonates; their current classification as nonmarine cyclophoraceans is not correct. Restudy of material from the Joggins section of Nova Scotia indicates that representatives of two ordinal groups of pulmonates appeared simultaneously in upper Lower Pennsylvanian strata; the oldest land prosobranch is found in only very slightly younger rocks. Zonites (Conulus) priscus is reassigned to the new genus Protodiscus in the extant family Discidae. Dendropupa is placed within the family Enidae, Anthraaopupa is placed in the family Tornatellinidae, and 'Pupa' bigsbii is assigned to the superfamily Pupillacea. All four of these family-level taxa are diverse and belong to two orders within the superorder Stylommatophora, heretofore considered a derived rather than an ancestral stock. Anthracopupa ohioensis Whitfield is a highly variable species, and two other species Naticopsis (?) diminuta and A.(?) dunkardona, both named by Stauffer and Schroyer, are placed in synonymy with it. To obtain taxonomic data to support the family placement of Anthracopupa, growth forms of modern pupillid and tornatellinid snails have been distinguished. The apertural barriers in Anthracopupa are identical in placement and growth pattern with those of living Tornatellinidae and independently confirm the family placement derived from study of the general form. One new species, A. sturgeoni, has been named. Anthracopupa is found most commonly in thin limestones interpreted as having been deposited in pools into which the small shells floated. Dendropupa is most commonly found in erect tree stumps that were covered by rapid sedimentation. Both environments are similar to those in which the shells of allied living species may be found today, and the fossils support environmental interpretations made entirely from lithology. A survey of the few European occurrences of Paleozoic land snails indicates that both Anthracopupa and Dendropupa occur in Lower Permian strata; Anthracopupa is known from beds as old as Westphalian B. These genera cannot be used for determining the Carboniferous-Permian boundary. Both the long local stratigraphic range of A. brittanica and D. vetusta reported in the literature and the moderately long range and great variability of A. ohioensis suggest that the land snails have little stratigraphic utility. On the other hand, the occurrence of these land snails in the late Paleozoic of the Northern Hemisphere provides further fossil evidence suggestive of a closed Atlantic Ocean at that time. A comparison of the Paleozoic and the present distributions of land -snail families on both sides of the Atlantic provides some interesting data on geographic shifts of organisms. Finally, the assignment of the earliest land snails to extant taxa at the family level indicates that the subclass Pulmonata has been very conservative in its evolution after initial radiation. A few notes on Paleozoic freshwater snails complete this survey.

Solem, Alan; Yochelson, Ellis Leon

1979-01-01

201

A SNAIL'S SPACE SETS A SNAIL'S PACE: MOVEMENT RATES OF LAVIGERIA GASTROPODS IN LAKE TANGANYIKA, EAST AFRICA  

E-print Network

A SNAIL'S SPACE SETS A SNAIL'S PACE: MOVEMENT RATES OF LAVIGERIA GASTROPODS IN LAKE TANGANYIKA gastropods are diverse and common in the benthos of Lake Tanganyika. We used in situ studies of marked of three closely related species of gastropods in Lake Tanganyika. In addition to potential interspecific

McIntyre, Peter

202

To flee or not to flee? Risk assessment by a marine snail in multiple cue environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine snails have two predator avoidance strategies: withdrawing into the refuge of their shells and fleeing by crawling away. Here we exposed the marine snail, Nucella ostrina, to water-borne cues from injured prey and a common predatory crab, singly and in combination. We determined whether snails avoided cues from the different cue sources and quantified how long snails spent in

Megan E. Mach; Paul E. Bourdeau

203

Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally. An age structure and size of snail population are optimized on the base of individual growth and metabolic characteristics with the help of the second submodel "Population". In this simulation a daily amount of snail meat consumed by crewmembers is a guideline which specifies population productivity. Also, the daily amount of snail meat may have an optional value. Prescribed population characteristics are used in the third submodel "Mass balance" to equalize input and output mass flow rates of snail facility. In this submodel we add a water and ash to the organic masses of feed, meat, feces, shell and eggs. Moreover, masses of calcium carbonate and potable water are added to the left side of mass balance equations. Mass of calcium carbonate is distributed among shell, feces and eggs. Summarizing the twelve equations for each snail age, we get the mass balance equation for the snail facility. All simulations are performed by using Solver Add-In for Excel 2007.

Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

204

Larval excretory-secretory products from the parasite Schistosoma mansoni modulate HSP70 protein expression in defence cells of its snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) following cellular stress is a response shared by many organisms. Amongst the HSP\\u000a family, the ?70 kDa HSPs are the most evolutionarily conserved with intracellular chaperone and extracellular immunoregulatory\\u000a functions. This study focused on the effects of larval excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from the parasite Schistosoma mansoni on HSP70 protein expression levels in haemocytes (defence cells)

Zahida Zahoor; Angela J. Davies; Ruth S. Kirk; David Rollinson; Anthony John Walker

2010-01-01

205

[Freshwater snails of the Campus of Manguinhos, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, RJ].  

PubMed

A survey of freshwater gastropods of the Campus of Manguinhos, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, was carried out during the last two years aiming to compare the current species with those found at the beginning of this century. Among 18 breeding sites in 880,000m2 of the surveyed area, 13 showed the following species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria straminea; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa cubensis; Pomacea glauca and Pomacea lineata. Notably, Biomphalaria tenagophila reported by Lutz in 1918, had disappeared and B. straminea and the Asiatic thiarid M. tuberculatus had been introduced. No specimens infected with Schistosoma mansoni were found. PMID:11460215

Fernandez, M A; Thiengo, S C; Boaventura, M F

2001-01-01

206

Chiral Speciation in Terrestrial Pulmonate Snails  

PubMed Central

On the basis of data in the literature, the percentages of dextral versus sinistral species of snails have been calculated for western Europe, Turkey, North America (north of Mexico), and Japan. When the family of Clausiliidae is represented, about a quarter of all snail species may be sinistral, whereas less than one per cent of the species may be sinistral where that family does not occur. The number of single-gene speciation events on the basis of chirality, resulting in the origin of mirror image species, is not closely linked to the percentage of sinistral versus dextral species in a particular region. Turkey is nevertheless exceptional by both a high percentage of sinistral species and a high number of speciation events resulting in mirror image species. Shell morphology and genetic background may influence the ease of chirality-linked speciation, whereas sinistrality may additionally be selected against by internal selection. For the Clausiliidae, the fossil record and the recent fauna suggest that successful reversals in coiling direction occurred with a frequency of once every three to four million years. PMID:22532825

Gittenberger, Edmund; Hamann, Thomas D.; Asami, Takahiro

2012-01-01

207

Crawling beneath the free surface: Water snail locomotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land snails move via adhesive locomotion. Through muscular contraction and expansion of their foot, they transmit waves of shear stress through a thin layer of mucus onto a solid substrate. Since a free surface cannot support shear stress, adhesive locomotion is not a viable propulsion mechanism for water snails that travel inverted beneath the free surface. Nevertheless, the motion of the freshwater snail, Sorbeoconcha physidae, is reminiscent of that of its terrestrial counterparts, being generated by the undulation of the snail foot that is separated from the free surface by a thin layer of mucus. Here, a lubrication model is used to describe the mucus flow in the limit of small-amplitude interfacial deformations. By assuming the shape of the snail foot to be a traveling sine wave and the mucus to be Newtonian, an evolution equation for the interface shape is obtained and the resulting propulsive force on the snail is calculated. This propulsive force is found to be nonzero for moderate values of the capillary number but vanishes in the limits of high and low capillary number. Physically, this force arises because the snail's foot deforms the free surface, thereby generating curvature pressures and lubrication flows inside the mucus layer that couple to the topography of the foot.

Lee, Sungyon; Bush, John W. M.; Hosoi, A. E.; Lauga, Eric

2008-08-01

208

In vivo studies on inhibition and recovery of B-esterase activities in Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to azinphos-methyl: analysis of enzyme, substrate and tissue dependence.  

PubMed

Cholinesterases and carboxylesterases belong to the group of B-esterases, the serine superfamily of esterases that are inhibited by organophosphorus compounds. It is now generally accepted that before using the B-esterases as biomarkers of exposure to organophosphorus and carbamates in a given species, the biochemical characteristics of these enzymes should be carefully studied. In this study, the enzyme/s and the tissue/s to be selected as sensitive biomarkers of organophosphorus exposition in the freshwater gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata were investigated. Firstly, the substrate dependence of cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities in whole organism soft tissue and in different tissues of the snail (head-foot, pulmonary region, digestive gland, and gonads) was analyzed. Measurements of cholinesterase activity were performed using three substrates: acetylthiocholine (AcSCh), propionylthiocholine (PrSCh), and butyrylthiocholine (BuSCh). Carboxylesterase activity was determined using four different substrates: 1-naphthyl acetate (1-NA), 2-naphthyl acetate (2-NA), p-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA), and p-nitrophenyl butyrate (p-NPB). Regardless of the tissue analyzed, the highest specific activity was obtained when using AcSCh, followed by PrSCh. Cholinesterase activity measured with BuSCh was very low in all cases. On the other hand, the highest cholinesterase activity was measured in head-foot and in pulmonary region, representing in the case of AcSCh hydrolysis 196% and 180% of the activity measured in whole organism soft tissue, respectively. In contrast, AcSCh hydrolysis in digestive gland and gonads was 28% and 50% of that measured in whole organism soft tissue. Regarding carboxylesterase activity, although all tissues hydrolyzed the four substrates assayed, substrate preferences varied among tissues. In particular, digestive glands showed higher carboxylesterase activity than the other tissues (299%, 359% and 137% of whole organism soft tissue activity) when measured with 1-NA, 2-NA and p-NPA as substrates, respectively. In contrast, with p-NPB as substrate, the highest carboxylesterase activity was observed in pulmonary region. Exposure of the snails for 48 h to azinphos-methyl concentrations in the range of 0.05-2.5 mg L?¹ resulted in different degrees of inhibition of cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities, depending on the enzyme, pesticide concentration, the substrate, and the tissue analyzed. In general, carboxylesterase activity measured with p-NPA and p-NPB was much more sensitive to azinphos-methyl inhibition than cholinesterase activity. The results also showed that while B-esterase activities in whole organism soft tissue and pulmonary region recovered completely within 14 days, carboxylesterase activity in digestive glands remained highly inhibited. On the whole, the results of the present study emphasize how important it is to characterize and measure cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities jointly to make a proper assessment of the impact of organophosphorus pesticides in non-target species. PMID:22360939

Kristoff, Gisela; Barrionuevo, Daniela Chiny; Cacciatore, Luis C; Guerrero, Noemí R Verrengia; Cochón, Adriana C

2012-05-15

209

The Role of Snail in EMT and Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved process in which polarized, immotile epithelial cells lose adherent and tight junctions, and become migratory mesenchymal cells. As a key transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin expression in EMT, Snail plays an important role in embryonic development and cancer progression. Emerging evidences indicate that Snail confers tumor cells with cancer stem cell-like traits, and promotes drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. In this review, we summarize recent developments underlying the regulation and functions of Snail in tumor progression, and discuss new approaches against EMT in preventing metastatic cancers. PMID:24168186

Chai, Kequn; Ying, Xuhua; Zhou, Binhua P.

2014-01-01

210

Seasonal changes in cryoprotectants concentrations in Helix pomatia snails.  

PubMed

Terrestrial snails are often exposed to freezing. Therefore, we investigated seasonal shifts in hemolymph concentrations of cryoprotectants such as glycerol and glucose. We also investigated whether summer acclimation to cold and short-day photoperiod induced synthesis of cryoprotectants in Helix pomatia snails. Concentrations of the both cryoprotectants were elevated in winter and reduced in summer. These changes, however, were not correlated with shifts in liver glycogen content. Summer acclimation to cold (5 degrees C) and short-day photoperiod evoked a selective increase in glycerol concentration. In conclusion, glycerol may play a role in adaptation of the snails to winter cold and glucose is rather unlikely to provide the cryoprotection. PMID:17242476

Nowakowska, A; Caputa, M; Rogalska, J

2006-11-01

211

Energy saving through trail following in a marine snail.  

PubMed

Most snails and slugs locomote over a layer of mucus and although the resultant mucus trail is expensive to produce, we show that this expense can be reduced by trail following. When tracking over fresh conspecific trails, the marine intertidal snail Littorina littorea (L.) produced only approximately 27% of the mucus laid by marker snails. When tracking over weathered trails, snails adjusted their mucus production to recreate a convex trail profile of similar shape and thickness to the trail as originally laid. Maximum energy saving occurs when following recently laid trails which are little weathered. Many and diverse ecological roles for trail following have been proposed. Energy saving is the only role that applies across the Gastropoda and so may help to explain why trail following is such a well-established behaviour. PMID:17327203

Davies, Mark S; Blackwell, Janine

2007-05-01

212

Astronomers Follow Distant Galaxy at a Snail's Pace  

NSF Publications Database

... Press Release 05-027Astronomers Follow Distant Galaxy at a Snail's Pace M33 tracked across the sky ... radio-optical composite of M33, the first galaxy to have its motion tracked across the sky.

213

Controlled Chaos of Polymorphic Mucins in a Metazoan Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) Interacting with Its Invertebrate Host (Biomphalaria glabrata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites.

Emmanuel Roger; Christoph Grunau; Raymond J. Pierce; Hirohisa Hirai; Benjamin Gourbal; Richard Galinier; Rémi Emans; Italo M. Cesari; Céline Cosseau; Guillaume Mitta

2008-01-01

214

Sequestration of lichen compounds by three species of terrestrial snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of lichen-grazing snails,Balea perversa, Chondria clienta, andHelicigona lapicida, all from the Swedish island of Öland, were found to sequester lichen compounds when feeding on the crustous lichen speciesAspicila calcarea, Caloplaca flavovirescens, Lecanora muralis, Physcia adscendens, Tephromela atra, andXanthoria parietina. The lichen compounds detected in the soft bodies of the snail species analyzed included the anthraquinone parietin, the depside

Sonja Hesbacher; Bruno Baur; Anette Baur; Peter Proksch

1995-01-01

215

The lipids of slugs and snails: Evolution, diet and biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a considerable gap in current knowledge of the lipid composition of snails and slugs, both of which belong to the\\u000a phylum Mollusca. We have therefore analyzed the sterol and fatty acid compositions of three species of slugs and three species\\u000a of snails. The sterols of slugs included eight different sterols: cholesterol contributed 76–85% of the total sterols, brassicasterol

Ning Zhu; Xiaonan Dai; Don S. Lin; William E. Connor

1994-01-01

216

Dragonfly predators influence biomass and density of pond snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in lakes show that fish and crayfish predators play an important role in determining the abundance of freshwater snails.\\u000a In contrast, there are few studies of snails and their predators in shallow ponds and marshes. Ponds often lack fish and crayfish\\u000a but have abundant insect populations. Here we present the results of field surveys, laboratory foraging trials, and an

Andrew M. Turner; Michael F. Chislock

2007-01-01

217

Camouflaged or tanned: plasticity in freshwater snail pigmentation  

PubMed Central

By having phenotypically plastic traits, many organisms optimize their fitness in response to fluctuating threats. Freshwater snails with translucent shells, e.g. snails from the Radix genus, differ considerably in their mantle pigmentation patterns, with snails from the same water body ranging from being completely dark pigmented to having only a few dark patterns. These pigmentation differences have previously been suggested to be genetically fixed, but we propose that this polymorphism is owing to phenotypic plasticity in response to a fluctuating environment. Hence, we here aimed to assess whether common stressors, including ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and predation, induce a plastic response in mantle pigmentation patterns of Radix balthica. We show, in contrast to previous studies, that snails are plastic in their expression of mantle pigmentation in response to changes in UVR and predator threats, i.e. differences among populations are not genetically fixed. When exposed to cues from visually hunting fish, R. balthica increased the proportion of their dark pigmentation, suggesting a crypsis strategy. Snails increased their pigmentation even further in response to UVR, but this also led to a reduction in pattern complexity. Furthermore, when exposed to UVR and fish simultaneously, snails responded in the same way as in the UVR treatment, suggesting a trade-off between photoprotection and crypsis. PMID:24046875

Ahlgren, Johan; Yang, Xi; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Bronmark, Christer

2013-01-01

218

Camouflaged or tanned: plasticity in freshwater snail pigmentation.  

PubMed

By having phenotypically plastic traits, many organisms optimize their fitness in response to fluctuating threats. Freshwater snails with translucent shells, e.g. snails from the Radix genus, differ considerably in their mantle pigmentation patterns, with snails from the same water body ranging from being completely dark pigmented to having only a few dark patterns. These pigmentation differences have previously been suggested to be genetically fixed, but we propose that this polymorphism is owing to phenotypic plasticity in response to a fluctuating environment. Hence, we here aimed to assess whether common stressors, including ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and predation, induce a plastic response in mantle pigmentation patterns of Radix balthica. We show, in contrast to previous studies, that snails are plastic in their expression of mantle pigmentation in response to changes in UVR and predator threats, i.e. differences among populations are not genetically fixed. When exposed to cues from visually hunting fish, R. balthica increased the proportion of their dark pigmentation, suggesting a crypsis strategy. Snails increased their pigmentation even further in response to UVR, but this also led to a reduction in pattern complexity. Furthermore, when exposed to UVR and fish simultaneously, snails responded in the same way as in the UVR treatment, suggesting a trade-off between photoprotection and crypsis. PMID:24046875

Ahlgren, Johan; Yang, Xi; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brönmark, Christer

2013-10-23

219

Functional Changes in the Snail Statocyst System Elicited by Microgravity  

PubMed Central

Background The mollusk statocyst is a mechanosensing organ detecting the animal's orientation with respect to gravity. This system has clear similarities to its vertebrate counterparts: a weight-lending mass, an epithelial layer containing small supporting cells and the large sensory hair cells, and an output eliciting compensatory body reflexes to perturbations. Methodology/Principal Findings In terrestrial gastropod snail we studied the impact of 16- (Foton M-2) and 12-day (Foton M-3) exposure to microgravity in unmanned orbital missions on: (i) the whole animal behavior (Helix lucorum L.), (ii) the statoreceptor responses to tilt in an isolated neural preparation (Helix lucorum L.), and (iii) the differential expression of the Helix pedal peptide (HPep) and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide genes in neural structures (Helix aspersa L.). Experiments were performed 13–42 hours after return to Earth. Latency of body re-orientation to sudden 90° head-down pitch was significantly reduced in postflight snails indicating an enhanced negative gravitaxis response. Statoreceptor responses to tilt in postflight snails were independent of motion direction, in contrast to a directional preference observed in control animals. Positive relation between tilt velocity and firing rate was observed in both control and postflight snails, but the response magnitude was significantly larger in postflight snails indicating an enhanced sensitivity to acceleration. A significant increase in mRNA expression of the gene encoding HPep, a peptide linked to ciliary beating, in statoreceptors was observed in postflight snails; no differential expression of the gene encoding FMRFamide, a possible neurotransmission modulator, was observed. Conclusions/Significance Upregulation of statocyst function in snails following microgravity exposure parallels that observed in vertebrates suggesting fundamental principles underlie gravi-sensing and the organism's ability to adapt to gravity changes. This simple animal model offers the possibility to describe general subcellular mechanisms of nervous system's response to conditions on Earth and in space. PMID:21479267

Balaban, Pavel M.; Malyshev, Aleksey Y.; Ierusalimsky, Victor N.; Aseyev, Nikolay; Korshunova, Tania A.; Bravarenko, Natasha I.; Lemak, M. S.; Roshchin, Matvey; Zakharov, Igor S.; Popova, Yekaterina; Boyle, Richard

2011-01-01

220

INTRODUCTION Predator avoidance in aquatic snails is facilitated by surfacing and  

E-print Network

Lymnaea stagnalis (L.), exhibit emergence behavior to escape predation but when the predatory threat.010132 Fluid and osmolyte recovery in the common pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis following full pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis sacrifices 40­

Grosell, Martin

221

The toxicity and physiological effects of copper on the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis  

E-print Network

Keywords: Gastropods Lymnaea stagnalis Copper Water quality criteria Ionoregulation Acid­base balance Several recent studies have demonstrated that the freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalisThe toxicity and physiological effects of copper on the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea

Grosell, Martin

222

Differential regulation of Snail by hypoxia and hyperglycemia in human proximal tubule cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The centrality of the transcriptional regulator Snail in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), known to occur in models of diabetic nephropathy, has not been established. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF?1) is induced in diabetic nephropathy and induces both Snail and EMT. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are known to induce Snail, independent of TGF?1. Notch induction is integral to Snail induction and EMT

Siska Sumual; Sonia Saad; Owen Tang; Rachel Yong; Stella McGinn; Xin-Ming Chen; Carol A. Pollock

2010-01-01

223

Fluorescent pigment distinguishes between sibling snail species.  

PubMed

Traditional taxonomy of shell-bearing molluscs does not generally use soft-body coloration. However, the land snails Bradybaena pellucida and B. similaris have been distinguished only on the basis of the color of the soft-body visible through the shell. Thus, the taxonomic status of the two species has traditionally been questionable. We found that dense spots of pigments embedded in the dorsal mantle are responsible for the yellow coloration of B. pellucida . Similar spots in B. similaris are white and less densely aggregated in whorls further from the apex, and the brown color of the hepatopancreas is visible through the shell. The yellow pigments of B. pellucida seep out with mucus from the body in natural and laboratory conditions. The two species became externally indistinguishable after 30 days of laboratory feeding, because the yellow spots disappeared in B. pellucida and the color of the hepatopancreas changed from dark brown to pale brown in both species. Irradiation with ultraviolet A demonstrated that the yellow pigment of B. pellucida fluoresces. Adult specimens of the two species were distinct in penial microsculpture, with F(1) hybrids intermediate in form. Populations of the two species differed significantly in allelic frequencies at four allozyme loci. Therefore, B. pellucida and B. similaris are morphologically and genetically distinct. The fluorescent yellow pigment distinguishes B. pellucida from B. similaris under natural conditions despite its environmental dependence. PMID:19267648

Seki, Keiichi; Wiwegweaw, Amporn; Asami, Takahiro

2008-12-01

224

Helix and Drugs: Snails for Western Health Care From Antiquity to the Present.  

