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1

Measurement of some selected enzymatic activities in infected Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.  

PubMed

The activities of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and that of lactate dehydrogenase (LD) were measured in the homogenate of infected Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, the specific intermediate hosts for the parasite Schistosoma mansoni which is the cause of the disease schistosomiasis. The isoenzymatic pattern of LD was also studied in the infected snails tissue. PMID:2083418

Nabih, I; el Dardiri, Z; el-Ansary, A; Rizk, M

1990-01-01

2

Variation of transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase in irradiated Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.  

PubMed

Effect of ultraviolet and gamma radiations on the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, the specific intermediate host of schistosomiasis, was investigated. Changes in the electrophoretic pattern of LD in the species under study were also taken as a measured parameter and the effect of gamma-irradiation on the glutathione content in the haemolymph of the snails have been included. PMID:1934013

Nabih, I; el-Ansary, A

1991-01-01

3

Potential Use of Biomphalaria alexandrina Snail Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni by Immunoblot Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of Biomphalaria alexandrina snail antigens in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni using enzyme linked immunolectrotransfere blot (EITB). Methods S. mansoni adult worm crude antigens (AWA), feet and visceral humps of B. alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus were used. Hyperimmune mice sera (HIS) versus each antigen were prepared for diagnosis of S. mansoni using western blot (WB). Results Snail foot antigens were more specific in antibodies detection than visceral hump antigens. Three of five polypeptides of B. alexandrina foot antigen identified by S. mansoni HIS showed specific positive reactivity. These polypeptides were at MW of 31/32 and 43 kDa. While, only one of the six polypeptides of B. alexandrina hepatopancrease antigen identified by S. mansoni HIS, at a MW of 43 kDa was specific. Similarly, 2 polypeptides at MW of 44 and 55 kDa were specific in detection of anti- S. haematobium antibodies. However, the antigenically active polypeptide of B. truncatus hepatopancrease antigen had no specific reactivity towards anti-S. haematobium antibodies. Conclusion B. alexandrina foot antigens were the most specific of the tested snail antigens in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni.

Basyoni, Maha MA; EL-Wahab, Azza Abd

2013-01-01

4

Effects of Snail Density on Growth, Reproduction and Survival of Biomphalaria alexandrina Exposed to Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

The effects of snail density on Biomphalaria alexandrina parasitized with Schistosoma mansoni were investigated. Laboratory experiments were used to quantify the impact of high density on snail growth, fecundity, and survival. Density-dependent birth rates of snails were determined to inform mathematical models, which, until now, have assumed a linear relationship between density and fecundity. The experiments show that the rate of egg-laying followed a negative exponential distribution with increasing density and this was significantly affected by exposure to parasitic infection. High density also affected the weight of snails and survival to a greater degree than exposure to parasitic infection. Although snail growth rates were initially constrained by high density, they retained the potential for growth suggesting a reversible density-dependent mechanism. These experimental data can be used to parameterise models and confirm that snail populations are regulated by nonlinear density-dependent mechanisms.

Mangal, T. D.; Paterson, S.; Fenton, A.

2010-01-01

5

Studies on carbohydrates extracted from native and chemically treated Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.  

PubMed

1. Carbohydrates were extracted from total tissue extracts of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and were analyzed to their monosaccharides using GLC. 2. The snails were chemically treated with thioxanthone derivatives (compounds I, II, III) and the change in the monosaccharide constituents of their carbohydrates was investigated. 3. The isolated monosaccharides from native and chemically pretreated snails were injected into mice and their protective effects were examined after infection of mice with cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni. 4. The results showed that the main monosaccharides in carbohydrates of snails were galactose, glucose, fucose and mannose and that chemical treatment caused a drop in the galactose content. 5. Moreover, monosaccharide fractions from snails treated with compound III were the most effective in inducing protection against Schistosoma infection in mice. PMID:1360350

Nabih, I; Rizk, M; Soliman, A M

1992-07-01

6

Kinetic properties of two transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferase together with lactate dehydrogenase (LD) from the tissue homogenate of the Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, were partially characterized by measuring the Michaelis constant (km) and the maximum velocity (Vmax). The isoenzymatic pattern of lactate dehydrogenase was investigated through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:2279260

Nabih, I; el Dardiri, Z; el Ansary, A; Ahmed, S A

1990-01-01

7

Effect of six non-target snails on Schistosoma mansoni miracidial host finding and infection of Biomphalaria alexandrina under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Six snail species naturally associated with Biomphalaria alexandrina, the snail host of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt, were tested under standard laboratory conditions, for impact on miracidial host findings and infection of the snail host. These snails are the prosobranchs Melanoides tuberculata, Cleopatra bulimoides, Bellamys unicolor and Lanistes carinatus, the pulmonates Planorbis planorbis and Physa acuta. The tested snail ssp. reduced considerably the infection rate of Biomphalaria with S. mansoni especially at a ratio of 10 decoy snails to one Biomphalaria snail. The prosobranchs Melanoides, Cleopatra and Lanistes exhibited more reducing effect on Biomphalaria infection than Bellamya and the pulmonates Physa and Planorbis being 65.2%, 78.8%, 62.9%, 33.3%, 30.3% and 46.9%, respectively. PMID:9707684

Yousif, F; el-Emam, M; el-Sayed, K

1998-08-01

8

Potential of some monoterpenoids and their new N-methyl carbamate derivatives against Schistosomiasis snail vector, Biomphalaria alexandrina.  

