Sample records for biomphalaria alexandrina snails

  1. BOTANICAL EXTRACTS EXHIBIT DUAL ACTION AGAINST CULEX PIPIENS LARVAE AND BIOMPHALARIA ALEXANDRINA SNAILS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. ELYASSAKI; M. M. EL-SAYED

    Some extracts of Euphorbia helioscopia (Euphorbiaceae), Calendula micrantha (Compositae) and Azadriachta indica (Meliaceae) were screened for the control of Culex pipiens larvae, the vector of Filariasis and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails the vector of Schistosomiasis in Egypt. These plants exhibit dual effect on both pests which share the same aquatic breeding habitat and are of medical importance. B. alexandrina snails were

  2. Genetic Variation between Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails Susceptible and Resistant to Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    El-Nassery, Suzanne M. F.; Abou-El-Naga, Iman F.; Allam, Sonia R.; Shaat, Eman A.; Mady, Rasha F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Much effort has been made to control schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. However, enduring effects from such strategies have not yet been achieved. In this study, we sought to determine the genetic variability related to the interaction between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni. Using RAPD-PCR with eight (10?mers) random primers, we were able to determine the polymorphic markers that differed between snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection using five primers out of the eight. Our results suggest that the RAPD-PCR technique is an efficient means by which to compare genomes and to detect genetic variations between schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. The RAPD technique with the above-noted primers can identify genomic markers that are specifically related to the Biomphalaria alexandrina/Schistosoma mansoni relationship in the absence of specific nucleotide sequence information. This approach could be used in epidemiologic surveys to investigate genetic diversity among Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. The ability to determine resistant markers in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails could potentially lead to further studies that use refractory snails as agents to control the spread of schistosomiasis. PMID:23878796

  3. Defense response of susceptible and resistant Biomphalaria alexandrina snails against Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F; Radwan, Eman H

    2012-09-01

    In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. The fates of Schistosoma miracidia in the snails varies between different species of Biomphalaria. The internal defense system is one of the factors that influence the susceptibility pattern of the snails. The interaction between Biomphalaria snails and S. mansoni needs to be identified for each species, and even between the members of the same species with different degrees of susceptibility. In the present study, the first generation of susceptible and resistant parents of B. alexandrina was examined histologically at the 30th day post exposure. The study includes the characterization of the immune response, as expressed by tissue reactions, of susceptible and resistant B. alexandrina snails against S. mansoni. It was also designed to determine the impact of the resistance increase in parent snails, on the mechanisms of interaction of their offspring against infection. The results showed that the infection rate of the offspring from the susceptible parents was 92%. No susceptible offspring was produced from the resistant parents. When the parents were of equal number of susceptible and resistant snails, they gave an offspring with an infection rate of 20%. Susceptible snails that had susceptible parents showed a higher degree of susceptibility than those that had both susceptible and resistant parents. A common feature of the resistant snails was the absence of any viable parasites. The tissue reactions of the resistant snails having only resistant parents occurred at the site of miracidial penetration. In resistant snails for which susceptible ones were included in their parents, the reactions occurred in the deep tissues. These results characterized the immune response of B. alexandrina snails against Schistosoma infection which was found to occur by two different mechanisms. One type of defense occurs in highly resistant snails, and employs direct miracidial destruction soon after parasite penetration. The other type occurs in less resistant snails where a delayed resistance development occurs after the dissemination of the sporocysts in the snail tissues. It seems that B. alexandrina snails respond more or less similar to B. glabrata. The results also proved that the immune response of the internal defense system increased with increasing the number of the inherited resistant genes. PMID:23025090

  4. Potential Use of Biomphalaria alexandrina Snail Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni by Immunoblot Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Basyoni, Maha MA; EL-Wahab, Azza Abd

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of Biomphalaria alexandrina snail antigens in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni using enzyme linked immunolectrotransfere blot (EITB). Methods S. mansoni adult worm crude antigens (AWA), feet and visceral humps of B. alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus were used. Hyperimmune mice sera (HIS) versus each antigen were prepared for diagnosis of S. mansoni using western blot (WB). Results Snail foot antigens were more specific in antibodies detection than visceral hump antigens. Three of five polypeptides of B. alexandrina foot antigen identified by S. mansoni HIS showed specific positive reactivity. These polypeptides were at MW of 31/32 and 43 kDa. While, only one of the six polypeptides of B. alexandrina hepatopancrease antigen identified by S. mansoni HIS, at a MW of 43 kDa was specific. Similarly, 2 polypeptides at MW of 44 and 55 kDa were specific in detection of anti- S. haematobium antibodies. However, the antigenically active polypeptide of B. truncatus hepatopancrease antigen had no specific reactivity towards anti-S. haematobium antibodies. Conclusion B. alexandrina foot antigens were the most specific of the tested snail antigens in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni. PMID:23682262

  5. Ecotoxicological effect of sublethal exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles on freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Sohair R; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Bakry, Fayez A; Sayed, Dawlat A

    2014-08-01

    Freshwater snails are used as sensitive biomarkers of aquatic ecosystem pollution. The potential impacts of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on aquatic ecosystems have attracted special attention due to their unique properties. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the possible mechanisms of ecotoxicological effects of ZnONPs on freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina. ZnONPs showed molluscicidal activity against B. alexandrina snails, and the LC50 was 145 ?g/ml. Two tested concentrations of ZnONPs were selected: The first concentration was equivalent to LC10 (7 ?g/ml), and the second was equivalent to LC25 (35 ?g/ml). Exposure to ZnONPs (7 and 35 ?g/ml) for three consecutive weeks significantly induced malondialdehyde and nitric oxide with concomitant decreases in glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase levels in hemolymph and soft tissues of treated snails. Moreover, ZnONPs elicited a significant decrease in total protein and albumin contents coinciding with enhancement of total lipids and cholesterol levels as well as activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase in hemolymph and soft tissues of treated snails. This study highlights the potential ecological implications of ZnONP release in aquatic environments and may serve to encourage regulatory agencies in Egypt to more carefully monitor and regulate the industrial use and disposal of ZnONPs. PMID:24736985

  6. Potential correlation between carboxylic acid metabolites in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails after exposure to Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Abou Elseoud, Salwa M F; Abdel Fattah, Nashwa S; Ezz El Din, Hayam M; Abdel Al, Hala; Mossalem, Hanan; Elleboudy, Noha

    2012-06-01

    Carboxylic acids play an important role in both aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways of both the snail and the parasite. Monitoring the effects of infection by schistosome on Biomphalaria alexandrina carboxylic acids metabolic profiles represents a promising additional source of information about the state of metabolic system. We separated and quantified pyruvic, fumaric, malic, oxalic, and acetic acids using ion-suppression reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect correlations between these acids in both hemolymph and digestive gland gonad complex (DGG's) samples in a total of 300 B. alexandrina snails (150 infected and 150 controls) at different stages of infection. The results showed that the majority of metabolite pairs did not show significant correlations. However, some high correlations were found between the studied acids within the control group but not in other groups. More striking was the existence of reversed correlations between the same acids at different stages of infection. Some possible explanations of the underlying mechanisms were discussed. Ultimately, however, further data are required for resolving the responsible regulatory events. These findings highlight the potential of metabolomics as a novel approach for fundamental investigations of host-pathogen interactions as well as disease surveillance and control. PMID:22711922

  7. Molluscicidal Activity of the Methanol Extract of Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertner) G.Don ex Loudon Fruits, Bark and Leaves against Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails

    PubMed Central

    A Gohar, Ahmed; T Maatooq, Galal; R Gadara, Sahar; S Aboelmaaty, Walaa; M El-Shazly, Atef

    2014-01-01

    Methanol extracts of Callistemon viminalis (Sol. Ex Gaertner) G.Don Ex Loudon fruits, bark and leaves were tested for molluscicidal activity. Snails were collected and kept in dechlorinated water under standard condition. Ten adults Biomphalaria Alexandrina, of the same size, were introduced in plastic acquaria for each experiment. The fruits, barks and leaves were extracted with methanol and the methanol extracts were kept for testing as molluscicides. Different extracts proved to have molluscicidal activity against the vector of schistosomiasis, B. alexandrina snails. LC50 values for C. viminalis fruits, bark and leaves were 6.2, 32 and 40 ppm respectively. The C. viminalis fruits extract showed the highest effect against the tested snails. Histopathological studies proved that the site of action of all tested extracts was localized in the digestive system and hermaphrodite gland. PMID:25237345

  8. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2013-09-01

    The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the use of modern technology will allow for the study of the host-parasite relationship at a molecular level. PMID:23938396

  9. Meta-analysis indicates lack of local adaptation of Schistosoma mansoni to Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman Fathy

    2014-03-01

    In Egypt, reclaiming portions of the desert using water from the Nile has resulted in large-scale invasion of Biomphalaria alexandrina in these regions. Studies exploring the local adaptation of Schistosoma mansoni to its snail host have been carried out to predict the extension of schistosomiasis to newly reclaimed areas. A meta-analysis of the relevant reports was conducted to compare the different biological characteristics of sympatric and allopatric Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria alexandrina using different experimental designs. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the biological characteristics of sympatric and allopatric populations. The experimental design of some of the studies analyzed was found to affect the total cercarial production. The distance between the origin of the parasite and that of the snail did not affect any of the biological characteristics. The results showed that there is no evidence of local adaptation between Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria alexandrina; however, the parasite is adapted to its intermediate host throughout the water bodies located in Egypt. The absence of local adaptation between Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria alexandrina is likely of critical importance in predicting public health risks engendered by future reclaimed agriculture projects. Indeed, these results could assist in determining the appropriate balance between the development of water resource projects and schistosomiasis control in Egypt. PMID:24442240

  10. Sublethal toxicity of Roundup to immunological and molecular aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina to Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azza H. Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the cellular mechanisms of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails hemocytes against sublethal concentration (10mg\\/L) of herbicide Roundup (48% Glyphosate) and\\/or Schistosoma mansoni infection during 7 days of exposure. Obtained results indicated that herbicide treatment and\\/or infection led to significant increase (P<0.05) in total hemocytes count during exposure period. Examination of hemocytes monolayers resulted in observation

  11. Sublethal toxicity of Roundup to immunological and molecular aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina to Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Azza H

    2011-05-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the cellular mechanisms of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails hemocytes against sublethal concentration (10 mg/L) of herbicide Roundup (48% Glyphosate) and/or Schistosoma mansoni infection during 7 days of exposure. Obtained results indicated that herbicide treatment and/or infection led to significant increase (P<0.05) in total hemocytes count during exposure period. Examination of hemocytes monolayers resulted in observation of 3 morphologically different cell types, round small, hyalinocytes and spreading hemocytes. Spreading hemocytes are the dominant, more responsive and highly phagocytic cell type in all experimental groups. Moreover, the exposure to herbicide, infection or both together led to a significant increase (P<0.05) of in vitro phagocytic activity against yeast cells during 7 days of exposure. In addition, flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle and comet assay, resulted in DNA damage in B. alexandrina hemocytes exposed to herbicide and/or S. mansoni infection when compared to control group. The immunological responses as well as molecular aspects in B. alexandrina snails have been proposed as biomarkers of exposure to environmental pollutants. PMID:21126764

  12. Biological and hematological responses of Biomphalaria alexandrina to mycobiosynthsis silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Hoda; Mekawey, Amal A I

    2014-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgPNs) extracts were prepared from seven Seven fungal isolates were evaluated through measuring their toxicity against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. The effects of the two promising Paecilomyces variotii and Aspergillus niger AgNPs sublethal concentrations (LC10 & LC25) on the levels of steroid sex hormones, liver enzymes, total protein, lipids, albumhin, glucose, total and differential count of hemocytes and morphology of hemocytes, oocytes and sperms were studied in this work. The short period of snails' exposure (24h) to the two fungal AgNPs resulted in significant decrease in the levels of progesterone in B. alexandrina. The level of testosterone hormone showed significant increase in snails exposed to P. variotii AgNPs while no significant change was recorded at the exposure to A. niger AgNPs. Also, estradiol hormone concentration increased significantly in this investigation with the increase of the concentration of the two tested compounds. In addition, significant elevation in ALT, AST and Alkaline phosphatase was recorded. The total number of the hematocytes increased significantly by 17.4-47.8%. Snails' granulocytes were reduced by 19.1-43.8%, while hyalinocytes increased by 63.6-354.5%. The exposure of B. alexandrina to LC25 of both P. variotii and A. niger AgNPs showed apoptotic hemolymph cells, fragmented, vacuolated and degenerated cytoplasm, shrunken nucleus and phagocytosis in the light microscopy photographs of the hemocytes. Besides, the photographs showed also, abnormal nuclear division, degeneration and large fat vacuoles in the cytoplasm and swallowed atretic oocytes. Also, the photographs showed dead sperm head separated from its tail, other sperms showed abnormal swallowed head with severely nodded tail, dead sperms with wrinkled tails, hyperplasia and necrotic sperm heads led to overlapping of tails. In conclusion, applying the biosynthesized compounds which led to destruction of blood cells (the immune system), ova and sperms (the reproductive system) of snails is an important effective step to control schistosomiasis. PMID:25643504

  13. Localization of tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactivity in the nervous systems of Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria alexandrina, intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Deborah; Habib, Mohamed R; Delgado, Nadia; Vaasjo, Lee O; Croll, Roger P; Miller, Mark W

    2014-08-01

    Planorbid snails of the genus Biomphalaria are major intermediate hosts for the digenetic trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Evidence suggests that levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) are reduced during the course of S. mansoni multiplication and transformation within the snail. This investigation used immunohistochemical methods to localize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, in the nervous system of Biomphalaria. The two species examined, Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria alexandrina, are the major intermediate hosts for S. mansoni in sub-Saharan Africa, where more than 90% of global cases of human intestinal schistosomiasis occur. TH-like immunoreactive (THli) neurons were distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and labeled fibers were present in all commissures, connectives, and nerves. Some asymmetries were observed, including a large distinctive neuron (LPeD1) in the pedal ganglion described previously in several pulmonates. The majority of TH-like immunoreactive neurons were detected in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), especially in lip and foot regions of the anterior integument. Independent observations supporting the dopaminergic phenotype of THli neurons included 1) block of LPeD1 synaptic signaling by the D2/3 antagonist sulpiride, and 2) the similar localization of aqueous aldehyde (FaGlu)-induced fluorescence. The distribution of THli neurons indicates that, as in other gastropods, dopamine functions as a sensory neurotransmitter and in the regulation of feeding and reproductive behaviors in Biomphalaria. It is hypothesized that infection could stimulate transmitter release from dopaminergic sensory neurons and that dopaminergic signaling could contribute to modifications of both host and parasite behavior. PMID:24477836

  14. The ecology of Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina and its implications for the control of bilharziasis in the Egypt-49 project area

    PubMed Central

    Dazo, B. C.; Hairston, Nelson G.; Dawood, I. K.

    1966-01-01

    The respective vectors of the two forms of bilharziasis in Egypt do not have the same ecological distribution. Bulinus truncatus is most abundant in large canals, and decreases in density as the water approaches and flows into drains. Biomphalaria alexandrina is most abundant in drains, and decreases in density upstream from these habitats. Both species are most abundant in the presence of aquatic vegetation, but they differ in their respective associations with the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. Biomph. alexandrina reaches maximum abundance in the presence of this plant, but Bul. truncatus is as uncommon in the absence of plants as in the presence of E. crassipes. Calculation of life-table parameters from field data shows that, under optimum field conditions, both species can double their populations in 14-16 days. The reproductive rates of both species are greatest in March and the death rates in midsummer. The observed peak densities in May and June give a false impression of optima because of undercollection of young snails, which are most abundant in March and April. Control operations should take advantage of the findings on population parameters. A single area-wide treatment with molluscicide in April is recommended. During the remainder of the year, search for isolated foci of snail breeding and individual treatment of these will effect large savings of chemical and will be effective in controlling the transmission of the parasites. PMID:5297630

  15. The Identification of Markers Segregating with Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni Infection in the Snail Biomphalaria glabrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matty Knight; Andre N. Miller; Carolyn N. Patterson; Christopher G. Rowe; George Michaels; Daniel Carr; Charles S. Richards; Fred A. Lewis

    1999-01-01

    Both snail and parasite genes determine the susceptibility of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to infection with the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. To identify molecular markers associated with resistance to the parasite in the snail host, we performed genetic crosses between parasite-resistant and -susceptible isogenic snails. Because resistance to infection in adult snails is controlled by a single locus, DNA samples from

  16. The Organic Shell Matrix of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria glabrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia C Marxen; Wilhelm Becker

    1997-01-01

    The organic matrix of the aragonitic, cross-lamellar-structured shell of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Basommatophora, Pulmonata) has been investigated. The analysis of the water-soluble matrix components revealed protein as the main part of the matrix, followed by sulfate, neutral sugar, amino sugar, and small amounts of uronic acid and phosphate. In the amino acid analysis, glycine was the main amino

  17. Prey selection by molluscivorous cichlids foraging on a schistosomiasis vector snail, Biomphalaria glabrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Slootweg

    1987-01-01

    This paper considers prey size selection by four molluscivorous cichlids feeding on the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma parasites, Biomphalaria glabrata. Haplochromis ishmaeli obtains its prey by crushing the snails between the pharyngeal jaws, whereas H. xenognathus, H. sauvagei and Macropleurodus bicolor apply both pharyngeal crushing and oral shelling. The fishes crushed significantly more snails with the highest reward in

  18. Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria spp., the intermediate host snails of Schistosoma mansoni, in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Carvalho, Omar S; Malone, John B; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2012-09-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni remains an important parasitic disease of man, endemic in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, South America and the Caribbean. The aetiological agent is the trematode Schistosoma mansoni, whereas aquatic snails of the genus Biomphalaria act as intermediate hosts in the parasite life cycle. In Brazil, the distribution of Biomphalaria spp. is closely associated with the occurrence of schistosomiasis. The purpose of this study was to map and predict the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of S. mansoni across Brazil. We assembled snail "presenceonly" data and used a maximum entropy approach, along with climatic and environmental variables to produce predictive risk maps. We identified a series of risk factors that govern the distribution of Biomphalaria snails. We find that high-risk areas for B. glabrata are concentrated in the regions of Northeast and Southeast and the northern part of the South region. B. straminea are found in the Northeast and Southeast regions, and B. tenagophila are concentrated in the Southeast and South regions. Our findings confirm that the presence of the intermediate host snails is correlated with the occurrence of schistosomiasis mansoni. The generated risk maps of intermediate host snails might assist the national control programme for spatial targeting of control interventions and to ultimately move towards schistosomiasis elimination in Brazil. PMID:23032289

  19. Molluscicidal activity of some Saudi Arabian euphorbiales against the snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi.

    PubMed

    Al-Zanbagi, N A; Banaja, A A; Barrett, J

    2000-05-01

    The comparative susceptibility of the snail vector of intestinal schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria pfeifferi to the action of extracts from Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales has been determined. Methanol and chloroform extracts of the plants tested (Jatropha glauca, Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia schimperiana) were the most promising from the molluscicidal point of view with LD(50) values in the range 10-100 ppm. PMID:10771201

  20. Molluscicidal activity of some Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales against the snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Najia A Al-Zanbagi; Abdul-Elah A Banaja; John Barrett

    2000-01-01

    The comparative susceptibility of the snail vector of intestinal schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria pfeifferi to the action of extracts from Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales has been determined. Methanol and chloroform extracts of the plants tested (Jatropha glauca, Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia schimperiana) were the most promising from the molluscicidal point of view with LD50 values in the range 10–100 ppm.

  1. Neotropical schistosomiasis: African affinities of the host snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda: Planorbidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID S. WOODRUFF; MARGARET MULVEY

    1997-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni, the blood fluke responsible for human intestinal schistosomiasis in the Neotropics, was imported repeatedly with African slaves during the period 1500–1800. This trematode, and its intermediate host snails of the genusBiomphalaria, are widely distributed across Africa and the disease is thought to have quickly become established in South America and the West Indies because of the presence of

  2. Differential gene expression in haemocytes of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata: effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André N. Miller; Nithyakalyani Raghavan; Peter C. FitzGerald; Fred A. Lewis; Matty Knight

    2001-01-01

    Parasite encapsulation and destruction in Biomphalaria glabrata has been shown to involve the cellular component of the snail's internal defence system, the haemocytes. To identify genes involved in the immunobiology of these cells, we used the method of differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) to investigate differential gene regulation in haemocytes isolated from Schistosoma mansoni exposed and unexposed

  3. A light and electron microscope study on oogenesis in the freshwater pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marijke de Jong-Brink; Ankle de Wit; G. Kraal; H. H. Boer

    1976-01-01

    In the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata the formation and composition of yolk granules and the role of the follicle cells were studied by histochemical and electron microscopical techniques. The rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus appeared to be involved in yolk formation, which is a continuous process throughout oogenesis. From the very beginning of yolk formation two main types

  4. Genetic variation among laboratory strains of the planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Mulvey; Robert C. Vrijenhoek

    1981-01-01

    Isozymes of laboratory strains of Biomphalaria glabrata have been studied by starch gel electrophoresis. Methods are outlined for adaptation of this technique to the genetic study of these snails. Twenty-eight presumptive gene loci have been identified. Twelve invariant enzymes were observed. Sixteen loci displayed some polymorphism within or among the strains. These polymorphisms were generally widespread among strains from Brazil,

  5. Measurement of Selected Enzymatic Activities in Solanum nigrum-Treated Biomphalaria arabica Snails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Daihan, Sooad

    In the present study, glucose, acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP), ?-amylase and lipase were measured for the first time in tissue homogenates of Biomphalaria arabica snails, molluscan intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia. Also, the effect of sublethal concentrations (LC25) of dry powdered Solanum nigrum leaf was tested as plant molluscicide against this snail species. The tested enzymes were altered in molluscicide-treated snails compared to control. While ALP and amylase were slightly affected, ACP and lipase were significantly altered. Glucose as an important energy source for a successful schistosome-snail relationship was significantly reduced in molluscicide-treated snails. In conclusion, sublethal concentration of the molluscicide showed potent effect in disturbing snail biochemistry which may render them physiologically unsuitable for the developing of schistosome parasite. This could be considered as a promising strategy to control the disease.

  6. Compatibility of Ugandan Schistosoma mansoni isolates with Biomphalaria snail species from Lake Albert and Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Adriko, Moses; Standley, Claire J; Tinkitina, Benjamin; Mwesigwa, Gerald; Kristensen, Thomas K; Stothard, J Russell; Kabatereine, Narcis B

    2013-11-01

    In order to investigate the capacity of being intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the Ugandan F1 generation of Biomphalaria snail species that were laboratory-bred from parent populations originally collected from either Lake Victoria or Lake Albert was challenged with sympatric and non-sympatric S. mansoni isolates. After a prepatent period of 20 days, a daily 10-hourly snail shedding for cercariae was done to determine the infection rate, cercarial production per hour and survival period of infected snails. The study suggests that when parasite strains from a different geographical origin is used for infection, survival of infected snails increase, leading to an increased transmission potential. Although earlier literature had indicated that the Lake Victoria Biomphalaria sudanica is refractory to S. mansoni, we showed that all Ugandan Biomphalaria spp., including B. sudanica from all locations, were highly susceptible to the S. mansoni isolates. Thus if B. choanomphala, which is an efficient intermediate host in Lake Victoria, is given an opportunity to occupy Lake Albert, it will most likely be compatible with the Albertine S. mansoni parasites. Equally, if B. stanleyi, currently restricted to Lake Albert invades Lake Victoria, it is likely to act as an efficient intermediate host. Future work should concentrate on intraspecific population-level differences in compatibility. PMID:23454225

  7. Reversing the Resistance Phenotype of the Biomphalaria glabrata Snail Host Schistosoma mansoni Infection by Temperature Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Knight, Matty

    2012-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata snails that display either resistant or susceptible phenotypes to the parasitic trematode, Schistosoma mansoni provide an invaluable resource towards elucidating the molecular basis of the snail-host/schistosome relationship. Previously, we showed that induction of stress genes either after heat-shock or parasite infection was a major feature distinguishing juvenile susceptible snails from their resistant counterparts. In order to examine this apparent association between heat stress and snail susceptibility, we investigated the effect of temperature modulation in the resistant snail stock, BS-90. Here, we show that, incubated for up to 4 hrs at 32°C prior to infection, these resistant snails became susceptible to infection, i.e. shedding cercariae at 5 weeks post exposure (PE) while unstressed resistant snails, as expected, remained resistant. This suggests that susceptibility to infection by this resistant snail phenotype is temperature-sensitive (ts). Additionally, resistant snails treated with the Hsp 90 specific inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA) after heat stress, were no longer susceptible to infection, retaining their resistant phenotype. Consistently, susceptible snail phenotypes treated with 100 mM GA before parasite exposure also remained uninfected. These results provide direct evidence for the induction of stress genes (heat shock proteins; Hsp 70, Hsp 90 and the reverse transcriptase [RT] domain of the nimbus non-LTR retrotransposon) in B. glabrata susceptibility to S. mansoni infection and characterize the resistant BS-90 snails as a temperature-sensitive phenotype. This study of reversing snail susceptibility phenotypes to S. mansoni provides an opportunity to directly track molecular pathway(s) that underlie the B. glabrata snail's ability to either sustain or destroy the S. mansoni parasite. PMID:22577362

  8. Geographical distribution of Biomphalaria snails in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, C P; Caldeira, R L; Drummond, S C; Melo, A L; Guimarães, C T; Soares, D; Carvalho, O

    2001-04-01

    Published and unpublished observations on geographical distribution of Biomphalaria snails in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were compiled. This work is aimed at knowing the present occurrence of Biomphalaria species in this region, and at contributing to the elaboration of the planorbid chart of Minas Gerais. In malacological surveys, performed by several researchers, the presence of seven species of this genus was recorded. Those planorbids were found in 12 mesoregions, in 283 (33.1%) municipalities out of 853 with the following distribution: B. glabrata (185 municipalities), B. straminea (125), B. tenagophila (58), B. peregrina (57), B. schrammi (26), B. intermedia (20) and B. occidentalis (2). B. glabrata and B. tenagophila are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni in Minas Gerais. In 24 municipalities the three snail hosts of S. mansoni in Brazil, B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea, are present. PMID:11313634

  9. Determination and quantification of Schistosoma mansoni cercarial emergence from Biomphalaria glabrata snails.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Matthew S; Lewis, Fred A; Driver, James D; Granath, Willard O

    2014-12-01

    Living and fixed samples of Schistosoma mansoni -infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails were used to determine the relative contributions of different snail tissues to cercarial emergence (shedding). Three methods of observations were employed: (1) direct microscopical observations of shedding snails; (2) microscopic analysis of 5 ?m serial sections (H&E stained) of actively shedding snails; and (3) scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations of snails that were fixed while actively shedding. For this investigation, there were advantages and disadvantages to using each method. We confirmed the results of others that there were 3 tissues of the snail that contributed most prominently to cercarial release (mantle collar, pseudobranch, and headfoot). Based on histological analysis of cercarial accumulations in presumed shedding sites in these 3 tissues, 57% of the cercariae could be seen in the mantle collar, 30.6% in the pseudobranch, and 12.5% in the headfoot. Other anterior structures were involved to a much lesser extent. SEM observations clearly showed cercariae emerging either body first, tail first, or likely emerging en masse from blebs, especially from the mantle collar. These studies provide a more quantitative appraisal of the role the different anterior snail tissues play in cercarial emergence. PMID:25019357

  10. Characterization of fucosyllactose determinant-bearing glycoproteins probed by a Biomphalaria alexandrina lectin in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoda I. Negm

    1996-01-01

    Utilizing a Biomphalaria alex-andrina-derived lectin (BaSII) of proven specificity to a Schistosoma mansoni-associated fucosyllactose [(Fuc ?1–2) Gal ?1–4 Glc] determinant, two determinant-bearing glycoproteins of 40 and 37 kDa were found to be synthesized by the cercarial stage of the parasite. The two glycoproteins were isolated by BaSII affinity column chromatography from extracts of cercariae metabolically radiolabelled with 35S-methionine. Treatments with

  11. Development of the Statocyst in the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria Glabrata (Pulmonata, Basommatophora)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Wenyuan; Wiederhold, Michael; Hejl, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The development of the statocyst of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata has been examined from embryo to adult. Special emphasis was put on the growth of the statoconia in the statocysts. In the statocysts of embryonic snails (90-120 h after oviposition) there is not a single statolith but an average of 40-50 statoconia per statocyst. The number of statoconia increases to 385-400 when the snails reach a shell diameter of 4 mm and remains relatively constant thereafter, irrespective of shell size. Small statoconia are found in supporting cells, which suggests that the statoconia are produced within these cells. The average diameter of statoconia and the total mass of statoconia increase with increasing shell diameter. The average number of large statoconia (diameter greater than 7 micrometers) per statocyst continues to increase from 2 to 10 mm animals while the number of small ones (diameter less than 4 micrometers) initially rises and then decreases after 4 mm. These results demonstrate continuous growth of the statoconia in the cyst lumen of Biomphalaria. The single statoconia vibrate in a regular pattern in vivo, indicating beating of the statocyst cilia. The statoconia sink under the influence of gravity to load and stimulate receptor cells which are at the bottom. The length of cilia and the size of statocyst gradually increase as the animal grows. However, the increase in the volume of the statocyst is relatively small compared with the increase in body weight during normal development.

  12. Biogenic monoamines in the freshwater snail, Biomphalaria glabrata: Influence of infection by the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Manger; Jianyong Li; Bruce M Christensen; Timothy P Yoshino

    1996-01-01

    The biogenic monoamines, serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and l-dopa were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) in the extracts of the central nervous system (CNS) and plasma of uninfected freshwater snails, Biomphalaria glabrata, and in snails at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days postexposure (PE) to the miracidia of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Relative

  13. Plagiorchis elegans (Trematoda) induces immune response in an incompatible snail host Biomphalaria glabrata (Pulmonata: Planorbidae).

    PubMed

    Daoust, S P; Rau, M E; McLaughlin, J D

    2012-10-01

    Plagiorchis elegans has been shown to decrease the fecundity and survivorship of the incompatible snail host Biomphalaria glabrata. Furthermore, a prior infection with P. elegans was shown to render the snails resistant to the compatible parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Here, we test the hypothesis that infection with P. elegans stimulates the immune system of B. glabrata. Our findings indicate that infection by P. elegans significantly increased the number of free hemocytes in the hemolymph of B. glabrata by an average of ~60%. Furthermore, this immuno-stimulated state lasted from the first day post-infection (PI) to some time between 7 and 21 days PI. This is one of the few reported examples of a parasite stimulating the immune response of an incompatible host. PMID:22448777

  14. Effects of 17?-methyltestosterone on the reproduction of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Wendt, C L G; Borges, A C; Oliveira-Filho, E C; Miranda-Vilela, A L; Ferreira, M F N; Grisolia, C K

    2014-01-01

    17-?-methyltestosterone (MT) is a synthetic hormone used in fish hatcheries to induce male monosex. Snails hold promise as possible test models to assess chemicals acting on the endocrine system. Biomphalaria glabrata is an aquatic gastropod mollusk (Pulmonata, Planorbidae) that can be easily maintained in aquaria, predisposing the species for use in ecotoxicological testing. This study evaluated the reproductive effects of MT on B. glabrata by examining histological changes and its reproductive performance. Ten snails per group were exposed for 4 weeks to different concentrations of MT (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/L). The total number of laid eggs, egg mass per group, size of type V oocytes, and production of spermatozoids were determined. Reproduction of B. glabrata was affected by MT. At the lowest concentration (0.01 mg/L), MT caused a statistically significant increase in the number of egg mass per snail compared with controls unexposed to MT. Histopathology analyses showed an increase in the sperm production at the higher MT concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. Chromatographic analyses of water samples showed that MT concentrations rapidly declined within a 96-h period. These results highlight the importance of giving more support to regulatory authorities, since MT is not registered for use on fish hatcheries in many countries around the world. Wastewater from fish farms discharged into aquatic ecosystems should be monitored for MT residues, since its presence could compromise the reproduction of other native snail species. PMID:24615026

  15. Differential spatial repositioning of activated genes in Biomphalaria glabrata snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Arican-Goktas, Halime D; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Bridger, Joanna M; Knight, Matty

    2014-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is an infectious disease infecting mammals as the definitive host and fresh water snails as the intermediate host. Understanding the molecular and biochemical relationship between the causative schistosome parasite and its hosts will be key to understanding and ultimately treating and/or eradicating the disease. There is increasing evidence that pathogens that have co-evolved with their hosts can manipulate their hosts' behaviour at various levels to augment an infection. Bacteria, for example, can induce beneficial chromatin remodelling of the host genome. We have previously shown in vitro that Biomphalaria glabrata embryonic cells co-cultured with schistosome miracidia display genes changing their nuclear location and becoming up-regulated. This also happens in vivo in live intact snails, where early exposure to miracidia also elicits non-random repositioning of genes. We reveal differences in the nuclear repositioning between the response of parasite susceptible snails as compared to resistant snails and with normal or live, attenuated parasites. Interestingly, the stress response gene heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 is only repositioned and then up-regulated in susceptible snails with the normal parasite. This movement and change in gene expression seems to be controlled by the parasite. Other differences in the behaviour of genes support the view that some genes are responding to tissue damage, for example the ferritin genes move and are up-regulated whether the snails are either susceptible or resistant and upon exposure to either normal or attenuated parasite. This is the first time host genome reorganisation has been seen in a parasitic host and only the second time for any pathogen. We believe that the parasite elicits a spatio-epigenetic reorganisation of the host genome to induce favourable gene expression for itself and this might represent a fundamental mechanism present in the human host infected with schistosome cercariae as well as in other host-pathogen relationships. PMID:25211244

  16. Larval digenean community parasitizing the freshwater snail, Biomphalaria peregrina (Pulmonata: Planorbidae), from a temporary pond in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Flores, Verónica R; Semenas, Liliana G; Veleizán, Aylén A

    2010-06-01

    Knowledge of population dynamics of parasites in freshwater snails from South America is scarce. The objective of the present study was to describe the infection dynamics of larval digeneans in the planorbid snail, Biomphalaria peregrina , during 2 sampling periods in a Patagonian temporary pond. In total, 1,003 snails were examined. Rediae of Notocotylus biomphalariae and Echinoparyphium sp., sporocysts of Cotylurus sp., and metacercariae of the 2 latter species were found. The overall prevalence was significantly higher in the second sampling period, always as single-species infections in the hepatopancreas. The presence of larvae in the first sampled snails of the second hydroperiod indicated that parasitized snails survive drought. Both species exhibited different seasonal prevalence patterns, with Echinoparyphium sp. present in all sampling months. Metacercariae of Echinoparyphium sp. occurred in the heart and kidney, and those of Cotylurus sp. between organs. No significant differences in overall prevalence of metacercariae were found, and a progressive rise in prevalence from spring to summer for both species was observed. Almost all size classes of B. peregrina were infected with metacercariae of both species, but rediae and sporocysts were present only in snails larger than 3.1 mm. The predictability of the hydroperiod year after year, the tolerance of B. peregrina to drought, and the survival of infected specimens allows the parasite community to show a similar pattern of infection over time. This is the first study in Argentina analyzing the infection dynamics of digeneans of a pulmonate snail from a temporary pond. PMID:20557212

  17. Evidence for specific genotype-dependent immune priming in the lophotrochozoan Biomphalaria glabrata snail.

    PubMed

    Portela, Julien; Duval, David; Rognon, Anne; Galinier, Richard; Boissier, Jérôme; Coustau, Christine; Mitta, Guillaume; Théron, André; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the prevailing view in the field of invertebrate immunity was that invertebrates that do not possess acquired adaptive immunity rely on innate mechanisms with low specificity and no memory. Several recent studies have shaken this paradigm and suggested that the immune defenses of invertebrates are more complex and specific than previously thought. Mounting evidence has shown that at least some invertebrates (mainly Ecdysozoa) show high levels of specificity in their immune responses to different pathogens, and that subsequent reexposure may result in enhanced protection (recently called 'immune priming'). Here, we investigated immune priming in the Lophotrochozoan snail species Biomphalaria glabrata, following infection by the trematode pathogen Schistosoma mansoni. We confirmed that snails were protected against a secondary homologous infection whatever the host strain. We then investigated how immune priming occurs and the level of specificity of B. glabrata immune priming. In this report we confirmed that immune priming exists and we identified a genotype-dependent immune priming in the fresh-water snail B. glabrata. PMID:23343530

  18. Studies on the molluscicidal activity of Agave angustifolia and Pittosporum tobira on schistosomiasis transmitting snails.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdalla M; Abdel-Gawad, Mahfouz M; El-Nahas, Hanan A; Osman, Nadia S

    2015-04-01

    In the search for new molluscicidal plants for controlling the snail vectors of schistosomiasis, laboratory evaluation was made to assess the molluscicidal activity of Agave angustifolia and Pittosporum tobira plants against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Results indicated that both plants have promising molluscicidal activity as the LC90 of the dry powder of both plants was 120 ppm. Both plants showed marked cercaricidal and miracidicidal potencies against S. mansoni larvae. The LC90 of both plants (120 ppm) killed most B. alexandrina eggs within 24 h of exposure. The sub-lethal concentrations of both plants markedly suppressed the survival rate of B. alexandrina snails and the mortality increased with increasing the concentrations and the exposure period up to 10 successive weeks. The accumulative toxic effect of these concentrations was continuous during the recovery period. Also, the reproductive rates of exposed snails were greatly affected even through the recovery period. This depression in reproductive ability of snails was accompanied by histological damage in the hermaphrodite glands of exposed snails. Meanwhile, the growth of snails was estimated weekly and it showed great inhibition in exposed snails comparing with the control ones. PMID:26012228

  19. Histamine Immunoreactive Elements in the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems of the Snail, Biomphalaria spp., Intermediate Host for Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Mohamed R.; Mohamed, Azza H.; Osman, Gamalat Y.; Sharaf El-Din, Ahmed T.; Mossalem, Hanan S.; Delgado, Nadia; Torres, Grace; Rolón-Martínez, Solymar; Miller, Mark W.; Croll, Roger P.

    2015-01-01

    Histamine appears to be an important transmitter throughout the Animal Kingdom. Gastropods, in particular, have been used in numerous studies establishing potential roles for this biogenic amine in the nervous system and showing its involvement in the generation of diverse behaviours. And yet, the distribution of histamine has only previously been described in a small number of molluscan species. The present study examined the localization of histamine-like immunoreactivity in the central and peripheral nervous systems of pulmonate snails of the genus Biomphalaria. This investigation demonstrates immunoreactive cells throughout the buccal, cerebral, pedal, left parietal and visceral ganglia, indicative of diverse regulatory functions in Biomphalaria. Immunoreactivity was also present in statocyst hair cells, supporting a role for histamine in graviception. In the periphery, dense innervation by immunoreactive fibers was observed in the anterior foot, perioral zone, and other regions of the body wall. This study thus shows that histamine is an abundant transmitter in these snails and its distribution suggest involvement in numerous neural circuits. In addition to providing novel subjects for comparative studies of histaminegic neurons in gastropods, Biomphalaria is also the major intermediate host for the digenetic trematode parasite, which causes human schistosomiasis. The study therefore provides a foundation for understanding potential roles for histamine in interactions between the snail hosts and their trematode parasites. PMID:26086611

  20. Further studies on the molecular systematics of Biomphalaria snails from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, T H; Caldeira, R L; Simpson, A J; Carvalho, O S

    2000-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene, using the enzyme DdeI were used for the molecular identification of ten species and one subspecies of Brazilian Biomphalaria. Emphasis is given to the analysis of B. oligoza, B. schrammi and B. amazonica. The RFLP profiles obtained using this enzyme were highly distinctive for the majority of the species and exhibited low levels of intraspecific polymorphism among specimens from different regions of Brazil. However, B. peregrina and B. oligoza presented very similar profiles that complicated their identification at the molecular level and suggested a very close genetic similarity between the two species. Others enzymes including HaeIII, HpaII, AluI and MnlI were tested for their ability to differentiate these species. For B. amazonica three variant profiles produced with DdeI were observed. The study demonstrated that the ITS contains useful genetic markers for the identification of these snails PMID:10656706

  1. Distribution of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, within a St Lucian field habitat

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    A total of 6360 mud samples were obtained, in 62 collections made with an exhaustive sampling device, from banana drains on the West Indian island of St Lucia during fortnightly samplings over a 2½-year period. Analysis of counts of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata from these samples showed that this species had a contagious distribution. This finding is consistent with other evidence that banana drains form a rigorous habitat for B. glabrata. Its distribution was more contagious than that of Oncomelania quadrasi in certain Philippine habitats and several species of aquatic snail in various African irrigation canals. The exact transformation for normalizing the snail counts for standard statistical techniques was z = x0.287 but the more convenient cube root transformation is probably adequate. However, if too few snails are collected (15 or fewer per 100 samples) or if the frequency distribution of snail counts is discontinuous, with too many widely separated high frequency counts, neither transformation will be entirely satisfactory. PMID:1084797

  2. The spatial and seasonal distribution of Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus forskalii and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host snails of schistosomiasis, in N'Djamena, Chad.

    PubMed

    Moser, Wendelin; Greter, Helena; Schindler, Christian; Allan, Fiona; Ngandolo, Bongo N R; Moto, Daugla D; Utzinger, Jürg; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2014-11-01

    There is a paucity of epidemiological and malacological data pertaining to schistosomiasis in Chad. In view of a recently articulated elimination agenda, a deeper understanding of the spatio-temporal distribution of schistosomiasis intermediate host snails is pivotal. We conducted cross-sectional malacological surveys during the dry season (April/May 2013) and after the short rainy season (October 2013) in N'Djamena, the capital of Chad. Snails were identified at the genus and species level using morphological keys and molecular DNA barcoding approaches. Those belonging to Bulinus and Biomphalaria were examined for cercarial shedding. Snail habitats were characterised and their predictive potential for the presence of schistosomiasis intermediate host snails explored. Seasonal patterns were studied using geographical information system and kriging in order to interpolate snail abundance data to make predictions at non-sampled locations across N'Djamena. Overall, 413 Bulinus truncatus, 369 Bulinus forskalii and 108 Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails were collected and subjected to cercarial shedding. During the dry season, one Bu. truncatus of 119 snails collected shed Schistosoma spp. cercariae (0.84%), while S. mansoni was shed by one of 108 Bi. pfeifferi snails (0.93%). None of the snails collected after the rainy season shed Schistosoma spp. cercariae. The abundance of Bu. truncatus and Bu. forskalii showed an inverse U-shape relationship with the square term of conductivity, i.e. low abundance at the lowest and highest levels of conductivity and high abundance at intermediate levels. Bi. pfeifferi showed a negative, linear association with pH in the dry seasons. It is planned to link these intermediate host snail data to infection data in human populations with the goal to draw a predictive risk map that can be utilised for control and elimination of schistosomiasis in N'Djamena. PMID:25545929

  3. Bibliotheca Alexandrina

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The ancient library at Alexandria was rightfully one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and its spirit and commitment to the pursuit of learning is embodied in the modern Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Egypt. As their mission statement notes, the library is to be "a center for dialogue between peoples and civilizations". This is no easy feat, and the web-browsing public can learn about their laudable efforts on this website. Visitors may first want to learn about the remarkable structure that houses the library, along with a variety of facts about this building's construction. While visitors who may be planning a visit to Egypt may wish to learn about tours of the building and the ways in which they may utilize their research collections, others may want to peruse the "Initiatives" area. Here they will find links to some of their digital projects, which include "Eternal Egypt", which offers an extremely media-rich site that allows visitors to explore over 5000 years of Egyptian civilization through timelines, objects, and interactive maps.

  4. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25259848

  5. HPTLC Determination of Amino Acids in Snail-Conditioned Water From Biomphalaria glabrata, Two Strains of Helisoma trivolvis, and Lymnaea elodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Steiner; B. Fried; J. Sherma

    1998-01-01

    High performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was used to analyze amino acids in water conditioned by Biomphalaria glabrata, a Pennsylvania and Colorado strain of Helisoma trivolvis, and Lymnaea elodes. The snail-conditioned water (SCW) samples were dried with air and reconstituted in 10% n-propanol and then applied to cellulose HPTLC plates and developed with n-propanol-water (7:3). Amino acids were detected with ninhydrin

  6. Parasite-responsive IgSF members in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata : characterization of novel genes with tandemly arranged IgSF domains and a fibrinogen domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Si-Ming Zhang; Pascale M. Léonard; Coen M. Adema; Eric S. Loker

    2001-01-01

    Two novel genes of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), FREP3 and FREP7, are reported from the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, a prominent intermediate host of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. They resemble other B. glabrata genes that encode fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs), but differ in that they encode proteins with two tandemly arranged IgSF domains followed by a C-terminal fibrinogen domain. FREPs are

  7. The symbiont Capsaspora owczarzaki, nov. gen. nov. sp., isolated from three strains of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata is related to members of the Mesomycetozoea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn A Hertel; Christopher J Bayne; Eric S Loker

    2002-01-01

    While investigating the resistance of some strains of Biomphalaria glabrata to infection with Schistosoma mansoni, a unicellular eukaryotic symbiont was noted in the snail haemolymph. It was similar in appearance to Nuclearia sp. reported from B. glabrata. Sequences comprising the 18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and the beginning of the 28S rDNA gene regions were obtained from symbionts isolated from three

  8. The Effect of Simulating Different Intermediate Host Snail Species on the Link between Water Temperature and Schistosomiasis Risk

    PubMed Central

    McCreesh, Nicky; Booth, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A number of studies have attempted to predict the effects of climate change on schistosomiasis risk. The importance of considering different species of intermediate host snails separately has never previously been explored. Methods An agent-based model of water temperature and Biomphalaria pfeifferi population dynamics and Schistosoma mansoni transmission was parameterised to two additional species of snail: B. glabrata and B. alexandrina. Results Simulated B. alexandrina populations had lower minimum and maximum temperatures for survival than B. pfeifferi populations (12.5–29.5°C vs. 14.0–31.5°C). B. glabrata populations survived over a smaller range of temperatures than either B. pfeifferi or B. alexandrina (17.0°C–29.5°C). Infection risk peaked at 16.5°C, 25.0°C and 19.0°C respectively when B. pfeifferi, B. glabrata and B. alexandrina were simulated. For all species, infection risk increased sharply once a minimum temperature was reached. Conclusions The results from all three species suggest that infection risk may increase dramatically with small increases in temperature in areas at or near the currents limits of schistosome transmission. The effect of small increases in temperature in areas where schistosomiasis is currently found will depend both on current temperatures and on the species of snail acting as intermediate host(s) in the area. In most areas where B. pfeifferi is the host, infection risk is likely to decrease. In cooler areas where B. glabrata is the host, infection risk may increase slightly. In cooler areas where B. alexandrina is the host, infection risk may more than double with only 2°C increase in temperature. Our results show that it is crucial to consider the species of intermediate host when attempting to predict the effects of climate change on schistosomiasis. PMID:24988377

  9. Multi-species interactions among a commensal (Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei), a parasite (Schistosoma mansoni), and an aquatic snail host (Biomphalaria glabrata).

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Jenna K; Sandland, Gregory J; Joyce, Sarah R; Minchella, Dennis J

    2005-06-01

    This study assessed the effects of a commensal, Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei, and a parasitic trematode, Schistosoma mansoni, on infection patterns and life-history responses in the aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata. Prevalence of infection was significantly higher in snails that were devoid of C. limnaei limnaei relative to those that were colonized by the commensal, indicating that the oligochaete may protect the host from trematode infection. This finding appeared to be the direct result of the commensal as opposed to indirect stimulation of the immune system, as hemocyte numbers did not differ between C. limnaei limnaei-colonized and noncolonized snails. Snail growth and reproduction were affected by the presence of C. limnaei limnaei and exposure to S. mansoni. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect of both C. limnaei limnaei presence and trematode exposure on B. glabrata growth over the 5-wk study with C. limnaei limnaei-colonized and parasite-infected snails demonstrating the greatest growth. Snails exposed, but uninfected, by S. mansoni demonstrated the lowest growth regardless of commensal colonization. Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei colonization had no effect on egg production, but S. mansoni-infected snails produced significantly more eggs than individuals from other treatment groups. Survival remained over 85% in all treatment groups. The ecological implications of these results are discussed. PMID:16108575

  10. Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Sokolow, Susanne H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5-2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

  11. Infectivity of Echinostoma friedi miracidia to different snail species under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Antoli, C; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J G

    2006-09-01

    The infectivity of Echinostoma friedi (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) miracidia was studied experimentally in a range of laboratory-reared snails that coexist in the same natural locality, namely Radix peregra, Lymnaea fuscus, L. truncatula (Lymnaeidae), Gyraulus chinensis, Helisoma duryi (Planorbidae) and Physella acuta (Physidae), and snails from different geographical origins acting naturally or experimentally as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma spp., namely Planorbarius metidjensis (from Málaga, Spain), Biomphalaria glabrata (Guadeloupe), B. alexandrina (Egypt) (Planorbidae), Bulinus cernicus (Mauritius), B. globosus (Zambia), B. natalensis (South Africa) and B. truncatus (Niger) (Bulinidae). Six species of snails were found to be susceptible, with the rate of infection ranging from 0 to 36.7%. The highest infection was detected in R. peregra. The low host specificity of E. friedi might have an epidemiological significance as a requisite for a recent establishment in a new geographical area. PMID:16923279

  12. Activation of an innate immune response in the schistosome-transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata by specific bacterial PAMPs.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John T; Belloir, Joseph A

    2014-02-01

    Injection of crude lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli into the hemocoel of Biomphalaria glabrata stimulates cell proliferation in the amebocyte-producing organ (APO). However, it is not known if mitogenic activity resides in the lipid A or O-polysaccharide component of LPS. Moreover, the possible role of substances that commonly contaminate crude LPS and that are known to stimulate innate immune responses in mammals, e.g., peptidoglycan (PGN), protein, or bacterial DNA, is unclear. Therefore, we tested the effects of the following injected substances on the snail APO: crude LPS, ultrapurified LPS (lacking lipoprotein contamination), two forms of lipid A, (diphosphoryl lipid A and Kdo2-lipid A), O-polysaccharide, Gram negative PGN, both crude and ultrapurified (with and without endotoxin activity, respectively), Gram positive PGN, PGN components Tri-DAP and muramyl dipeptide, and bacterial DNA. Whereas crude LPS, ultrapurified LPS, and crude PGN were mitogenic, ultrapurified PGN was not. Moreover, LPS components, PGN components, and bacterial DNA were inactive. These results suggest that it is the intact LPS molecule which stimulates cell division in the APO. PMID:24113288

  13. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceição, Adilva S; Moura, Flávia de B Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426?mg/L and LC(50) 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94?mg/L, LC(50) 13.51?mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

  14. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Costa, Ana L. S.; Conceição, Adilva S.; Moura, Flávia de B. Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426?mg/L and LC50 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94?mg/L, LC50 13.51?mg/L, and LC50 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

  15. Biomphalaria spp. (Preston,1910) snails in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Zona da Mata Mineira mesoregion, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Bessa, Elisabeth Cristina Almeida; Mittherofhe, Adalberto; Castro, Milton Ferreira de; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Passos, Liana Konovaloff Jannotti; Mattos, Ana Márcia Menezes de; Pinheiro, Liliane Sena; Sacramento e Silva, Dirany; Bastos, Fabiana Oliveira; Andreoli, Gabriela Quirino; Bonato, Glauco Resende; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2006-09-01

    This study focuses on the geographic distribution of the snail of the genus Biomphalaria and evaluates its infectivity by Schistosoma mansoni in 5264 specimens collected in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Of the 31 locations studied, 6 were reservoirs, 11 rudimentary holding ponds, 7 irrigation ditches, 5 lakes, 1 ornamental pond, and 1 waterfall. Intermediate hosts were found only in the rudimentary ponds and ditches, which were 100% positive. Using morphological and molecular analysis techniques, B. tenagophila, B. peregrina, and B. straminea were identified. This is the first report of B. stramínea in the municipality, and evaluation of its infective potential revealed susceptibility of 25.4%. Although we did not find specimens of Biomphalaria infected by S. mansoni, the data obtained indicate the presence of intermediate hosts, especially in the irrigation ditches in Juiz de Fora, and their proximity to contaminated areas. PMID:17308767

  16. Effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection on lutein and ?-carotene concentrations in Biomphalaria glabrata snails as determined by quantitative high performance reversed phase thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Nicole; Fried, Bernard; Sherma, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    High performance thin-layer chromatography was used to determine the concentration of ?-carotene and lutein in the whole body and digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) of uninfected Biomphalaria glabrata snails and those infected with Schistosoma mansoni for 6 and 8 weeks. Pigments were extracted from the snails using acetone and separated on EMD Millipore reversed phase C-18 plates with concentration zone using petroleum ether-acetonitrile-methanol (1:1:2) mobile phase. After development, two yellow pigment zones, lutein and ?-carotene, were identified with respective Rf values of 0.55 and 0.13 and then quantified by densitometry. Statistical analysis of the weight percentages of each pigment showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the concentration of ?-carotene in the DGGs of infected B. glabrata at 6 and 8 weeks post-infection compared to the uninfected snails. No significant differences were seen in the concentrations of ?-carotene in the whole body of the uninfected versus infected snail samples. Changes in the lutein concentration of the infected DGG and whole snail bodies were insignificant compared to the uninfected controls. In conclusion, larval S. mansoni infection caused a significant decrease in the ?-carotene concentration of the DGG at 6 and 8 weeks post infection. PMID:23990420

  17. [Life cycle of Clinostomum golvani n. sp. (Trematoda : Clinostomidae) a larval parasite of Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Guadeloupe (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Nassi, H; Bayssade-Dufour, C

    1980-01-01

    The life cycle of a new species of Clinostomidae, Clinostomum golvani, described in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). The first intermediate host is the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni in this island, Biomphalaria glabrata, which can be sterilized by this parasite. Poecilia reticulata (guppy) serves as the second intermediate host. Adult worms were obtained under experimental conditions from Butorides virescens (the definitive host in nature), Nycticorax nycticorax and Ardea purpurea. The adult worm closely resembles Clinostomum complanatum but the larval stages (rediae and cercaria) show several differences. The chaetotaxic description of a cercaria of Clinostomidae is given for the first time. PMID:7224533

  18. Implications of water hardness in ecotoxicological assessments for water quality regulatory purposes: a case study with the aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, E C; Caixeta, N R; Simplício, N C S; Sousa, S R; Aragão, T P; Muniz, D H F

    2014-02-01

    Water hardness is a property depending on the presence of alkaline earth metals, mainly calcium and magnesium. Among the strategies for water quality monitoring, ecotoxicological assays are performed to minimize impacts and classify water bodies. For these laboratory evaluations parameters are previously defined in the guidelines, including water hardness for both cultivation and testing medium. The present work was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of water hardness on the survival and reproduction of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata and discuss the influence of natural water hardness on the results of ecotoxicological tests with these environmental samples. Comparing the groups it was possible to observe that those maintained in waters with least hardness had lower reproductive success, while the groups maintained in highest hardness showed better reproduction. These data show that waters with low hardness make the reproduction of the snail B. glabrata unfeasible, and this reveal a problem for ecotoxicity assays using natural water samples. PMID:25055099

  19. A family of variable immunoglobulin and lectin domain containing molecules in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Duval, David; Mouahid, Gabriel; Emans, Rémi; Allienne, Jean-François; Galinier, Richard; Genthon, Clémence; Dubois, Emeric; Du Pasquier, Louis; Adema, Coen M; Grunau, Christoph; Mitta, Guillaume; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Technical limitations have hindered comprehensive studies of highly variable immune response molecules that are thought to have evolved due to pathogen-mediated selection such as fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) from Biomphalaria glabrata. FREPs combine upstream immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) domains with a C-terminal fibrinogen-related domain (FreD) and participate in reactions against trematode parasites. From RNAseq data we assembled a de novo reference transcriptome of B. glabrata to investigate the diversity of FREP transcripts. This study increased over two fold the number of bonafide FREP subfamilies and revealed important sequence diversity within FREP12 subfamily. We also report the discovery of related molecules that feature one or two IgSF domains associated with different C-terminal lectin domains, named C-type lectin-related proteins (CREPs) and Galectin-related protein (GREP). Together, the highly similar FREPs, CREPs and GREP were designated VIgL (Variable Immunoglobulin and Lectin domain containing molecules). PMID:25451302

  20. Three genes involved in the oxidative burst are closely linked in the genome of the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Michael S; Bonner, Kaitlin M; Cooper, Becky; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; O'Donnell, Ryan P; Bayne, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Allelic variation at the Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) locus has been shown to be associated with resistance of the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, to infection by the trematode parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. SOD1 catalyses the production of hydrogen peroxide, a known cytotoxic component of the oxidative burst used in defence against pathogens. In our laboratory population of B. glabrata, the most resistant allele at SOD1 is over-expressed relative to the other two alleles. Because hydrogen peroxide also causes oxidative stress on host tissues, we hypothesised that over-expression of SOD1 might be compensated by epistatic interactions with other loci involved in oxidation-reduction (redox) pathways. Catalase, peroxiredoxins and glutathione peroxidases all degrade hydrogen peroxide. We tested whether alleles at each of these loci were in linkage disequilibrium with SOD1 in our population, as might be expected given strong epistatic selection. We found that SOD1, catalase (CAT) and a peroxiredoxin locus (PRX4) are in strong linkage disequilibrium in our population. We also found that these loci are tightly linked, within 1-2cM of each other, which explains the high linkage disequilibrium. This result raises the possibility that there is a linked cluster of redox genes, and perhaps other defence-relevant genes, in the B. glabrata genome. Whether epistatic interactions for fitness actually exist among these loci still needs to be tested. However the close physical linkage among SOD1, PRX4 and CAT, and subsequent high disequilibrium, makes such interactions a plausible hypothesis. PMID:23207063

  1. Advances in gastropod immunity from the study of the interaction between the snail Biomphalaria glabrata and its parasites: A review of research progress over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Coustau, C; Gourbal, B; Duval, D; Yoshino, T P; Adema, C M; Mitta, G

    2015-09-01

    This review summarizes the research progress made over the past decade in the field of gastropod immunity resulting from investigations of the interaction between the snail Biomphalaria glabrata and its trematode parasites. A combination of integrated approaches, including cellular, genetic and comparative molecular and proteomic approaches have revealed novel molecular components involved in mediating Biomphalaria immune responses that provide insights into the nature of host-parasite compatibility and the mechanisms involved in parasite recognition and killing. The current overview emphasizes that the interaction between B. glabrata and its trematode parasites involves a complex molecular crosstalk between numerous antigens, immune receptors, effectors and anti-effector systems that are highly diverse structurally and extremely variable in expression between and within host and parasite populations. Ultimately, integration of these molecular signals will determine the outcome of a specific interaction between a B. glabrata individual and its interacting trematodes. Understanding these complex molecular interactions and identifying key factors that may be targeted to impairment of schistosome development in the snail host is crucial to generating new alternative schistosomiasis control strategies. PMID:25662712

  2. UDP-N-acetyl-?-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase from the snail Biomphalaria glabrata - substrate specificity and preference of glycosylation sites.