PubMed

The land helix, or snail, has been used in medicine since antiquity and prepared according to several formulations. This historical report traces the understanding of their properties from the time of Hippocrates, who proposed the use of snail mucus against protoccle and Pliny who thought that the snail increased the speed of delivery and was "a sovereign remedy to treat pain related to burns, abscesses and other wounds", Galien recommended snails against hydrops foetails. In the 18th century, various snail "preparations" were also recommended for external use with dermatological disorders and internally for symptoms associated with tuberculosis and nephritis. Surprisingly, the 19th century saw a renewed interest in the pharmaceutical and medical use of snails with numerous indications for snail preparations. This interest in snails did not stop at the end of the 19th century. The 1945 edition of Dorvault devotes an entire paragraph to snails, indicating that the therapeutic usage of snails was still alive at that time. Recently the FDA has also shown an interest in snails. Ziconotide (SNXIII), a synthetic peptide coming from snail venom, has been under FDA review since 1999. Pre-clinical and clinical studies of this new drug are promising. PMID:15841274

Bonnemain, Bruno

2005-03-01

225

Experimental analysis of diet specialization in the snail kite: the role of behavioral conservatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined factors maintaining extreme diet specialization in the snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis), a medium-sized hawk which feed almost exclusively on Pomacea snails, by determining why during some months kites eat crabs (Dilocarcinus dentatus) in the Ilanos of Venezuela. We offered snails and crabs of different sizes to wild free-flying birds to develop estimates for a prey choice model. Handling

S. R. Beissinger; T. J. Donnay; R. Walton

1994-01-01

226

Lats2 kinase potentiates Snail1 activity by promoting nuclear retention upon phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Snail1 is a central regulator of epithelial cell adhesion and movement in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) during embryo development; a process reactivated during cancer metastasis. While induction of Snail1 transcription precedes EMT induction, post-translational regulation of Snail1 is also critical for determining Snail1's protein level, subcellular localization, and capacity to induce EMT. To identify novel post-translational regulators of Snail1, we developed a live cell, bioluminescence-based screen. From a human kinome RNAi screen, we have identified Lats2 kinase as a novel regulator of Snail1 protein level, subcellular localization, and thus, activity. We show that Lats2 interacts with Snail1 and directly phosphorylates Snail1 at residue T203. This occurs in the nucleus and serves to retain Snail1 in the nucleus thereby enhancing its stability. Lats2 was found to positively influence cellular EMT and tumour cell invasion, in a Snail1-dependent manner. Indeed during TGF?-induced EMT Lats2 is activated and Snail1 phosphorylated at T203. Analysis in mouse and zebrafish embryo development confirms that Lats2 acts as a positive modulator of Snail1 protein level and potentiates its in vivo EMT activity. PMID:21952048

Zhang, Kun; Rodriguez-Aznar, Eva; Yabuta, Norikazu; Owen, Robert J; Mingot, Jose M; Nojima, Hiroshi; Nieto, M Angela; Longmore, Gregory D

2012-01-01

227

Integrating Nonindigenous Aquatic Plant Control with Protection of Snail Kite Nests in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) feeds primarily on the freshwater apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) in Florida. The nonindigenous, floating water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) impede kites from finding snails. Effective control of these aquatic plants in the littoral zone of central and south Florida\\u000a lakes benefits kites by maintaining open foraging habitat. However, incidental herbicide

HENRY T. SMITH; DANIEL D. THAYER

2001-01-01

228

Differences between blood cells of juvenile and adult specimens of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood cells (amoebocytes) of juvenile and adult specimens of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis were compared. Juvenile snails contain fewer circulating amoebocytes per µl haemolymph. However, a higher percentage of these cells shows mitotic activity, as determined by incorporation of 3H-thymidine in vitro. Relatively more amoebocytes of juvenile snails have the characteristics of less differentiated cells: they are small and

Ronald Dikkeboom; Wil P. W. Knaap; Elisabeth A. Meuleman; Taede Sminia

1984-01-01

229

Helix and Drugs: Snails for Western Health Care From Antiquity to the Present  

PubMed Central

The land helix, or snail, has been used in medicine since antiquity and prepared according to several formulations. This historical report traces the understanding of their properties from the time of Hippocrates, who proposed the use of snail mucus against protoccle and Pliny who thought that the snail increased the speed of delivery and was “a sovereign remedy to treat pain related to burns, abscesses and other wounds”, Galien recommended snails against hydrops foetails. In the 18th century, various snail “preparations” were also recommended for external use with dermatological disorders and internally for symptoms associated with tuberculosis and nephritis. Surprisingly, the 19th century saw a renewed interest in the pharmaceutical and medical use of snails with numerous indications for snail preparations. This interest in snails did not stop at the end of the 19th century. The 1945 edition of Dorvault devotes an entire paragraph to snails, indicating that the therapeutic usage of snails was still alive at that time. Recently the FDA has also shown an interest in snails. Ziconotide (SNXIII), a synthetic peptide coming from snail venom, has been under FDA review since 1999. Pre-clinical and clinical studies of this new drug are promising. PMID:15841274

2005-01-01

230

Snail-macrophyte interactions in a shallow, mesoeutrophic lake in southern New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to investigate trophic interactions between snails and macrophytes in freshwater benthic systems. Surveys of the snail and macrophyte communities of Calder Lake revealed Armiger crista, a recent introduction to Calder Lake, to be the most abundant snail. Macrophyte species composition in the lake was highly variable between years, with Vallisneria americana dominance in 1993

Bernadette Kathleen Gorham

1997-01-01

231

Snail controls the mesenchymal phenotype and drives erlotinib resistance in Oral epithelial and HNSCC cells  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The presence of regional metastases in HNSCC patients is a common and adverse event associated with poor prognosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that mediate HNSCC metastasis may enable identification of novel therapeutic targets. Our recent work on human HNSCC tissues underlies Snail’s role as a molecular prognostic marker for HNSCC. Snail positivity is significantly predictive of poorly differentiated, lymphovascular invasive, as well as regionally metastatic tumors. We recently reported the role of Snail in the inflammation-induced promotion of EMT in HNSCC. However, other important Snail-dependent malignant phenotypes have not been fully explored. Here, we investigate the capacity of Snail to drive EMT in human oral epithelial cell lines, and its ability to confer drug resistance. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Snail was overexpressed HNSCC and oral epithelial cell lines. AIG assays, wound healing assays, invasion & migration assays, spheroid modeling, and cell survival assays were performed. RESULTS The overexpression of Snail in human HNSCC and oral epithelial cell lines drives EMT. The sole transfection of Snail confers the expression of a mesenchymal molecular signature including down-regulation of the epithelial adherens, such as E-cadherin and ?-catenin, and induction of mesenchymal markers, Snail overexpressing cell lines demonstrate rapid growth in Anchorage-independent growth assays; a decreased capacity to form tight spheroids; increased resistance to erlotinib; and have an increased capacity for invasion. CONCLUSION Snail controls the mesenchymal phenotype and drives erlotinib resistance in HNSCC cells. Snail may prove to be a useful marker in predicting EGFR inhibitor responsiveness. PMID:22568942

Dennis, Miranda; Wang, Guanyu; Luo, Jie; Lin, Yuan; Dohadwala, Mariam; Sidell, Douglas; DeConde, Adam; Abemayor, Elliot; Elashoff, David A.; Sharma, Sherven; Dubinett, Steven M.; St John, Maie A.

2014-01-01

232

Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae.  

PubMed

This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40? ? g·mL(-1) (11.1460? ? g·mL(-1) and 25.8689? ? g·mL(-1), resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40? ? g·mL(-1) (29.018? ? g·mL(-1) and 17.230? ? g·mL(-1), resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277? ? g·mL(-1) and 706.990? ? g·mL(-1)) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio Euzebio

2014-01-01

233

Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40??g·mL?1 (11.1460??g·mL?1 and 25.8689??g·mL?1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40??g·mL?1 (29.018??g·mL?1 and 17.230??g·mL?1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277??g·mL?1 and 706.990??g·mL?1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

Guedes, Elica Amara Cecilia; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flavia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antonio Euzebio

2014-01-01

234

Building a better snail: Lubrication and adhesive locomotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many gastropods, such as slugs and snails, crawl via an unusual mechanism known as adhesive locomotion. We investigate this method of propulsion using two mathematical models: one for direct waves and one for retrograde waves. We then test the effectiveness of both proposed mechanisms by constructing two mechanical crawlers. Each crawler uses a different mechanical strategy to move on a thin layer of viscous fluid. The first uses a flexible flapping sheet to generate lubrication pressures in a Newtonian fluid, which in turn propel the mechanical snail. The second generates a wave of compression on a layer of Laponite, a non-Newtonian, finite-yield stress fluid with characteristics similar to those of snail mucus. This second design can climb smooth vertical walls and perform an inverted traverse.

Chan, Brian; Balmforth, N. J.; Hosoi, A. E.

2005-11-01

235

Interference with Fasciola hepatica snail finding by various aquatic organisms.  

PubMed

Previous studies using radioactive miracidia have shown that a number of non-host snails and bivalves, interposed as 'decoys' in linear test channels, may interfere with the capacity of Fasciola hepatica miracidia to infect Lymnaea truncatula. Applying similar experimental principles, the role of several other potential interferents have been analysed in the present study. Daphnia pulex (Cladocera) and larvae of Corethra sp. (Diptera) exercised significant interfering effects by protecting 'target' snails from infection. Evidence suggested that this effect was a result of their normal predatory behaviour. Other organisms including Herpobdella testacea and Helobdella stagnalis (Hirudinea), Acellus aquaticus (Isopoda), Planaria lugubris (Turbellaria) and L. truncatula egg clusters failed to interfere with miracidial host-finding. Nor did P. lugubris and L. truncatula 'conditioned water' interfere with the capacity of the miracidia to infect their host snail. PMID:876683

Christensen, N O; Nansen, P; Frandsen, F

1977-06-01

236

Life-history strategies of a freshwater snail in response to stream permanence and predation: balancing conflicting demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-history parameters for the freshwater snail Physella virgata virgata were estimated in temporary and permanent streams with and without crayfish (known snail predators). Snails from the permanent stream with crayfish exhibited higher age and size at first reproduction, as well as higher size and age at death, compared to snail populations from both temporary streams and the permanent stream without

Todd A. Crowl

1990-01-01

237

Prioritized phenotypic responses to combined predators in a marine snail.  

PubMed

Although many species face numerous predators in nature, the combined impact of multiple predators on the inducible defenses of prey has rarely been studied. Prey may respond with an intermediate phenotype that balances the risk from several sources or may simply respond to the most dangerous predator. I examined the separate and combined effects of the presence of shell-breaking (crabs, Cancer productus) and shell-entry (seastars, Pisaster ochraceus) predators fed conspecific snails on the defensive shell morphology and antipredator behavior of a marine snail (Nucella lamellosa). When exposed to each feeding predator separately, snails responded with a combination of morphological defenses that reflect the attack mode of the predator and a generalized behavioral response. Snails responded to feeding crabs by increasing refuge use and producing a thick, rotund shell. Snails responded to feeding seastars with increased refuge use but produced elongate shells with high spires that allowed for greater retraction of the soft tissue. Seastar-induced phenotypes reduced susceptibility to seastars relative to crab-induced phenotypes, but crab-induced phenotypes did not significantly reduce susceptibility to crabs, indicating an asymmetrical functional trade-off. When feeding predators were combined, snails produced a morphological phenotype similar to that expressed in the presence of the predator that imposed the highest mortality at the population level, suggesting that predator-induced morphology was prioritized according to predation risk. These results suggest that prioritizing conflicting defenses according to predator danger may be a common strategy for prey responding to combined predators, particularly in conjunction with generalized behavioral responses that reduce overall risk in multiple-predator environments. PMID:19569380

Bourdeau, Paul E

2009-06-01

238

Purification and characterization of an antibacterial factor from snail mucus.  

PubMed

The antibacterial factor from the body surface of the African giant snail, Achatina fulica Férussac, was isolated by DEAE-Toyopearl 650M ion exchange chromatography. The isolated preparation exhibited highly positive antibacterial activity both for the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and for the Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but it lost such activity when heated at 75 degrees C for 5 min. The antibacterial factor of the snail mucus was a glycoprotein whose molecular weight (MW) was about 160,000. It was composed of two subunits of MW 70,000-80,000. PMID:2866907

Kubota, Y; Watanabe, Y; Otsuka, H; Tamiya, T; Tsuchiya, T; Matsumoto, J J

1985-01-01

239

Efficacy of Euphorbia hirta latex as plant derived molluscicides against freshwater snails.  

PubMed

The toxic effect of binary and tertiary combinations of Euphorbia hirta Linn latex powder with other plant molluscicidal compounds, were evaluated against the freshwater snails Lymnaea (Radix) acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus in pond. These combinations showed significant time and dose dependent effect against both the snails. These compounds at higher doses were also lethal to freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) (Channidae {Ophicephalidae}), which shares the habitat with these snails, but the LC90 (24h) doses of snails have no apparent killing properties in fish populations when treated in mixed population of snails and fish. PMID:21537758

Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

2011-01-01

240

Influence of snail feces and mucus on oviposition and larval behavior ofPherbellia cinerella (Diptera: Sciomyzidae).  

PubMed

Larvae of the sciomyzid flyPherbellia cinerella are voracious predators of terrestrial helicid snails. Eggs are deposited in areas where snails occur and larvae hunt actively for their prey. Snail feces and mucus were tested to determine if they had any kairomone or stimulatory effects onP. cinerella. Adult flies oviposited more frequently on substrates containing fresh snail feces than on substrates containing snail mucus or water (control). However, mucus and feces both stimulated increased search behaviour in first instar larvae. These results are discussed in relation to snail biology, and the potential for augmentation of these flies in areas affected by pest snails. PMID:24227402

Coupland, J B

1996-02-01

241

Nuclear ubiquitination by FBXL5 modulates Snail1 DNA binding and stability  

PubMed Central

The zinc finger transcription factor Snail1 regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition, repressing epithelial markers and activating mesenchymal genes. Snail1 is an extremely labile protein degraded by the cytoplasmic ubiquitin-ligases ?-TrCP1/FBXW1 and Ppa/FBXL14. Using a short hairpin RNA screening, we have identified FBXL5 as a novel Snail1 ubiquitin ligase. FBXL5 is located in the nucleus where it interacts with Snail1 promoting its polyubiquitination and affecting Snail1 protein stability and function by impairing DNA binding. Snail1 downregulation by FBXL5 is prevented by Lats2, a protein kinase that phosphorylates Snail1 precluding its nuclear export but not its polyubiquitination. Actually, although polyubiquitination by FBXL5 takes place in the nucleus, Snail1 is degraded in the cytosol. Finally, FBXL5 is highly sensitive to stress conditions and is downregulated by iron depletion and ?-irradiation, explaining Snail1 stabilization in these conditions. These results characterize a novel nuclear ubiquitin ligase controlling Snail1 protein stability and provide the molecular basis for understanding how radiotherapy upregulates the epithelial to mesenchymal transition-inducer Snail1. PMID:24157836

Vinas-Castells, Rosa; Frias, Alex; Robles-Lanuza, Estefania; Zhang, Kun; Longmore, Gregory D.; Garcia de Herreros, Antonio; Diaz, Victor M.

2014-01-01

242

A protocol for geographically randomized snail surveys in schistosomiasis fieldwork using the global positioning system.  

PubMed

A protocol was created for performing geographically randomized snail surveys for schistosomiasis research using the global positioning system (GPS). This protocol differs from traditional surveys in its ability to accurately map and measure the spatial distribution of snail habitat. The protocol was used to map irrigation ditches, the primary habitat for Oncomelania hupensis, in two residence areas in Sichuan Province, China. From the 7,450 meters of mapped ditches, snail surveys were performed at 203 random sites along the ditch network. Of these, 116 (57.1%) sites had snails. The total number of living snails captured was 2,014, resulting in an average snail density of 0.27 snails per linear meter of potential habitat. PMID:11425171

Seto, E; Liang, S; Qiu, D; Gu, X; Spear, R C

2001-01-01

243

Functional regulation of Slug/Snail2 is dependent on GSK-3?-mediated phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Snail family proteins regulate transcription of molecules for cell-cell adhesion during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Based on putative glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) phosphorylation sites within the Slug/Snail2, we explored the significance of GSK-3?-mediated phosphorylation in Slug/Snail2 expression during EMT. Mutation of the putative GSK-3? phosphorylation sites (S92/96A or S100/104A) enhanced the Slug/Snail2-mediated EMT properties of E-cadherin repression and vimentin induction, compared with wild-type Slug/Snail2. S92/96A mutation inhibited degradation of Slug/Snail2 and S100/104A mutation extended nuclear stabilization. Inhibition of GSK-3? activity caused similar effects, as did the phosphorylation mutations. Thus, our study suggests that GSK-3?-mediated phosphorylation of Slug/Snail2 controls its turnover and localization during EMT. PMID:22727060

Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Young Mee; Yang, Chang Hee; Cho, Somi K; Lee, Jung Weon; Cho, Moonjae

2012-08-01

244

Snail Coordinately Regulates Downstream Pathways to Control Multiple Aspects of Mammalian Neural Precursor Development  

PubMed Central

The Snail transcription factor plays a key role in regulating diverse developmental processes but is not thought to play a role in mammalian neural precursors. Here, we have examined radial glial precursor cells of the embryonic murine cortex and demonstrate that Snail regulates their survival, self-renewal, and differentiation into intermediate progenitors and neurons via two distinct and separable target pathways. First, Snail promotes cell survival by antagonizing a p53-dependent death pathway because coincident p53 knockdown rescues survival deficits caused by Snail knockdown. Second, we show that the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc25b is regulated by Snail in radial precursors and that Cdc25b coexpression is sufficient to rescue the decreased radial precursor proliferation and differentiation observed upon Snail knockdown. Thus, Snail acts via p53 and Cdc25b to coordinately regulate multiple aspects of mammalian embryonic neural precursor biology. PMID:24719096

Zander, Mark A.; Burns, Sarah E.; Yang, Guang; Kaplan, David R.

2014-01-01

245

Snail as a Potential Target Molecule in Cardiac Fibrosis: Paracrine Action of Endothelial Cells on Fibroblasts Through Snail and CTGF Axis  

PubMed Central

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to myocardium induces death of cardiomyocytes and destroys the vasculature, leading to cardiac fibrosis that is mainly mediated by the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the collagen deposition. Snail involvement in fibrosis is well known; however, the contribution of Snail to cardiac fibrosis during I/R injury and its underlying mechanisms have not been defined. We showed that I/R injury to mouse hearts significantly increases the expression of Snail. An in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (Hy/Reoxy) experiment showed that the cell source of Snail induction is endothelial cells rather than cardiac fibroblasts (cFibroblasts) or cardiomyoblasts. When Snail was overexpressed in endothelial cells, they underwent endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) but showed very poor capacity for collagen synthesis. Instead, reoxygenation- or Snail overexpression-mediated EndMT-like cells noticeably stimulated transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts via secretion of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). The injection of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist, a selective Snail inhibitor, remarkably suppressed collagen deposition and cardiac fibrosis in mouse I/R injury, and significantly improved cardiac function and reduced Snail and CTGF expression in vivo. Our findings suggested a new mechanism of cell-to-cell communication between EndMT-like cells and fibroblasts for fibrosis induction and implicated Snail as a potential target molecule in cardiac fibrosis after I/R injury. PMID:23760445

Lee, Sae-Won; Won, Joo-Yun; Kim, Woo Jean; Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Youn, Seock-Won; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyo-Soo

2013-01-01

246

Schistosomiasis Control Using Piplartine against Biomphalaria glabrata at Different Developmental Stages  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most significant diseases in tropical countries and affects almost 200 million people worldwide. The application of molluscicides to eliminate the parasite's intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata, from infected water supplies is one strategy currently being used to control the disease. Previous studies have shown a potent molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from Piper species, with extracts from Piper tuberculatum being among the most active. Methods and Findings The molluscicidal activity of P. tuberculatum was monitored on methanolic extracts from different organs (roots, leaves, fruit and stems). The compounds responsible for the molluscicidal activity were identified using 1H NMR and ESIMS data and multivariate analyses, including principal component analysis and partial least squares. These results indicated that the high molluscicidal activity displayed by root extracts (LC50 20.28 µg/ml) was due to the presence of piplartine, a well-known biologically-active amide. Piplartine was isolated from P. tuberculatum root extracts, and the molluscicidal activity of this compound on adults and embryos of B. glabrata was determined. The compound displayed potent activity against all developmental stages of B. glabrata. Next, the environmental toxicity of piplartine was evaluated using the microcrustacean Daphnia similis (LC50 7.32 µg/ml) and the fish Danio rerio (1.69 µg/ml). The toxicity to these organisms was less compared with the toxicity of niclosamide, a commercial molluscicide. Conclusions The development of a new, natural molluscicide is highly desirable, particularly because the commercially available molluscicide niclosamide is highly toxic to some organisms in the environment (LC50 0.25 µg/ml to D. similis and 0.12 µg/ml to D. rerio). Thus, piplartine is a potential candidate for a natural molluscicide that has been extracted from a tropical plant species and showed less toxic to environment. PMID:23755312

Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Pinheiro, Alessandro de Sa; Lopes, Priscila Orechio de Moraes Victor; Fokoue, Harold Hilarion; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Marques, Joaquim Vogt; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Braganca; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Nakano, Eliana; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko

2013-01-01

247

[The monosynaptic connection between identified neurons in the snail].  