PubMed

Some monoterpenoids and their corresponding new N-methyl carbamate derivatives were used to study their molluscicidal effect on Biomphalaria alexandrina, the snail-vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt. Improving the efficacy of the tested monoterpenoids and/or their corresponding carbamates by either piperonyl butoxide (PBO) or triton X-100 (TX) was also performed. Thymol, ?-citronellol, carvacrol, and geraniol exhibited high molluscicidal activity against the snails. Geraniol, ?-citronellol, and carvacrol were strongly synergized by PBO but, an opposite trend was found with TX. The molluscicidal activity of geraniol or ?-citronellol when mixed with PBO was as potent as copper sulfate. Another attempt to improve the bioactivity of monoterpenoids was through their structure modifications. Thus, conversion of the tested monoterpenoids into their corresponding carbamates led to enhancement in the activity of aliphatic monoterpenoids and reduction in the aromatics. PMID:17692915

Radwan, M A; El-Zemity, S R; Mohamed, S A; Sherby, S M

2007-08-10

9

Biological and biochemical studies on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, treated with low concentrations of certain molluscicides (synthetic and of plant origin).  

PubMed

The effect of low concentrations of different synthetic and natural mollusciciding agents may introduce to fresh water environment on reproduction and biochemical aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina was studied. Different mollusciciding agents (copper sulphate, Bayluscide, Uccmaluscide, Agave filifera & A. attenuate) inhibited egg production, induced marked increased the percent of abnormal laid eggs and induced marked reduction in their hatchability. The maximal reductions in egg hatchability resulted with Bayluscide (0.0%) and Uccmaluscide (18%), A. filifera (21%) and A. attenuata (15%). All the antimolluscal materials caused a successful killing effect against miracidia and cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni. CuSo4, Bayluscide and Uccmaluscide killed 40% of the exposed miracidia and 50% of cercariae after an hour exposure. The plants sublethal concentration killed 100% of cercariae and miracidia after 6 hours exposure. Water leaving behaviour among the exposed snails was noticed especially during the first three weeks, showing maximal percentage (60%) after one week of exposure to Bayluscide. A general decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) especially with Bayluscide (48.4%) and in acetylcholine esterase activity in the haemolymph especially on applying plant molluscicide A. filifera (50.8%) was noticed. Transaminases showed marked elevations in activities during the 1st three weeks, then began to drop (ASAT: 61.5%, with Bayluscide & ALAT: 50.8% with Uccmaluscide). The results reflect the effect of the metabolic disorders on life, egg laying, egg hatchability, hepatic cells damages, lack of smooth transmission at nerve junction, loss of muscular coordination and convulsions, then snails' death. PMID:16333894

Abdel Kader, Ahmed; Hamdi, Salwa A H; Rawi, Sayed M

2005-12-01

10

Heavy metal concentrations in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina uninfected or infected with cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and/or Echinostoma liei in Egypt: the potential use of this snail as a bioindicator of pollution.  

PubMed

In spite of using aquatic snails as bioindicators for water pollution, little attention has been paid to the effect of parasitism upon the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) in these organisms. The present study therefore aimed to compare the concentrations of heavy metals in trematode-infected Biomphalaria alexandrina collected from Kafer Alsheikh and Menofia provinces, Egypt, with uninfected snails from the same sites, in order to assess the effect of parasitism on the use of these snails as bioindicators. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soft parts and shells of snails were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the heavy metal profile in snails infected with Echinostoma liei was very different from that in snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The total concentration of heavy metals in E. liei-infected snails collected from Kafer Alsheikh or Menofia province was greater than in uninfected snails. In contrast, the total concentration of heavy metals in S. mansoni-infected snails was reduced compared with uninfected snails. In conclusion, the status of snails with respect to parasitic infection must be taken into consideration when these snails are used as bioindicators. PMID:23710821

Mostafa, O M S; Mossa, A-T H; El Einin, H M A

2013-05-28

11

Laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal activity of Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) on Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus and Lymnaea cailliaudi.  

PubMed

The molluscicidal properties of the oil extract of Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) were tested against Egyptian snail species: Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus and Limnaea cailliaudi. The impact of the extract on the egg cluches of B. alexandrina and L. cailliaudi was also evaluated. Snails and their eggs were exposed for 24 and 48 hr at 22-26 degrees C to various concentrations of the extract. The results showed different susceptibilities B. alexandrina showed higher LD50 and LD90 (155, 195 ppm) than B. truncatus (50, 95 ppm) and L. cailliaudi (50, 85 ppm) after 24 hr exposure. 100% mortality was obtained for the egg cluches of B. alexandrina and L. cailliaudi at concentrations of 100 ppm and 75 ppm respectively. Lower concentrations were needed to obtain the same results after 48 hr. The present laboratory studies demonstrated that Myrrh has a molluscicidal effect on the snail intermediate hosts, particularly on their eggs. Field studies are recommended. PMID:11775095

Allam, A F; el-Sayad, M H; Khalil, S S

2001-12-01

12

Population dynamics and schistosomal infection of Biomphalaria alexandrina in four irrigation canals in Egypt.  