    PubMed

    Taus, Christopher; Windwarder, Markus; Altmann, Friedrich; Grabherr, Reingard; Staudacher, Erika

    2014-12-01

    O-glycosylation is a widely occurring posttranslational modification of proteins. The glycosylation status of a specific site may influence the location, activity and function of a protein. The initiating enzyme of mucin-type O-glycosylation is UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide GalNAc transferase (ppGalNAcT; EC 2.4.1.41). Using electron-transfer dissociation mass spectrometry, ppGalNAcT from the snail Biomphalaria glabrata was characterized regarding its ability to glycosylate threonine and serine residues in different peptide sequence environments. The preferences of the snail enzyme for flanking amino acids of the potential glycosylation site were very similar to vertebrate and insect members of the family. Acceptor sites with adjacent proline residues were highly preferred, while other residues caused less pronounced effects. No specific O-glycosylation consensus sequence was found. The results obtained from synthetic peptides were in good correlation with the observed glycosylation patterns of native peptides and with the order of attachment in a multi-glycosylated peptide. The snail enzyme clearly preferred threonine over serine in the in vitro assays. No significant differences of transfer speed or efficiency could be detected using a mutant of the enzyme lacking the lectin domain. This is the first characterisation of the substrate specificity of a member of the ppGalNAcT family from mollusc origin. PMID:25338825

  3. Biomphalaria glabrata transcriptome: cDNA microarray profiling identifies resistant- and susceptible-specific gene expression in haemocytes from snail strains exposed to Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Lockyer, Anne E; Spinks, Jenny; Kane, Richard A; Hoffmann, Karl F; Fitzpatrick, Jennifer M; Rollinson, David; Noble, Leslie R; Jones, Catherine S

    2008-01-01

    Background Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate snail host for Schistosoma mansoni, one of the important schistosomes infecting man. B. glabrata/S. mansoni provides a useful model system for investigating the intimate interactions between host and parasite. Examining differential gene expression between S. mansoni-exposed schistosome-resistant and susceptible snail lines will identify genes and pathways that may be involved in snail defences. Results We have developed a 2053 element cDNA microarray for B. glabrata containing clones from ORESTES (Open Reading frame ESTs) libraries, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries and clones identified in previous expression studies. Snail haemocyte RNA, extracted from parasite-challenged resistant and susceptible snails, 2 to 24 h post-exposure to S. mansoni, was hybridized to the custom made cDNA microarray and 98 differentially expressed genes or gene clusters were identified, 94 resistant-associated and 4 susceptible-associated. Quantitative PCR analysis verified the cDNA microarray results for representative transcripts. Differentially expressed genes were annotated and clustered using gene ontology (GO) terminology and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. 61% of the identified differentially expressed genes have no known function including the 4 susceptible strain-specific transcripts. Resistant strain-specific expression of genes implicated in innate immunity of invertebrates was identified, including hydrolytic enzymes such as cathepsin L, a cysteine proteinase involved in lysis of phagocytosed particles; metabolic enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of polyamines, important in inflammation and infection processes, as well as scavenging damaging free radicals produced during production of reactive oxygen species; stress response genes such as HSP70; proteins involved in signalling, such as importin 7 and copine 1, cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) protein and transcription enzymes such as elongation factor 1? and EF-2. Conclusion Production of the first cDNA microarray for profiling gene expression in B. glabrata provides a foundation for expanding our understanding of pathways and genes involved in the snail internal defence system (IDS). We demonstrate resistant strain-specific expression of genes potentially associated with the snail IDS, ranging from signalling and inflammation responses through to lysis of proteinacous products (encapsulated sporocysts or phagocytosed parasite components) and processing/degradation of these targeted products by ubiquitination. PMID:19114004

  4. Notocotylus biomphalariae n. sp. (Digenea: Notocotylidae)from Biomphalaria peregrina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in Patagonia, Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verónica Flores; Norma Brugni

    2005-01-01

    A new species of Notocotylus was found parasiting a freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria peregrina. Naturally infected snails were collected from two temporary ponds in the Nahuel Huapí National Park in Patagonia. The characteristics of the larval stages are presented. Experimental adults were recovered from the intestinal caeca of ducks and chicks. Adults of Notocotylus biomphalariae n. sp. exhibit an aspinose

  5. Molecular and functional characterization of a tandem-repeat galectin from the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Timothy P.; Dinguirard, Nathalie; Kunert, John; Hokke, Cornelius H.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, a tandem-repeat type galectin was characterized from an embryonic cell line (Bge) and circulating hemocytes of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. The predicted B. glabrata galectin (BgGal) protein of 32 kDa possessed 2 carbohydrate recognition domains, each displaying 6 of 8 conserved amino acids involved in galactoside-binding activity. A recombinant BgGal (rBgGal) demonstrated hemagglutinating activity against rabbit erythrocytes, which was specifically inhibited by galactose-containing sugars (lacNAc/lac > galNAc/gal). Although native galectin was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of Bge cells and the plasma membrane of a subset of snail hemocytes (60%), it was not detected in cell-free plasma by Western blot analysis. The findings that rBgGal selectively recognizes the schistosome-related sugar, lacNAc, and strongly binds to hemocytes and the tegument of S. mansoni sporocysts in a sugar-inhibitable fashion suggest that hemocyte-bound galectin may be serving as pattern recognition receptor for this, or other pathogens possessing appropriate sugar ligands. Based on molecular and functional features, BgGal represents an authentic galectin, the first to be fully characterized in the medically-important molluscan Class Gastropoda. PMID:18280060

  6. Cytometric analysis, genetic manipulation and antibiotic selection of the snail embryonic cell line Bge from Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Yan, Hongbin; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Matchimakul, Pitchaya; Bridger, Joanna; Mann, Victoria H; Smout, Michael J; Brindley, Paul J; Knight, Matty

    2015-07-01

    The invertebrate cell line, Bge, from embryos of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, remains to date the only established cell line from any species of the Phylum Mollusca. Since its establishment in 1976 by Eder Hansen, few studies have focused on profiling its cytometrics, growth characteristics or sensitivity to xenobiotics. Bge cells are reputed to be challenging to propagate and maintain. Therefore, even though this cell line is a noteworthy resource, it has not been studied widely. With growing interest in functional genomics, including genetic transformation, to elucidate molecular aspects of the snail intermediate hosts responsible for transmission of schistosomiasis, and aiming to enhance the convenience of maintenance of this molluscan cell line, we deployed the xCELLigene real time approach to study Bge cells. Doubling times for three isolates of Bge, termed CB, SL and UK, were longer than for mammalian cell lines - longer than 40h in complete Bge medium supplemented with 7% fetal bovine serum at 25°C, ranging from ?42h to ?157h when 40,000 cells were seeded. To assess the potential of the cells for genetic transformation, antibiotic selection was explored. Bge cells were sensitive to the aminonucleoside antibiotic puromycin (from Streptomyces alboniger) from 5?g/ml to 200ng/ml, displaying a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ?1.91?g/ml. Sensitivity to puromycin, and a relatively quick kill time (<48h in 5?g/ml) facilitated use of this antibiotic, together with the cognate resistance gene (puromycin N-acetyl-transferase) for selection of Bge cells transformed with the PAC gene (puroR). Bge cells transfected with a plasmid encoding puroR were partially rescued when cultured in the presence of 5?g/ml of puromycin. These findings pave the way for the development of functional genomic tools applied to the host-parasite interaction during schistosomiasis and neglected tropical trematodiases at large. PMID:25907768

  7. Update of fasciolosis-transmitting snails in Egypt (review and comment).

    PubMed

    Dar, Y D; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2005-08-01

    Several snail species may contribute in transmission of fasciolosis in Egypt. These molluscs show a variable sensibility to natural infections with Fasciola species. Radix natalensis is considered to be the essential intermediate host for F. gigantica based on field and experimental studies. Cercarial production from R. natalensis experimentally infected with F. gigantica is affected by the species of definitive host from which the eggs are obtained, as well as the different laboratory conditions. Another lymnaeid, Galba truncatula, may play a role in transmitting this parasite in Egypt, as it was found naturally infected with F. gigantica. Latter snail species, originated from France, was susceptible to experimental infections with Egyptian miracidia of F. gigantica and it had a cercarial production close to that of local R. natalensis. Two other snails, Pseudosuccinea columella and Biomphalaria alexandrina, were naturally found harboring larvae of Fasciola sp. At the level of intermediate hosts of F. gigantica, the conditions are thus favorable in Egypt to transmit fasciolosis which could also be caused by another fasciolid, F. hepatica, as the existance of this fluke was confirmed in Egypt. PMID:16083061

  8. The effect of some biological and physical factors on infection of Biomphalaria glabrata with Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fouad Yousif; Georg Lämmler

    1975-01-01

    Several biological and physical factors which may influence infection of Biomphalaria glabrata snails with the first stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis were studied. These factors were: the size of snails, the number of first stage larvae to which snails were exposed, the age of larvae, individual exposure compared with mass exposure of snails, the length of exposure period and the

  9. Age\\/size- and time-specific effects of Schistosoma mansoni on energy allocation patterns of its snail host Biomphalaria glabrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gérard; A. Théron

    1997-01-01

    Snail hosts of different ages constitute different resource environments for larval trematodes because each individual has\\u000a a particular energy budget and energy allocation pattern at the time of infection. Effects of monomiracidial trematode infections\\u000a on shell growth, body dry weight and reproductive effort of the snail host were compared between controls and infected juvenile\\u000a and adult snails during the prepatent

  10. Structure of two FREP genes that combine IgSF and fibrinogen domains, with comments on diversity of the FREP gene family in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale M Léonard; Coen M Adema; Si-Ming Zhang; Eric S Loker

    2001-01-01

    Upon exposure to infection with digenetic trematodes such as Echinostomaparaensei, the freshwater snail Biomphalariaglabrata produces increased quantities of hemolymph lectins, some of which are unique polypeptides containing both immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) and fibrinogen domains. These unusual lectins have been termed fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs), and recognize and precipitate digenean antigens. We here report 11 distinct FREP-encoding sequences from B.glabrata, and provide

  11. Predation of schistosomiasis vector snails by ostracoda (crustacea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.; Kornicker, L.S.

    1972-01-01

    An ostracod species of Cypretta is an effective predator in laboratory experiments on 1- to 3-day-old Biomphalaria glabrata, a vector snail of the blood fluke that causes the tropical and subtropical disease schistosomiasis.

  12. Biomphalaria havanensis Identified as a Potential Intermediate Host for the Digenetic Trematode Bolbophorus damnificus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlena C. Yost; Linda M. Pote; David J. Wise; Brian S. Dorr; Terry D. Richardson

    2009-01-01

    The digenetic trematode Bolbophorus damnificus has been associated with mortalities in commercial channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the Mississippi Delta. In the life cycle of B. damnificus, the only confirmed first intermediate host is the ram's horn snail Planorbella trivolvis. Recently, the exotic snail Biomphalaria havanensis has been isolated in several channel catfish ponds in the Mississippi Delta. The aim

  13. Gene discovery and expression analysis of immune-relevant genes from Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mitta; R. Galinier; P. Tisseyre; J.-F. Allienne; Y. Girerd-Chambaz; F. Guillou; A. Bouchut; C. Coustau

    2005-01-01

    The immune effector cells (hemocytes) of the snail host Biomphalaria glabrata are known to play a key role in recognition and elimination of larval helminths such as the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. To identify novel immune-relevant genes, we undertook an expressed sequence tag program. A hemocyte cDNA library was constructed using snails that were not exposed to a particular

  14. Biomphalaria glabrata (say), a suitable organism for a biotest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Münzinger

    1987-01-01

    The embryonic development of a tropical freshwater snail (Biomphalaria glabrata, Say: Gastropoda, Pulmonata) is presented as a tool for monitoring pollutants in water. Laboratory rearing of the animal and four different embryonic stages, which are easily to recognize are described. In this paper the results of a study on the effect of Copper are reported.

  15. Notocotylus biomphalariae n. sp. (Digenea: Notocotylidae)from Biomphalaria peregrina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Flores, Verónica; Brugni, Norma

    2005-07-01

    A new species of Notocotylus was found parasiting a freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria peregrina. Naturally infected snails were collected from two temporary ponds in the Nahuel Huapí National Park in Patagonia. The characteristics of the larval stages are presented. Experimental adults were recovered from the intestinal caeca of ducks and chicks. Adults of Notocotylus biomphalariae n. sp. exhibit an aspinose tegument, two lateral rows of 11 ventral glands and a median row of four, a uterus with 12-16 coils of which 2-4 are previtelline, a metraterm equivalent in size to 65-68% of the cirrus-sac length, a previtelline field which extends to the middle of the body, a lobed testis and a genital pore closely posterior to the intestinal bifurcation. The rediae have one to three cercariae. The cercariae, when shed, are trioculate and have a long tail; they encyst in the environment and become infective 12 days after encystment. PMID:16025211

  16. O-Glycosylation of snails.

    PubMed

    Stepan, Herwig; Pabst, Martin; Altmann, Friedrich; Geyer, Hildegard; Geyer, Rudolf; Staudacher, Erika

    2012-05-01

    The glycosylation abilities of snails deserve attention, because snail species serve as intermediate hosts in the developmental cycles of some human and cattle parasites. In analogy to many other host-pathogen relations, the glycosylation of snail proteins may likewise contribute to these host-parasite interactions. Here we present an overview on the O-glycan structures of 8 different snails (land and water snails, with or without shell): Arion lusitanicus, Achatina fulica, Biomphalaria glabrata, Cepaea hortensis, Clea helena, Helix pomatia, Limax maximus and Planorbarius corneus. The O-glycans were released from the purified snail proteins by ?-elimination. Further analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and - for the main structures - by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Snail O-glycans are built from the four monosaccharide constituents: N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, mannose and fucose. An additional modification is a methylation of the hexoses. The common trisaccharide core structure was determined in Arion lusitanicus to be N-acetylgalactosamine linked to the protein elongated by two 4-O-methylated galactose residues. Further elongations by methylated and unmethylated galactose and mannose residues and/or fucose are present. The typical snail O-glycan structures are different to those so far described. Similar to snail N-glycan structures they display methylated hexose residues. PMID:22581130

  17. Identification of Biomphalaria havanensis and Biomphalaria obstructa populations from Cuba using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, T H; Caldeira, R L; Simpson, A J; Carvalho, O S

    2001-07-01

    In Cuba, several Biomphalaria species have been reported such as B. orbignyi, B. schrammi, B. helophila, B. havanensis and B. peregrina; only the latter three are considered as potential hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The specific identification of Biomphalaria species is based on anatomical and morphological characters of genital organs and shells. The correct identification of these snails is complicated by the high variation in these characters, similarity among species and in some cases by the small size of the snails. In this paper, we reported the classical morphological identification, the use of PCR and RFLP analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA genes for molecular identification of seven snail populations from different localities in Cuba. Using morphological and molecular analysis, we showed that among the studied Cuban Biomphalaria populations only B. havanensis and B. obstructa species were found. PMID:11500766

  18. Breeding of Biomphalaria tenagophila in mass scale.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Florence Mara; Marques, Daisymara P Almeida; Maciel, Engels; Couto, Josiane Maria; Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah A; Teles, Horácio M Santana; Santos, João Batista dos; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech

    2013-01-01

    An efficient method for breeding Biomphalaria tenagophila (Taim lineage/RS) was developed over a 5-year-period (2005-2010). Special facilities were provided which consisted of four cement tanks (9.4 x 0.6 x 0.22 m), with their bottom covered with a layer of sterilized red earth and calcium carbonate. Standard measures were adopted, as follows: each tank should contain an average of 3000 specimens, and would be provided with a daily ration of 35,000 mg complemented with lettuce. A green-house effect heating system was developed which constituted of movable dark canvas covers, which allowed the temperature to be controlled between 20 - 24 ºC. This system was essential, especially during the coldest months of the year. Approximately 27,000 specimens with a diameter of 12 mm or more were produced during a 14-month-period. The mortality rates of the newly-hatched and adult snails were 77% and 37%, respectively. The follow-up of the development system related to 310 specimens of B. tenagophila demonstrated that 70-day-old snails reached an average of 17.0 ± 0.9 mm diameter. The mortality rates and the development performance of B. tenagophila snails can be considered as highly satisfactory, when compared with other results in literature related to works carried out with different species of the genus Biomphalaria, under controlled laboratory conditions. PMID:23328724

  19. Comparative gene analysis of Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes pre- and post-exposure to miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nithya Raghavan; Andre N Miller; Malcolm Gardner; Peter C FitzGerald; Anthony R Kerlavage; David A Johnston; Fred A Lewis; Matty Knight

    2003-01-01

    The internal defense mechanism of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata during a schistosome infection is activated and mediated via the immune effector cells known as hemocytes. Since resistance and susceptibility to schistosome infection is known to be genetically determined, our interest was to use the EST approach as a gene discovery tool to examine transcription profiles in hemocytes of resistant snails

  20. Toxicity of Euphorbia milii Latex and Niclosamide to Snails and Nontarget Aquatic Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo C. Oliveira-Filho; Francisco J. R. Paumgartten

    2000-01-01

    The toxicity of Euphorbia milii molluscicidal latex and niclosamide (NCL) to target snails (Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila) and nontarget aquatic organisms is evaluated. Planorbidae snails were killed by very low concentrations of lyophilized latex (48-h LC50, mg\\/L: B. glabrata, 0.12; B. tenagophila, 0.09; Helisoma duryi, 0.10). Latex was less toxic (48-h LC50 or EC50, mg\\/L) to oligochaeta (Tubifex tubifex,

  1. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of UVB on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Pulmonata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debbie S. Ruelas; Deneb Karentz; John T. Sullivan

    2006-01-01

    Although Schistosoma mansoni occurs mainly in the tropics, where intense levels of solar radiation are present, the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on schistosome transmission is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of UVB (290–320nm) on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of S. mansoni. Albino and wild-type snails were exposed to doses

  2. Phylogenetic relationships among Brazilian Biomphalaria species (Mollusca: Planorbidae) based upon analysis of ribosomal ITS2 sequences.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, T H; Kissinger, J C; Caldeira, R L; Pires, E C; Monteiro, E; Simpson, A J; Carvalho, O S

    2000-12-01

    In spite of their abundance, widespread distribution and medical importance, the phylogenetic relationships among Biomphalaria snails have received relatively little attention. We have collected and studied 29 populations of snails obtained from different localities from Brazil. We have sequenced the ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) from the following Biomphalaria species: B. glabrata, B. tenagophila tenagophila, B. occidentalis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, B. kuhniana, B. schrammi, B. amazonica, B. oligoza, B. intermedia and an outgroup species Helisoma duryi. The sequence from each species is unique. Three different methods of phylogenetic reconstruction were used (distance, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood). The resulting phylogenetic trees obtained by these methods basically support current systematic relationships based on morphological characters alone. This study demonstrates that the ITS2 region contains markers useful for identification and determination of relationships among Biomphalaria species. PMID:11155932

  3. Cellular response to Echinostoma caproni infection in Biomphalaria glabrata strains selected for susceptibility\\/resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gennady L Ataev; Christine Coustau

    1999-01-01

    The Biomphalaria glabrata\\/Schistosoma mansoni system represented the only model available so far, for investigating snail resistance to parasites. A new host–parasite model has been recently provided by selection of B. glabrata strains that are genetically resistant and susceptible to Echinostoma caproni. As a first approach in investigating resistance mechanisms in this model, we compared the hemocytic response and its effect

  4. [Resistance of Biomphalaria peregrina of Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil to infection with 3 strains of Schistosoma mansoni].

    PubMed

    de Souza, C P; Passos, L K; Carvalho, O dos S

    1988-01-01

    The descendants of the planorbid snail Biomphalaria peregrina, collected in the region of Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were exposed to miracidia of three strains of Schistosoma mansoni: "LE" strain from Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais; "SJ", strain from São José dos Campos, State of São Paulo and "AL" strain from State of Alagoas. Of 300 snails exposed to miracidia of the three strains, none was infected. On the other hand, 300 Biomphalaria glabrata of the control groups showed infection rates of 61.1 to 95.3% with the three strains. The mortality rates of B. peregrina and B. glabrata were 20% and 28%, respectively. PMID:3152277

  5. Infection of neonatal Biomphalaria glabrata with the miracidia of Echinostoma caproni.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Amanda E; Fried, Bernard

    2013-06-01

    We used a Biomphalaria glabrata snail model for our studies and investigated the suitability of B. glabrata neonates, reared on a Nostoc sp. diet, for infection with Echinostoma caproni miracidia. We found that neonatal snails could become infected with E. caproni miracidia with 31 ± 11% standard error (SE) of our exposed snails containing rediae infections at 4 wk post-exposure (PE). However, the survival of exposed neonates was significantly (P < 0.05, Student's t-test) less than that of the unexposed controls at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk PE. PMID:23083470

  6. Land and water snails

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-03

    Land snails live on the land and water snails make water their habitat. Land snails have shells to protect them and so do water snails. Land snails have two sets of antennae, while water snails only have one set.

  7. Characterization of Biomphalaria orbignyi, Biomphalaria peregrina and Biomphalaria oligoza by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion of the internal transcribed spacer region of the RNA ribosomal gene.

    PubMed

    Spatz, L; Vidigal, T H; Silva, M C; Cappa, S M; Carvalho, O S

    2000-01-01

    The correct identification of Biomphalaria oligoza, B. orbignyi and B. peregrina species is difficult due to the morphological similarities among them. B. peregrina is widely distributed in South America and is considered a potential intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. We have reported the use of the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA for the molecular identification of these snails. The snails were obtained from different localities of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. The restriction patterns obtained with MvaI enzyme presented the best profile to identify the three species. The profiles obtained with all enzymes were used to estimate genetic similarities among B. oligoza, B. peregrina and B. orbignyi. This is also the first report of B. orbignyi in Uruguay. PMID:11080765

  8. Habitat preference of freshwater snails in relation to environmental factors and the presence of the competitor snail Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774).

    PubMed

    Giovanelli, Alexandre; da Silva, Cesar Luiz Pinto Ayres Coelho; Leal, Geórgia Borges Eccard; Baptista, Darcílio Fernandes

    2005-04-01

    Our objective is to evaluate the habitat preference of freshwater snails in relation to environmental factors and the presence of the competitor snail Melanoides tuberculatus. In the first phase, snails was collected at 12 sites. This sampling sites presented a degree of organic input. In the second phase 33 sampling sites were chosen, covering a variety of lotic and lentic environments. The snail species found at Guapimirim, state of Rio de Janeiro, displayed a marked habitat preference, specially in relation to the physical characteristics of each environment. Other limiting factors for snail distribution at the studied lotic environments were the water current velocity and the amount of organic matter, mainly to Physa marmorata, M. tuberculatus, and Biomphalaria tenagophila. The absence of interactions between M. tuberculatus and another snails could be associated to the distinct spatial distribution of those species and the instability of habitats. This later factor may favor the coexistence of M. tuberculatus with B. glabrata by reduction of population density. In areas of schistosomiasis transmission some habitat modification may add to the instability of the environment, which would make room for the coexistence of M. tuberculatus and Biomphalaria spp. In this way, some of the usual measures for the control of snail hosts would prevent the extinction of populations of Biomphalaria spp. by M. tuberculatus in particular habitats. PMID:16021304

  9. Genetic variability and molecular identification of Brazilian Biomphalaria species (Mollusca: Planorbidae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, S; Caldeira, R L; Simpson, A J; Vidigal, T H

    2001-01-01

    Freshwater snails belonging to the genus Biomphalaria are intermediate hosts of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni in the Neotropical region and Africa. In Brazil, one subspecies and ten species of Biomphalaria have been identified: B. glabrata, B. tenagophila, B. straminea, B. occidentalis, B. peregrina, B. kuhniana, B. schrammi, B. amazonica, B. oligoza, B. intermedia and B.t. guaibensis. However, only the first three species are found naturally infected with S. mansoni. The classical identification of these planorbids is based on comparison of morphological characteristics of the shell and male and female reproductive organs, which is greatly complicated by the extensive intra-specific variation. Several molecular techniques have been used in studies on the identification, genetic structure as well as phylogenetic relationships between these groups of organisms. Using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD) analysis we demonstrated that B. glabrata exhibits a remarkable degree of intra-specific polymorphism. Thus, the genetics of the snail host may be more important to the epidemiology of schistosomiasis than those of the parasite itself. Using the simple sequence repeat anchored polymerase chain reaction (SSR-PCR) in intra-populational and intra-specific studies we have demonstrated that snails belonging to the B. straminea complex (B. straminea, B. kuhniana and B. intermedia) clearly presented higher heterogeneity. Using the low stringency polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR) technique we were able to separate B. glabrata from B. tenagophila and B. tenagophila from B. occidentalis. To separate all Brazilian Biomphalaria species we used the restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the DNA gene. The method also proved to be efficient for the specific identification of DNA extracted from snail eggs. Recently we have sequenced the ITS2 region for phylogenetic studies of all Biomphalaria snails from Brazil. PMID:11769284

  10. A Novel Bacterial Pathogen of Biomphalaria glabrata: A Potential Weapon for Schistosomiasis Control?

    PubMed Central

    Duval, David; Galinier, Richard; Mouahid, Gabriel; Toulza, Eve; Allienne, Jean François; Portela, Julien; Calvayrac, Christophe; Rognon, Anne; Arancibia, Nathalie; Mitta, Guillaume; Théron, André; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is the second-most widespread tropical parasitic disease after malaria. Various research strategies and treatment programs for achieving the objective of eradicating schistosomiasis within a decade have been recommended and supported by the World Health Organization. One of these approaches is based on the control of snail vectors in endemic areas. Previous field studies have shown that competitor or predator introduction can reduce snail numbers, but no systematic investigation has ever been conducted to identify snail microbial pathogens and evaluate their molluscicidal effects. Methodology/Principal findings In populations of Biomphalaria glabrata snails experiencing high mortalities, white nodules were visible on snail bodies. Infectious agents were isolated from such nodules. Only one type of bacteria, identified as a new species of Paenibacillus named Candidatus Paenibacillus glabratella, was found, and was shown to be closely related to P. alvei through 16S and Rpob DNA analysis. Histopathological examination showed extensive bacterial infiltration leading to overall tissue disorganization. Exposure of healthy snails to Paenibacillus-infected snails caused massive mortality. Moreover, eggs laid by infected snails were also infected, decreasing hatching but without apparent effects on spawning. Embryonic lethality was correlated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in eggs. Conclusions/Significance This is the first account of a novel Paenibacillus strain, Ca. Paenibacillus glabratella, as a snail microbial pathogen. Since this strain affects both adult and embryonic stages and causes significant mortality, it may hold promise as a biocontrol agent to limit schistosomiasis transmission in the field. PMID:25719489

  11. A Fresh Insight into Transmission of Schistosomiasis: A Misleading Tale of Biomphalaria in Lake Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Standley, Claire J.; Wade, Christopher M.; Stothard, J. Russell

    2011-01-01

    Lake Victoria is a known hot-spot for Schistosoma mansoni, which utilises freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria as intermediate hosts. Different species of Biomphalaria are associated with varying parasite compatibility, affecting local transmission. It is thought that two species, B. choanomphala and B. sudanica, inhabit Lake Victoria; despite their biomedical importance, the taxonomy of these species has not been thoroughly examined. This study combined analysis of morphological and molecular variables; the results demonstrated that molecular groupings were not consistent with morphological divisions. Habitat significantly predicted morphotype, suggesting that the different Lake Victorian forms of Biomphalaria are ecophentoypes of one species. The nomenclature should be revised accordingly; the names B. choanomphala choanomphala and B. c. sudanica are proposed. From a public health perspective, these findings can be utilised by policy-makers for better understanding of exposure risk, resulting in more effective and efficient control initiatives. PMID:22046308

  12. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of UVB on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Pulmonata).

    PubMed

    Ruelas, Debbie S; Karentz, Deneb; Sullivan, John T

    2006-11-01

    Although Schistosoma mansoni occurs mainly in the tropics, where intense levels of solar radiation are present, the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on schistosome transmission is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of UVB (290-320nm) on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of S. mansoni. Albino and wild-type snails were exposed to doses of UVB from UV-fluorescent lamps, and the following were measured: survival, photoreactivation (light-mediated DNA repair), effects on feeding behavior, and morphological tissue abnormalities. Irradiation with UVB is lethal to B. glabrata in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to white light subsequent to UVB irradiation enhances survival, probably by photoreactivation. The shell offers some, but not complete, protection. Experiments in which UVB transmittance through the shell was blocked with black nail polish suggest that injury to both exposed (headfoot) and shell-enclosed (mantle and visceral mass) tissues contributes to mortality in lethally irradiated snails. Wild-type (pigmented) snails are less susceptible to lethal effects of UVB than albino snails, and they may be more capable of photoreactivation. UVB exposure inhibits snail feeding behavior, and causes tentacle forks and growths on the headfoot. Thus, UVB may influence the life cycle of S. mansoni by both lethal and sub-lethal damage to the snail intermediate host. However, the ability of snails to photoreactivate may mitigate these effects. PMID:16996081

  13. Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of UVB on Juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Ruelas, Debbie S.; Karentz, Deneb; Sullivan, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Although Schistosoma mansoni occurs mainly in the tropics, where intense levels of solar radiation are present, the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on schistosome transmission is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of UVB (290–320 nm) on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of S. mansoni. Albino and wild type snails were exposed to doses of UVB from UV-fluorescent lamps, and the following were measured: survival, photoreactivation (light-mediated DNA repair), effects on feeding behavior, and morphological tissue abnormalities. Irradiation with UVB is lethal to B. glabrata in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to white light subsequent to UVB irradiation enhances survival, probably by photoreactivation. The shell offers some, but not complete, protection. Experiments in which UVB transmittance through the shell was blocked with black nail polish suggest that injury to both exposed (headfoot) and shell-enclosed (mantle and visceral mass) tissues contributes to mortality in lethally-irradiated snails. Wild-type (pigmented) snails are less susceptible to lethal effects of UVB than albino snails, and they may be more capable of photoreactivation. UVB exposure inhibits snail feeding behavior, and causes tentacle forks and growths on the headfoot. Thus, UVB may influence the life cycle of S. mansoni by both lethal and sub-lethal damage to the snail intermediate host. However, the ability of snails to photoreactivate may mitigate these effects. PMID:16996081

  14. Schistosomes and snails: a molecular encounter.

    PubMed

    Knight, Matty; Arican-Goktas, Halime D; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Odoemelam, Edwin C; Miller, André N; Bridger, Joanna M

    2014-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata snails play an integral role in the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent for human schistosomiasis in the Western hemisphere. For the past two decades, tremendous advances have been made in research aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of the snail/parasite interaction. The growing concern that there is no vaccine to prevent schistosomiasis and only one effective drug in existence provides the impetus to develop new control strategies based on eliminating schistosomes at the snail-stage of the life cycle. To elucidate why a given snail is not always compatible to each and every schistosome it encounters, B. glabrata that are either resistant or susceptible to a given strain of S. mansoni have been employed to track molecular mechanisms governing the snail/schistosome relationship. With such snails, genetic markers for resistance and susceptibility were identified. Additionally, differential gene expression studies have led to the identification of genes that underlie these phenotypes. Lately, the role of schistosomes in mediating non-random relocation of gene loci has been identified for the first time, making B. glabrata a model organism where chromatin regulation by changes in nuclear architecture, known as spatial epigenetics, orchestrated by a major human parasite can now be investigated. This review will highlight the progress that has been made in using molecular approaches to describe snail/schistosome compatibility issues. Uncovering the signaling networks triggered by schistosomes that provide the impulse to turn genes on and off in the snail host, thereby controlling the outcome of infection, could also yield new insights into anti-parasite mechanism(s) that operate in the human host as well. PMID:25101114

  15. Schistosomes and snails: a molecular encounter

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Matty; Arican-Goktas, Halime D.; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Odoemelam, Edwin C.; Miller, André N.; Bridger, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata snails play an integral role in the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent for human schistosomiasis in the Western hemisphere. For the past two decades, tremendous advances have been made in research aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of the snail/parasite interaction. The growing concern that there is no vaccine to prevent schistosomiasis and only one effective drug in existence provides the impetus to develop new control strategies based on eliminating schistosomes at the snail-stage of the life cycle. To elucidate why a given snail is not always compatible to each and every schistosome it encounters, B. glabrata that are either resistant or susceptible to a given strain of S. mansoni have been employed to track molecular mechanisms governing the snail/schistosome relationship. With such snails, genetic markers for resistance and susceptibility were identified. Additionally, differential gene expression studies have led to the identification of genes that underlie these phenotypes. Lately, the role of schistosomes in mediating non-random relocation of gene loci has been identified for the first time, making B. glabrata a model organism where chromatin regulation by changes in nuclear architecture, known as spatial epigenetics, orchestrated by a major human parasite can now be investigated. This review will highlight the progress that has been made in using molecular approaches to describe snail/schistosome compatibility issues. Uncovering the signaling networks triggered by schistosomes that provide the impulse to turn genes on and off in the snail host, thereby controlling the outcome of infection, could also yield new insights into anti-parasite mechanism(s) that operate in the human host as well. PMID:25101114

  16. The effects of the herbicide atrazine on freshwater snails.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Kyle D; Belden, Jason B; Bolek, Matthew G

    2015-07-01

    Atrazine has been shown to affect freshwater snails from the subcellular to community level. However, most studies have used different snail species, methods, endpoints, and atrazine exposure concentrations, resulting in some conflicting results and limiting our understanding. The goal of this study was to address these concerns by (1) investigating the acute and chronic effects of atrazine on four species of freshwater snails (Biomphalaria glabrata, Helisoma trivolvis, Physa acuta, and Stagnicola elodes) using the same methods, endpoints, and concentrations, and (2) summarizing the current literature pertaining to the effects of atrazine on freshwater snails. We conducted a 48 h acute toxicity test with an atrazine concentration higher than what typically occurs in aquatic environments (1000 µg/L). Additionally, we exposed snails to environmentally relevant atrazine concentrations (0, 0.3, 3, and 30 µg/L) for 28 days and assessed snail survival, growth, and reproduction. We also summarized all known literature pertaining to atrazine effects on freshwater snails. The literature summary suggests snails are often affected by environmentally relevant atrazine concentrations at the subcellular and cellular levels. These effects are typically not transitive to effects on survival, growth, or reproduction at the same concentrations. Our acute exposures corroborate the general trend of no direct effect on snail populations as atrazine did not directly affect the survival of any of the four snail species. Similarly, environmentally relevant concentrations did not significantly affect the survival, growth, or reproduction of any snail species. These results indicate that, in the absence of other possible stressors, the direct effects of environmentally relevant atrazine concentrations may not be realized at the snail population level. PMID:25971234

  17. Environmental epidemiology of intestinal schistosomiasis in Uganda: population dynamics of biomphalaria (gastropoda: planorbidae) in Lake Albert and Lake Victoria with observations on natural infections with digenetic trematodes.

    PubMed

    Rowel, Candia; Fred, Besigye; Betson, Martha; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Stothard, J Russell

    2015-01-01

    This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. Over a two-and-a-half-year study period with monthly sampling, physicochemical factors were measured at 12 survey sites and all freshwater snails were collected. Retained Biomphalaria were subsequently monitored in laboratory aquaria for shedding trematode cercariae, which were classified as either human infective (Schistosoma mansoni) or nonhuman infective. The population dynamics of Biomphalaria differed by location and by lake and had positive relationship with pH (P < 0.001) in both lakes and negative relationship with conductivity (P = 0.04) in Lake Albert. Of the Biomphalaria collected in Lake Albert (N = 6,183), 8.9% were infected with digenetic trematodes of which 15.8% were shedding S. mansoni cercariae and 84.2% with nonhuman infective cercariae. In Lake Victoria, 2.1% of collected Biomphalaria (N = 13,172) were infected with digenetic trematodes with 13.9% shedding S. mansoni cercariae, 85.7% shedding nonhuman infective cercariae, and 0.4% of infected snails shedding both types of cercariae. Upon morphological identification, species of Biomphalaria infected included B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. stanleyi in Lake Albert and B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. choanomphala in Lake Victoria. The study found the physicochemical factors that influenced Biomphalaria population and infections. The number and extent of snails shedding S. mansoni cercariae illustrate the high risk of transmission within these lake settings. For better control of this disease, greater effort should be placed on reducing environmental contamination by improvement of local water sanitation and hygiene. PMID:25705680

  18. Environmental Epidemiology of Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Uganda: Population Dynamics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Lake Albert and Lake Victoria with Observations on Natural Infections with Digenetic Trematodes

    PubMed Central

    Rowel, Candia; Fred, Besigye; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Stothard, J. Russell

    2015-01-01

    This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. Over a two-and-a-half-year study period with monthly sampling, physicochemical factors were measured at 12 survey sites and all freshwater snails were collected. Retained Biomphalaria were subsequently monitored in laboratory aquaria for shedding trematode cercariae, which were classified as either human infective (Schistosoma mansoni) or nonhuman infective. The population dynamics of Biomphalaria differed by location and by lake and had positive relationship with pH (P < 0.001) in both lakes and negative relationship with conductivity (P = 0.04) in Lake Albert. Of the Biomphalaria collected in Lake Albert (N = 6,183), 8.9% were infected with digenetic trematodes of which 15.8% were shedding S. mansoni cercariae and 84.2% with nonhuman infective cercariae. In Lake Victoria, 2.1% of collected Biomphalaria??(N = 13,172) were infected with digenetic trematodes with 13.9% shedding S. mansoni cercariae, 85.7% shedding nonhuman infective cercariae, and 0.4% of infected snails shedding both types of cercariae. Upon morphological identification, species of Biomphalaria infected included B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. stanleyi in Lake Albert and B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. choanomphala in Lake Victoria. The study found the physicochemical factors that influenced Biomphalaria population and infections. The number and extent of snails shedding S. mansoni cercariae illustrate the high risk of transmission within these lake settings. For better control of this disease, greater effort should be placed on reducing environmental contamination by improvement of local water sanitation and hygiene. PMID:25705680

  19. Biological, biochemical and histopathological features related to parasitic castration of Biomphalaria glabrata infected by Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Faro, Marta Julia; Perazzini, Mariana; Corrêa, Lygia dos Reis; Mello-Silva, Clélia Christina; Pinheiro, Jairo; Mota, Ester Maria; de Souza, Samaly; de Andrade, Zilton; Júnior, Arnaldo Maldonado

    2013-06-01

    Parasitic castration in the snail-trematode relationship can be understood as any change in the reproductive function of the snail that is due to interference by the developing larvae inside the snail that leads to the reduction or complete disruption of egg-laying activity. This study was designed to observe the parasitic castration of Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni during both the pre-patent and patent periods. The effect of infection on snail fecundity and fertility, growth rate and survival was studied during the 62 days following miracidia exposure. An integrated approach was employed that used biochemical and histological tools over the same period. To study the effect of infection on reproduction, we individually exposed 30 snails to 5 miracidia each and tracked their fertility and fecundity. For our histopathological studies, 50 snails were exposed to 20 miracidia each, and for our histochemical studies, 50 snails were exposed to 5 miracidia each. An equal number of uninfected snails were used as a control for each group. The B. glabrata exposed to the BH strain of S. mansoni showed 50% positivity for cercarial shedding. Both the experimental and control groups showed 100% survival. The pre-patent period lasted until 39 days after exposure to miracidia. Exposed snails that showed cercarial shedding exhibited higher growth rates than either exposed snails that did not demonstrate cercarial shedding or uninfected controls. Exposed snails without cercarial shedding and uninfected controls showed no differences in the reproductive parameters evaluated during the patent period; snails experiencing cercarial shedding showed a reduction in fecundity and fertility. These snails began to lay eggs only after the 50th day post miracidia exposure. The haemolymph glucose levels showed an oscillating pattern that decreased during periods of greater mobilisation of energy by the larvae and was accompanied by a depletion of glycogen in the cephalopodal mass and digestive gland. Histopathological examination at 55 days showed that the ovotestis was highly atrophied. There was almost complete disappearance of germ cells, and the supporting stroma formed a nearly empty net. At day 45, the infected digestive gland showed a high cylindrical epithelium with little preserved cytoplasm. The contents of the secretory granules of the albumen gland of infected animals stained with Alcian blue (AB), pH 1.0, indicating the presence of sulphated carbohydrates. Thus, parasitic castration in the B. glabrata-S. mansoni model may be regulated directly and indirectly by the developmental stage of the trematode and the biochemical and histopathological alterations during the patent period of infection. PMID:23541880

  20. Freshwater snails and Schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: IV - Sul Fluminense Mesoregion.

    PubMed

    Thiengo, Silvana C; Mattos, Aline C; Boaventura, M Fernanda; Fernandez, Monica A

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, the forth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Sul Fluminense Mesoregion from 2000 to 2002 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 18 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria peregrina; Biomphalaria straminea; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex; Drepanotrema lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; Physa marmorata; Pomacea sordida and Pomacea sp. As to the snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni the most frequent species was B. tenagophila, found in all municipalities surveyed, except Parati. Besides new records the present study extends the distribution of B. peregrina and B. straminea in the state. No specimens were found harbouring larval forms of S. mansoni although different kinds of cercariae had been observed. An account about the current schistosomiasis transmission sites in this Mesoregion is presented as well. PMID:15273799

  1. Multi-scale Shape Manipulation of Photographs Alexandrina Orzan Adrien Bousseau Pascal Barla Jolle Thollot

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    their shape. We finally reconstruct a new image out of the manipulated edge-map. To this end,we solve,R.M.2001.Image Editing in the Contour Domain. PAMI 23,3,291-296 Results Contact E-mail: Alexandrina contour as well as its highlight in a rectilinear way that gives the modified image a somewhat cubist

  2. Bibliotheca Alexandrina--Reviving a Legacy of the Past for a Brighter Common Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tocatlian, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the ancient library at Alexandria and describes plans for the development of the new Bibliotheca Alexandrina. The administrative organization is discussed; the building design is explained; international cooperation between Egypt, UNESCO, UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), and the library community is described; and future…

  3. Changes in the calcium metabolism of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Tunholi-Alves, V M; Tunholi, V M; Garcia, J Silva; Costa-Neto, S F; Maldonado, A; Santos, M A J; Thiengo, S C; Pinheiro, J

    2014-06-01

    Levels of calcium in the haemolymph and reserves in the shell of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined for the first time. At the same time, histochemical analyses of the digestive gland of infected and uninfected snails were performed to better understand the possible changes in metabolism of calcium in these organisms. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks of infection, the snails were dissected for collection of haemolymph and separation of tissues. The highest calcium concentrations in the haemolymph were found 2 weeks after infection, with a 39.61% increase in relation to the respective control group. However, there was a significant reduction in the concentration of this ion in the haemolymph of infected snails after 1 week of infection in relation to the uninfected specimens. In parallel, intense hypocalcification was shown in the shell of infected snails 1 and 2 weeks after infection, differing significantly in relation to the respective control groups. Morphological changes in the digestive gland of infected snails were also observed, confirming the role of this ion as an important element in the parasite encapsulation process. PMID:23290340

  4. Ovicidal effect of Piperaceae species on Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni host.

    PubMed

    Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Lopes, Priscila Orechio de Moraes; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko; Nakano, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease with public health importance in tropical and subtropical regions. An alternative to the disease control is the use of molluscicides to eliminate or reduce the intermediate host snail population causing a reduction of transmission in endemic regions. In this study nine extracts from eight Piperaceae species were evaluated against Biomphalaria glabrata embryos at blastula stage. The extracts were evaluated in concentrations ranging from 100 to 10 mg/L. Piper crassinervium and Piper tuberculatum extracts were the most active (100% of mortality at 20 mg/L and 30 mg/L respectively). PMID:24213196

  5. OVICIDAL EFFECT OF PIPERACEAE SPECIES ON Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni HOST

    PubMed Central

    Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Lopes, Priscila Orechio de Moraes; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko; Nakano, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease with public health importance in tropical and subtropical regions. An alternative to the disease control is the use of molluscicides to eliminate or reduce the intermediate host snail population causing a reduction of transmission in endemic regions. In this study nine extracts from eight Piperaceae species were evaluated against Biomphalaria glabrata embryos at blastula stage. The extracts were evaluated in concentrations ranging from 100 to 10 mg/L. Piper crassinervium and Piper tuberculatum extracts were the most active (100% of mortality at 20 mg/L and 30 mg/L respectively). PMID:24213196

  6. Freshwater snail diversity in Benin (West Africa) with a focus on human schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Ibikounlé, M; Mouahid, G; Sakiti, N G; Massougbodji, A; Moné, H

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale freshwater snail survey in Benin to assess the malacological diversity and the larval trematode infections with a focus on Schistosoma genus. We conducted 82 freshwater snail surveys in 35 sites ranked in 4 types and belonging to 9 out of 12 departments. Among 19,200 collected snails, 11 species of freshwater snails were identified. Four species of human schistosome transmitting snails, Bulinus forskalii, B. globosus, B. truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi and seven species of non-human schistosome transmitting snails. Although B. forskalii and B. globosus were the most largely distributed snails, none of the Bulinus snails were found naturally infected by schistosomes. B. pfeifferi was found naturally infected by S. mansoni only in one site with a 0.56% prevalence. The most risky areas were Borgou and the four coastal departments. Preliminary contempory information on human schistosomiasis was provided from three different sites. Schistosoma haematobium was found with 57.1%, 96% and 100% prevalences (two of which were new records for this species in Benin) while S. mansoni was restricted to one site (Toho-Todougba) with 74.3% prevalence. Our data showed that both schistosomiasis haematobium and mansoni prevalences increased during the last nineteen years in Toho-Todougba site. PMID:19426659

  7. Screening for novel plant sources of prenyloxyanthraquinones: Senna alexandrina Mill. and Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Genovese, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of our ongoing studies aimed to reveal the presence of oxyprenylated anthraquinones in plants claimed to have a laxative effect, in this article, we describe the extraction and HPLC separation of madagascin (3-isopentenyloxyemodin) and 3-geranyloxyemodine from dried leaves and fruits of Senna alexandrina Mill. (Leguminosae) and leaves and gel of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Xanthorrhoeaceae). Both compounds are described herein for the first time as components of extracts of the title plants. PMID:25342202

  8. Differences in the gene expression profiles of haemocytes from schistosome-susceptible and -resistant biomphalaria glabrata exposed to Schistosoma mansoni excretory-secretory products.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Zahida; Lockyer, Anne E; Davies, Angela J; Kirk, Ruth S; Emery, Aidan M; Rollinson, David; Jones, Catherine S; Noble, Leslie R; Walker, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    During its life cycle, the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni uses the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host to reproduce asexually generating cercariae for infection of the human definitive host. Following invasion of the snail, the parasite develops from a miracidium to a mother sporocyst and releases excretory-secretory products (ESPs) that likely influence the outcome of host infection. To better understand molecular interactions between these ESPs and the host snail defence system, we determined gene expression profiles of haemocytes from S. mansoni-resistant or -susceptible strains of B. glabrata exposed in vitro to S. mansoni ESPs (20 ?g/ml) for 1 h, using a 5K B. glabrata cDNA microarray. Ninety-eight genes were found differentially expressed between haemocytes from the two snail strains, 57 resistant specific and 41 susceptible specific, 60 of which had no known homologue in GenBank. Known differentially expressed resistant-snail genes included the nuclear factor kappa B subunit Relish, elongation factor 1?, 40S ribosomal protein S9, and matrilin; known susceptible-snail specific genes included cathepsins D and L, and theromacin. Comparative analysis with other gene expression studies revealed 38 of the 98 identified genes to be uniquely differentially expressed in haemocytes in the presence of ESPs, thus identifying for the first time schistosome ESPs as important molecules that influence global snail host-defence cell gene expression profiles. Such immunomodulation may benefit the schistosome, enabling its survival and successful development in the snail host. PMID:24663063

  9. Differences in the Gene Expression Profiles of Haemocytes from Schistosome-Susceptible and -Resistant Biomphalaria glabrata Exposed to Schistosoma mansoni Excretory-Secretory Products

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Angela J.; Kirk, Ruth S.; Emery, Aidan M.; Rollinson, David; Jones, Catherine S.; Noble, Leslie R.; Walker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    During its life cycle, the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni uses the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host to reproduce asexually generating cercariae for infection of the human definitive host. Following invasion of the snail, the parasite develops from a miracidium to a mother sporocyst and releases excretory-secretory products (ESPs) that likely influence the outcome of host infection. To better understand molecular interactions between these ESPs and the host snail defence system, we determined gene expression profiles of haemocytes from S. mansoni-resistant or -susceptible strains of B. glabrata exposed in vitro to S. mansoni ESPs (20 ?g/ml) for 1 h, using a 5K B. glabrata cDNA microarray. Ninety-eight genes were found differentially expressed between haemocytes from the two snail strains, 57 resistant specific and 41 susceptible specific, 60 of which had no known homologue in GenBank. Known differentially expressed resistant-snail genes included the nuclear factor kappa B subunit Relish, elongation factor 1?, 40S ribosomal protein S9, and matrilin; known susceptible-snail specific genes included cathepsins D and L, and theromacin. Comparative analysis with other gene expression studies revealed 38 of the 98 identified genes to be uniquely differentially expressed in haemocytes in the presence of ESPs, thus identifying for the first time schistosome ESPs as important molecules that influence global snail host-defence cell gene expression profiles. Such immunomodulation may benefit the schistosome, enabling its survival and successful development in the snail host. PMID:24663063

  10. Representation of an immune responsive gene family encoding fibrinogen-related proteins in the freshwater mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata, an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Si-Ming Zhang; Eric S. Loker

    2004-01-01

    Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) are found in the hemolymph of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, are up-regulated following exposure to digenetic trematode parasites, and bind to trematode larval surfaces, suggestive of a role in internal defense. Southern blot and degenerate-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were undertaken to better understand the diversity of the FREP-encoding gene family. Probes corresponding to the N-terminal

  11. Schistosoma mansoni and other larval trematodes in Biomphalaria tenagophila (Planorbidae) from Guarulhos, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Josué de; Silva, Marcos Paulo Nascimento da; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Kawano, Toshie

    2009-01-01

    A total of 909 Biomphalaria tenagophila were collected from two areas in Guarulhos (Metropolitan area of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil) to assess larval trematode infections. In all collection sites, only this species was found and 183 (20.13%) harbored trematode infections. In these collections, four morphologically distinguishable types of cercariae were identified by confocal microscopy. Xiphidiocercaria (Cercaria lutzi) was the most common type of cercaria recovered, contributing 76.5% of all infections. Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were recovered and comprised the total of 13.11%. Strigea cercaria (Cercaria caratinguensis) and Brevifurcate pharyngeate Clinostomatoide cercaria (Cercaria ocellifera) contributed 8.33% and 2.22% of all infections, respectively. Double infections (S. mansoni and C. lutzi) were found in twelve snails, contributing 6.55% of all infections. In all sites studied, small vertebrates were found in snail habitats and it was observed human contact with the water. The presence of trematode infected snails in large cities has public health implications. It further provides a starting point for some comprehensive studies on snail-related aspects of transmission and biology of trematode of medical and veterinary importance. PMID:19390735

  12. Apple Snails (Ampullariidae)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stijn A. I. Ghesquiere

    This web site provides information on apple snails (family Ampullariidae), the largest living freshwater snails on earth, often kept as aquarium pets because of their attractive appearance and size. Topics include the care of apple snails, their anatomy, species and genera, and information on snail pests, embryology, and genetics. There is also a frequently-asked-questions feature, photos, links to web sites and literature, and an online discussion forum.

  13. Land snail anatomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2006-06-17

    Land snails have a shell for protection. They have four tentacles, a foot, and a head and a tail region. The top set of tentacles are the snail's eyes. The bottom set of tentacles are what the snail uses to smell.

  14. Biomphalaria molluscs (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Michele Soares; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Muller, Gertrud; Jannotti-Passos, Liana Konovaloff; Rodrigues, Alice Pozza; Amaral, Hugo Leonardo; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires

    2009-08-01

    The present study was aimed at characterising Biomphalaria species using both morphological and molecular (PCR-RFLP) approaches. The specimens were collected in 15 localities in 12 municipalities of the southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The following species were found and identified: Biomphalaria tenagophila guaibensis, Biomphalaria oligoza and Biomphalaria peregrina. Specimens of the latter species were experimentally challenged with the LE Schistosoma mansoni strain, which showed to be refractory to infection. PMID:19820842

  15. Freshwater snails and Schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: II--Centro Fluminense Mesoregion.

    PubMed

    Thiengo, Silvana C; Fernandez, Monica A; Boaventura, M Fernanda; Santos, Sonia B; Mattos, Aline C

    2002-07-01

    During the course of a survey carried out from 2000 to 2001 in the Centro Fluminense Mesoregion of the State of Rio de Janeiro 22 molluscan species were found. Many of the records are new due to the dearth of previous studies. Concerning the snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the most frequently encountered species was Biomphalaria tenagophila, as it occurred in all the surveyed municipalities. There are new records of Biomphalaria straminea and Biomphalaria peregrina which is regarded as a potential intermediate host. Drepanotrema lucidum and Antillorbis nordestensis were found to be shedding echinostome cercariae and strigid cercariae respectively. An account about the current schistosomiasis transmission sites in this Mesoregion is presented as well. PMID:12219122

  16. The Effect of Increasing Water Temperatures on Schistosoma mansoni Transmission and Biomphalaria pfeifferi Population Dynamics: An Agent-Based Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    McCreesh, Nicky; Booth, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing interest in the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. Little is known, however, about the likely effects of increasing water-body temperatures on transmission. Methods We have developed an agent-based model of the temperature-sensitive stages of the Schistosoma and intermediate host snail life-cycles, parameterised using data from S. mansoni and Biomphalaria pfeifferi laboratory and field-based observations. Infection risk is calculated as the number of cercariae in the model, adjusted for their probability of causing infection. Results The number of snails in the model is approximately constant between 15–31°C. Outside this range, snail numbers drop sharply, and the snail population cannot survive outside the range 14–32°C. Mean snail generation time decreases with increasing temperature from 176 days at 14°C to 46 days at 26°C. Human infection risk is highest between 16–18°C and 1 pm and 6–10 pm in calm water, and 20–25°C and 12–4 pm in flowing water. Infection risk increases sharply when temperatures increase above the minimum necessary for sustained transmission. Conclusions The model suggests that, in areas where S. mansoni is already endemic, warming of the water at transmission sites will have differential effects on both snails and parasites depending on abiotic properties of the water-body. Snail generation times will decrease in most areas, meaning that snail populations will recover faster from natural population reductions and from snail-control efforts. We suggest a link between the ecological properties of transmission sites and infection risk which could significantly affect the outcomes of interventions designed to alter water contact behaviour – proposing that such interventions are more likely to reduce infection levels at river locations than lakes, where infection risk remains high for longer. In cooler areas where snails are currently found, increasing temperatures may significantly increase infection risk, potentially leading to new, high-intensity foci of infection. PMID:24987963

  17. Distribution and abundance of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis host snails along the Mara River in Kenya and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dida, Gabriel O; Gelder, Frank B; Anyona, Douglas N; Matano, Ally-Said; Abuom, Paul O; Adoka, Samson O; Ouma, Collins; Kanangire, Canisius K; Owuor, Phillip O; Ofulla, Ayub V O

    2014-01-01

    We purposively selected 39 sampling sites along the Mara River and its two perennial tributaries of Amala and Nyangores and sampled snails. In addition, water physicochemical parameters (temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, alkalinity, salinity and pH) were taken to establish their influence on the snail abundance and habitat preference. Out of the 39 sites sampled, 10 (25.6%) had snails. The snail species encountered included Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krauss - the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, Bulinus africanus - the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, and Lymnaea natalensis Krauss - the intermediate host of both Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica Cobbold. Ceratophallus spp., a non-vector snail was also encountered. Most (61.0%) of the snails were encountered in streamside pools. Schistosomiasis-transmitting host snails, B. pfeifferi and B. africanus, were fewer than fascioliasis-transmitting Lymnaea species. All the four different snail species were found to be attached to different aquatic weeds, with B. pfeifferi accounting for over half (61.1%) of the snails attached to the sedge, followed by B. africanus and Lymnaea spp., accounting for 22.2 and 16.7%, respectively. Ceratophallus spp. were non-existent in sedge. The results from this preliminary study show that snails intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis exists in different habitats, in few areas along the Mara River, though their densities are still low to have any noticeable impacts on disease transmission in case they are infected. The mere presence of the vector snails in these focal regions calls for their immediate control and institution of proper regulations, management, and education among the locals that can help curtail the spread of the snails and also schistosomiasis and fascioliasis within the Mara River basin. PMID:25405008

  18. Potential schistosome-vector snails and associated trematodes in ricefields of Corrients province, Argentina. Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Rumi, A; Hamann, M I

    1990-01-01

    Considering the possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis mansoni into Argentina as a consequence of dam construction on the Rio De La Plata basin, preliminary studies have been carried out on agrosystems such as ricefields in Corrientes province with the following purposes: 1) to survey and estimate the relative abundance of planorbids and identify potential vector species; 2) to identify environmental factors capable of influencing Biomphalaria population dynamics; and 3) to find out snail-parasite associations and estimate snail infection rates in order to detect possible competitive interactions between larval stages of native trematodes that could be used in biological control of Schistosoma mansoni. Three potential schistosome vectors were detected in ricefields, namely Biomphalaria straminea, B. tenagophila and B. peregrina, although B. orbignyi, a species refractory to infection with S. mansoni, proved the most frequent and abundant. Positive correlations (P less than 0.05) were found between Biomphalaria abundance and some environmental parameters: conductivity, hardness, calcium, nitrites plus nitrates, ammonium and bicarbonates. Water temperature correlation was negative (P less than 0.05). No correlation (P less than 0.05) was found in total iron, phosphates (SRP), pH and soil granulometry. PMID:2134706

  19. All About Snails

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-11-01

    This website introduces younger students to snails. Topics include their physical characteristics and living habits, diet, reproduction, locomotion, life history, predators, and many others. There are also links to additional material on snails, including lesson plans, stories, poems, and songs, clip-art, art and craft activties, and other resources.