PubMed

Monosynaptic connection between two identified neurones was investigated using electrophysiological and morphological methods in preparation of isolated nervous system of the snail Achatina fulica. Intracellular pressure injection of cobalt chloride was used for staining of neuronal branches. Electrophysiologically revealed synaptic connection between two giant neurones was identified to be monosynaptic by morphological methods. PMID:2473579

Berezhnaia, L A; Balaban, P M

1989-01-01

248

Sperm allocation in the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Arianta arbustorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the idea that individuals of the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snailArianta arbustorumcan control the number of spermatozoa in their spermatophores, we investigated whether they differentially release sperm to virgin or nonvirgin partners with respect to the potential risk of sperm competition in a given mating. The number of sperm transferred ranged from 802620 to 3968800 (X= 2185100;N=91), but was

BRUNO BAUR; ROLF LOCHER; ANETTE BAUR

1998-01-01

249

Land Snail Ecology and Biogeography of Eastern Maine  

E-print Network

to the state fauna (Euconulus alderi, Punctum n.sp., Vertigo cristata, Vertigo malleata, Vertigo morseiLand Snail Ecology and Biogeography of Eastern Maine Vertigo bollesiana Vertigo nylanderi Vertigo in the state (Nesovitrea binneyana, Planogyra asteriscus, Striatura ferrea, Striatura milium, Vertigo

Nekola, Jeffrey C.

250

Survey of Pulmonate Snails of Central Minnesota. I. Lymnaeidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic snails were collected at 148 sites from various wetland habitats in central Minnesota between May and September, 1988. Ten lymnaeid species were collected, including Lymnaea palustris, L. stagnalis, L. exilis, L. caperata, L. catascopium, L. megasoma, L. (Fossaria) modicella, L. (F.) parva, L. (E.) bulimoides, and L. (F.) dalli. These species were found at 30-, 18-, 15, 12-, 11-,

Jeffrey R. Laursen; Gary A. Averbeck; Gary A. Conboy; Bert E. Stromberg

1992-01-01

251

Carthusian snail Monacha cartusiana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Carthusian snail Monacha cartusiana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets as a prohibited mollusk species by Michigan's plant protection regulations (MDA 2009). Plant hosts A wide variety Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State

252

ORIGINAL PAPER Invasion and production of New Zealand mud snails  

E-print Network

: 30 January 2010 � Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 Abstract Species invasions are often during 2006­2007 to gain a functional measure of their role in the ecosys- tem. Snails were first. antipodarum were moderate (0.001­0.030 day-1 ) and strongly related to body size. Mean annual habitat-weighted

Hall Jr., Robert O.

253

Snail Shells in a Practical Application of Statistical Procedures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based upon a laboratory exercise designed for biology students in secondary schools or those taking introductory biology laboratory courses in colleges and universities. This exercise requires a set of calipers, a calculator and populations of snail shells collected either from the wild or obtained from a biological supply house. The…

Banks, Stephen W.; Shepherd, Deborah K.; Williams-Hart, Tara; Gossett, Dalton R.; Crnkovic, Amanda C.

2007-01-01

254

Sequestration of lichen compounds by three species of terrestrial snails.  

PubMed

Three species of lichen-grazing snails,Balea perversa, Chondria clienta, andHelicigona lapicida, all from the Swedish island of Öland, were found to sequester lichen compounds when feeding on the crustous lichen speciesAspicila calcarea, Caloplaca flavovirescens, Lecanora muralis, Physcia adscendens, Tephromela atra, andXanthoria parietina. The lichen compounds detected in the soft bodies of the snail species analyzed included the anthraquinone parietin, the depside atranorin, as well as a presumable degradation product of the latter. Other lichen compounds such as (+)-usnic acid or ?-collatolic acid were not found in the soft bodies but were only detected in the feces, suggesting selective uptake of lichen compounds by the snails. In individuals ofC. clienta initially fed on the lichenX. parietina, the amount of sequestered parietin decreased over time on a parietin-free diet but was still detectable in the soft bodies after 28 days. In the ovoviviparous land snail,B. perversa, sequestered parietin was transferred from the mother to the eggs in the reproductive tract. PMID:24234022

Hesbacher, S; Baur, B; Baur, A; Proksch, P

1995-02-01

255

Fossil snail shells tell story about Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient and modern snail shells have given scientists a unique look at the evolution of the Tibetan Plateau, confirming that parts of the plateau have actually lost elevation over time, despite its immense height. A new paper detailing the research was published on 29 August in the Geological Society of America Bulletin (doi:10.1130/B31000.1).

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-09-01

256

Shell colouration and parasite tolerance in two helicoid snail species.  

PubMed

The polymorphism of shell colouration in helicoid snails is a well-known phenomenon attributed to different factors such as predation and climatic effects. Another aspect contributing to this polymorphism could be the interplay of melanin production and phenoloxidase-related immunity. Therefore, in this study we aimed at answering the questions whether there is a differential sensitivity of different snail shell colour morphs to nematode infection, and whether this can be related to differences in phenoloxidase (PO) activity levels using the two helicoid, polymorphic snail species Cepaea hortensis and Cernuella virgata. Snails of both species were artificially infected with the parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, and analysed for mortality and PO activity levels. We found C. virgata to be more severely affected by P. hermaphrodita infection than C. hortensis, and the dark C. virgata morphs to be more resistant to lethal effects of this infection than pale morphs. However, these differences in sensitivity to the parasite could not clearly be related to different PO activity levels. PMID:24480673

Scheil, Alexandra E; Hilsmann, Stefanie; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

2014-03-01

257

Flying shells: historical dispersal of marine snails across Central America  

PubMed Central

The geological rise of the Central American Isthmus separated the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans about 3 Ma, creating a formidable barrier to dispersal for marine species. However, similar to Simpson's proposal that terrestrial species can ‘win sweepstakes routes’—whereby highly improbable dispersal events result in colonization across geographical barriers—marine species may also breach land barriers given enough time. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether intertidal marine snails have crossed Central America to successfully establish in new ocean basins. We used a mitochondrial DNA genetic comparison of sister snails (Cerithideopsis spp.) separated by the rise of the Isthmus. Genetic variation in these snails revealed evidence of at least two successful dispersal events between the Pacific and the Atlantic after the final closure of the Isthmus. A combination of ancestral area analyses and molecular dating techniques indicated that dispersal from the Pacific to the Atlantic occurred about 750 000 years ago and that dispersal in the opposite direction occurred about 72 000 years ago. The geographical distribution of haplotypes and published field evidence further suggest that migratory shorebirds transported the snails across Central America at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in southern Mexico. Migratory birds could disperse other intertidal invertebrates this way, suggesting the Central American Isthmus may not be as impassable for marine species as previously assumed. PMID:21920976

Miura, Osamu; Torchin, Mark E.; Bermingham, Eldredge; Jacobs, David K.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

2012-01-01

258

DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN NOTASPID SNAILS: ACID HUMOR AND EVASIVENESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Notaspid snails are known for their defensive skin secretion of sulfuric acid (pH 1-2) in response to noxious stimuli. We observed acid secretion and behavior in five notaspid species, and studied them in detail in Pleurobranchaea californica. All species secreted acid in response to skin abrasion or compression. Moreover, all species showed stereotypic avoidance behavior to acidified sea water

RHANOR GILLETTE; MAYUKO SAEKI; RONG-CHI HUANG

1991-01-01

259

Accelerated Mutation Accumulation in Asexual Lineages of a Freshwater Snail  

E-print Network

genomes of multiple sexual and asexual representatives of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand snail, parthenogenetic, Muller's ratchet, mtDNA, Hill­Robertson, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Introduction Why sexual with asexuality and occurs rapidly enough to be detected in recently derived asexual lineages of P. antipodarum

Neiman, Maurine

260

Effect of amphotericin B on the infection success of Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined the effect of amphotericin B on larval stages (miracidia and primary sporocyst) of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of human schistosomiasis. Amphotericin B (AmB) is a polyene macrolide that disturbs the function of the cell membrane; it is widely used as prophylactic antimycotic agent in in vitro culture. We show for the first time that S. mansoni miracidia infectivity is considerably reduced after AmB treatment. Moreover we demonstrate that AmB does not affect the development, growth, viability, and behavior of miracidia and primary sporocysts. Our data indicate that AmB effects on S. mansoni sporocyst prevalence are linked to the oxidative properties of AmB. These may alter the capacity of sporocysts to respond to the oxidative stress generated by the snail immune defence system. PMID:20067790

Moné, Yves; Mitta, Guillaume; Duval, David; Gourbal, Benjamin E F

2010-06-01

261

Inducible expression of Snail selectively increases paracellular ion permeability and differentially modulates tight junction proteins.  

PubMed

Constitutive expression of the transcription factor Snail was previously shown to trigger complete epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aim of this study was to determine whether inducible expression of Snail could modify epithelial properties without eliciting full mesenchymal conversion. For this purpose, we expressed mouse Snail (mSnail) cDNA in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells under the control of a doxycycline-repressible transactivator. Inducible expression of Snail did not result in overt EMT but induced a number of phenotypic alterations of MDCK cells, the most significant of which was the absence of fluid-filled blisterlike structures called "domes." To understand the mechanisms responsible for dome suppression, we assessed the effect of mSnail expression on epithelial barrier function. Although mSnail did not alter tight junction (TJ) organization and permeability to uncharged solutes, it markedly decreased transepithelial electrical resistance. In light of these findings, we evaluated the ability of MDCK cell monolayers to maintain ionic gradients and found that expression of mSnail selectively increases Na+ and Cl- permeability. Analysis of the expression of claudins, transmembrane proteins that regulate TJ ionic permeability, showed that mSnail induces a moderate decrease in claudin-2 and a substantial decrease in claudin-4 and -7 expression. Together, these results suggest that induction of mSnail selectively increases the ionic permeability of TJs by differentially modulating the expression of specific claudins. PMID:15930145

Carrozzino, Fabio; Soulié, Priscilla; Huber, Denise; Mensi, Noury; Orci, Lelio; Cano, Amparo; Féraille, Eric; Montesano, Roberto

2005-10-01

262

YY1 regulates the expression of snail through a distal enhancer  

PubMed Central

Expression of the snail gene is required for the epithelial-mesenchymal transitions that accompany mammalian gastrulation, neural crest migration, and organ formation. Pathological expression of snail contributes to the migratory capacity of invasive tumors, including melanomas. To investigate the mechanism of snail up regulation in human melanoma cells, a conserved enhancer located 3’ of the snail gene was analyzed. An overlapping Ets and YY1 consensus sequence, in addition to a SOX consensus sequence, were required for full enhancer activity. Proteins specifically binding these sequences were detected by EMSA. The Ets/YY1 binding activity was purified by DNA affinity chromatography and identified as YY1. Although ubiquitously expressed, YY1 was bound at the snail 3’ enhancer in vivo in snail-expressing cells but not in cells that did not express snail. Knockdown of YY1 in A375 cells led to decreased snail expression. These results identify a role for YY1 in regulating transcription of snail in melanoma cells through binding to the snail 3’ enhancer. PMID:19208738

Palmer, Matthew B.; Majumder, Parimal; Cooper, John C.; Yoon, Hyesuk; Wade, Paul A.; Boss, Jeremy M.

2010-01-01

263

Snail2 controls mesodermal BMP/Wnt induction of neural crest  

PubMed Central

The neural crest is an induced tissue that is unique to vertebrates. In the clawed frog Xenopus laevis, neural crest induction depends on signals secreted from the prospective dorsolateral mesodermal zone during gastrulation. The transcription factors Snail2 (Slug), Snail1 and Twist1 are expressed in this region. It is known that Snail2 and Twist1 are required for both mesoderm formation and neural crest induction. Using targeted blastomere injection, morpholino-based loss of function and explant studies, we show that: (1) Snail1 is also required for mesoderm and neural crest formation; (2) loss of snail1, snail2 or twist1 function in the C2/C3 lineage of 32-cell embryos blocks mesoderm formation, but neural crest is lost only in the case of snail2 loss of function; (3) snail2 mutant loss of neural crest involves mesoderm-derived secreted factors and can be rescued synergistically by bmp4 and wnt8 RNAs; and (4) loss of snail2 activity leads to changes in the RNA levels of a number of BMP and Wnt agonists and antagonists. Taken together, these results identify Snail2 as a key regulator of the signals involved in mesodermal induction of neural crest. PMID:21715424

Shi, Jianli; Severson, Courtney; Yang, Jianxia; Wedlich, Doris; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

2011-01-01

264

The Collagen Receptor Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 Stabilizes Snail1 Protein to Facilitate Breast Cancer Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Increased stromal collagen deposition in human breast tumours correlates with metastases. We show that activation of the collagen I receptor DDR2 regulates Snail1 protein stability by stimulating ERK2 activity, in a Src-dependent manner. Activated ERK2 directly phosphorylates Snail1, leading to Snail1 nuclear accumulation, reduced ubiquitination, and increased protein half-life. DDR2-mediated stabilization of Snail1 promotes breast cancer cell invasion and migration in vitro, and metastasis in vivo. DDR2 expression was observed in the majority of human invasive ductal breast carcinomas studied, and was associated with nuclear Snail1 and absence of E-cadherin expression. We propose that DDR2 maintains Snail1 protein level and activity in tumor cells that have undergone EMT, thereby facilitating continued tumor cell invasion through collagen I-rich ECM by sustaining the EMT phenotype. As such, DDR2 could be an RTK target for the treatment of breast cancer metastasis. PMID:23644467

Zhang, Kun; Corsa, Callie A.; Ponik, Suzanne M.; Prior, Julie L.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Keely, Patricia J.; Longmore, Gregory D.

2013-01-01

265

Use of Bayluscide (Bayer 73) for Snail Control in Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayluscide applied to ponds on two commercial fish farms at five rates (from L1 to 13.5 kilogram per surface hectare) effectively controlled aquatic snails. Laboratory toxicity tests confirmed susceptibility of three endemic species of aquatic snail—Melanoides tuberculatus, Physella hendersoni, and Planorbella duryi—to Bayluscide. Observed 24-h concentrations lethal to 50% of snails (LC50) ranged from 0.062 to 0.085 mg\\/L, and 24-h

Ruth Francis-Floyd; James Gildea; Peggy Reed; Ruthellen Klinger

1997-01-01

266

Predator-Induced Life-History Shifts in a Freshwater Snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The snail Physella virgata virgata, a widely distributed freshwater pulmonate, was observed to change its life-history characteristics in the presence of the crayfish Orconectes virilis in spring-fed Oklahoma streams. These changes were apparently initiated by a water-borne cue released when crayfish fed on conspecific snails. In the presence of the cue, snails exhibited rapid growth rates and little reproduction until

Todd A. Crowl; Alan P. Covich

1990-01-01

267

Predator avoidance by the freshwater snail Physella virgata in response to the crayfish Procambarus simulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined predator avoidance behavior of the freshwater snailPhysella (=Physa) virgata in response to the crayfishProcambarus simulans. In both laboratory and field enclosure experiments snails crawled above the waterline for 2 h or longer, then returned to the water.Physella virgata react to chemical signals given off by crayfish actively foraging on conspecific snails; they do not react to inactive crayfish.

J. E. Alexander; A. P. Covich

1991-01-01

268

Calcium metabolism in two populations of the snail Helix aspersa on a high lead diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft tissue concentrations of lead, calcium, and magnesium were measured in the garden snail,Helix aspersa, over a 64-day dosing regime. Snails were compared from an uncontaminated site and from a grossly polluted car park. In each case, 25 snails were given a diet with 500 µg\\/g Pb (as PbSO4), and 25 were removed to a Pb-free diet after two days

Alan Beeby; Larry Richmond

1988-01-01

269

Harmful effect of immunotherapy in children with combined snail and mite allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: With respect to allergy, the possibility of cross-reactivity between snail and mite is well recognized, and anecdotal reports suggesting that allergen immunotherapy with mite extract can worsen snail-induced allergy exist. Objective: We describe the effect of immunotherapy in 4 children with snail-mite allergy. Methods: Four children (1 boy and 3 girls; 9-13 years of age) had consistent clinical histories

Giovanni Battista Pajno; Stefania La Grutta; Giovanni Barberio; Giorgio Walter Canonica; Giovanni Passalacqua

2002-01-01

270

Snail and Sonic Hedgehog activation in neuroendocrine tumors of the ileum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor Snail represses E-cadherin and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process also exploited by invasive cancer cells. Aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) signaling was recently observed in a variety of epithelial cancers and it has been shown that the Hh target geneGli1 induces expression of Snail. In this study, we examined whether Snail and Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) are expressed in neuroendocrine

Volker Fendrich; Jens Waldmann; Farzad Esni; Annette Ramaswamy; Michael Mullendore; Malte Buchholz; Anirban Maitra; Georg Feldmann

2007-01-01

271

The LIM Protein AJUBA Recruits Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 To Mediate SNAIL-Dependent Transcriptional Repression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SNAIL transcription factor contains C-terminal tandem zinc finger motifs and an N-terminal SNAG repression domain. The members of the SNAIL family have recently emerged as major contributors to the processes of development and metastasis via the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition events during embryonic development and tumor progression. However, the mechanisms by which SNAIL represses gene expression are largely undefined.

Zhaoyuan Hou; Hongzhuang Peng; Kasirajan Ayyanathan; Kai-Ping Yan; Ellen M. Langer; Gregory D. Longmore; Frank J. Rauscher

2008-01-01

272

Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I-- Metropolitan mesoregion.  

PubMed

In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954); Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818); Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864); Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848); Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835); Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835); Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839); Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839); Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962); Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774); Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822); Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823). Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well. PMID:11586447

Thiengo, S C; Fernandez, M A; Boaventura, M F; Grault, C E; Silva, H F; Mattos, A C; Santos, S B

2001-01-01

273

Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)  

SciTech Connect

Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century. Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem`s food web. Recent research by Malley et al. has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A. [National Biological Services, Laurel, MD (United States)] [National Biological Services, Laurel, MD (United States); Bennetts, R.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1997-05-01

274

Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum  

PubMed Central

Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring. PMID:23301182

Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M

2012-01-01

275

Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum.  

PubMed

Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring. PMID:23301182

Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M

2012-12-01

276

Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (<3 m in depth) of the reservoir, then the total adult population in this impoundment is estimated to be 253,570 snails, and the total Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

2012-01-01

277

Snail2 is an essential mediator of Twist1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis  

PubMed Central

To metastasize, carcinoma cells must attenuate cell-cell adhesion to disseminate into distant organs. A group of transcription factors, including Twist1, Snail1, Snail2, ZEB1, and ZEB2, have been shown to induce Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), thus promoting tumor dissemination. However, it is unknown whether these transcription factors function independently or coordinately to activate the EMT program. Here we report that direct induction of Snail2 is essential for Twist1 to induce EMT. Snail2 knockdown completely blocks the ability of Twist1 to suppress E-cadherin transcription. Twist1 binds to an evolutionarily conserved E-box on the proximate Snail2 promoter to induce its transcription. Snail2 induction is essential for Twist1-induced cell invasion and distant metastasis in mice. In human breast tumors, the expression of Twist1 and Snail2 is highly correlated. Together, our results show that Twist1 needs to induce Snail2 to suppress the epithelial branch of the EMT program and that Twist1 and Snail2 act together to promote EMT and tumor metastasis. PMID:21199805

Casas, Esmeralda; Kim, Jihoon; Bendesky, Andrés; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Wolfe, Cecily J.; Yang, Jing

2010-01-01

278

Ajuba LIM proteins are Snail/Slug corepressors required for neural crest development in Xenopus  

PubMed Central

Snail family transcriptional repressors regulate epithelial mesenchymal transitions during physiological and pathological processes. A conserved SNAG repression domain present in all vertebrate Snail proteins is necessary for repressor complex assembly. Here, we identify the Ajuba family of LIM proteins as functional corepressors of the Snail family via an interaction with the SNAG domain. Ajuba LIM proteins interact with Snail in the nucleus on endogenous E-cadherin promoters and contribute to Snail-dependent repression of E-cadherin. Using Xenopus neural crest as a model of in vivo Snail- or Slug-induced EMT, we demonstrate that Ajuba LIM proteins contribute to neural crest development as Snail/Slug corepressors and are required for in vivo Snail/Slug function. Because Ajuba LIM proteins are also components of adherens junction and contribute to their assembly or stability, their functional interaction with Snail proteins in the nucleus suggests that Ajuba LIM proteins are important regulators of epithelia dynamics communicating surface events with nuclear responses. PMID:18331720

Langer, Ellen M.; Feng, Yunfeng; Zhaoyuan, Hou; Rauscher, Frank J.; Kroll, Kristen L.; Longmore, Gregory D.

2008-01-01

279

Copper uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa).  

PubMed

The present study characterized copper (Cu) uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) from water, soil, and diet. During a 28-day uptake period, juvenile apple snails were exposed to aqueous Cu and adult apple snails were exposed to Cu-contaminated soil, water, and food. In the follow-up 14-day depuration period, both juvenile and adult apple snails were held in laboratory freshwater with background Cu concentrations<4 microg/l. For juvenile apple snails, whole body Cu concentrations increased with time and reached a plateau after 14 days. The data followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics rather than a one compartment first order kinetics model. The mean Cu bioconcentration factor (BCF) for juvenile apple snails was 1493 and the depuration half-life was 10.5-13.8 days. For adult snails, dietary uptake of Cu resulted in higher bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) compared to uptake from soil. Most of the accumulated Cu was located in soft tissue (about 60% in the viscera and 40% in the foot). The shell contained <1% of the total accumulated copper. Soft tissue is usually consumed by predators of the apple snail. Therefore, the results of the present study show that Cu transfer through the food chain to the apple snail may lead to potential risk to its predators. PMID:18642077

Hoang, Tham C; Rogevich, Emily C; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

2008-10-01

280

Analysis of Snail1 function and regulation by Twist1 in palatal fusion  

PubMed Central

Palatal fusion is a tightly controlled process which comprises multiple cellular events, including cell movement and differentiation. Midline epithelial seam (MES) degradation is essential to palatal fusion. In this study, we analyzed the function of Snail1 during the degradation of the MES. We also analyzed the mechanism regulating the expression of the Snail1 gene in palatal shelves. Palatal explants treated with Snail1 siRNA did not degrade the MES and E-cadherin was not repressed leading to failure of palatal fusion. Transforming growth factor beta 3 (Tgf?3) regulated Snail1 mRNA, as Snail1 expression decreased in response to Tgf?3 neutralizing antibody and a PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Twist1, in collaboration with E2A factors, regulated the expression of Snail1. Twist1/E47 dimers bond to the Snail1 promoter to activate expression. Without E47, Twist1 repressed Snail1 expression. These results support the hypothesis that Tgf?3 may signal through Twist1 and then Snail1 to downregulate E-cadherin expression during palatal fusion. PMID:23424071

Yu, Wenli; Zhang, Yanping; Ruest, L. Bruno; Svoboda, Kathy K. H.