PubMed

The natural growth, reproductivity, mortality and schistosomal infection of Biomphalaria alexandrina, the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt, were studied for one year in four irrigation canals, namely El-Khassa and Radwan (Giza Governorate) and Sendebis and Sanafeer (Qalyoubiya Governorate). Radwan canal contains a considerably dense Biomphalaria population and three generations of snails (parents generation and autumn and spring generations) were recognized. Two phases of growth were distinguished in both autumn and spring generations, a faster phase followed by a slower one. The faster phase extends from January to May and from March to August in the autumn and spring generations, respectively. The daily mortality rate of snails was highest in the hot season (June--September) and lowest in the cold months (December--April). Continuous reproductivity of Biomphalaria snails was observed allover the year with highest values of reproduction index from November to March. Biomphalaria snails collected from El Khassa and Radwan canals were free of S. mansoni infection, while snails of Sanafeer canal carried patent infection in September and October. Prepatent infection was also found in Sanafeer canal in July and September and in Sendebis canal in September. PMID:8308336

Yousif, F; Kamel, G; el Emam, M; Mohamed, S H

1993-12-01

13

New possible molluscicides from Calendula micrantha officinalis and Ammi majus. II. Molluscicidal, physiological, and egg-laying effects against Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effects of CuSo4 and crude extracts of the different parts of Calendula micrantha officinalis and Ammi majus, i. e., leaves, stems, roots, and flowers, on adult Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus were investigated. Generally, leaves and flowers of both plants exhibited marked potency in killing the snail vectors of schistosomiasis. The recorded LC50 and LC90 values showed that C. officinalis was more toxic to both snails than A. majus, and B. truncatus are more sensitive to the extracts of both plants than B. alexandrina. Snails that are produced from snails previously exposed to low doses were more sensitive to the tested extracts, which may give primary indication of no possibility of inherited resistance. Moreover, prolonged exposure to the sublethal concentrations of A. majus have a definite lethal effect on the egg laying and longevity of both snails. Also, treatment with sublethal doses of both plants clearly inhibited the transaminase activity (ALAT, ASAT), diminished the total protein content, and increased markedly total lipid contents in the hemolymph of both snails. PMID:9007003

Rawi, S M; El-Gindy, H; Abd-El-Kader, A

1996-12-01

14

Effect of two herbicides on some biological and biochemical parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina.  

PubMed

The herbicides, Butachlor and Fluazifop-p-butyl were evaluated against B. alexandrina and their infection with S. mansoni, as well as against the miracidia and cercariae. The tested herbicides reduced the survival and infection rates of B. alexandrina by 28% and 35.71% for Butachlor and 50% and 64% for Fluazifop-p-butyl, respectively. These herbicides significantly reduced the production and duration of cercairal shedding per infected snails. The mortality rates of miracidia and cercariae were elevated gradually by increasing the sub-lethal concentrations of herbicides being 63% and 62%, respectively, after 6 hours of exposure to 6.5 ppm of Butachlor. The protein, glycogen and lipid contents in the snail Soft tissues were significantly reduced. There was a significant elevation in the levels of acid and alkaline phosphatases in haemolymph of snails exposed to Butachlor, 0.05 and 0.48 u/mg protein, respectively. PMID:12512816

Tantawy, Ahmed A

2002-12-01

15

Effects of Larval Schistosomes on Biomphalaria Snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aim of this chapter is to provide a clearer understanding of the complex relationship between Biomphalaria snails and larval schistosome parasites. This chapter describes the numerous changes in host physiology, biochemistry, and\\u000a behavior brought about by infection. Specifically, the effects of larval schistosomes on host mortality, growth, metabolism,\\u000a reproduction, organic and inorganic elements, and behavior are focused on. The

Judith Humphries

16

Effect of various foods on Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus and their susceptibility to schistosome miracidia.  

PubMed

The tested foods are tropical fish food (tetramine), rat food, blue green algae, dried lettuce leaves and a mixture of all these foods. The results indicated that feeding of B. alexandrina on a mixture of foods increased their growth and survival rates and their susceptibility to S. mansoni. Tetramine elevated the egg-laying capacity of snails compared to other tested foods. The hatchability of eggs of B. alexandrina fed on algae for a period of 16 weeks showed the highest rate followed by snails fed on a mixture of foods and then tetramine. B. truncatus maintained on a mixture of foods for 16 weeks, exhibited an increase in their growth, egg-laying, survival rates and recorded the highest infection rate with S. haematobium than other foods. Among the used foods, the hatchability of eggs of B. truncatus fed on tetramine for 16 weeks was the highest one. PMID:11775118

Ismail, N M; Haroun, N H

2001-12-01

17

Bacterial flora of the schistosome vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed Central

The aerobic heterotrophic bacterial flora in over 200 individuals from 10 wild populations and 3 laboratory colonies of the schistosome vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata was examined. Internal bacterial densities were inversely proportional to snail size and were higher in stressed and laboratory-reared snails. The numerically predominant bacterial genera in individual snails included Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Vibrio, and several members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Enterobacteriaceae seldom predominated in laboratory colonies. Our data suggest that Vibrio extorquens and a Pasteurella sp. tend to predominate in high-bacterial-density snails. These snails may be compromised and may harbor opportunistic snail pathogens.