  20. Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria mollusks at São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using geostatistical procedures.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Felgueiras, Carlos A; Moura, Ana C M; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2009-03-01

    Geostatistics is used in this work to make inferences about the presence of the species of Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and/or B. straminea), intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, at the São Francisco River Basin, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of these geostatistical procedures, known as indicator kriging, allows the classification of categorical data, in areas where the data are not available, using a punctual sample set. The result is a map of species and risk area definition. More than a single map of the categorical attribute, the procedure also permits the association of uncertainties of the stochastic model, which can be used to qualify the inferences. In order to validate the estimated data of the risk map, a fieldwork in five municipalities was carried out. The obtained results showed that indicator kriging is a rather robust tool since it presented a very good agreement with the field findings. The obtained risk map can be thought as an auxiliary tool to formulate proper public health strategies, and to guide other fieldwork, considering the places with higher occurrence probability of the most important snail species. Also, the risk map will enable better resource distribution and adequate policies for the mollusk control. This methodology will be applied to other river basins to generate a predictive map for Biomphalaria species distribution for the entire state of Minas Gerais. PMID:19046937

  1. Localization of serotonin in the nervous system of Biomphalaria glabrata, an intermediate host for schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Nadia; Vallejo, Deborah; Miller, Mark W

    2012-10-01

    The digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni that causes the form of schistosomiasis found in the Western Hemisphere requires the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as its primary intermediate host. It has been proposed that the transition from the free-living S. mansoni miracidium to parasitic mother sporocyst depends on uptake of biogenic amines, e.g. serotonin, from the snail host. However, little is known about potential sources of serotonin in B. glabrata tissues. This investigation examined the localization of serotonin-like immunoreactivity (5HTli) in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues of B. glabrata. Emphasis was placed on the cephalic and anterior pedal regions that are commonly the sites of S. mansoni miracidium penetration. The anterior foot and body wall were densely innervated by 5HTli fibers but no peripheral immunoreactive neuronal somata were detected. Within the CNS, clusters of 5HTli neurons were observed in the cerebral, pedal, left parietal, and visceral ganglia, suggesting that the peripheral serotonergic fibers originate from the CNS. Double-labeling experiments (biocytin backfill × serotonin immunoreactivity) of the tentacular nerve and the three major pedal nerves (Pd n. 10, Pd n. 11, and Pd n. 12) disclosed central neurons that project to the cephalopedal periphery. Overall, the central distribution of 5HTli neurons suggests that, as in other gastropods, serotonin regulates the locomotion, reproductive, and feeding systems of Biomphalaria. The projections to the foot and body wall indicate that serotonin may also participate in defensive, nociceptive, or inflammation responses. These observations identify potential sources of host-derived serotonin in this parasite-host system. Inc. PMID:22434538

  2. Changes in the locomotory and reproductive behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Alberto-Silva, Anna Carla; Santos, Everton Gustavo Nunes; Santos, Cláudia Portes; Mello-Silva, Clélia Christina

    2015-06-01

    The infection and development of a parasite may cause physiological, morphological and behavioral changes in its host. Changes in the locomotory activity of a host induced by their parasites may also influence the life-cycles of both host and parasite in the environment. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the locomotory activities of Biomphalaria glabrata before and after an experimental infection with Schistosoma mansoni relating to the shedding of cercaria. In addition, the reproductive parameters of infected B.?glabrata were analyzed during the prepatent and patent periods of the infection. The locomotory activity was recorded using an image analysis biomonitoring system based on a Videomex V(®). Five parameters were analyzed: 'Distance traveled', 'Ambulatory time', 'Stereotypic time', 'Resting time' and 'Average speed'. The number of shed cercariae was counted twice at 45 and 52 days post-infection. The reproductive parameters of infected B.?glabrata analyzed were the numbers of egg masses, eggs and hatched snails. All statistical analyses were performed using the R program. Of the 69 snails infected with S.?mansoni, 33 (47.8%) shed cercariae ('positive') and 36 (52.2%) ('exposed') failed to exhibit any cercarial shedding prior to the end of the experiment. The locomotory activity of the all snails increased significantly after infection with S.?mansoni. However, when the 'positive' and 'exposed' snails were compared, the former, shedding cercariae, were less motile. With regard to reproduction, 84.8% (28/33) of the 'positive' and 27.7% (10/36) of the 'exposed' snails failed to lay egg masses during patent period. The number of cercariae individually shed by each 'positive' snail presented a positive relation with 'Stereotypic time' and a negative relation with egg laying. Our findingshighlight the way in which infection with S.?mansoni affects the locomotory and the reproductive behavior of B.?glabrata. The number of cercariae shed is directly associated with the reduction/interruption in egg-laying and with an increase in random movement. PMID:25765559

  3. Parental Transfer of the Antimicrobial Protein LBP/BPI Protects Biomphalaria glabrata Eggs against Oomycete Infections

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Olga Lucia; van West, Pieter; Industri, Benoit; Ponchet, Michel; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Gourbal, Benjamin; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Coustau, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrate females transfer antibodies via the placenta, colostrum and milk or via the egg yolk to protect their immunologically immature offspring against pathogens. This evolutionarily important transfer of immunity is poorly documented in invertebrates and basic questions remain regarding the nature and extent of parental protection of offspring. In this study, we show that a lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bactericidal permeability increasing protein family member from the invertebrate Biomphalaria glabrata (BgLBP/BPI1) is massively loaded into the eggs of this freshwater snail. Native and recombinant proteins displayed conserved LPS-binding, antibacterial and membrane permeabilizing activities. A broad screening of various pathogens revealed a previously unknown biocidal activity of the protein against pathogenic water molds (oomycetes), which is conserved in human BPI. RNAi-dependent silencing of LBP/BPI in the parent snails resulted in a significant reduction of reproductive success and extensive death of eggs through oomycete infections. This work provides the first functional evidence that a LBP/BPI is involved in the parental immune protection of invertebrate offspring and reveals a novel and conserved biocidal activity for LBP/BPI family members. PMID:24367257

  4. Parental transfer of the antimicrobial protein LBP/BPI protects Biomphalaria glabrata eggs against oomycete infections.

    PubMed

    Baron, Olga Lucia; van West, Pieter; Industri, Benoit; Ponchet, Michel; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Gourbal, Benjamin; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Coustau, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrate females transfer antibodies via the placenta, colostrum and milk or via the egg yolk to protect their immunologically immature offspring against pathogens. This evolutionarily important transfer of immunity is poorly documented in invertebrates and basic questions remain regarding the nature and extent of parental protection of offspring. In this study, we show that a lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bactericidal permeability increasing protein family member from the invertebrate Biomphalaria glabrata (BgLBP/BPI1) is massively loaded into the eggs of this freshwater snail. Native and recombinant proteins displayed conserved LPS-binding, antibacterial and membrane permeabilizing activities. A broad screening of various pathogens revealed a previously unknown biocidal activity of the protein against pathogenic water molds (oomycetes), which is conserved in human BPI. RNAi-dependent silencing of LBP/BPI in the parent snails resulted in a significant reduction of reproductive success and extensive death of eggs through oomycete infections. This work provides the first functional evidence that a LBP/BPI is involved in the parental immune protection of invertebrate offspring and reveals a novel and conserved biocidal activity for LBP/BPI family members. PMID:24367257

  5. Electrophoretic studies on the digestive gland esterases of some biomphalarid and lymnaeid snails.

    PubMed

    Malek, E A; File, S K

    1971-01-01

    Because of the problems encountered in the classification of snails of medical importance, biochemical methods have been sought to help clarify the situation. Of these, the separation of the enzymes of adult snails by electrophoresis seems the most promising but very few attempts have been made so far to use the results for taxonomic studies. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the use of the enzyme systems of neotropical planorbid and of lymnaeid snails to elucidate their taxonomy and also snail-schistosome relationships at the species and population levels.The findings show the characteristic electrophoretic patterns of digestive gland esterases of the planorbid and lymnaeid snails used, as well as their variation and the level of such variation among certain populations and the consistency of the patterns among others. The results also show that, in general, the extent of variation between some populations of the same species is greater than the differences between species of the same group. However, at the specific level, there are similarities suggesting close relationships between some populations of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila on the one hand, and of certain populations of B. peregrina and of B. obstructa on the other hand.The present study has thrown some light on the question of electrophoretic variation in enzymes, and the ways in which this can be applied to studies of the genetics of snails. A correlation is suggested between certain patterns that indicate biochemical similarities or differences among the planorbid snail populations and the susceptibility of the species or the population to infection with the schistosomes. PMID:5317015

  6. Electrophoretic studies on the digestive gland esterases of some biomphalarid and lymnaeid snails

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Emile A.; File, Sharon K.

    1971-01-01

    Because of the problems encountered in the classification of snails of medical importance, biochemical methods have been sought to help clarify the situation. Of these, the separation of the enzymes of adult snails by electrophoresis seems the most promising but very few attempts have been made so far to use the results for taxonomic studies. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the use of the enzyme systems of neotropical planorbid and of lymnaeid snails to elucidate their taxonomy and also snail—schistosome relationships at the species and population levels. The findings show the characteristic electrophoretic patterns of digestive gland esterases of the planorbid and lymnaeid snails used, as well as their variation and the level of such variation among certain populations and the consistency of the patterns among others. The results also show that, in general, the extent of variation between some populations of the same species is greater than the differences between species of the same group. However, at the specific level, there are similarities suggesting close relationships between some populations of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila on the one hand, and of certain populations of B. peregrina and of B. obstructa on the other hand. The present study has thrown some light on the question of electrophoretic variation in enzymes, and the ways in which this can be applied to studies of the genetics of snails. A correlation is suggested between certain patterns that indicate biochemical similarities or differences among the planorbid snail populations and the susceptibility of the species or the population to infection with the schistosomes. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 2 PMID:5317015

  7. The nuclear receptors of Biomphalaria glabrata and Lottia gigantea: implications for developing new model organisms.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Satwant; Jobling, Susan; Jones, Catherine S; Noble, Leslie R; Routledge, Edwin J; Lockyer, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are transcription regulators involved in an array of diverse physiological functions including key roles in endocrine and metabolic function. The aim of this study was to identify nuclear receptors in the fully sequenced genome of the gastropod snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni and compare these to known vertebrate NRs, with a view to assessing the snail's potential as a invertebrate model organism for endocrine function, both as a prospective new test organism and to elucidate the fundamental genetic and mechanistic causes of disease. For comparative purposes, the genome of a second gastropod, the owl limpet, Lottia gigantea was also investigated for nuclear receptors. Thirty-nine and thirty-three putative NRs were identified from the B. glabrata and L. gigantea genomes respectively, based on the presence of a conserved DNA-binding domain and/or ligand-binding domain. Nuclear receptor transcript expression was confirmed and sequences were subjected to a comparative phylogenetic analysis, which demonstrated that these molluscs have representatives of all the major NR subfamilies (1-6). Many of the identified NRs are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, however differences exist, most notably, the absence of receptors of Group 3C, which includes some of the vertebrate endocrine hormone targets. The mollusc genomes also contain NR homologues that are present in insects and nematodes but not in vertebrates, such as Group 1J (HR48/DAF12/HR96). The identification of many shared receptors between humans and molluscs indicates the potential for molluscs as model organisms; however the absence of several steroid hormone receptors indicates snail endocrine systems are fundamentally different. PMID:25849443

  8. Usnic acid potassium salt: an alternative for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    PubMed

    Martins, Mônica C B; Silva, Monique C; Silva, Luanna R S; Lima, Vera L M; Pereira, Eugênia C; Falcão, Emerson P S; Melo, Ana M M A; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata. PMID:25375098

  9. Usnic Acid Potassium Salt: An Alternative for the Control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Vera L. M.; Pereira, Eugênia C.; Falcão, Emerson P. S.; Melo, Ana M. M. A.; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata. PMID:25375098

  10. Biological control of the snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in the Caribbean area using Thiara spp.

    PubMed

    Pointier, J P; McCullough, F

    1989-05-01

    Field observations and experiments using thiarid snails as competitors of Biomphalaria spp., potential intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in the Caribbean area, are reviewed. The parthenogenetic snails, Thiara granifera and T. (= Melanoides) tuberculata, were introduced to the Neotropical area in recent decades. In numerous islands and countries, these oriental species have demonstrated their capacity to colonize rapidly and densely many types of habitats while at the same time reducing and even eliminating populations of Biomphalaria spp. The results of field experiments, carried out in several Caribbean islands, have shown the efficiency as well as the limitations of T. tuberculata as a competitor of B. glabrata and B. straminea. In St. Lucia, B. glabrata was apparently eliminated from marshes and streams, 6 to 22 months after the introduction of the competitor. In Martinique, T. tuberculata was introduced into two groups of water-cress beds which constituted the last transmission sites of schistosomiasis on the island. In just less than three years after the introduction of the competitor, both B. glabrata and B. straminea have been eliminated from the transmission sites. In Guadeloupe, several introductions have been carried out in different types of habitat such as permanent ponds, canals, streams and temporary marshes. The findings of all field experiments have indicated that thiarid snails as competitors of pulmonates are favoured by the presence of permanent and stable habitats, preferably shallow, with emergent plants and well oxygenated. On the other hand, the competitor snails are at a disadvantage in waterbodies which are temporary, extremely deep, poorly oxygenated or with a dense mat of floating aquatic vegetation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2566267

  11. Trematode infections in freshwater snails and cattle from the Kafue wetlands of Zambia during a period of highest cattle-water contact.

    PubMed

    Phiri, A M; Phiri, I K; Chota, A; Monrad, J

    2007-03-01

    A total of 984 snails, comprising nine species, were collected from six areas in the Kafue wetlands between August and October 2003 to assess larval trematode infections. Of these, 135 (13.7%) were positive. Most trematode infections were recorded from Lymnaea natalensis (42.8%), which harboured four of the five morphologically different cercariae found. No trematodes were recovered from Bellamya capillata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata, Physa acuta and Cleopatra nswendweensis. One snail (0.2%) of 416 Bulinus snails shed brevifurcate-apharyngeate distome cercariae while three (0.7%) shed amphistomes. Gymnocephalous and longifurcate-pharyngeate distome were the commonest types of cercariae recorded while xiphidiocercaria was the least common. The highest prevalence rates of F. gigantica (68.8%) and amphistomes (50.0%) in cattle (n = 101) were in Chiyasa while those in Kaleya had the lowest (9.1 and 18.2%, respectively). In most habitats, infections were recorded in both cattle and snails. Critical determinants of infection may have been the distance of settlements and/or cattle kraals, the number of animals in nearby homesteads and the presence of susceptible host snails. This study suggests that fascioliasis and amphistomiasis could be major constraints of cattle production in the Kafue wetlands because favourable factors were available to introduce and maintain the infections. It further provides a starting point for some comprehensive studies on snail-related aspects of transmission and snail host ecology in Zambia. PMID:17381873

  12. [Lymnic snails from the microregion of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil with an emphasis on parasite disease vectors].

    PubMed

    de Souza, C P; Lima, L C; Jannotti-Passos, L K; Ferreira, S S; Guimarães, C T; Vieira, I B; Mariani Júnior, R

    1998-01-01

    A malacological survey to detect foci of transmission of schistosomiasis and other parasitic diseases was undertaken into water-courses from 13 municipalities of microregion of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. From 1990 to 1996, 22,066 snails were collected. From those, 378 (1.7%) were found infected by trematodes: Biomphalaria glabrata (7,920), infected by Schistosoma mansoni (1.9%), Echinostomatidae (1.2%), Strigeidae (0.6%), Cercaria minense (0.1%) and Derogenidae (-0.1%); B. straminea (4,093) infected by Strigeidae (0.6%), Echinostomatidae (0.2%), Clinostomatidae (-0.1%) and two unidentified cercariae; B. tenagophila (1,338), infected by Strigeidae (0.1%) and Physa marmorata (1,776) by Echinostomatidae (1.6%). The snails Biomphalaria peregrina, B. occidentalis, B. schrammi, Drepanotrema depressissimum, D. lucidum, D. cimex, Physa cubensis, Lymnaea columella, Melania tuberculata, Idiopyrgus souleyetianus, Pomacea sp, Anodontites sp and Ancylidae were found noninfected. Snails from 9 municipalities were infected by S. mansoni and from 11 by other trematodes. PMID:9789443

  13. Current advances on the study of snail-snail interactions, with special emphasis on competition process.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, J R; dos Santos, M B

    1995-01-01

    Field work research on population dynamic of snails from the regions of Belo Horizonte and Lagoa Santa give much information about interactions among two or more species of mollusks: Pomacea haustrum, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila, B. straminea and Melanoides tuberculata. Data ranging from two years to several decades ago suggest that the Pampulha reservoir is like a cemetery of B. glabrata and B. straminea, species that coexist for more than 14 years in a small part of a stream, whereas only B. glabrata lives in all the streams of the basin. In the last ten to twenty years B. tenagophila has coexisted with P. haustrum and M. tuberculata in the Serra Verde ponds and in the Pampulha dam. However these species have not settled in any of the brooks, except temporarily. The data suggest that the kind of biotope and the habitat conditions are decisive factors for the permanence of each species in its preferencial biotope. B. glabrata, natural from streams and riverheads, quickly disappears from the reservoirs and ponds where it coexists with other species for a short time, independently of the competitive process. Competition needs to be better studied, since in Central America and Caribean islands this kind of study has favored the biological control of planorbid species. PMID:8531669

  14. Lichen endozoochory by snails.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Werth, Silke; Rüetschi, Jörg; Fischer, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Endozoochory plays a prominent role for the dispersal of seed plants. However, for most other plant taxa it is not known whether this mode of dispersal occurs at all. Among those other taxa, lichens as symbiotic associations of algae and fungi are peculiar as their successful dispersal requires movement of propagules that leaves the symbiosis functional. However, the potential for endozoochorous dispersal of lichen fragments has been completely overlooked. We fed sterile thalli of two foliose lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria and Physcia adscendens) differing in habitat and air-quality requirements to nine snail species common in temperate Europe. We demonstrated morphologically that L. pulmonaria regenerated from 29.0% of all 379 fecal pellets, whereas P. adscendens regenerated from 40.9% of all 433 fecal pellets, showing that lichen fragments survived gut passage of all snail species. Moreover, molecular analysis of regenerated lichens confirmed the species identity for a subset of samples. Regeneration rates were higher for the generalist lichen species P. adscendens than for the specialist lichen species L. pulmonaria. Furthermore, lichen regeneration rates varied among snail species with higher rates after gut passage of heavier snail species. We suggest that gastropods generally grazing on lichen communities are important, but so far completely overlooked, as vectors for lichen dispersal. This opens new ecological perspectives and questions the traditional view of an entirely antagonistic relationship between gastropods and lichens. PMID:21533256

  15. Small Snails, Enormous Elephants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chicago Children's Museum

    2011-01-01

    This activity (located on page 2 of PDF) introduces learners to the real size of animals using nonstandard measurement. Learners use Unifix cubes and yarn lengths to measure a variety of animals (photos), from the very small like a snail to the very large like an elephant. As an extension, learners can use the cubes to create a bar graph depicting the animals' lengths.

  16. Hyperdiverse gene cluster in snail host conveys resistance to human schistosome parasites.

    PubMed

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Théron, André; Marine, Melanie; Yeh, Jan-Ying; Rognon, Anne; Blouin, Michael S

    2015-03-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected global pandemic, may be curtailed by blocking transmission of the parasite via its intermediate hosts, aquatic snails. Elucidating the genetic basis of snail-schistosome interaction is a key to this strategy. Here we map a natural parasite-resistance polymorphism from a Caribbean population of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In independent experimental evolution lines, RAD genotyping shows that the same genomic region responds to selection for resistance to the parasite Schistosoma mansoni. A dominant allele in this region conveys an 8-fold decrease in the odds of infection. Fine-mapping and RNA-Seq characterization reveal a <1Mb region, the Guadeloupe Resistance Complex (GRC), with 15 coding genes. Seven genes are single-pass transmembrane proteins with putative immunological roles, most of which show strikingly high nonsynonymous divergence (5-10%) among alleles. High linkage disequilibrium among three intermediate-frequency (>25%) haplotypes across the GRC, a significantly non-neutral pattern, suggests that balancing selection maintains diversity at the GRC. Thus, the GRC resembles immune gene complexes seen in other taxa and is likely involved in parasite recognition. The GRC is a potential target for controlling transmission of schistosomiasis, including via genetic manipulation of snails. PMID:25775214

  17. New insights into the amphibious life of Biomphalaria glabrata and susceptibility of its egg masses to fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Glennyha F; Rodrigues, Juscelino; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Humber, Richard A; Luz, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The air-breathing snail Biomphalaria glabrata proliferates in stagnant freshwater, and nothing is known about the survival of eggs in intermittently (rather than perpetually) wet habitats. In the present study their egg masses matured, and juveniles subsequently eclosed and were mobile in a stable water film of transitory habitats simulated by two different simple test devices described here. The viability of eggs maintained in an unstable film however, was diminished. The maturation of egg masses in a water film or in water was significantly prevented by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The efficiency depended on the fungal propagule and test environment. Hyphal bodies were more effective against egg masses than conidia. This appears to be a first report of activity of either entomopathogen against a mollusc. Both devices offer accurate and reproducible conditions to test both biological questions and the effects of substances or pathogens against B. glabrata egg masses in water films. PMID:25576771

  18. The biology of Biomphalaria choanomphala and B. sudanica in relation to their role in the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni in Lake Victoria at Mwanza, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Magendantz, Margaret

    1972-01-01

    A study of the intermediate snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in Lake Victoria at Mwanza, Tanzania, was begun in October 1969, the main aims being to investigate the distribution and seasonal variations in population densities of Biomphalaria choanomphala and B. sudanica in relation to the nature of the lake bottom and the biological features of the lake shore, the factors influencing variations in the intensity of S. mansoni transmission along the Mwanza shoreline, and the age structure of populations of B. choanomphala. Field surveys were made at 70 sites near Mwanza and in nearby bays, B. choanomphala being collected from the lake bottom by means of a wire-mesh dredge. Variations in the distribution and population density of B. choanomphala were correlated with the nature of the bottom and its depth profiles at depths of 0.5-6.0 m. Approximately 1-20 snails/m2 were found on mixed sand and mud but only about 1 snail/m2 on the predominantly muddy bottom farther out from the shore. Seasonal variations in the age structure and fluctuations in the population densities of B. choanomphala of as much as 10-13-fold were observed. A large and a small form of B. choanomphala, possibly ecophenotypes, were found. S. mansoni infection rates in B. choanomphala ranged from 0.2% to 3.3%, suggesting a tendency to higher infection rates in mature snails. PMID:4539821

  19. Biomphalaria species distribution and its effect on human Schistosoma mansoni infection in an irrigated area used for rice cultivation in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Delmany Moitinho; Zhang, Cangjie; Santos, Nathaly Cardoso; Silva, Marília Matos Bezerra Lemos; Rollemberg, Carla Virgínia Vieira; de Amorim, Fabio Jorge Ramalho; Ueta, Marlene Tiduko; de Melo, Claudia Moura; de Almeida, José Antônio Pacheco; Jeraldo, Verónica de Lourdes Sierpe; de Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    The role of irrigated areas for the spread of schistosomiasis is of worldwide concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatial distribution of the intermediate snail host Biomphalaria in an area highly endemic for schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni, evaluating the relationship between irrigation and types of natural water sources on one hand, and the influence of place and time of water exposure on the intensity of human infection on the other. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to map the distribution of the intermediate snail hosts in Ilha das Flores, Sergipe, Brazil, combined with a clinical/epidemiological survey. We observed a direct correlation between the intensity of human infection with S. mansoni and irrigation projects. Malacological studies to identify snail species and infection rates showed that B. glabrata is the main species responsible for human schistosomiasis in the municipality, but that B. straminea also plays a role. Our results provide evidence for a competitive selection between the two snail species in rice fields with a predominance of B. glabrata in irrigation systems and B. straminea in natural water sources. PMID:23032275

  20. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces land snails for use in inquiry-based science activities. Describes common characteristics and safety considerations while introducing students to land snails. Explains procedures for inquiry-based use of land snails in classrooms. (YDS)

  1. Effects of Echinostoma caproni miracidia dose on the neutral and polar lipids of Biomphalaria glabrata as determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Alexandra; Fried, Bernard; Sherma, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    The effects of a 5 versus 25 miracidia exposure of Echinostoma caproni on the lipid composition of Biomphalaria glabrata was studied using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometry. A 50 miracidia dose was not used because such a high level of exposure caused severe snail mortality by 3 weeks post-exposure (PE). Lipids were determined in the digestive-gland gonad complex (DGG) of the exposed snails and in the uninfected matched controls at 2 and 4 weeks PE. Extraction of lipids from DGGs was carried out by the Folch method with chloroform-methanol (2:1), and extracts were analyzed on Analtech HPTLC-HLF pre-adsorbent silica gel plates with measurement of separated bands using a CAMAG Scanner 3. For neutral lipids the mobile phase was petroleum ether-diethyl ether-glacial acetic acid (80:20:1) and the detection reagent was 5% ethanolic phosphoric acid, and for polar lipids chloroform-methanol-deionized water (65:25:4) mobile phase and 10% cupric sulfate in 8% phosphoric acid detection reagent were used. No significant differences in the concentrations of free sterols, free fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine were seen at 2 weeks PE in any of the groups. At 4 weeks PE, the free fatty acid concentration increased significantly in the snails exposed to 25 miracidia compared to that of the 5 miracidia/snail group or the controls. Elevation of the free fatty acid fraction in the high dose snail group suggested that some changes occurred in the lipid metabolism of the snails in that group as a function of miracidia dose. PMID:24338329

  2. Circulating Biomphalaria glabrata hemocyte subpopulations possess shared schistosome glycans and receptors capable of binding larval glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Timothy P; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Gonzalez, Laura A; Hokke, Cornelis H

    2013-01-01

    Host lectin-like recognition molecules may play an important role in innate resistance in Biomphalaria glabrata snails to larval schistosome infection, thus implicating parasite-expressed glycans as putative ligands for these lectin receptors. While host lectins may utilize specific glycan structures for parasite recognition, it also has been hypothesized that the parasite may use this system to evade immune detection by mimicking naturally-expressed host glycans, resulting in reduced immunorecognition capacity. By employing immunocytochemical (ICC) and Western blot assays using schistosome glycan-specific monoclonal antibodies (mABs) we sought to identify specific glycan epitopes (glycotopes) shared in common between larval Schistosoma mansoni and B. glabrata hemocytes, the primary immune effector cells in snails. Results confirmed the presence of selected larval glycotopes on subpopulations of hemocytes by ICC and association with numerous hemocyte proteins by Western blot analyses, including a trimannosyl core N-glycan (TriMan), and two fucosylated lacdiNAc (LDN) variants, F-LDN and F-LDN-F. Snail strain differences were seen in the prevalence of constitutively expressed F-LDN on hemocytes, and in the patterns of protein immunoreactivity with these mABs. In contrast, there was little to no hemocyte reactivity with mABs for Lewis X (LeX), LDN, LDN-F or LDN-DF. When intact hemocytes were exposed to larval transformation products (LTPs), distinct cell subpopulations displayed weak (LeX, LDN-DF) to moderate (LDN, LDN-F) glycotope reactivity by ICC, including snail strain differences in the prevalence of LDN-reactive cellular subsets. Far-Western blot analyses of the hemocytes following exposure to larval transformation proteins (LTPs) also revealed multiple mAB-reactive hemocyte protein bands for LeX, LDN, LDN-F, and LDN-DF. These results demonstrate the existence of complex patterns of shared larval glycan constitutively expressed on hemocytes and their proteins, as well as the ability of hemocytes to acquire shared glycans by the selective binding of parasite-released LTP. Unraveling the functional significance of these naturally expressed and acquired shared glycans on specific hemocyte populations represents an important challenge for future investigations. PMID:23085445

  3. An artificial perch to help Snail Kites handle an exotic Apple Snail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pias, Kyle E.; Welch, Zach C.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) is a federally endangered species and restricted to the wetlands of south-central Florida where the current population numbers less than 1,500. The Snail Kite is an extreme dietary specialist, previously feeding almost exclusively on one species of snail, the Florida Apple Snail (Pomacea paludosa). Within the past decade, an exotic species of apple snail, the Island Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum), has become established on lakes in central Florida. Island Apple Snails are larger than the native Florida Apple Snails, and Snail Kites handle the exotic snails less efficiently. Juvenile Snail Kites, in particular, have lower daily energy balances while feeding on Island Apple Snails. An inexpensive, easy-to-construct platform was developed that would provide Snail Kites with a flat, stable surface on which to extract snails. The platform has the potential to reduce the difficulties Snail Kites experience when handling exotic snails, and may benefit the Snail Kite population as a whole. Initial observations indicate that Snail Kites use the platforms frequently, and snails extracted at the platforms are larger than snails extracted at other perches.

  4. Female biased sex-ratio in Schistosoma mansoni after exposure to an allopatric intermediate host strain of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Lepesant, Julie M J; Boissier, Jérôme; Climent, Déborah; Cosseau, Céline; Grunau, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    For parasites that require multiple hosts to complete their development, the interaction with the intermediate host may have an impact on parasite transmission and development in the definitive host. The human parasite Schistosoma mansoni needs two different hosts to complete its life cycle: the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata (in South America) as intermediate host and a human or rodents as final host. To investigate the influence of the host environment on life history traits in the absence of selection, we performed experimental infections of two B. glabrata strains of different geographic origin with the same clonal population of S. mansoni. One B. glabrata strain is the sympatric host and the other one the allopatric host. We measured prevalence in the snail, the cercarial infectivity, sex-ratio, immunopathology in the final host and microsatellite frequencies of individual larvae in three successive generations. We show that, even if the parasite population is clonal based on neutral markers, S. mansoni keeps the capacity of generating phenotypic plasticity and/or variability for different life history traits when confront to an unusual environment, in this study the intermediate host. The most dramatic change was observed in sex-ratio: in average 1.7 times more female cercariae were produced when the parasite developed in an allopatric intermediate host. PMID:23948341

  5. Biomphalysin, a new ? pore-forming toxin involved in Biomphalaria glabrata immune defense against Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Galinier, Richard; Portela, Julien; Moné, Yves; Allienne, Jean François; Henri, Hélène; Delbecq, Stéphane; Mitta, Guillaume; Gourbal, Benjamin; Duval, David

    2013-03-01

    Aerolysins are virulence factors belonging to the ? pore-forming toxin (?-PFT) superfamily that are abundantly distributed in bacteria. More rarely, ?-PFTs have been described in eukaryotic organisms. Recently, we identified a putative cytolytic protein in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, whose primary structural features suggest that it could belong to this ?-PFT superfamily. In the present paper, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterization of this protein, which we call Biomphalysin, and demonstrate that it is indeed a new eukaryotic ?-PFT. We show that, despite weak sequence similarities with aerolysins, Biomphalysin shares a common architecture with proteins belonging to this superfamily. A phylogenetic approach revealed that the gene encoding Biomphalysin could have resulted from horizontal transfer. Its expression is restricted to immune-competent cells and is not induced by parasite challenge. Recombinant Biomphalysin showed hemolytic activity that was greatly enhanced by the plasma compartment of B. glabrata. We further demonstrated that Biomphalysin with plasma is highly toxic toward Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts. Using in vitro binding assays in conjunction with Western blot and immunocytochemistry analyses, we also showed that Biomphalysin binds to parasite membranes. Finally, we showed that, in contrast to what has been reported for most other members of the family, lytic activity of Biomphalysin is not dependent on proteolytic processing. These results provide the first functional description of a mollusk immune effector protein involved in killing S. mansoni. PMID:23555242

  6. Biomphalysin, a New ? Pore-forming Toxin Involved in Biomphalaria glabrata Immune Defense against Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Moné, Yves; Allienne, Jean François; Henri, Hélène; Delbecq, Stéphane; Mitta, Guillaume; Gourbal, Benjamin; Duval, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerolysins are virulence factors belonging to the ? pore-forming toxin (?-PFT) superfamily that are abundantly distributed in bacteria. More rarely, ?-PFTs have been described in eukaryotic organisms. Recently, we identified a putative cytolytic protein in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, whose primary structural features suggest that it could belong to this ?-PFT superfamily. In the present paper, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterization of this protein, which we call Biomphalysin, and demonstrate that it is indeed a new eukaryotic ?-PFT. We show that, despite weak sequence similarities with aerolysins, Biomphalysin shares a common architecture with proteins belonging to this superfamily. A phylogenetic approach revealed that the gene encoding Biomphalysin could have resulted from horizontal transfer. Its expression is restricted to immune-competent cells and is not induced by parasite challenge. Recombinant Biomphalysin showed hemolytic activity that was greatly enhanced by the plasma compartment of B. glabrata. We further demonstrated that Biomphalysin with plasma is highly toxic toward Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts. Using in vitro binding assays in conjunction with Western blot and immunocytochemistry analyses, we also showed that Biomphalysin binds to parasite membranes. Finally, we showed that, in contrast to what has been reported for most other members of the family, lytic activity of Biomphalysin is not dependent on proteolytic processing. These results provide the first functional description of a mollusk immune effector protein involved in killing S. mansoni. PMID:23555242

  7. Seasonal population densities of snails transmitting urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Hira, P R

    1975-03-01

    The two molluscan intermediate hosts of S. haematobium schistosomiasis: Bulinus africanus and Bulinus globosus, were found most commonly in habitats that retained water for a substantial part of the year rather than in temporary rain-filled pools. Biomphalaria pfeifferi which transmits S. mansoni were found principally in streams and impoundments like dams but scarce in rivers. In a permanent habitat, the peak density of snails was between the warm, dry months of August and September while in a temporary habitat B. (Physopsis) sp. were most abundant towards the end of the rainy season in March and April. The influence of rainfall and the prevailing the temperature on the fluctuations in the density of snails populations is considered. Further, the low infection rate in snails found in the field is discussed in relation to the critical effect of temperature on this feature. The problem of increasing migration of rural inhabitants to the peri-urban areas and the possible escalation of prevalence rates is considered in relation to the control measures that may be instituted in view of the substantial body of base-line data now available to effect focal control. PMID:1169833

  8. Effects of infection by larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae) on the lipid metabolism of the experimental intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Gôlo, Patrícia; Lima, Mariana; Garcia, Juberlan; Júnior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Pontes, Emerson Guedes; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2013-05-01

    Experimental infection of Biomphalaria glabrata by Angiostrongylus cantonensis induces significant changes in the concentrations of triacylglycerol and cholesterol in the hemolymph and of neutral lipids in the digestive gonad-gland (DGG) complex of the host snail. In this study, snails were dissected after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of infection to collect the hemolymph and DGG and to measure the levels of cholesterol and triacylglycerol in the hemolymph and neutral lipid fractions in the tissues. The results show that infection by this nematode resulted in a significant decrease in the concentrations of both cholesterol and triacylglycerol in the hemolymph of B. glabrata during the parasite's initial ontogenic development period. This reduction indicates the possible use of these molecules by both parasite and host not only as energy substrates but also as structural factors required during development of the parasite's larval stages. In parallel, changes in the neutral lipid profile in the DGG and lipase activity of the infected snails were observed, indicating the importance of these molecules for successful infection. PMID:23377121

  9. Activation of anaerobic metabolism in Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Castro, Rosane N; Sant'Ana, Luiza D'Oliveira; Santos-Amaral, Luciana; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Martins; Garcia, Juberlan; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Pinheiro, Jairo; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2014-02-01

    The activity of lactate dehydrogenase and the concentrations of glucose in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis were evaluated. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the hemolymph concentrations of some carboxylic acids (oxalic, piruvic, lactic and succinic). After one, two and three weeks of infection, the snails were dissected to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. A significant reduction of the levels of glucose in the hemolymph was observed as of the first week of infection in relation to the control group. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of the infected group was significantly higher than the average of the control group. This increase was accompanied by a reduction of the levels of piruvic acid and an increase in the levels of lactic acid in the hemolymph of the parasited snails, confirming the acceleration of the anaerobic metabolism, necessary for the host to obtain energy and maintain its redox balance. In parallel, there was a decrease in the glycogen content of the storage tissues, with that reduction being significantly greater in the cephalopedal mass than the digestive gland, demonstrating that in this interaction system, the mobilization of glycogen was not sufficient to maintain and reestablish the normal glycemia of the infected snails. PMID:24042059

  10. The ecological differences between Bulinus beccari, the intermediate host of Schistsoma haematobium and Biomphalaria pfeifferi the intermediate host of S. mansoni in in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheikh, Adel H; Dagal, M A

    2011-12-01

    Bulinus beccari, intermediate host of Schistsoma haematobium, and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, intermediate host of S. mansoni have different geographical distribution in Jazan Region. The role of rain fall, ionic composition of water. water temperature and pH Grades were studied. Fluctuation of snail population densities were accompanied with corresponding fluctuation rates of rainfall. B. pfeifferi showed a wider and heavier shell than B. beccari, which might enable it to resist the effects of flash floods. B. beccari showed a higher tolerance of total dissolved solids and calcium carbonate than B. pfeifferi. Average maximum tolerated concentration of dissolved solids and calcium carbonate for B. beccari was 1254ppm and 813ppm, while that of B. pfeifferi was 455ppm and 603ppm. Average water temperature of B. beccari habitats was 25-36.3 degrees C while that of B. pfeifferi was 25-28 degrees C. No significant statistical difference in different pH grades was observed. PMID:22435148

  11. Molecular identification of similar species of the genus Biomphalaria (Mollusca: Planorbidae) determined by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, R L; Vidigal, T H; Paulinelli, S T; Simpson, A J; Carvalho, O S

    1998-01-01

    The freshwater snails Biomphalaria straminea, B. intermedia, B. kuhniana and B. peregrina, are morphologically similar; based on this similarity the first three species were therefore grouped in the complex B. straminea. The morphological identification of these species is based on characters such as vaginal wrinkling, relation between prepuce: penial sheath:deferens vas and number of muscle layers in the penis wall. In this study the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used for molecular identification of these molluscs. This technique is based on the amplification of the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 e ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA gene and subsequent digestion of these fragments by restriction enzymes. Six enzymes were tested: Dde I, Mn1 I, Hae III, Rsa I, Hpa II e Alu I. The restriction patterns obtained with DdeI presented the best profile for separation of the four species of Biomphalaria. The profiles obtained with all the enzymes were used to estimate the genetic distances among the species through analysis of common banding patterns. PMID:9921355

  12. Aerobic to anaerobic transition in Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) infected with different miracidial doses of Echinostoma paraensei (Lie and Basch, 1967) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Lustrino, Danilo; Castro, Rosane N; Sant'Ana, Luiza D'Oliveira; Garcia, Juberlan Silva; Maldonado, Arnaldo; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; de Lurdes de Azevedo Rodrigues, Maria; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2013-04-01

    The glucose content in the hemolymph and glycogen content in the digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to different parasite doses (5 and 50 miracidia) of Echinostoma paraensei as well as the activity of lactate dehydrogenase were evaluated. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) analyses were also performed to determine the concentrations of four organic acids (oxalic, succinic, pyruvic and lactic) present in the hemolymph of infected and uninfected snails, to better understand the effect of infection on the host's energetic/oxidative metabolism. The snails were dissected 1-4 weeks after infection to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. There was alteration in the glycemia of the snails at both parasite doses, with a significant increase of glycemia from of the third week after infection in comparison to the control group. Changes were also observed in the lactate dehydrogenase activity, with increased activity as the infection progressed. In parallel, there was a decrease in the glycogen content in the storage tissues, with a markedly greater reduction in the digestive gland-gonad complex (larval development site) in comparison with the cephalopedal mass. Additionally, the infection by both miracidial doses resulted in an increase of oxalic and lactic acid levels, as well as in a decline of piruvic and succinic acid levels in B. glabrata, thus explaining the reduction of the oxidative decarboxylation rate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and acceleration of the anaerobic degradation of carbohydrates in the snails, through lactic fermentation, which is essential to ensure energy supply and success of the infection. PMID:23376444

  13. Observations on bilharziasis and the potential snail hosts in the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville)

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Fergus S.

    1964-01-01

    In 1962, the author conducted a preliminary investigation of bilharziasis in the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville), at the request of the Government, in order to review existing information and work done on bilharziasis, to assess the prevalence and distribution of the disease, to make observations on the potential snail hosts, and to propose further suitable studies and control measures. Although little time was available for this study, it appears reasonable to conclude that Schistosoma haematobium is confined to a few foci in the west of the country, the main snail host being a new subspecies of Bulinus (B.) truncatus. Intestinal bilharziasis is apparently very rare, but systematic stool surveys have not been done; S. mansoni may be, or become, endemic at Dolisie, where Biomphalaria camerunensis is abundant. The main factors governing the restricted distribution of bilharziasis are discussed. Bilharziasis control appears to merit relatively low priority compared with that due to several other diseases, and the author concludes that bilharziasis is unlikely to become widespread in future years unless there is major environmental change, although the intensity of transmission may increase in some present endemic foci. PMID:14163961

  14. Larval trematode infections in freshwater snails from the highveld and lowveld areas of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chingwena, G; Mukaratirwa, S; Kristensen, T K; Chimbari, M

    2002-12-01

    Between November 1998 and October 2000, freshwater snails were collected monthly from the highveld and lowveld areas of Zimbabwe to determine the occurrence of larval trematodes. A total of 13,789 snails, representing ten species, were collected from 21 sites and 916 (6.6%) harboured patent trematode infections. Eight morphologically distinguishable types of cercariae were identified. Bulinus tropicus had the highest overall prevalence of infection (13.1%). The echinostome was the most common type of cercaria recovered, contributing 38.2% of all infections. Schistosoma cercariae were recovered mainly from the highveld and comprised 8.0% of all infections. Amphistome cercariae contributed 37.6% of all infections and were recorded from both the highveld and lowveld areas with a peak prevalence occurring during the post-rainy period (March-May). The main intermediate host for amphistomes was B. tropicus. Infections in B. globosus, B. forskalii and Biomphalaria pfeifferi with amphistome cercariae are new records for Zimbabwe. PMID:12498632

  15. [Molluscacide activity of piquerol A isolated from Piqueria trinervia (Compositae) on 8 species of pulmonate snails].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Reyes, A; Chavarin, C; Campos Arias, M P; Taboada, J; Jimenez, M

    1989-01-01

    In laboratory trials an aqueous solution of Piquerol A from Piqueria trinervia, collected in several regions of Mexico, showed a molluscicide action on the adults of eight different pulmonates snails species: Fossaria (Fossaria) humilis, F. (Bakerilymnaea) sp., Pseudosuccinea columella and Stagnicola attenuata from Mexico; F. (B.) cubensis and Physa cubensis from Cuba; P. columella and Biomphalaria glabrata from Brazil; B. glabrata from Puerto Rico; and S. elodes from U.S.A. The solution was tested at 50, 25 and 5 ppm concentration, for two periods of 6 and 24 hours, at room temperature (20-22 degrees C). A 100% mortality was obtained for all species at 50 ppm concentration after 6 hours of exposure; the same percentage at 25 ppm after 24 hours; and 60 to 100% mortality at 5 ppm concentration during 24 hours of exposure. No recovery was observed among any of the treated snails. Piquerol A is a sesquiterpene with low stability in nature and has previously only been tested as an insecticide and as an inhibitor of metabolism in cell cultures: no field trails have been made on its toxicity to other aquatic fauna as yet, but it is believed Piquerol A could be an excellent molluscicide for use in areas where focal transmission of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis are taking place. This is the first time experiments on molluscicides have been carried out in Mexico. PMID:2319950

  16. Multi-parasite host susceptibility and multi-host parasite infectivity: a new approach of the Biomphalaria glabrata/Schistosoma mansoni compatibility polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Theron, A; Rognon, A; Gourbal, B; Mitta, G

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we analyze the degree of susceptibility/un-susceptibility of five strains of Biomphalaria glabrata from different geographical origins successively challenged with a panel of 4 Schistosoma mansoni strains. A total of 20 homopatric and heteropatric host-parasite combinations were tested with exposure doses of 1, 10, 20, 30 and 50 miracidia per individual host. By doing this, we characterized each B. glabrata strain by its "multi-parasite susceptibility phenotype" that reflects better the efficiency of their defense mechanism against not only one, but a diversity of schistosome stocks. In the same time, all the S. mansoni strains used were characterized, by their "multi-host infectivity phenotype" that reflects the level of infectivity they display when confronted to diverse snail populations. Based on these results it is possible to select different homogenous stocks of snails with different spectrum of susceptibility/un-susceptibility for several parasite strains. This will be a useful tool for future functional studies conducted to understand the genetics and molecular basis of the compatibility polymorphism in this host/parasite model. PMID:24837670

  17. Demographic responses to multi-generation cadmium exposure in two strains of the freshwater gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata.

    SciTech Connect

    Salice, Christopher J.; Miller, Thomas J.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2008-08-20

    A life table response experiment (LTRE) was used to quantify the population-level effects of continuous, multi-generation cadmium exposure on two strains of the freshwater gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata; the parasite resistant BS90 and parasite susceptible NMRI strains. Snails were exposed to waterborne cadmium for three consecutive generations. Survival, growth and reproduction were measured empirically and incorporated into a stage-based, deterministic population model. Cadmium significantly affected hatching success, time to maturity and juvenile and adult survival in both strains. There were significant effects of generation on fecundity, hatching success time to maturity and juvenile survival in NMRI and time to maturity and adult survival in BS90. Cadmium significantly affected the population growth rate, lambda (?), in BS90. Cadmium, generation and the cadmium x generation interaction had significant effects on ? in NMRI. At the high cadmium exposure, ? for NMRI showed a decrease from generation 1 to generation 2 followed by and increase from generation 2 to 3. Lambda in high cadmium BS90 steadily decreased over the three generations while NMRI at this same concentration was similar to the controls. The results indicated that strain-specific differences in response to multi-generation cadmium exposure are evident in B. glabrata. Moreover, effects seen in the first generation are not necessarily indicative of effects in subsequent generations. Changes in ? over the course of the three-generation exposure suggest that acclimation and/or adaptation to cadmium may have occurred, particularly in NMRI at the high cadmium exposure level.

  18. Description of two new cercariae (an echinostome cercaria and a xiphidiocercaria) procured from Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss) from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Fouad; Ayoub, Magda; Tadros, Menerva; El Bardicy, Samia; Abolarinwa, Simon

    2014-08-01

    During parasitological examination of Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails obtained from Niger state (Nigeria), 2 new types of cercariae were found. They are identified to the level of referring to the major group and described here for the first time. They were examined viable and stained with vital stains as well as fixed in 70% alcohol. They were drawn with a camera lucida and photographed. They are identified as an echinostome cercaria and a xiphidiocercaria. The echinostome is characterized by having a ventral sucker almost double in size the oral one. It has a semicircular structure located beyond the oral sucker. Three pairs of penetration glands are found at the anterior portion of the body. The number of collar spines is relatively large (44-46). The flame cellsare 17 x 2 in number. Two main lateral excretory ducts extend anteriorly, form two typical echinostome loops then pass posteriorly to open together in a diverticulated excretory vesicle. Its tail is relatively long and flattened with 3 fin folds. The tail (640 ?m) is longer than the body (475 ?m). The xiphidiocercaria belongs to the "ornatae" group. It is relatively small (180.5 x 110 ?m) with a long stylet (30 ?m). Its oral sucker is one and half times the size of the ventral sucker. Two excretory ducts extend posteriorly in both sides and become dilated and unite to open in a circular excretoryvesicle. Tail is slender shorter than the body and has a dorso-ventral fin fold. PMID:25597151

  19. EVALUATION OF THE MOLLUSCICIDAL POTENTIAL OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF Jatropha gossypiifolia Linnaeus, 1753 ON Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Adalberto Alves; França, Clícia Rosane Costa; Oliveira, Dorlam's da Silva; Mendes, Renato Juvino de Aragão; Gonçalves, José de Ribamar Santos; Rosa, Ivone Garros

    2014-01-01

    The action of extracts from the stem, leaves, and fruit of Jatropha gossypiifolia on Biomphalaria glabrata was studied by analyzing survival, feeding capacity and oviposition ability. The extracts were obtained by macerating the plant parts in 92% ethanol, which were then evaporated until a dry residue was obtained and phytochemically studied. The molluscicidal activity on B. glabrata was investigated using the procedures recommended by WHO (1965). The amount of food ingested and oviposition were measured during each experiment. The extract of leaves from J. gossypiifolia was shown to be a strong molluscicidal agent, causing 100% mortality of B. glabrata, even in the lowest concentration tested, of 25 ppm. Regarding the fruit extract, there was variation in the mortality, depending on the concentration used (100, 75, 50 and 25 ppm). The snails that were in contact with the fruit extract had significant reduction in feeding and number of embryos in comparison to the control. The stem extract did not present molluscicidal activity nor had any influence on the feeding and oviposition abilities of B. glabrata, in the concentrations tested. In conclusion, the extracts of leaves and fruits of J. gossypiifolia investigated in this work show molluscicidal effect and may be sources of useful compounds for the schistosomiasis control. PMID:25351545

  20. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: VI--Noroeste Fluminense Mesoregion.

    PubMed

    Thiengo, Silvana C; Mattos, Aline C; Santos, Sonia B; Fernandez, Monica A

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, the last of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Noroeste Fluminense Mesoregion from 2002 to 2005 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; B. straminea; B. tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; D. cimex; D. depressissimum; D. lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Idiopyrgus sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; P. marmorata; Plesiophysa guadeloupensis; Pomacea lineata; and Pomacea sp. Concerning the snail hosts of schistosomiasis the three natural vectors were identified and, although no specimens were found harbouring larval forms of Schistosoma mansoni, different kinds of cercariae had been observed. PMID:17308776

  1. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: V -- Norte Fluminense Mesoregion.

    PubMed

    Thiengo, Silvana C; Mattos, Aline C; Boaventura, M Fernanda; Loureiro, Márcio S; Santos, Sonia B; Fernandez, Monica A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the fifth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Norte Fluminense Mesoregion from 2002 to 2003 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 19 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Burnupia sp.; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex; Drepanotrema depressissimum; Drepanotrema lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Hebetancylus moricandi; Idiopyrgus sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; Physa marmorata; Pomacea sordida, and Pomacea sp. Concerning the snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni only B. tenagophila was found, in contrast with other previuosly studied mesoregions.No specimens were found harbouring larval forms of S. mansoni although different kinds of cercariae had been observed. An account about the current schistosomiasis transmission sites in this Mesoregion is presented as well. PMID:15486644

  2. Time series analysis of the transcriptional responses of Biomphalaria glabrata throughout the course of intramolluscan development of Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma paraensei

    PubMed Central

    Hanington, Patrick C.; Lun, Cheng-Man; Adema, Coen M; Loker, Eric S

    2010-01-01

    Successful colonization of a compatible snail host by a digenetic trematode miracidium initiates a complex, proliferative development program requiring weeks to reach culmination in the form of production of cercariae which, once started, may persist for the remainder of the life span of the infected snail. How are such proliferative and invasive parasites able to circumvent host defenses and establish chronic infections? Using a microarray designed to monitor the internal defense and stress-related responses of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we have undertaken a time course study to monitor snail responses following exposure to two different trematode species to which the snail is susceptible: the medically important Schistosoma mansoni, exemplifying sporocyst production in its larval development, or Echinostoma paraensei, representing an emphasis on rediae production in its larval development. We sampled eight time points (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days p.i.) that cover the period required for cercariae to be produced. Following exposure to S. mansoni, there was a preponderance of up-regulated over down-regulated array features through 2 days p.i. but by 4 days p.i. and thereafter, this pattern was strongly reversed. For E. paraensei, there was a preponderance of down-regulated array features over up-regulated features at even 0.5 days p.i., a pattern that persists throughout the course of infection except for 1 day p.i., when up-regulated array features slightly outnumbered down-regulated features. Examination of particular array features revealed several that were up-regulated by both parasites early in the course of infection and one, fibrinogen related protein 4 (FREP 4), that remained significantly elevated throughout the course of infection with either parasite, effectively serving as a marker of infection. Many defense-related transcripts were persistently down-regulated, including several fibrinogen-containing lectins and homologs of molecules best known from vertebrate phagocytic cells. Our results are consistent with earlier studies suggesting that both parasites are able to interfere with host defense responses, including a tendency for E. paraensei to do so more rapidly and strongly than S. mansoni They further suggest mechanisms for how trematodes are able to establish the chronic infections necessary for their continued success. PMID:20083115

  3. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, Misako, E-mail: haraguci@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Indo, Hiroko P. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Iwasaki, Yasumasa [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan)] [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoichiro [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Fukushige, Tomoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Majima, Hideyuki J. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Furukawa, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ozawa, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ? MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ? MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ? TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ? MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ? MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of key enzymes. This results in enhanced glucose dependency and leads to cell death under low-glucose conditions. On the other hand, the reduced requirements for oxygen and nutrients from the surrounding environment, might confer the resistance to cell death induced by hypoxia and malnutrition.

  4. F-LE Snail Invasion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: In 1966, a Miami boy smuggled three Giant African Land Snails into the country. His grandmother eventually released them into the garden, and in seven ...

  5. Production of apple snail for space diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g of body weight within two or three month from its egg. Several hundreds of egg are laid by one snail. It start egg laying after three months from hatching. In order to harvest 50 g for every day's meal, 3 m2 is required for rearing space. Eating apple snail and establishing its rearing system might save the food crisis on Earth.

  6. Controlling slugs and snails in orchids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slugs and snails are pests of orchids, preferring tender plant tissues such as flowers and root tips. Unlike many insect pests which feed only on certain types of plants, most species of slugs and snails are generalists, feeding on green plants, algae, fungi, decaying plant matter, or decaying anima...

  7. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2005-01-01

    Land snails are common invertebrates that fascinate children. Unfortunately, they are seldom used for activities in the science classroom. Snails are inexpensive, take up little space in the classroom, and require only low maintenance, and their learning dividends can be enormous. For example, students can use them in inquiry-based activities that…

  8. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: V - Norte fluminense mesoregion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvana C Thiengo; Aline C Mattos; M Fernanda Boaventura; Monica A Fernandez; Sonia B Santos

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the forth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Sul Fluminense Mesoregion from 2000 to 2002 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 18 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria peregrina; Biomphalaria straminea; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex;

  9. Morphological and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lenght polymorphism characterization of Biomphalaria kuhniana and Biomphalaria amazonica from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Luz E; Caldeira, Roberta L; Estrada, Victoria; Carvalho, Omar S

    2002-10-01

    In Colombia, five Biomphalaria planorbid species are known: B. kuhniana, B. straminea, B. peregrina, B. canonica and B. oligoza(var. B. philippiana). Among them, B. straminea is intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni and B. peregrina has been found to be experimentally susceptible to this parasite. B. straminea is commonly confused with B. kuhniana and they have been clustered together with B. intermedia in the complex named B. straminea. The difficulties involved in the specific identification, based on morphological data, have motivated the use of new techniques as auxiliary tools in cases of inconclusive morphological identification of such planorbid. In the present study, five Biomphalaria populations from the Colombian Amazon region and from Interandian Valleys were morphologically identified and characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lenght polymorphism directed at the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene, followed by digestion of the generated fragment with restriction enzymes (DdeI, AluI, RsaI, MvaI and HaeIII). Known profiles of the Brazilian species B. straminea, B. peregrina, B. kuhniana, B. intermedia and B. amazonica, besides B. kuhniana from Colombia, were used for comparison. The five populations under study were morphologically and molecularly identified as B. kuhniana and B. amazonica. PMID:12471427

  10. Identification and characterisation of functional expressed sequence tags-derived simple sequence repeat (eSSR) markers for genetic linkage mapping of Schistosoma mansoni juvenile resistance and susceptibility loci in Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Miller, André; Su, Xin-zhuan; Mu, Jianbing; Bhusudsawang, Ganlayarat; Ukoskit, Kitipat; Knight, Matty

    2013-07-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni has a strong genetic component, offering the possibility for investigating host-parasite interactions at the molecular level, perhaps leading to novel control approaches. The identification, mapping and molecular characterisation of genes that influence the outcome of parasitic infection in the intermediate snail host is, therefore, seen as fundamental to the control of schistosomiasis. To better understand the evolutionary processes driving disease resistance/susceptibility phenotypes, we previously identified polymorphic random amplification of polymorphic DNA and genomic simple sequence repeats from B. glabrata. In the present study we identified and characterised polymorphic expressed simple sequence repeats markers (Bg-eSSR) from existing B. glabrata expressed sequence tags. Using these markers, and with previously identified genomic simple sequence repeats, genetic linkage mapping for parasite refractory and susceptibility phenotypes, the first known for B. glabrata, was initiated. Data mining of 54,309 expressed sequence tag, produced 660 expressed simple sequence repeats of which dinucleotide motifs (TA)n were the most common (37.88%), followed by trinucleotide (29.55%), mononucleotide (18.64%) and tetranucleotide (10.15%). Penta- and hexanucleotide motifs represented <3% of the Bg-eSSRs identified. While the majority (71%) of Bg-eSSRs were monomorphic between resistant and susceptible snails, several were, however, useful for the construction of a genetic linkage map based on their inheritance in segregating F2 progeny snails derived from crossing juvenile BS-90 and NMRI snails. Polymorphic Bg-eSSRs assorted into six linkage groups at a logarithm of odds score of 3. Interestingly, the heritability of four markers (Prim1_910, Prim1_771, Prim6_1024 and Prim7_823) with juvenile snail resistance were, by t-test, significant (P<0.05) while an allelic marker, Prim24_524, showed linkage with the juvenile snail susceptibility phenotype. On the basis of our results it is possible that the gene(s) controlling juvenile resistance and susceptibility to S. mansoni infection in B. glabrata are not only on the same linkage group but lie within a short distance (42cM) of each other. PMID:23643514

  11. Cercarial Dermatitis Transmitted by Exotic Marine Snail

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Andrew N.; James, David; Hui, Lucia; Hom, Albert; Loker, Eric S.

    2010-01-01

    Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer’s itch) is caused by the penetration of human skin by cercariae of schistosome parasites that develop in and are released from snail hosts. Cercarial dermatitis is frequently acquired in freshwater habitats, and less commonly in marine or estuarine waters. To investigate reports of a dermatitis outbreak in San Francisco Bay, California, we surveyed local snails for schistosome infections during 2005–2008. We found schistosomes only in Haminoea japonica, an Asian snail first reported in San Francisco Bay in 1999. Genetic markers place this schistosome within a large clade of avian schistosomes, but do not match any species for which there are genetic data. It is the second known schistosome species to cause dermatitis in western North American coastal waters; these species are transmitted by exotic snails. Introduction of exotic hosts can support unexpected emergence of an unknown parasite with serious medical or veterinary implications. PMID:20735918

  12. [Remarks on the ecological adaptation of the snail aquatic fauna in saline medium of the Dallol ponds. (Republique du Niger) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gretillat, S; Gaston, G

    1975-01-01

    Human vesical and intestinal bilharziasis, bovine fasciolosis and paramphistomosis, equine gastrodiscosis and ovine carmyeriosis, are frequent in the Dallols'region, (12 degrees - 13 degrees 30 N. lat. ; 3 degrees E. long.), Republique du Niger, Africa. Dallols are fossil valleys pouring water from late Saharian lakes. They are also tributaries of the Niger River. During the dry season, they become dry and many residual ponds of varied dimensions; from tens feet to one or two miles long, are lying along the valley bottom. The water is sometimes fresh but more frequently salt, (sodium, calcium and potassium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates and bicarbonate), are in solution of variable proportions. From november to april, the total salt concentration is increasing by high evaporation and the medium becomes non likely to live for aquatic vector snails, Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus forskalii, Lymnaea natalensis and Afrogyrus coretus. PMID:1221913

  13. Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Farindra; Singh, D. K.

    Snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. In order to attain this objective, the method of bait formulation in order to contain an attractant and a molluscicide is an expedient approach to lure the target snail population to the molluscicide. This study identifies certain carbohydrates, namely sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and starch, for preparing such baits. These were tested on Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the digenean trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The behavioural responses of snails to these carbohydrates were examined. Significant variations in behavioural responses were observed in the snail even when the five carbohydrates were used in low concentrations in snail-attractant pellets. Starch emerged as the strongest attractant for Lymnaea acuminata, followed by maltose.