2013-01-01

281

Parasite-induced alteration of diurnal rhythms in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

The trematode Microphallus sp. alters the behavior of its snail intermediate host, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, in ways that seem to increase transmission to its final host, e.g., waterfowl, and decrease the probability of being eaten by other predators, e.g., fish. The parasite seems to cause the snail to move from the top to the bottom of rocks at about 0900 hr. Waterfowl feed predominantly before 0900 hr, and fish feed predominantly after 0900 hr. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Microphallus sp.-infected snails exhibit a change in behavior at around 0900 hr by examining their response to light and vertical orientation before and after 0900 hr. Results demonstrated that uninfected snails generally move toward light, oriented downward, and move a greater distance in the light compared with the dark at all times of day. Microphallus sp.-infected snails behaved differently from uninfected snails in the early morning but similarly to uninfected snails in the late morning with regard to downward orientation and distance moved in response to light. Snails infected with parasites other than Microphallus sp. behaved similarly to uninfected snails during both time periods. These results suggest that Microphallus sp. manipulates the behavior of Potamopyrgus sp. by altering rates of movement in response to light and vertical orientation in a manner consistent with the hypothesized 0900-hr shift. PMID:17539402

Levri, Edward P; Lunnen, Shane J; Itle, Carolyn T; Mosquea, Leocadia; Kinkade, Brian V; Martin, Travis G; DeLisser, Monique A

2007-04-01

282

Effect of Glyphosate on the Development of Pseudosuccinea columella Snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Glyphosate (Roundup) is one of the most commonly used broad-spectrum herbicides with little to no hazard to animals, man,\\u000a or the environment. Due to its widespread use, there is continuous contamination of the environment in both soil and water\\u000a with this herbicide. There is a paucity of long-term exposure studies with sublethal concentrations of glyphosate on aquatic\\u000a snails. This

T. M. Tate; J. O. Spurlock; F. A. Christian

1997-01-01

283

A new cold agglutinin from Achatina fulica snails.  

PubMed

An electrophoretically homogeneous agglutinin was purified from the albumin gland of Achatina fulica snails using asialofetunin-Sepharose 4B as an affinity column. The agglutinin was found to be temperature sensitive; it agglutinated rabbit and human umbilical cord erythrocytes only at low temperature. It was found to be specific for methyl-beta-D-galactoside, and the best inhibitor was N-acetyllactosamine. PMID:6465901

Sarkar, M; Bachhawat, B K; Mandal, C

1984-08-15

284

Embryonic Toxin Expression in the Cone Snail Conus victoriae  

PubMed Central

Predatory marine cone snails (genus Conus) utilize complex venoms mainly composed of small peptide toxins that target voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels in their prey. Although the venoms of a number of cone snail species have been intensively profiled and functionally characterized, nothing is known about the initiation of venom expression at an early developmental stage. Here, we report on the expression of venom mRNA in embryos of Conus victoriae and the identification of novel ?- and O-conotoxin sequences. Embryonic toxin mRNA expression is initiated well before differentiation of the venom gland, the organ of venom biosynthesis. Structural and functional studies revealed that the embryonic ?-conotoxins exhibit the same basic three-dimensional structure as the most abundant adult toxin but significantly differ in their neurological targets. Based on these findings, we postulate that the venom repertoire of cone snails undergoes ontogenetic changes most likely reflecting differences in the biotic interactions of these animals with their prey, predators, or competitors. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show toxin mRNA transcripts in embryos, a finding that extends our understanding of the early onset of venom expression in animals and may suggest alternative functions of peptide toxins during development. PMID:21504902

Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Siero, William A.; Kuang, Zhihe; Williamson, Nicholas A.; Karas, John A.; Page, Louise R.; MacMillan, David; Callaghan, Brid; Kompella, Shiva Nag; Adams, David J.; Norton, Raymond S.; Purcell, Anthony W.

2011-01-01

285

Morphological Variation in the New Zealand Mud Snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) is a morphologically diverse species, showing variation in body shape and spine ornamentation. Native to New Zealand, the snail is highly invasive in the United States and Europe. As part of a broader study examining the role of morphological variation in hydrodynamic performance, we sought to quantify shell variation in snails from four different populations in New Zealand. Shells were mounted and photographed, and four characters (shell length and width, and aperture length and width) were digitized. Shell length differed significantly among populations. Sheared PCA revealed that shell shape, defined in terms of overall robustness (PC1) as well as the ratio between shell width and aperture width (PC2), also differed significantly among populations. Spined shells differed significantly from smooth shells with respect to shell shape (PC1 and PC2), with spined shells being generally more robust with larger apertures for their length. Shell shape differed significantly between spined and smooth shells in the two lotic habitats but not in the lentic habitats, suggesting a possible interaction between shell shape, presence of spines, and hydrodynamic environment. Further research will attempt to relate shell morphology and spine ornamentation to hydrodynamic drag and lift forces.

Barrow, S.; Holomuzki, J. R.; Brunkow, P. E.

2005-05-01

286

Plagiorchis elegans (Trematoda) and incompatible snail hosts: implications for snail life history traits and biocontrol of human schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of Plagiorchis elegans on egg production and survival on Bulinus truncatus and Helisoma trivolvis trivolvis. Both species are incompatible hosts for P. elegans. Helisoma t. trivolvis occurs sympatrically with P. elegans; B. truncatus does not. Overall, P. elegans had no effect on survivorship or egg production in H. t. trivolvis or on the survivorship of B. truncatus. Its effect on egg production in B. truncatus was transitory; egg production was reduced by 50% for 5 wk following exposure but returned to normal thereafter. Neither egg production nor survivorship was affected in adult H. t. trivolvis. Egg production ceased at 14 wk post-exposure (PE), but resumed when the snails were paired. Young H. t. trivolvis also produced eggs after exposure, but later than the adults and only after they had been paired with another snail. This suggests that a need for periodic cross-fertilization in H. t. trivolvis rather than the effect of the parasite is responsible for the cessation of egg production in this species. Survivorship in young H. t. trivolvis was significantly higher in exposed snails between wk 7 to 10 PE than in controls. PMID:19566345

Daoust, Simon P; Mader, Brian J; McLaughlin, J Daniel; Rau, Manfred E

2009-12-01

287

Characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State Nigeria. The interview schedule was used to collect data from 60 snail farmers randomly selected from six cells in the study area. Information on the socioeconomic status of the farmers, production system, management practices and production constraints in the snail farms were elicited. The constraints were determined using a four-point Likert-type scale; a mean score of ? 2.5 was considered as a production constraint. Majority (85.0 %) of the respondents were part-time snail farmers. The major species of snails reared were Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata, reared by 43.3 and 26.7 % of the farmers, respectively. Semi-intensive system of production was practised by 40.0 % of the farmers. Majority (78.0 %) of the respondents used car tyres to house their snails. About 56 % of the respondents kept their snails for 1-2 years before sale. Up to 51.7 % of the respondents separated their snails into different pens according to their size/age. The most commonly used feeds were vegetables (71.2 %), plant leaves (67.8 %) and kitchen waste (59.3 %). Records of snail production activities were kept by 75.0 % of respondents. The major constraints identified were lack of capital (3.31), inability to get good laying stock (3.00), lack of formulated feed to buy (2.98) and slow growth rate of snails (2.52). The potentials of snail farming in the study area have not been fully exploited as farmers produced at subsistence level. PMID:23011673

Chah, Jane Mbolle; Inegbedion, Grace

2013-02-01

288

The effect of isolation on reproduction and growth of Pseudosuccinea columella (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae): a snail-conditioned water experiment.  

PubMed

A snail-conditioned water experiment was conducted in Pseudosuccinea columella to test the possible role of a chemical interaction between snails on the diminished growth and fecundity rates found for snails raised in pairs compared to those raised in complete isolation. The results permit to discard the hypothesis of an inhibition of growth and reproduction between snails due to factors released into the water. PMID:12386712

Gutiérrez, Alfredo; Yong, Mary; Wong, Lin; Sánchez, Jorge

2002-09-01

289

Survival of the Faucet Snail after Chemical Disinfection, pH extremes, and Heated Water Bath Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The faucet snail Bithynia tentaculata, a nonindigenous aquatic snail from Eurasia, was introduced into Lake Michigan in 1871 and has spread to the mid-Atlantic states, the Great Lakes region, Montana, and most recently, the Mississippi River. The faucet snail serves as intermediate host for several trematodes that have caused large-scale mortality among water birds, primarily in the Great Lakes region

Andrew J. Mitchell; Rebecca A. Cole

2008-01-01

290

Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites  

E-print Network

Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion-13, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, U.S.A. Abstract: We collected six species of freshwater snails from-emerged as a prominent component of the freshwater snail fauna since it disappeared or was locally eradicated

Dillon, Robert T.

291

Temperature Tolerance of Red-Rim Melania Melanoides tuberculatus, an Exotic Aquatic Snail Established in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus (family Thiaridae), a tropical, nonindigenous aquatic snail, has become established and is spreading in the United States. Concerns associated with the spread of this snail include its potential to displace native snail populations and to transmit trematodes. Of particular concern is the gill trematode Centrocestus formosanus now found in U.S. commercial and wild fish stocks.

Andrew J. Mitchell; Thomas M. Brandt

2005-01-01

292

Effects of pollution on land snail abundance, size and diversity as resources for pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca.  

PubMed

Passerine birds need extra calcium during their breeding for developing egg shells and proper growth of nestling skeleton. Land snails are an important calcium source for many passerines and human-induced changes in snail populations may pose a severe problem for breeding birds. We studied from the bird's viewpoint how air pollution affects the shell mass, abundance and diversity of land snail communities along a pollution gradient of a copper smelter. We sampled remnant snail shells from the nests of an insectivorous passerine, the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, to find out how the availability of land snails varies along the pollution gradient. The total snail shell mass increased towards the pollution source but declined abruptly in the vicinity of the smelter. This spatial variation in shell mass was evident also within a single snail species and could not be wholly explained by spatially varying snail numbers or species composition. Instead, the total shell mass was related to their shell size, individuals being largest at the moderately polluted areas. Smaller shell size suggests inferior growth of snails in the most heavily polluted area. Our study shows that pollution affects the diversity, abundance (available shell mass) and individual quality of land snails, posing reproductive problems for birds that rely on snails as calcium sources during breeding. There are probably both direct pollution-related (heavy metal and calcium levels) and indirect (habitat change) effects behind the observed changes in snail populations. PMID:20542535

Eeva, Tapio; Rainio, Kalle; Suominen, Otso

2010-09-01

293

Measuring Animal Movements in a Natural Ecosystem: A Mark-Recapture Investigation Using Stream-Dwelling Snails  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this investigation, students measure and describe movements of animals in a natural ecosystem. Students mark stream-dwelling snails with nail polish, then search for these snails 1-7 days later. Distances and directions moved by recaptured snails are recorded. Simple statistical techniques are used to answer specific research questions and…

Stewart, Timothy W.

2007-01-01

294

Habitat-specific variation in life-history traits, clonal population structure and parasitism in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High risk of infection by parasites may select for early reproduction in natural host populations. In a previous study of a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) we found (1) that different clones of the snail are associated with different depth-structured vegetation zones and (2) that snails in shallow water, where the age-specific risk of infection is highest, mature at a smaller

Jokela; M. F. DYBDAHL; C. M. LIVELY

1999-01-01

295

Dissociation of sexual arousal and sexual proclivity in the garden snail, Helix aspersa.  

PubMed

Sexual arousal (intensity of courtship) and sexual proclivity (tendency to court) in Helix aspersa can be reliably measured using externally observable correlates. Snails with sexual proclivity are significantly more likely to turn toward an anesthetized conspecific after contacting it than are sexually unreceptive snails. Sexual arousal can be inferred from the stage of a snail's genital eversion, which appears only during courtship. The higher the stage of the eversion, the shorter the time required to complete introductory courtship behavior and the higher the rate of successful copulation, the fewer the number of breaks and pauses during courtship, and the longer the time a snail will spend in contact with an anesthetized conspecific. Sexual proclivity has no effect on feeding or locomotory behavior; however, sexual arousal inhibits feeding and increases locomotor activity. Snails that were allowed daily contact with conspecifics required less time to complete introductory courtship behavior relative to snails that were isolated from conspecifics for 1 week. This suggests that daily contact increases sexual arousal. A greater percentage of isolated snails exhibited courtship behavior than did snails which had experienced daily conspecific contact. This suggests that isolation increases sexual proclivity. These differences indicate that sexual arousal is not merely due to an increase in sexual proclivity. PMID:2241758

Adamo, S A; Chase, R

1990-09-01

296

A repetitive DNA probe for the sensitive detection of Fasciola hepatica infected snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epizootiologic studies on F. hepatica frequently use microscopic techniques for the detection of infected snails, however, the poor efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity associated with these techniques limit their usefulness. A DNA-based test for the identification of snails infected with larval stages of F. hepatica would solve these problems and enable a level of detection accuracy previosly unavailable. We have cloned

R. M. Kaplan; J. B. Dame; G. R. Reddy; C. H. Courtney

1995-01-01

297

Distribution and ecology of the fresh-water snails (gastropods) of Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article is a preliminary report of some of the results arrived at in a study comprising the distribution, ecology and morphology of the fresh-water snails of Norway, including aspects of regional limnology. When finished, the study is expected to be printed in Folia Limnologica Scandinavica. Fresh-water snails and data on environmental factors have been collected in about 1350 lakes,

Oekland

1969-01-01

298

Additions to the Pulmonate Snails of Oklahoma (With Notes on Anatomical Techniques)  

Microsoft Academic Search

bottom. Using a common large pulmonate snail, a few trial experiments in dissection will soon permit one to devise a satisfactory method. If material is abundant, identifications should be based on the dissection of many specimens. Living snails to be dissected may be drowned or fixed for several minutes in boiling water, both methods being good for reo vealing particular

GLENN R. WEBB

299

Snail family regulation and epithelial mesenchymal transitions in breast cancer progression.  

E-print Network

: general characteristics, stages of EMT found in vivo and in vitro. Partial EMT. 3. EMT and E-cadherin down of Snail protein expression: cooperation and feed-back. 6. EMT during breast development. 7. EMT in mammary-regulation: role of transcriptional repressors. 4. Snail proteins as essential regulators of EMT. 5. Control

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

Soil Calcium Availability Influences Shell Ecophenotype Formation in the Sub-Antarctic Land Snail, Notodiscus  

E-print Network

Soil Calcium Availability Influences Shell Ecophenotype Formation in the Sub-Antarctic Land Snail organisms and their environment, and show plasticity across generations in response to current living of a land gastropod. Notodiscus hookeri is the only native land snail present in the Crozet Archipelago (sub-Antarctic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

301

Crawling beneath the free surface: Water snail locomotion Sungyon Lee,1  

E-print Network

2008; published online 26 August 2008 Land snails move via adhesive locomotion. Through muscular onto a solid substrate. Since a free surface cannot support shear stress, adhesive locomotion marine and freshwater snails. A significant effort has gone towards understanding pedal wave locomotion

Lauga, Eric

302

The mouse snail gene encodes a key regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snail family genes encode DNA binding zinc finger proteins that act as transcriptional repressors. Mouse embryos deficient for the Snail (Sna) gene exhibit defects in the formation of the mesoderm germ layer. In Sna(-\\/-) mutant embryos, a mesoderm layer forms and mesodermal marker genes are induced but the mutant mesoderm is morphologically abnormal. Lacunae form within the mesoderm layer of

ETHAN A. CARVER; RULANG JIANG; YU LAN; KATHLEEN F. ORAM; THOMAS GRIDLEY

2001-01-01

303

Aberrant Expression of the Transcription Factors Snail and Slug Alters the Response to Genotoxic Stress  

PubMed Central

Snail and Slug are closely related transcriptional repressors involved in embryonic patterning during metazoan development. In human cancer, aberrant expression of Snail and/or Slug has been correlated with invasive growth potential, a property primarily attributed to their ability to directly repress transcription of genes whose products are involved in cell-cell adhesion, such as E-cadherin, occludin, and claudins. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of alterations in epithelial cell fate mediated by aberrant expression of Snail or Slug, we analyzed the consequences of exogenous expression of these factors in human cancer cells. Aberrant expression of either Snail or Slug led to changes in cell morphology, the loss of normal cell-cell contacts, and the acquisition of invasive growth properties. Snail or Slug expression also promoted resistance to programmed cell death elicited by DNA damage. Detailed molecular analysis revealed direct transcriptional repression of multiple factors with well-documented roles in programmed cell death. Depletion of endogenous Snail by RNA interference led to increased sensitivity to DNA damage accompanied by increased expression of the proapoptotic factors identified as targets of Snail. Thus, aberrant expression of Snail or Slug may promote tumorigenesis through increased resistance to programmed cell death. PMID:15314165

Kajita, Masahiro; McClinic, Karissa N.; Wade, Paul A.

2004-01-01

304

Distribution of freshwater snails in the man-made Oyan Reservoir, Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors influencing patterns of snail distribution in Oyan Reservoir, a typically medium sized man-made reservoir in southwest Nigeria, were investigated once a month, for 28 months (August 1990-November 1992). During each monthly visit, seven stations were sampled for relative snail density, vegetation cover and physical and chemical properties of the lake water. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the

Ifeanyi Emmanuel Ofoezie

1999-01-01

305

Structure of terrestrial snail communities of Euro Siberian alder swamps (Cl. Alnetea glutinosae) in Latvia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the terrestrial snail communities of Euro-Siberian alder swamps (Cl. alnetea glutinosae) of Latvia were carried out during the period of 2004–2005, by examining samples from 12 forest districts located in different parts of the country. In total, 38 species, constituting half of all terrestrial snail species recorded in Latvia, were found. The examined alder swamps can be divided

Digna Pilate

2009-01-01

306

Hunting Behavior, Prey Selection, and Energetics of Snail Kites in Guyana: Consumer Choice by a Specialist  

E-print Network

Hunting Behavior, Prey Selection, and Energetics of Snail Kites in Guyana: Consumer Choice, preserve and extend access to The Auk. http://www.jstor.org #12;HUNTING BEHAVIOR, PREYSELECTION, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056 USA ABSTRACT.-The hunting behavior, snail size selection, and time

Beissinger, Steven R.