Ducklow, H W; Boyle, P J; Maugel, P W; Strong, C; Mitchell, R

1979-01-01

18

Inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme associated with anaerobic respiration in schistosomiasis intermediate host snails.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme (LD5) which is associated with anaerobic respiration was inhibited to a certain degree in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Urea and thiourea were used as inhibitors. The effect of LD5 inhibition on the mortality rate of infected Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and on the susceptibility of the snails to the trematode infection was also studied. PMID:1905584

Nabih, I; el Dardiri, Z; el-Ansary, A

1991-01-01

19

The suitability of several aquatic snails as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen species of aquatic snails of four families were tested by quantitative technique under standardized conditions for their suitability as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis. These species were the planorbid snails Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbis intermixtus, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus contortus, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus and Helisoma sp.; the lymnaeid snails Lymnaea natalensis, Lymnaea tomentosa, Lymnaea stagnalis, and

Fouad Yousif; Georg Lämmler

1975-01-01

20

Electrophoretic patterns of protein fractionations in hemolymph and tissues of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus during course of schistosome infection.  

PubMed

Electrophoresis of plasma protein of B. alexandrina (uninfected & infected with S. mansoni) showed that the major dominant bands had molecular weights of 20, 44, 96, 139 & 205 KD in both types of snails. The 1day & 1 week post miracidial exposure (PME) groups were characterized by band 54 KD. All groups except a day PME were characterized by a common band of MW 65 KD. Three days PME group had. three bands of 123 KD, 150 &177 KD, not found in other groups. The highest similarity index in 2 weeks PME & 5 weeks PME groups (during cercarial shedding) was 0.667 and the lowest one was in 3-days PME (0.5). The 3-days PME had a unique band of MW 177.04 KD, not found in other groups. Similar electrophoretic pattern of B. alexandrina tissue protein was seen. The major dominant bands had molecular weights of 14, 21, 80 and 140 KD in both non-infected and infected snails. The 1day PME had a band of 48.483 KD, 3-days PME had a band of 87.985 KD, one-week PME group characterized by two bands 61.761 KD and 70.338 KD. The two-weeks PME had a band 91.111 KD. While, the 5 week PME (during cercarial production) was the only group that shared the common band of MW 115 KD with controls. The highest similarity index in 5 weeks PME (during cercarial shedding) group was 0.545 and the lowest one was in 1 week & 2 weeks PME (0.43). The electrophoresis of plasma protein of B. truncatus (uninfected & infected with S. haematobium) showed that the major dominant bands had molecular weights of 20, 30, 65, 80, 106, 117 & 170 KD in both type of snails. The 1day PME group was characterized by three bands of MWs 26.539, 51.891 & 91.509 KD. All experimental groups, except 5 weeks PME (during cercarial shedding) and control, had a common band of MW 45 KD. Three days PME group had a characteristic band of 113.72 KD which was not found in any other group. The highest similarity index was in one week PME group was 0.857 and the lowest one in 1-day PME (0.5). In B. truncatus tissue protein, the major dominant bands by electrophoretic pattern had molecular weights of 20, 45, 54, 80, 97 & 171 KD in both type of snails. A day PME had a band of 73.544 KD and a week PME had a band of MW 60.813 KD. Two and 5 weeks PME groups had 2 bands of MWs 27 & 62 KD. All experimental groups had a characteristic band not found in control of MW 141 KD. The highest similarity index in 3-days PME was 0.8 and the lowest one was in 5 weeks PME during cercarial shedding(0.545). PMID:17153696

El-Dafrawy, Shadia M; El-Din, A T Sharaf; Hamid, H Abdel

2006-12-01

21

Molluscicidal activities of certain pesticide and their mixtures against Biomphalaria alexandrina.  

PubMed

The niclosamide and uccmaluscide proved to be the most effective compounds, followed by copper sulphate. The second category of efficiency includes the anilofos, isoprothiolane and fluazifop-P-butyl. Moreover, Butachlor herbicide was the least potent compound. In general, the specific molluscicides showed more efficiency than the conventional tested herbicides and fungicides on treated snails. Pre-exposure to 1/10 LC50 of anilofos, butachlor and isoprothiolane showed synergistic effects to uccmaluscide. However, the same treatment with 1/10 LC50 of fluazifop-P-butyl, isoprothiolane and butachlor gave additive effect to copper sulphate and niclosamide on treated snails. Data indicated that when butachlor, anilofos, fluazifop-P-butyl or isoprothiolane added to copper sulphate at the ratios of 10:40, 20:30 of LC50 as well as anilofos when added to copper sulphate at 30:20 showed synergism in activity against snails. On the contrary, the tested mixtures with niclosamide resulted in antagonistic action, while pesticide uccmaluscide mixtures showed synergistic effect, except isoprothiolane-uccmaluscide mixture at ratio 40:10 of LC50 showed additive effect on snails. Determination of niclosamide by gas chromatography, indicated that niclosamide showed relatively slower degradation either in the case of niclosamide or it's mixture with butachlor. Meanwhile, it's mixture with anilofos or fluazifop-p-butyl or isoprothiolane showed rapid degradation. PMID:12049263