  14. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) from Serra da Mesa Dam, Goiás, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Ecological changes from water resources development projects often affect the epidemiology of water-associated diseases. In order to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area of influence of the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric a survey has been performed since 1997 and revealed the occurrence of well-established populations of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) in the 8 municipalities surrounding the lake. Areas of epidemiologic risk for schistosomiasis were selected and studies of parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using specimens from 19 populations of B. straminea and 3 strains (CM, EC and PB) originally isolated from B. straminea. Among 1,135 specimens used 15 became infected (infection index of 1.3%) and 8 populations were susceptible to the schistosome strains: B. straminea from Campinorte (Castelão, susceptible to CM and EC strains, and Planeta Agua, EC strain), Colinas (Tocantinzinho river, CM and EC strains), Minaçu (Canabrava river, EC strain), Niquelândia (Codemin, CM and PB strains, and Almas river, CM strain), Uruaçu (touristic area, PB strain) and Santa Rita do Novo Destino (Maranhão river, CM and EC strains). These results, associated with marked social and ecological changes occurred, strongly suggest the possibility of B. straminea coming to act as a vector of schistosomiasis in the studied area. PMID:12426596

  15. A penta-substituted pyridine alkaloid from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica (Pohl) Muell. Arg. is active against Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Fonseca, Saskya Araújo; César, Fernanda Andrade; de Azevedo Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessoa; Santana, José Valfrido; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2014-03-01

    Jatropha elliptica is a shrub distributed throughout the north and west of Brazil and reputedly possesses a wide range of therapeutical properties. The roots of this plant possess molluscicidal activity and contain terpenoids, coumarin, lignoid, steroids and alkaloid. In the present study, we assessed the schistosomicidal, miracicidal and cercaricidal activities (against Schistosoma mansoni) and molluscicidal activities (against adults and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata) of the alkaloid diethyl 4-phenyl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate, isolated from the ethanol extract of the rhizome of J. elliptica, have been determined. The alkaloid was 100% lethal to adult schistosomes within 4 days at a concentration of 50 ?g/mL. Alterations were observed in the schistosome tegument occasioned by treatment with the alkaloid, such as formation of vesicles and vacuolisation. The extent of tegumental damage of the worm was proportional to the time of incubation and to the concentration of compound. The alkaloid also exhibited a potent cercaricidal activity (LC100 = 2 ?g/mL); it was totally ineffective against miracicidal forms of the parasite. Moreover, the alkaloid presented strong activity against adult snails (LC90 = 36.43 ?g/mL) but was inactive against their egg masses. It is observed then the potential of this compound for the development of new therapies for the treatment of schistosomiasis. PMID:24500523

  16. Effect of infection with Trichobilharzia ocellata and Schistosoma mansoni on the ultrastructure of the albumen gland of their respective hosts, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    el-Saadany, M M; Mohamed, A M

    1989-01-01

    The albumen gland, a female accessory sex gland of pulmonate snails, produces the perivitelline fluid. The ultrastructure of the albumen glands of control and infected specimens of Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata was studied. The albumen gland of L. stagnalis contains two types of secretory cells--light (active) and dark (inactive)--and two types of supporting cells--centroacinar and myoepithelial. The secretory cells apparently represent two activity stages of one type of cell. The gland B. glabrata possesses only one secretory cell type, which alternates with one type of supporting cell. The albumen glands of L. stagnalis and B. glabrata infected at a juvenile stage were studied 4 and 14 weeks (L. stagnalis) and 4 and 9 weeks (B. glabrata) after exposure. After four weeks' infection, B. glabrata produced some egg masses, but in subsequent stages egg mass production completely coased. Infected L. stagnalis never produced eggs. B. glabrata was apparently infected at a "physiologically" more mature stage than L. stagnalis. The morphology of the albumen glands four weeks after exposure (the daughter sporocyst stage) is in agreement with this hypothesis. At this interval the secretory cells of L. stagnalis appeared to be much more severely affected (inactive Golgi bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum, crinophagy of the secretory granules) than the cells of B. glabrata. In the later stages studied (shedding of the cercariae), the glands of both species appeared to be completely inactive (reduced height of the epithelium, inactive organelles, crinophagy, absence of secretory granules). At this stage of infection, daughter sporocysts containing cercaria embryos were seen in the connective tissue of the albumen gland of B. glabrata, but not of L. stagnalis. The results thus indicate that the development and synthetic activity of the albumen gland are seriously affected by infection. These processes are known to be under the endocrine control of the female gonadotrophic hormones. Since it has been established that these hormones are normally present in the haemolymph of infected snails, the findings can be explained by assuming that the parasite interferes in some way or other with the snail's endocrine system. PMID:2606384

  17. Snail–periphyton interactions in a prairie lacustrine wetland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Hann; C. J. Mundy; L. G. Goldsborough

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nutrients and macrophytes on snail grazers and periphyton in a prairie wetland food web. Snails (Gyraulus circumstriatus) and periphyton in large enclosures in a lacustrine wetland, Delta Marsh, MB, Canada were subjected to two experimental treatments, nutrient addition (nitrogen, phosphorus) and macrophyte exclusion (using a porous geotextile carpet) during July and August. Snail biomass

  18. Snail-periphyton interactions in a prairie lacustrine wetland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Hann; C. J. Mundy; L. G. Goldsborough

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nutrients and macrophytes on snail grazers and periphyton in a prairie wetland food web. Snails (Gyraulus circumstriatus) and periphyton in large enclosures in a lacustrine wetland, Delta Marsh, MB, Canada were subjected to two experimental treatments, nutrient addition (nitrogen, phosphorus) and macrophyte exclusion (using a porous geotextile carpet) during July and August. Snail biomass

  19. Snail populations in arctic lakes: competition mediated by predation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne E. Hershey

    1990-01-01

    For 2 species of snails in arctic Alaskan lakes, I studied the patterns of snail distribution with respect to habitat, distribution of predatory fish, and the potential for interspecific competition. The snails Lymnaea elodes and Valvata lewisi co-exist in these arctic lakes, either in the presence of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, or in the absence of predation. Intensive sediment core

  20. Images of Minute Minnesota Land Snails Matt Barthel

    E-print Network

    Nekola, Jeffrey C.

    Images of Minute Minnesota Land Snails Matt Barthel January 2000 This disk contains diagnostic images representative of minute land snail taxa from Minnesota. The snails imaged are from throughout at the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay (UWGB). The shells imaged were assigned to species (or subspecies) based

  1. Mineral contents of tissues and body fluids and heavy metal contaminants of four predominant snail species in the Niger Delta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Mepba; C. U. Ogunka-Nnoka

    Mineral contents and heavy metal contaminants of four predominant snail species in the Niger Delta: African giant land snail (Archachatina marginata), African land snail (Achatina fulica), water snail (Pila ovata) and garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) were evaluated. Snail tissues and body fluids were harvested having cracked the tail-end of the shell. Triplicate samples of macerated snail tissues and body fluids

  2. Epigenetic Regulation of EMT: The Snail Story

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yiwei; Dong, Chenfang; Zhou, Binhua P.

    2014-01-01

    While the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a fundamental role during development, its deregulation can adversely promote tumor metastasis. The phenotypic and cellular plasticity of EMT indicates that it is subject to epigenetic regulation. In this review, we try to embrace recent findings on the mechanisms of the transcription factor Snail-mediated E-cadherin silencing, which is a hallmark of EMT. Our studies as well as those of others have clearly demonstrated that Snail can recruit multiple chromatin enzymes including LSD1, HDAC1/2, PRC2, G9a and Suv39H1 to the E-cadherin promoter. These enzymes function in a highly orchestrated fashion to generate heterochromatin and promote DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-mediated DNA methylation at the promoter region. Disruption of the connection between Snail and these chromatin-modifying enzymes may represent an efficient strategy for the treatment of EMT-related diseases. PMID:23888971

  3. Aquatic Snails, Passive Hosts of Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Marsollier, Laurent; Sévérin, Tchibozo; Aubry, Jacques; Merritt, Richard W.; Saint André, Jean-Paul; Legras, Pierre; Manceau, Anne-Lise; Chauty, Annick; Carbonnelle, Bernard; Cole, Stewart T.

    2004-01-01

    Accumulative indirect evidence of the epidemiology of Mycobacterium ulcerans infections causing chronic skin ulcers (i.e., Buruli ulcer disease) suggests that the development of this pathogen and its transmission to humans are related predominantly to aquatic environments. We report that snails could transitorily harbor M. ulcerans without offering favorable conditions for its growth and replication. A novel intermediate link in the transmission chain of M. ulcerans becomes likely with predator aquatic insects in addition to phytophage insects. Water bugs, such as Naucoris cimicoides, a potential vector of M. ulcerans, were shown to be infected specifically by this bacterium after feeding on snails experimentally exposed to M. ulcerans. PMID:15466578

  4. Studies on the effect of pollution on Lake Manzala ecosystem in Port-Said, Damietta and Dakahlia Governorates Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Khayat, Hanaa M M; Mahmoud, Kadria M A; Gaber, Hanan S; Abdel-Hamid, Hoda; Abu Taleb, Hoda M A

    2015-04-01

    This work studied how pollution impacts the ecosystem of Lake Manzala by determination of physicochemical parameters, studying biodiversity of aquatic plants and macroinvertebrates, and determining bioaccumulation of Pb, Cu, Cd & Zn in some major organisms, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Melanoides tuberculata snails and Oreochromis niloticus fish. The more near to Mediterranean Sea and to the industrial area, Port-Said and Damietta sites showed higher dissolved oxygen and conductivity than Dakahlia sites. Distribution percentage of Eichhornia crassipes is high among Port-Said and Dakahlia sites of 100 and 88%, respectively, while Lemna giba is the most abundant among Damietta sites of 60%. The maximum macroinvertebrate taxa richness was obtained at Gammalya, Dakahlia of 16 species while the maximum abundance was registered at Annanya, Damietta of 591 organisms. Gastropoda are the most distributed organisms in Lake Manzala followed by Hemiptera and Plecoptera then shrimps and scud. All the medically important snails, B. alexandrina, B. truncatus and L. natalensis were recorded in Dakahlia, but only B. alexandrina was in Damietta and Port-Said sites. The collected water samples from Damietta sites showed the highest significant Cu & Cd concentration while Port-Said samples showed the highest Pb concentration and Dakahlia showed the highest Zn concentration. The metals concentrations were higher in snail tissue and in fish liver, kidney and most of muscle samples as compared in surface water. The higher metal bioaccumulation was determined in snails collected from sites showed higher water metals concentrations. Fish muscle showed the least residues than liver and kidney for all the measured metals. Pb and Cd were more accumulated in kidneys, Cu was more accumulated in liver and Zn was accumulated in all examined fish parts in descending order as follows Kidney > liver > muscle. PMID:26012230

  5. Susceptibility of wild populations of Biomphalaria spp. from neotropical South America to Schistosoma mansoni and interference of Zygocotyle lunata.

    PubMed

    Spatz, Linus; Cappa, Stella Maris Gonzalez; de Núñez, Margarita Ostrowski

    2012-12-01

    Populations of Biomphalaria straminea, Biomphalaria peregrina , Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria orbignyi, and Biomphalaria oligoza from different Argentine localities were exposed to miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni EC strain, and Biomphalaria tenagophila, in addition to the SJ2 strain. Biomphalaria straminea and B. tenagophila displayed different susceptibility and compatibility (Frandsen's total cercariae production index class 0-II), whereas B. orbigny and B. oligoza were incompatible. Although B. peregrina and B. tenagophila were found naturally infected with the amphistome Zygocotyle lunata, all 5 species could be experimentally infected with Z. lunata. Exposure to Z. lunata infections with S. mansoni were obtained in natural populations of B. straminea and B. tenagophila with the EC strain (13.5-17.1% and 1.2%), respectively, and in B. tenagophila with the SJ2 strain (2.6%), 60 days postexposure [PE]), and in B. orbignyi and B. oligoza (31.1% and 26.7% 60 days PE, respectively, including single infections with S. mansoni and double infections with Z. lunata). The high susceptibility of B. orbignyi and B. oligoza is noteworthy, as these 2 species are considered resistant to S. mansoni . PMID:22524265

  6. What happens when snails get sick?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2004-07-09

    Scientists used to think that the two major groups of animals, vertebrates and invertebrates, protected themselves from getting sick in very different ways. A new study in snails suggests that both groups' immune systems might be slightly more similar than previously thought.

  7. Population Control in Snails by Natural Inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Levy; M. Tunis; H. Isseroff

    1973-01-01

    IN many areas of the world diseases such as schistosomiasis caused by trematodes, still cause misery to millions of people and much damage to livestock. Because a specific mollusc, often a snail, is necessary for the completion of the trematode life cycle, the elimination of that host would eradicate the disease. According to Southgate1 none of the molluscicides currently available

  8. Biological invasions: the case of planorbid snails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Pointier; P. David; P. Jarne

    2005-01-01

    A large number of planorbid snails are now commonly transported by man mainly through the aquatic plant trade. However, only a restricted number of species establish viable populations in a new habitat and a more restricted number spread. Only five planorbid species can be ranked in this last category and can be considered as pests because of their role in

  9. Biomphalaria straminea and Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Planorbidae) as new intermediate hosts of the fish eyefluke Austrodiplostomum compactum (Trematoda: Diplostomidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, H A; Melo, A L

    2013-08-01

    Austrodiplostomum compactum has been involved in cases of ocular diplostomiasis in several species of fish in Brazil, but the molluscan intermediate hosts of the parasite remain unknown. In the present study, malacological surveys were carried out at Pampulha Reservoir, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between January 2009 and July 2012. A total of 16,119 specimens of Biomphalaria spp. were collected and examined, of which 68/14,948 specimens (0.45%) of Biomphalaria straminea and 6/541 (1.11%) of Biomphalaria glabrata were found harboring a strigeid cercariae. Groups of 5 specimens of Cyprinius carpio were experimentally infected with these cercariae (100 larvae/fish), and metacercariae were recovered from the eyes of the fish, 65 days after infection, with a mean intensity of infection of 10.4 (8-13) metacercariae/fish. Morphological study on cercariae and metacercariae identified them as A. compactum . This is the first record of cercariae of A. compactum in Brazil, and B. straminea and B. glabrata as new intermediate hosts for the parasite. PMID:23360402

  10. Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria mollusks at São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using geostatistical procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo J. P. S. Guimarães; Corina C. Freitas; Luciano V. Dutra; Carlos A. Felgueiras; Ana C. M. Moura; Ronaldo S. Amaral; Sandra C. Drummond; Ronaldo G. C. Scholte; Guilherme Oliveira; Omar S. Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Geostatistics is used in this work to make inferences about the presence of the species of Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and\\/or B. straminea), intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, at the São Francisco River Basin, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of these geostatistical procedures, known as indicator kriging, allows the classification of categorical data, in areas where the data are

  11. Production of reactive oxygen species by hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata: carbohydrate-specific stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike K Hahn; Randall C Bender; Christopher J Bayne

    2000-01-01

    Recognition of specific carbohydrate structures, which occur commonly on the surfaces of invading pathogens, is thought to elicit internal defense mechanisms in invertebrates. To investigate the nature of carbohydrates that evoke a defensive response in hemocytes of the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, we tested eight different carbohydrates, conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA), for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Six

  12. Nitrate impacts on the Florida apple snail, Pomacea paludosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norah Myers Corrao; Philip C. Darby; Christopher M. Pomory

    2006-01-01

    Nitrate pollution in springs in Florida has been suggested as a possible reason for declining populations of the Florida apple\\u000a snail, Pomacea paludosa (Say). No correlation was found between snail density and nitrate concentration measured in six Florida springs. In laboratory\\u000a studies examining short-term acute impacts of nitrate, adult and juvenile snail 96 h LC50 values could not be determined due

  13. Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

  14. Is Schistosoma mansoni replacing Schistosoma haematobium in the Fayoum?

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, M F; Yosery, A; Narooz, S; Esmat, G; el Hak, S; Nasif, S; Strickland, G T

    1993-12-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is progressively replacing S. haematobium along the Nile River in Egypt. This change has occurred in the past 15-20 years following construction of the Aswan High Dam in the 1960s. The cause is a shift in relative abundance of the snail vectors Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus. Biomphalaria is increasing while the latter has disappeared from a village in the Fayoum where formerly only schistosomiasis haematobia was endemic. A cross-sectional household survey in this village in 1991 showed the following prevalence values: S. mansoni, 22.3%; S. haematobium, 3.4%; and mixed infections, 2.8%. Only two children less than 10 years of age had S. haematobium infections. A review of the local Ministry of Health records showed that 1) both species were parasitologically diagnosed during the past 7.5 years, 2) Biomphalaria had been abundantly present in the local waterways for the past 10 years and has been found infected with S. mansoni since 1985, 3) Bulinus has not been detected in the local canals and drains since 1986 and the few found between 1981 and 1985 were not infected, and 4) Biomphalaria in this village and in two others in the Fayoum were believed infected by laborers from the Delta who helped build schools in 1984. This change in the distribution of schistosomiasis will impact upon public health and medical practice in Middle and Upper Egypt as it already has in Lower Egypt. PMID:8279637

  15. The plasma proteins of Biomphalaria glabrata in the presence and absence of Schistosoma mansoni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike E. Zelck; Wilhelm Becker; Christopher J. Bayne

    1995-01-01

    Abstract-nail plasma serves as both a sink for metabolites and a source of nutrients for parasites developing within their intermediate hosts. It also contains molecules involved in immunological events like non-self recognition, phagocytosis and encapsulation. In this study we present improved protocols for the separation and partial characterization of plasma proteins of schistosome-susceptible and resistant strains of Biomphalaria glabrata. Within

  16. Supercharged Snails for Stream Ecology & Water-Quality Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Arthur J.; Ryon, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Gill-breathing freshwater snails (Family "Pleuroceridae") are ecologically important, abundant in many streams in the United States, and easy to collect and maintain under classroom conditions. These snails can be used in classroom tests to demonstrate effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. In more advanced classes, students can cage the…

  17. Pest Control: Caffeine as a repellent for slugs and snails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Hollingsworth; John W. Armstrong; Earl Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Most commercial products for snail and slug control contain either metaldehyde or methiocarb as the active ingredient, the residues of which are not permitted in food crops in the United States. We have discovered that solutions of caffeine are effective in killing or repelling slugs and snails when applied to foliage or the growing medium of plants. Because caffeine is

  18. Carthusian snail Monacha cartusiana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Carthusian snail Monacha cartusiana Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets as a prohibited mollusk species by Michigan's plant protection regulations (MDA 2009). Plant hosts A wide variety plants. In addition, invasive snails can potentially transmit plant and animal pathogens and displace

  19. Snails as Biomonitors of Oil-Spill and Bioremediation Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. J. Lee; J. Stassen; A. McDonald; C. Culshaw; A. D. Venosa; K. Lee

    2002-01-01

    Aquatic and pulmonate snails were evaluated for their suitability as biomonitors of habitat recovery following an experimental oil spill in a freshwater marshland. The mystery snail, Viviparus georgianus, and the mimic pondsnail, Pseudosuccinea columella, were used as sediment quality biomonitors for a controlled oil-spill experiment at a wetland site along the St. Lawrence River (Ste. Croix, Quebec) to assess the

  20. [Temporary and permanent breeding sites for Biomphalaria in Jaboatão dos Guararapes, PE].

    PubMed

    Souza, Marco Antônio Andrade de; Barbosa, Verônica Santos; Wanderlei, Tereza Neuma Guedes; Barbosa, Constança Simões

    2008-01-01

    A malacological survey of permanent and temporary breeding sites was conducted in the Piedade neighborhood of Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, between November 2006 and November 2007, with the aim of determining the malacological fauna at this locality, along with the potential for Schistosomiasis mansoni transmission. In addition to Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818), the molluscs Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1837), Pomacea sp and Melanoides tuberculatus (Muller, 1774) were collected. Among the specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata that were collected, 1,490 were found alive, and 74 (5%) were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. The largest numbers of molluscs collected, and all of the specimens that were positive for Schistosoma mansoni, were collected during the annual rainy season. The presence of larvae of other trematodes infecting the Biomphalaria glabrata molluscs was also observed. These trematodes were from the families Strigeidae and Diplostomatidae and, at first sight, they presented morphology that could lead to confusion with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Thus, knowledge of these trematodes becomes essential for the differential diagnosis of the etiological agent for schistosomiasis. PMID:18719804

  1. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Venomous Cone Snail Conus consors

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Age; Kurz, Alexander; Stockwell, Tim; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Heidler, Juliana; Wittig, Ilka; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Stöcklin, Reto; Remm, Maido

    2012-01-01

    Cone snails are venomous predatory marine neogastropods that belong to the species-rich superfamily of the Conoidea. So far, the mitochondrial genomes of two cone snail species (Conus textile and Conus borgesi) have been described, and these feed on snails and worms, respectively. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the fish-hunting cone snail Conus consors and describe a novel putative control region (CR) which seems to be absent in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of other cone snail species. This possible CR spans about 700 base pairs (bp) and is located between the genes encoding the transfer RNA for phenylalanine (tRNA-Phe, trnF) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3). The novel putative CR contains several sequence motifs that suggest a role in mitochondrial replication and transcription. PMID:23236512

  2. Biological Control of Aquatic Pest Snails by the Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frida Ben-Ami; Joseph Heller

    2001-01-01

    Some freshwater snail species are severe pests to human health or agriculture. We tested the hypothesis that the fish Mylopharyngodon piceus, the black carp, may serve as a biological control agent of two pest snails, Physella acuta (a bank-dwelling snail) and Melanoides tuberculata (a substratum-dwelling snail). Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and under controlled field conditions. In the

  3. Paramphistomum daubneyi : the development of redial generations in the snail Lymnaea truncatula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Abrous; D. Rondelaud; G. Dreyfuss

    1996-01-01

    Rediae of Paramphistomum daubneyi were counted and measured in Lymnaea truncatula to elucidate the variability in the numbers of free rediae and cercariae occurring between naturally infected snails and experimental single-miracidium infections. Experiments were performed using one miracidium per snail and snail raising was carried out at 20°C. Two redial generations succeeded each other in the snail until day 49.

  4. A SNAIL'S SPACE SETS A SNAIL'S PACE: MOVEMENT RATES OF LAVIGERIA GASTROPODS IN LAKE TANGANYIKA, EAST AFRICA

    E-print Network

    McIntyre, Peter

    A SNAIL'S SPACE SETS A SNAIL'S PACE: MOVEMENT RATES OF LAVIGERIA GASTROPODS IN LAKE TANGANYIKA gastropods are diverse and common in the benthos of Lake Tanganyika. We used in situ studies of marked of three closely related species of gastropods in Lake Tanganyika. In addition to potential interspecific

  5. Toxicity of Common Aquaculture Disinfectants to New Zealand Mud Snails and Mud Snail Toxicants to Rainbow Trout Eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall W. Oplinger; Eric J. Wagner

    2009-01-01

    The New Zealand mud snail (NZMS) Potamopyrgus antipodarum is an invasive species that threatens North American fish populations. Establishment of NZMS in fish hatcheries is a concern because fish stocking practices could expedite the spread of the species. We evaluated the potential use of chemicals to remove snails that are inadvertently collected during egg take operations involving wild broodstock from

  6. Sediment copper bioavailability to freshwater snails in south Florida: risk implications for the Everglade snail kite ( Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Frakes; Timothy A. Bargar; Emily A. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    Many properties being acquired as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) are heavily contaminated with\\u000a copper. Estimated copper bioaccumulation in the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) has led to the prediction of risk to the Everglade snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) at some CERP projects. Field study results presented in this paper examine the relationship between copper levels

  7. Relationship between Snail Population Density and Infection Status of Snails and Fish with Zoonotic Trematodes in Vietnamese Carp Nurseries

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, K. Darwin; Phan Thi, Van; Nguyen Manh, Hung; Viet, Khue Nguyen; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Background Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are a food safety and health concern in Vietnam. Humans and other final hosts acquire these parasites from eating raw or under-cooked fish with FZT metacercariae. Fish raised in ponds are exposed to cercariae shed by snail hosts that are common in fish farm ponds. Previous risk assessment on FZT transmission in the Red River Delta of Vietnam identified carp nursery ponds as major sites of transmission. In this study, we analyzed the association between snail population density and heterophyid trematode infection in snails with the rate of FZT transmission to juvenile fish raised in carp nurseries. Methodology/Principal Findings Snail population density and prevalence of trematode (Heterophyidae) infections were determined in 48 carp nurseries producing Rohu juveniles, (Labeo rohita) in the Red River Delta area. Fish samples were examined at 3, 6 and 9 weeks after the juvenile fish were introduced into the ponds. There was a significant positive correlation between prevalence of FZT metacercariae in juvenile fish and density of infected snails. Thus, the odds of infection in juvenile fish were 4.36 and 11.32 times higher for ponds with medium and high density of snails, respectively, compared to ponds where no infected snails were found. Further, the intensity of fish FZT infections increased with the density of infected snails. Interestingly, however, some ponds with no or few infected snails were collected also had high prevalence and intensity of FZT in juvenile fish. This may be due to immigration of cercariae into the pond from external water sources. Conclusions/Significance The total number and density of potential host snails and density of host snails infected with heterophyid trematodes in the aquaculture pond is a useful predictor for infections in juvenile fish, although infection levels in juvenile fish can occur despite low density or absence infected snails. This suggests that intervention programs to control FZT infection of fish should include not only intra-pond snail control, but also include water sources of allochthonous cercariae, i.e. canals supplying water to ponds as well as snail habitats outside the pond such as rice fields and surrounding ponds. PMID:23285303

  8. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven G; Hulsey, C Darrin; de León, Francisco J García

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus) and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi), we examined three components of this interaction: 1) spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2) whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3) whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity) and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses. PMID:17397540

  9. [Freshwater snails of the Campus of Manguinhos, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, RJ].

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M A; Thiengo, S C; Boaventura, M F

    2001-01-01

    A survey of freshwater gastropods of the Campus of Manguinhos, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, was carried out during the last two years aiming to compare the current species with those found at the beginning of this century. Among 18 breeding sites in 880,000m2 of the surveyed area, 13 showed the following species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria straminea; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa cubensis; Pomacea glauca and Pomacea lineata. Notably, Biomphalaria tenagophila reported by Lutz in 1918, had disappeared and B. straminea and the Asiatic thiarid M. tuberculatus had been introduced. No specimens infected with Schistosoma mansoni were found. PMID:11460215

  10. [Importance of Tarebia granifera in the control of a population of Biomphalaria peregrina introduced in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Perera de Puga, G; Cong, M Y; Ferrer, J R; Gutiérrez, A; Sánchez, J

    1994-01-01

    It was observed that the Tarebia granifera plays a significant role in the control of a Biomphalaria peregrina population introduced in a permanent water body. The densities of this planorbid, which had reached high levels, were notably reduced by two important events: an increase of the water level due to heavy rains, and the introduction of the competitor, whose effectiveness had been tested in a different habitat. Knowledge on the ecology and biology of the competitor and the host in permanent water bodies helped to elaborate the measures of control which led to the reduction of the host densities while those of the competitor increased. PMID:9768228

  11. Karyological Studies of Biomphalaria tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835) (Gastropoda: Planobidae) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Tai-Soon

    2014-01-01

    The karyotypes of Biomphalaria tenagophila collected from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied using the air-drying method. Somatic cells of this species had 2n=36. The 18 chromosome pairs were identified and classified into 3 groups. The diploid cell has 7 pairs of metacentric, 8 pairs of submetacentric, and 3 pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Observed chromosomes ranged from 2.4 to 6.4 µm, and the total length was 122.3 µm. This is the first report on the chromosome of B. tenagophila. PMID:25246727

  12. Respiration rates and population metabolism of woodland snails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Mason; Botanic Gardens

    1971-01-01

    Experiments were done to measure the respiration rates of twenty species of terrestrial snail. Acclimatization phenomena were sought in two species, Discus rotundatus and Hygromia striolata, but not detected. The Q10s between 5 and 15° C for the twenty species varied between 1.20 and 4.27, with a mean Q10 of 2.21. Q10 was higher in larger snail species. There was

  13. Snails, stable iostopes, and southwestern desert paleoclimates

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, S.E. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Whelan, J.F.; Forester, R.M.; Burdett, J.

    1995-09-01

    Modern and fossil molluscs (snails) occur in many localities in and semi-arid regions throughout the desert southwest. Live terrestrial snails are found under rocks and in forest litter and aquatic taxa inhabit springs, seeps, and/or wetlands. Molluscs uptake local water during their growing season (spring and summer) and incorporate its delta 180 signature into their shells. Preliminary 180 analysis of modem shells from the southern Great Basin indicates that the shells probably reflect meteoric water 180 values during the growing season. This provides a way to estimate the delta 180 value of precipitation and, thereby, the source of the moisture-bearing air masses. Significant 180 variability in shells analyzed include geographic location, elevation, taxonomy, and habitat (terrestrial, spring, or wetland). We found a rough inverse correlation with elevation in modem shells from the Spring Range in southern Nevada. The delta 180 values of modem and fossil shells are also very different; modem values in this location are much higher than those from nearby late Pleistocene-age molluscs suggesting that the Pleistocene summers were variously colder and wetter than today or less evaporative (more humid). Assuming shell material directly reflects the 180 of the growing-season environment, comparison of modem and fossil shell delta 180 values can potentially identify changes in air-mass moisture sources and can help to define seasonal precipitation change through time. Comprehension and quantification of community and isotopic variability in modem gastropods is required to create probabilistic valid transfer functions with fossil materials. Valid inferences about past environmental conditions can then be established with known confidence limits.

  14. Camouflaged or tanned: plasticity in freshwater snail pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Ahlgren, Johan; Yang, Xi; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brönmark, Christer

    2013-01-01

    By having phenotypically plastic traits, many organisms optimize their fitness in response to fluctuating threats. Freshwater snails with translucent shells, e.g. snails from the Radix genus, differ considerably in their mantle pigmentation patterns, with snails from the same water body ranging from being completely dark pigmented to having only a few dark patterns. These pigmentation differences have previously been suggested to be genetically fixed, but we propose that this polymorphism is owing to phenotypic plasticity in response to a fluctuating environment. Hence, we here aimed to assess whether common stressors, including ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and predation, induce a plastic response in mantle pigmentation patterns of Radix balthica. We show, in contrast to previous studies, that snails are plastic in their expression of mantle pigmentation in response to changes in UVR and predator threats, i.e. differences among populations are not genetically fixed. When exposed to cues from visually hunting fish, R. balthica increased the proportion of their dark pigmentation, suggesting a crypsis strategy. Snails increased their pigmentation even further in response to UVR, but this also led to a reduction in pattern complexity. Furthermore, when exposed to UVR and fish simultaneously, snails responded in the same way as in the UVR treatment, suggesting a trade-off between photoprotection and crypsis. PMID:24046875

  15. A comparative analysis of acute toxicity of chromium, copper and cadmium to daphnia magna, biomphalaria glabrata, and brachydanio rerio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bellavere; J. Gorbi

    1981-01-01

    Acute toxicity of Cr6 , Cu and Cdto Daphnia magna, Biomphalaria glabrata and Brachydanio rerio was evaluated. Copper resulted the most toxic element to the three animals and D. magna the most sensitive organism. The wide spectrum of the responses obtained was examined to permit the development of hypothesis about the environmental effects of the tested metals.

  16. Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima

    2010-01-01

    The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio. PMID:20578482

  17. Excretory–secretory proteome of larval Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma caproni, two parasites of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Guillou; Emmanuel Roger; Yves Moné; Anne Rognon; Christoph Grunau; André Théron; Guillaume Mitta; Christine Coustau; Benjamin E. F. Gourbal

    2007-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma caproni are two trematode species that use different strategies (mimicry and immunosuppression, respectively) to interfere with the snail innate immune system. Parasites excretory–secretory (ES) products have been shown to play a key role in these host–parasite immune interactions. However, they remain largely uncharacterized in larval trematodes. We developed a global proteomic approach to characterize the ES

  18. Functional Changes in the Snail Statocyst System Elicited by Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Pavel M.; Malyshev, Aleksey Y.; Ierusalimsky, Victor N.; Aseyev, Nikolay; Korshunova, Tania A.; Bravarenko, Natasha I.; Lemak, M. S.; Roshchin, Matvey; Zakharov, Igor S.; Popova, Yekaterina; Boyle, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background The mollusk statocyst is a mechanosensing organ detecting the animal's orientation with respect to gravity. This system has clear similarities to its vertebrate counterparts: a weight-lending mass, an epithelial layer containing small supporting cells and the large sensory hair cells, and an output eliciting compensatory body reflexes to perturbations. Methodology/Principal Findings In terrestrial gastropod snail we studied the impact of 16- (Foton M-2) and 12-day (Foton M-3) exposure to microgravity in unmanned orbital missions on: (i) the whole animal behavior (Helix lucorum L.), (ii) the statoreceptor responses to tilt in an isolated neural preparation (Helix lucorum L.), and (iii) the differential expression of the Helix pedal peptide (HPep) and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide genes in neural structures (Helix aspersa L.). Experiments were performed 13–42 hours after return to Earth. Latency of body re-orientation to sudden 90° head-down pitch was significantly reduced in postflight snails indicating an enhanced negative gravitaxis response. Statoreceptor responses to tilt in postflight snails were independent of motion direction, in contrast to a directional preference observed in control animals. Positive relation between tilt velocity and firing rate was observed in both control and postflight snails, but the response magnitude was significantly larger in postflight snails indicating an enhanced sensitivity to acceleration. A significant increase in mRNA expression of the gene encoding HPep, a peptide linked to ciliary beating, in statoreceptors was observed in postflight snails; no differential expression of the gene encoding FMRFamide, a possible neurotransmission modulator, was observed. Conclusions/Significance Upregulation of statocyst function in snails following microgravity exposure parallels that observed in vertebrates suggesting fundamental principles underlie gravi-sensing and the organism's ability to adapt to gravity changes. This simple animal model offers the possibility to describe general subcellular mechanisms of nervous system's response to conditions on Earth and in space. PMID:21479267

  19. Cooperative action of Sox9, Snail2 and PKA signaling in early neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Daisuke; Suzuki, Takashi; Osumi, Noriko; Wakamatsu, Yoshio

    2006-04-01

    In neural crest formation, transcription factors, such as group E Sox and Snail1/Snail2 (Slug) regulate subsequent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration. In particular, Sox9 has a strong effect on neural crest formation, EMT and differentiation of crest-derived cartilages in the cranium. It remains unclear, however, how Sox9 functions in these events, and how Sox9 activity is regulated. In this study, our gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments reveal that Sox9 is essential for BMP signal-mediated induction of Snail2 and subsequent EMT in avian neural crest. We also show that Snail2 activates the Snail2 promoter, although Snail family proteins have been known as a repressor. Consistently, Sox9 directly activates the Snail2 promoter in synergy with, and through a direct binding to, Snail2. Finally, functions of these transcription factors in neural crest cells are enhanced by PKA signaling. PMID:16510505

  20. Copper uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails ( Pomacea paludosa )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tham C. Hoang; Emily C. Rogevich; Gary M. Rand; Robert A. Frakes

    2008-01-01

    The present study characterized copper (Cu) uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) from water, soil, and diet. During a 28-day uptake period, juvenile apple snails were exposed to aqueous Cu and adult apple\\u000a snails were exposed to Cu-contaminated soil, water, and food. In the follow-up 14-day depuration period, both juvenile and\\u000a adult apple snails

  1. MTA3 regulates CGB5 and Snail genes in trophoblast.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Miyazaki, Jun; Nishizawa, Haruki; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Leach, Richard; Wang, Kai

    2013-04-19

    Secreted by the placental trophoblast, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important hormone during pregnancy and is required for the maintenance of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that dys-regulation of hCG expression is associated with preeclampsia. However, the exact relationship between altered hCG levels and development of preeclampsia is unknown. Metastasis associated protein 3 (MTA3), a chromatin remodeling protein, is abundantly expressed in the placental trophoblasts, but its function is unknown. In breast cancer, MTA3 has been shown to repress the expression of Snail and cell migration. However, whether MTA3 acts similarly in the trophoblast has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the role of MTA3 in regulating the hCG ?-subunit gene (gene name: CGB5) and Snail expression in the trophoblast cell line, BeWo, as well as its relevance to the high hCG expression levels seen in preeclampsia. First, we investigated MTA3 expression in preeclamptic placenta as compared to normal control placenta via gene expression microarray and qRT-PCR and found that MTA3 was significantly down-regulated, whereas both CGB5 and Snail were up-regulated in preeclamptic placenta. Secondly, we knocked down MTA3 gene in trophoblast cell line BeWo and found Snail and hCG were both up-regulated, suggesting that MTA3 represses Snail and hCG gene expression in trophoblasts. Next, we cloned the CGB5 and Snail promoters into the pGL3-basic vector individually and found that silencing of MTA3 by siRNA resulted in an increase of both CGB5 and Snail promoter activities. To confirm that this MTA3 inhibition is a direct effect, we performed a chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) assay and found that MTA3 occupied the proximal promoter regions of both Snail and hCG within BeWo cells. Furthermore, we examined MTA3 expression in placental trophoblast by immunohistochemistry and found that MTA3 expression was higher in villous cytotrophoblasts versus syncytiotrophoblasts, which supports an inverse association of MTA3 with hCG expression. Lastly, using the well-characterized trophoblast fusion model, we examined MTA3 and hCG levels in forskolin-treated BeWo cells and found that MTA3 down-regulation was accompanied by an up-regulation of hCG. These data further suggest that MTA3 is repressing placental hCG expression. In summary, MTA3 plays a critical role in repressing hCG and Snail in placenta trophoblast and its deregulation is associated with preeclampsia. PMID:23510993

  2. MTA3 regulates CGB5 and Snail genes in trophoblast

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Miyazaki, Jun; Nishizawa, Haruki; Kurahashi, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Secreted by the placental trophoblast, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important hormone during pregnancy and is required for the maintenance of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that dys-regulation of hCG expression is associated with preeclampsia. However, the exact relationship between altered hCG levels and development of preeclampsia is unknown. Metastasis associated protein 3 (MTA3), a chromatin remodeling protein, is abundantly expressed in the placental trophoblasts, but its function is unknown. In breast cancer, MTA3 has been shown to repress the expression of Snail and cell migration. However, whether MTA3 acts similarly in the trophoblast has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the role of MTA3 in regulating the hCG ?-subunit gene (gene name: CGB5) and Snail expression in the trophoblast cell line, BeWo, as well as its relevance to the high hCG expression levels seen in preeclampsia. First, we investigated MTA3 expression in preeclamptic placenta as compared to normal control placenta via gene expression microarray and qRT-PCR and found that MTA3 was significantly down-regulated, whereas both CGB5 and Snail were up-regulated in preeclamptic placenta. Secondly, we knocked down MTA3 gene in trophoblast cell line BeWo and found Snail and hCG were both up-regulated, suggesting that MTA3 represses Snail and hCG gene expression in trophoblasts. Next, we cloned the CGB5 and Snail promoters into the pGL3-basic vector individually and found that silencing of MTA3 by siRNA resulted in an increase of both CGB5 and Snail promoter activities. To confirm that this MTA3 inhibition is a direct effect, we performed a chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) assay and found that MTA3 occupied the proximal promoter regions of both Snail and hCG within BeWo cells. Furthermore, we examined MTA3 expression in placental trophoblast by immunohistochemistry and found that MTA3 expression was higher in villous cytotrophoblasts versus syncytiotrophoblasts, which supports an inverse association of MTA3 with hCG expression. Lastly, using the well-characterized trophoblast fusion model, we examined MTA3 and hCG levels in forskolin-treated BeWo cells and found that MTA3 down-regulation was accompanied by an up-regulation of hCG. These data further suggest that MTA3 is repressing placental hCG expression. In summary, MTA3 plays a critical role in repressing hCG and Snail in placenta trophoblast and its deregulation is associated with preeclampsia. PMID:23510993

  3. Periphytic food and predatory crayfish: relative roles in determining snail distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Weber; D. M. Lodge

    1990-01-01

    In the laboratory and field, we examined how periphyton (food of snails) and predatory crayfish influenced snail distribution in Trout Lake, a permanent, northern Wisconsin lake. Laboratory experiments (with no crayfish) tested the importance of periphyton biomass in determining snail preference among rocks, and among rock, sand, and macrophyte substrates. Among rocks with four different amounts of periphyton, periphyton biomass

  4. Persistence and extinction of local populations of the garden snail Helix aspersa in unfavorable environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Potts

    1975-01-01

    In southern California, previously disturbed but currently uncultivated habitats are unfavorable environments for the introduced snail Helix aspersa. In these habitats, snails were often distributed in small, local populations only a few meters apart. Migration between neighboring populations was minimal because the snails have strong homing tendencies. Local micro-environmental differences produced differences in the demographic properties of 4 adjacent populations

  5. Helix and Drugs: Snails for Western Health Care From Antiquity to the Present

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The land helix, or snail, has been used in medicine since antiquity and prepared according to several formulations. This historical report traces the understanding of their properties from the time of Hippocrates, who proposed the use of snail mucus against protoccle and Pliny who thought that the snail increased the speed of delivery and was “a sovereign remedy to treat pain related to burns, abscesses and other wounds”, Galien recommended snails against hydrops foetails. In the 18th century, various snail “preparations” were also recommended for external use with dermatological disorders and internally for symptoms associated with tuberculosis and nephritis. Surprisingly, the 19th century saw a renewed interest in the pharmaceutical and medical use of snails with numerous indications for snail preparations. This interest in snails did not stop at the end of the 19th century. The 1945 edition of Dorvault devotes an entire paragraph to snails, indicating that the therapeutic usage of snails was still alive at that time. Recently the FDA has also shown an interest in snails. Ziconotide (SNXIII), a synthetic peptide coming from snail venom, has been under FDA review since 1999. Pre-clinical and clinical studies of this new drug are promising. PMID:15841274

  6. Lamprey snail highlights conserved and novel patterning roles in vertebrate embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rod A. Rahimi; Jared J. Allmond; Hilary Wagner; David W. McCauley; James A. Langeland

    2009-01-01

    snail genes mark presumptive mesoderm across bilaterian animals. In gnathostome vertebrates, snail genes are a multimember family that are also markers of premigratory neural crest (pnc) and some postmigratory neural crest\\u000a derivatives in the pharyngeal arches. Previous studies of nonvertebrate chordates indicate that they have single snail genes that retain ancestral functions in mesoderm development and perhaps in specification of

  7. The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Steven G.

    The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail Johel matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water p

  8. Lactic acid microflora of the gut of snail Cornu aspersum

    PubMed Central

    Koleva, Zdravka; Dedov, Ivaylo; Kizheva, Joana; Lipovanska, Roxana; Moncheva, Penka; Hristova, Petya

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal lactic acid microflora of the edible snail Cornu aspersum was studied by culture-based methods and was phenotypically and molecularly characterized. The antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates was investigated. Snails in different stages of development were collected from farms located in several regions of Bulgaria. One hundred twenty-two isolates, belonging to the group of LAB, were characterized morphologically and were divided into four groups. Representative isolates from each morphological type were subjected to phenotypic characterization and molecular identification. The snail gut lactic acid microflora was composed by Enterococcus (17 isolates), Lactococcus (12 isolates), Leuconostoc (7 isolates), Lactobacillus (18 isolates) and Weissella (1 isolate). The species affiliation of Lactococcus lactis (12), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (4) and Lactobacillus plantarum (2) was confirmed by species-specific primers. The Lactobacillus isolates were identified by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA as Lactobacillus brevis (12), L. plantarum (2), Lactobacillus graminis (1) and Lactobacillus curvatus (3). The species L. brevis, L. graminis and L. curvatus were found in snails in a phase of hibernation, whereas L. plantarum was identified both in active and hibernation phases. Antibacterial activity (bacteriocine-like) was shown only by one strain of L. mesentereoides P4/8 against Propionibacterium acnes. The present study showed that the LAB are a component of the microbial communities in the snail digestive system. This is the first report on Lactobacillus strains detected in the gut of C. aspersum. PMID:26019550

  9. Movements of florida apple snails in relation to water levels and drying events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Miller, S.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea Paludosa) apparently have only a limited tolerance to wetland drying events (although little direct evidence exists), but their populations routinely face dry downs under natural and managed water regimes. In this paper, we address speculation that apple snails respond to decreasing water levels and potential drying events by moving toward refugia that remain inundated. We monitored the movements of apple snails in central Florida, USA during drying events at the Blue Cypress Marsh (BC) and at Lake Kissimmee (LK). We monitored the weekly movements of 47 BC snails and 31 LK snails using radio-telemetry. Snails tended to stop moving when water depths were 10 cm. Snails moved along the greatest positive depth gradient (i.e., towards deeper water) when they encountered water depths between 10 and 20 cm. Snails tended to move toward shallower water in water depths ???50 cm, suggesting that snails were avoiding deep water areas such as canals and sloughs. Of the 11 BC snails originally located in the area that eventually went dry, three (27%) were found in deep water refugia by the end of the study. Only one of the 31 LK snails escaped the drying event by moving to deeper water. Our results indicate that some snails may opportunistically escape drying events through movement. The tendency to move toward deeper water was statistically significant and indicates that this behavioral trait might enhance survival when the spatial extent of a dry down is limited. However, as water level falls below 10 cm, snails stop moving and become stranded. As the spatial extent of a dry down increases, we predict that the number of snails stranded would increase proportionally. Stranded Pomacea paludosa must contend with dry marsh conditions, possibly by aestivation. Little more than anecdotal information has been published on P. paludosa aestivation, but it is a common adaptation among other apple snails (Caenogastropoda: Ampullaridae). ?? 2002, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  10. Survival of the faucet snail Bithynia tentaculata after chemical disinfection, pH extremes, and heated water bath treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bithynia tentaculata, the faucet snail, is a non indigenous aquatic snail from Eurasia that was introduced into Lake Michigan in 1871. The snail’s distribution in the United States has expanded to the mid-Atlantic states and the drainage basin of the Great Lakes and most recently to the Mississippi...

  11. Chemo-orientation of echinostome cercariae towards their snail hosts: the stimulating structure of amino acids and other attractants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Körner; Wilfried Haas

    1998-01-01

    The cercariae of Pseudechinoparyphium echinatum and Echinostoma revolutum locate their host snails by turning back when swimming in decreasing gradients of the small molecular weight fraction (< 500) of snail conditioned water. Fractionation and chemical modifications of snail conditioned water from Lymnaea stagnalis showed that amino acids are necessary for the stimulating activity of snail conditioned water. A complete mixture

  12. Seasonal fluctuation of invasive flatworm predation pressure on land snails: Implications for the range expansion and impacts of invasive species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Sugiura

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of the snail-eating flatworm Platydemus manokwari has caused extinction and decline of native land snails on tropical and subtropical islands. As the factors influencing flatworm predation pressure on land snails remain unclear, I examined the effects of seasonal variation in flatworm predation pressure on land snail survival in the wild on a subtropical island. I also examined the feeding

  13. Diagnostic utility of snail in metaplastic breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare subtype of breast cancer characterized by coexistence of carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. Snail is a nuclear transcription factor incriminated in the transition of epithelial to mesenchymal differentiation of breast cancer. Aberrant Snail expression results in lost expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin, an event associated with changes in epithelial architecture and invasive growth. We aimed to identify the utility of Snail, and of traditional immunohistochemical markers, in accurate MBC classification and to evaluate clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome. We retrospectively reviewed 34 MBC cases from January 1997 to September 2007. The control group contained 26 spindle cell lesions. Immunohistochemistry used Snail, p63, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), OSCAR, and wide spectrum cytokeratin (WS-KER). Negative was a score less than 1%. We found that Snail and EGFR are sensitive (100%) markers with low specificity (3.8% and 19.2%) for detecting MBC. p63 and WS-KER are specific (100%), with moderate sensitivity (67.6% and 76.5%); OSCAR is sensitive (85.3%) and specific (92.3%). A combination of any 2 of the p63, OSCAR, and WS-KER markers increased sensitivity and specificity. MBCs tended to be high-grade (77%), triple negative (negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2) [27/33; 81.8%], and carcinomas with low incidence of axillary lymph node involvement (15%), and decreased disease-free [71% (95%CI: 54%, 94%) at 3 yrs.) and overall survival. A combination of p63, OSCAR and WS-KER are useful in its work-up. On the other hand, Snail is neither a diagnostic nor a prognostic marker for MBC. PMID:21110878

  14. Euparyphium albuferensis and Echinostoma friedi (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae): experimental cercarial transmission success in sympatric snail communities.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Marin, Antoni; Vidal, Amparo; Toledo, Rafael; Esteban, José Guillermo

    2008-06-01

    Euparyphium albuferensis and Echinostoma friedi cercarial infectivity to four species of sympatric snails was examined under single- or multiple-choice laboratory conditions to show the level of parasite-snail host compatibility. Radix peregra, Lymnaeafuscus, Physella acuta and Gyraulus chinensis act as second intermediate hosts of both parasite species although different cercarial transmission success (CTS) was observed. In single-host experiments, R. peregra and P. acuta showed a high degree of compatibility with E. albuferensis, while only P. acuta in the case of E. friedi. In two-choice snail communities, a snail with high CTS increased the values of another with low compatibility, in both parasite species. In multiple-choice snail communities, high CTS of some hosts decreased, while low CTS of other hosts increased. The degree of parasite-host compatibility of each snail species could be determined by the presence of other snails in the community. PMID:18666415

  15. An ecological study of Bithynia snails, the first intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Ho, Richard Cheng Yong; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the food-borne trematodiasis, liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. While epidemiology and parasitic incidence in humans are well studied, ecological information on the O. viverrini intermediate hosts remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails. Water quality and snails were sampled in 31 sites in Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand from June 2012 to January 2013 to characterize the B.s. goniomphalos snail habitats. Species relative abundance and Shannon's diversity and evenness indices were employed to describe snail compositions and diversities across different habitat types. Statistical analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which the water quality variables and species interactions account for the relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails. The results showed that the freshwater habitats of ponds, streams and rice paddies possessed significantly different abiotic water qualities, with water temperature and pH showing distinct statistical differences (P<0.05). Different habitats had different snail diversity and species evenness, with high B.s. goniomphalos snail abundance at rice paddy habitats. The differences in snail abundance might be due to the distinct sets of abiotic water qualities associated with each habitat types. The relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails was found to be negatively correlated with that of Filopaludina martensi martensi snails (r=-0.46, P<0.05), underscoring the possible influence of species interaction on B.s. goniomphalos snail population. Field work observations revealed that rice planting seasons and irrigation could regulate snail population dynamics at rice paddy habitats. This study provides new ecological insights into the factors affecting Bithynia snail distribution and abundance. It bridges the knowledge gap in O. viverrini disease ecology and highlights the potential effect of anthropogenic irrigation practices on B.s. goniomphalos snail ecology. PMID:24561073

  16. Inhibition of cholinesterases and carboxylesterases of two invertebrate species, Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus, by the carbamate pesticide carbaryl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisela Kristoff; Noemi R. Verrengia Guerrero; Adriana C. Cochón

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of sublethal concentrations of the carbamate carbaryl on the cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CES) activities present in the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and in the pigmented Biomphalaria glabrata gastropod were investigated. The results showed that ChE activity from both species was inhibited by in vivo and in vitro exposure to carbaryl, with EC50 and IC50 values

  17. Effects of azinphos-methyl exposure on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisela Kristoff; Noemí R. Verrengia Guerrero; Adriana C. Cochón

    2008-01-01

    Azinphos-methyl is an organophosphate insecticide used for pest control on a number of food crops in many parts of the world. The oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and pigmented and non-pigmented specimens of the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata are freshwater invertebrates that have been recommended for contamination studies. Recently, it has been shown that L. variegatus worms exhibit a higher cholinesterase (ChE) activity

  18. Inhibition of cholinesterase activity by azinphos-methyl in two freshwater invertebrates: Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisela Kristoff; Noemi Verrengia Guerrero; Ana María Pechén de D’Angelo; Adriana C. Cochón

    2006-01-01

    In this study, some biochemical features and the extent of inhibition induced by the organophosphorous pesticide azinphos-methyl on the cholinesterase (ChE) activity present in whole soft tissue of two freshwater invertebrate species, the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata and the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus were investigated. Both invertebrate organisms presented marked differences in ChE activity, type of enzymes and subcellular location. Acetylthiocholine was

  19. Controlled Chaos of Polymorphic Mucins in a Metazoan Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) Interacting with Its Invertebrate Host (Biomphalaria glabrata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Roger; Christoph Grunau; Raymond J. Pierce; Hirohisa Hirai; Benjamin Gourbal; Richard Galinier; Rémi Emans; Italo M. Cesari; Céline Cosseau; Guillaume Mitta

    2008-01-01

    Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites.

  20. Flying shells: historical dispersal of marine snails across Central America

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Osamu; Torchin, Mark E.; Bermingham, Eldredge; Jacobs, David K.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

    2012-01-01

    The geological rise of the Central American Isthmus separated the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans about 3 Ma, creating a formidable barrier to dispersal for marine species. However, similar to Simpson's proposal that terrestrial species can ‘win sweepstakes routes’—whereby highly improbable dispersal events result in colonization across geographical barriers—marine species may also breach land barriers given enough time. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether intertidal marine snails have crossed Central America to successfully establish in new ocean basins. We used a mitochondrial DNA genetic comparison of sister snails (Cerithideopsis spp.) separated by the rise of the Isthmus. Genetic variation in these snails revealed evidence of at least two successful dispersal events between the Pacific and the Atlantic after the final closure of the Isthmus. A combination of ancestral area analyses and molecular dating techniques indicated that dispersal from the Pacific to the Atlantic occurred about 750 000 years ago and that dispersal in the opposite direction occurred about 72 000 years ago. The geographical distribution of haplotypes and published field evidence further suggest that migratory shorebirds transported the snails across Central America at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in southern Mexico. Migratory birds could disperse other intertidal invertebrates this way, suggesting the Central American Isthmus may not be as impassable for marine species as previously assumed. PMID:21920976

  1. MOLLUSCICIDAL ACTIVITY OF VULGARONE B AGAINST RAM'S HORN SNAIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ram's horn snail (Planorbdella trivolvis) is an intermediate host for a digenetic trematode (Bolbophorus confusus) that has recently been discovered to be a significant problem in commercial catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production ponds in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. In these catf...

  2. The snail superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Angela Nieto

    2002-01-01

    The Snail superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors is involved in processes that imply pronounced cell movements, both during embryonic development and in the acquisition of invasive and migratory properties during tumour progression. Different family members have also been implicated in the signalling cascade that confers left–right identity, as well as in the formation of appendages, neural differentiation, cell division and

  3. Snail Shells in a Practical Application of Statistical Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Stephen W.; Shepherd, Deborah K.; Williams-Hart, Tara; Gossett, Dalton R.; Crnkovic, Amanda C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based upon a laboratory exercise designed for biology students in secondary schools or those taking introductory biology laboratory courses in colleges and universities. This exercise requires a set of calipers, a calculator and populations of snail shells collected either from the wild or obtained from a biological supply house. The…

  4. Food Choice in the Common Snail (Helix Aspersa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; Howell, Pauline

    1985-01-01

    The easily obtained common snail shows interesting dietary preferences which can be the source of several simple experiments. Specific student instructions are given for quantitative and comparative studies using cabbage, lettuce, carrot, rutabaga, and onion. Suggestions for laboratory setup and further work are included. (DH)

  5. Food, feeding rates and assimilation in woodland snails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Mason

    1970-01-01

    Analyses of the faeces of seven species of woodland, litterdwelling snails (Marpessa laminata, Clausilia bidentata, Oxychilus cellarius, O. alliarius, Discus rotundatus, Arianta arbustorum and Hygromia striolata), showed that all feed predominently on higher plant material, be it living or dead. H. striolata and A. arbustorum took more chlorophyll-containing plant material than the other species, D. rotundatus had a significant amount

  6. Cellular mechanisms of behavioral plasticity in terrestrial snail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Balaban

    2002-01-01

    Functional organization of networks underlying withdrawal, feeding, and respiration in terrestrial gastropod snail Helix are described. Tracking the changes during non-associative and associative modifications of behavior, analysis of plasticity mechanisms in identified neurons involved in these networks allowed to formulate several conceptual principles which are not widely accepted. The review will present data underlying the following principles:1.Command neuron concept can

  7. Flying shells: historical dispersal of marine snails across Central America.

    PubMed

    Miura, Osamu; Torchin, Mark E; Bermingham, Eldredge; Jacobs, David K; Hechinger, Ryan F

    2012-03-22

    The geological rise of the Central American Isthmus separated the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans about 3 Ma, creating a formidable barrier to dispersal for marine species. However, similar to Simpson's proposal that terrestrial species can 'win sweepstakes routes'-whereby highly improbable dispersal events result in colonization across geographical barriers-marine species may also breach land barriers given enough time. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether intertidal marine snails have crossed Central America to successfully establish in new ocean basins. We used a mitochondrial DNA genetic comparison of sister snails (Cerithideopsis spp.) separated by the rise of the Isthmus. Genetic variation in these snails revealed evidence of at least two successful dispersal events between the Pacific and the Atlantic after the final closure of the Isthmus. A combination of ancestral area analyses and molecular dating techniques indicated that dispersal from the Pacific to the Atlantic occurred about 750 000 years ago and that dispersal in the opposite direction occurred about 72 000 years ago. The geographical distribution of haplotypes and published field evidence further suggest that migratory shorebirds transported the snails across Central America at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in southern Mexico. Migratory birds could disperse other intertidal invertebrates this way, suggesting the Central American Isthmus may not be as impassable for marine species as previously assumed. PMID:21920976

  8. Microgeographic evolution of snail shell shape and predator behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Menno Schilthuizen; Angelique van Til; Merijn Salverda; Thor-Seng Liew; S. Sheena James; Berjaya bin Elahan; Jaap J. Vermeulen

    2006-01-01

    AbstractGenetic divergence in geographically isolated populations is a prerequisite for allopatric speciation, one of the most common modes of speciation. In ecologically equivalent populations existing within a small, environmentally homogeneous area, an important role for environmentally neutral divergence is often found or inferred. We studied a species complex of conspicuously shaped Opisthostoma land snails on scattered limestone outcrops within a

  9. Lymnaea glabra: progressive increase in susceptibility to Fasciola hepatica through successive generations of experimentally infected snails.