307

Snail Contributes to the Maintenance of Stem Cell-Like Phenotype Cells in Human Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Snail, a potent repressor of E-cadherin expression, plays a key role in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cancer. Recently, EMT and stemness programs are found linked together. In the current study, the expression of Snail and its contribution to cancer stem cell (CSC) marker expression, invasiveness, self-renewal, clonogenicity, and tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells were studied. Our results showed that Snail was highly expressed in CSChigh cell line Panc-1. Stable, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated Snail knockdown decreased invasion in Panc-1 cells, in line with increased E-cadherin expression and its translocation from the nucleus to the membrane. Snail silencing in Panc-1 also inhibited CSC marker ALDH expression, together with decreased sphere and colony forming capacity, which was highly consistent with the expression of stem cell associated transcription factors like Sox2 and Oct4. In mouse xenograft models, knockdown of Snail led to a reduced number of tumor-bearing mice and a reduced average size of tumors, which had a stronger membrane staining of E-cadherin and lighter staining of Oct4. Collectively, these findings implicate Snail is required for the maintenance of stem cell-like phenotype in pancreatic cancer, and inhibition of Snail could be an efficient strategy to treat pancreatic cancer by targeting CSCs. PMID:24489910

Zhou, Wei; Lv, Ran; Qi, Weilin; Wu, Di; Xu, Yunyun; Liu, Wei; Mou, Yiping; Wang, Liewei

2014-01-01

308

Effects of an exotic prey species on a native specialist: Example of the snail kite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite acknowledging that exotic species can exhibit tremendous influence over native populations, few case studies have clearly demonstrated the effects of exotic prey species on native predators. We examined the effects of the recently introduced island apple snail (Pomacea insularum) on the foraging behavior and energetics of the endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) in Florida. We conducted time-activity budgets:

Christopher E. Cattau; Julien Martin; Wiley M. Kitchens

2010-01-01

309

Dynamic control of a central pattern generator circuit: a computational model of the snail feeding network  

E-print Network

­Huxley models, Lymnaea stagnalis Abstract Central pattern generators (CPGs) are networks underlying rhythmic to the rhythmogenic circuit. In the feeding system of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, the extrinsic slow oscillator the CPG-driven motor pattern underlying feeding in the pond snail, Lymnaea (Fig. 1). One type of cell

Feng, Jianfeng

310

Effects of eutrophication and snails on Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasion  

E-print Network

Effects of eutrophication and snails on Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasion, Myriophyllum spicatum, snail Abstract Exotic species can invade and establish new habitats both as a result that the abundance of the invasive submerged aquatic plant, Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian watermilfoil) is highly

311

Effects of desiccation on two life stages of an invasive snail and its native cohabitant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species are of critical concern as they have the potential to rapidly alter biotic systems around the globe. The\\u000a upper Mississippi River (UMR) system has been recently invaded by the aquatic snail, Bithynia tentaculata, which spread from the Great Lakes region. In addition to potentially impacting native aquatic snails, B. tentaculata also carries three parasites which kill thousands of

Allison M. Wood; Cody R. Haro; Roger J. Haro; Gregory J. Sandland

312

Larval stages of digenetic trematodes in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from freshwater bodies in Palestine  

PubMed Central

Objective To detect the species of larval trematodes (cercariae) in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from 5 different fresh water bodies in Palestine. Methods A total of 1 880 Melanopsis praemorsa snails were collected from different fresh water bodies in Palestine from October, 2008 to November, 2010. Cercariae in Melanopsis praemorsa snails were obtained by lighting and crushing methods. The behavior of cercariae was observed using a dissecting microscope. Results Three different species of larval trematodes were identified from Melanopsis praemorsa snails collected only from Al-Bathan fresh water body, while snails from other water bodies were not infected. These species were microcercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria and brevifurcate lophocercous cercaria. These cercariae called Cercaria melanopsi palestinia I, Cercaria melanopsi palestinia II and Cercaria melanopsi palestinia III have not been described before from this snail in Palestine. The infection rate of Melanopsis praemorsa collected from Al-Bathan fresh water body was 5.7%, while the overall infection rate of snails collected from all fresh water bodies was 4.3%. Details are presented on the morphology and behavior of the cercariae as well as their development within the snail. Conclusions These results have been recorded for the first time and these cercariae may be of medical and veterinary importance. PMID:23569759

Bdir, Sami; Adwan, Ghaleb

2011-01-01

313

The distribution of the invasive New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasive New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, is a world-wide invasive species currently found in Europe, Australia, Japan, and, most recently, North America. It was first discovered in Lake Ontario in 1991. The purposes of this study were to update the current known geographic distribution of the snail, determine the relationship between depth and population densities, and examine the

Edward P. Levri; Ron M. Dermott; Shane J. Lunnen; Ashley A. Kelly; Thomas Ladson

2008-01-01

314

Male New Zealand Mud Snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) Persist in Copulating with  

E-print Network

Male New Zealand Mud Snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) Persist in Copulating with Asexual of a natural system in which these issues are relevant is Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a freshwater snail native choice by conducting two laboratory experiments focused on determining whether male P. antipodarum housed

Neiman, Maurine

315

Snail/beta-catenin signaling protects breast cancer cells from hypoxia attack  

SciTech Connect

The tolerance of cancer cells to hypoxia depends on the combination of different factors – from increase of glycolysis (Warburg Effect) to activation of intracellular growth/apoptotic pathways. Less is known about the influence of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and EMT-associated pathways on the cell sensitivity to hypoxia. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Snail signaling, one of the key EMT pathways, in the mediating of hypoxia response and regulation of cell sensitivity to hypoxia, using as a model in vitro cultured breast cancer cells. Earlier we have shown that estrogen-independent HBL-100 breast cancer cells differ from estrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells with increased expression of Snail1, and demonstrated Snail1 involvement into formation of hormone-resistant phenotype. Because Snail1 belongs to hypoxia-activated proteins, here we studied the influence of Snail1 signaling on the cell tolerance to hypoxia. We found that Snail1-enriched HBL-100 cells were less sensitive to hypoxia-induced growth suppression if compared with MCF-7 line (31% MCF-7 vs. 71% HBL-100 cell viability after 1% O{sub 2} atmosphere for 3 days). Snail1 knock-down enhanced the hypoxia-induced inhibition of cell proliferation giving the direct evidence of Snail1 involvement into cell protection from hypoxia attack. The protective effect of Snail1 was shown to be mediated, at least in a part, via beta-catenin which positively regulated expression of HIF-1-dependent genes. Finally, we found that cell tolerance to hypoxia was accompanied with the failure in the phosphorylation of AMPK – the key energy sensor, and demonstrated an inverse relationship between AMPK and Snail/beta-catenin signaling. Totally, our data show that Snail1 and beta-catenin, besides association with loss of hormone dependence, protect cancer cells from hypoxia and may serve as an important target in the treatment of breast cancer. Moreover, we suggest that the level of these proteins as well the level of AMPK phosphorylation may be considered as predictors of the tumor sensitivity to anti-angiogenic drugs. - Highlights: • Snail1 protects breast cancer cells from hypoxia. • Protective effect of Snail1 is mediated via ?-catenin/HIF-1 pathway. • Snail/?-catenin signaling is negatively controlled by the energy sensor – AMPK. • The failure in AMPK phosphorylation drives cells to the hypoxia-tolerant state.

Scherbakov, Alexander M., E-mail: alex.scherbakov@gmail.com [Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Institute of Clinical Oncology, N.N. Blokhin Cancer Research Centre, Kashirskoye sh. 24, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Stefanova, Lidia B.; Sorokin, Danila V.; Semina, Svetlana E. [Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Institute of Carcinogenesis, N.N. Blokhin Cancer Research Centre, Kashirskoye sh. 24, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Berstein, Lev M. [Laboratory of Oncoendocrinology, N.N. Petrov Research Institute of Oncology, St. Petersburg 197758 (Russian Federation); Krasil’nikov, Mikhail A. [Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Institute of Carcinogenesis, N.N. Blokhin Cancer Research Centre, Kashirskoye sh. 24, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation)

2013-12-10

316

Snail modulates the assembly of fibronectin via ?5 integrin for myocardial migration in zebrafish embryos  

PubMed Central

The Snail family member snail encodes a zinc finger-containing transcriptional factor that is involved in heart formation. Yet, little is known about how Snail regulates heart development. Here, we identified that one of the duplicated snail genes, snai1b, was expressed in the heart region of zebrafish embryos. Depletion of Snai1b function dramatically reduced expression of ?5 integrin, disrupted Fibronectin layer in the heart region, especially at the midline, and prevented migration of cardiac precursors, resulting in defects in cardiac morphology and function in zebrafish embryos. Injection of ?5?1 protein rescued the Fibronectin layer and then the myocardial precursor migration in snai1b knockdown embryos. The results provide the molecular mechanism how Snail controls the morphogenesis of heart during embryonic development. PMID:24667151

Qiao, Liangjun; Gao, Hongwei; Zhang, Ting; Jing, Lulu; Xiao, Chun; Xiao, Yue; Luo, Ning; Zhu, Hongyan; Meng, Wentong; Xu, Hong; Mo, Xianming

2014-01-01

317

Predator-induced life-history shifts in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

The snail Physella virgata virgata, a widely distributed freshwater pulmonate, was observed to change its life-history characteristics in the presence of the crayfish Orconectes virilis in spring-fed Oklahoma streams. These changes were apparently initiated by a water-borne cue released when crayfish fed on conspecific snails. In the presence of the cue, snails exhibited rapid growth rates and little reproduction until they reached a size of about 10 mm after 8 months. In the absence of the cue, snails typically grew to about 4 mm (3.5 months) and then began reproduction. The chemically inducible shift indicates that the life histories of these snails are phenotypically plastic. By increasing the variance associated with size and age of maturity, prey may increase the likelihood of coexisting with seasonal predators. PMID:17776452

Crowl, T A; Covich, A P

1990-02-23

318

Snail1 controls bone mass by regulating Runx2 and VDR expression during osteoblast differentiation  

PubMed Central

Bone undergoes continuous remodelling throughout adult life, and the equilibrium between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts defines the final bone mass. Here we show that Snail1 regulates this balance by controlling osteoblast differentiation. Snail1 is necessary for the early steps of osteoblast development, and it must be downregulated for their final differentiation. At the molecular level, Snail1 controls bone mass by repressing the transcription of both the osteoblast differentiation factor Runx2 and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes in osteoblasts. Sustained activation of Snail1 in transgenic mice provokes deficient osteoblast differentiation, which, together with the loss of vitamin D signalling in the bone, also impairs osteoclastogenesis. Indeed, the mineralisation of the bone matrix is severely affected, leading to hypocalcemia-independent osteomalacia. Our data show that the impact of Snail1 activity on the osteoblast population regulates the course of bone cells differentiation and ensures normal bone remodelling. PMID:19197242

de Frutos, Cristina A; Dacquin, Romain; Vega, Sonia; Jurdic, Pierre; Machuca-Gayet, Irma; Angela Nieto, M

2009-01-01

319

Transmission control of schistosomiasis japonica: implementation and evaluation of different snail control interventions.  

PubMed

The great progress made in the control of schistosomiasis japonica in China is to some extent explained by successful intermediate host snail control, in particular with environmental management commencing some 50 years ago. By 1995, interruption of Schistosoma japonicum transmission had been achieved in five of the 12 schistosome-endemic provinces while endemic areas in the remaining provinces had been reduced significantly, and snail habitats had decreased by 74%. In this paper, we review the role and approaches towards control and give an account of compounds toxic to snails. Mid- and long-term national plans for schistosomiasis control are discussed, including integrated snail control approaches as an important measure. It is anticipated that implementation of these plans will accelerate snail control, which in turn will consolidate and mutually reinforce other control measures, most notably praziquantel-based chemotherapy. The ultimate aim is to eliminate schistosomiasis as a public health problem in China. PMID:16154105

Yuan, Yi; Xu, Xing-Jian; Dong, Hui-Fen; Jiang, Ming-Sen; Zhu, Hui-Guo

2005-01-01

320

Tetrodotoxin-associated snail poisoning in Zhoushan: a 25-year retrospective analysis.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of paralytic snail poisoning have recently occurred in Asia, especially in China. The epidemiological characteristics of this disease from an outbreak in Zhoushan City, China, were recorded. Forty-two outbreaks of paralytic snail poisoning, involving 309 cases of illness, occurred from 1977 to 2001. Sixteen people (5.2%) died, 48 people (15.5%) required intubations, and 140 people (45.3%) required emergency hospital treatment as a result of these outbreaks. Outbreaks involved multiple marine snail species and occurred primarily during the summer (from June to August) on 11 islands with high population densities. Peak numbers of outbreaks and amounts of snail toxicity occurred from 1978 to 1979, from 1985 to 1987, and from 1992 to 1994. Toxicity varied depending on specimen, region, and season. The toxin involved was identified as tetrodotoxin. The data obtained in this study suggest that snails should not be eaten unless they are certified to be nontoxic. PMID:12540189

Shui, Li Ming; Chen, Kun; Wang, Jian Yue; Mei, Hong Zhou; Wang, Ai Zeng; Lu, Ya-Hui; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

2003-01-01

321

Expression of Snail and Slug in renal cell carcinoma: E-cadherin repressor Snail is associated with cancer invasion and prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Snail family transcription factors have been proposed as important mediators of epithelial–mesenchymal transition because of their role in down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of Snail, Slug and their associations with cancer invasion and prognosis in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). Ninety-seven primary RCCs were analyzed for the

Shuji Mikami; Ken-Ichi Katsube; Mototsugu Oya; Masaru Ishida; Takeo Kosaka; Ryuichi Mizuno; Makio Mukai; Yasunori Okada

2011-01-01

322

Snail1 expression in colorectal cancer and its correlation with clinical and pathological parameters  

PubMed Central

Background Snail1 is a transcription regulator of E-cadherin. The loss of E-cadherin seems to be a crucial step in the process of Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT initiates invasion and proliferation in many tumours. Overexpression of Snail1 is known to be associated with poor outcome in several solid tumours. The aim of this study was to analyse its expression profile and prognostic significance in colorectal cancer. Methods Tissue microarrays (TMA) containing paraffin-embedded primary colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue samples from 251 patients were used in this study. The expression of Snail1 and E-cadherin was assessed by immunohistochemistry in different tumour compartments, corresponding lymph node metastases and normal colonic mucosa. Intensity of staining was classified according to the Remmele score (standardized scoring system) as well as the semiquantitative score established by Blechschmidt et al. Results Snail1 expression was observed in 76% of the CRC. Loss of E-cadherin was noted in 87% of the CRC. Snail1 positive tumours were significantly correlated with Snail1 positive lymph node metastases (p=0.03). There was no significant correlation between loss of E-cadherin and Snail1 expression, or between N-stage or grading and Snail1 expression. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis identified no prognostic impact of Snail1 expression on overall survival. Conclusion Snail1 expression was detectable in most of the CRC but showed no significant association with E-cadherin loss, clinical pathological characteristics or overall survival. The observed loss of E-cadherin could be explained by effects of other important EMT pathways, such as the Wnt-signalling cascade. PMID:23522088

2013-01-01

323

Why are there few algae on snail shells? The effects of grazing, nutrients and shell chemistry on the algae on shells of Helisoma trivolvis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Freshwater snails often lack visible growths of algae on their shells. We tested three possible mechanisms that may account for this (grazing, snail-derived nutrients and chemical defences), using the ramshorn snail Helisoma trivolvis. 2. The experiments were carried out in floating plastic enclosures in a pond and comprised seven treatments. Grazing treatments were: a lone snail (ungrazed, as

LINDSEY L. ABBOTT; ELIZABETH A. BERGEY

2007-01-01

324

A flavonol present in cocoa [(-)epicatechin] enhances snail memory.  

PubMed

Dietary consumption of flavonoids (plant phytochemicals) may improve memory and neuro-cognitive performance, though the mechanism is poorly understood. Previous work has assessed cognitive effects in vertebrates; here we assess the suitability of Lymnaea stagnalis as an invertebrate model to elucidate the effects of flavonoids on cognition. (-)Epicatechin (epi) is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. We studied its effects on basic snail behaviours (aerial respiration and locomotion), long-term memory (LTM) formation and memory extinction of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behaviour. We found no significant effect of epi exposure (15 mg l(-1)) on either locomotion or aerial respiration. However, when snails were operantly conditioned in epi for a single 0.5 h training session, which typically results in memory lasting ~3 h, they formed LTM lasting at least 24 h. Snails exposed to epi also showed significantly increased resistance to extinction, consistent with the hypothesis that epi induces a more persistent LTM. Thus training in epi facilitates LTM formation and results in a more persistent and stronger memory. Previous work has indicated that memory-enhancing stressors (predator kairomones and KCl) act via sensory input from the osphradium and are dependent on a serotonergic (5-HT) signalling pathway. Here we found that the effects of epi on LTM were independent of osphradial input and 5-HT, demonstrating that an alternative mechanism of memory enhancement exists in L. stagnalis. Our data are consistent with the notion that dietary sources of epi can improve cognitive abilities, and that L. stagnalis is a suitable model with which to elucidate neuronal mechanisms. PMID:23014569

Fruson, Lee; Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

2012-10-15

325

Crab scars reveal survival advantage of left-handed snails.  

PubMed

Biological asymmetries are important elements of the structure and function of many living organisms. Using the Plio-Pleistocene fossil record of crab predation on morphologically similar pairs of right- and left-handed snail species, we show here for the first time, contrary to traditional wisdom, that rare left-handed coiling promotes survival from attacks by right-handed crabs. This frequency-dependent result influences the balance of selection processes that maintain left-handedness at the species level and parallels some social interactions in human cultures, such as sports that involve dual contests between opponents of opposite handedness. PMID:17148425

Dietl, Gregory P; Hendricks, Jonathan R

2006-09-22

326

Crab scars reveal survival advantage of left-handed snails  

PubMed Central

Biological asymmetries are important elements of the structure and function of many living organisms. Using the Plio–Pleistocene fossil record of crab predation on morphologically similar pairs of right- and left-handed snail species, we show here for the first time, contrary to traditional wisdom, that rare left-handed coiling promotes survival from attacks by right-handed crabs. This frequency-dependent result influences the balance of selection processes that maintain left-handedness at the species level and parallels some social interactions in human cultures, such as sports that involve dual contests between opponents of opposite handedness. PMID:17148425

Dietl, Gregory P; Hendricks, Jonathan R

2006-01-01

327

Selective and universal primers for trematode barcoding in freshwater snails.  

PubMed

Trematodes are significant pathogens of high medical, veterinary, and environmental importance. They are hard to isolate from their intermediate hosts, and their early life stages are difficult to identify morphologically. Therefore, primers were developed for trematodes to create a species barcoding system and allow selective PCR amplification in mixed samples. The specific oligonucleotide primer was universal for trematodes that infected several freshwater snail species in Israel. The diagnostic tool is based on the 18S rDNA gene. In contrast to morphological identification, trematode barcoding is rapid as it is based on a sequence of only 800 bp, and it classifies species accurately due to high polymorphism between conserved areas. PMID:24781022

Routtu, J; Grunberg, D; Izhar, R; Dagan, Y; Guttel, Y; Ucko, M; Ben-Ami, F

2014-07-01

328

Exposure to parasites increases promiscuity in a freshwater snail  

PubMed Central

Under the Red Queen hypothesis, outcrossing can produce genetically variable progeny, which may be more resistant, on average, to locally adapted parasites. Mating with multiple partners may enhance this resistance by further increasing the genetic variation among offspring. We exposed Potamopyrgus antipodarum to the eggs of a sterilizing, trematode parasite and tested whether this altered mating behaviour. We found that exposure to parasites increased the number of snail mating pairs and the total number of different mating partners for both males and females. Thus, our results suggest that, in host populations under parasite-mediated selection, exposure to infective propagules increases the rate of mating and the number of mates. PMID:24759366

Soper, D. M.; King, K. C.; Vergara, D.; Lively, C. M.

2014-01-01

329

Toxicity of botanical insecticides on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).  

PubMed

The molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from five highly potential plants, Annona squamosa seed, Nerium indicum Leaves, Stemona tuberose root, Cyperus rotundus corm and Derris elliptica root was assessed to Pomacea canaliculata. D. elliptica root and C. rotundus corm extracts showed the highest toxicity against 3-month old snails which have LC50 as 23.68 +/- 2.96 mg/l and 133.20 +/- 7.94 mg/l, respectively. The C. rotundus corm extracts were chosen for detoxification enzyme in vivo assay which shows esterase and glutathione S-transferase activity in stomach, intestinal tracts and digestive glands of survival treated P. canaliculata were inhibited. PMID:21542482

Ruamthum, W; Visetson, S; Milne, J R; Bullangpoti, V

2010-01-01

330

Exposure to parasites increases promiscuity in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Under the Red Queen hypothesis, outcrossing can produce genetically variable progeny, which may be more resistant, on average, to locally adapted parasites. Mating with multiple partners may enhance this resistance by further increasing the genetic variation among offspring. We exposed Potamopyrgus antipodarum to the eggs of a sterilizing, trematode parasite and tested whether this altered mating behaviour. We found that exposure to parasites increased the number of snail mating pairs and the total number of different mating partners for both males and females. Thus, our results suggest that, in host populations under parasite-mediated selection, exposure to infective propagules increases the rate of mating and the number of mates. PMID:24759366

Soper, D M; King, K C; Vergara, D; Lively, C M

2014-01-01

331

Overexpression of Snail is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a significant role in tumor progression and invasion. Snail is a known regulator of EMT in various malignant tumors. This study investigated the role of Snail in gastric cancer. Methods We examined the effects of silenced or overexpressed Snail using lenti-viral constructs in gastric cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays from 314 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) was used to determine Snail’s clinicopathological and prognostic significance. Differential gene expression in 45 GC specimens with Snail overexpression was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis. Results Silencing of Snail by shRNA decreased invasion and migration in GC cell lines. Conversely, Snail overexpression increased invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells, in line with increased VEGF and MMP11. Snail overexpression (?75% positive nuclear staining) was also significantly associated with tumor progression (P?Snail overexpression, including genes related to metastasis and invasion. Conclusion Snail significantly affects invasiveness/migratory ability of GCs, and may also be used as a predictive biomarker for prognosis or aggressiveness of GCs. PMID:23151184

2012-01-01

332

The influence of Plagiorchis mutationis larval infection on the cellular immune response of the snail host Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

The effects of trematode Plagiorchis mutationis parasitism on the cellular immune responses of the snail host Lymnaea stagnalis were investigated. The number of spreading blood cells (hemocytes) from infected snails was significantly less (69.5%) than in uninfected individuals (79.2%). The phagocytic activity of blood cells in infected snails was also significantly less (17.2%) compared to uninfected snails (27.8%). The hemocytes from the infected snails did not form a complete capsule around Sephadex beads in vitro. The protective reactions of the snail hosts were independent of the parasite load (daily cercariae production). In vitro, dead cercariae of P. mutationis were encapsulated by hemocytes from uninfected snails. The hemocytes of the infected snails formed a complete capsule around only 20% of dead cercariae in vitro, with remaining cercariae either unencapsulated (50% of cercariae) or incompletely encapsulated (30% of cercariae). The total number of hemocytes in the infected snails was twofold less than in uninfected individuals. The results of this study showed that the cellular response of snail host L. stagnalis to P. mutationis trematode infection is similar to the previously studied snail-trematode model systems. PMID:24428684

Kryukova, Natalia A; Yurlova, Natalia I; Rastyagenko, Natalia M; Antonova, Elena V; Glupov, Viktor V

2014-06-01

333

PKD1 phosphorylation-dependent degradation of SNAIL by SCF-FBXO11 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis.  

PubMed

Metastatic dissemination is often initiated by the reactivation of an embryonic development program referred to as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The transcription factor SNAIL promotes EMT and elicits associated pathological characteristics such as invasion, metastasis, and stemness. To better understand the posttranslational regulation of SNAIL, we performed a luciferase-based, genome-wide E3 ligase siRNA library screen and identified SCF-FBXO11 as an important E3 that targets SNAIL for ubiquitylation and degradation. Furthermore, we discovered that SNAIL degradation by FBXO11 is dependent on Ser-11 phosphorylation of SNAIL by protein kinase D1 (PKD1). FBXO11 blocks SNAIL-induced EMT, tumor initiation, and metastasis in multiple breast cancer models. These findings establish the PKD1-FBXO11-SNAIL axis as a mechanism of posttranslational regulation of EMT and cancer metastasis. PMID:25203322

Zheng, Hanqiu; Shen, Minhong; Zha, Yin-Lian; Li, Wenyang; Wei, Yong; Blanco, Mario Andres; Ren, Guangwen; Zhou, Tianhua; Storz, Peter; Wang, Hui-Yun; Kang, Yibin

2014-09-01

334

[Dynamic transmission of Schistosoma by Biomphalaria pfeifferi in the region of Man in Côte d'Ivoire].  