Zidan, Z H; Ragab, F M A; Mohamed, K H A

2002-04-01

22

Reversing the Resistance Phenotype of the Biomphalaria glabrata Snail Host Schistosoma mansoni Infection by Temperature Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomphalaria glabrata snails that display either resistant or susceptible phenotypes to the parasitic trematode, Schistosoma mansoni provide an invaluable resource towards elucidating the molecular basis of the snail-host\\/schistosome relationship. Previously, we showed that induction of stress genes either after heat-shock or parasite infection was a major feature distinguishing juvenile susceptible snails from their resistant counterparts. In order to examine this

Wannaporn Ittiprasert; Matty Knight

2012-01-01

23

The effect of ecological parameters on the distribution of snail vectors of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

The infestation of the water courses showed 32.5% for Biomphalaria alexandrina and 8.75% for Bulinus truncatus. Ecological parameters, showed non significant variations in the water courses harbouring snail vectors and those free from snails except for conductivity in the habitats harbouring B. truncatus. This variation was more highly significant (p<0.001). Of the examined sites, 11.25% were harbouring B. alexandrina and Lymnaea natalenesis living together and 5% of the sites were harbouring B. truncatus and Physa acuta snails. Snail vectors were distributed with different degrees with aquatic plants reflecting the degree of species preference plants for snails' life. PMID:12557938

Kader, A A

2001-04-01

24

Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria spp., the intermediate host snails of Schistosoma mansoni, in Brazil.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis mansoni remains an important parasitic disease of man, endemic in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, South America and the Caribbean. The aetiological agent is the trematode Schistosoma mansoni, whereas aquatic snails of the genus Biomphalaria act as intermediate hosts in the parasite life cycle. In Brazil, the distribution of Biomphalaria spp. is closely associated with the occurrence of schistosomiasis. The purpose of this study was to map and predict the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of S. mansoni across Brazil. We assembled snail "presenceonly" data and used a maximum entropy approach, along with climatic and environmental variables to produce predictive risk maps. We identified a series of risk factors that govern the distribution of Biomphalaria snails. We find that high-risk areas for B. glabrata are concentrated in the regions of Northeast and Southeast and the northern part of the South region. B. straminea are found in the Northeast and Southeast regions, and B. tenagophila are concentrated in the Southeast and South regions. Our findings confirm that the presence of the intermediate host snails is correlated with the occurrence of schistosomiasis mansoni. The generated risk maps of intermediate host snails might assist the national control programme for spatial targeting of control interventions and to ultimately move towards schistosomiasis elimination in Brazil. PMID:23032289

Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Carvalho, Omar S; Malone, John B; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

2012-09-01

25

Development of 10 microsatellite loci in the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria kuhniana (Mollusca, Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized 10 variable microsatellite loci in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria kuhniana, as well as conditions for multiplexing and co-loading sets of loci. Two to five alleles were detected per locus over the two studied populations in Venezuela. High inbreeding coefficients suggest high selfing rates. Cross-species amplification provided some variability at eight and three loci in the other species belonging

VIRGINIE DUPUY; ANTOINE NICOT; PHILIPPE JARNE; PATRICE DAVID

2009-01-01

26

Nimbus ( BgI): An active non-LTR retrotransposon of the Schistosoma mansoni snail host Biomphalaria glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata is closely associated with the transmission of human schistosomiasis. An ecologically sound method has been proposed to control schistosomiasis using genetically modified snails to displace endemic, susceptible ones. To assess the viability of this form of biological control, studies towards understanding the molecular makeup of the snail relative to the presence of endogenous mobile genetic

Nithya Raghavan; Hervé Tettelin; André Miller; Jessica Hostetler; Luke Tallon; Matty Knight

2007-01-01

27

Spot light survey on fresh-water snails of medical importance in Al Fayoum Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

In a survey carried out during Summer and Autumn of 2004, for snails of medical importance, nine species were recovered. These were Biomphalaria alexandrina, B. glabrata, B. pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, B. forskalii, Lymnaea natalensis, Bellamya (=Vivipara) unicolor, Physa acuta and Hydrobia musaensis. Parasitological examination revealed that B. alexandrina, B. glabrata and L. natalensis harboured immature stages of their concerned trematode parasites. Moreover, P. acuta harboured the immature stage of the nematode parasite Parastrongylus cantonensis. PMID:15880994

Abo-Madyan, Ahmed A; Morsy, Tosson A; Motawea, Saad M; El Garhy, Manal F; Massoud, Ahmed M A

2005-04-01

28

Effect of X-ray on the snails of schistosomiasis in Egypt.  

PubMed

Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus snails were exposed to sublethal doses 0.2, 3, 5, 10 and 20 rad of X-ray. The survival and reproductive rates of these snails were highly affected by these doses. The maximum survival periods of laboratory populations of Biomphalaria snails were less than those of field ones which means a high sensitivity of laboratory snails to X-ray. The reproductive capacity of irradiated Biomphalaria and Bulinus snails was highly suppressed and this will interrupt Schistosomiasis transmission. A deleterious effect of gametogenesis of irradiated Biomphalaria was histologically proved. After 3 weeks of snail irradiation with high dose (40 rad) the hermaphrodite gland became completely evacuated. PMID:8754647

Haroun, N H; Roushdy, M Z; Abdel Megeed, M I; Mostafa, B B

1996-08-01

29

Reversing the Resistance Phenotype of the Biomphalaria glabrata Snail Host Schistosoma mansoni Infection by Temperature Modulation  