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D; Teukeng, F F Djuikwo; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2015-07-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea glabra (two populations) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during seven successive snail generations, to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants of snails already infected with F. hepatica. Controls were descendants coming from uninfected parents and infected according to the same protocol. No larval forms were found in the bodies of control snails coming from uninfected parents. In contrast, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails originating from infected parents progressively increased from the F2 or F3 to the F6 generation of L. glabra. In another experiment carried out with the F7 generations of L. glabra and a single generation of Galba truncatula (as controls), the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the total number of cercariae were lower in L. glabra (without significant differences between both populations). If the number of cercariae shed by infected snails was compared to overall cercarial production noted in snails containing cercariae but dying without emission, the percentage was greater in G. truncatula (69% instead of 52-54% in L. glabra). Even if most characteristics of F. hepatica infection were lower in L. glabra, prevalence and intensity of parasite infection increased with snail generation when tested snails came from infected parents. This mode of snail infection with F. hepatica suggests an explanation for cases of fasciolosis occurring in cattle-breeding farms where paramphistomosis is lacking and G. truncatula is absent. PMID:24735873

  10. Trematode communities in snails can indicate impact and recovery from hurricanes in a tropical coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2011-11-01

    In September 2002, Hurricane Isidore devastated the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. To understand its effects on the parasites of aquatic organisms, we analyzed long-term monthly population data of the horn snail Cerithidea pliculosa and its trematode communities in Celestún, Yucatán, Mexico before and after the hurricane (February 2001 to December 2009). Five trematode species occurred in the snail population: Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Euhaplorchis californiensis, two species of the genus Renicola and one Heterophyidae gen. sp. Because these parasites use snails as first intermediate hosts, fishes as second intermediate hosts and birds as final hosts, their presence in snails depends on food webs. No snails were present at the sampled sites for 6 months after the hurricane. After snails recolonised the site, no trematodes were found in snails until 14 months after the hurricane. It took several years for snail and trematode populations to recover. Our results suggest that the increase in the occurrence of hurricanes predicted due to climate change can impact upon parasites with complex life cycles. However, both the snail populations and their parasite communities eventually reached numbers of individuals and species similar to those before the hurricane. Thus, the trematode parasites of snails can be useful indicators of coastal lagoon ecosystem degradation and recovery. PMID:22079832

  11. Pseudosuccinea columella: age resistance to Calicophoron daubneyi infection in two snail populations.

    PubMed

    Dar, Yasser; Rondelaud, Daniel; Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Individual infections of Egyptian and French Pseudosuccinea columella with five miracidia of Calicophoron daubneyi were carried out to determine whether this lymnaeid was capable of sustaining larval development of this parasite. On day 42 post-exposure (at 23 °C), infected snails were only noted in groups of individuals measuring 1 or 2 mm in height at miracidial exposure. Snail survival in the 2-mm groups was significantly higher than that noted in the 1-mm snails, whatever the geographic origin of snail population. In contrast, prevalence of C. daubneyi infection was significantly greater in the 1-mm groups (15-20% versus 3.4-4.0% in the 2-mm snails). Low values were noted for the mean shell growth of infected snails at their death (3.1-4.0 mm) and the mean number of cercariae (<9 in the 1-mm groups, <19 in the 2-mm snails). No significant differences between snail populations and snails groups were noted for these last two parameters. Most infected snails died after a single cercarial shedding wave. Both populations of P. columella showed an age resistance to C. daubneyi infection and only juveniles measuring 2 mm or less in shell height at exposure can ensure larval development of this digenean up to cercarial shedding. PMID:25664810

  12. Use of Bayluscide (Bayer 73) for Snail Control in Fish Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Francis-Floyd; James Gildea; Peggy Reed; Ruthellen Klinger

    1997-01-01

    Bayluscide applied to ponds on two commercial fish farms at five rates (from L1 to 13.5 kilogram per surface hectare) effectively controlled aquatic snails. Laboratory toxicity tests confirmed susceptibility of three endemic species of aquatic snail—Melanoides tuberculatus, Physella hendersoni, and Planorbella duryi—to Bayluscide. Observed 24-h concentrations lethal to 50% of snails (LC50) ranged from 0.062 to 0.085 mg\\/L, and 24-h

  13. Effects of dietary exposure to forest pesticides on the brown garden snail Helix aspersa mueller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Schuytema; A. V. Nebeker; W. L. Griffis

    1994-01-01

    Brown garden snails, Helix aspersa, were fed prepared diets with 12 pesticides used in forest spraying practices where endangered arboreal and terrestrial snails may be at risk. Acephate, atrazine, glyphosate, hexazinone, and picloram were not lethal at concentrations of 5,000 mg\\/kg in 14-day screening tests. The remaining seven pesticides, lethal to 13-100% of the tested snails at 5,000 mg\\/kg, were

  14. Snail and Sonic Hedgehog activation in neuroendocrine tumors of the ileum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Fendrich; Jens Waldmann; Farzad Esni; Annette Ramaswamy; Michael Mullendore; Malte Buchholz; Anirban Maitra; Georg Feldmann

    2007-01-01

    The transcription factor Snail represses E-cadherin and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process also exploited by invasive cancer cells. Aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) signaling was recently observed in a variety of epithelial cancers and it has been shown that the Hh target geneGli1 induces expression of Snail. In this study, we examined whether Snail and Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) are expressed in neuroendocrine

  15. Removal of corallivorous snails as a proactive tool for the conservation of acroporid corals.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dana E; Miller, Margaret W; Bright, Allan J; Cameron, Caitlin M

    2014-01-01

    Corallivorous snail feeding is a common source of tissue loss for the threatened coral, Acropora palmata, accounting for roughly one-quarter of tissue loss in monitored study plots over seven years. In contrast with larger threats such as bleaching, disease, or storms, corallivory by Coralliophila abbreviata is one of the few direct sources of partial mortality that may be locally managed. We conducted a field experiment to explore the effectiveness and feasibility of snail removal. Long-term monitoring plots on six reefs in the upper Florida Keys were assigned to one of three removal treatments: (1) removal from A. palmata only, (2) removal from all host coral species, or (3) no-removal controls. During the initial removal in June 2011, 436 snails were removed from twelve 150 m(2) plots. Snails were removed three additional times during a seven month "removal phase", then counted at five surveys over the next 19 months to track recolonization. At the conclusion, snails were collected, measured and sexed. Before-After-Control-Impact analysis revealed that both snail abundance and feeding scar prevalence were reduced in removal treatments compared to the control, but there was no difference between removal treatments. Recolonization by snails to baseline abundance is estimated to be 3.7 years and did not differ between removal treatments. Recolonization rate was significantly correlated with baseline snail abundance. Maximum snail size decreased from 47.0 mm to 34.6 mm in the removal treatments. The effort required to remove snails from A. palmata was 30 diver minutes per 150 m(2) plot, compared with 51 min to remove snails from all host corals. Since there was no additional benefit observed with removing snails from all host species, removals can be more efficiently focused on only A. palmata colonies and in areas where C. abbreviata abundance is high, to effectively conserve A. palmata in targeted areas. PMID:25469321

  16. Removal of corallivorous snails as a proactive tool for the conservation of acroporid corals

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Margaret W.; Bright, Allan J.; Cameron, Caitlin M.

    2014-01-01

    Corallivorous snail feeding is a common source of tissue loss for the threatened coral, Acropora palmata, accounting for roughly one-quarter of tissue loss in monitored study plots over seven years. In contrast with larger threats such as bleaching, disease, or storms, corallivory by Coralliophila abbreviata is one of the few direct sources of partial mortality that may be locally managed. We conducted a field experiment to explore the effectiveness and feasibility of snail removal. Long-term monitoring plots on six reefs in the upper Florida Keys were assigned to one of three removal treatments: (1) removal from A. palmata only, (2) removal from all host coral species, or (3) no-removal controls. During the initial removal in June 2011, 436 snails were removed from twelve 150 m2 plots. Snails were removed three additional times during a seven month “removal phase”, then counted at five surveys over the next 19 months to track recolonization. At the conclusion, snails were collected, measured and sexed. Before-After-Control-Impact analysis revealed that both snail abundance and feeding scar prevalence were reduced in removal treatments compared to the control, but there was no difference between removal treatments. Recolonization by snails to baseline abundance is estimated to be 3.7 years and did not differ between removal treatments. Recolonization rate was significantly correlated with baseline snail abundance. Maximum snail size decreased from 47.0 mm to 34.6 mm in the removal treatments. The effort required to remove snails from A. palmata was 30 diver minutes per 150 m2 plot, compared with 51 min to remove snails from all host corals. Since there was no additional benefit observed with removing snails from all host species, removals can be more efficiently focused on only A. palmata colonies and in areas where C. abbreviata abundance is high, to effectively conserve A. palmata in targeted areas. PMID:25469321

  17. Effects of dietary exposure to forest pesticides on the brown garden snail Helix aspersa Müller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Schuytema; A. V. Nebeker; W. L. Griffis

    1994-01-01

    Brown garden snails, Helix aspersa, were fed prepared diets with 12 pesticides used in forest spraying practices where endangered arboreal and terrestrial snails may be at risk. Acephate, atrazine, glyphosate, hexazinone, and picloram were not lethal at concentrations of 5,000 mg\\/kg in 14-day screening tests. The remaining seven pesticides, lethal to 13–100% of the tested snails at 5,000 mg\\/kg, were

  18. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (<3 m in depth) of the reservoir, then the total adult population in this impoundment is estimated to be 253,570 snails, and the total Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  19. Analysis of Snail1 function and regulation by Twist1 in palatal fusion

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenli; Zhang, Yanping; Ruest, L. Bruno; Svoboda, Kathy K. H.

    2013-01-01

    Palatal fusion is a tightly controlled process which comprises multiple cellular events, including cell movement and differentiation. Midline epithelial seam (MES) degradation is essential to palatal fusion. In this study, we analyzed the function of Snail1 during the degradation of the MES. We also analyzed the mechanism regulating the expression of the Snail1 gene in palatal shelves. Palatal explants treated with Snail1 siRNA did not degrade the MES and E-cadherin was not repressed leading to failure of palatal fusion. Transforming growth factor beta 3 (Tgf?3) regulated Snail1 mRNA, as Snail1 expression decreased in response to Tgf?3 neutralizing antibody and a PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Twist1, in collaboration with E2A factors, regulated the expression of Snail1. Twist1/E47 dimers bond to the Snail1 promoter to activate expression. Without E47, Twist1 repressed Snail1 expression. These results support the hypothesis that Tgf?3 may signal through Twist1 and then Snail1 to downregulate E-cadherin expression during palatal fusion. PMID:23424071

  20. The significance of the amoebocyte-producing organ in Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    Souza, Samaly Dos Santos; Andrade, Zilton Araújo

    2012-08-01

    In molluscs, internal defence against microorganisms is performed by a single cell type, i.e., the haemocyte or amoebocyte. The origin of these cells in Biomphalaria glabrata was initially thought to be localised within the vasculo-connective tissue. More recently, origin from a single organ, termed the amoebocyte-producing organ (APO), has been postulated based on the occurrence of hyperplasia and mitoses during Schistosoma mansoni infection. The present investigation represents a histological, immuno-histochemical and ultra-structural study of the B. glabrata APO, whereby histological identification was facilitated by means of collecting epithelial basophilic cells. These cells were comprised of single-cell layers that cover a portion of the stroma, which contains many small, round cells and haemolymph sinuses, as well as a small area of the pericardial surface of the reno-pericardial region. On occasion, this epithelial component vaguely resembled the vertebrate juxtaglomerular apparatus, which reinforces its presumed relationship to the kidney. Both in normal and infected molluscs, mitoses were only occasionally found. The present quantitative studies failed to demonstrate the presence of APO cellular hyperplasia, either in normal or schistosome-infected B. glabrata. Conversely, several structural details from the APO region in B. glabrata were found to be consistent with the hypothesis that the APO is a filtration organ, i.e., it is more closely related to the kidney rather than the bone marrow, as has been suggested in the literature. PMID:22850949

  1. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40? ? g·mL(-1) (11.1460? ? g·mL(-1) and 25.8689? ? g·mL(-1), resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40? ? g·mL(-1) (29.018? ? g·mL(-1) and 17.230? ? g·mL(-1), resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277? ? g·mL(-1) and 706.990? ? g·mL(-1)) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  2. Structure of mega-hemocyanin reveals protein origami in snails.

    PubMed

    Gatsogiannis, Christos; Hofnagel, Oliver; Markl, Jürgen; Raunser, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Mega-hemocyanin is a 13.5 MDa oxygen transporter found in the hemolymph of some snails. Similar to typical gastropod hemocyanins, it is composed of 400 kDa building blocks but has additional 550 kDa subunits. Together, they form a large, completely filled cylinder. The structural basis for this highly complex protein packing is not known so far. Here, we report the electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) structure of mega-hemocyanin complexes from two different snail species. The structures reveal that mega-hemocyanin is composed of flexible building blocks that differ in their conformation, but not in their primary structure. Like a protein origami, these flexible blocks are optimally packed, implementing different local symmetries and pseudosymmetries. A comparison between the two structures suggests a surprisingly simple evolutionary mechanism leading to these large oxygen transporters. PMID:25482543

  3. Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Bennetts, R.E.; Morton, Alexandra

    1997-01-01

    Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century (Rood et al. 1993). Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem's food web. Recent research by Malley et al. (1996) has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida.

  4. Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)

    SciTech Connect

    Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A. [National Biological Services, Laurel, MD (United States)] [National Biological Services, Laurel, MD (United States); Bennetts, R.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century. Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem`s food web. Recent research by Malley et al. has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Neurohormonal control of cardiac activity in the snail, Helix aspersa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip E. Lloyd

    1978-01-01

    1.The characteristics of a cardioactive peptide(s), LCP, were investigated in the snail,Helix aspersa, to determine if LCP functions as a neurohormone.2.Fractionation of isotonic homogenates of the auricle and sub-esophageal ganglia indicate that LCP is associated with microsomal elements, probably granules observed in electron micrographs of the microsomal pellets.3.Ligation experiments carried out under culture conditions suggest that LCP is transported from

  6. K + Channels in Cardiomyocytes of the Pulmonate Snail Helix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Kodirov; V. L. Zhuravlev; V. K. Pavlenko; T. A. Safonova; J. Brachmann

    2004-01-01

    We used the patch-clamp technique to identify and characterize the electrophysiological, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of K + channels in enzymatically dissociated ventricular cells of the land pulmonate snail Helix. The family of outward K + currents started to activate at -30 mV and the activation was faster at more depolarized potentials (time constants: at 0 mV 17.4 ± 1.2

  7. Determinants of paternity in the garden snail Helix aspersa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Rogers; Ronald Chase

    2002-01-01

    Despite the likely importance of post-copulatory sexual selection in simultaneous hermaphrodites, the factors influencing sperm competition in these organisms are generally unknown. We have investigated the effects of dart-shooting, mating order, and several other predictors on the proportion of offspring fathered by penultimate (Pn-1) and ultimate (Pn) sperm donors in multiply mated garden snails, Helix aspersa. While paternity ratios were

  8. Effect of Glyphosate on the Development of Pseudosuccinea columella Snails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Tate; J. O. Spurlock; F. A. Christian

    1997-01-01

    .   Glyphosate (Roundup) is one of the most commonly used broad-spectrum herbicides with little to no hazard to animals, man,\\u000a or the environment. Due to its widespread use, there is continuous contamination of the environment in both soil and water\\u000a with this herbicide. There is a paucity of long-term exposure studies with sublethal concentrations of glyphosate on aquatic\\u000a snails. This

  9. Impact of cigarette butt leachate on tidepool snails.

    PubMed

    Booth, David J; Gribben, Paul; Parkinson, Kerryn

    2015-06-15

    In urban areas, cigarette butts are the most common discarded refuse articles. In marine intertidal zones, they often fall into tidepools. We tested how common intertidal molluscs were affected by butt leachate in a laboratory experiment, where snails were exposed to various leachate concentrations. Mortality was very high, with all species showing 100% mortality at the full leachate concentration (5 butts per litre and 2h soak time) after 8days. However, Austrocochlea porcata showed higher mortality than the other 2 species at lower concentrations (10%, 25%) which may affect the relative abundance of the 3 snails under different concentrations of leachate pollution. Also, sublethal effects of leachate on snail activity were observed, with greater activity of Nerita atramentosa than the other 2 species at higher concentrations, suggesting it is more resilient than the other 2 species. While human health concerns predominate with respect to smoking, we show strong lethal and sublethal (via behavioural modifications) impacts of discarded butts on intertidal organisms, with even closely-related taxa responding differently. PMID:25913792

  10. Phenoloxidase activity of Helix aspersa maxima (garden snail, gastropod) hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Raynova, Yuliana; Doumanova, Lyuba; Idakieva, Krassimira Nikolova

    2013-12-01

    The oxygen-transporting protein, hemocyanin (Hc), of the garden snail Helix aspersa maxima (HaH) was isolated and kinetically characterized. Kinetic parameters of the reaction of catalytic oxidation of catechol to quinone, catalyzed by native HaH were determined: the V max value amounted to 22 nmol min(-1) mg(-1), k cat to 1.1 min(-1). Data were compared to those reported for other molluscan Hcs and phenoloxidases (POs). The o-diphenoloxidase activity of the native HaH is about five times higher than the activity determined for the Hcs of the terrestrial snail Helix pomatia and of the marine snail Rapana thomasiana (k cat values of 0.22 and 0.25 min(-1), respectively). The K m values obtained for molluscan Hcs from different species are comparable to those for true POs, but the low catalytic efficiency of Hcs is probably related to inaccessibility of the active sites to potential substrates. Upon treatment of HaH with subtilisin DY, the enzyme activity against substrate catechol was considerably increased. The relatively high proteolytically induced o-diPO activity of HaH allowed using it for preparation of a biosensor for detection of catechol. PMID:24243490

  11. Neuron, Vol. 32, 173176, October 25, 2001, Copyright 2001 by Cell Press Of Snakes, Snails, and Surrogates

    E-print Network

    Kasher, Roni

    Neuron, Vol. 32, 173­176, October 25, 2001, Copyright 2001 by Cell Press Previews Of Snakes, Snails that are conservative substitutes.water snail. The kraits and other elapid snakes lunch on vertebrate prey

  12. THE BIOCIDE TRIBUTYLTIN REDUCES THE ACCUMULATION OF TESTOSTERONE AS FATTY ACID ESTERS IN THE MUD SNAIL (ILYANASSA OBSOLETA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Imposex, the development of male sex characteristics by female gonochoristic snails, has been documented globally and is causally associated with exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT). Elevated testosterone levels in snails also are associated wit...

  13. Biomphalaria glabrata embryonic cells express a protein with a domain homologous to the lectin domain of mammalian selectins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Duclermortier; V. Lardans; E. Serra; F. Trottein; C. Dissous

    1999-01-01

    We have cloned from Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, a 36-kDa apparent-molecular-mass molecule (BgSel) that shares sequence identity with selectins of the cell-adhesion-molecule\\u000a superfamily. BgSel exhibited in its C-terminal part a putative C-type lectin domain similar to the selectin lectin domain.\\u000a Using antibodies to the recombinant BgSel protein, we demonstrated the presence of BgSel

  14. Aquatic snails from mining sites have evolved to detect and avoid heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Lefcort, H; Abbott, D P; Cleary, D A; Howell, E; Keller, N C; Smith, M M

    2004-05-01

    Toxicants in polluted environments are often patchily distributed. Hence, rather than being passive absorbers of pollution, some organisms have evolved the ability to detect and avoid toxicants. We studied the avoidance behavior of Physella columbiana, an aquatic pulmonate snail, in a pond that has been polluted with heavy metals for more than 120 years. Populations of this snail are rare at reference sites and are only robust at heavy-metal-polluted sites. We hypothesized that the snails are able to persist because they have evolved the ability to minimize their exposure to metals by actively avoiding metals in their environment. Using a Y-maze flow tank, we tested the avoidance behavior of snails to heavy-metal-polluted sediments and single-metal solutions of cadmium, zinc, or lead. We also tested the avoidance behaviors of the snails' laboratory-reared offspring raised in nonpolluted conditions. In addition, we tested the avoidance behavior of a small population of snails from a reference pond. Although all the snails we tested were able to detect low concentrations of heavy metals, we found that snails from the polluted site were the most sensitive, that their offspring were somewhat less sensitive, and that snails from the reference site were the least sensitive. This suggests that the ability of polluted-site snails to avoid heavy metals is both genetic and environmental. The concentrations of metals avoided by the snails from the polluted site were below the levels found at hot spots within their natal pond. The snails may be able to persist at this site because they decrease their exposure by moving to less-polluted sections of the pond. One application of our findings is the use of aquatic snails and our Y-maze design as an inexpensive pollution detector. Environmental pollutants such as lead, zinc, and arsenic are a problem throughout the world. People in underdeveloped countries often lack sophisticated pollution detection devices. We have developed a behavioral assay of aquatic pollution that is easy to use, is extremely sensitive (detection below 10 ppb), and can be constructed for fewer than 100 US dollars. Pulmonate snails are widely distributed in tropical, subtropical, and temperate parts of the globe, and they are often common in polluted waters. For countries such as India and Bangladesh, which must test thousands of shallow wells for possible contamination with heavy metals, our assay would be a good initial test. Once snails detected metals, then those samples could be confirmed by spectrometers. We encourage scientists in underdeveloped nations to consider our assay as an option. PMID:15253045

  15. Snails from heavy-metal polluted environments have reduced sensitivity to carbon dioxide-induced acidity.

    PubMed

    Lefcort, Hugh; Cleary, David A; Marble, Aaron M; Phillips, Morgan V; Stoddard, Timothy J; Tuthill, Lara M; Winslow, James R

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 reacts with water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) which increases water acidity. While marine acidification has received recent consideration, less attention has been paid to the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on freshwater systems-systems that often have low buffering potential. Since many aquatic systems are already impacted by pollutants such as heavy metals, we wondered about the added effect of rising atmospheric CO2 on freshwater organisms. We studied aquatic pulmonate snails (Physella columbiana) from both a heavy-metal polluted watershed and snails from a reference watershed that has not experienced mining pollution. We used gaseous CO2 to increase water acidity and we then measured changes in antipredatory behavior and also survival. We predicted a simple negative additive effect of low pH. We hypothesized that snails from metal-polluted environments would be physiologically stressed and impaired due to defense responses against heavy metals. Instead, snails from populations that acclimated or evolved in the presence of heavy metal mining pollution were more robust to acidic conditions than were snails from reference habitats. Snails from mining polluted sites seemed to be preadapted to a low pH environment. Their short-term survival in acidic conditions was better than snails from reference sites that lacked metal pollution. In fact, the 48 h survival of snails from polluted sites was so high that it did not significantly differ from the 24 h survival of snails from control sites. This suggests that the response of organisms to a world with rising anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels may be complex and difficult to predict. Snails had a weaker behavioral response to stressful stimuli if kept for 1 month at a pH that differed from their lake of origin. We found that snails raised at a pH of 5.5 had a weaker response (less of a decrease in activity) to concentrated heavy metals than did snails raised at their natal pH of 6.5. Furthermore, snails raised a pH of 5.5, 6.0, and 7.0 all had a weaker antipredatory response to an extract of crushed snail cells than did the pH 6.5 treatment snails. PMID:26090314

  16. Phosphorylated P68 RNA Helicase Activates Snail1 Transcription by Promoting HDAC1 Dissociation from the Snail1 Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Christie L.; Lin, Chunru; Liu, Chia-yi; Yang, Liuqing; Liu, Zhi-Ren

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear p68 RNA helicase is a prototypical member of the DEAD box family of RNA helicases. P68 RNA helicase has been implicated in cell proliferation and early organ development and maturation. However, the functional role of p68 RNA helicase in these biological processes at the molecular level is not well understood. We previously reported that tyrosine phosphorylation of p68 RNA helicase mediates the effects of PDGF in induction of EMT by promoting ?-catenin nuclear translocation (Yang et.al. Cell 127:139-155 2006). Here we report that phosphorylation of p68 RNA helicase at Y593 up-regulates transcription of the Snail1 gene. The phosphorylated p68 activates transcription of the Snail1 gene by promoting HDAC1 dissociation from the Snail1 promoter. Our results showed that p68 interacted with the nuclear remodeling and deacetylation complex MBD3:Mi-2/NuRD. Thus, our data suggested that a DEAD box RNA unwindase can potentially regulate gene expression by functioning as a protein ‘displacer’ to modulate protein-protein interactions at the chromatin remodeling complex. PMID:20676135

  17. The effect of isolation on reproduction and growth of Pseudosuccinea columella (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae): a snail-conditioned water experiment.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Alfredo; Yong, Mary; Wong, Lin; Sánchez, Jorge

    2002-09-01

    A snail-conditioned water experiment was conducted in Pseudosuccinea columella to test the possible role of a chemical interaction between snails on the diminished growth and fecundity rates found for snails raised in pairs compared to those raised in complete isolation. The results permit to discard the hypothesis of an inhibition of growth and reproduction between snails due to factors released into the water. PMID:12386712

  18. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I-- Metropolitan mesoregion.

    PubMed

    Thiengo, S C; Fernandez, M A; Boaventura, M F; Grault, C E; Silva, H F; Mattos, A C; Santos, S B

    2001-01-01

    In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954); Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818); Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864); Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848); Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835); Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835); Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839); Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839); Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962); Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774); Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822); Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823). Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well. PMID:11586447

  19. Survival of the Faucet Snail after Chemical Disinfection, pH extremes, and Heated Water Bath Treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Mitchell; Rebecca A. Cole

    2008-01-01

    The faucet snail Bithynia tentaculata, a nonindigenous aquatic snail from Eurasia, was introduced into Lake Michigan in 1871 and has spread to the mid-Atlantic states, the Great Lakes region, Montana, and most recently, the Mississippi River. The faucet snail serves as intermediate host for several trematodes that have caused large-scale mortality among water birds, primarily in the Great Lakes region

  20. Temperature Tolerance of Red-Rim Melania Melanoides tuberculatus, an Exotic Aquatic Snail Established in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Mitchell; Thomas M. Brandt

    2005-01-01

    The red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus (family Thiaridae), a tropical, nonindigenous aquatic snail, has become established and is spreading in the United States. Concerns associated with the spread of this snail include its potential to displace native snail populations and to transmit trematodes. Of particular concern is the gill trematode Centrocestus formosanus now found in U.S. commercial and wild fish stocks.

  1. Measuring Animal Movements in a Natural Ecosystem: A Mark-Recapture Investigation Using Stream-Dwelling Snails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Timothy W.

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, students measure and describe movements of animals in a natural ecosystem. Students mark stream-dwelling snails with nail polish, then search for these snails 1-7 days later. Distances and directions moved by recaptured snails are recorded. Simple statistical techniques are used to answer specific research questions and…

  2. Increased response to cadmium and Bacillus thuringiensis maize toxicity in the snail Helix aspersa infected by the nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita.

    PubMed

    Kramarz, Paulina E; de Vaufleury, Annette; Zygmunt, Piotr M S; Verdun, Cyrille

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effect of nematode infection on the response of snails to selected toxins, we infected Helix aspersa with 0-, 0.25-, 1-, or 4-fold the recommended field dose of a commercial nematode application for agricultural use. In the first experiment, the snails also were exposed to cadmium via food and soil at concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 120, or 240 mg/kg in a full-factorial design. In the second experiment, snails were infected with nematodes and also fed either Bt (expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) maize or non-Bt maize. The snails were weighed at the beginning and end (after four weeks) of the experiments, and mortality was checked daily. Neither exposure of snails to nematodes nor exposure of snails to cadmium or Bt toxin affected the survival rates of snails. The number of dead snails was highest for combinations of nematode treatments with cadmium concentrations of 120 and 240 mg/kg. In both experiments (Bt and cadmium), the growth rate decreased with increasing nematode dose. The Bt maize was not harmful to the snails in the absence of nematodes, but infected snails grew faster when fed non-Bt maize. The growth rate of snails exposed to cadmium decreased with exposure to increasing Cd concentrations and differed significantly between the no-nematode treatment and the treatments with nematode doses of one- and fourfold the recommended field dose. Snails treated with the highest dose of nematodes accumulated the highest cadmium concentrations. PMID:17269462

  3. Hormetic effects of heavy metals in aquatic snails: is a little bit of pollution good?

    PubMed

    Lefcort, Hugh; Freedman, Zachary; House, Sherman; Pendleton, Mathew

    2008-03-01

    Hormesis is the term to describe a stimulatory effects associated with a low dose of a potentially toxic substance or stress. We had anecdotal evidence of hormetic effects in some of our previous experiments concerning the influence of heavy metals on aquatic snail growth and recruitment. We therefore repeated a version of an earlier experiment but this time we expanded our low-dose treatments and increased our sample size. We also explored if metals had a hormetic effect on algae periphyton. We raised snails in outdoor mini-ecosystems containing lead, zinc, and cadmium-contaminated soil from an Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site in the Silver Valley of northern Idaho. The snails came from two sites. One population (Physella columbiana) has evolved for 120 years in the presence of heavy metals and one (Lymnaea palustris) has not. We found that P. columbiana exhibited hormesis with snails exposed to small amounts of metals exhibiting more reproduction and growth than snails not exposed to metals. Naturally occurring Oscillatoria algae also exhibited a hormetic effect of heavy metals but L. palustris did not display hormesis. Large doses negatively impacted all three species. Overall the levels of cadmium, lead, and zinc measured in the tissues of the snails were inversely correlated to the number of snails recruited into the tub populations. Only in comparisons of the lowest metal treatment to the control treatment is a positive effect detected. Indirect effects on competing species of snails, periphyton, and also fishermen, may be less favorable. PMID:18648792

  4. Aquatic Snails from Mining Sites Have Evolved to Detect and Avoid Heavy Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lefcort; D. P. Abbott; D. A. Cleary; E. Howell; N. C. Keller; M. M. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Toxicants in polluted environments are often patchily distributed. Hence, rather than being passive absorbers of pollution, some organisms have evolved the ability to detect and avoid toxicants. We studied the avoidance behavior of Physella columbiana, an aquatic pulmonate snail, in a pond that has been polluted with heavy metals for more than 120 years. Populations of this snail are rare

  5. Morphology of Interneurons in the Procerebrum of the Snail Helix aspersa

    E-print Network

    Chase, Ronald

    Terrestrial snails have a highly developed sense of olfaction. Because the procerebrum has a large number:359­372, 1997. r 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Indexing terms: olfaction; cerebral ganglion; gastropod mollusc; biocytin for the successful adaptation of snails to a terrestrial environment, where olfaction is important for their survival

  6. Antinociceptive effects of a pulsed magnetic field in the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex W. Thomas; Martin Kavaliers; Frank S Prato; Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp

    1997-01-01

    Pulsed magnetic fields (patent pending) consisting of approximately 100 ?T (peak), frequency modulated, extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELFMF) were shown to induce a significant degree of antinociception (`analgesia') in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis. Fifteen minute exposures to a specific magnetic field both increased enkephalinase inhibitor induced opioid analgesia and induced analgesia in untreated snails. Injection of the prototypic

  7. Effects of desiccation on two life stages of an invasive snail and its native cohabitant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison M. Wood; Cody R. Haro; Roger J. Haro; Gregory J. Sandland

    Invasive species are of critical concern as they have the potential to rapidly alter biotic systems around the globe. The\\u000a upper Mississippi River (UMR) system has been recently invaded by the aquatic snail, Bithynia tentaculata, which spread from the Great Lakes region. In addition to potentially impacting native aquatic snails, B. tentaculata also carries three parasites which kill thousands of

  8. Larval stages of digenetic trematodes in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from freshwater bodies in Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Bdir, Sami; Adwan, Ghaleb

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detect the species of larval trematodes (cercariae) in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from 5 different fresh water bodies in Palestine. Methods A total of 1 880 Melanopsis praemorsa snails were collected from different fresh water bodies in Palestine from October, 2008 to November, 2010. Cercariae in Melanopsis praemorsa snails were obtained by lighting and crushing methods. The behavior of cercariae was observed using a dissecting microscope. Results Three different species of larval trematodes were identified from Melanopsis praemorsa snails collected only from Al-Bathan fresh water body, while snails from other water bodies were not infected. These species were microcercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria and brevifurcate lophocercous cercaria. These cercariae called Cercaria melanopsi palestinia I, Cercaria melanopsi palestinia II and Cercaria melanopsi palestinia III have not been described before from this snail in Palestine. The infection rate of Melanopsis praemorsa collected from Al-Bathan fresh water body was 5.7%, while the overall infection rate of snails collected from all fresh water bodies was 4.3%. Details are presented on the morphology and behavior of the cercariae as well as their development within the snail. Conclusions These results have been recorded for the first time and these cercariae may be of medical and veterinary importance. PMID:23569759

  9. Oviposition in land snails requires the successful completion of several metabolically costly processes, including oogenesis,

    E-print Network

    Chase, Ronald

    the optimized conditions of a breeding farm, only 13% of snails Helix aspersa oviposit more than once every of Biologists Ltd doi:10.1242/jeb.00625 Because oviposition in the land snail Helix aspersa is a metabolically). Clutch sizes in H. aspersa vary considerably between populations and under different conditions

  10. Snail ( Helix aspersa ) exposure history and possible adaptation to lead as reflected in shell composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Newman; M. Mulvey; A. Beeby; R. W. Hurst; L. Richmond

    1994-01-01

    Lead sequestration in shell was examined for English and Welsh populations of the common garden snail (Helix aspersa) with different Pb exposure histories. Isotopic Pb ratios provided signatures for Pb source and a means of implying duration of population exposure from decades to millennia. Total Pb concentrations were used to quantify the intensity of exposure experienced by the populations. Snails

  11. THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL TREATMENTS ON MELANOIDES TUBERCULATUS, A SNAIL THAT VECTORS AN IMPORTANT FISH TREMATODE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, Melanoides tuberculatus is a nonindigenous aquatic snail that vectors a trematode infecting both cultured and wild fish species. This snail is now found in 16 states and among other ways is believed to be spread from place to place by the use of contaminated fisheries equipmen...

  12. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE RAMS-HORN SNAIL IN COMMERCIAL FISH PONDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trematodes can cause massive infections in fish. The most promising approach for the control of these infections is the reduction or elimination of snails that vector these parasites. This poster is a summary of information from several research efforts aimed at controlling rams-horn snails in com...

  13. Acetylation and hydroxylation of sulphatroxazole in the snail Cepaea hortensis and the slug Arion rufus.

    PubMed

    Vree, T B; Vree, M L; Nouws, J F

    1987-01-01

    The snail Cepaea hortensis can acetylate and hydroxylate sulphatroxazole via a pathway similar to that in man. The principal metabolic pathways, in order of decreasing rate, are hydroxylation, glucuronidation and acetylation. The slug Arion rufus also can acetylate and hydroxylate sulphatroxazole, although, in contrast to the snail, is rate of acetylation is higher than that of hydroxylation. PMID:3564322

  14. Acetylation and hydroxylation of sulphatroxazole in the snail Cepaea hortensis and the slug Arion rufus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. B. Vree; M. L. Vree; J. F. M. Nouws

    1987-01-01

    The snail Cepaea hortensis can acetylate and hydroxylate sulphatroxazole via a pathway similar to that in man. The principal metabolic pathways, in order of decreasing rate, are hydroxylation, glucuronidation and acetylation. The slug Anion rufus also can acetylate and hydroxylate sulphatroxazole, although, in contrast to the snail, is rate of acetylation is higher than that of hydroxylation.

  15. Biological, biochemical, and molecular parameters of Helisoma duryi snails exposed to the pesticides Malathion and Deltamethrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fayez A. Bakry; Wafaa S. Hasheesh; Salwa A. H. Hamdi

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic environments get contaminated with pesticides residues that result from the application of pesticides in agricultural practices. The present study aimed to evaluate the pesticides Malathion and Deltamethrin on biological and biochemical parameters of Helisoma duryi snails. The results showed that LC10 of the two pesticides caused considerable reduction in survival rates and egg production of treated snails. Glucose concentration

  16. Freshwater snail diversity: effects of pond area, habitat heterogeneity and isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christer Brönmark

    1985-01-01

    A large number of eutrophic ponds were surveyed for the presence of freshwater gastropods. Factors thought to influence the distribution of the snails were evaluated. As the investigated area has a homogeneous geological background physicochemical factors probably have a low effect on the local distribution of snails. There was a significant, positive regression between pond area and the number of

  17. A molecular phylogeography approach to biological invasions of the New World by parthenogenetic Thiarid snails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. FACON; J.-P. POINTIER; M. GLAUBRECHT; C. POUX; P. JARNE; P. DAVID

    2003-01-01

    The parthenogenetic snail Melanoides tuberculata , present in tropical fresh waters of most of the Old World before 1950, has now invaded the Neotropical area. The phylogeography of this snail was studied to evaluate the pathways and number of such invasions. Because of parthenogenetic reproduction, individuals are structured into genetical clones. Within populations from both the original and invaded areas,

  18. Demographic Processes Influencing Population Viability of the Iowa Pleistocene snail (Discus macclintocki)

    E-print Network

    Clark, William R.

    Demographic Processes Influencing Population Viability of the Iowa Pleistocene snail (Discus Pleistocene snails (Discus macclintocki) using the robust mark-recapture design to estimate population size will likely affect survival of adults and persistence of the populations. INTRODUCTION The Iowa Pleistocene

  19. Physiological response to low temperature in the freshwater apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).

    PubMed

    Matsukura, Keiichiro; Tsumuki, Hisaaki; Izumi, Yohei; Wada, Takashi

    2009-08-01

    Cold hardiness of the freshwater apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, varies seasonally. We investigated lethal factors and physiological changes arising from exposure of P. canaliculata to low temperatures. Snails did not survive freezing. The supercooling point of cold-acclimated (cold tolerant) snails (-6.6+/-0.8 degrees C) did not differ significantly from that of non-acclimated ones (-7.1+/-1.5 degrees C) under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, snails died even under more moderately low temperatures approaching 0 degrees C. These results indicate that indirect chilling injury is a factor in the death of P. canaliculata at low temperatures. Regardless of whether the snails were acclimated to low temperatures, all of the dead, and even some of the snails still alive at 0 degrees C, had injured mantles, indicating that the mantle may be the organ most susceptible to the effects of low temperatures. The concentration of glucose in the posterior chamber of the kidney and concentration of glycerol in the digestive gland were significantly higher in cold-acclimated snails than in non-acclimated ones, suggesting carbohydrate metabolic pathways are altered in snails during cold acclimation. PMID:19648400

  20. Fluoride accumulation in the land snail Oreohelix subrudis from western Montana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. P. Hammer; R. B. Brumson

    1975-01-01

    Land snails of the species Oreohelix subrudis (Pfeiffer Reeve, 1854) were collected and analyzed for their fluoride content. The snails were collected within a region in western Montana that is known to be contaminated with gaseous and particulate fluoride emissions from an aluminum reduction plant. Analyses of the specimens revealed that fluoride accumulation had occurred within the shells and to

  1. Local adaptation of the trematode Fasciola hepatica to the snail Galba truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Dreyfuss, G.; Vignoles, P.; Rondelaud, D.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental infections of six riverbank populations of Galba truncatula with Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine if the poor susceptibility of these populations to this digenean might be due to the scarcity or the absence of natural encounters between these snails and the parasite. The first three populations originated from banks frequented by cattle in the past (riverbank group) whereas the three others were living on islet banks without any known contact with local ruminants (islet group). After their exposure, all snails were placed in their natural habitats from the end of October up to their collection at the beginning of April. Compared to the riverbank group, snails, which died without cercarial shedding clearly predominated in the islet group, while the other infected snails were few in number. Most of these last snails released their cercariae during a single shedding wave. In islet snails dissected after their death, the redial and cercarial burdens were significantly lower than those noted in riverbank G. truncatula. Snails living on these islet banks are thus able to sustain larval development of F. hepatica. The modifications noted in the characteristics of snail infection suggest the existence of an incomplete adaptation between these G. truncatula and the parasite, probably due to the absence of natural contact between host and parasite. PMID:22910670

  2. A repetitive DNA probe for the sensitive detection of Fasciola hepatica infected snails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Kaplan; J. B. Dame; G. R. Reddy; C. H. Courtney

    1995-01-01

    Epizootiologic studies on F. hepatica frequently use microscopic techniques for the detection of infected snails, however, the poor efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity associated with these techniques limit their usefulness. A DNA-based test for the identification of snails infected with larval stages of F. hepatica would solve these problems and enable a level of detection accuracy previosly unavailable. We have cloned

  3. Detection of Fasciola gigantica infection in snails by polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Velusamy; B. P Singh; O. K Raina

    2004-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Fasciola gigantica infection in the snail intermediate host. Fasciola specific primers amplified a 124bp fragment in PCR when the genomic DNA isolated from F. gigantica infected Lymnaea auricularia snails was used as template. In addition to the 124bp amplicon, a ladder of DNA fragments representing amplification of the 124bp repetitive sequences was

  4. JUVENILE SNAILS, ADULT APPETITES: CONTRASTING RESOURCE CONSUMPTION BETWEEN TWO SPECIES OF APPLESNAILS

    E-print Network

    Burks, Romi

    crassipes (water hyacinth). In addition, we added chemical extracts to reconstituted watermilfoil and water reconstituted resources. All snails, regardless of life-history stage, avoided water hyacinth in either form. Chemical extracts from both water hyacinth and watermilfoil deterred consumption by all snails. When

  5. Dry down impacts on apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) demography: Implications for wetland water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa Say) are prey for several wetland-dependent predators, most notably for the endangered Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis Vieillot). Management concerns for kites have been raised regarding the impacts of wetland dry downs on snails, but little data exists to validate these concerns. We simulated drying events in experimental tanks, where we observed that snail survival patterns, regardless of hydrology, were driven by a post-reproductive die off. In contrast to earlier reports of little to no dry down tolerance, we found that 70% of pre-reproductive adult-sized snails survived a 12-week dry down. Smaller size classes of snails exhibited significantly lower survival rates (< 50% after eight weeks dry). Field surveys showed that 77% of egg production occurs in April-June. Our hydrologic analyses of six peninsular Florida wetlands showed that most dry downs overlapped a portion of the peak snail breeding season, and 70% of dry downs were ??? 12 weeks in duration. Dry down timing can affect recruitment by truncating annual egg production and stranding juveniles. Dry down survival rates and seasonal patterns of egg cluster production helped define a range of hydrologic conditions that support robust apple snail populations, and illustrate why multiple characteristics of dry down events should be considered in developing target hydrologic regimes for wetland fauna. ?? 2008, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  6. CONTROLLING THE SPREAD OF NEW ZEALAND MUD SNAILS ON WADING GEAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Hosea; Brian Finlayson

    SUMMARY New Zealand mud snails were first reported in Europe during the 1800s and in North America (Idaho) in 1987. Mud snails quickly colonize habitable waters, and they were first discovered in the Owens River in Eastern California in late 1999 and have since spread to the Mokelumne, Calaveras, and Napa rivers, as well as Rush, Hot and Putah creeks.

  7. Herbivory on aquatic vascular plants by the introduced golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata ) in Lao PDR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils O. L. Carlsson; Jean O. Lacoursière

    2005-01-01

    The effect of naturally found densities of the exotic and herbivorous golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) on three dominant aquatic plants – duckweed (Lemna minor), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica) – was assessed in a wetland survey and quantified in a field experiment in Laos in southeast Asia. Snail grazing reduced plant biomass, but plant species

  8. The effects of desiccation and starvation upon the weight, histology and ultrastructure of the reproductive tract of Biomphalaria glabrata , intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marijke Jong-Brink

    1973-01-01

    The effects of desiccation (36 weeks), starvation (12 weeks) and recovery (4 weeks following 16 weeks of desiccation and 2 weeks following 9 weeks of starvation) upon the accessory sex glands and some other body parts of Biomphalaria glabrata were studied by means of weighing experiments and histochemical and ultrastructural methods.

  9. Why are there few algae on snail shells? The effects of grazing, nutrients and shell chemistry on the algae on shells of Helisoma trivolvis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LINDSEY L. ABBOTT; ELIZABETH A. BERGEY

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. Freshwater snails often lack visible growths of algae on their shells. We tested three possible mechanisms that may account for this (grazing, snail-derived nutrients and chemical defences), using the ramshorn snail Helisoma trivolvis. 2. The experiments were carried out in floating plastic enclosures in a pond and comprised seven treatments. Grazing treatments were: a lone snail (ungrazed, as

  10. Snails and slugs damaging the cut foliage, Cordyline fruticosa and use of biorationals towards their management.

    PubMed

    Karthiga, S; Jegathambigai, V; Karunarathne, M D S D; Svinningen, A; Mikunthan, G

    2012-01-01

    Snails and slugs became a serious molluscan pests and damaging leaves of purple compacta, Cordyline fruticosa extensively grown for export at Green Farm Ltd, Sri Lanka. The export quality of leaves of C. fruticosa is lowered due to feeding of snails, Achantina fulica (Bowditch), Opeas pyrgula Schmacker and Boettgerx and Helix aspersa Muller and slugs incurring great loss to cut foliage industry. Paucity of information is available to understand snails and slugs damage and their host range that limits to develop suitable management practices. Therefore this study was aimed to determine damage, alternate hosts and to develop possible management practices. Snails and slugs damaged mainly fresh leaves of C. fruticosa. The severity of damage was 44.5% in infested field based on the visual rating method. Leaves of cassava, sting bean, okra, cucumber, passion fruit, papaya, Glyricidia and shoe flower were identified as alternate hosts and neem, Ixora and Dracaena spp were not served as alternate hosts. Among the plant materials tested for their repellence against snails and slugs revealed that neem seed powder was an irritant; neem leaves, mint leaves and Lantana leaves were acted as anti-feedant and Salt as chemical repellent. Among the barrier and bait experiments Bordeaux mixture exhibited a significant barrier effect against horizontal movement of snails. Baits made out of Metaldehyde bait, vegetables bait and jaggery had a strong effect in repelling the snails and slugs. Mulching with Madhuca longifolia punnac was the best to reduce the snails and slugs population compared to M. longifolia seed kernel powder. Oil from M. longifolia failed to reduce their population. Hence the results revealed that saponin containing M. longifolia punnac helped to eliminate snails and slugs when used as mulch. Metaldehyde, vegetable and jaggery baits are also useful to minimize their colonization further. Hence combination of these methods will help to prevent snails and slugs from damaging C. fruticosa and benefit to the cut foliage industry to sustain its export quality. PMID:23885439

  11. Occurrence of a Snail Borne Disease, Cercarial Dermatitis (Swimmer Itch) in Doon Valley (Uttarakhand), India

    PubMed Central

    JAUHARI, Rakesh Kumar; NONGTHOMBAM, Pemola Devi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background ‘Cercarial dermatitis’ also known as swimmers itch (Skin allergies) is caused by a trematode parasite, Schistosoma which has two hosts - an invertebrate (snail) and a vertebrate (livestock, human being). Although the availability of both vector snails and pathogens at the selected site the Doon Valley in northern India has already been confirmed but there was a hazy picture of the disease, whether it is due to entrance of cercariae or due to wild variety of grass (Parthenium hysterophorus). The present study is an attempt to provide a way forward towards the vector snails and snail borne diseases in the study area. Methods Snail sampling and identification was done by applying standard methods / using Keys & Catalogues. Associated parasites and cercariometry in snails has been worked out by cercarial shedding. Human involvement at zo-onotic level has been performed in collaboration with Health centers and socio- economic aspect of inhabitants of study area. Results The snail diversity encountered 19 species including the vector species such as Indoplanorbis exustus, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Melanoides tuberculata and Lymnaea acuminata. The cercarial diversity comprised Furcocercous, Monostome, Amphistome and liver fluke / Xiphidiocercaria. During the study (2009–2010), 0.173% was found with cercarial dermatitis among human population in the selected area. The symptoms of disease recorded were red spots and swellings on effected parts of skin. Frequent visits of livestock to the water body and presence of vector snails provides a clue in completing the life cycle of the parasite of the family Schistosomatidae. Conclusion Cercarial dermatitis has been considered a potential risk at those places where warm blooded and snail’s hosts share a link with aquatic bodies with particular emphasis to temperature and time of year.

  12. Use of a saponin based molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata snails in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    San Martíns, R; Gelmi, Claudio; de Oliveira, Jaime Vargas; Galo, José Luis; Pranto, Honorio

    2009-10-01

    Pomacea canaliculata snails pose a severe problem to direct seeded rice cultivated in Southern Brazil. Control of this snail is nowadays performed with toxic chemicals such as copper sulfate and fungicides such as fentin. A novel natural molluscicide based on alkali modified quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) saponins was tested under laboratory conditions. Snails were collected in rice fields close to Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul) and in Brusque (State of Santa Catarina, 400 km north of Porto Alegre). In Santa Catarina the product was very effective, while in Porto Alegre it had no effect. This unexpected behavior was probably due to the respiratory habits of the snails under different contents of dissolved oxygen in the water. Near Porto Alegre the water used in rice fields is heavily polluted, with dissolved oxygen levels of 1-2 ppm, and the snails rely primarily on their siphon and lungs to breathe. Since saponin control is probably due to an interaction between saponins with the sterols present in the cell walls in the gills, no control was observed. By contrast, in Santa Catarina the dissolved oxygen level of the water is 5-6 ppm, and the snails remain mostly underwater, breathing with their gills. In this case the snails died within 24 h at a dose of 20 and 30 ppm of product. To test this observation, snails grown in polluted waters were forced to remain underwater in saponin solutions and water (control) preventing the use of their siphon to breathe. The snails exposed to saponin solutions died, while the control snails survived, indicating that they were still able to use their gills to breathe. These results indicate that the use of the saponin product is limited to rice fields not irrigated with heavily polluted waters. PMID:19911565

  13. Toxic effects of Cadmium on the garden snail (Helix aspersa)

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.K. (Northrop Services Inc., Corvallis, OR); DeHaven, J.I.; Botts, R.P.

    1981-05-01

    Spreading treated municipal wastes on agricultural and forest lands is becoming an established method of disposal. However, there is concern about the deleterious effects of toxicants, particularly cadmium, in the sludges. Cadmium concentrations in sewage sludge have been reported as high as 1500 ppM. The work reported here is a part of a larger project to investigate the ecological effects of municipal wastes on forest lands. Snails, Helix aspersa, were chosen to examine the entrance of cadmium into terrestrial food chains. This experiment was designed to determine cadmium accumulation, acute toxicity, and behavioral, reproductive and growth responses with increasing levels of cadmium.

  14. Toxicity of botanical insecticides on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    PubMed

    Ruamthum, W; Visetson, S; Milne, J R; Bullangpoti, V

    2010-01-01

    The molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from five highly potential plants, Annona squamosa seed, Nerium indicum Leaves, Stemona tuberose root, Cyperus rotundus corm and Derris elliptica root was assessed to Pomacea canaliculata. D. elliptica root and C. rotundus corm extracts showed the highest toxicity against 3-month old snails which have LC50 as 23.68 +/- 2.96 mg/l and 133.20 +/- 7.94 mg/l, respectively. The C. rotundus corm extracts were chosen for detoxification enzyme in vivo assay which shows esterase and glutathione S-transferase activity in stomach, intestinal tracts and digestive glands of survival treated P. canaliculata were inhibited. PMID:21542482

  15. Effects of snail grazing and nutrient release on growth of the macrophytes Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea canadensis and the filamentous green alga Cladophora sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnieszka Pinowska

    2002-01-01

    The effects of snail (Lymnaea (Galba) turricula) nutrient release and grazing on young macrophytes and filamentous green algae were examined in a laboratory experiment. Snails released an average of 24.2 µg PO4-P and 48.9 µg NH4-N g-1 snail FW d-1. Snails consumed Cladophora sp. at the highest rate (45 mg g-1 snail FW d-1), Elodea canadensis at a lower rate

  16. The component community structure of larval trematodes in the pulmonate snail Helisoma anceps.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, J; Esch, G W

    1991-08-01

    Factors that affected the component community structure of larval trematodes in the pulmonate snail Helisoma anceps in Charlie's Pond, North Carolina, were studied over a 15-mo period using a multiple mark-recapture protocol. Patent infections of 8 species were observed in 1,485 of 4,899 snails examined. Reproductive activity, population size, and survival rate of the snail population were estimated to evaluate the extent of resource availability for the parasites. Antagonistic interactions between trematode species that occurred at the infracommunity level had a neglible effect on the composition and structure of the component community. The patterns observed at this level were related to temporal heterogeneity in the abundance of infective stages (mostly miracidia), differential responses of trematode species to the diverse and constantly changing distribution of snail size and abundance, differential mortality of snails infected with certain trematode species, constant recruitment of 1 trematode species over time, and the existence of predictable disturbances such as the complete mortality of the host population and recruitment of a replacement population during a 6-8 wk period. The last factor operated as a reset mechanism for this snail-trematode system once each year. A model of patch dynamics, with snails as patch resources, best explains the organization and dynamics of this system. PMID:1865260

  17. Bacterial induction of Snail1 contributes to blood-brain barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brandon J; Hancock, Bryan M; Bermudez, Andres; Cid, Natasha Del; Reyes, Efren; van Sorge, Nina M; Lauth, Xavier; Smurthwaite, Cameron A; Hilton, Brett J; Stotland, Aleksandr; Banerjee, Anirban; Buchanan, John; Wolkowicz, Roland; Traver, David; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection of the CNS that results when blood-borne bacteria are able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal meningitis; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate bacterial BBB disruption and penetration are not well understood. Here, we found that infection of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) with GBS and other meningeal pathogens results in the induction of host transcriptional repressor Snail1, which impedes expression of tight junction genes. Moreover, GBS infection also induced Snail1 expression in murine and zebrafish models. Tight junction components ZO-1, claudin 5, and occludin were decreased at both the transcript and protein levels in hBMECs following GBS infection, and this repression was dependent on Snail1 induction. Bacteria-independent Snail1 expression was sufficient to facilitate tight junction disruption, promoting BBB permeability to allow bacterial passage. GBS induction of Snail1 expression was dependent on the ERK1/2/MAPK signaling cascade and bacterial cell wall components. Finally, overexpression of a dominant-negative Snail1 homolog in zebrafish elevated transcription of tight junction protein-encoding genes and increased zebrafish survival in response to GBS challenge. Taken together, our data support a Snail1-dependent mechanism of BBB disruption and penetration by meningeal pathogens. PMID:25961453

  18. Temperature dependence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in first intermediate host snail, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos.