PubMed

Intestinal schistosomiasis by Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitary affection transmitted in West Africa by the mollusc Biomphalaria pfeifferi. Transmission dynamic of schistosomiasis by Biomphalaria pfeifferi has seldom been investigated in Côte d'Ivoire. In the framework of a research project on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the natural forest ecosystems, this study was performed longitudinally over a period of three years in Man region, in western Côte d'Ivoire. The trial set up from 1986 to 1989 and the project was funded by the World Health Organization. The general objective is to design a strategy of schistosomiasis control based on chemotherapy. The approach aims at interrupting or considerably reducing the reinfections, prolonging in that way the duration of the positive effects of the chemotherapy. The specific objectives assigned to the work consisted in studying the dynamic of the B. pfeifferi population and the infection of B. pfeifferi. To achieve our objectives, diverse methods (i: the molluscs sampling by two prospectors during 15 minutes per study site and ii: individual isolation of molluscs in test tubes with 5 or 10 mL of filtered water and exposure to light) have been used. They enabled us in the sampling of the intermediary host molluscs of Schistosoma and seek their infections. The results show that apparent high densities of B. pfeifferi can be observed at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of rainy seasons. In addition, the variation of relative abundance of intermediary host molluscs of Schistosoma is significantly influenced by rainfall and the system of water ways. The period of transmission of the infection to man is six months at Gueupleu village and ten months at Botonguiné village. In order to optimize the effect of chemotherapy in these sites of transmission characterized by a high level of endemy (68 %), an extreme mobility of human populations and a multiplicity of contamination sites, this study should not only take into account the geographic space of the illness, but also it should eventually associate with a molluscicide action and/or a sanitary education through the teaching of primary health care. PMID:25351337

Yapi Yapi, G; Touré, M; Boka, O M; Tia, E; Boby, O A-M

2014-12-01

335

Effects of snail grazing and nutrient release on growth of the macrophytes Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea canadensis and the filamentous green alga Cladophora sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of snail (Lymnaea (Galba) turricula) nutrient release and grazing on young macrophytes and filamentous green algae were examined in a laboratory experiment. Snails released an average of 24.2 µg PO4-P and 48.9 µg NH4-N g-1 snail FW d-1. Snails consumed Cladophora sp. at the highest rate (45 mg g-1 snail FW d-1), Elodea canadensis at a lower rate

Agnieszka Pinowska

2002-01-01

336

Suitability of six lymnaeid snails for infection with Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

The suitability of Fossaria (Bakerilymnaea) cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella from Louisiana as intermediate hosts for Fasciola hepatica was compared to P. columella and Stagnicola elodes from Ann Arbor, MI, S. attenuata from Hidalgo, Mexico, Lymnaea gedrosiana from Iran and L. natalensis from Senegal. P. columella from LA was shown to be a more suitable host (51.3% became infected) than F. (B.) cubensis (15.2% and 26.4% of two populations became infected). The infection rate for P. columella from MI, was 50% and for L. gedrosiana was 32.5%, whereas L. natalensis, S. elodes and S. attenuata were refractory. F. (B.) cubensis and P. columella have some degree of suitability as intermediate hosts for F. hepatica under laboratory conditions, but field observations of their habitat in southern LA and characteristic management of cattle indicate that the former snail is more important as an intermediate host in this enzootic area. Tissue sections of suitable snails had few histopathological effects but physical damage caused by rediae was pronounced, mainly in the digestive gland and in the mantle. PMID:3617426

Cruz-Reyes, A; Malek, E A

1987-05-01

337

Extremely high secondary production of introduced snails in rivers.  

PubMed

The functional importance of invasive animals may be measured as the degree to which they dominate secondary production, relative to native animals. We used this approach to examine dominance of invertebrate secondary production by invasive New Zealand mudsnails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in rivers. We measured secondary production of mudsnails and native invertebrates in three rivers in the Greater Yellowstone Area (Wyoming, USA): Gibbon River, Firehole River, and Polecat Creek. Potamopyrgus production was estimated by measuring in situ growth rates and multiplying by monthly biomass; native invertebrate production was estimated using size frequency and instantaneous growth methods. Mudsnail growth rates were high (up to 0.06 d(-1)) for juvenile snails and much lower for adult females (0.003 d(-1)). Potamopyrgus production in Polecat Creek (194 g x m(-2) x yr(-1)) was one of the highest values ever reported for a stream invertebrate. Native invertebrate production ranged from 4.4 to 51 g x m(-2) x yr(-1). Potamopyrgus was the most productive taxon and constituted 65-92% of total invertebrate productivity. Native invertebrate production was low in all streams. Based on a survey of production measures from uninvaded rivers, the distribution of secondary production across taxa was much more highly skewed toward the invasive dominant Potamopyrgus in the three rivers. We suggest that this invasive herbivorous snail is sequestering a large fraction of the carbon available for invertebrate production and altering food web function. PMID:16827007

Hall, Robert O; Dybdahl, Mark F; VanderLoop, Maria C

2006-06-01

338

Reproduction and demography of the Florida Everglade (Snail) Kite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An 18-year study of reproduction and survival of the Florida Everglade (Snail) Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) has revealed the following: extremely poor nesting success (only 13.6% of nests found at the nest-building stage successful); extremely long breeding seasons (some reproductive activity in almost all months in good years); frequent multiple brooding and frequent multiple brooding and frequent renesting after failure; low egg hatchability (81%); high failure rates due to nest collapse, desertion, and predation; extremely high survival of juveniles and adults under good water conditions; and high vulnerability to drought due to near total dependency on a single species of drought-sensitive snail for food. Despite low nesting success, the species has increased rapidly under good conditions, mainly because of multiple nesting attempts within long breeding seasons and high survival rates of free-flying birds. Nesting success varied significantly between regions and nest substrates, but not as a function of seasons or solitary vs. colonial nesting. While nesting success was reduced in low water years, this effect was at least partly due to heavy use of poor nest substrates under such conditions. Clutch size and numbers of young per successful nest varied with regions, but not as a function of seasons or water levels. The effects of coloniality on clutch size and numbers of young were inconsistent. Significant effects of nest-substrate types on clutch size and numbers of young were apparently artifacts of substrate differences between regions.

Snyder, N.F.R.; Beissinger, S.R.; Chandler, R.E.

1989-01-01

339

Allying with armored snails: the complete genome of gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont.  

PubMed

Deep-sea vents harbor dense populations of various animals that have their specific symbiotic bacteria. Scaly-foot gastropods, which are snails with mineralized scales covering the sides of its foot, have a gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont in their enlarged esophageal glands and diverse epibionts on the surface of their scales. In this study, we report the complete genome sequencing of gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont. The endosymbiont genome displays features consistent with ongoing genome reduction such as large proportions of pseudogenes and insertion elements. The genome encodes functions commonly found in deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs such as sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation. Stable carbon isotope ((13)C)-labeling experiments confirmed the endosymbiont chemoautotrophy. The genome also includes an intact hydrogenase gene cluster that potentially has been horizontally transferred from phylogenetically distant bacteria. Notable findings include the presence and transcription of genes for flagellar assembly, through which proteins are potentially exported from bacterium to the host. Symbionts of snail individuals exhibited extreme genetic homogeneity, showing only two synonymous changes in 19 different genes (13?810 positions in total) determined for 32 individual gastropods collected from a single colony at one time. The extremely low genetic individuality in endosymbionts probably reflects that the stringent symbiont selection by host prevents the random genetic drift in the small population of horizontally transmitted symbiont. This study is the first complete genome analysis of gastropod endosymbiont and offers an opportunity to study genome evolution in a recently evolved endosymbiont. PMID:23924784

Nakagawa, Satoshi; Shimamura, Shigeru; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yohey; Murakami, Shun-ichi; Watanabe, Tamaki; Fujiyoshi, So; Mino, Sayaka; Sawabe, Tomoo; Maeda, Takahiro; Makita, Hiroko; Nemoto, Suguru; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Watanabe, Hiromi; Watsuji, Tomo-o; Takai, Ken

2014-01-01

340

Parasites, sex, and clonal diversity in natural snail populations.  

PubMed

Under the Red Queen hypothesis, host-parasite coevolution selects against common host genotypes. Although this mechanism might underlie the persistence of sexual reproduction, it might also maintain high clonal diversity. Alternatively, clonal diversity might be maintained by multiple origins of parthenogens from conspecific sexuals, a feature in many animal groups. Herein, we addressed the maintenance of overall genetic diversity by coevolving parasites, as predicted by the Red Queen hypothesis. We specifically examined the contribution of parasites to host clonal diversity and the frequency of sexually reproducing individuals in natural stream populations of Potamopyrgus antipodarum snails. We also tested the alternative hypothesis that clonal diversity is maintained by the input of clones by mutation from sympatric sexuals. Clonal diversity and the frequency of sexual individuals were both positively related to infection frequency. Surprisingly, although clones are derived by mutation from sexual snails, parasites explained more of the genotypic variation among parthenogenetic subpopulations. Our findings thus highlight the importance of parasites as drivers of clonal diversity, as well as sex. PMID:21521196

King, Kayla C; Jokela, Jukka; Lively, Curtis M

2011-05-01

341

Experimental infection of five subspecies of Oncomelania snails with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.  

PubMed

Five subspecies of Oncomelania snails, Oncomelania hupensis nosophora, O.h. hupensis, O.h.chiui, O.h.formosana and O.h.quadrasi, were experimentally exposed to the first stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonesis. The presence of third stage larvae was observed in all of the five subspecies of Oncomelania snails 20 days after infection. Infection rates of the third stage larvae of the parasite in Oncomelania snails were 38.0-40.0%. There were no differences in preferences among Oncomelania snails. The third stage larvae in Oncomelania snails almost distributed in kidney and intestine region, and most of the larvae were active and free in tissues. The distribution pattern of the larvae in Oncomelania snails was quite different from that in Achatina fulica and Ampullarium sp. These third stage larvae were ingested by rats, and developed to adults. These data suggest that Oncomelania snails may play important role when A. cantonensis will spread, and indicate the possibility of human infection with A. cantonensis. PMID:9139392

Iwanaga, Y

1995-12-01

342

Epidemiology of cercarial stage of trematodes in freshwater snails from Chiang Mai province, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the epidemiological situation of cercarial trematodes infection in freshwater snails from different water resources in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Methods The snail specimens were collected from 13 districts of Chiang Mai province during April 2008 to February 2012. The prevalence of cercarial infection in snails was investigated using the crushing method. The drawing was done with the help of a camera lucida for the morphological study. Results A total of 2?479 snail individuals were collected and classified into 7 families, 11 genera, and 14 species, Among them, 8 snails species were found to be infected with an overall prevalence of 17.27% (428/2?479), which infected with nine groups of cercariae; gymnocephalous cercaria, strigea cercaria, megalurous cercaria, monostome cercaria, parapleurolophocercous cercaria (Haplorchis cercaria), pleurolophocercous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria (Transversotrema cercaria), xiphidiocercaria, and virgulate cercaria. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found to be the dominant type among the cercarial infection in the snails (64.25%). Conclusions The various species of snails found in the research location act as the intermediate hosts for the high prevalence of parasitic infection of many species of mammals. This work will provide new information on both the distribution and first intermediate host of trematodes. PMID:23620846

Chontananarth, Thapana; Wongsawad, Chalobol

2013-01-01

343

Structure and function of mitochondria in hepatopancreas cells from metabolically depressed snails.  

PubMed

Mitochondria in cells isolated from the hepatopancreas of aestivating land snails (Helix aspersa) consume oxygen at 30% of the active control rate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the lower respiration rate is caused by a decrease in the density of mitochondria or by intrinsic changes in the mitochondria. Mitochondria occupied 2% of cellular volume, and the mitochondrial inner membrane surface density was 17 microm(-1), in cells from active snails. These values were not different in cells from aestivating snails. The mitochondrial protein and mitochondrial phospholipid contents of cells were also similar. There was little difference in the phospholipid fatty acyl composition of mitochondria isolated from metabolically depressed or active snails, except for arachidonic acid, which was 18% higher in mitochondria from aestivating snails. However, the activities of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondria isolated from aestivating snails were 68% and 63% of control, respectively. Thus the lower mitochondrial respiration rate in hepatopancreas cells from aestivating snails was not caused by differences in mitochondrial volume or surface density but was associated with intrinsic changes in the mitochondria. PMID:12024289

Bishop, T; Ocloo, A; Brand, M D

2002-01-01

344

Effects of Fasciola gigantica experimental infection on some inorganic elements in the snail host Lymnaea natalensis.  

PubMed

Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was performed to determine the alteration in the concentrations of metallic ion Pb, Zn, K, Na, Fe, Cu and Co in the soft parts of the Lymnaea natalensis snails shedding Fasciola gigantica cercariae and to determine the alteration in the concentration of Ca in the soft parts and shells of the same snails. The Co was found to be present at concentration level below the detection limits of the analytical method used. Regarding detected elements, three elements Zn, K and Cu were found to be present at significantly higher concentrations in cercariae-shedding snails compared with uninfected snails. Two elements, Pb and Na, showed significant decrease in cercariae-shedding snails compared to uninfected ones. The concentration of Fe showed non-significant increase. The results showed significant lowering in the calcium content of the shells and soft parts of cercariae-shedding snails relative to the calcium content in the uninfected ones. The obtained results and the hypothesis of hypercalcification in shells of infected snails were discussed. PMID:18053991

Mostafa, Osama Mohammad Sayed

2008-04-01

345

The component community structure of larval trematodes in the pulmonate snail Helisoma anceps.  

PubMed

Factors that affected the component community structure of larval trematodes in the pulmonate snail Helisoma anceps in Charlie's Pond, North Carolina, were studied over a 15-mo period using a multiple mark-recapture protocol. Patent infections of 8 species were observed in 1,485 of 4,899 snails examined. Reproductive activity, population size, and survival rate of the snail population were estimated to evaluate the extent of resource availability for the parasites. Antagonistic interactions between trematode species that occurred at the infracommunity level had a neglible effect on the composition and structure of the component community. The patterns observed at this level were related to temporal heterogeneity in the abundance of infective stages (mostly miracidia), differential responses of trematode species to the diverse and constantly changing distribution of snail size and abundance, differential mortality of snails infected with certain trematode species, constant recruitment of 1 trematode species over time, and the existence of predictable disturbances such as the complete mortality of the host population and recruitment of a replacement population during a 6-8 wk period. The last factor operated as a reset mechanism for this snail-trematode system once each year. A model of patch dynamics, with snails as patch resources, best explains the organization and dynamics of this system. PMID:1865260

Fernandez, J; Esch, G W

1991-08-01

346

Male characteristics on female mud snails caused by antifouling bottom paints.  

PubMed

This study continues an investigation of an anatomical abnormality, named 'imposex', which consists of a superimposition of male characteristics on to a functionally normal female reproductive anatomy of the dioecious snail Nassarius obsoletus Say. Imposex is prevalent in natural populations living near yacht basins and rarely found distant from them. In the current study caged snails were transferred between a yacht basin and a distant 'clean' locality where the natural population of snails was normal. Imposex was induced in some normal snails kept at the marina and suppressed, but not lost in abnormal snails kept at the clean locality. A similar positive result was obtained in the laboratory by exposing normal snails to organotin-containing antifouling paints and abnormal snails to clean sea water. Results were negative in parallel tests of various marina-associated materials which did not contain organotin. The laboratory studies have thus identified a causative factor for the anatomical abnormalities common near yacht basins in the natural environment. They also provide a rare, if not unique, example of a chemical agent which causes the appearance of superfluous anatomical features in an animal. PMID:7185870

Smith, B S

1981-02-01

347

Acute combined exposure to heavy metals (Zn, Cd) blocks memory formation in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

The effect of heavy metals on species survival is well documented; however, sublethal effects on behaviour and physiology are receiving growing attention. Measurements of changes in activity and respiration are more sensitive to pollutants, and therefore a better early indicator of potentially harmful ecological impacts. We assessed the effect of acute exposure (48 h) to two heavy metals at concentrations below those allowable in municipal drinking water (Zn: 1,100 ?g/l; Cd: 3 ?g/l) on locomotion and respiration using the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. In addition we used a novel assessment method, testing the ability of the snail to form memory in the presence of heavy metals in both intact snails, and also snails that had the osphradial nerve severed which connects a chemosensory organ, the osphradium, to the central nervous system. Aerial respiration and locomotion remained unchanged by acute exposure to heavy metals. There was also no effect on memory formation of these metals when administered alone. However, when snails were exposed to these metals in combination memory formation was blocked. Severing the osphradial nerve prevented the memory blocking effect of Zn and Cd, indicating that the snails are sensing these metals in their environment via the osphradium and responding to them as a stressor. Therefore, assessing the ability of this species to form memory is a more sensitive measure of heavy metal pollution than measures of activity, and indicates that the snails' ability to demonstrate behavioural plasticity may be compromised by the presence of these pollutants. PMID:22218978

Byzitter, Jovita; Lukowiak, Ken; Karnik, Vikram; Dalesman, Sarah

2012-04-01

348

Radix natalensis: the effect of Fasciola hepatica infection on the reproductive activity of the snail  

PubMed Central

Experimental infections of Egyptian Radix natalensis (shell height at miracidial exposure: 4 mm) with a French isolate of Fasciola hepatica were carried out under laboratory conditions at 22 °C to specify the characteristics and follow the dynamics of their egg-laying. Controls constituted unexposed R. natalensis of the same size. No significant difference between controls and the uninfected snails of the exposed group was noted, whatever the parameter considered. In controls and exposed snails, the dates of the first egg masses were close to each other (56.4–65.3 days). In contrast, the life span of snails and the length of the egg-laying period were significantly shorter and egg production was significantly lower in infected R. natalensis than in controls and uninfected snails. In infected R. natalensis, but without cercarial shedding (NCS snails), egg production was irregular throughout the egg-laying period. In cercarial-shedding (CS) snails, the first egg masses were laid before the first cercarial emergence (at a mean of 56 days and 67 days, respectively). Thereafter, egg mass production of CS snails was irregular up to day 72 of the experiment, stopped during the following two weeks and started again after day 88 for a single snail. In conclusion, the F. hepatica infection of R. natalensis reduced the reproductive activity in both NCS and CS snails. The pattern noted for egg production in infected R. natalensis seems to be species-specific because of the high shell size of this lymnaeid and its role as an atypical intermediate host in the life cycle of the parasite. PMID:24871866

Dar, Yasser; Vignoles, Philippe; Rondelaud, Daniel; Dreyfuss, Gilles

2014-01-01

349

Does social facilitation affect responses to natural and anthropogenic stressors in the freshwater snail Planorbella trivolvis?  

PubMed

Social facilitation is the initiation or increase of a trait, such as stressor tolerance, when in the presence of conspecifics, members of the same species. It has been shown to alter the outcome of toxicity experiments in colonial organisms. We evaluated whether social facilitation would impact responses to stressors in the noncolonial New Mexico ramshorn snail (Planorbella trivolvis) by exposing snails to stressors either singly or in groups of three. Social facilitation did not impact snail responses to malathion but did affect responses to predator cues and temperature stress. PMID:21935982

Plautz, Stephanie C; Salice, Christopher J

2011-12-01

350

Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells: Pomacea Canaliculata Lamarck and Fossilized Snail Shell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study paramagnetic Mn2+ ions present in the nowadays shells of univalve freshwater snails of Pomacea canaliculata lamarck (PCL) and the fossilized freshwater snail (FFS), Viviparus. All these shells are abundant in Thailand. The PCL shells were ground into fine powder. A set of seven samples were then separately annealed for 2 h in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures while the FFS powder was characterized as-received. The PCL shells mainly consist of aragonite and a fraction of calcite. The heat treatments of the PCL powder samples at temperature higher than 450 degrees C resulted in an irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. However, it is found that the FFS shell is mainly made of calcite, with a minor fraction of aragonite. The crystal structure of the high-temperature-annealed PCL samples are quite similar to that of FFS, which indicates that the metamorphosis (aragonite ? calcite) in the FFS shell had occurred but was not yet completed, although it had remained under the pressure and temperature of the Earth's crusts over millions of years. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of PCL and FFS show that Mn2+ ions enter the Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Simulated ESR parameters of PCL-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are reported. It is surprising to find that the ratio of Mn2+ concentration present in FFS to those in PCL shells evaluated from ESR spectra is as much as 10:1.

Udomkan, N.; Meejoo, S.; Limsuwan, P.; Winotai, P.; Chaimanee, Y.

2005-07-01

351

Susceptibility of Saudi Bulinus truncatus to infection with Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium with observations on protein electrophoretic pattern of the snails.  

PubMed

A laboratory-based susceptibility study was carried out on snails Bulinus truncatus collected from highland Abha, Asser, Saudi Arabia to Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium to investigate the potential role of Saudi B. truncatus in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium and to know the possibility that the parasite might be able to spread into Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that, compared to Egyptian snails, survival of snails at day 25 post-exposure was significantly higher in Saudi B. truncatus ones. The infection rate was higher in Saudi snails as compared to Egyptian ones. The incubation period was shorter in Saudi snails but the duration of cercarial shedding was longer in the Egyptian than in the Saudi snails. The production of S. haematobium cercariae per snail was higher in Egyptian snails than in Saudi ones. These results suggest that Saudi B. truncatus can play a role in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium in Saudi Arabia and therefore this parasite might be able to spread into the Kingdom. In addition, electrophoretic analysis of tissue soluble proteins was done to determine the effects of the parasite on both the Egyptian and Saudi snails. The electrophoretic analysis revealed the occasional presence or absence of certain bands in infected snails in comparison with non-infected one. PMID:19329256

Mostafa, Osama M S; Bin Dajem, Saad M; Abu El Einin, Hanaa M

2009-05-12

352

Growth rate of the intermediate snail host Galba truncatula influences redial development of the trematode Fascioloides magna.  