PubMed Central

Biomphalaria glabrata snails that display either resistant or susceptible phenotypes to the parasitic trematode, Schistosoma mansoni provide an invaluable resource towards elucidating the molecular basis of the snail-host/schistosome relationship. Previously, we showed that induction of stress genes either after heat-shock or parasite infection was a major feature distinguishing juvenile susceptible snails from their resistant counterparts. In order to examine this apparent association between heat stress and snail susceptibility, we investigated the effect of temperature modulation in the resistant snail stock, BS-90. Here, we show that, incubated for up to 4 hrs at 32°C prior to infection, these resistant snails became susceptible to infection, i.e. shedding cercariae at 5 weeks post exposure (PE) while unstressed resistant snails, as expected, remained resistant. This suggests that susceptibility to infection by this resistant snail phenotype is temperature-sensitive (ts). Additionally, resistant snails treated with the Hsp 90 specific inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA) after heat stress, were no longer susceptible to infection, retaining their resistant phenotype. Consistently, susceptible snail phenotypes treated with 100 mM GA before parasite exposure also remained uninfected. These results provide direct evidence for the induction of stress genes (heat shock proteins; Hsp 70, Hsp 90 and the reverse transcriptase [RT] domain of the nimbus non-LTR retrotransposon) in B. glabrata susceptibility to S. mansoni infection and characterize the resistant BS-90 snails as a temperature-sensitive phenotype. This study of reversing snail susceptibility phenotypes to S. mansoni provides an opportunity to directly track molecular pathway(s) that underlie the B. glabrata snail's ability to either sustain or destroy the S. mansoni parasite.

Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Knight, Matty

2012-01-01

30

Selected enzymatic activities in fresh water snails, specific intermediate host for human schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (EC.2.6.1.1.) I, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (EC.2.6.1.2) II and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) (EC.1.1.1.27) III have been measured in tissue homogenate and in haemolymph of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, the specific intermediate host for the human parasitic disease schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni. PMID:2499422

Nabih, I; el-Dardire, Z; el-Ansary, A

1989-01-01

31

Molluscicidal activity of some marine substances against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae).  

PubMed

Freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria play a major role as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the etiologic agent of schistosomiasis. While Biomphalaria spp. control by molluscicides is one of the main strategies to reduce the snail population in infected areas, there are few effective molluscicides commercially available. Natural products may be considered as potentially useful and safe molluscicides. We have evaluated the molluscicidal activity of 12 extracts from ten marine organisms on adult and embryonic stages of Biomphalaria glabrata. Only extracts of the red algae Liagora farinosa and of the sponge Amphimedon viridis presented molluscicidal activity. Lethal concentration (LC)(50) values obtained were 120 ?g/mL for L. farinosa CH(2)Cl(2) extract (apolar fraction) and 20 ?g/mL for A. viridis extract and halitoxin. The polar alga fraction and halitoxin had no effect on B. glabrata embryos. The algae apolar fraction was active on B. glabrata in all embryonic development stages, with LC(50) values for blastulae at 42 ?g/mL, gastrulae at 124 ?g/mL, trochophore at 180 ?g/mL, and veliger at 222 ?g/mL. This is the first report of extracts from marine organisms which presented molluscicidal activity. PMID:22205347

Miyasato, P A; Kawano, T; Freitas, J C; Berlinck, R G S; Nakano, E; Tallarico, L F

2011-12-29

32

Helobdella nilae and Alboglossiphonia conjugata leeches as biological agents for snails control.  

PubMed

The efficacy of leeches, as biological agents, in control of snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis (Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria alexandrina) and fascioliasis (Lymnaea natalensis) as well as their effect on the non-target snails Physa acuta, Melanioides tuberculata and Cleopatra bulimoides was evaluated. Two glossiphoniid snail leeches, Helobdella nilae and Alboglossiphonia conjugata were used. They destroyed egg masses and young snails more rapidly than adult ones. H. nilae showed a stronger destructive effect than A. conjugata. In a descending order, it preferred L. natalensis followed by B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata and lastly C. bulimoides. But, A. conjugata preferred L. natalensis followed by B. truncatus, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata, B. alexandrina and lastly C. bulimoides. The detailed diagnostic morphology and biology of the two leeches were given. PMID:19530628

Abd-Allah, Karim F; Saleh, Mohamed H; El-Hamshary, Azza M S; Negm-Eldin, Mohsen M; El-Fakahany, Amany F; Abdel-Tawab, Ahmed H; Abdel-Maboud, Amina I; Aly, Nagwa S M

2009-04-01

33

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) Mediated siRNA Gene Silencing in the Schistosoma mansoni Snail Host, Biomphalaria glabrata  

PubMed Central

An in vivo, non-invasive technique for gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, has been developed using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediated delivery of long double-stranded (ds) and small interfering (si) RNA. Cellular delivery was evaluated and optimized by using a ‘mock’ fluorescent siRNA. Subsequently, we used the method to suppress expression of Cathepsin B (CathB) with either the corresponding siRNA or dsRNA of this transcript. In addition, the knockdown of peroxiredoxin (Prx) at both RNA and protein levels was achieved with the PEI-mediated soaking method. B. glabrata is an important snail host for the transmission of the parasitic digenean platyhelminth, Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis in the neotropics. Progress is being made to realize the genome sequence of the snail and to uncover gene expression profiles and cellular pathways that enable the snail to either prevent or sustain an infection. Using PEI complexes, a convenient soaking method has been developed, enabling functional gene knockdown studies with either dsRNA or siRNA. The protocol developed offers a first whole organism method for host-parasite gene function studies needed to identify key mechanisms required for parasite development in the snail host, which ultimately are needed as points for disrupting this parasite mediated disease.