    PubMed

    Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Piratae, Supawadee; Khampoosa, Panita; Thammasiri, Chalida; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Laha, Thewarach; Grams, Rudi; Loukas, Alex; Tesana, Smarn

    2015-01-01

    Determining of the success of a parasite's infectiveness in its snail host clearly depends on environmental conditions. Temperature, one of the most influential factors impinging on metabolism of cold-blooded animals, is believed to be an important factor in parasitic infection in snails. In order to elucidate the influence of temperature, sex and size of snails on infectivity of Opisthorchis viverrini to its first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos, 960 snails were divided into 2 groups by sex. Each group was subdivided by their size into small and medium sub-groups. Each snail was fed with embryonated uterine-eggs of O. viverrini at different temperatures (16-37°C, 3°C intervals). Dissections were carried out 1, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days thereafter and detection of O. viverrini infection was undertaken by PCR using specific primers. Infection was strongly temperature-dependent, as temperature increases of 1°C resulted in increased odds of infection 5.4% (P<0.01). A temperature of 34°C gave the highest rate of infection of 44.14%. We also found that the odds of infection in small sized snails was 39.8% higher relative to medium sized snails (P<0.05). Relative to day 1, the decrease in the odds of infection was detected when the day post infection was longer (P<0.01). Proportion of infection in female was not different to male significantly. PMID:24161535

  19. Dining local: the microbial diet of a snail that grazes microbial communities is geographically structured.

    PubMed

    O'Rorke, Richard; Cobian, Gerald M; Holland, Brenden S; Price, Melissa R; Costello, Vincent; Amend, Anthony S

    2015-05-01

    Achatinella mustelina is a critically endangered tree snail that subsists entirely by grazing microbes from leaf surfaces of native trees. Little is known about the fundamental aspects of these microbe assemblages: not taxonomic composition, how this varies with host plant or location, nor whether snails selectively consume microbes. To address these questions, we collected 102 snail faecal samples as a proxy for diet, and 102 matched-leaf samples from four locations. We used Illumina amplicon sequencing to determine bacterial and fungal community composition. Microbial community structure was significantly distinct between snail faeces and leaf samples, but the same microbes occurred in both. We conclude that snails are not 'picky' eaters at the microbial level, but graze the surface of whatever plant they are on. In a second experiment, the gut was dissected from non-endangered native tree snails in the same family as Achatinella to confirm that faecal samples reflect gut contents. Over 60% of fungal reads were shared between faeces, gut and leaf samples. Overall, location, sample type (faeces or leaf) and host plant identity all significantly explained the community composition and variation among samples. Understanding the microbial ecology of microbes grazed by tree snails enables effective management when conservation requires captive breeding or field relocation. PMID:25285515

  20. Epidemiology of cercarial stage of trematodes in freshwater snails from Chiang Mai province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chontananarth, Thapana; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological situation of cercarial trematodes infection in freshwater snails from different water resources in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Methods The snail specimens were collected from 13 districts of Chiang Mai province during April 2008 to February 2012. The prevalence of cercarial infection in snails was investigated using the crushing method. The drawing was done with the help of a camera lucida for the morphological study. Results A total of 2?479 snail individuals were collected and classified into 7 families, 11 genera, and 14 species, Among them, 8 snails species were found to be infected with an overall prevalence of 17.27% (428/2?479), which infected with nine groups of cercariae; gymnocephalous cercaria, strigea cercaria, megalurous cercaria, monostome cercaria, parapleurolophocercous cercaria (Haplorchis cercaria), pleurolophocercous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria (Transversotrema cercaria), xiphidiocercaria, and virgulate cercaria. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found to be the dominant type among the cercarial infection in the snails (64.25%). Conclusions The various species of snails found in the research location act as the intermediate hosts for the high prevalence of parasitic infection of many species of mammals. This work will provide new information on both the distribution and first intermediate host of trematodes. PMID:23620846

  1. A molecular role for lysyl oxidase-like 2 enzyme in snail regulation and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Peinado, Héctor; Del Carmen Iglesias-de la Cruz, Maria; Olmeda, David; Csiszar, Katalin; Fong, Keith S K; Vega, Sonia; Nieto, Maria Angela; Cano, Amparo; Portillo, Francisco

    2005-10-01

    The transcription factor Snail controls epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) by repressing E-cadherin expression and other epithelial genes. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of Snail function are not fully understood. Here we show that lysyl-oxidase-like 2 and 3 (LOXL2 and LOXL3), two members of the lysyl-oxidase gene family, interact and cooperate with Snail to downregulate E-cadherin expression. Snail's lysine residues 98 and 137 are essential for Snail stability, functional cooperation with LOXL2/3 and induction of EMT. Overexpression of LOXL2 or LOXL3 in epithelial cells induces an EMT process, supporting their implication in tumor progression. The biological importance of LOXL2 is further supported by RNA interference of LOXL2 in Snail-expressing metastatic carcinoma cells, which led to a strong decrease of tumor growth associated to increased apoptosis and reduced expression of mesenchymal and invasive/angiogenic markers. Taken together, these results establish a direct link between LOXL2 and Snail in carcinoma progression. PMID:16096638

  2. Comparative toxicity of Paraquat herbicide and some plant extracts in Lymnaea natalensis snails.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Fayez A; Eleiwa, Mona E; Taha, Samir A; Ismil, Somya M

    2013-09-30

    Paraquat has been shown to be a highly toxic compound for humans and animals, and many cases of acute poisoning and death have been reported over the past few decades. The present study was undertaken to evaluate comprehensively herbicides (Paraquat) and some plant extracts to biochemical aspects of Lymnaea natalensis snails. It was found that the exposure of L. natalensis to Paraquat and plant extracts led to a significant reduction in the infectivity of Fasciola gigantica miracidia to the snail. The glucose level in hemolymph of exposed snails was elevated, while the glycogen showed a decrease in soft tissues when compared with the control group. In addition, the activity level of some enzymes representing glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) in snail's tissues were reduced in response to the treatment. It was concluded that the pollution of the aquatic environment by herbicide would adversely affect the metabolism of the L. natalensis snails. Snails treated with Agave attenuate, Ammi visnaga, and Canna iridiflora plant had less toxic effect compared to snails treated with Paraquat. PMID:24081640

  3. Allying with armored snails: the complete genome of gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Satoshi; Shimamura, Shigeru; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yohey; Murakami, Shun-ichi; Watanabe, Tamaki; Fujiyoshi, So; Mino, Sayaka; Sawabe, Tomoo; Maeda, Takahiro; Makita, Hiroko; Nemoto, Suguru; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Watanabe, Hiromi; Watsuji, Tomo-o; Takai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea vents harbor dense populations of various animals that have their specific symbiotic bacteria. Scaly-foot gastropods, which are snails with mineralized scales covering the sides of its foot, have a gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont in their enlarged esophageal glands and diverse epibionts on the surface of their scales. In this study, we report the complete genome sequencing of gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont. The endosymbiont genome displays features consistent with ongoing genome reduction such as large proportions of pseudogenes and insertion elements. The genome encodes functions commonly found in deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs such as sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation. Stable carbon isotope (13C)-labeling experiments confirmed the endosymbiont chemoautotrophy. The genome also includes an intact hydrogenase gene cluster that potentially has been horizontally transferred from phylogenetically distant bacteria. Notable findings include the presence and transcription of genes for flagellar assembly, through which proteins are potentially exported from bacterium to the host. Symbionts of snail individuals exhibited extreme genetic homogeneity, showing only two synonymous changes in 19 different genes (13?810 positions in total) determined for 32 individual gastropods collected from a single colony at one time. The extremely low genetic individuality in endosymbionts probably reflects that the stringent symbiont selection by host prevents the random genetic drift in the small population of horizontally transmitted symbiont. This study is the first complete genome analysis of gastropod endosymbiont and offers an opportunity to study genome evolution in a recently evolved endosymbiont. PMID:23924784

  4. Allying with armored snails: the complete genome of gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Satoshi; Shimamura, Shigeru; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yohey; Murakami, Shun-ichi; Watanabe, Tamaki; Fujiyoshi, So; Mino, Sayaka; Sawabe, Tomoo; Maeda, Takahiro; Makita, Hiroko; Nemoto, Suguru; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Watanabe, Hiromi; Watsuji, Tomo-o; Takai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea vents harbor dense populations of various animals that have their specific symbiotic bacteria. Scaly-foot gastropods, which are snails with mineralized scales covering the sides of its foot, have a gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont in their enlarged esophageal glands and diverse epibionts on the surface of their scales. In this study, we report the complete genome sequencing of gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont. The endosymbiont genome displays features consistent with ongoing genome reduction such as large proportions of pseudogenes and insertion elements. The genome encodes functions commonly found in deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs such as sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation. Stable carbon isotope ((13)C)-labeling experiments confirmed the endosymbiont chemoautotrophy. The genome also includes an intact hydrogenase gene cluster that potentially has been horizontally transferred from phylogenetically distant bacteria. Notable findings include the presence and transcription of genes for flagellar assembly, through which proteins are potentially exported from bacterium to the host. Symbionts of snail individuals exhibited extreme genetic homogeneity, showing only two synonymous changes in 19 different genes (13?810 positions in total) determined for 32 individual gastropods collected from a single colony at one time. The extremely low genetic individuality in endosymbionts probably reflects that the stringent symbiont selection by host prevents the random genetic drift in the small population of horizontally transmitted symbiont. This study is the first complete genome analysis of gastropod endosymbiont and offers an opportunity to study genome evolution in a recently evolved endosymbiont. PMID:23924784

  5. Characterizations of cholinesterases in golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang-Hui; Xie, Heidi Qun-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Chen, Vicky Ping; Sun, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Luk, Wilson Kin-Wai

    2014-07-01

    Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive alien species harmful to rice and other crops. The ChE(s) in this animal, which has been found recently, but poorly characterized thus far, could serve as biomarker(s) for environmental surveillance as well as a potential target for the pest control. In this study, the tissue distribution, substrate preference, sensitivity to ChE inhibitors, and molecular species of ChEs in P. canaliculata were investigated. It was found that the activities of both AChE and BChE were present in all test tissues. The intestine had the most abundant ChE activities. Both enzymes had fair activities in the head, kidney, and gills. The BChE activity was more sensitive to tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than the AChE. Only one BChE molecular species, 5.8S, was found in the intestine and head, whereas two AChE species, 5.8S and 11.6S, were found there. We propose that intestine ChEs of this snail may be potential biomarkers for manipulating pollutions. PMID:24217797

  6. Chemosensitivity of the osphradium of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer; Schild

    1995-01-01

    The osphradium of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis was studied to determine the stimuli to which this organ responds. The following stimuli were tested: hypoxia, hypercapnia, a mixture of amino acids, a mixture of citralva and amyl acetate and a mixture of lyral, lilial and ethylvanillin. The mean nerve activity consistently increased with elevated PCO2, whereas hypoxia produced variable effects. The nerve activity became rhythmic upon application of citralva and amyl acetate, but it increased in a non-rhythmic way upon application of the other two odorant mixtures tested. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from a group of 15 neurones that lay next to the issuing osphradial nerve, to determine whether ganglion cells were involved in olfactory signal processing. All neurones tested responded to at least one of the three mixtures of odorants. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses occurred. Our results indicate that the osphradium of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is sensitive to elevated PCO2 as well as to three different classes of odorants. In addition, at least some neurones within the osphradium are involved in the processing of olfactory information. PMID:9319649

  7. Suitability of six lymnaeid snails for infection with Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Reyes, A; Malek, E A

    1987-05-01

    The suitability of Fossaria (Bakerilymnaea) cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella from Louisiana as intermediate hosts for Fasciola hepatica was compared to P. columella and Stagnicola elodes from Ann Arbor, MI, S. attenuata from Hidalgo, Mexico, Lymnaea gedrosiana from Iran and L. natalensis from Senegal. P. columella from LA was shown to be a more suitable host (51.3% became infected) than F. (B.) cubensis (15.2% and 26.4% of two populations became infected). The infection rate for P. columella from MI, was 50% and for L. gedrosiana was 32.5%, whereas L. natalensis, S. elodes and S. attenuata were refractory. F. (B.) cubensis and P. columella have some degree of suitability as intermediate hosts for F. hepatica under laboratory conditions, but field observations of their habitat in southern LA and characteristic management of cattle indicate that the former snail is more important as an intermediate host in this enzootic area. Tissue sections of suitable snails had few histopathological effects but physical damage caused by rediae was pronounced, mainly in the digestive gland and in the mantle. PMID:3617426

  8. Radix natalensis: the effect of Fasciola hepatica infection on the reproductive activity of the snail

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Yasser; Vignoles, Philippe; Rondelaud, Daniel; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Experimental infections of Egyptian Radix natalensis (shell height at miracidial exposure: 4 mm) with a French isolate of Fasciola hepatica were carried out under laboratory conditions at 22 °C to specify the characteristics and follow the dynamics of their egg-laying. Controls constituted unexposed R. natalensis of the same size. No significant difference between controls and the uninfected snails of the exposed group was noted, whatever the parameter considered. In controls and exposed snails, the dates of the first egg masses were close to each other (56.4–65.3 days). In contrast, the life span of snails and the length of the egg-laying period were significantly shorter and egg production was significantly lower in infected R. natalensis than in controls and uninfected snails. In infected R. natalensis, but without cercarial shedding (NCS snails), egg production was irregular throughout the egg-laying period. In cercarial-shedding (CS) snails, the first egg masses were laid before the first cercarial emergence (at a mean of 56 days and 67 days, respectively). Thereafter, egg mass production of CS snails was irregular up to day 72 of the experiment, stopped during the following two weeks and started again after day 88 for a single snail. In conclusion, the F. hepatica infection of R. natalensis reduced the reproductive activity in both NCS and CS snails. The pattern noted for egg production in infected R. natalensis seems to be species-specific because of the high shell size of this lymnaeid and its role as an atypical intermediate host in the life cycle of the parasite. PMID:24871866

  9. The ectopic expression of Snail in MDBK cells does not induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Genya; Kobayashi, Wakako; Haraguchi, Misako; Sudo, Akiharu; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in the tumor metastatic cascade, is characterized by the loss of cell-cell junctions and cell polarity, as well as by the acquisition of migratory and invasive properties. However, the precise molecular events that initiate this complex EMT process are poorly understood. Snail expression induces EMT in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor and triggers EMT by suppressing E-cadherin expression. In the present study, to broaden our knowledge of Snail?induced EMT, we generated stable Snail transfectants using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Contrary to the MDCK or A431 cells examined in our previous studies, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct maintained an epithelial morphology and showed no sign of reduced cell-cell adhesiveness compared to the control cells. Consistent with these observations, the downregulation of epithelial marker proteins, e.g. E-cadherin and desmoglein, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker proteins, e.g., N-cadherin and fibronectin, were not detected. Furthermore, the E-cadherin promoter was not methylated. Therefore, in the MDBK cells, the ectopic expression of Snail failed to induce EMT. As previously demonstrated, in MDCK cells, Snail expression is accompanied by the increased expression of other EMT-inducing transcription factors, e.g., Slug and zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). However, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct did not exhibit an increased expression of these factors. Thus, it is possible that the failure to upregulate other EMT-related transcription factors may explain the lack of Snail-mediated induction of EMT in MDBK cells. PMID:25998899

  10. Snail Transcription Factor Regulates Neuroendocrine Differentiation in LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    McKeithen, Danielle; Graham, Tisheeka; Chung, Leland W. K.; Odero-Marah, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Background Snail transcription factor induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via decreased cell adhesion-associated molecules like E-cadherin, and increased mesenchymal markers like vimentin. We previously established Snail-mediated EMT model utilizing androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. These cells express increased vimentin protein and relocalization of E-cadherin from the cell membrane to the cytosol. Interestingly, Snail transfection in LNCaP cells resulted in cells acquiring a neuroendocrine-like morphology with long neurite-like processes. Methods We tested for expression of neuroendocrine markers neuron specific enolase (NSE) and chromogranin A (CgA) by Western blot analysis, and performed proliferation assays to test for paracrine cell proliferation. Results LNCaP cells transfected with Snail displayed increase in the neuroendocrine markers, NSE and CgA as well as translocation of androgen receptor to the nucleus. LNCaP C-33 cells that have been previously published as a Neuroendocrine Differentiation (NED) model exhibited increased expression levels of Snail protein as compared to LNCaP parental cells. Functionally, conditioned medium from the LNCaP-Snail transfected cells increased proliferation of parental LNCaP and PC-3 cells, which could be abrogated by NSE/CgA siRNA. Additionally, NED in LNCaP-C33 cells or that induced in parental LNCaP cells by serum starvation could be inhibited by knockdown of Snail with siRNA. Conclusion Overall our data provide evidence that Snail transcription factor may promote tumor aggressiveness in the LNCaP cells through multiple processes; induction of EMT may be required to promote migration, while NED may promote tumor proliferation by a paracrine mechanism. Therefore, therapeutic targeting of Snail may prove beneficial in not only abrogating EMT but also NED. PMID:20166136

  11. On the interpretation of age-prevalence curves for schistosome infections of host snails.

    PubMed

    Woolhouse, M E

    1989-08-01

    The prevalence of schistosome infections in intermediate host snails varies with snail age. The relationship between age and prevalence, the age-prevalence curve, is complex and may vary in space and time, and among parasite-host species. Field studies show that the shape of the age-prevalence curve may be seasonally variable, and that at some times there may be a decline in prevalence among older snails. This paper attempts to explain these observations in terms of the underlying epidemiological processes. A discrete-time version of Muench's catalytic model for age-dependent infection is developed. Model simulations were carried out using life-history and epidemiological parameters derived from studies of Schistosoma haematobium-Bulinus globusus in Zimbabwe. Analysis of model behaviour identifies aspects of the schistosome-snail interaction that affect the shape of the age-prevalence curve. The following features can result in a decline in prevalence among older snails. (1) A decrease in the survival rate of patent infected snails with age. (2) A decrease in the force of infection with age. (3) A high rate of loss of infection. (4) A heterogeneity in the snail population such that the probability of infection is correlated with snail fecundity. (This would occur if there existed a spatial correlation between force of infection and fecundity, or if there were a correlation between fecundity and susceptibility.) The evidence for the occurrence of these features in the field is assessed. Survival rate is related more closely to the duration of patent infection than to age per se. The evidence for age-dependent force of infection is equivocal. Significant loss-of-infection rates have yet to be demonstrated. Heterogeneities in force of infection and fecundity have been reported and, for the Zimbabwe data, this mechanism can explain seasonality in the age-prevalence curve as a function of known seasonal variation in the force of infection and snail fecundity. PMID:2797871

  12. Snail2 promotes osteosarcoma cell motility through remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton and regulates tumor development.

    PubMed

    Sharili, Amir-Shaya; Allen, Steve; Smith, Ken; Price, Joanna; McGonnell, Imelda M

    2013-06-10

    The function of Snail2 in mesenchymal tumors is, to date unknown. Using knockdown and overexpression studies, we show that Snail2 regulates migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. Knockdown resulted in significantly decreased motility, remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton, and loss of cellular protrusions. Over-expression increased motility, formation of actin-rich cellular protrusions, and altered expression of some non-canonical Wnt pathway components whilst decreasing expression of the adhesion molecule OB-cadherin. Unexpectedly, knockdown also resulted in significantly smaller tumors in an in vivo CAM assay. Therefore Snail2 may be a potential therapeutic target for clinical intervention of osteosarcoma. PMID:23352643

  13. Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells: Pomacea Canaliculata Lamarck and Fossilized Snail Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomkan, N.; Meejoo, S.; Limsuwan, P.; Winotai, P.; Chaimanee, Y.

    2005-07-01

    We study paramagnetic Mn2+ ions present in the nowadays shells of univalve freshwater snails of Pomacea canaliculata lamarck (PCL) and the fossilized freshwater snail (FFS), Viviparus. All these shells are abundant in Thailand. The PCL shells were ground into fine powder. A set of seven samples were then separately annealed for 2 h in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures while the FFS powder was characterized as-received. The PCL shells mainly consist of aragonite and a fraction of calcite. The heat treatments of the PCL powder samples at temperature higher than 450 degrees C resulted in an irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. However, it is found that the FFS shell is mainly made of calcite, with a minor fraction of aragonite. The crystal structure of the high-temperature-annealed PCL samples are quite similar to that of FFS, which indicates that the metamorphosis (aragonite ? calcite) in the FFS shell had occurred but was not yet completed, although it had remained under the pressure and temperature of the Earth's crusts over millions of years. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of PCL and FFS show that Mn2+ ions enter the Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Simulated ESR parameters of PCL-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are reported. It is surprising to find that the ratio of Mn2+ concentration present in FFS to those in PCL shells evaluated from ESR spectra is as much as 10:1.

  14. Schistosoma mansoni:Use of a Subtractive Cloning Strategy to Search for RFLPs in Parasite-Resistant Biomphalaria glabrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre N. Miller; Kwame Ofori; Fred Lewis; Matty Knight

    1996-01-01

    A subtractive cloning strategy has been applied for the identification of two cDNA clones whose corresponding transcripts were elevated inSchistosoma mansoni-resistant (BS-90) compared to susceptible (M-line) snails. Clone pBS11 encoded a 1.9-kb transcript that was more elevated compared to a 500-bp transcript encoded by clone pBS12. Consequently, more attention was focused on the molecular characterization of clone pBS11. Results showed

  15. Down-regulation of SNAIL suppresses MIN mouse tumorigenesis: Modulation of apoptosis,

    E-print Network

    Ottino, Julio M.

    Down-regulation of SNAIL suppresses MIN mouse tumorigenesis: Modulation of apoptosis, proliferation of apoptosis and proliferation. Furthermore, microarchitec- tural alterations were determined through apoptosis rate (2-fold), decreased

  16. Effects of eutrophication and snails on Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasion

    E-print Network

    Effects of eutrophication and snails on Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasion; accepted in revised form 10 October 2005 Key words: eutrophication, food web, invasive species) run- off, which causes eutrophication. Eutrophication has a myriad of negative consequences, including

  17. Snail1 is stabilized by O-GlcNAc modification in hyperglycaemic condition

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Yoon; Kim, Hyun Sil; Kim, Nam Hee; Ji, Suena; Cha, So Young; Kang, Jeong Gu; Ota, Ichiro; Shimada, Keiji; Konishi, Noboru; Nam, Hyung Wook; Hong, Soon Won; Yang, Won Ho; Roth, Jürgen; Yook, Jong In; Cho, Jin Won

    2010-01-01

    Protein O-phosphorylation often occurs reciprocally with O-GlcNAc modification and represents a regulatory principle for proteins. O-phosphorylation of serine by glycogen synthase kinase-3? on Snail1, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin and a key regulator of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) programme, results in its proteasomal degradation. We show that by suppressing O-phosphorylation-mediated degradation, O-GlcNAc at serine112 stabilizes Snail1 and thus increases its repressor function, which in turn attenuates E-cadherin mRNA expression. Hyperglycaemic condition enhances O-GlcNAc modification and initiates EMT by transcriptional suppression of E-cadherin through Snail1. Thus, dynamic reciprocal O-phosphorylation and O-GlcNAc modification of Snail1 constitute a molecular link between cellular glucose metabolism and the control of EMT. PMID:20959806

  18. Wet Adhesion and Adhesive Locomotion of Snails on Anti-Adhesive Non-Wetting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J.; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However, the wetting properties that enable snails to generate strong temporary attachment and the effectiveness of this adhesive locomotion on modern super-slippy superhydrophobic surfaces are unclear. Here we report that snail adhesion overcomes a wide range of these microscale and nanoscale topographically structured non-stick surfaces. For the one surface which we found to be snail resistant, we show that the effect is correlated with the wetting response of the surface to a weak surfactant. Our results elucidate some critical wetting factors for the design of anti-adhesive and bio-adhesion resistant surfaces. PMID:22693563

  19. Mitochondrial differentiation in a polymorphic land snail: evidence for Pleistocene survival within the boundaries of permafrost

    E-print Network

    Wirth, Thierry

    Mitochondrial differentiation in a polymorphic land snail: evidence for Pleistocene survival within arbustorum; dispersal; mitochondrial DNA; phylogeography; Pleistocene; polymorphism; refugia. Abstract the Pleistocene glaciations depends to a great extent on the speed of expansion. Slow dispersers maintain

  20. Wet adhesion and adhesive locomotion of snails on anti-adhesive non-wetting surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I

    2012-01-01

    Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However, the wetting properties that enable snails to generate strong temporary attachment and the effectiveness of this adhesive locomotion on modern super-slippy superhydrophobic surfaces are unclear. Here we report that snail adhesion overcomes a wide range of these microscale and nanoscale topographically structured non-stick surfaces. For the one surface which we found to be snail resistant, we show that the effect is correlated with the wetting response of the surface to a weak surfactant. Our results elucidate some critical wetting factors for the design of anti-adhesive and bio-adhesion resistant surfaces. PMID:22693563

  1. Loss of polarity protein AF6 promotes pancreatic cancer metastasis by inducing Snail expression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Chang, Renxu; Peng, Zhiyong; Wang, Yanmei; Ji, Weiwei; Guo, Jingyu; Song, Lele; Dai, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Wu, Yanjun; Wan, Xinjian; Shao, Chenghao; Zhan, Lixing

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a particularly lethal form of cancer with high potential for metastasis to distant organs. Disruption of cell polarity is a hallmark of advanced epithelial tumours. Here we show that the polarity protein AF6 (afadin and MLLT4) is expressed at low levels in PC. We demonstrate that depletion of AF6 markedly promotes proliferation and metastasis of PC cells through upregulation of the expression of Snail protein, and this requires the nuclear localization of AF6. Furthermore, AF6 deficiency in PC cells leads to increased formation of a Dishevelled 2 (Dvl2)-FOXE1 complex on the promoter region of Snail gene, and activation of Snail expression. Altogether, our data established AF6 as a potential inhibitor of metastasis in PC cells. Targeting the Dvl2-FOXE1-Snail signalling axis may thus represent a promising therapeutic strategy. PMID:26013125

  2. THE BIOCIDE TRIBUTYLTIN ALTERS TESTOSTERONE ESTERIFICATION IN MUD SNAILS (ILYANASSA OBSOLETA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Biocide Tributyltin Alters Testosterone Esterification in Mud Snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta) Meredith P. Gooding and Gerald A. LeBlanc Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633 Tributyltin (TBT...

  3. Detection of Fasciola gigantica infection in snails by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, R; Singh, B P; Raina, O K

    2004-02-26

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Fasciola gigantica infection in the snail intermediate host. Fasciola specific primers amplified a 124 bp fragment in PCR when the genomic DNA isolated from F. gigantica infected Lymnaea auricularia snails was used as template. In addition to the 124 bp amplicon, a ladder of DNA fragments representing amplification of the 124 bp repetitive sequences was observed. Genomic DNA of the parasite was used as a positive control, which also gave an amplification of the 124 bp fragment. DNA isolated from non-infected snails was used as a negative control and no amplification of this sequence was observed. This technique is highly specific and sensitive and possesses fairly good prospects of its utility as an epidemiological tool for ascertaining the infectivity status in ubiquitous snail populations. PMID:15019146

  4. Bioluminescent signals spatially amplified by wavelength-specific diffusion through the shell of a marine snail

    PubMed Central

    Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Wilson, Nerida G.

    2011-01-01

    Some living organisms produce visible light (bioluminescence) for intra- or interspecific visual communication. Here, we describe a remarkable bioluminescent adaptation in the marine snail Hinea brasiliana. This species produces a luminous display in response to mechanical stimulation caused by encounters with other motile organisms. The light is produced from discrete areas on the snail's body beneath the snail's shell, and must thus overcome this structural barrier to be viewed by an external receiver. The diffusion and transmission efficiency of the shell is greater than a commercial diffuser reference material. Most strikingly, the shell, although opaque and pigmented, selectively diffuses the blue-green wavelength of the species bioluminescence. This diffusion generates a luminous display that is enlarged relative to the original light source. This unusual shell thus allows spatially amplified outward transmission of light communication signals from the snail, while allowing the animal to remain safely inside its hard protective shell. PMID:21159673

  5. Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM) exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH), relative shell height (RSH), and whorl number (WN). Results Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil–plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas. Conclusions The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability in soil. Long-term exposure to HMs via contaminated food might influence the variability of shell traits in snail populations. Therefore, our results highlight the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) potential to be used in environmental monitoring studies as bioindicator of HM pollution. PMID:22703871

  6. Snail/beta-catenin signaling protects breast cancer cells from hypoxia attack.

    PubMed

    Scherbakov, Alexander M; Stefanova, Lidia B; Sorokin, Danila V; Semina, Svetlana E; Berstein, Lev M; Krasil'nikov, Mikhail A

    2013-12-10

    The tolerance of cancer cells to hypoxia depends on the combination of different factors--from increase of glycolysis (Warburg Effect) to activation of intracellular growth/apoptotic pathways. Less is known about the influence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and EMT-associated pathways on the cell sensitivity to hypoxia. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Snail signaling, one of the key EMT pathways, in the mediating of hypoxia response and regulation of cell sensitivity to hypoxia, using as a model in vitro cultured breast cancer cells. Earlier we have shown that estrogen-independent HBL-100 breast cancer cells differ from estrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells with increased expression of Snail1, and demonstrated Snail1 involvement into formation of hormone-resistant phenotype. Because Snail1 belongs to hypoxia-activated proteins, here we studied the influence of Snail1 signaling on the cell tolerance to hypoxia. We found that Snail1-enriched HBL-100 cells were less sensitive to hypoxia-induced growth suppression if compared with MCF-7 line (31% MCF-7 vs. 71% HBL-100 cell viability after 1% O2 atmosphere for 3 days). Snail1 knock-down enhanced the hypoxia-induced inhibition of cell proliferation giving the direct evidence of Snail1 involvement into cell protection from hypoxia attack. The protective effect of Snail1 was shown to be mediated, at least in a part, via beta-catenin which positively regulated expression of HIF-1-dependent genes. Finally, we found that cell tolerance to hypoxia was accompanied with the failure in the phosphorylation of AMPK - the key energy sensor, and demonstrated an inverse relationship between AMPK and Snail/beta-catenin signaling. Totally, our data show that Snail1 and beta-catenin, besides association with loss of hormone dependence, protect cancer cells from hypoxia and may serve as an important target in the treatment of breast cancer. Moreover, we suggest that the level of these proteins as well the level of AMPK phosphorylation may be considered as predictors of the tumor sensitivity to anti-angiogenic drugs. PMID:23973669

  7. Effect of 2450 MHz microwave radiation on the ultrastructure of snail neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Arber, S.L.; Neilly, J.P.; Lin, J.C.; Kriho, V.

    1986-01-01

    An electron microscopical study of snail neurons was undertaken to verify whether any ultrastructural alterations accompany microwave-induced electrophysiological changes observed in these neurons. Subesophageal ganglia from Helix aspersa snails were exposed to 2450 MHz microwave radiation in vitro at SAR 12.9 mW/g for 60 minutes. It was found that exposure at 21 degrees C causes minor changes in Golgi complexes and slight swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  8. The Giant Snail Achatina fulica as a Candidate Species for Advanced Bioregenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbitskaya, Olga; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Rational nutrition is a resource for mitigating the influence of unfavorable conditions. The insufficiency of vegetarian diet has been examined by the Japanese, Chinese and U.S. developers of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). Hence, inclusion of animals such as silkworm in BLSS looks justified. The giant snail is currently under studying as a source of animal food and a species of reducing waste in BLSS. An experimental system to conduct cultivation of giant snail was developed. It was established that there are some reasons to use the giant snails in BLSS. It could be a source of delicious meat. A. fulica is capable of consuming a wide range of feedstuffs including plant residues. Cultivation of snail in the limited volume does not demand the big expenditures of labor. The production of crude edible biomass and protein of A. fulica was 60±15 g and 7±1.8 g respectively per 1 kg of consumed forage (fresh salad leaves, root and leafy tops of carrot). To satisfy daily animal protein needs (30-35 g) a crewman has to consume 260-300 g of snail meat. To produce such amount of snail protein it takes to use 4.3-5.0 kg of plant forage daily. The nutritional composition of A. fulica whole bodies (without shell) and a meal prepared in various ways was quantitatively determined. Protein, carbohydrate, fat acid and ash content percentages were different among samples prepared in various ways. The protein content was highest (68 %) in the dry sample washed with CH3 COOH solution. Taking into consideration the experimental results a conceptual configuration of BLSS with inclusion of giant snail was developed and mass flow rates between compartments were calculated. Keywords: animal food; protein; giant snail; BLSS; conceptual configuration.

  9. Refuge function of marine algae complicates selection in an intertidal snail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petri Kemppainen; Solveig van Nes; Christofer Ceder; Kerstin Johannesson

    2005-01-01

    Species with restricted gene flow often show trait-shifts from one type of environment to another. In those rock-dwelling marine gastropods that lack larval dispersal, size generally decreases in wave-exposed habitats reducing risk of dislodgement, while increases in less exposed habitats to resist crab-crushing. In Littorina fabalis, however, snails of moderately exposed shores are generally much larger (11–14 mm) than snails of

  10. Deterministic assembly of land snail communities according to species size and diet.

    PubMed

    Schamp, Brandon; Horsák, Michal; Hájek, Michal

    2010-07-01

    1. We investigated whether coexisting snail species in 145 treeless fen communities in the Western Carpathian Mountains differed more in size and diet than would be expected by chance, as predicted for traits commonly associated with competition and differential resource acquisition under limiting similarity theory. 2. Contrary to expectations, coexisting snail species were no more different in body size than expected by chance under a null model. However, variation in body size played a significant role in structuring snail communities: coexisting snail species were significantly more similar with respect to body size. 3. We developed two new test statistics to expand our investigation of limiting similarity to include diet, a nominal trait. We tested whether communities of snails were characterized by a greater richness of diet, and whether different diets were represented more or less evenly within communities. Communities of snails were significantly less evenly distributed than expected by chance, with detritivores being over-represented relative to predatory strategies. 4. We also examined the effect of water pH and conductivity, herbaceous cover, and bryophyte and vascular plant richness, on these trends by examining how the effect size of our tests varied across these gradients. Convergence in species size increased with increasing habitat pH. Specifically, smaller snail species were over-represented in fen communities in general, and this effect was accentuated in increasingly calcareous fens. 5. Theory predicts that traits related strongly to environmental conditions are more likely to be convergent. Our findings support this suggestion, as small snail species have an advantage in tolerating freezing conditions over winter when refuges are limited. 6. These results add to the growing body of literature demonstrating that variation in body size and diet play a strong role in structuring communities, although frequently in ways not predicted by limiting similarity theory. Finally, our results increase our understanding of how species are assembled non-randomly into communities with respect to important traits. PMID:20345504

  11. The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M.; García de León, Francisco J.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

  12. OVERWINTERING OF SPIDERS IN EMPTY LAND-SNAIL SHELLS IN XERIC HABITATS OF SOUTHERN MORAVIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Our first objective was to find, which species of s piders overwinter in the land-snail shells in the x eric habitats of Southern Moravia (Czech Republic). During the winter 2008\\/2009 we collected 2448 empty land-snail shells from 31 xeric localities. Land-sn ail shells were represented by three species from t hree genera ( Cepea , Helix and Helicella ). Alltogether

  13. Foraging trade-offs and resource patchiness: theory and experiments with a freshwater snail community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Chase; Will G. Wilson; Shane A. Richards

    2001-01-01

    Empirical results concerning a freshwater snail community are interpreted using a two- species consumer model that incorporates resource structure. Behavioural-scale measurements on a guild of five species of freshwater pond snails (Mollusca: Pulmonata) indicate a trade-off between the ability to utilize a patch's resource and the ability to quickly find new resource patches. Community-level experiments demonstrate that both species richness

  14. Differences in snail ecology lead to infection pattern variation of Echinostoma spp. larval stages.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael R; Luth, Kyle E; Esch, Gerald W

    2014-09-01

    The infection patterns of parasites are often tied to host behavior. Although most studies have investigated definitive hosts and their parasites, intermediate host behavior may play a role in shaping the distribution and accumulation of parasites, particularly the larval stages. In an attempt to answer this question, more than 4,500 pulmonate snails were collected from 11 states in the mid-Atlantic and Midwestern United States in the summer of 2012. These snails were necropsied and echinostome metecercariae were commonly observed infecting the snails as 2(nd) intermediate hosts (20.0%). The snails included species of 3 genera with distinct differences in the infection patterns of Echinostoma spp. metacercariae among them. Physa spp. (comprising of P. acuta and P. gyrina) snails exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of infection (23.5%) than both Lymnaea columella (11.6%) and Helisoma spp. (comprising of H. anceps and H. trivolvis) (14.2%; P < 0.05), with no difference in prevalence observed between the latter 2 genera (P > 0.05). The intensity of metacercariae within the snail hosts was significantly different between the 3 genera (P < 0.05), with L. columella having the highest intensity (24.3 ± 5.6), followed by Physa spp. (15.2 ± 1.5) and Helisoma spp. (5.0 ± 0.9). Differences in prevalence and intensity were also observed when the different snail families co-habited the same body of water. The disparities in infection patterns are likely due to distinct differences in the behavioral and feeding ecology of the snail hosts. PMID:25119366

  15. The effects of wetland habitat structure on Florida apple snail density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karunaratne, L.B.; Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Wetlands often support a variety of juxtaposed habitat patches (e.g., grass-, shrub- or tree-dominated) differentially suited to support the inhabiting fauna. The proportion of available habitat types has been affected by human activity and consequently has contributed to degrading habitat quality for some species. The Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) has drawn attention as a critical prey item for wetlands wildlife and as an indicator of wetlands restoration success in peninsular Florida, USA. An apparent contradiction has evolved wherein this species appears intolerant of drying events, but these disturbances may be necessary to maintain suitable habitat structure for apple snails. We recently reported that assertions regarding intolerance to dry downs in this species were inaccurate. Here, we compared snail density in habitats with (wet prairie) and without (slough) emergent macrophytes, as well as evaluating the effects of structural attributes within the broad wet prairie habitat type. Snail densities were greater in prairies relative to sloughs (??2= 12.90, df=1, P=0.0003), often by a factor of two to three. Within wet prairie habitats, we found greater snail densities in Panicum hemitomon as compared to Eleocharis cellulosa (??2=31.45, df=1, P=0.0001). Significantly fewer snails were found in dense E. cellulosa as compared to habitats with lower stem density (??2= 10.73, df=1, P=0.011). Our results indicate that wet prairie habitat supports greater snail densities than nymphaea-dominatd slough. Our results have implications for wetlands water management in that continuous inundation has been shown to convert wet prairie to slough habitat, and we suggest this should be avoided in support of apple snails and their predators. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  16. Solar radio-transmitters on snail kites in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Beissinger, S.R.; Fuller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of one- and two-stage solar radio-transmitters in tracking the movements and survival of adult and fledgling Snail Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were evaluated between 1979 and 1983 in southern Florida. Transmitters were attached to birds with back-pack arrangements using teflon ribbon straps. Accessory plastic shields minimized feather coverage of the solar cells. Intact transmitters were seen on birds up to 47 mo after installation. Operating lives ranged from 8 to 21 mo for one-stage, and 10 to 14 mo for two-stage transmitters. Because survival of adult and nestling radio-marked kites was high, we conclude that our transmitter-attachment method had little effect on the birds.

  17. Diversity of single potassium channels in isolated snail neurons.

    PubMed

    Sotkis, A V; Kostyuk, P G; Lukyanetz, E A

    1998-05-11

    Comparison of K+ channels in mollusk and mammalian neurons has been made to elucidate their fundamental properties. Using patch clamp cell-attached configuration, K+ channels in isolated snail neurons were separated into three subtypes: with big (BKC), medium (MKC) and small (SKC) unitary conductances. BKC and MKC were activated at -30 mV and SKC at more negative potentials. BKC and MKC proved sensitive to TEA, whereas SKC were sensitive to 4-AP. Cd2+ in the pipet decreased unitary conductance of BKC by 55% and of MKC by about 31%. Bath application of 5-HT selectively suppressed MKC. It is suggested that BKC can be referred to large conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K+ currents (KCa), MKC to intermediate conductance KCa and SKC channels comply with the characteristics of A current of mammals. These data show that KCa and A currents may be the most general types of currents generated by K+ channels. PMID:9631439

  18. Associative learning phenomena in the snail (Helix aspersa): conditioned inhibition.

    PubMed

    Acebes, Félix; Solar, Patricia; Moris, Joaquín; Loy, Ignacio

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments using garden snails (Helix aspersa) showed conditioned inhibition using both retardation and summation tests. Conditioned inhibition is a procedure by which a stimulus becomes a predictor of the absence of a relevant event--the unconditioned stimulus (US). Typically, conditioned inhibition consists of pairings between an initially neutral conditioned stimulus, CS(2), and an effective excitatory conditioned stimulus, CS(1), in the absence of the US. Retardation and summation tests are required in order to confirm that CS(2) has acquired inhibitory properties. Conditioned inhibition has previously been found in invertebrates; however, these demonstrations did not use the retardation and summation tests required for an unambiguous demonstration of inhibition, allowing for alternative explanations. The implications of our results for the fields of comparative cognition and invertebrate physiological models of learning are discussed. PMID:21877176

  19. Species- and size-specific infection of snails by Cyclocoelum mutabile (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae).

    PubMed

    McKindsey, C W; McLaughlin, J D

    1995-08-01

    Infectivity of Cyclocoelum mutabile miracidia to 9 species and up to 4 size classes of pulmonate snails at 14, 16, and 20 C was studied under laboratory conditions. Of the 9 species examined, 6 (Stagnicola elodes, Lymnaea stagnalis, Gyraulus parvus, Gyraulus circumstriatus, Promenetus exacuous, and Armiger crista) were highly susceptible (infection success > or = 25%), 2 (Physa jennessi and Helisoma trivolvis) had low susceptibility (infection success < 25%, > 0), and 1 (Physa gyrina) was not susceptible to infection. Within highly susceptible species, snail size was negatively related to susceptibility and temperature had variable effects. Infection success was not affected by temperature or snail size in species with low susceptibility. Production of cercariae was negatively correlated with susceptibility among snails of different sizes and species, but was not influenced by snail size for a given species. Among species, metacercariae production was typically higher in lymnaeids than in either planorbids or physids. Results of experiments where miracidia were provided with a choice of 2 different snails suggest that they do not discriminate between species with high and low susceptibility. PMID:7623190

  20. Effects of dietary exposure to forest pesticides on the brown garden snail Helix aspersa mueller

    SciTech Connect

    Schuytema, G.S.; Nebeker, A.V.; Griffis, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Brown garden snails, Helix aspersa, were fed prepared diets with 12 pesticides used in forest spraying practices where endangered arboreal and terrestrial snails may be at risk. Acephate, atrazine, glyphosate, hexazinone, and picloram were not lethal at concentrations of 5,000 mg/kg in 14-day screening tests. The remaining seven pesticides, lethal to 13-100% of the tested snails at 5,000 mg/kg, were evaluated in 10-day definitive feeding tests. Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) and aminocarb were the most toxic, with 10-day LC50s of 188 and 313 mg/kg, respectively. Paraquat, trichlorfon and fenitrothion had 10-day LC50s of 659, 664, and 7,058 mg/kg respectively. Avoidance of pesticide-containing foods occurred, e.g., 10-day LC50s of >10,000 mg/kg for carbaryl and ethyl parathion. Significant descreases (p<0.05) in snail weight (total, shell-only, body-only) or shell diameter were accompanied by a significant decrease in the amount of food consumed/snail/day. Concentrations of pesticide in tissues were measured in snails exposed to atrazine and azinphosmethyl; there was no bioaccumulation. (Copyright (c) 1994 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.)

  1. NF2 blocks Snail-mediated p53 suppression in mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Su-Jin; Oh, Ah-Young; Yoon, Min-Ho; Woo, Tae-Geun; Park, Bum-Joon

    2015-04-30

    Although asbestos causes malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), rising from lung mesothelium, the molecular mechanism has not been suggested until now. Extremely low mutation rate in classical tumor suppressor genes (such as p53 and pRb) and oncogenes (including Ras or myc) indicates that there would be MPM-specific carcinogenesis pathway. To address this, we treated silica to mimic mesothelioma carcinogenesis in mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (NSCLC). Treatment of silica induced p-Erk and Snail through RKIP reduction. In addition, p53 and E-cadherin were decreased by silica-treatment. Elimination of Snail restored p53 expression. We found that NF2 (frequently deleted in MPM) inhibited Snail-mediated p53 suppression and was stabilized by RKIP. Importantly, GN25, an inhibitor of p53-Snail interaction, induced p53 and apoptosis. These results indicate that MPM can be induced by reduction of RKIP/NF2, which suppresses p53 through Snail. Thus, the p53-Snail binding inhibitor such as GN25 is a drug candidate for MPM. PMID:25823924

  2. Molluscicidal activity of vulgarone B against ram's horn snail (Planorbella trivolvis).

    PubMed

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Sturtz, George; Mischke, Charles C; Wise, David; Duke, Stephen O

    2004-05-01

    The ram's horn snail (Planorbella trivolvis (Say)) is an intermediate host for a digenetic trematode (Bolbophorus confusus (Krause) Dubois) that has recently been discovered to be a significant problem in commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Raf) production ponds in the Mississippi Delta region in the USA. In these catfish ponds, the digenetic life cycle of this parasitic trematode involves two intermediate hosts, the ram's horn snail and the channel catfish, and the final host, the American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin). One approach to eradicate this problem is to disrupt the life cycle of the parasitic trematodes by eliminating the snails. During our search for natural-product-based molluscicides to control the snails in the catfish ponds, vulgarone B, isolated from the steam distillate of the aerial parts of the plant Artemisia douglasiana Besser (Asteraceae), was found to be active towards the snails with a LC50 of ca 24 microM. Channel catfish toxicity studies indicated a LC50 of ca 207 microM. Vulgarone B may be an environmentally acceptable alternative for snail control in aquaculture. PMID:15154515

  3. Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica)

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Kiran D; Banskar, Sunil; Rane, Shailendra D; Charan, Shakti S; Kulkarni, Girish J; Sawant, Shailesh S; Ghate, Hemant V; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of invasive land snail Achatina fulica is known to harbor metabolically active bacterial communities. In this study, we assessed the bacterial diversity in the different regions of GI tract of Giant African snail, A. fulica by culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from different regions of GI tract of active snails indicated that sequences affiliated to phylum ?-Proteobacteria dominated the esophagus, crop, intestine, and rectum libraries, whereas sequences affiliated to Tenericutes dominated the stomach library. On phylogenetic analysis, 30, 27, 9, 27, and 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from esophagus, crop, stomach, intestine, and rectum libraries were identified, respectively. Estimations of the total bacterial diversity covered along with environmental cluster analysis showed highest bacterial diversity in the esophagus and lowest in the stomach. Thirty-three distinct bacterial isolates were obtained, which belonged to 12 genera of two major bacterial phyla namely ?-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Among these, Lactococcus lactis and Kurthia gibsonii were the dominant bacteria present in all GI tract regions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated significant differences in bacterial load in different GI tract regions of active and estivating snails. The difference in the bacterial load between the intestines of active and estivating snail was maximum. Principal component analysis (PCA) of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suggested that bacterial community structure changes only in intestine when snail enters estivation state. PMID:23233413

  4. Endothelial Snail Regulates Capillary Branching Morphogenesis via Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 3 Expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Ae; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Lee, In-Kyu; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2015-07-01

    Vascular branching morphogenesis is activated and maintained by several signaling pathways. Among them, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling is largely presented in arteries, and VEGFR3 signaling is in veins and capillaries. Recent reports have documented that Snail, a well-known epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition protein, is expressed in endothelial cells, where it regulates sprouting angiogenesis and embryonic vascular development. Here, we identified Snail as a regulator of VEGFR3 expression during capillary branching morphogenesis. Snail was dramatically upregulated in sprouting vessels in the developing retinal vasculature, including the leading-edged vessels and vertical sprouting vessels for capillary extension toward the deep retina. Results from in vitro functional studies demonstrate that Snail expression colocalized with VEGFR3 and upregulated VEGFR3 mRNA by directly binding to the VEGFR3 promoter via cooperating with early growth response protein-1. Snail knockdown in postnatal mice attenuated the formation of the deep capillary plexus, not only by impairing vertical sprouting vessels but also by downregulating VEGFR3 expression. Collectively, these data suggest that the Snail-VEGFR3 axis controls capillary extension, especially in vessels expressing VEGFR2 at low levels. PMID:26147525

  5. Doxorubicin enhances Snail/LSD1-mediated PTEN suppression in a PARP1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yiwei; Kang, Tiebang; Zhou, Binhua P

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Snail not only functions as a master regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), but also mediates cell proliferation and survival. While previous studies have showed that Snail protects tumor cells from apoptosis through transcriptional repression of PTEN, the specific mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Snail cooperates with LSD1 to repress PTEN in a PARP1-dependent manner. Upon doxorubicin treatment, Snail becomes tightly associated with PARP1 through its pADPr-binding motif and is subject to poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This modification can enhance Snail-LSD1 interaction and promote the recruitment of LSD1 to PTEN promoter, where LSD1 removes methylation on histone H3 lysine 4 for transcription repression. Furthermore, treatment of tumor cells with PARP1 inhibitor AZD2281 can compromise doxorubicin-induced PTEN suppression and enhance the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin. Together, we proposed a tentative drug-resistant mechanism through which tumor cells defend themselves against DNA damage-induced apoptosis. PARP1 inhibitors in combination with DNA damaging reagents might represent a promising treatment strategy targeting tumors with over-activated Snail and LSD1. PMID:24675890

  6. The transcription factor snail regulates osteogenic differentiation by repressing Runx2 expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Jin; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Jogeswar, Gadi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Yook, Jong In; Choi, Han Seok; Rhee, Yumie; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2010-06-01

    Osteoblasts originate from mesenchymal stem cells by the coordinated activities of different signaling pathways that regulate the expression of osteoblast-specific genes. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is the master transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation. Despite the importance of Runx2 in the developing skeleton, how Runx2 expression is regulated remains a pivotal question. Snail, a zinc finger transcription factor, is essential for triggering epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) during embryonic development and tumor progression. Here, we report that Runx2 expression is significantly up- or down-regulated relative to Snail expression. We demonstrate that Snail binds to the Runx2 promoter and that repression of Runx2 transcription by Snail is dependent on specific E-box sequence within the promoter. With antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-mediated knockdown of Snail expression in zebrafish, we observed alterations in osteogenic potential. These results indicate that Snail plays a crucial role in osteogenic differentiation by acting as a direct Runx2 repressor. PMID:20215006

  7. Foraging and refuge use by a pond snail: Effects of physiological state, predators, and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojdak, Jeremy M.

    2009-09-01

    The costs and benefits of anti-predator behavioral responses should be functions of the actual risk of predation, the availability of the prey's resources, and the physiological state of the prey. For example, a food-stressed individual risks starvation when hiding from predators, while a well-fed organism can better afford to hide (and pay the cost of not foraging). Similarly, the benefits of resource acquisition are probably highest for the prey in the poorest state, while there may be diminishing returns for prey nearing satiation. Empirical studies of state-dependent behavior are only beginning, however, and few studies have investigated interactions between all three potentially important factors. Here I present the results of a laboratory experiment where I manipulated the physiological state of pond snails ( Physa gyrina), the abundance of algal resources, and predation cues ( Belostoma flumineum waterbugs consuming snails) in a full factorial design to assess their direct effects on snail behavior and indirect effects on algal biomass. On average, snails foraged more when resources were abundant, and when predators were absent. Snails also foraged more when previously exposed to physiological stress. Snails spent more time at the water's surface (a refuging behavior) in the presence of predation cues on average, but predation, resource levels, and prey state had interactive effects on refuge use. There was a consistent positive trait-mediated indirect effect of predators on algal biomass, across all resource levels and prey states.

  8. A repetitive DNA probe for the sensitive detection of Fasciola hepatica infected snails.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, R M; Dame, J B; Reddy, G R; Courtney, C H

    1995-05-01

    Epizootiologic studies on F. hepatica frequently use microscopic techniques for the detection of infected snails, however, the poor efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity associated with these techniques limit their usefulness. A DNA-based test for the identification of snails infected with larval stages of F. hepatica would solve these problems and enable a level of detection accuracy previously unavailable. We have cloned and sequenced a 124 bp fragment of repetitive DNA from F. hepatica which hybridizes specifically with DNA of F. hepatica but not with DNA of its snail intermediate hosts Fossaria cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella, or with DNA of Fascioloides magna and Paramphistomum liorchis, ruminant trematodes which share the same intermediate host and same enzootic range as F. hepatica. Using this 124 bp fragment as a probe, infection in snails was detected immediately following miracidial penetration, thus a sensitivity equivalent to the minimum biologic unit of the parasite was achieved. This 124 bp repeated sequence belongs to a large family of 124 bp repeats that share a high level of sequence identity and constitute approximately 15% of the F. hepatica genome. We also report here the development of a quick and inexpensive DNA extraction protocol for use in field-collected snails. Thus, we have developed both a highly sensitive and specific DNA probe and a means to use the probe in a large epizootiologic study of F. hepatica where thousands of field-collected snails need to be assayed for infection. PMID:7635638

  9. Snail mediates medial-lateral patterning of the ascidian neural plate.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Clare; Sirour, Cathy; Yasuo, Hitoyoshi

    2015-07-15

    The ascidian neural plate exhibits a regular, grid-like arrangement of cells. Patterning of the neural plate across the medial-lateral axis is initiated by bilateral sources of Nodal signalling, such that Nodal signalling induces expression of lateral neural plate genes and represses expression of medial neural plate genes. One of the earliest lateral neural plate genes induced by Nodal signals encodes the transcription factor Snail. Here, we show that Snail is a critical downstream factor mediating this Nodal-dependent patterning. Using gain and loss of function approaches, we show that Snail is required to repress medial neural plate gene expression at neural plate stages and to maintain the lateral neural tube genetic programme at later stages. A comparison of these results to those obtained following Nodal gain and loss of function indicates that Snail mediates a subset of Nodal functions. Consistently, overexpression of Snail can partially rescue a Nodal inhibition phenotype. We conclude that Snail is an early component of the gene regulatory network, initiated by Nodal signals, that patterns the ascidian neural plate. PMID:25962578

  10. Impact of invasive apple snails on the functioning and services of natural and managed wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, Finbarr G.; Stuart, Alexander M.; Kudavidanage, Enoka P.

    2014-01-01

    At least 14 species of apple snail (Ampullariidae) have been released to water bodies outside their native ranges; however, less than half of these species have become widespread or caused appreciable impacts. We review evidence for the impact of apple snails on natural and managed wetlands focusing on those studies that have elucidated impact mechanisms. Significant changes in wetland ecosystems have been noted in regions where the snails are established: Two species in particular (Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea maculata) have become major pests of aquatic crops, including rice, and caused enormous increases in molluscicide use. Invasive apple snails have also altered macrophyte community structure in natural and managed wetlands through selective herbivory and certain apple snail species can potentially shift the balance of freshwater ecosystems from clear water (macrophyte dominated) to turbid (plankton dominated) states by depleting densities of native aquatic plants. Furthermore, the introductions of some apple snail species have altered benthic community structure either directly, through predation, or indirectly, through exploitation competition or as a result of management actions. To date much of the evidence for these impacts has been based on correlations, with few manipulative field or mesocosm experiments. Greater attention to impact monitoring is required, and, for Asia in particular, a landscape approach to impact management that includes both natural and managed-rice wetlands is recommended.

  11. NF2 blocks Snail-mediated p53 suppression in mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Su-Jin; Oh, Ah-Young; Yoon, Min-Ho; Woo, Tae-Geun; Park, Bum-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Although asbestos causes malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), rising from lung mesothelium, the molecular mechanism has not been suggested until now. Extremely low mutation rate in classical tumor suppressor genes (such as p53 and pRb) and oncogenes (including Ras or myc) indicates that there would be MPM-specific carcinogenesis pathway. To address this, we treated silica to mimic mesothelioma carcinogenesis in mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (NSCLC). Treatment of silica induced p-Erk and Snail through RKIP reduction. In addition, p53 and E-cadherin were decreased by silica-treatment. Elimination of Snail restored p53 expression. We found that NF2 (frequently deleted in MPM) inhibited Snail-mediated p53 suppression and was stabilized by RKIP. Importantly, GN25, an inhibitor of p53-Snail interaction, induced p53 and apoptosis. These results indicate that MPM can be induced by reduction of RKIP/NF2, which suppresses p53 through Snail. Thus, the p53-Snail binding inhibitor such as GN25 is a drug candidate for MPM. PMID:25823924

  12. Endothelial Snail Regulates Capillary Branching Morphogenesis via Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Ae; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2015-01-01

    Vascular branching morphogenesis is activated and maintained by several signaling pathways. Among them, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling is largely presented in arteries, and VEGFR3 signaling is in veins and capillaries. Recent reports have documented that Snail, a well-known epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition protein, is expressed in endothelial cells, where it regulates sprouting angiogenesis and embryonic vascular development. Here, we identified Snail as a regulator of VEGFR3 expression during capillary branching morphogenesis. Snail was dramatically upregulated in sprouting vessels in the developing retinal vasculature, including the leading-edged vessels and vertical sprouting vessels for capillary extension toward the deep retina. Results from in vitro functional studies demonstrate that Snail expression colocalized with VEGFR3 and upregulated VEGFR3 mRNA by directly binding to the VEGFR3 promoter via cooperating with early growth response protein-1. Snail knockdown in postnatal mice attenuated the formation of the deep capillary plexus, not only by impairing vertical sprouting vessels but also by downregulating VEGFR3 expression. Collectively, these data suggest that the Snail-VEGFR3 axis controls capillary extension, especially in vessels expressing VEGFR2 at low levels. PMID:26147525

  13. [Occurrence of the flagellated protozoan, Cryptobia helicis Leidy, 1846 (Kinetoplasta: Bodonea: Cryptobiidae) in the garden snail, Helix aspersa].

    PubMed

    Göçmen, Bayram; Gürelli, Gözde

    2008-01-01

    In this survey, the prevalence and cytological features of the flagellated protozoan, Cryptobia helicis living in the bursa copulatrix of the garden snail, Helix aspersa Müller 1774 found in the vicinity of Izmir, Turkey was investigated. The prevalence of Cryptobia helicis in garden snails collected in the spring of 2005 was found to be 68.65%. This study is the first record of the occurrence of Cryptobia helicis in the garden snail Helix aspersa found in Turkey. PMID:18351561

  14. The role of Chaetogaster limnaei in the dynamics of trematode transmission in natural populations of freshwater snails.

    PubMed

    Fashuyi, S A; Williams, M O

    1977-12-13

    Chaetogaster limnaei, an oligochaete was always found infesting Bulinus (Phy.) globosus, B.(B.) forskalii and Lymnaea natalensis in Bo, Sierra Leone, living below the shell or embedded in the mucus of the foot. The worms had no preference for snails with trematode infection. The population was highest in the dry season when fewer snails were infected by trematodes. This is suggested to be a result of the protection the worms give to snails against invading miracidia. PMID:602368

  15. The detection and quantification of a digenean infection in the snail host with special emphasis on Fasciola sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yannick Caron; Daniel Rondelaud; Bertrand Losson

    2008-01-01

    In this review, ten methods used to study digenean infections in their intermediate hosts were compared to determine which\\u000a one should be used either in the field or in the lab to establish the prevalence and intensity of infections in snails. Snail\\u000a crushing and snail dissection allow quick establishing of prevalence in natural or experimental infections, whereas histology\\u000a is considered

  16. Effect of Sodium Chloride, Tricaine Methanesulfonate, and Light on New Zealand Mud Snail Behavior, Survival of Snails Defecated from Rainbow Trout, and Effects of Epsom Salt on Snail Elimination Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall W. Oplinger; Pat Brown; Eric J. Wagner

    2009-01-01

    The New Zealand mud snail (NZMS) Potamopyrgus antipodarum is an invasive species that threatens fish populations in North America. Establishment of NZMS in fish hatcheries is particularly problematic because NZMS could be inadvertently spread through fish stocking. Herein, we present the results of tests conducted to improve our understanding of (1) the risk of stocking fish from NZMS-infested hatcheries and

  17. Changes in epilithic communities due to individual and combined treatments of zinc and snail grazing in stream mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Genter, R.B.; Colwell, F.S.; Pratt, J.R.; Cherry, D.S.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    Effects of 0.5 mg/liter zinc (Zn) and snail grazing (400 snails/m2) on density of dominant algal and protozoan taxa, epilithic glucose respiration, and ash-free dry weight (AFDW) were examined using established (12-day colonization) periphyton communities in flow-through stream mesocosms with four treatments (Zn, snails, Zn and snails, control) for 30 days. Grazing and Zn similarly reduced the abundance of 5 of 10 dominant algal taxa and AFDW during the first 10 days of treatment. Abundance of these taxa and AFDW in grazed (ambient Zn) treatments approached control levels after 10 days as the effect due to snails decreased. Decreasing temperatures may have reduced snail activity. Snails, Zn, and the combination of these treatments contributed to higher rates of glucose respiration per unit AFDW. Protozoan species abundance was reduced to less than half by Zn but was unaffected by snails. Although Zn and snails individually altered structural and functional aspects of this microbial community, the effects when both treatments were combined could not always be inferred from the individual effects. Testing individual and combined variables that affect periphyton with a corresponding assessment of population dynamics, biomass, and community functional attributes will enhance understanding of the overall effects of pollutants on periphyton communities.

  18. Proterometra macrostoma (Trematoda: Azygiidae): location of the redia and emergence path from the snail, Elimia semicarinata (Gastropoda: Pleuroceridae).

    PubMed

    Rosen, Ronald; Berg, Ericka; Dolan, Julianna; King, Bailey; Martin, Michon; Mehmeti, Franceska

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe (1) the osmotic environment and precise location of the Proterometra macrostoma redia in its snail intermediate host, (2) where retraction of the distome body into the cercarial tail occurs, and (3) the subsequent emergence path of the cercaria out of the snail. Snails, Elimia semicarinata , were collected from North Elkhorn Creek in Scott County, Kentucky and screened daily for patent infections. Live rediae were extracted from infected snails in either artificial pond water (APW) or artificial snail water (ASW) and monitored for changes in morphology and movement every hour over 5 hr at 22 C. Infected and control snails were simultaneously fixed and decalcified in Cal-Ex II, prepared for routine paraffin sectioning, and serial sections subsequently analyzed for rediae and cercariae location. Significantly (?(2) = 42.45; 1 df; P = 0.0001) more rediae showed movement in ASW than in APW after 5 hr, suggesting a host compartment separate from the mantle cavity. Histological sections clearly showed rediae developing in close association with the snail digestive tract, within the peri-intestinal sinus of the snail, and isolated from the mantle cavity by a mantle membrane. Retraction of the distome body into the cercarial tail follows the emergence of the cercaria from the redia. Cercariae then enter the mantle cavity and emerge into fresh water through a siphon-like structure formed by the mantle collar of the snail. PMID:23343411

  19. FBXO11 promotes ubiquitination of the Snail family of transcription factors in cancer progression and epidermal development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Shenoy, Anitha K; Doernberg, Samuel; Chen, Hao; Luo, Huacheng; Shen, Huangxuan; Lin, Tong; Tarrash, Miriam; Cai, Qingsong; Hu, Xin; Fiske, Ryan; Chen, Ting; Wu, Lizi; Mohammed, Kamal A; Rottiers, Veerle; Lee, Siu Sylvia; Lu, Jianrong

    2015-06-28

    The Snail family of transcription factors are core inducers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here we show that the F-box protein FBXO11 recognizes and promotes ubiquitin-mediated degradation of multiple Snail family members including Scratch. The association between FBXO11 and Snai1 in vitro is independent of Snai1 phosphorylation. Overexpression of FBXO11 in mesenchymal cells reduces Snail protein abundance and cellular invasiveness. Conversely, depletion of endogenous FBXO11 in epithelial cancer cells causes Snail protein accumulation, EMT, and tumor invasion, as well as loss of estrogen receptor expression in breast cancer cells. Expression of FBXO11 is downregulated by EMT-inducing signals TGF? and nickel. In human cancer, high FBXO11 levels correlate with expression of epithelial markers and favorable prognosis. The results suggest that FBXO11 sustains the epithelial state and inhibits cancer progression. Inactivation of FBXO11 in mice leads to neonatal lethality, epidermal thickening, and increased Snail protein levels in epidermis, validating that FBXO11 is a physiological ubiquitin ligase of Snail. Moreover, in C. elegans, the FBXO11 mutant phenotype is attributed to the Snail factors as it is suppressed by inactivation/depletion of Snail homologs. Collectively, these findings suggest that the FBXO11-Snail regulatory axis is evolutionarily conserved and critically governs carcinoma progression and mammalian epidermal development. PMID:25827072

  20. Effects of washing produce contaminated with the snail and slug hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis with three common household solutions.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Norine W; Hayes, Kenneth A; Cowie, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    The emerging infectious disease angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease) is caused by ingesting snails and slugs infected by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The definitive hosts of A. cantonensis are rats and the obligatory intermediate hosts are slugs and snails. Many cases result from accidentally ingesting infected snails or slugs on produce (eg, lettuce). This study assessed three readily available household products as washing solutions for removing snails and slugs from produce (romaine lettuce) to lower the probability of accidentally ingesting them. The solutions were acetic acid (vinegar), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), and sodium chloride (domestic salt). Snail and slug species known to be intermediate hosts and that are common in the Hawaiian Islands were used in the experiments: the alien snail Succinea tenella, the alien semi-slug Parmarion martensi, and the alien slugs Veronicella cubensis and Deroceras laeve. None of the products was any more effective than washing and rinsing with tap water alone. Most snails and slugs were removed after treatment but some remained on the lettuce even after washing and rinsing the produce. Only washing, rinsing, and then rinsing each leaf individually resulted in complete removal of all snails and slugs. The study did not address removal of any remaining slime left by the snails and slugs, nor did it address killing of worms. PMID:23901391

  1. Influence of copper on the feeding rate, growth and reproduction of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck.