PubMed

A total of 850 pre-adult Galba truncatula (shell height, 4 mm), originating from four French snail populations differing in shell height at the adult stage (from 6.5 to 12 mm), were individually subjected at 20°C to single-miracidium infections with Fascioloides magna. At day 75 post-exposure, the surviving snails were dissected, and rediae and cercariae were counted. Snail groups differed in shell growth during the experiment: from 1.8 ± 0.4 mm in group A up to 4.0 ± 1.1 mm in group D. The prevalence of F. magna infection, the numbers of free rediae and cercariae significantly increased together with increasing growth of infected snails during the experiment. Group A produced 1-6 first-generation rediae per snail and the mean daughter redia production ranged from 7.5 second-generation rediae (when a single first generation per snail developed) to 2.3 (6 first-generation rediae per snail). In contrast, up to ten first-generation rediae were noted in group D, and each mother redia gave daughter rediae with averages ranging from 1.5 (ten first-generation rediae per snail) to 13 (a single first generation per snail). In conclusion, the development of F. magna in G. truncatula exhibited both inter- and intrapopulation variability, where the development of rediae and cercariae was positively correlated with snail growth. PMID:23710885

Rondelaud, D; Novobilský, A; Höglund, J; Kašný, M; Pankrác, J; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

2014-12-01

353

Central role of Snail1 in the regulation of EMT and resistance in cancer: a target for therapeutic intervention  

PubMed Central

Snail1 is the founding member of the Snail superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors, which also includes Snail2 (Slug) and Snail3 (Smuc). The superfamily is involved in cell differentiation and survival, two processes central in cancer research. Encoded by the SNAI1 gene located on human chromosome 20q13.2, Snail1 is composed of 264 amino acids and usually acts as a transcriptional repressor. Phosphorylation and nuclear localization of Snail1, governed by PI3K and Wnt signaling pathways crosstalk, are critical in Snail1’s regulation. Snail1 has a pivotal role in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the process by which epithelial cells acquire a migratory, mesenchymal phenotype, as a result of its repression of E-cadherin. Snail1-induced EMT involves the loss of E-cadherin and claudins with concomitant upregulation of vimentin and fibronectin, among other biomarkers. While essential to normal developmental processes such as gastrulation, EMT is associated with metastasis, the cancer stem cell phenotype, and the regulation of chemo and immune resistance in cancer. Snail1 expression is a common sign of poor prognosis in metastatic cancer, and tumors with elevated Snail1 expression are disproportionately difficult to eradicate by current therapeutic treatments. The significance of Snail1 as a prognostic indicator, its involvement in the regulation of EMT and metastasis, and its roles in both drug and immune resistance point out that Snail1 is an attractive target for tumor growth inhibition and a target for sensitization to cytotoxic drugs. PMID:25084828

2014-01-01

354

Characterization of the SNAG and SLUG Domains of Snail2 in the Repression of E-Cadherin and EMT Induction: Modulation by Serine 4 Phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Snail1 and Snail2, two highly related members of the Snail superfamily, are direct transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin and EMT inducers. Previous comparative gene profiling analyses have revealed important differences in the gene expression pattern regulated by Snail1 and Snail2, indicating functional differences between both factors. The molecular mechanism of Snail1-mediated repression has been elucidated to some extent, but very little is presently known on the repression mediated by Snail2. In the present work, we report on the characterization of Snail2 repression of E-cadherin and its regulation by phosphorylation. Both the N-terminal SNAG and the central SLUG domains of Snail2 are required for efficient repression of the E-cadherin promoter. The co-repressor NCoR interacts with Snail2 through the SNAG domain, while CtBP1 is recruited through the SLUG domain. Interestingly, the SNAG domain is absolutely required for EMT induction while the SLUG domain plays a negative modulation of Snail2 mediated EMT. Additionally, we identify here novel in vivo phosphorylation sites at serine 4 and serine 88 of Snail2 and demonstrate the functional implication of serine 4 in the regulation of Snail2-mediated repressor activity of E-cadherin and in Snail2 induction of EMT. PMID:22567133

MacPherson, Matthew; Santos, Vanesa; Montes, Amalia; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy; Portillo, Francisco; Cano, Amparo

2012-01-01

355

Wet adhesion and adhesive locomotion of snails on anti-adhesive non-wetting surfaces.  

PubMed

Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However, the wetting properties that enable snails to generate strong temporary attachment and the effectiveness of this adhesive locomotion on modern super-slippy superhydrophobic surfaces are unclear. Here we report that snail adhesion overcomes a wide range of these microscale and nanoscale topographically structured non-stick surfaces. For the one surface which we found to be snail resistant, we show that the effect is correlated with the wetting response of the surface to a weak surfactant. Our results elucidate some critical wetting factors for the design of anti-adhesive and bio-adhesion resistant surfaces. PMID:22693563

Shirtcliffe, Neil J; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I

2012-01-01

356

Cloning of an olfactory sensory neuron-specific protein in the land snail (Eobania vermiculata).  

PubMed Central

We have isolated a gene encoding for an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN)-specific protein in an invertebrate, the land snail Eobania vermiculata (GenBank accession number AY147909). Using in situ hybridization, we detected expression of its mRNA in the dendrite, cell body and axon of OSNs. By neural tracing, using the lipophilic tracer DiI and in situ hybridization, we have revealed the organization of OSNs and their connections with olfactory glomeruli in the land snail. Sequence and expression pattern analogy of land snail protein with olfactory marker protein (OMP) from vertebrates suggest that the land snail protein is an OMP-like protein. This protein could represent a plesiomorphic character in the evolution of olfactory proteins. PMID:15101416

Mazzatenta, Andrea; Pelosi, Paolo; Cellerino, Alessandro

2004-01-01

357

The production of mammalian trematode infective stages by the snail Galba truncatula.  

PubMed

Several experiments on the breeding of trematode-infected Galba truncatula for obtaining and packaging Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomum daubneyi metacercariae were carried out to determine the more convenient methods to use for commercial production of these infective stages. Compared to the breeding of infected snails in aquaterraria, the use of 14-cm Petri dishes allowed a greater prevalence of snail infection and a higher number of metacercariae. The production of these larvae was still 2.3-3.4 times greater if infected snails were dissected during the patent period. The aspiration of these metacercariae at the extremity of a Pasteur pipette significantly shortens the time necessary for their transfer from Petri dishes to Eppendorf tubes. Using 14-cm Petri dishes, snail dissection and metacercarial aspiration for their transfer strongly reduce the cost price for metacercarial production of the trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomum daubneyi. PMID:23182081

Rondelaud, D; Mouzet, R; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G; Cabaret, J

2014-03-01

358

Dynamic chromatin modification sustains epithelial-mesenchymal transition following inducible expression of Snail-1.  

PubMed

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to contribute to cancer metastasis, but its underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To define early steps in this cellular transformation, we analyzed human mammary epithelial cells with tightly regulated expression of Snail-1, a master regulator of EMT. After Snail-1 induction, epithelial markers were repressed within 6 hr, and mesenchymal genes were induced at 24 hr. Snail-1 binding to its target promoters was transient (6-48 hr) despite continued protein expression, and it was followed by both transient and long-lasting chromatin changes. Pharmacological inhibition of selected histone acetylation and demethylation pathways suppressed the induction as well as the maintenance of Snail-1-mediated EMT. Thus, EMT involves an epigenetic switch that may be prevented or reversed with the use of small-molecule inhibitors of chromatin modifiers. PMID:24360956

Javaid, Sarah; Zhang, Jianmin; Anderssen, Endre; Black, Josh C; Wittner, Ben S; Tajima, Ken; Ting, David T; Smolen, Gromoslaw A; Zubrowski, Matthew; Desai, Rushil; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Whetstine, Johnathan R; Haber, Daniel A

2013-12-26

359

Palatability and chemical defense of Phragmites australis to the marsh periwinkle snail Littoraria irrorata.  

PubMed

Coastal marsh habitats are impacted by many disturbances, including habitat destruction, pollution, and the introduction of invasive species. The common reed, Phragmites australis, has been particularly invasive in the mesohaline regions of the Chesapeake Bay, but few studies have investigated its role in trophic interactions with North American marsh consumers. The marsh periwinkle snail Littoraria irrorata is a common grazer in marshes and grazes on the native grass Spartina alterniflora. Whether this snail grazes on Phragmites has not been addressed. We found Spartina leaves to be tougher than those of Phragmites, but despite this, snails consumed significantly more Spartina than Phragmites. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that Phragmites is chemically deterrent to snails by an unknown, moderately polar, compound. Further studies are required to more fully understand the interactions between Phragmites, herbivores, and Spartina, and how they may impact marsh ecosystems. PMID:21691807

Hendricks, Lindsey G; Mossop, Hannah E; Kicklighter, Cynthia E

2011-08-01

360

The effect of snail control on the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Snail control measures undertaken in Palo, Leyte, Philippines, in the course of a bilharziasis control project reduced the vector population by 95% in two years. Stool examinations performed before and after the snail control operations indicate that the human prevalence of bilharziasis has shown a significant concomitant decrease in both the urban and coastal areas of Palo, that decrease being most pronounced in children under 10 years of age. No measurable reduction in prevalence occurred in the inland area of Palo, but snail control there appeared to protect the urban area downstream. The authors discuss the manner in which data on the decline in the snail population can be used to predict the change in prevalence in each age-group examined. PMID:14485669

Pesigan, T. P.; Hairston, Nelson G.

1961-01-01

361

Foraging by the mud snail, Ilyanassa obsoleta (Say), modulates spatial variation in benthic  

E-print Network

. obsoleta negatively affects annelid assemblages. We manipulated the density of mud snails using inclusion detritus and their foraging negatively affects abundances of opportunistic worms, I. obsoleta probably spatial heterogeneity in the population densities of I. obsoleta. We experimentally tested three

Levinton, Jeffrey

362

Reciprocal Repression between Sox3 and Snail Transcription Factors Defines Embryonic Territories at Gastrulation  

PubMed Central

Summary In developing amniote embryos, the first epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs at gastrulation, when a subset of epiblast cells moves to the primitive streak and undergoes EMT to internalize and generate the mesoderm and the endoderm. We show that in the chick embryo this decision to internalize is mediated by reciprocal transcriptional repression of Snail2 and Sox3 factors. We also show that the relationship between Sox3 and Snail is conserved in the mouse embryo and in human cancer cells. In the embryo, Snail-expressing cells ingress at the primitive streak, whereas Sox3-positive cells, which are unable to ingress, ensure the formation of ectodermal derivatives. Thus, the subdivision of the early embryo into the two main territories, ectodermal and mesendodermal, is regulated by changes in cell behavior mediated by the antagonistic relationship between Sox3 and Snail transcription factors. PMID:21920318

Acloque, Herve; Ocana, Oscar H.; Matheu, Ander; Rizzoti, Karine; Wise, Clare; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Nieto, M. Angela

2011-01-01

363

Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain  

PubMed Central

Background Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM) exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH), relative shell height (RSH), and whorl number (WN). Results Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil–plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas. Conclusions The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability in soil. Long-term exposure to HMs via contaminated food might influence the variability of shell traits in snail populations. Therefore, our results highlight the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) potential to be used in environmental monitoring studies as bioindicator of HM pollution. PMID:22703871

2012-01-01

364

Cardiac inhibitory neurons in gastropod snail Achatina fulica.  

PubMed

Two inhibitory heart motor neurons (HI-1, HI-2) were identified in the visceral ganglion of the snail Achatina fulica. Both motor neurons were connected monosynaptically with the myocardium. Irregular action potentials composed a typical pattern of neuronal spontaneous electrical activity. The neurons shared common excitatory synaptic inputs, and were connected through electrical synapses. Neuronal endings of these cells responded to tactile stimulation and to cardiac stretching when the chemical synapses were blocked. HI-1 and HI-2 neurons both elicited inhibitory post synaptic potentials in the myocardium with a constant delay and thereby modulated cardiac spikes frequency and amplitude. Staining with the dye Lucifer yellow revealed that these two neurons were unipolar cells which had dendrites only in the visceral ganglion. PMID:9350497

Bychkov, R; Zhuravlev, V; Kadirov, S; Safonova, T

1997-01-01

365

Morphology and odor sensitivity of regenerated snail tentacles.  

PubMed

This study examined certain structural and functional aspects of the olfactory system in regenerated posterior tentacles of the terrestrial snail Achatina fulica. Regeneration of the epithelial sensory pad occurs with accurate size regulation. All five neuronal cell types which are normally revealed by horseradish peroxidase backfilling are also regenerated. The sensory cells attain normal numbers at about 20 weeks postlesion. The organization of neuronal elements within the tentacle is chaotic, however, at early stages of regeneration. Even later, the digitlike extensions of the ganglion, which are characteristic of intact tentacles, fail to appear. The recovery of odor sensitivity was evaluated using a tentacular olfactormeter and a behavioral assay that involved locomotor orientation towards the odor stimulus. Thresholds and concentration-dependent response rates were equivalent for regenerated and intact tentacles, tested in the same animals, at 10 weeks post-lesion. PMID:6827262

Chase, R; Kamil, R

1983-01-01

366

Solar radio-transmitters on snail kites in Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effectiveness and safety of one- and two-stage solar radio-transmitters in tracking the movements and survival of adult and fledgling Snail Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were evaluated between 1979 and 1983 in southern Florida. Transmitters were attached to birds with back-pack arrangements using teflon ribbon straps. Accessory plastic shields minimized feather coverage of the solar cells. Intact transmitters were seen on birds up to 47 mo after installation. Operating lives ranged from 8 to 21 mo for one-stage, and 10 to 14 mo for two-stage transmitters. Because survival of adult and nestling radio-marked kites was high, we conclude that our transmitter-attachment method had little effect on the birds.

Snyder, N.F.R.; Beissinger, S.R.; Fuller, M.R.

1989-01-01

367

The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Factor SNAIL Paradoxically Enhances Reprogramming  

PubMed Central

Summary Reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) entails a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). While attempting to dissect the mechanism of MET during reprogramming, we observed that knockdown (KD) of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) factor SNAI1 (SNAIL) paradoxically reduced, while overexpression enhanced, reprogramming efficiency in human cells and in mouse cells, depending on strain. We observed nuclear localization of SNAI1 at an early stage of fibroblast reprogramming and using mouse fibroblasts expressing a knockin SNAI1-YFP reporter found cells expressing SNAI1 reprogrammed at higher efficiency. We further demonstrated that SNAI1 binds the let-7 promoter, which may play a role in reduced expression of let-7 microRNAs, enforced expression of which, early in the reprogramming process, compromises efficiency. Our data reveal an unexpected role for the EMT factor SNAI1 in reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotency. PMID:25316190

Unternaehrer, Juli J.; Zhao, Rui; Kim, Kitai; Cesana, Marcella; Powers, John T.; Ratanasirintrawoot, Sutheera; Onder, Tamer; Shibue, Tsukasa; Weinberg, Robert A.; Daley, George Q.

2014-01-01

368

Trematode parasites infect or die in snail hosts  

PubMed Central

The Red Queen hypothesis is based on the assumption that parasites must genetically match their hosts to infect them successfully. If the parasites fail, they are assumed to be killed by the host's immune system. Here, we tested this using sympatric (mostly susceptible) and allopatric (mostly resistant) populations of a freshwater snail and its trematode parasite. We determined whether parasites which do not infect are either killed or passed through the host's digestive tract and remain infectious. Our results show that parasites do not get a second chance: they either infect or are killed by the host. The results suggest strong selection against parasites that are not adapted to local host genotypes. PMID:20961880

King, Kayla C.; Jokela, Jukka; Lively, Curtis M.

2011-01-01

369

Random mating by size in the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Arianta arbustorum: experiments and an explanation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that size-assortative mating should occur in simultaneous hermaphrodites with reciprocal fertilization and size-related fecundity because all individuals invest substantially in mating. Mating patterns were recorded in two species of simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails. In a natural population of Helix pomatia, snails showed a slight (but non-significant) tendency towards size- assortative mating, whereas mating in a population

BRUNO BAUR

1992-01-01

370

Organochlorine pesticides in anhingas, white ibises, and apple snails collected in Florida, 1989–1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) and eggs and nestlings of anhingas (Anhinga anhinga) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) were collected in Palm Beach County, Florida from 1989–1991 and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues. Pesticide residues were not detected in the apple snails. Residues of DDT, with maximum concentrations of 1,200 µg\\/kg wet weight occurred in 50% of the ibis samples

D. G. Rumbold; M. C. Bruner; M. B. Mihalik; E. A. Marti; L. L. White

1996-01-01

371

The identity, distribution, and impacts of non-native apple snails in the continental United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since the mid 1990s populations of non-native apple snails (Ampullariidae) have been discovered with increasing frequency in the continental United States. Given the dramatic effects that introduced apple snails have had on both natural habitats and agricultural areas in Southeast Asia, their introduction to the mainland U.S. is cause for concern. We combine phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences with

Timothy A Rawlings; Kenneth A Hayes; Robert H Cowie; Timothy M Collins

2007-01-01

372

The effect of aquatic plant abundance on shell crushing resistance in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M; García de León, Francisco J; Johnson, Steven G

2012-01-01

373

Deterministic assembly of land snail communities according to species size and diet.  

PubMed

1. We investigated whether coexisting snail species in 145 treeless fen communities in the Western Carpathian Mountains differed more in size and diet than would be expected by chance, as predicted for traits commonly associated with competition and differential resource acquisition under limiting similarity theory. 2. Contrary to expectations, coexisting snail species were no more different in body size than expected by chance under a null model. However, variation in body size played a significant role in structuring snail communities: coexisting snail species were significantly more similar with respect to body size. 3. We developed two new test statistics to expand our investigation of limiting similarity to include diet, a nominal trait. We tested whether communities of snails were characterized by a greater richness of diet, and whether different diets were represented more or less evenly within communities. Communities of snails were significantly less evenly distributed than expected by chance, with detritivores being over-represented relative to predatory strategies. 4. We also examined the effect of water pH and conductivity, herbaceous cover, and bryophyte and vascular plant richness, on these trends by examining how the effect size of our tests varied across these gradients. Convergence in species size increased with increasing habitat pH. Specifically, smaller snail species were over-represented in fen communities in general, and this effect was accentuated in increasingly calcareous fens. 5. Theory predicts that traits related strongly to environmental conditions are more likely to be convergent. Our findings support this suggestion, as small snail species have an advantage in tolerating freezing conditions over winter when refuges are limited. 6. These results add to the growing body of literature demonstrating that variation in body size and diet play a strong role in structuring communities, although frequently in ways not predicted by limiting similarity theory. Finally, our results increase our understanding of how species are assembled non-randomly into communities with respect to important traits. PMID:20345504

Schamp, Brandon; Horsák, Michal; Hájek, Michal

2010-07-01

374

Utilization of partially predated snail shells by the hermit crab Pagurus longicarpus Say, 1817  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hermit crab Pagurus longicarpus was shown to inhabit shells that were partially predated from intertidal areas of Long Island, New York. Among field collections\\u000a of P. longicarpus, 2.13% of the hermit crabs (46 of 2155) were found with shells with snail tissue present. Over 90% of these partially predated\\u000a snail shells were occupied by male hermit crabs. Although hermit

Beth M. McGuire; Jason D. Williams

2010-01-01

375

Interspecific interference competition alters habitat use patterns in two species of land snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus has been placed on the relative importance of environmental heterogeneity and biological interactions on community structure.\\u000a For land snails, abiotic factors have commonly been assumed to be the most important factors for shaping communities because\\u000a resources for land snails are commonly not limiting, and because interspecific resource competition would not be strong enough\\u000a to promote ecological divergence. However, clear

Kazuki Kimura; Satoshi Chiba

2010-01-01

376

Prevalence of cercariae from Lymnaea stagnalis snails in a pond system in Southern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymnaea stagnalis snails were collected from 174 individual ponds of an extensive pond system in South Germany; 43,441 snails collected during 1980-2000 were examined for shedding cercariae. The species richness (at least 18 species of cercariae) and the high cercarial prevalence (at least 44.9%) may result from the high abundance and diversity of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in the area.

C. Loy; W. Haas

2001-01-01

377

Bioaccumulation of aluminium in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis at neutral pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the accumulation of aluminium (Al) by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis at neutral pH, when most Al would be predicted to be in an insoluble form (Al(OH)3). Snails were exposed to a range of Al concentrations (38–285 ?g l?1) for 30 days, followed by 20 days in clean water. Aluminium was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy.Significant accumulation

R. Elangovan; K. N. White; C. R. McCrohan

1997-01-01

378

Differential regulation of Snail by hypoxia and hyperglycemia in human proximal tubule cells.  

PubMed

The centrality of the transcriptional regulator Snail in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), known to occur in models of diabetic nephropathy, has not been established. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta1) is induced in diabetic nephropathy and induces both Snail and EMT. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are known to induce Snail, independent of TGFbeta1. Notch induction is integral to Snail induction and EMT in tumour cells, but its role in the kidney is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine the upstream regulators of Snail in the kidney in high glucose and hypoxic conditions. HK-2 cells were cultured in normoxic, hypoxic, high glucose and combined hypoxic/high glucose conditions. The expression of HIF1alpha, NotchIC, Snail, Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (Loxl2), and Hairy and Enhancer Split-1 (Hes1) were measured. We found that hypoxia increased HIF1alpha expression; however, concurrent exposure to high glucose blunted this effect. A similar pattern was observed in Lox12 expression, suggesting that Loxl2 was downstream of HIF1alpha, which was confirmed using siRNA techniques. Snail was upregulated by hypoxia and high glucose and in combination the effect was additive, suggesting independent upstream activation pathways by the two stimuli. Hes1 was upregulated by high glucose and to a lesser extent by hypoxia, but the effect of the combined stimuli was no greater than that observed with high glucose alone. NotchIC was downregulated by both hypoxia and high glucose, and in combination the effect was additive. Therefore, this study suggests that hypoxia and high glucose induce Snail expression through distinct pathways, independent of Notch signalling. PMID:20620220

Sumual, Siska; Saad, Sonia; Tang, Owen; Yong, Rachel; McGinn, Stella; Chen, Xin-Ming; Pollock, Carol A

2010-10-01

379

Clonal Structure of the Introduced Freshwater Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Prosobranchia: Hydrobiidae), as Revealed by DNA Fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-locus DNA fingerprints were obtained from individuals of the hydrobiid snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (= P. jenkinsi), by using an RNA derivative (pSPT 18.15) of Jeffreys's 33. 15 minisatellite core sequence. Whole-body homogenization of snails yielded 3.21 ± 0.09 mu g DNA per individual, producing complex profiles comprising 12-22 fragments within the 1.0-20.0 kilobase (kb) size range. Fingerprints from natural and

L. Hauser; G. R. Carvalho; R. N. Hughes; R. E. Carter

1992-01-01

380

Effect of starvation on parasite-induced mortality in a freshwater snail ( Potamopyrgus antipodarum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of host exploitation is expected, under theory, to be selected to maximise (subject to constraints) the lifetime\\u000a reproductive success of the parasite. Here we studied the effect of two castrating trematode species on their intermediate\\u000a snail host, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. One of the trematode species, Microphallus sp., encysts in the snail host and the encysted larvae “hatch” following ingestion

J. Jokela; C. M. Lively; J. Taskinen; A. D. Peters

1999-01-01

381

Phylogeny of the land snail family Clausiliidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).  