    PubMed

    Peña, Silvia C; Pocsidio, Glorina N

    2007-12-01

    The influence of copper on feeding rate, growth, and reproduction of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck was evaluated. Ten days of exposure to copper of relatively high concentration (67.5 microg/L) reduced the snails' feeding rate and retarded their growth. Exposure to 20 microg/L after 36 days increased feeding rate to 28%. After 20 days of exposure at 30 microg/L, snail's growth was significant but thereafter declined. Growth of all snails including control was negligible by day 50 when snails were in the reproductive state. Copper did not affect reproduction. PMID:17999015

  2. Antipredatory behavior as an index of heavy-metal pollution? A test using snails and caddisflies.

    PubMed

    Lefcort, H; Ammann, E; Eiger, S M

    2000-04-01

    The loss of behaviors that organisms use to avoid predation may serve as a sensitive indicator of pollution. We tested the hypothesis that a correlation exists in the field between heavy metal levels and antipredator behaviors. We examined the antipredator behavior of aquatic caddisfly larvae and snails at sites in the Coeur d'Alene basin of Northern Idaho which varied in their levels of heavy metals. We tested the antipredator response of Physella columbiana snails at 10 polluted lakes downstream from the Bunker Hill Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund cleanup site. We then compared their behavior to snails at 14 reference lakes. We placed the snails in a plastic testing apparatus, exposed them to an extract of crushed snail, and then monitored their movements to a normally preferred shaded area. We also tested the behavior of caddisfly larvae from 36 sites from a total of 6 streams/rivers adjacent to the Superfund site. Sites were located upstream and downstream of abandoned mines. We located active larvae of four genera, simulated predation by grasping the animals between thumb and forefinger (the larvae respond to being grasped by withdrawing into their case), lifted them from the water for 3 s, and then placed them in an adjacent, slower section of the stream. We then recorded how long it took each larvae to partially emerge from its case and attempt to move away. Unlike reference site snails, snails from heavy metal-polluted environments failed to exhibit antipredator behaviors in response to crushed conspecifics. These results are consistent with previous laboratory studies. We found no effect of heavy metals on the antipredatory behavior of caddisfly larvae. PMID:10667928

  3. Influence of water quality on zinc toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) and sensitivity of freshwater snails to zinc.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Tong, Xin

    2015-03-01

    The present study characterized the influence of water-quality characteristics on zinc (Zn) toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) and the sensitivity of freshwater snails to Zn. Standard 96-h renewal acute toxicity tests were conducted with Zn and juvenile P. paludosa under 3 conditions of pH and alkalinity, water hardness, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Median lethal effect concentrations (96-h LC50s), no-observed- effect concentrations, lowest-observed-effect concentrations, LC10s, and LC20s were determined for each test. The results showed that Zn toxicity to P. paludosa decreased linearly with increasing hardness, pH, and DOC. A multiple linear regression model based on pH, hardness, and DOC was able to explain 99% of the observed variability in LC50s. These results are useful for the development of a biotic ligand model (BLM) for P. paludosa and Zn. Zinc acute toxicity data were collected from the literature for 12 freshwater snail species in a wide range of water-quality characteristics for species sensitivity distribution analysis. The results showed that P. paludosa is the second most sensitive to Zn. The present study also suggested that aqueous ZnCO3 and ZnHCO3 (-) can be bioavailable to P. paludosa. Therefore, bioavailability models (e.g., BLM) should take these Zn species into consideration for bioavailability when applied to snails. PMID:25475172

  4. The Application of Electric Shock as a Novel Pest Control Method for Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagyu, Yoshihito; Tsuji, Satoshi; Satoh, Saburoh; Yamabe, Chobei

    The apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, brought to Japan from Taiwan for human consumption in the 1980s, has come to be considered as deleterious for rice cultivation. The snail is unable to injure young rice plants while receiving electric shock because the snail retracts its entire body into its shell and shuts its aperture with its operculum. Electric shock should be applied intermittently to reduce the amount of energy that is wasted when the snail is in its shell made of one of the insulator. The minimum electric shock required for controlling snails and the time required for movement after application of electric shock to determine the frequency of each electric shock were investigated using two methods; vertical and horizontal application of the electrical stimulation. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between the strength of electric shock and the reaction of the snails, and electric shock made snails inactive when it was applied 0.35 A/m2 in the horizontal direction and 0.45 A/m2 in the vertical direction with water of 11 mS/m. A positive correlation was also found between electric shock and the reaction of the snails and shell height. In comparison with larger snails, the smaller snails had higher threshold levels against electric current density because their shorter feet tended to have lower voltage dorp. Moreover, the frequency of electric shock should be chosen the minimum duration for the inactive condition, and it was approximately 10 seconds. Consequently the direction of electric current should be in the horizontal direction above 0.35 A/m2 and the frequency of electric shock should be less than 10 seconds for practical use. However, electric shock would have to be maintained at greater than 0.35 A/m2 because snails might become habituated to electric shock and water in paddy field would have high electric conductivity.

  5. [Dynamic transmission of Schistosoma by Biomphalaria pfeifferi in the region of Man in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Yapi Yapi, G; Touré, M; Boka, O M; Tia, E; Boby, O A-M

    2014-12-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis by Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitary affection transmitted in West Africa by the mollusc Biomphalaria pfeifferi. Transmission dynamic of schistosomiasis by Biomphalaria pfeifferi has seldom been investigated in Côte d'Ivoire. In the framework of a research project on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the natural forest ecosystems, this study was performed longitudinally over a period of three years in Man region, in western Côte d'Ivoire. The trial set up from 1986 to 1989 and the project was funded by the World Health Organization. The general objective is to design a strategy of schistosomiasis control based on chemotherapy. The approach aims at interrupting or considerably reducing the reinfections, prolonging in that way the duration of the positive effects of the chemotherapy. The specific objectives assigned to the work consisted in studying the dynamic of the B. pfeifferi population and the infection of B. pfeifferi. To achieve our objectives, diverse methods (i: the molluscs sampling by two prospectors during 15 minutes per study site and ii: individual isolation of molluscs in test tubes with 5 or 10 mL of filtered water and exposure to light) have been used. They enabled us in the sampling of the intermediary host molluscs of Schistosoma and seek their infections. The results show that apparent high densities of B. pfeifferi can be observed at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of rainy seasons. In addition, the variation of relative abundance of intermediary host molluscs of Schistosoma is significantly influenced by rainfall and the system of water ways. The period of transmission of the infection to man is six months at Gueupleu village and ten months at Botonguiné village. In order to optimize the effect of chemotherapy in these sites of transmission characterized by a high level of endemy (68 %), an extreme mobility of human populations and a multiplicity of contamination sites, this study should not only take into account the geographic space of the illness, but also it should eventually associate with a molluscicide action and/or a sanitary education through the teaching of primary health care. PMID:25351337

  6. Use of ice water and salt treatments to eliminate an exotic snail, red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus, from small immersible fisheries equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ice water and salt treatments were evaluated for disinfection of fisheries equipment contaminated with a non-indigenous tropical snail, the red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus. The snail can displace native snails and can transmit trematodes directly to fishes and indirectly to other animals, i...

  7. Decline and homogenization of Pacific faunas: the land snails of American Samoa ? ? Contribution number 2000-019 of Bishop Museum’s Pacific Biological Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Cowie

    2001-01-01

    Native Pacific island biotas are disappearing rapidly. Among these native biotas the land snails are especially recognized not only for their high diversity and high levels of endemism but also for being under severe threat, with many species already extinct. Many non-indigenous snail species are being introduced, leading to a homogenization of land snail faunas across the Pacific. Field survey

  8. Seasonal dynamics of two mortality-related trematodes using an introduced snail.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Kristin K; Sorensen, Robert E

    2009-08-01

    Seasonal dynamics of 2 trematode species, Cyathocotyle bushiensis and Sphaeridiotrema globulus, were assessed in relation to life history traits of the parasites and their hosts, as well as abundance of host species and abundance of infective stages. Both of these trematodes are associated with recurrent mortality of migrating waterbirds on the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge. An invasive snail species, Bithynia tentaculata, serves as intermediate host for both trematode species. In total, 2,970 snails were collected at 2 study sites. Prevalence and mean abundance of the 2 trematode species varied among dates and was attributed to several factors, including migration patterns of definitive hosts, snail population dynamics, and seasonal changes in temperature. The surge of new infections of both parasites seems to be due to avian hosts foraging at this site during spring migration. The high prevalence and abundance of metacercariae among the snail population promote mortality among molluscivorous birds by increasing the probability of ingestion of a lethal dose. Additionally, mortality of non-molluscivorous birds can be explained by accidental ingestion of a couple of highly infected snails resulting in a lethal dose. PMID:20049988

  9. Fascioliasis Control: In Vivo and In Vitro Phytotherapy of Vector Snail to Kill Fasciola Larva

    PubMed Central

    Sunita, Kumari; Singh, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Snail is one of the important components of an aquatic ecosystem, it acts as intermediate host of Fasciola species. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. Life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria in the snail body. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of the plant products and their active component such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin, and allicin against larva of Fasciola in infected snail Lymnaea acuminata were tested. Mortality of larvae were observed at 2?h, 4?h, 6?h, and 8?h, of treatment. In in vivo treatment, azadirachtin caused highest mortality in redia and cercaria larva (8?h, LC50 0.11, and 0.05?mg/L) whereas in in vitro condition allicin was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8?h, LC50 0.01, and 0.009?mg/L). Toxicity of citral was lowest against redia and cercaria larva. PMID:22132306

  10. Effects of Deposited Sediment on the Growth and Behavior of Physa Snails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, T. R.; Stelzer, R. S.

    2005-05-01

    Fine sediment loading is one of the leading causes of ecological impairment to rivers and streams in the United States, yet few studies have addressed how deposited silt affects benthic invertebrates. We determined how deposited silt affects the growth and behavior of Physa integra snails from Emmons Creek, WI by exposing them to 3 levels of silt (ambient, low, high) in streamside once-through flumes and recirculating chambers. While there were no significant differences in snail growth rates among silt treatments, the behavioral differences were striking. Snails that received added silt spent less time on algal-covered tiles than those not receiving silt. Elemental analysis of periphyton revealed higher nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus levels for the silt addition treatments, which may be providing the snails with more nutritious food, although this was not reflected in their growth rates. Per capita egestion rates were significantly higher for the high-silt treatment. These snails may have ingested more of the algae and silt but the presence of silt may have decreased assimilation, nullifying any positive effect on growth. In conclusion, silt addition did not affect Physa integra growth rates but did influence their behavior and egestion rates.

  11. miR-153 inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting Snail.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wenfei; Ma, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingrui; Dong, Hong; Yi, Jilin; Zeng, Weixia; Yang, Zhifang

    2015-08-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated as a dynamic cellular process in embryonic development and invasion of human cancers. Snail1 is a critical convergence hub in EMT regulation which transcriptionally represses E-cadherin expression. Currently, published data indicate that upregulation of Snail is mainly due to transcriptional activation and regulation of protein stability and cellular location. However, whether there is an alternative regulatory mechanism remains unclear. Our study showed that the expression of miR-153 was noticeably downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and tissues, compared with normal liver epithelial cells (NLCs) and matched adjacent normal HCC tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-153 inhibited the migration and invasion ability of HCC cells, while suppression of miR-153 rescued this inhibitory effect. In addition, upregulation of miR-153 in HCC cells resulted in a decrease in epithelial markers, E-cadherin and ?-catenin, and an increase in mesenchymal markers, N-cadherin and vimentin, and vice versa. Moreover, we demonstrated that miR-153 downregulated Snail expression by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of Snail. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-153 plays a critical role in suppressing EMT and HCC progression by direct suppression of Snail expression. PMID:26035427

  12. Imidacloprid induced alterations in enzyme activities and energy reserves of the land snail, Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    Radwan, M A; Mohamed, M S

    2013-09-01

    The in vivo sublethal toxic effects (0.2 and 0.6 LD50) of topically applied imidacloprid on biochemical biomarkers in the land snail, Helix aspersa was examined. Biochemical perturbations were assessed by measuring the three enzymatic (Acetylcholinesterase, AChE; catalase, CAT and glutathione-S-transferase, GST) activities and three energy reserves (protein, glycogen and lipids) in the snails. Snail samples were taken from each sublethal dose and control groups at 1, 3 and 7 days after treatment. The results revealed that there were overall decrease in AChE activity as well as depletion of lipids and glycogen contents in the imidacloprid-treated snails compared to control groups. The CAT and GST activities of treated snails with the sublethal doses of imidacloprid were significantly higher than those of untreated controls along the three times of exposure. Moreover, an increase in the level of total proteins was observed in animals treated with 0.6 LD50 imidacloprid compared to control groups. The alterations in all tested biochemical perturbations were most pronounced with the 0.6 LD50 than 0.2 LD50. This study suggests that alterations of the enzyme activities and energy reserves in this species that could be useful as biomarkers of imidacloprid exposure in the evaluation of terrestrial impacts of this insecticide. PMID:23756058

  13. Development of the feline lungworms Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior in Helix aspersa snails.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Alessio; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Annoscia, Giada; Di Cesare, Angela; Colella, Vito; Brianti, Emanuele; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Strongylida, Angiostrongylidae) and Troglostrongylus brevior (Strongylida, Crenosomatidae) are regarded as important lungworm species of domestic felids, with the latter considered an emerging threat in the Mediterranean region. The present study aimed to assess their concurrent development in the mollusc Helix aspersa (Pulmonata, Helicidae). Thirty snails were infested with 100 first-stage larvae (L1) of A. abstrusus and T. brevior, isolated from a naturally infested kitten. Larval development was checked by digesting five specimens at 2, 6 and 11 days post infestation. Larvae retrieved were morphologically described and their identification was confirmed by specific PCR and sequencing. All H. aspersa snails were positive for A. abstrusus and T. brevior, whose larval stages were simultaneously detected at each time point. In addition, snails were exposed to outdoor conditions and examined after overwintering, testing positive up to 120 days post infestation. Data herein presented suggest that A. abstrusus and T. brevior develop in H. aspersa snails and may eventually co-infest cats. Data on the morphology of both parasitic species in H. aspersa provide additional information on their development and identification, to better understand the population dynamics of these lungworms in receptive snails and paratenic hosts. PMID:24477103

  14. How subcellular partitioning can help to understand heavy metal accumulation and elimination kinetics in snails.

    PubMed

    Gimbert, Frédéric; Vijver, Martina G; Coeurdassier, Michaël; Scheifler, Renaud; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Badot, Pierre-Marie; de Vaufleury, Annette

    2008-06-01

    To understand bioaccumulation kinetics of metals within biota inhabiting industrially contaminated soils, toxicokinetic dynamics and subcellular fractionation were carried out with the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa in a long-term (six-month) laboratory experiment. Accumulation and elimination kinetics were determined for Cd, Pb, and Zn in both viscera and foot of snails and were described accurately by one-compartment models. The subcellular fractions were obtained by sequential centrifugations and were analyzed by isolating metal-rich granules, tissue fragments, and cytosolic fractions. Different fractions showed metal-specific binding capacities that might be useful in identifying the biological significance of accumulated metal levels in snails. Cadmium was retrieved mainly from the cytosolic fraction, where it was stored in the long term and not excreted, thus explaining the linear accumulation patterns. Most of the accumulated Pb was found in the granular fraction, and snails appeared able to excrete these concretions, leading to achievement of a steady state in internal Pb body burdens. Significant levels of Pb, however, were retrieved at the end of the depuration phase and retained in the cell debris fraction. Zinc showed affinities for both cytosolic and granular fractions, leading to intermediate uptake and excretion patterns. The dynamics of the different sequestration forms at the subcellular level support the observed kinetics of metal body burdens and, in association with the determination of uptake fluxes, allow precise assessment of metal accumulation in snails. PMID:18229974

  15. Neurogenesis in the procerebrum of the snail Helix aspersa: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Longley, Roger D

    2011-10-01

    The procerebrum, a specialized structure for olfaction in terrestrial pulmonate molluscs, contains 20,000 to 50,000 small, uniformly sized neurons that increase in number with age. Here I show the likely source of neurons added to the procerebrum of Helix aspersa and that the rate of neuron addition depends on snail weight. After hatching, during the initial exponential growth phase, H. aspersa adds neurons to the procerebral apex by mitosis and from a cerebral tube. In the logistic growth phase beginning 30-40 days post-hatch, neurons also seem to be added to the procerebrum from the peritentacular and olfactory nerves, causing the rate of neuron addition to approximately double; but as in the earlier exponential growth phase, this rate remains a function of snail weight. This neuron addition throughout the life of the snail can be predicted by snail weight. In the two growth phases, the number of neurons in the procerebrum is given by logarithmic functions of snail weight. The results here for H. aspersa provide the basis for experiments to determine the peripheral origin and destination of neuronal precursors that are added to the procerebrum and to determine how neuron addition affects the function of the procerebrum. PMID:22042440

  16. Distribution of fasciolosis in Kansas, with results of experimental snail susceptibility studies.

    PubMed

    McKown, R D; Ridley, R K

    1995-02-01

    A total of 278 veterinarians throughout Kansas were sent mail-in survey forms asking specific questions relating to their experience with fasciolosis in their practice area. Replies were received from 178 (64%) veterinarians representing six practice types; one-third reported having seen cases of fasciolosis in their practice. The results of our survey indicate that the majority of the cattle diagnosed with liver fluke disease in Kansas are imported from other areas of the USA. However, in both central and southeastern regions of Kansas, some cattle that had never been out of the state were infected with Fasciola hepatica. Thus, these areas of Kansas should be considered endemic for liver fluke disease. Methods of diagnosis, types of operations, and improvements seen after treatment were also discussed. In order to ascertain the existence of one or more possible snail intermediate hosts within Kansas, five species of lymnaeid snails were collected from central and southeastern parts of the state and tested for their susceptibility to infection by Fasciola hepatica. The snails collected included Pseudosuccinea columella, Fossaria obrussa, Fossaria bulimoides, Fossaria parva and Fossaria dalli. Of these, Pseudosuccinea columella and Fossaria bulimoides proved susceptible to experimental infection by Fasciola hepatica. Metacercariae obtained from experimentally infected snails were used to infect both a weanling calf thereby completing the life cycle of the parasite. This report is the first to identify the existence of suitable snail intermediate hosts for Fasciola hepatica in Kansas. PMID:7754605

  17. Field evaluation of controlled release copper glass as a molluscicide in snail control.

    PubMed

    Chandiwana, S K; Ndamba, J; Makura, O; Taylor, P

    1987-01-01

    Limited field evaluation of a new molluscicide, copper controlled release glass (CRG), was carried out in 4 human water contact sites in shallow and slow flowing streams in the highveld region of Zimbabwe during 1984 to 1986. The results indicate that the copper CRG has great potential as an inexpensive snail control agent to reduce schistosomiasis transmission. There was a marked reduction in snail numbers in the treated sites after application of 2 forms of the copper molluscicide; a "fast" CRG with approximately 24-h solution time in water and a "slow" CRG with about 1-year solution time. Snail numbers remained depressed during the observation period while frogs and fish were not affected. Fluctuations in snail numbers in the untreated sites showed no clear pattern, being erratic and unpredictable and probably attributable to seasonal effects. Problems of the correct amounts of molluscicide to apply to a site are to an extent overcome by knowledge of the copper binding capacity of the mud substrate. The mud sediment can be saturated by the "fast" release copper glass to achieve a snail killing concentration in the water which can be sustained by the "slow" release glass. It appears that the main difficulty in maintaining desirable copper levels in the water is flow, which causes rapid removal of copper from the treated waterbody. Thus, under field conditions on the highveld region of Zimbabwe, the CRG molluscicide is likely to be effective only during the stable conditions of the dry season which is, however, the main transmission period. PMID:3503415

  18. A new cercaria and metacercaria of Acanthoparyphium (Echinostomatidae) found in an intertidal snail Zeacumantus subcarinatus (Batillaridae) from

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    A new cercaria and metacercaria of Acanthoparyphium (Echinostomatidae) found in an intertidal snail Abstract A new 23-collar-spined cercaria and metacercaria are described from intertidal molluscs of the coast of New Zealand. The new cercaria found emerging from the mud snails Zeacumantus subcarinatus

  19. Molecular and Cellular Pathobiology 14-3-3 Binding Sites in the Snail Protein Are Essential for

    E-print Network

    Lieberman, Judy

    cells results in the acqui- sition of mesenchymal traits and properties of stem cells (8). In mice for Snail-Mediated Transcriptional Repression and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Differentiation Zhaoyuan Hou1 expression of Snail in epithelial cells induces the EMT trans- differentiation event accompanied by increased

  20. Antigenic Community between Opisthorchis viverrini Adult Worms and Their Intermediate Hosts, Bithynia Snails as a Support for Concomitant Antigens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorn Watthanakulpanich; Jitra Waikagul; Paron Dekumyoy; Malinee Thairungroj Anantaphruti

    he concept that parasites share antigens with their snail intermediate hosts has received considerable experimental support. In this study, comparison between three species of Bithynia snails: B. funiculata, B. siamensis siamensis, B. siamensis goniomphalos and crude somatic antigens of Opisthorchis viverrini adult worms were immunologically characterized with antibodies (IgG) in sera of opisthorchiasis patients by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis.

  1. Introduction of the land snail Eobania vermiculata as a bioindicator organism of terrestrial pollution using a battery of biomarkers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Itziou; V. K. Dimitriadis

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to enrich the group of sentinel organisms of terrestrial pollution biomonitoring, by investigating the efficacy of the land snail Eobania vermiculata. For this reason, a package of biomarkers was performed on land snails E. vermiculata collected from polluted areas in the field or treated with heavy metals in the laboratory. The biomarkers used were neutral red

  2. Alterations of biochemical indicators in hepatopancreas of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, from paddy fields in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wu, Jui-Pin; Hsieh, Tsung-Chih; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-07-01

    The freshwater golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, is one of the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snails' wide distribution, high abundance, and sensitivity to environmental pollution make them a potential bioindicator for environmental contamination. In this study, the biochemical status of golden apple snails collected from paddy fields throughout the island of Taiwan was examined. This study found that the biochemical status of apple snails collected from paddy fields differed from that of animals bred and maintained in the laboratory. Furthermore, certain biochemical endpoints of the snails collected from the paddy fields before and after agricultural activities were also different-hemolymphatic vitellogenin protein was induced in male snail after exposure to estrogen-like chemicals, the hepatic monooxygenase (1.97 +/- 0.50 deltaA(650mm) 30 min(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) and glutathione S transferase (0.02 +/- 0.01 delta A(340mm) 30 min(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) snails exposed to pesticides, as well as the hepatopancreatic levels of aspartate aminotransferase (450.00 +/- 59.40 U mg(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) and alanine aminotransferase (233.27 +/- 42.09 U mg(-1) mg(-1) protein in control group) decreased the indicating that xenobiotics destroyed hepatopancreatic. The above findings reveal that apple snail could be used as a practical bioindicator to monitor anthropogenic environmental pollution. PMID:25004751

  3. RNA Interference Targeting Snail Inhibits the Transforming Growth Factor ?2-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Lens Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Jing, Jiaona; Hu, Jianyan; Guan, Huaijin

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-msenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to posterior capsule opacification (PCO) type of cataract. Transcription factors Snail is a key trigger of EMT activated by transforming growth factor ? (TGF?). This study was done to investigate the effect of Snail targeting siRNA on TGF?2-induced EMT in human lens epithelial cells. TGF?2 treatment of cultured human epithelial cell line (HLEB3) upregulated the expression of Snail and the EMT relevant molecules such as vimentin and ?-SMA but downregulated the expression of keratin and E-cadherin. After the stimulation of TGF?2, the HLEB3 cells became fibroblast-like in morphology, and the junctions of cell-cell disappeared. TGF?2 treatment also enhanced migration ability of HLEB3 cells. TGF?2-induced Snail expression and EMT were significantly inhibited by Snail siRNA. By analyzing the response characteristics of HLEB3 in TGF?2-induced EMT model with/without Snail-specific siRNA, we concluded that Snail is an element in the EMT of HLEB3 cells induced by TGF?2. Snail siRNA targeting can block the induced EMT and therefore has the potential to suppress the development of PCO. PMID:24163761

  4. BIOTIC INTERACTIONS MODIFY THE TRANSFER OF CESIUM137 IN A SOIL–EARTHWORM–PLANT–SNAIL FOOD WEB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clémentine Fritsch; Renaud Scheifler; Karine Beaugelin-Seiller; Philippe Hubert; Michaël Cœurdassier; Annette de Vaufleury; Pierre-Marie Badot

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq\\/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Stan- dardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence

  5. The role of Chaetogaster limnaei in the dynamics of trematode transmission in natural populations of freshwater snails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Fashuyi; Modupè O. Williams

    1977-01-01

    Summary Chaetogaster limnaei, an oligochaete was always found infesting Bulinus (Phy.) globosus, B.(B.) forskalii and Lymnaea natalensis in Bo, Sierra Leone, living below the shell or embedded in the mucus of the foot. The worms had no preference for snails with trematode infection. The population was highest in the dry season when fewer snails were infected by trematodes. This is

  6. From triphenyltins to integrated management of the `pest' snail Cerithidea cingulata in mangrove-derived milkfish ponds in the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bagarinao; I. Lantin-Olaguer

    2000-01-01

    The potamidid snail Cerithidea cingulata is considered a pest in brackishwater milkfish ponds in the Philippines and has been controlled by the triphenyltin (TPT) compounds Aquatin and Brestan. But TPT is also toxic to other invertebrates, fishes, algae, bacteria and people, and high TPT residues occur in sea foods including milkfish. Thus, control of snails in milkfish ponds should be

  7. Land Snail Fauna of Me Aure Cave (WMD007), Moindou, New Caledonia: Human Introductions and Faunal Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Cowie; J. A. Grant-Mackie

    2004-01-01

    The land snail fauna excavated from a cave at MeAureon the central southwestern coast of New Caledonia represents a period of over 3000 yr, from before human arrival in the island to the present. The material excavated rep- resents 20 terrestrial species in nine families. The fauna reflects the overall land snail fauna of New Caledonia in being dominated by

  8. Land Snail Fauna of Me Aure Cave (WMD007), Moindou, New Caledonia: Human Introductions and Faunal Changel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Cowie; A. Grant-Mackie

    The land snail fauna excavated from a cave at Me Aure on the central southwestern coast of New Caledonia represents a period of over 3000 yr, from before human arrival in the island to the present. The material excavated rep­ resents 20 terrestrial species in nine families. The fauna reflects the overall land snail fauna of New Caledonia in being

  9. Effect of water plants and non-target snails on the infectivity of Bulinus truncatus with Schistosoma haematobium.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Fayez A; Abd-el-Monem, Sayed

    2005-12-01

    The application of the water plant (Ceratophyllum demersum, Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna gibba) and/or non-target snails (Planorbis planorbis, Physa acuta and Melanoides tuberculata) gave a significant degree of reduction in the infection rate of B. truncatus subjected to S. haematobium miracidia. The data also indicated a reduction in mean total number of cercarial production/snail. However, no significant difference was detected in the prepatent period and duration of cercarial shedding of the parasite when compared with the control group. So, the results revealed that the snails exhibited a competitive ability against B. truncatus. Both survival rate and egg production of B. truncatus were greatly reduced when existed in mixed cultures with non-target snails and the magnitude of this reduction increased by increasing the number of the non-target snails. PMID:16333895

  10. Bugs as drugs, part two: worms, leeches, scorpions, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders.

    PubMed

    Cherniack, E Paul

    2011-03-01

    In this second of a two-part series analyzing the evidence for the use of organisms as medicine, the use of a number of different "bugs" (worms, leeches, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders) is detailed. Several live organisms are used as treatments: leeches for plastic surgery and osteoarthritis and the helminths Trichuris suis and Necator americanus for inflammatory bowel disease. Leech saliva is the source of a number of anticoagulants, including the antithrombin agent hirudin and its synthetic analogues, which have been approved for human use. Predatory arthropods, such as certain species of snails, spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and ticks provide a trove of potential analgesic peptides in their venom. A synthetic analogue of a snail venom peptide, ziconotide, has been approved for human use and is used as an alternative to opioids in severe pain cases. Arthropods, such as ticks, have venom that contains anticoagulants and centipede venom has a protein that corrects abnormalities in lipid metabolism. PMID:21438646

  11. Prevalence of Haplorchis taichui in Field-Collected Snails: A Molecular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chontananarth, Thapana

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of the cercarial stage of an intestinal trematode, Haplorchis taichui, in thiarid snails (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) was investigated using light microscope and species-specific PCR procedures. A total of 988 snails were collected from Mae Taeng district, Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, which comprised of 3 species; Melanoides tuberculata, Tarebia granifera, and Thiara scabra. The overall prevalence of pleurolophocercous cercariae was 21.7% as determined by the morphology. For genetic detection of H. taichui infection in snails, 2 primers Hapt_F (5'-GGCCAACGCAATCGTCATCC-3') and Hapt_R (5'-GCGTCGGGTTTCAGACATGG-3'), were used. The genomic DNA of H. taichui, which was used as a positive control, gave an amplification of the 256 bp fragment. The overall prevalence of H. taichui from specific PCR was 9.7%. The proportion of H. taichui among the pleurolophocercous cercariae in this study was 44.9%. PMID:21234240

  12. A novel molecular pathway for Snail-dependent, SPARC-mediated invasion in non-small cell lung cancer pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jeanette L.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Hong, Long-Sheng; Krysan, Kostyantyn; Minna, John D.; Shay, Jerry W.; Walser, Tonya C.; Dubinett, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Definition of the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer allows investigators an enhanced understanding of the natural history of the disease, thus fostering development of new prevention strategies. In addition to regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the transcription factor Snail exerts global effects on gene expression. Our recent studies reveal that Snail is upregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is associated with poor prognosis, and promotes tumor progression in vivo. Herein, we demonstrate that overexpression of Snail leads to upregulation of Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) in models of premalignancy and established disease, as well as in lung carcinoma tissues in situ. Snail overexpression leads to increased SPARC-dependent invasion in vitro, indicating that SPARC may play a role in lung cancer progression. Bioinformatic analysis implicates TGF-?, ERK1/2, and miR-29b as potential intermediaries in Snail-mediated upregulation of SPARC. Both the TGF-?1 ligand and TGF-?R2 are upregulated following Snail overexpression. Treatment of human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) lines with TGF-?1 and inhibition of TGF-?1 mRNA expression modulated SPARC expression. Inhibition of MEK phosphorylation downregulated SPARC. MiR-29b is downregulated in Snail overexpressing cell lines, while overexpression of miR-29b inhibited SPARC expression. In addition, miR-29b was upregulated following ERK inhibition, suggesting a Snail-dependent pathway by which Snail activation of TGF-? and ERK signaling results in downregulation of miR-29b and subsequent upregulation of SPARC. Our discovery of pathways responsible for Snail-induced SPARC expression contributes to the definition of NSCLC pathogenesis. PMID:24253315

  13. A novel molecular pathway for Snail-dependent, SPARC-mediated invasion in non-small cell lung cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jeanette L; Fishbein, Michael C; Hong, Long-Sheng; Krysan, Kostyantyn; Minna, John D; Shay, Jerry W; Walser, Tonya C; Dubinett, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Definition of the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer allows investigators an enhanced understanding of the natural history of the disease, thus fostering development of new prevention strategies. In addition to regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the transcription factor Snail exerts global effects on gene expression. Our recent studies reveal that Snail is upregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is associated with poor prognosis, and promotes tumor progression in vivo. Herein, we demonstrate that overexpression of Snail leads to the upregulation of secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) in models of premalignancy and established disease, as well as in lung carcinoma tissues in situ. Snail overexpression leads to increased SPARC-dependent invasion in vitro, indicating that SPARC may play a role in lung cancer progression. Bioinformatic analysis implicates transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and miR-29b as potential intermediaries in Snail-mediated upregulation of SPARC. Both the TGF-?1 ligand and TGF-? receptor 2 (TGF-?R2) are upregulated following Snail overexpression. Treatment of human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) lines with TGF-?1 and inhibition of TGF-?1 mRNA expression modulates SPARC expression. Inhibition of MAP-ERK kinase (MEK) phosphorylation downregulates SPARC. MiR-29b is downregulated in Snail-overexpressing cell lines, whereas overexpression of miR-29b inhibits SPARC expression. In addition, miR-29b is upregulated following ERK inhibition, suggesting a Snail-dependent pathway by which Snail activation of TGF-? and ERK signaling results in downregulation of miR-29b and subsequent upregulation of SPARC. Our discovery of pathways responsible for Snail-induced SPARC expression contributes to the definition of NSCLC pathogenesis. PMID:24253315

  14. Experimental Quantification of Long Distance Dispersal Potential of Aquatic Snails in the Gut of Migratory Birds

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Casper H. A.; van der Velde, Gerard; van Lith, Bart; Klaassen, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Many plant seeds and invertebrates can survive passage through the digestive system of birds, which may lead to long distance dispersal (endozoochory) in case of prolonged retention by moving vectors. Endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds has nowadays been documented for many aquatic plant seeds, algae and dormant life stages of aquatic invertebrates. Anecdotal information indicates that endozoochory is also possible for fully functional, active aquatic organisms, a phenomenon that we here address experimentally using aquatic snails. We fed four species of aquatic snails to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and monitored snail retrieval and survival over time. One of the snail species tested was found to survive passage through the digestive tract of mallards as fully functional adults. Hydrobia (Peringia) ulvae survived up to five hours in the digestive tract. This suggests a maximum potential transport distance of up to 300 km may be possible if these snails are taken by flying birds, although the actual dispersal distance greatly depends on additional factors such as the behavior of the vectors. We put forward that more organisms that acquired traits for survival in stochastic environments such as wetlands, but not specifically adapted for endozoochory, may be sufficiently equipped to successfully pass a bird's digestive system. This may be explained by a digestive trade-off in birds, which maximize their net energy intake rate rather than digestive efficiency, since higher efficiency comes with the cost of prolonged retention times and hence reduces food intake. The resulting lower digestive efficiency allows species like aquatic snails, and potentially other fully functional organisms without obvious dispersal adaptations, to be transported internally. Adopting this view, endozoochorous dispersal may be more common than up to now thought. PMID:22403642

  15. Predator-Induced Morphological Plasticity Across Local Populations of a Freshwater Snail

    PubMed Central

    Brönmark, Christer; Lakowitz, Thomas; Hollander, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The expression of anti-predator adaptations may vary on a spatial scale, favouring traits that are advantageous in a given predation regime. Besides, evolution of different developmental strategies depends to a large extent on the grain of the environment and may result in locally canalized adaptations or, alternatively, the evolution of phenotypic plasticity as different predation regimes may vary across habitats. We investigated the potential for predator-driven variability in shell morphology in a freshwater snail, Radix balthica, and whether found differences were a specialized ecotype adaptation or a result of phenotypic plasticity. Shell shape was quantified in snails from geographically separated pond populations with and without molluscivorous fish. Subsequently, in a common garden experiment we investigated reaction norms of snails from populations' with/without fish when exposed to chemical cues from tench (Tinca tinca), a molluscivorous fish. We found that snails from fish-free ponds had a narrow shell with a well developed spire, whereas snails that coexisted with fish had more rotund shells with a low spire, a shell morphology known to increase survival rate from shell-crushing predators. The common garden experiment mirrored the results from the field survey and showed that snails had similar reaction norms in response to chemical predator cues, i.e. the expression of shell shape was independent of population origin. Finally, we found significant differences for the trait means among populations, within each pond category (fish/fish free), suggesting a genetic component in the determination of shell morphology that has evolved independently across ponds. PMID:21818264

  16. Temperature relations of aerial and aquatic respiration in six littoral snails in respiration in six littoral snails in relation to their vertical zonation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, R F; Russell-Hunter, W D

    1977-04-01

    Aerial and aquatic rates of oxygen consumption were determined over a range of 5 degrees to 45 degrees C at 5 degrees C intervals for six species of marine littoral snails: including the sublittoral species, Acmaea testudinalis, Mitrella lunata, and Lacuna vincta; and the truly intertidal species, Littorina obtusata, L. littorea, and L. saxatilis. Polarographic oxygen electrodes were used with normally active snails collected from populations on Nobska and Manomet Points, Massachusetts. Three subtidal species, A. testudinalis, Lacuna vincta, and M. lunata, do not display any metabolic adjustment to increasing temperature, with thermal limits reached at 30 degrees to 35 degrees C. Aerial respiration in A. testudinalis is similar to aquatic O2 uptake, but rates average only 36.4% of aquatic rates. The intertidal congeners, Littorina obtusata, L. littorea and L. saxatilis, have varying degrees of aerial and aquatic metabolic regulation with increasing temperature. L. obtusata, a low intertidal snail exposed to air for 15% to 45% of the tidal cycle, displays a respiratory pattern of "passive endurance" to high temperatures both in air and in water. L. littorea, the dominant snail of the midlittoral region, remains active when exposed to air (30% to 75% of the tidal cycle) and has a zone of metabolic regulation between 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Over this, the normal ambient temperature range, the Q10 closely approximates one, and nearly equivalent O2 uptake rates occur in air and in water. L. saxatilis from the upper littoral region is exposed to air for 70% to 95% of the tidal cycle and is characterized by reduced aerial and aquatic O2 uptake rates above 25 degrees C, representing a reversible torpor up to its thermal maximum at 44 degrees C. For these six snail species, respiratory responses to increasing temperature are thus directly related to the pattern of vertical distribution in the intertidal environment. Discussion of this relationship stresses that the evolution of other nearterrestrial structures and functions in littoral snails has proceeded in a discontinuous fashion. Despite this, the temperature responses in respiration parallel the functional morphology of the pallial structures and the physiological patterns of response to low oxygen stress, as well as adaptive features of reproduction, larval development, water-control, and nitrogenous excretion. PMID:856295

  17. Glyphosate and glufosinate-based herbicides: fate in soil, transfer to, and effects on land snails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Coline Druart; Maurice Millet; Renaud Scheifler; Olivier Delhomme; Annette de Vaufleury

    Purpose  The aim of this work was to assess the transfer and effects of two widely used herbicides on the land snail Helix aspersa during long-term exposure under laboratory conditions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Newly hatched snails were exposed for 168 days to soil and\\/or food contaminated with a formulation of glyphosate (Bypass®)\\u000a or glufosinate (Basta®) at the recommended field doses and also at

  18. Schistosoma haematobium detection in snails by DraI PCR and Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR: further evidence of the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This is the first study in Morocco to estimate snail infection rates at the last historic transmission sites of schistosomiasis, known to be free from new infection among humans since 2004. Screening of large numbers of snails for infection is one way to confirm that Schistosoma haematobium transmission has stopped and does not resurge. Methods A total of 2703 Bulinus truncatus snails were collected from 24 snail habitats in five provinces of Morocco: Errachidia, El Kelaa des Sraghna, Tata, Beni Mellal, and Chtouka Ait Baha. All visible snails were collected with a scoop net or by hand. We used waders and gloves as simple precautions. Snails were morphologically identified according to Moroccan Health Ministry guide of schistosomiasis (1982). All snails were analyzed in pools by molecular tool, using primers from the newly identified repeated DNA sequence, termed DraI, in the S. haematobium group. To distinguish S. bovis and S. haematobium, the snails were analyzed by Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR that was specific of S. haematobium. Results The results showed that snails from Errachidia, Chtouka Ait Baha, sector of Agoujgal in Tata and sector of Mbarkiya in El kelaa des Sraghna were negative for DraI PCR; but, snails from remaining snail habitats of El Kelaa des Sraghna, Tata and Beni Mellal were positive. This led to suggest the presence of circulating schistosome species (S. haematobium, S. bovis or others) within these positive snail habitats. Subsequently, confirmation with S. haematobium species specific molecular assay, Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR, showed that none of the collected snails were infected by S. haematobium in all historic endemic areas. Conclusion The absence of S. haematobium infection in snails supports the argument of S. haematobium transmission interruption in Morocco. PMID:24962624

  19. Role of the lymnaeid snail Pseudosuccinea columella in the transmission of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dar, Y; Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2014-05-27

    Experimental infections of three Egyptian Pseudosuccinea columella populations with sympatric miracidia of Fasciola sp., coming from cattle- or sheep-collected eggs, were carried out to determine the capacity of this lymnaeid to support larval development of the parasite. Using microsatellite markers, the isolates of Egyptian miracidia were identified as Fasciola hepatica. Apart from being independent of snail origin, prevalences ranging from 60.4 to 75.5% in snails infected with five miracidia of F. hepatica were significantly higher than values of 30.4 to 42.2% in snails with bi-miracidial infections. The number of metacercariae ranged from 243 to 472 per cercarial-shedding snail and was independent of snail origin, parasite origin and miracidial dose used for infection. If P. columella was subjected to two successive bi-miracidial infections with F. hepatica, prevalence of infection was 63.3%, with a mean of 311 metacercariae per snail. These values were clearly greater than those already reported for Radix natalensis infected with the same parasite and the same protocol. Successful experimental infection of P. columella with F. hepatica suggests that this lymnaeid snail is an important intermediate host for the transmission of fascioliasis in Egypt. PMID:24865184

  20. Survival of the faucet snail after chemical disinfection, pH extremes, and heated water bath treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, A.J.; Cole, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The faucet snail Bithynia tentaculata, a nonindigenous aquatic snail from Eurasia, was introduced into Lake Michigan in 1871 and has spread to the mid-Atlantic states, the Great Lakes region, Montana, and most recently, the Mississippi River. The faucet snail serves as intermediate host for several trematodes that have caused large-scale mortality among water birds, primarily in the Great Lakes region and Montana. It is important to limit the spread of the faucet snail; small fisheries equipment can serve as a method of snail distribution. Treatments with chemical disinfection, pH extremes, and heated water baths were tested to determine their effectiveness as a disinfectant for small fisheries equipment. Two treatments eliminated all test snails: (1) a 24-h exposure to Hydrothol 191 at a concentration of at least 20 mg/L and (2) a treatment with 50??C heated water for 1 min or longer. Faucet snails were highly resistant to ethanol, NaCl, formalin, Lysol, potassium permanganate, copper sulfate, Baquacil, Virkon, household bleach, and pH extremes (as low as 1 and as high as 13).

  1. Stable isotope ecology of land snails from a high-latitude site near Fairbanks, interior Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, Yurena

    2015-05-01

    Land snails have been investigated isotopically in tropical islands and mid-latitude continental settings, while high-latitude locales, where snails grow only during the summer, have been overlooked. This study presents the first isotopic baseline of live snails from Fairbanks, Alaska (64°51?N), a proxy calibration necessary prior to paleoenvironmental inferences using fossils. ?13C values of the shell (- 10.4 ± 0.4‰) and the body (- 25.5 ± 1.0‰) indicate that snails consumed fresh and decayed C3-plants and fungi. A flux-balance mixing model suggests that specimens differed in metabolic rates, which may complicate paleovegetation inferences. Shell ?18O values (- 10.8 ± 0.4‰) were ~ 4‰ higher than local summer rain ?18O. If calcification occurred during summer, a flux-balance mixing model suggests that snails grew at temperatures of ~ 13°C, rainwater ?18O values of ~- 15‰ and relative humidity of ~ 93%. Results from Fairbanks were compared to shells from San Salvador (Bahamas), at 24°51?N. Average (annual) ?18O values of shells and rainwater samples from The Bahamas were both ~ 10‰ 18O-enriched with respect to seasonal (summer) Alaskan samples. At a coarse latitudinal scale, shell ?18O values overwhelmingly record the signature of the rainfall during snail active periods. While tropical snails record annual average environmental information, high-latitude specimens only trace summer season climatic data.

  2. Pseudechinoparyphium echinatum (Digenea: Echinostomatidae): experimental observations on cercarial specificity toward second intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, A M; Kanev, I

    1990-06-01

    Infectivity of Pseudechinoparyphium echinatum cercariae to 11 species of gastropod was examined experimentally. Broad specificity and differential host-parasite compatibility were exhibited. Nine gastropod species functioned as second intermediate hosts. Planorbarius corneus, Physa fontinalis, Lymnaea peregra and Biomphalaria alexandrina showed high levels of compatibility with the parasite. In single-species exposures over 90% of cercariae encysted in each of these hosts. Low compatibility with the first intermediate host species Lymnaea stagnalis may be a mechanism preventing super-infection of emitting snails. Cercariae did not infect the prosobranchs Bithynia tentaculata and Viviparus viviparus. Experimental infection of a host community comprised of 8 European gastropod species revealed an order of host utilization similar to that shown in single-species exposures. However, cercarial transmission success in P. fontinalis and L. peregra (compared to that in P. corneus) was significantly reduced. This may have been due to the marked preference of cercariae for P. corneus compared to the other two highly suitable hosts for whom cercariae showed equal preference. PMID:2362767

  3. Molluscicidal and Mosquitocidal activities of the essential oils of Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. and Marrubium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Salama, Maha M; Taher, Eman E; El-Bahy, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    Steam distillation of essential oils of aerial parts of Thymus capitatus and Marrubium vulgare L. collected at North cost of Egypt yielded 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. Results of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the two samples identified 96.27% and 90.19% of the total oil composition for T. capitatus and M. vulgare, respectively. The two oil samples appeared dominated by the oxygenated constituents (88.22% for T. capitatus and 57.50% for M. vulgare), composed of phenols, mainly carvacrol (32.98%) and thymol (32.82%) in essential oil of T. capitatus, and thymol (34.55%) in essential oil of M. vulgare. It was evaluated the molluscicidal activity of T. capitatus and M. vulgare essential oils on adult and eggs of Biomphalaria alexandrina as well as their mosquitocidal activity on Culex pipiens. The LC50 and LC90 of T. capitatus essential oil against adult snails was 200 and 400 ppm/3hrs, respectively, while for M. vulgare it was 50 and 100 ppm/3hrs, respectively. Moreover, M. vulgare showed LC100 ovicidal activity at 200 ppm/24 hrs while T. capitatus oil showed no ovicidal activity. It was verified mosquitocidal activity, with LC50 and LC90 of 100 and 200 ppm/12hrs respectively for larvae, and 200 and 400 ppm/12hrs respectively for pupae of C. pipiens. PMID:22983292

  4. Snail Involves in the Transforming Growth Factor ?1-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Fang; Gu, Qing; Xu, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Background The proliferation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells resulting from an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which leads to complex retinal detachment and the loss of vision. Genes of Snail family encode the zinc finger transcription factors that have been reported to be essential in EMT during embryonic development and cancer metastasis. However, the function of Snail in RPE cells undergoing EMT is largely unknown. Principal Findings Transforming growth factor beta(TGF-?)-1 resulted in EMT in human RPE cells (ARPE-19), which was characterized by the expected decrease in E-cadherin and Zona occludin-1(ZO-1) expression, and the increase in fibronectin and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression, as well as the associated increase of Snail expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, TGF-?1 treatment caused a significant change in ARPE-19 cells morphology, with transition from a typical epithelial morphology to mesenchymal spindle-shaped. More interestingly, Snail silencing significantly attenuated TGF-?1-induced EMT in ARPE-19 cells by decreasing the mesenchymal markers fibronectin and a-SMA and increasing the epithelial marker E-cadherin and ZO-1. Snail knockdown could effectively suppress ARPE-19 cell migration. Finally, Snail was activated in epiretinal membranes from PVR patients. Taken together, Snail plays very important roles in TGF-?-1-induced EMT in human RPE cells and may contribute to the development of PVR. Significance Snail transcription factor plays a critical role in TGF-?1-induced EMT in human RPE cells, which provides deep insight into the pathogenesis of human PVR disease. The specific inhibition of Snail may provide a new approach to treat and prevent PVR. PMID:21853110

  5. Zeb1 and Snail1 engage miR-200f transcriptional and epigenetic regulation during EMT.

    PubMed

    Díaz-López, Antonio; Díaz-Martín, Juan; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Cuevas, Eva P; Santos, Vanesa; Olmeda, David; Portillo, Francisco; Palacios, José; Cano, Amparo

    2015-02-15

    Cell plasticity is emerging as a key regulator of tumor progression and metastasis. During carcinoma dissemination epithelial cells undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes characterized by the acquisition of migratory/invasive properties, while the reverse, mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) process, is also essential for metastasis outgrowth. Different transcription factors, called EMT-TFs, including Snail, bHLH and Zeb families are drivers of the EMT branch of epithelial plasticity, and can be post-transcriptionally downregulated by several miRNAs, as the miR-200 family. The specific or redundant role of different EMT-TFs and their functional interrelations are not fully understood. To study the interplay between different EMT-TFs, comprehensive gain and loss-of-function studies of Snail1, Snail2 and/or Zeb1 factors were performed in the prototypical MDCK cell model system. We here describe that Snail1 and Zeb1 are mutually required for EMT induction while continuous Snail1 and Snail2 expression, but not Zeb1, is needed for maintenance of the mesenchymal phenotype in MDCK cells. In this model system, EMT is coordinated by Snail1 and Zeb1 through transcriptional and epigenetic downregulation of the miR-200 family. Interestingly, Snail1 is involved in epigenetic CpG DNA methylation of the miR-200 loci, essential to maintain the mesenchymal phenotype. The present results thus define a novel functional interplay between Snail and Zeb EMT-TFs in miR-200 family regulation providing a molecular link to their previous involvement in the generation of EMT process in vivo. PMID:25178837

  6. Biotic interactions modify the transfer of cesium-137 in a soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Clémentine; Scheifler, Renaud; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hubert, Philippe; Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2008-08-01

    The present study investigated the possible influence of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata on the transfer of cesium-137 ((137)Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Standardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence of earthworms caused a two- to threefold increase in (137)Cs concentrations in snails. Transfer was low in earthworms as well as in snails, with transfer factors (TFs) lower than 3.7 x 10(-2). Activity concentrations were higher in earthworms (2.8- 4.8 Bq/kg dry mass) than in snails (<1.5 Bq/kg). In the second experiment, microcosms were used to determine the contribution of soil and lettuce in the accumulation of (137)Cs in snails. Results suggest that the contribution of lettuce and soil is 80 and 20%, respectively. Microcosms also were used to study the influence of earthworms on (137)Cs accumulation in snail tissues in the most ecologically relevant treatment (soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web). In this case, soil-to-plant transfer was high, with a TF of 0.8, and was not significantly modified by earthworms. Conversely, soil-to-snail transfer was lower (TF, approximately 0.1) but was significantly increased in presence of earthworms. Dose rates were determined in the microcosm study with the EDEN (elementary dose evaluation for natural environment) model. Dose rates were lower than 5.5 x 10(-4) mGy/d, far from values considered to have effects on terrestrial organisms (1 mGy/d). PMID:18266477

  7. Field and laboratory evaluation of the influence of copper-diquat on apple snails in southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Imlay, M.J.; McMillan, W.E.; Martin, T.W.; Takekawa, J.; Johnson, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The recent decline of apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) populations in canals surrounding Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge in southern Florida coincided with the use of copper-diquat for the control of the aquatic weed hydrilla (Hydrilla ver/icillara). Field and laboratory studies were designed to assess the effects of copper-diquat on apple snails, which are the primary food of the endangered snail kite Rostrhamus sociabilis (formerly known as the Everglade kite). Acute toxicities (96-h LC50 values) of Cutrine-Plus and Komeen (chelated formulations of copper) to immature apple snails were 22 and 241-?g/L, respectively. Diquat was toxic at a concentration of 1,800 I-?g/L and did not increase the toxicity of copper when the chemicals were used in combination. Evaluation of field samples indicated that copper concentrations were higher in detritus than in water. plants and mud, and that there was a gradient of copper concentration from the canal to the interior, the highest residues being in samples from the canal. Copper associated with detritus (up to 150 ?g/g) had no effect on growth or survival of apple snails in field cage and tank studies. Also, field applications of copper.diquat to hydrilla had no effect on survival of caged adult and immature snails. Copper from field applications was rapidly taken out of solution by plants and organic material in the water and subsequently incorporated into the bottom detritus. Although the effects of repeated applications of copper-diquat and high body burdens of copper (accumulated during exposure to herbicidal treatment) on survival and reproduction of apple snails are not known, the information available indicates that treatment of hydrilla with copper-diquat was probably not responsible for the decline in the apple snail population. Application at recommended rates should pose no threat to these snails in the organically rich waters of southern Florida.

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING HATCHING SUCCESS OF GOLDEN APPLE SNAIL EGGS: EFFECTS OF WATER IMMERSION AND CANNIBALISM

    E-print Network

    Siemann, Evan

    -mail: khorn@rice.edu Abstract: The golden apple snail (Pomacea maculata Perry) is an invasive species, invasive management, invasive species, Pomacea INTRODUCTION Invasive species are present in many ecosystems, Henderson et al. 2006). Invasive species impact community composition and habitat struc- ture in both

  9. Identification of an estrogen receptor gene in the natural freshwater snail Bithynia tentaculata.

    PubMed

    Hultin, Cecilia L; Hallgren, Per; Persson, Anders; Hansson, Maria C

    2014-04-25

    Mollusks have received increasing interest in ecotoxicological studies but so far the available scientific analyses of how their genes are affected by anthropogenic pollutants are scarce. The focus of this study is to identify an estrogen receptor (er) gene in the common prosobranch snail Bithynia tentaculata and to test a hypothesis that 17?-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) will modulate er gene expression after short-term exposure. We set up exposure experiments with a total of 144 snails, which were collected from a natural population in southern Sweden. Snails were exposed to either 10ng/L or 100ng/L EE2 during 24h and/or 72h. From the isolated B. tentaculata RNA we successfully identified and characterized a novel er gene and phylogenetic analyses strongly indicate that the Bithynia er gene is an ortholog to the human ER? (ESR1, NR3A1). We found a significant interaction between EE2-dose and exposure duration on the er's gene expression (Two-way ANOVA; p=0.04). We also found a significant difference in the gene expression of the er when comparing the control and 100ng/L treatment groups after 72h in female snails (One-way ANOVA; p=0.047). The results from this study should be useful for future field-related studies of estrogen receptors in natural populations of mollusks. PMID:24583164

  10. Distribution and speciation of cadmium in the terrestrial snail, Helix aspersa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Cooke; Andrew Jackson; Graham Nickless; David James Roberts

    1979-01-01

    Conclusions Cadmium is taken up by terrestrial snails living in an environment with a relatively high cadmium concentration. The metal becomes bound to protein with a molecular weight of approximately 22,000 daltons. This cadmium-protein complex concentrates in the digestive gland and is present in a form which is soluble in water, (though difficult to extract efficiently). That no efficient excretion

  11. Dart receipt promotes sperm storage in the garden snail Helix aspersa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Rogers; Ronald Chase

    2001-01-01

    During courtship, many helicid snails attempt to pierce the body walls of their mating partners with mucus-coated calcareous darts. The mucus covering the dart induces conformational changes in the female reproductive tract of the recipient, closing off the entrance to the gametolytic bursa copulatrix. We have tested the effect of dart receipt on the number of sperm stored by once-mated

  12. Stages of oogenesis in the snail, Helix aspersa : cytological, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stages of oogenesis in the snail, Helix aspersa : cytological, cytochemical and ultrastructural, France. Summary. Oogenesis was studied in adult Helix aspersa using light and electron micros- copy recently reexamined oogenesis in Helix aspersa. The aim of the present work was to deter- mine by some

  13. Metapopulation genetic structure and migration pathways in the land snail Helix aspersa: influence of landscape heterogeneity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Arnaud

    2003-01-01

    The spatial genetic structuring of the land snail Helix aspersa was investigated for 32 colonies within an intensive agricultural area, the polders of the Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel (France). Given the habitat patchiness and envi- ronmental instability, the setting of H. aspersa colonies meets the broader view of a metapopulation structure. The identification of extrinsic barriers to migration and their impact

  14. Evidence for Genetic Control of Adult Weight Plasticity in the Snail Helix aspersa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathieu Ros; Daniel Sorensen; Rasmus Waagepetersen; Mathilde Dupont-Nivet; Magali SanCristobal; Jean-Claude Bonnet; Jacques Mallard

    2004-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and canalization are important topics in quantitative genetics and evolution. Both concepts are related to environmental sensitivity. The latter can be modeled using a model with genetically structured environmental variance. This work reports the results of a genetic analysis of adult weight in the snail Helix aspersa. Several models of heterogeneous variance are fitted using a Bayesian, MCMC

  15. Elimination of the Cyanobacterial Hepatotoxin Microcystin from the freshwater Pulmonate Snail Lymnaea stagnalis jugularis (SAY)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald W. Zurawell; Charles F. B. Holmes; Ellie E. Prepas

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that little to no microcystin (MC), a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, accumulates within freshwater pulmonate snails because the toxin is associated primarily with undigested gut contents that are eliminated from the animal via egestion. To test this, Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to MC-containing cyanobacteria were placed into toxin-free environments and sampled over short (24 h at 21° C) and

  16. A literature database on the mating behavior of stylommatophoran land snails Angus Davison1

    E-print Network

    Davison, Angus

    A literature database on the mating behavior of stylommatophoran land snails and slugs* Angus to understand sex and sex allocation theory in hermaphrodites. It is often difficult, however, to compare mating aim of creating a central access point and database for use as a resource by those interested

  17. Antioxidant defenses and metabolic depression. The hypothesis of preparation for oxidative stress in land snails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Hermes-Lima; Janet M. Storey; Kenneth B. Storey

    1998-01-01

    The roles of enzymatic antioxidant defenses in the natural tolerance of environmental stresses that impose changes in oxygen availability and oxygen consumption on animals is discussed with a particular focus on the biochemistry of estivation and metabolic depression in pulmonate land snails. Despite reduced oxygen consumption and PO2 during estivation, which should also mean reduced production of oxyradicals, the activities

  18. USING PARASITES TO INFORM ECOLOGICAL HISTORY: COMPARISONS AMONG THREE CONGENERIC MARINE SNAILS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    April M. H. Blakeslee; James E. Byers

    2008-01-01

    Species introduced to novel regions often leave behind many parasite species. Signatures of parasite release could thus be used to resolve cryptogenic (uncertain) origins such as that of Littorina littorea, a European marine snail whose history in North America has been debated for over 100 years. Through extensive field and literature surveys, we examined species richness of parasitic trematodes infecting

  19. Elements of cold hardiness in a littoral population of the land snail Helix aspersa (Gastropoda: Pulmonata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ansart; P. Vernon; J. Daguzan

    2002-01-01

    The land snail Helix aspersa can be considered partially tolerant to freezing, in the sense it can survive some ice formation within its body for a limited time, and possesses a limited ability to supercool. This study aimed at understanding what factors are responsible for the variation of the temperature of crystallization (Tc) in a littoral temperate population. The ability

  20. A tale of two snails: is the cure worse than the disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Civeyrel; D. Simberloff

    1996-01-01

    The giant African snail, Achatina fulica, has been introduced to many parts of Asia as well as to numerous islands in the Indian and Pacific Ocean, and has recently reached the West Indies. It has been widely decried as a disaster to agricultural economies and a threat to human health, leading to a clamor for the introduction of biological control

  1. Feeding and growth responses of the snail Theba pisana to dietary metal exposure.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, K S; Radwan, M A; Gad, A F

    2011-02-01

    The effects of dietary exposure to copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) on feeding activities, growth response, and mortality of Theba pisana snails were studied in 5-week feeding tests. Snails were fed on an artificial diet containing the following Cu, Pb, or Zn concentrations: 0, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 ?g/g dry food. At the end of 5 weeks, the food consumption rate was decreased with increasinges in both metal concentrations and time of exposure. The estimated concentrations of metals that reduces food consumption to 50% (EC??) after 5 weeks were 56, 118, and 18 ?g/g dry food for Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively. All tested metals in the diet were found to inhibit growth of the snails in a dose-dependent manner. The toxic effect on growth of the tested metals could be arranged in the order Cu > Zn > Pb. The cumulative percentage mortality among snails fed a Cu- or Zn-contaminated diet was 73.3% and the respective value for a Pb-contaminated diet was 13.3%. There was a positive correlation between growth coefficient and food consumption for all tested metals. PMID:20563800

  2. Within-reach spatial variability of snails and molluscivory by brown trout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R Holomuzki

    2010-01-01

    Linking habitat distributions of prey to the probability of predation is important to understanding consumptive effects of predators on prey populations. This study reports how within-reach spatial variability of two snails, the hydrobiid Potamopyrgus antipodarum and the physid Physella acuta, was linked to habitat-based predation risk by young brown trout (Salmo trutta) of different age classes. Potamopyrgus is endemic to

  3. Decline in snail abundance due to soil acidification causes eggshell defects in forest passerines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Graveland; R. Van der Wal

    1996-01-01

    On poor soils in the Netherlands an increasing number of great tits, Parus major, and of other forest passerines produce eggs with defective shells and have low reproductive success as a result of calcium deficiency. A similar increase in eggshell defects has been observed in Germany and Sweden. Snail shells are the main calcium source for tits in forests where

  4. Mouse Snail family transcription repressors regulate chondrocyte extracellular matrix, type II collagen and aggrecan

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    collagen and aggrecan Kenji Seki*1,2 Toshihiko Fujimori,2 Pierre Savagner,3 Akiko Hata, 4 Tomonao Aikawa1 differentiation Key Words: Snail, transcription factor, chondrocyte, collagen type II, aggrecan 1 Endocrine Unit (Slugh), are involved in chondrocyte differentiation by controlling the expression of type II collagen

  5. Diet alters delayed selfing, inbreeding depression, and reproductive senescence in a freshwater snail

    PubMed Central

    Auld, Josh R; Henkel, John F

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive success is a critical fitness attribute that is directly influenced by resource availability. Here, we investigate the effects of diet-based resource availability on three interrelated aspects of reproductive success: a change in mating system based on mate availability, consequent inbreeding depression, and the deterioration of reproductive efficiency with age (senescence). We employed a factorial experimental design using 22 full-sib families of the hermaphroditic freshwater snail Physa acuta to explore these interactions. Individual snails were reared in one of two mate-availability treatments (isolated [selfing] or occasionally paired [outcrossing]) and one of two diet treatments (boiled lettuce or Spirulina, an algae that is rich in protein, vitamins, and minerals). Spirulina-fed snails initiated reproduction at a 13% earlier age and 7% larger size than lettuce-fed snails. Spirulina also resulted in a 30% reduction in the time delay before selfing. Compared to lettuce, a diet of Spirulina increased inbreeding depression by 52% for egg hatching rate and 64% for posthatching juvenile survival. Furthermore, Spirulina led to a 15-fold increase in the rate of reproductive senescence compared with a diet of lettuce. These transgenerational, interactive effects of diet on inbreeding depression and reproductive senescence are discussed in the context of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity. PMID:25165532

  6. The effect of earthworms and snails in a simple plant community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsey Thompson; Chris D. Thomas; Julie M. A. Radley; Sarah Williamson; John H. Lawton

    1993-01-01

    Snails and earthworms affected the dynamics of a simple, three-species plant community, in the Ecotron controlled environment facility. Earthworms enhanced the establishment, growth and cover of the legume Trifolium dubium, both via the soil and interactions with other plant species. Worms increased soil phosphates, increased root nodulation in T. dubium, and enabled T. dubium seedlings to establish in the presence

  7. Diet alters delayed selfing, inbreeding depression, and reproductive senescence in a freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Auld, Josh R; Henkel, John F

    2014-07-01

    Reproductive success is a critical fitness attribute that is directly influenced by resource availability. Here, we investigate the effects of diet-based resource availability on three interrelated aspects of reproductive success: a change in mating system based on mate availability, consequent inbreeding depression, and the deterioration of reproductive efficiency with age (senescence). We employed a factorial experimental design using 22 full-sib families of the hermaphroditic freshwater snail Physa acuta to explore these interactions. Individual snails were reared in one of two mate-availability treatments (isolated [selfing] or occasionally paired [outcrossing]) and one of two diet treatments (boiled lettuce or Spirulina, an algae that is rich in protein, vitamins, and minerals). Spirulina-fed snails initiated reproduction at a 13% earlier age and 7% larger size than lettuce-fed snails. Spirulina also resulted in a 30% reduction in the time delay before selfing. Compared to lettuce, a diet of Spirulina increased inbreeding depression by 52% for egg hatching rate and 64% for posthatching juvenile survival. Furthermore, Spirulina led to a 15-fold increase in the rate of reproductive senescence compared with a diet of lettuce. These transgenerational, interactive effects of diet on inbreeding depression and reproductive senescence are discussed in the context of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity. PMID:25165532

  8. Chronic toxicity of the azaarene quinoline, a synthetic fuel component, to the pond snail Physa gyrina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond E. Millemann; Daniel S. Ehrenberg

    1982-01-01

    The azaarene quinoline was tested for chronic toxicity to embryos of the pulmonate snail Physa gyrina. Toxicity criteria were effects on embryogenesis, embryo survival, time to hatching, hatching success, and posthatching survival. Of the controls, 91% hatched, compared with 99, 78, and 5% exposed to 12.5, 25, and 50 mg\\/L of quinoline, respectively. No eggs hatched at or above 100

  9. Wet Adhesion and Adhesive Locomotion of Snails on AntiAdhesive Non-Wetting Surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil J. Shirtcliffe; Glen McHale; Michael I. Newton

    2012-01-01

    Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However,

  10. Effect of snails (Elimia clavaeformis) on phosphorus cycling in stream periphyton and leaf detritus communities

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, E.A. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1993-10-01

    In this study, the author examined the effect of grazing on phosphorus cycling in stream periphyton and leaf detritus communities using the snail Elimia clavaeformis. Phosphorus cycling fluxes and turnover rates were measured in a laboratory and in a natural stream, respectively, using radioactive tracer techniques.

  11. Should apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae) be used as bioindicator for BDE-209?

    PubMed

    Koch, Eduardo; Altamirano, Jorgelina Cecilia; Covaci, Adrian; Lana, Nerina Belén; Ciocco, Néstor Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Apple snail Pomacea canaliculata has been reported to accumulate polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and was recently proposed as PBDE bioindicator. This work investigates the ability of P. canaliculata to accumulate BDE-209 by dietary exposure under controlled experimental conditions. A 30-day long enrichment feeding assay was carried out using 30 adult apple snails, placed in individual aquaria. Food was enriched at three BDE-209 concentrations (400, 4,700, and 8,300 ?g g(?1) lipid weight). Correlation between BDE-209 values in food and snail tissue were estimated according to Stockholm Convention suggested criteria for chemicals with K(OW) >5. All animals survived with no evident physical alterations, and all of them accumulated BDE-209. BDE-209 levels in tissue samples increased exponentially with the exposure concentration. The bioaccumulation factor vs. food concentration plot showed a peculiar pattern, in which at intermediate concentrations the snails accumulated less BDE-209 than expected. Our results suggest that P. canaliculata would present a detoxification mechanism for BDE-209 different from the most commonly reported metabolic pathways. PMID:24022099

  12. Snails as indicators of pesticide drift, deposit, transfer and effects in the vineyard.

    PubMed

    Druart, Coline; Millet, Maurice; Scheifler, Renaud; Delhomme, Olivier; Raeppel, Caroline; de Vaufleury, Annette

    2011-09-15

    This paper presents a field-study of real pesticide application conditions in a vineyard. The objective was to measure the exposure, the transfer and the effects of pesticides on a non-target soil invertebrate, the land snail Helix aspersa. There was no drift of the herbicides (glyphosate and glufosinate) whereas the fungicides (cymoxanil, folpet, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin) were detected up to 20 m from the treated area. For folpet and particularly tebuconazole, spray deposits on soil (corresponding to losses for the intended target i.e. the vine leaves) were high (41.1% and 88.8% loss of applied dose, respectively). For herbicides, the target was the soil and losses (percentage of compounds which did not reach the soil) were of 22% for glufosinate and 52% for glyphosate. In the study plot, glyphosate was transferred to and accumulated in snail tissues (4 mg kg(-1) dry weight, dw), as was its metabolite AMPA (8 mg kg(-1) dw) which could be in relation with the reduced growth observed in snails. No effects on snail survival or growth were found after exposure to the other organic compounds or to copper and sulphur-fungicides, although transfer of tebuconazole, pyraclostrobin and copper occurred. This study brings original field data on the fate of pesticides in a vineyard agro-ecosystem under real conditions of application and shows that transfer and effects of pesticides to a non-target organism occurred. PMID:21784506

  13. Guanine and inosine nucleotides, nucleosides and oxypurines in snail muscles as potential biomarkers of fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ra?, Monika E; Safranow, Krzysztof; Do?egowska, Barbara; Machoy, Zygmunt

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the toxicity of fluorides on energy metabolism in muscles of the Helix aspersa maxima snail. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of purine compounds was performed in slices of foot from mature snails with high-performance liquid chromatography. Fluoride concentrations were measured using an ion-selective electrode and gas chromatography. The results show that exposure to fluoride pollution was accompanied by a statistically significant increase in fluoride concentrations in soft tissues. This effect was already noticeable with the smallest fluoride dose. Accumulation was greatest in the shell. There is a significant and positive correlation between fluoride concentrations in foot muscles and guanine and inosine nucleotides or uridine content. The content of low-energy guanylate, inosylate and oxypurine in foot muscles significantly increased with rising dose of fluoride. The difference as compared with controls was significant only for the highest dose of fluoride. Interestingly, uric acid, the final product of purine catabolism, dominated quantitatively in the foot muscles of snails. In conclusion, increased low-energy guanylate and inosylate as well as decreased xanthine concentrations in snail muscle can be indicators of the toxic influence of fluoride on the organism. The measuring of fluoride accumulation in the shell is the most suitable bioindicator of fluoride pollution in the environment. PMID:18274260

  14. Unpredictable responses of garden snail ( Helix aspersa) populations to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezemer, T. Martijn; Knight, Kevin J.

    2001-08-01

    We studied the impact of climate change on the population dynamics of the garden snail ( Helix aspersa) in the Ecotron controlled environment facility. The experimental series ran for three plant generations, allowing the snails to reproduce. We investigated the isolated and combined effects of elevated CO 2 (current + 200 ?mol mol -1) and warming (current + 2ºC) in three consecutive runs (CO 2, Temperature and Combined). In the CO 2 Run, the number of juvenile snails recorded at the end of the experiment did not differ between ambient and elevated CO 2, whereas in the Temperature Run, fewer juveniles were found at elevated temperatures. An opposite response was observed in the Combined Run, where significantly more juveniles were found in elevated temperature and CO 2 compared to elevated CO 2 on its own. Within each run, juvenile emergence was not affected by treatments but juvenile presence was first observed about 70 days earlier in the Combined Run than in the Temperature Run. The differences in snail performance in the different runs were not correlated with differences in community structure or leaf quality measured as C:N ratios and neither with the abundance of the most preferred host plant species, Cardamine hirsuta. The abundance of this species, however, was significantly altered in all runs. The results illustrate clearly the degree of difficulty in making predictable generalisations about the consequences of climate change for certain species.

  15. Evolution of whole-body enantiomorphy in the tree snail genus Amphidromus

    PubMed Central

    SUTCHARIT, C; ASAMI, T; PANHA, S

    2007-01-01

    Diverse animals exhibit left–right asymmetry in development. However, no example of dimorphism for the left–right polarity of development (whole-body enantiomorphy) is known to persist within natural populations. In snails, whole-body enantiomorphs have repeatedly evolved as separate species. Within populations, however, snails are not expected to exhibit enantiomorphy, because of selection against the less common morph resulting from mating disadvantage. Here we present a unique example of evolutionarily stable whole-body enantiomorphy in snails. Our molecular phylogeny of South-east Asian tree snails in the genus Amphidromus indicates that enantiomorphy has likely persisted as the ancestral state over a million generations. Enantiomorphs have continuously coexisted in every population surveyed spanning a period of 10 years. Our results indicate that whole-body enantiomorphy is maintained within populations opposing the rule of directional asymmetry in animals. This study implicates the need for explicit approaches to disclosure of a maintenance mechanism and conservation of the genus. PMID:17305832

  16. Field heritabilities and lack of correlation of snail shell form and anti-predator function

    E-print Network

    DeWitt, Thomas J.

    Field heritabilities and lack of correlation of snail shell form and anti-predator function: It is often assumed that the heritability of performance traits (function) can be estimated by the heritability of primary traits (e.g. form). It is also frequently assumed that performance traits should

  17. Sites of Plasticity in the Neural Circuit Mediating Tentacle Withdrawal in the Snail

    E-print Network

    Chase, Ronald

    Sites of Plasticity in the Neural Circuit Mediating Tentacle Withdrawal in the Snail Helix aspersa of the response. Plastic loci were identified by stimulating and recording at different points within the neural circuit, in combination with selective lesions. Results indicate that depression occurs at an upstream

  18. PCR diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica in field-collected Lymnaea columella and Lymnaea viatrix snails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcela A. Cucher; Silvana Carnevale; Lucila Prepelitchi; Jorge H. Labbé; Cristina Wisnivesky-Colli

    2006-01-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, is a zoonosis of economic importance in livestock that is emerging as a chronic disease in humans. The intermediate hosts are lymnaeid snails, in which diagnosis of infection is traditionally based on cercarial shedding, tissue sectioning and crushing.We developed a PCR assay for the sensitive and specific detection of F. hepatica in field-collected

  19. Echinostoma revolutum: Freshwater Snails as the Second Intermediate Hosts in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chantima, Kittichai; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of 37-collar spined echinostome metacercariae in freshwater snails was investigated in 6 districts of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, from October 2011 to April 2012. A total of 2,914 snails that belong to 12 species were examined, and 7 snail species (Clea helena, Eyriesia eyriesi, Bithynia funiculata, Bithynia siamensis siamensis, Filopaludina doliaris, Filopaludina sumatrensis polygramma, and Filopaludina martensi martensi) were found infected with echinostome metacercariae. The prevalence of metacercariae was the highest in Filopaludina spp. (38.5-58.7%) followed by B. funiculata (44.0%), E. eyriesi (12.5%), B. siamensis siamensis (8.2%), and C. helena (5.1%). Metacercariae were experimentally fed to hamsters and domestic chicks, and adult flukes were recovered from both hosts at days 15 and 20 post-infection. The adult flukes were identified based on morphological features, morphometrics, host-parasite relationships, and geographical distribution. They were compatible to Echinostoma revolutum or Echinostoma jurini, with only minor differences. As the adults were recovered from both hamsters and chicks, our specimens were more compatible to E. revolutum rather than E. jurini (reported only from mammals). This is the first report for metacercariae of E. revolutum in the snail host, C. helena, and also confirmed that Filopaludina spp., E. eryresi, and Bithynia spp. act as the second intermediate hosts of E. revolutum under natural conditions, which are indigenously distributed in Chiang Mai province. PMID:23710085

  20. A multiplex PCR for the detection of Fasciola hepatica in the intermediate snail host Galba cubensis.

    PubMed

    Alba, Annia; Vázquez, Antonio A; Hernández, Hilda; Sánchez, Jorge; Marcet, Ricardo; Figueredo, Mabel; Sarracent, Jorge; Fraga, Jorge

    2015-07-30

    Fasciolosis is a snail-borne trematode infection that has re-emerged as a human disease, and is considered a significant problem for veterinary medicine worldwide. The evaluation of the transmission risk of fasciolosis as well as the efficacy of the strategies for its control could be carried out through epidemiological surveillance of the snails that act as intermediate hosts of the parasites. The present study aimed to develop the first multiplex PCR to detect Fasciola hepatica in Galba cubensis, an important intermediate host of the parasite in the Americas and especially in the Caribbean basin. The multiplex PCR was optimized for the amplification of a 340bp fragment of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of F. hepatica rDNA, while another set of primers was designed and used to amplify a conserved segment of the nuclear 18S rDNA of the snail (451bp), as an internal control of the reaction. The assay was able to detect up to 100pg of the parasite even at high concentrations of snail DNA, an analytical sensitivity that allows the detection of less than a single miracidium, which is the minimal biological infestation unit. A controlled laboratory-reared G. cubensis - F. hepatica system was used for the evaluation of the developed multiplex PCR, and 100% sensitivity and specificity was achieved. This assay constitutes a novel, useful and suitable technique for the survey of fasciolosis transmission through one of the main intermediate hosts in the Western hemisphere. PMID:26012858

  1. Molecular characterisation of intermediate snail hosts and the search for resistance genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Rollinson; J Russell Stothard; Cathy S Jones; Anne E Lockyer; Cecilia Pereira de Souza; Les R Noble

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between schistosomes and their intermediate hosts is an extremely intricate one with strains and species of the parasite depending on particular species of snail, which in turn may vary in their susceptibility to the parasites. In order to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease we have been investigating the use of molecular markers for

  2. Schistosome dermatitis in Lake Wanaka: Survey of the snail population, 1976–77

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Warren Featherston; Tam G. Mcdonald

    1988-01-01

    A survey of snails from Lake Wanaka was undertaken in 1976–77 to determine the presence of trematode larval stages. This showed that Lymnaea tomentosa was the only host for Cercaria longicauda, the causal organisms of schistosome dermatitis. Potamopyrgus antipodarum was the host for cotylomicrocercous, monostome, haplosplanchnid, and brevifurcateapharyngeate cercariae of trematodes. All specimens of Physa spp. and Gyraulus spp. examined

  3. Snail1-dependent control of embryonic stem cell pluripotency and lineage commitment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yongshun; Li, Xiao-Yan; Willis, Amanda L.; Liu, Chengyu; Chen, Guokai; Weiss, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) exhibit the dual properties of self-renewal and pluripotency as well as the ability to undergo differentiation that gives rise to all three germ layers. Wnt family members can both promote ESC maintenance and trigger differentiation while also controlling the expression of Snail1, a zinc-finger transcriptional repressor. Snail1 has been linked to events ranging from cell cycle regulation and cell survival to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and gastrulation, but its role in self-renewal, pluripotency or lineage commitment in ESCs remains undefined. Here we demonstrate using isogenic pairs of conditional knockout mouse ESCs, that Snail1 exerts Wnt- and EMT independent control over the stem cell transcriptome without affecting self-renewal or pluripotency-associated functions. By contrast, during ESC differentiation, an endogenous Wnt-mediated burst in Snail1 expression regulates neuroectodermal fate while playing a required role in epiblast stem cell exit and the consequent lineage fate decisions that define mesoderm commitment. PMID:24401905

  4. Characterization of 15 microsatellite loci in the pulmonate snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTOINE NICOT; MARIE-PIERRE DUBOIS; CHANTAL DEBAIN; PATRICE DAVID; PHILIPPE JARNE

    2008-01-01

    We characterized 15 new variable microsatellites in the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea (Lymnaea) columella, as well as conditions for multiplexing and simultaneously genotyping sets of loci. Two to six alleles were detected per locus over the six populations studied. Gene diversity ranged from 0.000 to 0.498, but essentially no heterozygous individuals were observed. This resulted in extremely high FIS estimates, and

  5. Fasciola hepatica: identification of molecular markers for resistant and susceptible Pseudosuccinea columella snail hosts.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Alfredo; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Fraga, Jorge; Jobet, Edouard; Modat, Sylvain; Pérez, R T; Yong, Mary; Sanchez, J; Loker, Eric S; Théron, André

    2003-01-01

    Protein electrophoresis, RAPD-PCR and nuclear rDNA ITS sequencing were performed to search for genetic differences between Pseudosuccinea columella snails susceptible and resistant to Fasciola hepatica infection. Of the 21 enzymatic loci analyzed in both populations, none of them exhibited neither within- or between-group variation. Such an absence of enzyme polymorphism support the hypothesis of selfing as the "prevalent" mating system for this hermaphroditic species. Conversely, the RAPD profiles displayed clear differences between susceptible and resistant isolates for 17 of the 26 primers tested while no within-group variation was detected. rDNA ITS sequence analysis from snails of each isolates showed only two bases that differed between groups accounting for a 0.17% of variation confirming that susceptible and resistant snails belong to the same species. This is the first time that a genetic variation using RAPD markers is demonstrated between susceptible and resistant lymnaeid snails vis-a-vis of F. hepatica infection in absence of experimental selection. PMID:14990314

  6. Molecular Diversity and Gene Evolution of the Venom Arsenal of Terebridae Predatory Marine Snails.

    PubMed

    Gorson, Juliette; Ramrattan, Girish; Verdes, Aida; Wright, Elizabeth M; Kantor, Yuri; Rajaram Srinivasan, Ramakrishnan; Musunuri, Raj; Packer, Daniel; Albano, Gabriel; Qiu, Wei-Gang; Holford, Mandë

    2015-01-01

    Venom peptides from predatory organisms are a resource for investigating evolutionary processes such as adaptive radiation or diversification, and exemplify promising targets for biomedical drug development. Terebridae are an understudied lineage of conoidean snails, which also includes cone snails and turrids. Characterization of cone snail venom peptides, conotoxins, has revealed a cocktail of bioactive compounds used to investigate physiological cellular function, predator-prey interactions, and to develop novel therapeutics. However, venom diversity of other conoidean snails remains poorly understood. The present research applies a venomics approach to characterize novel terebrid venom peptides, teretoxins, from the venom gland transcriptomes of Triplostephanus anilis and Terebra subulata. Next-generation sequencing and de novo assembly identified 139 putative teretoxins that were analyzed for the presence of canonical peptide features as identified in conotoxins. To meet the challenges of de novo assembly, multiple approaches for cross validation of findings were performed to achieve reliable assemblies of venom duct transcriptomes and to obtain a robust portrait of Terebridae venom. Phylogenetic methodology was used to identify 14 teretoxin gene superfamilies for the first time, 13 of which are unique to the Terebridae. Additionally, basic local algorithm search tool homology-based searches to venom-related genes and posttranslational modification enzymes identified a convergence of certain venom proteins, such as actinoporin, commonly found in venoms. This research provides novel insights into venom evolution and recruitment in Conoidean predatory marine snails and identifies a plethora of terebrid venom peptides that can be used to investigate fundamental questions pertaining to gene evolution. PMID:26025559

  7. Indirect effects of heavy metals on parasites may cause shifts in snail species compositions.

    PubMed

    Lefcort, H; Aguon, M Q; Bond, K A; Chapman, K R; Chaquette, R; Clark, J; Kornachuk, P; Lang, B Z; Martin, J C

    2002-07-01

    We studied the direct and indirect effects of pollution on the distributions and abundances of two closely related species of pulmonate freshwater snails. Physella columbiana is more numerous at heavy metal-polluted lakes, and Lymnaea palustris is more numerous at reference lakes. Both species are present at all sites, as are predatory bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). The direct effects examined included the snails' growth and reproduction in both the presence and absence of heavy metals and their short-term survival when exposed to large concentrations of heavy metals. The indirect effects were the species' ability to elude capture by sunfish and the diversity and abundance of parasites within the snails. We found that heavy metals had little direct effect on growth and reproduction and that both species acquired similar levels of metals in their tissues. Interestingly, P. columbiana (the more abundant species in polluted lakes) actually exhibited higher recruitment in the absence of metals than did L. palustris (reference lakes). L. palustris has life history characteristics that favor increased growth and reduced reproduction. These characteristics resulted in decreased predation of adults by gape-limited predators and a greater ability to cope with heavy parasite burdens. P. columbiana exhibited slower growth, which resulted in increased predation although higher reproduction rates may compensate.The major effect of heavy metals on species distributions was indirect on the snails' parasites. Parasites appeared to be very susceptible to metals, and this resulted in lower parasite diversity and intensities at polluted sites for both species of snails. P. columbiana may only be able to outcompete L. palustris at polluted sites due to the indirect effects of heavy metals; the negative effect of heavy metals on parasites, and a proposed negative effect of metals on the foraging ability of sunfish that favors the faster-reproducing P. columbiana. PMID:12045872

  8. Effects of shorebird predation and snail abundance on an intertidal mudflat community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheverie, Anne V.; Hamilton, Diana J.; Coffin, Michael R. S.; Barbeau, Myriam A.

    2014-09-01

    Top-down effects of predation are well documented in a variety of ecological communities, including marine soft-sediment systems. It has been proposed that intertidal mudflats in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada, which host a large population of foraging shorebirds each summer, may exhibit this community dynamic. Biofilm (consisting mainly of diatoms) forms the base of the mudflat community food web, which is dominated by the amphipod Corophium volutator. To assess the potential for a trophic cascade, we conducted a manipulative field experiment examining individual and combined effects of the shorebird Calidris pusilla, a primary predator of C. volutator, and the eastern mudsnail (Nassarius obsoletus), an intraguild predator, on community structure (including macrofauna and large meiofauna retained by a 250-?m screen). Snails exhibited density-dependent top-down effects, primarily from strong negative interactions with juvenile and adult C. volutator, likely due to interference, consumption and emigration. Medium and high densities of snails reduced chlorophyll a concentration (a measure of diatom abundance), likely through consumption and disturbance of the sediment. When present at higher densities, snails also increased variability in community structure. Shorebirds were less influential in determining community structure. They reduced C. volutator biomass through consumption, but there was no resulting effect on primary production. Top-down effects of snails and birds were cumulative on C. volutator, but did not generate a trophic cascade. We suggest that a combination of omnivory and intraguild predation by shorebirds and snails, coupled with relatively low grazing pressure by C. volutator, prevented transmission of top-down effects.

  9. Molecular Diversity and Gene Evolution of the Venom Arsenal of Terebridae Predatory Marine Snails

    PubMed Central

    Gorson, Juliette; Ramrattan, Girish; Verdes, Aida; Wright, Elizabeth M.; Kantor, Yuri; Rajaram Srinivasan, Ramakrishnan; Musunuri, Raj; Packer, Daniel; Albano, Gabriel; Qiu, Wei-Gang; Holford, Mandë

    2015-01-01

    Venom peptides from predatory organisms are a resource for investigating evolutionary processes such as adaptive radiation or diversification, and exemplify promising targets for biomedical drug development. Terebridae are an understudied lineage of conoidean snails, which also includes cone snails and turrids. Characterization of cone snail venom peptides, conotoxins, has revealed a cocktail of bioactive compounds used to investigate physiological cellular function, predator-prey interactions, and to develop novel therapeutics. However, venom diversity of other conoidean snails remains poorly understood. The present research applies a venomics approach to characterize novel terebrid venom peptides, teretoxins, from the venom gland transcriptomes of Triplostephanus anilis and Terebra subulata. Next-generation sequencing and de novo assembly identified 139 putative teretoxins that were analyzed for the presence of canonical peptide features as identified in conotoxins. To meet the challenges of de novo assembly, multiple approaches for cross validation of findings were performed to achieve reliable assemblies of venom duct transcriptomes and to obtain a robust portrait of Terebridae venom. Phylogenetic methodology was used to identify 14 teretoxin gene superfamilies for the first time, 13 of which are unique to the Terebridae. Additionally, basic local algorithm search tool homology-based searches to venom-related genes and posttranslational modification enzymes identified a convergence of certain venom proteins, such as actinoporin, commonly found in venoms. This research provides novel insights into venom evolution and recruitment in Conoidean predatory marine snails and identifies a plethora of terebrid venom peptides that can be used to investigate fundamental questions pertaining to gene evolution. PMID:26025559

  10. Soil Calcium Availability Influences Shell Ecophenotype Formation in the Sub-Antarctic Land Snail, Notodiscus hookeri

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Maryvonne; Marie, Arul; Guillaume, Damien; Bédouet, Laurent; Le Lannic, Joseph; Roiland, Claire; Berland, Sophie; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Le Floch, Marie; Frenot, Yves; Lebouvier, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Ecophenotypes reflect local matches between organisms and their environment, and show plasticity across generations in response to current living conditions. Plastic responses in shell morphology and shell growth have been widely studied in gastropods and are often related to environmental calcium availability, which influences shell biomineralisation. To date, all of these studies have overlooked micro-scale structure of the shell, in addition to how it is related to species responses in the context of environmental pressure. This study is the first to demonstrate that environmental factors induce a bi-modal variation in the shell micro-scale structure of a land gastropod. Notodiscus hookeri is the only native land snail present in the Crozet Archipelago (sub-Antarctic region). The adults have evolved into two ecophenotypes, which are referred to here as MS (mineral shell) and OS (organic shell). The MS-ecophenotype is characterised by a thick mineralised shell. It is primarily distributed along the coastline, and could be associated to the presence of exchangeable calcium in the clay minerals of the soils. The Os-ecophenotype is characterised by a thin organic shell. It is primarily distributed at high altitudes in the mesic and xeric fell-fields in soils with large particles that lack clay and exchangeable calcium. Snails of the Os-ecophenotype are characterised by thinner and larger shell sizes compared to snails of the MS- ecophenotype, indicating a trade-off between mineral thickness and shell size. This pattern increased along a temporal scale; whereby, older adult snails were more clearly separated into two clusters compared to the younger adult snails. The prevalence of glycine-rich proteins in the organic shell layer of N. hookeri, along with the absence of chitin, differs to the organic scaffolds of molluscan biominerals. The present study provides new insights for testing the adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity in response to spatial and temporal environmental variations. PMID:24376821

  11. Protein kinase D1 mediates anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of tumor cells via the zinc finger transcription factor Snail1.

    PubMed

    Eiseler, Tim; Köhler, Conny; Nimmagadda, Subbaiah Chary; Jamali, Arsia; Funk, Nancy; Joodi, Golsa; Storz, Peter; Seufferlein, Thomas

    2012-09-21

    We here identify protein kinase D1 (PKD1) as a major regulator of anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of cancer cells controlled via the transcription factor Snail1. Using FRET, we demonstrate that PKD1, but not PKD2, efficiently interacts with Snail1 in nuclei. PKD1 phosphorylates Snail1 at Ser-11. There was no change in the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of Snail1 using wild type Snail1 and Ser-11 phosphosite mutants in different tumor cells. Regardless of its phosphorylation status or following co-expression of constitutively active PKD, Snail1 was predominantly localized to cell nuclei. We also identify a novel mechanism of PKD1-mediated regulation of Snail1 transcriptional activity in tumor cells. The interaction of the co-repressors histone deacetylases 1 and 2 as well as lysyl oxidase-like protein 3 with Snail1 was impaired when Snail1 was not phosphorylated at Ser-11, which led to reduced Snail1-associated histone deacetylase activity. Additionally, lysyl oxidase-like protein 3 expression was up-regulated by ectopic PKD1 expression, implying a synergistic regulation of Snail1-driven transcription. Ectopic expression of PKD1 also up-regulated proliferation markers such as Cyclin D1 and Ajuba. Accordingly, Snail1 and its phosphorylation at Ser-11 were required and sufficient to control PKD1-mediated anchorage-independent growth and anchorage-dependent proliferation of different tumor cells. In conclusion, our data show that PKD1 is crucial to support growth of tumor cells via Snail1. PMID:22791710

  12. Detection of Ehrlichia risticii, the Agent of Potomac Horse Fever, in Freshwater Stream Snails (Pleuroceridae: Juga spp.) from Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Barlough, Jeffrey E.; Reubel, Gerhard H.; Madigan, John E.; Vredevoe, Larisa K.; Miller, Paul E.; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Ehrlichia DNA was identified by nested PCR in operculate snails (Pleuroceridae: Juga spp.) collected from stream water in a northern California pasture in which Potomac horse fever (PHF) is enzootic. Sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA from a suite of genes (the 16S rRNA, groESL heat shock operon, 51-kDa major antigen genes) indicated that the source organism closely resembled Ehrlichia risticii, the causative agent of PHF. The minimum percentage of Juga spp. harboring the organism in the population studied was 3.5% (2 of 57 snails). No ehrlichia DNA was found in tissues of 123 lymnaeid, physid, and planorbid snails collected at the same site. These data suggest that pleurocerid stream snails may play a role in the life cycle of E. risticii in northern California. PMID:9687446

  13. Physiologic and environmental factors influencing the calcium-to-tissue ratio in populations of three species of freshwater pulmonate snails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Douglas Hunter; Wendy W. Lull

    1977-01-01

    A study of three species of freshwater pulmonate snails, Physa gyrina (11 populations), Physa integra (17 populations), and Helisoma anceps (18 populations) was carried out from 1973 to 1976, primarily in Michigan.

  14. Trematodes in snails near raccoon latrines suggest a final host role for this mammal in California Salt Marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, K.D.; Dunham, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    Of the 18 trematode species that use the horn snail, Cerithidea californica, as a first intermediate host, 6 have the potential to use raccoons as a final host. The presence of raccoon latrines in Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California, allowed us to investigate associations between raccoons and trematodes in snails. Two trematode species, Probolocoryphe uca and Stictodora hancocki, occurred at higher prevalences in snails near raccoon latrines than in snails away from latrines, suggesting that raccoons may serve as final hosts for these species. Fecal remains indicated that raccoons fed on shore crabs, the second intermediate host for P. uca, and fish, the second intermediate host for S. hancocki. The increase in raccoon populations in the suburban areas surrounding west coast salt marshes could increase their importance as final hosts for trematodes in this system. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2005.

  15. Is the interspecific variation of body size of land snails correlated with rainfall in Israel and Palestine?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2006-11-01

    The hypothesis that body size of land snail species increases with aridity in Israel and Palestine because large snails lose relatively less water due to their lower surface to volume ratio has been investigated. Data on rainfall amplitudes of 84 land snail species in Israel and Palestine and on their body sizes were used to test for interspecific correlations between body size and rainfall. Four methods, means of body sizes in rainfall categories, the midpoint method, the across-species method, and a phylogenetically controlled analysis (CAIC) showed that there is no significant correlation between body size of land snail species and their rainfall amplitude in Israel and Palestine. The lack of an interspecific correlation between body size and rainfall amplitude may be the result of conflicting selective forces on body size.

  16. THE BIOCIDE TRIBUTYLTIN REDUCES THE RETENTION OF TESTOSTERONE AS FATTY ACID ESTERS IN THE MUD SNAIL (ILYANASSA OBSOLETA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT Imposex, the development of male sex characteristics by female gonochoristic snails, has been causally associated with exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT). Documentation of imposex distribution indicates that this masculinizat...

  17. THE ACTIONS OF FMRFamide-LIKE PEPTIDES ON VISCERAL AND SOMATIC MUSCLES OF THE SNAIL HELIX ASPERSA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. LEHMAN; M. J. GREENBERG

    SUMMARY Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide) and pyroGlu-Asp-Pro-Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe- NH2 (pQDPFLRFamide) occur in the ganglia and tissues of the snail, Helix aspersa. This report describes the effects of these two neuropeptides on five visceral organs or somatic muscles isolated from the snail (Table 1). The epiphallus, as well as the rest of the male reproductive tract, was contracted by both FMRFamide and pQDPFLRFamide, and

  18. Temperature relations of aerial and aquatic respiration in six littoral snails in relation to their vertical zonation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT F. McMAHON; W. D. Russell-Hunter

    1977-01-01

    Aerial and aquatic rates of oxygen consumption were determined over a range of 5° to 45°C at 5°C intervals for six species of marine littoral snails: including the sublittoral species, Acmaea testudinalis, Mitrella lunata, and Lacuna vincta; and the truly intertidal species, Littorina obtusata, L. littorea, and L. saxatilis. Polarographic oxygen electrodes were used with normally active snails collected from

  19. Exposure routes of copper: Short term effects on survival, weight, and uptake in Florida apple snails ( Pomacea paludosa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tham C. Hoang; Gary M. Rand

    2009-01-01

    The uptake and effects (survival, weight) of copper (Cu) on Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) via exposures to copper-enriched agricultural soil–water and water-only treatments were investigated. Soils were collected from citrus sites in south Florida and flooded with laboratory freshwater for 14d. Neonate apple snails (?96-h-old) were then exposed to either Cu from a soil-overlying water (i.e., flooded agricultural soils)

  20. Effects of Sublethal Chronic Copper Exposure on the Growth and Reproductive Success of the Florida Apple Snail ( Pomacea paludosa )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily C. Rogevich; Tham C. Hoang; Gary M. Rand

    2009-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) were exposed to three concentrations of copper (Cu), in water (8 ?g\\/L, 16 ?g\\/L, 24 ?g\\/L), for one generation to examine\\u000a uptake and the effects on survival, growth, and reproduction of the F0 generation and survival, growth, and whole body Cu of the F1 generation. During a 9-month Cu exposure, apple snails exposed to 8–16 ?g\\/L Cu had high Cu

  1. Relating bird host distribution and spatial heterogeneity in trematode infections in an intertidal snail—from small to large scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Fredensborg; K. N. Mouritsen; R. Poulin

    2006-01-01

    Shorebird abundance and spatial distribution of larval trematodes in the New Zealand mudsnail, Zeacumantus subcarinatus, were investigated in soft-sediment intertidal bays within Otago Harbour, South Island, New Zealand. In a small-scale study, recruitment of trematodes to caged sentinel snails and the prevalence of infection in free-living snails were examined across a grid of fifteen 50×25 m plots arranged in a representative

  2. Muscadine grape skin extract reverts snail-mediated epithelial mesenchymal transition via superoxide species in human prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snail transcription factor can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), associated with decreased cell adhesion-associated molecules like E-cadherin, increased mesenchymal markers like vimentin, leading to increased motility, invasion and metastasis. Muscadine grape skin extract (MSKE) has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis without affecting normal prostate epithelial cells. We investigated novel molecular mechanisms by which Snail promotes EMT in prostate cancer cells via Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and whether it can be antagonized by MSKE. Methods ARCaP and LNCaP cells overexpressing Snail were utilized to examine levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), specifically, superoxide, in vitro using Dihydroethidium (DHE) or HydroCy3 dyes. Mitosox staining was performed to determine whether the source of ROS was mitochondrial in origin. We also investigated the effect of Muscadine grape skin extract (MSKE) on EMT marker expression by western blot analysis. Migration and cell viability using MTS proliferation assay was performed following MSKE treatments. Results Snail overexpression in ARCaP and LNCaP cells was associated with increased concentration of mitochondrial superoxide, in vitro. Interestingly, MSKE decreased superoxide levels in ARCaP and LNCaP cells. Additionally, MSKE and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) reverted EMT as evidenced by decreased vimentin levels and re-induction of E-cadherin expression in ARCaP-Snail cells after 3 days, concomitant with reduced cell migration. MSKE also decreased Stat-3 activity in ARCaP-Snail cells. Conclusions This study shows that superoxide species may play a role in Snail transcription factor-mediated EMT. Therefore, therapeutic targeting of Snail with various antioxidants such as MSKE may prove beneficial in abrogating EMT and ROS-mediated tumor progression in human prostate cancer. PMID:24617993

  3. Larval trematodes (Digenea) of planorbid snails (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Faltýnková; Vanda Našincová; Lenka Kablásková

    2008-01-01

    A survey of the larval stages (cercariae and metacercariae) of trematodes (Digenea) found in planorbid snails in Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, south-east Germany, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic) is presented based on a study of 7,628 snails of 12 species examined between 1998-2006. A total of 34 trematode larval stages, comprising cercariae of 28 species and metacercariae of

  4. Pseudosuccinea columella (Say 1817) (Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae), snail host of Fasciola hepatica : first record for France in the wild

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Pointier; Christine Coustau; Daniel Rondelaud; André Theron

    2007-01-01

    The lymnaeid snail Pseudosuccinea columella has shown strong invasive capabilities in the last decades, and this species has now a worldwide distribution. So far, the\\u000a presence of this snail in Europe was restricted to botanical gardens, but the recent discovery of a few specimens along the\\u000a banks of the Lot River, southwestern France is the first record of this species

  5. A novel monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic assay for epidemiological surveillance of the vector snails of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea).

    PubMed

    Alba, Annia; Hernández, Hilda M; Marcet, Ricardo; Vázquez, Antonio A; Figueredo, Mabel; Sánchez, Jorge; Otero, Oscar; Sarracent, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    Fasciolosis is a globally distributed snail-borne disease which requires economic consideration due to its enormous impact on veterinary medicine. During recent decades, this parasitosis has also shown increasing prevalence in human populations worldwide. The dissemination and successful transmission of fasciolosis ultimately depends on the existence of susceptible snails that act as intermediate hosts. Therefore, to accomplish effective control of this disease, surveillance and detection of the infected intermediate host would be essential. The screening of trematodes within snails using classical parasitological examination of the larvae can be unreliable (sensitivity and specificity vary depending on the time of infection and the experience of the observer) and relatively costly when using molecular biological methods during large-scale monitoring. Here we propose a novel monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic assay to detect ongoing Fasciola hepatica infection in lymnaeid snails. Anti-F. hepatica rediae mouse monoclonal antibodies were generated and used to develop a double monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for parasite detection. Fasciola hepatica-infected and uninfected laboratory-reared Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella were used for assessment of the developed ELISA. Experimentally infected snails were dissected and examined for parasite larvae as the "gold standard" method. Sensitivity results were 100% for both snail species, while specificity was 98% for G. cubensis and 100% for P. columella. No cross-reactivity was detected in lymnaeids infected with Trichobilharzia sp. or Cotylophoron sp. The ELISA enabled detection of the infection from day 8 p.i. in G. cubensis while in P. columella it was noted as early as day 4. To our knowledge no previous immunoassays have been reported to detect helminth-infected snails and the developed sandwich ELISA method is therefore suggested for infection status validation in natural populations of lymnaeid snails. PMID:25486493

  6. An amphioxus snail gene: Expression in paraxial mesoderm and neural plate suggests a conserved role in patterning the chordate embryo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Langeland; Jill M. Tomsa; William R. Jackman Jr.; Charles B. Kimmel

    1998-01-01

    Homologs of the Drosophila\\u000a snail gene have been characterized in several vertebrates. In addition to being expressed in mesoderm during gastrulation, vertebrate\\u000a snail genes are also expressed in presumptive neural crest and\\/or its derivatives. Given that neural crest is unique to vertebrates\\u000a and is considered to be of fundamental importance in their evolution, we have cloned and characterized the expression

  7. Zinc finger domain of Snail functions as a nuclear localization signal for importin ? ? ? ? -mediated nuclear import pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Yamasaki; Toshihiro Sekimoto; Tadashi Ohkubo; Tsutomu Douchi; Yukihiro Nagata; Masayuki Ozawa; Yoshihiro Yoneda

    2005-01-01

    Snail, a DNA-binding zinc finger protein, functions as a transcriptional repressor for genes including E-cadherin during development and the acquisition of tumor cell invasiveness. Human Snail is a 264-amino acid nuclear protein with an amino-terminal basic amino acid-rich domain (SNAG domain) and a carboxyl-terminal DNA-binding domain (zinc finger domain). A series of fusion proteins composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP)

  8. Guild structure of larval trematodes in the snail Helisoma anceps: patterns and processes at the individual host level.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, J; Esch, G W

    1991-08-01

    Factors that influenced the infracommunity structure of trematodes parasitizing the pulmonate snail Helisoma anceps were studied over a 15-mo period; the guild included 8 species of parasites. Infracommunities were depauperate, with double patent infections observed in only 7 of 1,485 infected snails; a total of 4,899 was examined. Halipegus occidualis-Haematoloechus longiplexus was the most common dual infection. Both species share the same definitive host and, in both cases, eggs are the infective stage for the snail. Switches and losses of infections in individual snails were observed, suggesting the occurrence of dynamic interactions within the guild. A dominance hierarchy was constructed based on field observations and experimental infections. Echinostomatids were dominant; species without rediae in their life cycles were subordinates. Halipegus occidualis (which has rediae) was intermediate in dominance. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution and abundance of trematode infective stages indicate that not all the snails have the same probability of becoming infected. Habitat structure, behavior of the definitive host, the nature of the infective stages, and snail population dynamics (mortality, recruitment, and size structure) generated spatial and temporal heterogeneity in this system. As a consequence, predictions of the probabilities of interspecific interactions based on an analysis of observed and expected frequencies of multiple infections could be inappropriate unless the potential sources of heterogeneity are considered. PMID:1865259

  9. Toxic effect and bioavailability of malathion spiked in natural sediments from the Ignacio Ramirez Dam on the snail Stagnicola sp.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Tabche, Laura; Galar, M Marcela; Olvera, H Elena; Chehue, R Alejandro; López López, Eugenia; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo; Terron Sierra, Oscar

    2002-07-01

    Malathion (MA) is a widely used insecticide in México. The snail Stagnicola sp is a native species of the Ignacio Ramírez dam (IRD). This work aimed to evaluate the bioavailability and toxicity of MA in sediments of the IRD from the Stagnicola sp snail, taking into account the physicochemical properties of the IRD sediment. The toxic effect of MA on the snail Stagnicola sp was evaluated by biochemical tests of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, protein concentration, lipid peroxidation level (LPL), and lipid content; a toxicokinetic study was also carried out. An increment in all biochemical parameters was observed at the beginning of exposure, while at 48 and 72 h a decrement in AchE activity, LPL, and lipid content was observed. The kinetics study showed gradual uptake and rapid elimination of the insecticide in the test organism. The bioconcentration factor and the absorption and elimination constants led to the conclusion that this compound is not being stored in snails. However, at the end of the experiment, the snails without MA exhibited a lack of recovery in AchE activity, which indicates that there is no correlation between the inhibitory pattern of AchE activity and snail MA concentration. PMID:12297085

  10. Feeding of Bait to Snail Lymnaea acuminata and Their Effect on Certain Enzyme in the Nervous Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, V. K.; Singh, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    Fascioliasis, a snail-borne parasitic zoonosis, has been recognized for a long time because of its major veterinary and human impact. Different Bait formulations were fed to the snail Lymnaea acuminata in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30?cm. Snail attractant containing bait formulations was prepared from different binary combination (1?:?1 ratio) of carbohydrates (glucose, starch 10?mM) and amino acid (methionine, histidine 10?mM) in 100?ml of 2% agar solution + sublethal (20% and 60% of 24?h and 96?h LC50) doses of different molluscicides (eugenol, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, and limonene). Snails fed on bait containing sub-lethal concentration of different molluscicides and the snail attractant, causing a significant inhibition in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the nervous tissue of the vector snail L. acuminata. Maximum inhibition in ALP (20% of control) and AChE (49.49% of control) activity was observed in the nervous tissue of the L. acuminata exposed to 60% of 96?h LC50 of eugenol in the bait pellets containing starch + histidine, starch + methionine, respectively. PMID:25969756

  11. Snails and their trails: the multiple functions of trail-following in gastropods.

    PubMed

    Ng, Terence P T; Saltin, Sara H; Davies, Mark S; Johannesson, Kerstin; Stafford, Richard; Williams, Gray A

    2013-08-01

    Snails are highly unusual among multicellular animals in that they move on a layer of costly mucus, leaving behind a trail that can be followed and utilized for various purposes by themselves or by other animals. Here we review more than 40 years of experimental and theoretical research to try to understand the ecological and evolutionary rationales for trail-following in gastropods. Data from over 30 genera are currently available, representing a broad taxonomic range living in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The emerging picture is that the production of mucus trails, which initially was an adaptation to facilitate locomotion and/or habitat extension, has evolved to facilitate a multitude of additional functions. Trail-following supports homing behaviours, and provides simple mechanisms for self-organisation in groups of snails, promoting aggregation and thus relieving desiccation and predation pressures. In gastropods that copulate, trail-following is an important component in mate-searching, either as an alternative, or in addition to the release of water- or air-borne pheromones. In some species, this includes a capacity of males not only to identify trails of conspecifics but also to discriminate between trails laid by females and males. Notably, trail discrimination seems important as a pre-zygotic barrier to mating in some snail species. As production of a mucus trail is the most costly component of snail locomotion, it is also tempting to speculate that evolution has given rise to various ways to compensate for energy losses. Some snails, for example, increase energy intake by eating particles attached to the mucus of trails that they follow, whereas others save energy through reducing the production of their own mucus by moving over previously laid mucus trails. Trail-following to locate a prey item or a mate is also a way to save energy. While the rationale for trail-following in many cases appears clear, the basic mechanisms of trail discrimination, including the mechanisms by which many snails determine the polarity of the trail, are yet to be experimentally determined. Given the multiple functions of trail-following we propose that future studies should adopt an integrated approach, taking into account the possibility of the simultaneous occurrence of many selectively advantageous roles of trail-following behaviour in gastropods. We also believe that future opportunities to link phenotypic and genotypic traits will make possible a new generation of research projects in which gastropod trail-following, its multitude of functions and evolutionary trade-offs can be further elucidated. PMID:23374161

  12. Premature refutation of a human-mediated marine species introduction: the case history of the marine snail Littorina littorea in the northwestern Atlantic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Chapman; James T. Carlton; M. Renee Bellinger; April M. H. Blakeslee

    2007-01-01

    The European periwinkle snail, Littorina littorea was discovered in Pictou, NS, Canada in 1840. This snail’s subsequent rapid, conspicuous spread south from Pictou along the\\u000a Canadian maritime coast and then along the New England and mid-Atlantic coast to New Jersey, its virtual absence in pre-European\\u000a contact deposits, and its close association with human mechanisms of transport from Europe are among

  13. Impacts of an Invasive Snail (Tarebia granifera) on Nutrient Cycling in Tropical Streams: The Role of Riparian Deforestation in Trinidad, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Jennifer M.; Snider, Sunny B.; MacNeill, Keeley; Gilliam, James F.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species and habitat degradation are two major catalysts of environmental change and often occur simultaneously. In freshwater systems, degradation of adjacent terrestrial vegetation may facilitate introduced species by altering resource availability. Here we examine how the presence of intact riparian cover influences the impact of an invasive herbivorous snail, Tarebia granifera, on nitrogen (N) cycling in aquatic systems on the island of Trinidad. We quantified snail biomass, growth, and N excretion in locations where riparian vegetation was present or removed to determine how snail demographics and excretion were related to the condition of the riparian zone. In three Neotropical streams, we measured snail biomass and N excretion in open and closed canopy habitats to generate estimates of mass- and area-specific N excretion rates. Snail biomass was 2 to 8 times greater and areal N excretion rates ranged from 3 to 9 times greater in open canopy habitats. Snails foraging in open canopy habitat also had access to more abundant food resources and exhibited greater growth and mass-specific N excretion rates. Estimates of ecosystem N demand indicated that snail N excretion in fully closed, partially closed, and open canopy habitats supplied 2%, 11%, and 16% of integrated ecosystem N demand, respectively. We conclude that human-mediated riparian canopy loss can generate hotspots of snail biomass, growth, and N excretion along tropical stream networks, altering the impacts of an invasive snail on the biogeochemical cycling of N. PMID:22761706

  14. Postembryonic neurogenesis in the procerebrum of the terrestrial snail, Helix lucorum L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakharov, I. S.; Hayes, N. L.; Ierusalimsky, V. N.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Balaban, P. M.

    1998-01-01

    Neuronogenesis during posthatching development of the procerebrum of the terrestrial snail Helix lucorum was analyzed using bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry to label proliferating cells. Comparison of the distribution of labeled cells in a series of animals which differed in age at the time of incubation with bromodeoxyuridine, in survival time after incubation, and in age at sacrifice reveals a clear pattern and developmental sequence in neuron origin. First, the proliferating cells are located only at the apical portion of the procerebrum. Second, cells which are produced at any particular age remain, for the most part, confined to a single layer in the procerebrum. Third, as development proceeds, each layer of previously produced neurons is displaced toward the basal part of the procerebrum by the production of additional neurons. Our results suggest that the vast majority of the neurons (probably about 70-80%) of the snail procerebrum are produced during the first 1-2 months of posthatching development.

  15. Ultrastructural study of the shell-repair membrane in the snail, Helix pomatia L..

    PubMed

    Abolins-Krogis, A

    1976-09-29

    The shell-repair membrane of the snail, Helix pomatia, has been studied with the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The ultrastructure of the repair membrane, in the initial stages of calcification, revealed the presence of a fibrillar protein, proteoglycan granules, osmiophilic vesicles, and cytoplasmic dense bodies of different size and structure. The involvement of the cell constituents in the formation of calcifying centra and initial crystal formation is discussed. The amoebocytes present within the repair membrane appeared to be involved in three different functions: (1) phagocytosis, (2) release of granules, vesicles and dense bodies, and (3) secretin of a fibrillar protein. The possible lytic function of the amoebocytes is mentioned. The common features in the minearlizing process of the shell-repair membrane of the snail and the epiphyseal cartilage of the mammals were noted. PMID:991223

  16. Predator-prey interactions between shell-boring beetle larvae and rock-dwelling land snails.

    PubMed

    Baalbergen, Els; Helwerda, Renate; Schelfhorst, Rense; Castillo Cajas, Ruth F; van Moorsel, Coline H M; Kundrata, Robin; Welter-Schultes, Francisco W; Giokas, Sinos; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2014-01-01

    Drilus beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are specialized predators of land snails. Here, we describe various aspects of the predator-prey interactions between multiple Drilus species attacking multiple Albinaria (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae) species in Greece. We observe that Drilus species may be facultative or obligate Albinaria-specialists. We map geographically varying predation rates in Crete, where on average 24% of empty shells carry fatal Drilus bore holes. We also provide first-hand observations and video-footage of prey entry and exit strategies of the Drilus larvae, and evaluate the potential mutual evolutionary impacts. We find limited evidence for an effect of shell features and snail behavioral traits on inter- and intra-specifically differing predation rates. We also find that Drilus predators adjust their predation behavior based on specific shell traits of the prey. In conclusion, we suggest that, with these baseline data, this interesting predator-prey system will be available for further, detailed more evolutionary ecology studies. PMID:24964101

  17. The control of snail hosts of bilharziasis and fascioliasis in Southern Rhodesia

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, V. DE V.; Shiff, C. J.; Blair, D. M.

    1961-01-01

    The authors review the experimental work that has been done since the Second World War on the use of chemical molluscicides in Southern Rhodesia and describe the development of a co-operative snail control campaign involving local landowners and various Government departments. In 1959 and 1960 efforts were concentrated on four large-scale experiments to test the methods of application of copper sulfate, sodium pentachlorophenate and Bayer 73 under a variety of climatic and physiographic conditions. From this work the authors conclude that it would appear possible and practicable to control vector snails in natural water courses and reservoirs in savannah areas of Central Africa to a degree at which it is thought that transmission of bilharziasis from man to man and of fascioliasis from animal to animal does not take place. PMID:13879773

  18. The Snail Family Gene Snai3 Is Not Essential for Embryogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xianghua; Booth, Carmen J.; Yoon, Jeong Kyo; Krebs, Luke T.; Gridley, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Snail gene family encodes zinc finger-containing transcriptional repressor proteins. Three members of the Snail gene family have been described in mammals, encoded by the Snai1, Snai2, and Snai3 genes. The function of the Snai1 and Snai2 genes have been studied extensively during both vertebrate embryogenesis and tumor progression and metastasis, and play critically important roles during these processes. However, little is known about the function of the Snai3 gene and protein. We describe here generation and analysis of Snai3 conditional and null mutant mice. We also generated an EYFP-tagged Snai3 null allele that accurately reflects endogenous Snai3 gene expression, with the highest levels of expression detected in thymus and skeletal muscle. Snai3 null mutant homozygous mice are viable and fertile, and exhibit no obvious phenotypic defects. These results demonstrate that Snai3 gene function is not essential for embryogenesis in mice. PMID:23762348

  19. The freshwater snails (Gastropoda) of Iran, with descriptions of two new genera and eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Glöer, Peter; Peši?, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Using published records and original data from recent field work and revision of Iranian material of certain species deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum Basel, the Zoological Museum Berlin, and Natural History Museum Vienna, a checklist of the freshwater gastropod fauna of Iran was compiled. This checklist contains 73 species from 34 genera and 14 families of freshwater snails; 27 of these species (37%) are endemic to Iran. Two new genera, Kaskakia and Sarkhia, and eight species, i.e., Bithynia forcarti, Bithynia starmuehlneri, Bithynia mazandaranensis, Pseudamnicola georgievi, Kaskakia khorrasanensis, Sarkhia sarabensis, Valvata nowsharensis and Acroloxus pseudolacustris are described as new to science; Ecrobia grimmi (Clessin & Dybowski, 1888), Heleobia dalmatica (Radoman, 1974) and Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported for the first time from Iran. Additional field work is highly desirable for a more appropriate evaluation of the extant freshwater snail biodiversity in Iran. PMID:22977349

  20. Predator-Prey Interactions between Shell-Boring Beetle Larvae and Rock-Dwelling Land Snails

    PubMed Central

    Castillo Cajas, Ruth F.; van Moorsel, Coline H. M.; Kundrata, Robin; Welter-Schultes, Francisco W.; Giokas, Sinos; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2014-01-01

    Drilus beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are specialized predators of land snails. Here, we describe various aspects of the predator-prey interactions between multiple Drilus species attacking multiple Albinaria (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae) species in Greece. We observe that Drilus species may be facultative or obligate Albinaria-specialists. We map geographically varying predation rates in Crete, where on average 24% of empty shells carry fatal Drilus bore holes. We also provide first-hand observations and video-footage of prey entry and exit strategies of the Drilus larvae, and evaluate the potential mutual evolutionary impacts. We find limited evidence for an effect of shell features and snail behavioral traits on inter- and intra-specifically differing predation rates. We also find that Drilus predators adjust their predation behavior based on specific shell traits of the prey. In conclusion, we suggest that, with these baseline data, this interesting predator-prey system will be available for further, detailed more evolutionary ecology studies. PMID:24964101