PubMed

Clausiliidae is one of the most speciose and best-studied families of land snails. The family contributes to land snail diversity on a global scale, with three main centres of diversity: (1) western Eurasia (six subfamilies recognized), (2) East Asia (two subfamilies recognized) and (3) the neotropics (one subfamily recognized i.e. Neniinae). Despite a wealth of shell-morphological and anatomical studies, a well-supported phylogeny is lacking for the family. To provide a phylogenetic framework and reevaluate morphological and biogeographic observations on the family, we compiled a dataset consisting of partial 28S rRNA, histone H3 and histone H4 nucleotide sequences covering all clausiliid subfamilies, and 23 out of 25 tribes. Our analyses (MrBayes, BEAST, PhyML) divide the family into seven highly supported clades, which were retrieved by at least two of the three markers used, and which are more or less geographically confined. Three of these clades coincide with subfamilies recognized in the current classification (Alopiinae, Garnieriinae, Laminiferinae). The monophyly of four of the remaining six hitherto accepted subfamilies is not supported, with the New World subfamily Neniinae divided across two clades. All shell-morphological characters used in classical clausiliid classification were homoplasious at the subfamily level, with the exception of the type of shell aperture formation. In contrast to previous interpretations, our results suggest that the so-called 'apostrophic' aperture found in the neotropical clausiliids, and in a European (Laminiferinae) and a SE Asian (Garnieriinae) subfamily, is in fact the plesiomorphic condition among extant Clausiliidae. The widespread and fragmented geographic distribution of this type of aperture may therefore be considered relictual. Based on an inferred Late Cretaceous or Early Cenozoic European origin of the clade of extant Clausiliidae, the ancestor(s) of the neotropical Clausiliidae must have colonized the New World after the Atlantic Ocean had opened. A taxonomic revision is proposed. PMID:23357123

Uit de Weerd, Dennis R; Gittenberger, Edmund

2013-04-01

382

Molecular identification of first putative aquaporins in snails.  

PubMed

Aquaporins (AQPs), also known as water channel proteins, are members of a large protein family termed Major Intrinsic Proteins (MIP). The mammalian AQPs have been most comprehensively described, while knowledge about AQPs in invertebrates is limited mainly to insects. Not a single AQP protein has been described in snails to date. Consequently, we decided to search for the proteins in gastropod representatives, namely Lymnaea stagnalis, Catascopia occulta, and Stagnicola palustris (Mollusca; Gastropoda; Pulmonata; Lymnaeidae). Using the molecular approach, we identified L. stagnalis, C. occulta, and S. palustris open reading frames (ORFs) showing homology to AQP genes available in GenBank database, and characterized the encoded proteins, referred to as LsAQP1, CoAQP1, and SpAQP1, respectively. The putative snail aquaporins contain 299 amino acids, have a molecular mass of about 32 kDa, display the general AQP topology and three-dimensional structure congruent with orthodox AQPs, i.e., water-specific ones. Due to high levels of similarity in their characteristics, LsAQP1 was chosen for further studies, as the obtained results were supposed to be applicable for CoAQP1 and SpAQP1. Expression analysis revealed the presence of LsAQP1 transcript in the digestive tract, the cerebral ganglia, the kidney, the reproductive system, and the foot, suggesting that LsAQP1 as well as CoAQP1 and SpAQP1 are ubiquitous proteins and may play important roles in many essential water transport processes. The role appears to be confirmed by results of the yeast growth complementation assay pointing at functionality of LsAQP1. Thus, the obtained results support the AQP expression in gastropod tissues for the first time. PMID:24445747

Pie?kowska, Joanna R; Kosicka, Ewa; Wojtkowska, Ma?gorzata; Kmita, Hanna; Lesicki, Andrzej

2014-03-01

383

A repetitive DNA probe for the sensitive detection of Fasciola hepatica infected snails.  

PubMed

Epizootiologic studies on F. hepatica frequently use microscopic techniques for the detection of infected snails, however, the poor efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity associated with these techniques limit their usefulness. A DNA-based test for the identification of snails infected with larval stages of F. hepatica would solve these problems and enable a level of detection accuracy previously unavailable. We have cloned and sequenced a 124 bp fragment of repetitive DNA from F. hepatica which hybridizes specifically with DNA of F. hepatica but not with DNA of its snail intermediate hosts Fossaria cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella, or with DNA of Fascioloides magna and Paramphistomum liorchis, ruminant trematodes which share the same intermediate host and same enzootic range as F. hepatica. Using this 124 bp fragment as a probe, infection in snails was detected immediately following miracidial penetration, thus a sensitivity equivalent to the minimum biologic unit of the parasite was achieved. This 124 bp repeated sequence belongs to a large family of 124 bp repeats that share a high level of sequence identity and constitute approximately 15% of the F. hepatica genome. We also report here the development of a quick and inexpensive DNA extraction protocol for use in field-collected snails. Thus, we have developed both a highly sensitive and specific DNA probe and a means to use the probe in a large epizootiologic study of F. hepatica where thousands of field-collected snails need to be assayed for infection. PMID:7635638

Kaplan, R M; Dame, J B; Reddy, G R; Courtney, C H

1995-05-01

384

Intrinsic metabolic depression in cells isolated from the hepatopancreas of estivating snails.  

PubMed

Many animals across the phylogenetic scale are routinely capable of depressing their metabolic rate to 5-15% of that at rest, remaining in this state sometimes for years. However, despite its widespread occurrence, the biochemical processes associated with metabolic depression remain obscure. We demonstrate here the development of an isolated cell model for the study of metabolic depression. The isolated cells from the hepatopancreas (digestive gland) of the land snail (Helix aspersa) are oxygen conformers; i.e., their rate of respiration depends on pO(2). Cells isolated from estivating snails show a stable metabolic depression to 30% of control (despite the long and invasive process of cell isolation) when metabolic rate at the physiological pH and pO(2) of the hemolymph of estivating snails is compared with metabolic rate at the physiological pH and pO(2) of the hemolymph of control snails. When the extrinsic effects of pH and pO(2) are excluded, the intrinsic metabolic depression of the cells from estivating snails is still to below 50% of control snails. The in vitro effect of pO(2) on metabolic rate is independent of pH and state (awake or estivating), but the effects of pH and state significantly interact. This suggests that pH and state change affect metabolic depression by similar mechanisms but that the metabolic depression by hypoxia involves a separate mechanism. PMID:10783155

Guppy, M; Reeves, D C; Bishop, T; Withers, P; Buckingham, J A; Brand, M D

2000-05-01

385

Parasites alter host phenotype and may create a new ecological niche for snail hosts  

PubMed Central

By modifying the behaviour and morphology of hosts, parasites may strongly impact host individuals, populations and communities. We examined the effects of a common trematode parasite on its snail host, Batillaria cumingi (Batillariidae). This widespread snail is usually the most abundant invertebrate in salt marshes and mudflats of the northeastern coast of Asia. More than half (52.6%, n=1360) of the snails in our study were infected. We found that snails living in the lower intertidal zone were markedly larger and exhibited different shell morphology than those in the upper intertidal zone. The large morphotypes in the lower tidal zone were all infected by the trematode, Cercaria batillariae (Heterophyidae). We used a transplant experiment, a mark-and-recapture experiment and stable carbon isotope ratios to reveal that snails infected by the trematode move to the lower intertidal zone, resume growth after maturation and consume different resources. By simultaneously changing the morphology and behaviour of individual hosts, this parasite alters the demographics and potentially modifies resource use of the snail population. Since trematodes are common and often abundant in marine and freshwater habitats throughout the world, their effects potentially alter food webs in many systems. PMID:16777719

Miura, Osamu; Kuris, Armand M; Torchin, Mark E; Hechinger, Ryan F; Chiba, Satoshi

2006-01-01

386

Snail nuclear transport: the gateways regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition?  

PubMed

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the reverse process (MET) play central role in organ developmental biology. It is a fine tuned process that when disturbed leads to pathological conditions especially cancers with aggressive and metastatic behavior. Snail is an oncogene that has been well established to be a promoter of EMT through direct repression of epithelial morphology promoter E-cadherin. It can function in the nucleus, in the cytosol and as discovered recently, extracellularly through secretory vesicular structures. The intracellular transport of snail has for long been shown to be regulated by the nuclear pore complex. One of the Karyopherins, importin alpha, mediates snail import, while exportin 1 (Xpo1) also known as chromosome maintenance region 1 (CRM1) is its major nuclear exporter. A number of additional biological regulators are emerging that directly modulate Snail stability by altering its subcellular localization. These observations indicate that targeting the nuclear transport machinery could be an important and as of yet, unexplored avenue for therapeutic intervention against the EMT processes in cancer. In parallel, a number of novel agents that disrupt nuclear transport have recently been discovered and are being explored for their anti-cancer effects in the early clinical settings. Through this review we provide insights on the mechanisms regulating snail subcellular localization and how this impacts EMT. We discuss strategies on how the nuclear transport function can be harnessed to rein in EMT through modulation of snail signaling. PMID:24954011

Muqbil, Irfana; Wu, Jack; Aboukameel, Amro; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Azmi, Asfar S

2014-08-01

387

Hydrological modelling of snail dispersal patterns in Msambweni, Kenya and potential resurgence of Schistosoma haematobium transmission.  

PubMed

Urinary schistosomiasis is an important source of human morbidity in Msambweni, Kenya, where the intermediate host snail, Bulinus nasutus is found in ponds and water pools. In the past, aquatic habitats in the area have been studied separately; however, recent collections of B. nasutus snails and shells indicated that many of these ponds are in fact connected during and following sufficient rains. Satellite imagery and a geographical information system (GIS) were used to survey the main water courses and potential drainage routes, to locate potential source populations of snails and to determine probable snail dispersal routes. The 2 water bodies implicated as being the most important Schistosoma haematobium transmission foci in the area were found to differ in their degree of connectivity to other B. nasutus source habitats. One pond becomes connected even after normal rains, while the other pond requires prolonged rains or flooding to become connected with source habitats. Consequently, the transmission foci differ in their susceptibility to snail population control measures. Spatially explicit dispersal models that consider the spatial and temporal patterns of connectivity between aquatic habitats will contribute to improved snail surveillance and more focused control for urinary schistosomiasis at a local level. PMID:17156580

Clennon, J A; King, C H; Muchiri, E M; Kitron, U

2007-05-01

388

Studies of the snail vectors of bilharziasis mansoni in north-eastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The authors describe the bilharziasis endemic areas in north-eastern Brazil, giving the rainfall and general characteristics of the climate. The life-cycles of the two snail vectors—Australorbis glabratus and Tropicorbis centimetralis—in Pernambuco are described. Considerable attention is given to the effects on the snails of the annual drought, which causes many of the habitats to dry up and seriously affects the snail life-cycles and survival patterns. The snails are able to populate habitats that are dry for 5-7 months every year. They survive during the dry season in the protection of debris, vegetation, etc. A. glabratus is more susceptible to infection with Schistosoma mansoni than is T. centimetralis, but the latter is an effective vector, nevertheless, probably because it often occurs in very large numbers. A. glabratus with mature infections die or lose their infections when removed from the water for 20-30 days. Immature parasites are not killed under the same conditions. Infection with S. mansoni injures the snails and may kill them. It also reduces the reproductive capacity of the vectors, but it does not permanently castrate them. The epidemiological significance of these findings and their meaning in terms of snail control are discussed. PMID:13573116

Barbosa, Frederico S.; Olivier, Louis

1958-01-01

389

Are sick individuals weak competitors? Competitive ability of snails parasitized by a gigantism-inducing trematode.  

PubMed

Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size) by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability). We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability. PMID:24205383

Seppälä, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Kuosa, Marja; Haataja, Maarit; Jokela, Jukka

2013-01-01

390

Are Sick Individuals Weak Competitors? Competitive Ability of Snails Parasitized by a Gigantism-Inducing Trematode  

PubMed Central

Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size) by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability). We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability. PMID:24205383

Seppala, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Kuosa, Marja; Haataja, Maarit; Jokela, Jukka

2013-01-01

391

Species- and size-specific infection of snails by Cyclocoelum mutabile (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae).  

PubMed

Infectivity of Cyclocoelum mutabile miracidia to 9 species and up to 4 size classes of pulmonate snails at 14, 16, and 20 C was studied under laboratory conditions. Of the 9 species examined, 6 (Stagnicola elodes, Lymnaea stagnalis, Gyraulus parvus, Gyraulus circumstriatus, Promenetus exacuous, and Armiger crista) were highly susceptible (infection success > or = 25%), 2 (Physa jennessi and Helisoma trivolvis) had low susceptibility (infection success < 25%, > 0), and 1 (Physa gyrina) was not susceptible to infection. Within highly susceptible species, snail size was negatively related to susceptibility and temperature had variable effects. Infection success was not affected by temperature or snail size in species with low susceptibility. Production of cercariae was negatively correlated with susceptibility among snails of different sizes and species, but was not influenced by snail size for a given species. Among species, metacercariae production was typically higher in lymnaeids than in either planorbids or physids. Results of experiments where miracidia were provided with a choice of 2 different snails suggest that they do not discriminate between species with high and low susceptibility. PMID:7623190

McKindsey, C W; McLaughlin, J D

1995-08-01

392

Integrating nonindigenous aquatic plant control with protection of snail kite nests in Florida.  

PubMed

The endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) feeds primarily on the freshwater apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) in Florida. The nonindigenous, floating water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) impede kites from finding snails. Effective control of these aquatic plants in the littoral zone of central and south Florida lakes benefits kites by maintaining open foraging habitat. However, incidental herbicide spraying of nesting substrates result in nest collapse when kites breed in nonwoody, emergent plants [cattail (Typha spp.) and giant bulrush (Scirpus validus)] in the outer littoral zone during lower lake levels. Many endangered species recovery plans and their implementation have experienced problems due to inaction and/or noncooperation by various governmental agencies and their personnel. Herein, we describe the development and implementation of a buffer zone strategy to prevent secondary impacts from an aquatic plant control program to snail kites nesting on lakes in central and south Florida. A strategy was jointly developed by personnel of five state and federal agencies to control herbicide application near kite nesting areas during the normal breeding season. Although requiring various modifications during its implementation, this cooperative effort successfully integrated aquatic plant control objectives with snail kite conservation on Lake Okeechobee during 1988. The program was expanded the following year to lakes Kissimmee and Tohopekaliga. Since the implementation of the snail kite impact preclusion program, no nest loss was attributed to incidental herbicide applications on lakes Okeechobee, Kissimmee, and Tohopekaliga. PMID:11436998

Rodgers, J A; Smith, H T; Thayer, D D

2001-07-01

393

Molluscicidal activity of vulgarone B against ram's horn snail (Planorbella trivolvis).  

PubMed

The ram's horn snail (Planorbella trivolvis (Say)) is an intermediate host for a digenetic trematode (Bolbophorus confusus (Krause) Dubois) that has recently been discovered to be a significant problem in commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Raf) production ponds in the Mississippi Delta region in the USA. In these catfish ponds, the digenetic life cycle of this parasitic trematode involves two intermediate hosts, the ram's horn snail and the channel catfish, and the final host, the American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin). One approach to eradicate this problem is to disrupt the life cycle of the parasitic trematodes by eliminating the snails. During our search for natural-product-based molluscicides to control the snails in the catfish ponds, vulgarone B, isolated from the steam distillate of the aerial parts of the plant Artemisia douglasiana Besser (Asteraceae), was found to be active towards the snails with a LC50 of ca 24 microM. Channel catfish toxicity studies indicated a LC50 of ca 207 microM. Vulgarone B may be an environmentally acceptable alternative for snail control in aquaculture. PMID:15154515

Meepagala, Kumudini M; Sturtz, George; Mischke, Charles C; Wise, David; Duke, Stephen O

2004-05-01

394

Biochemical responses to the toxicity of the biocide abamectin on the freshwater snail Physa acuta.  

PubMed

The toxic effects of abamectin (ABM), an anthelmintic drug, on the snail, Physa Acuta, and the biochemical responses to the exposure stress were evaluated. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in snail soft tissues (head, foot, visceral mass, and the mantle) for up to 96h of exposure to 3.4, 9.6, 19.2, or 27.4?gL(-1) of ABM. The results showed that SOD and GST activities were promoted by ABM-exposure at the earlier periods of treatment (12-48h) while these activites were inhibited at the end of test. The tendency of CAT activity was similar to that of SOD, but it increased at the end of test. MDA levels of the snail soft tissues increased in all treatment groups, including the recovery group, indicating that lipid peroxidation occurred in snail soft tissues. ABM-exposure inhibited AChE activity. However, NOS activities increased by ABM-exposure. In addition, activities of antioxidant enzymes and AChE from the snail soft tissues resumed the normal levels after 96h of recovery period, but MDA level did not attain the original level. This study provides information on the biochemical mechanism of ABM toxicity on the snail. PMID:24507123

Ma, Junguo; Zhou, Chune; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaoyu

2014-03-01

395

Age-dependent susceptibilities of Bulinus truncatus snails to an aqueous extract of Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. (Asteraceae) leaves.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate the potential use of the herb Pulicaria crispa in the biological control of different developmental stages of Bulinus truncatus, a major snail intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis. Age-dependent susceptibilities of mature adult snails, immature snails, juveniles, and one-day old egg masses to aqueous extracts of Pulicaria crispa leaves collected from Khartoum (Sudan) and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) was determined and compared. The results show the juvenile snails are the most susceptible, followed in descending order by one-day old egg masses, immature snails, and mature adult snails. The P. crispa sample collected from Riyadh was significantly more potent against B. truncatus than that collected from Khartoum, as indicated by the least (LC50) and (LC90) values for all B. truncatus ages. PMID:19842431

Ali, Elnour A; Bushara, Hamid O; Ali, Faisal S; Hussein, Mansour F

2009-05-01

396

The biocide tributyltin reduces the accumulation of testosterone as fatty acid esters in the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta).  

PubMed Central

Imposex, the development of male sex characteristics by female gonochoristic snails, has been documented globally and is causally associated with exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT). Elevated testosterone levels in snails also are associated with TBT, and direct exposure to testosterone has been shown to cause imposex. We discovered previously that the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta)biotransforms and retains excess testosterone primarily as fatty acid esters. The purpose of this study was to determine whether TBT interferes with the esterification of testosterone, resulting in the elevated free (unesterified) testosterone levels associated with imposex. Exposure of snails to environmentally relevant concentrations of TBT (> or = 1.0 ng/L as tin) significantly increased the incidence of imposex. Total (free + esterified) testosterone levels in snails were not altered by TBT; however, free testosterone levels increased with increasing exposure concentration of TBT. TBT-exposed snails were given [14C

Gooding, Meredith P; Wilson, Vickie S; Folmar, Leroy C; Marcovich, Dragoslav T; LeBlanc, Gerald A

2003-01-01

397

Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

Laboratory evaluation was made to access the seasonal variations in abiotic environmental factors temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrical conductivity and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets (SAP) against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata in each month of the years 2010 and 2011. On the basis of a 24-h toxicity assay, it was noted that lethal concentration values of 4.03, 3.73% and 4.45% in SAP containing starch and 4.16, 4.23% and 4.29% in SAP containing proline during the months of May, June and September, respectively, were most effective in killing the snails, while SAP containing starch/proline?+?ferulic acid was least effective in the month of January/February (24-h lethal concentration value was 7.67%/7.63% in SAP). There was a significant positive correlation between lethal concentration value of ferulic acid containing SAP and levels of dissolved O2 /pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was observed between lethal concentration value and dissolved CO2 /temperature of test water in the same months. To ascertain that such a relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not co-incidental, the nervous tissue of treated (40% and 80% of 24-h lethal concentration value) and control group of snails was assayed for the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in each of the 12?months of the same year. There was a maximum inhibition of 58.43% of AChE, in snails exposed to 80% of the 24-h lethal concentration value of ferulic acid?+?starch in the month of May. This work shows conclusively that the best time to control snail population with SAP containing ferulic acid is during the months of May, June and September. PMID:23170774

Agrahari, P; Singh, D K

2013-11-01

398

The role of Chaetogaster limnaei in the dynamics of trematode transmission in natural populations of freshwater snails.  

PubMed

Chaetogaster limnaei, an oligochaete was always found infesting Bulinus (Phy.) globosus, B.(B.) forskalii and Lymnaea natalensis in Bo, Sierra Leone, living below the shell or embedded in the mucus of the foot. The worms had no preference for snails with trematode infection. The population was highest in the dry season when fewer snails were infected by trematodes. This is suggested to be a result of the protection the worms give to snails against invading miracidia. PMID:602368

Fashuyi, S A; Williams, M O

1977-12-13

399

The detection and quantification of a digenean infection in the snail host with special emphasis on Fasciola sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, ten methods used to study digenean infections in their intermediate hosts were compared to determine which\\u000a one should be used either in the field or in the lab to establish the prevalence and intensity of infections in snails. Snail\\u000a crushing and snail dissection allow quick establishing of prevalence in natural or experimental infections, whereas histology\\u000a is considered

Yannick Caron; Daniel Rondelaud; Bertrand Losson

2008-01-01