Knight, Matty; Miller, Andre; Liu, Yijia; Scaria, Puthupparampil; Woodle, Martin; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn

2011-01-01

34

Incidence of Parastrongylus cantonensis larvae in different fresh water snails in Dakahlia Governorate.  

PubMed

Samples of snails were collected from different water bodies in Dakahlia governorate to assess a survey on the naturally infected snails and their infection rate with the Parastrongylus cantonensis larvae. The nematode P. cantonensis is associated in the etiology of eosinophilic meningeoencephalitis of man. Lanistes carinatus showed the highest rate of infection with 19-400 larvae per snail. Biomphalaria alexandrina, B. glabrata, Bulinus truncatus, Lymnaea cailliaudi (natalensis), L. alexandrina, and Cleopatra cyclostomoides were found naturally infected with the larvae of P. cantonensis for the first time in Egypt. The number of larvae per infected snail varied depending on the snail type. The highest rate (39.2%) of infected snails was collected from the end canals at Tanneekh and the lowest in the river Nile (12.5%). PMID:12214935

el-Shazly, A M; el-Hamshary, Eman M; el-Shewy, Khalid M; Rifaat, Manal M A; el-Sharkawy, Iman M A

2002-08-01

35

Schistosoma mansoni infection of juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata induces a differential stress response between resistant and susceptible snails  

PubMed Central

Schistosomes develop successfully in susceptible snails but are encapsulated and killed in resistant ones. Mechanism(s) shaping these outcomes involves the parasites ability to evade the snail’s defenses. RNA analysis from resistant (BS-90), non-susceptible (LAC2) and susceptible (NMRI) juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata to Schistosoma mansoni revealed that stress related genes, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70) and reverse transcriptase (RT), were dramatically co-induced early in susceptible snails, but not in resistant/non-susceptible ones. These transcripts were, however, down regulated upon exposure to irradiated parasites although penetration behavior of irradiated vs normal parasites were the same, indicating that Hsp 70 regulation was elicited by infection and not injury. Understanding molecular events involved in stress response transcriptional regulation of Hsp 70 in juvenile snails could pave a way towards the identification of genes involved in schistosome/snail interactions.

Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Nene, Rahul; Miller, Andre; Raghavan, Nithya; Lewis, Fred; Hodgson, Jacob; Knight, Matty

2009-01-01

36

Regulation of hydrogen peroxide release in circulating hemocytes of the planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrata  

PubMed Central

Biomphalaria spp. serve as obligate intermediate hosts for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. Following S. mansoni penetration of Biomphalaria glabrata, hemocytes of resistant snails migrate towards the parasite, encasing the larva in a multicellular capsule resulting in its destruction via a cytotoxic reaction. Recent studies have revealed the importance of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide (H2O2, NO) in parasite killing [1, 2]. It is assumed H2O2 and NO production is tightly regulated although the specific molecules involved remain largely unknown. Consequently, the potential role of cell signaling pathways in B. glabrata hemocyte H2O2 production was investigated by evaluating the effects of specific inhibitors of selected signaling proteins. Results suggest that both ERK and p38 MAPKs are involved in the regulation of B. glabrata H2O2 release in response to stimulation by PMA and galactose-conjugated BSA. However, the involvement of the signaling proteins PKC, PI3 kinase and PLA2 differs between PMA- and BSA-gal-induced H2O2 production.

Humphries, Judith E.; Yoshino, Timothy P.

2008-01-01

37

Effects of endosulfan and ethanol on the reproduction of the snail Biomphalaria tenagophila: a multigeneration study.  

PubMed

Endosulfan (END) is an insecticide used in agriculture and as a wood preservative. Since END is practically insoluble in water, ethanol (ETOH) is often employed as a carrier solvent to spike it in the test medium in aquatic toxicity assays. In this study were investigated the effects of END and ETOH on the reproduction of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria tenagophila exposed over three successive generations. END (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 mg L(-1)) was dissolved in the medium water using ETOH (up to 19.8 mg L(-1)) as carrier solvent. ETOH (19.8, 198, 1980 mg L(-1)) alone was tested as well. Adult snails (F(0)-generation) were exposed to END and ETOH for 8 weeks. The F(1)-generation continued to be exposed from embryo to reproductive maturity, while their descendants (F(2)) were exposed until day 10 after spawning. Effects on the fecundity (8-week production of eggs and egg-masses) of mature F(0) and F(1) snails were evaluated. Developmental toxicity was investigated in F(1) and F(2) embryos. END at the highest level tested (0.1 mg L(-1)) inhibited egg production by F(0) and F(1) snails. ETOH at levels 198 mg L(-1) also reduced fecundity of F(0) and F(1) an effect that was apparently aggravated by exposure over successive generations. END 0.1 mg L(-1) increased mortality and malformations and decreased hatching among F(1) embryos. ETOH drastically reduced the proportion of hatchings among F(2) embryos. The study-derived NOECs (no-observed-effect-concentrations) for END was 0.01 mg L(-1) (reduction in fecundity), and for ETOH were 19.8 mg L(-1) for reduction in fecundity and <19.8 mg L(-1) for developmental toxicity (hatching retardation). PMID:19138786

Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Paumgartten, Francisco Jose Roma

2009-01-12

38

A study on biological control of six fresh water snails of medical and veterinary importance.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the molluscicidal effect of Commiphora mnolmol oil extract (Myrrh), on control of six fresh water snails (Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Physa acuta, Melania tuberculata and Cleopatra bulimoides). Also, the extract effect on the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta was evaluated. Snails and egg masses were exposed at 16-20 degrees C to various concentrations (conc.). LD50 after 24 hours expo-sure were 264/132, 283/195, 230/252, 200/224, 241/246 & 241/246 ppm for young/adult of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata and C. bulimnoides respectively. LDtoo after 24 hours exposure were 400/400 for L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, M. tuberculata and C. bulimoides, and 300/300 for Ph. acuta. Also, complete mortality (100%) was achieved for the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta at concentrations of 300, 200, 300 & 400 ppm respectively. Lower concentrations gave the same results after longer exposure. LD100 of C. molmol oil extract (Myrrh) had a rapid lethal effect on the six snail species and their egg masses in high conc. of 300 & 400 ppm. Commiphora molmol is a promising plant to be included with the candidate plant molluscicides. The oil extract of this plant showed a remarkable molluscicidal activity against used snail species. PMID:19530615

Abd-Allah, Karim F; Negm-Eldin, Mohsen M; Saleh, Mohamed H; El-Hamshary, Azza M S; El-Gozamy, Bothina M R; Aly, Nagwa S M

2009-04-01

39

The effects of myrrh (Commiphora molmol) on the infected snails of Schistosoma sp. and their egg masses: effect on shedding of cercariae and on snail fecundity.  

PubMed

Myrrh has molluscicidal effect on infected Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails at low concentrations (10 & 20 ppm respectively) after 24 hours exposure. The number of dead-snails increased with prolongation of exposure time. All Schistosoma free cercariae were killed by 2.5 ppm within 15 minutes. One day-old egg masses were more susceptible to the ovicidal effect of Myrrh than the five-day old ones. Both types of eggs were more resistant to the effect of Myrrh than the adult snails, embryogenesis began to stop at 20 ppm and eggs were all killed at 60 & 80 ppm. Shedding of cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni from infected B. alexandrina stopped at 1 ppm and was suppressed at 0.8 ppm. Snail fecundity decreased at 1 ppm. PMID:14964669

Massoud, Ahmed M A; Habib, Faiza S M

2003-08-01

40

Biomphalaria glabrata transcriptome: cDNA microarray profiling identifies resistant and susceptible-specific gene expression in haemocytes from snail strains exposed to Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate snail host for Schistosoma mansoni, one of the important schistosomes infecting man. B. glabrata\\/S. mansoni provides a useful model system for investigating the intimate interactions between host and parasite. Examining differential gene expression between S. mansoni-exposed schistosome-resistant and susceptible snail lines will identify genes and pathways that may be involved in snail defences. RESULTS:

Anne E Lockyer; Jenny Spinks; Richard A Kane; Karl F Hoffmann; Jennifer M Fitzpatrick; David Rollinson; Leslie R Noble; Catherine S Jones

2008-01-01

41

A longitudinal study of schistosome intermediate host snail populations and their trematode infection in certain areas of Egypt.  

PubMed

Seasonal variation of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus populations and their infection rates with schistosome and other trematode cercariae were studied longitudinally in four water courses located in Giza and Faiyoum Governorates. Abundance of both species varied from year to year and according to the type of habitat. The mean prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria was 0.29%, that of S. haematobium in Bulinus was 1.36%. Seasonal variations of age structure of the 2 vector snails were monitored throughout the survey period. Infection rates with schistosome and other trematodes among Bulinus and Biomphalaria increased with the increase in snail size. Data suggest the occurrence of an antagonistic interaction between schistosome and non-human cercariae, especially echinostome, in infected snails. PMID:12739812

Ahmed, A H; Ruppel, A; Ramzy, R M R

2003-04-01

42

Succinate-DCPIP and NADH-fumarate oxidoreductases in fresh water snails susceptible and non susceptible to schistosoma infection.  

PubMed

The activities of succinate-DCPIP oxidoreductase (SO) and NADH-fumarate oxidoreductase (FR) were determined in tissue homogenate of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, the snail vectors of Schistosomiasia. A parallel study was done on Lymnea truncatula snails which are not susceptible to Schistosoma infection. The Michaelis constant (Km) and maximum velocities (Vmax) for fumarate reduction and succinate oxidation by the tissue homogenates from the three species were determined. The results obtained showed that both susceptible species are aerobic and lactate is the sole end product of anaerobic glycolysis. Lymnea truncatula snails are facultative anaerobic producing succinate as a major end product in the glycolytic pathway. PMID:1571942

Nabih, I; el-Ansary, A

1992-04-01

43

No effect of mate novelty on sexual motivation in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata  

PubMed Central

Background When mating effort (e.g. via ejaculates) is high, males are expected to strategically allocate their resources depending on the expected fitness gains from a given mating opportunity. One mechanism to achieve strategic mating is the Coolidge effect, where male sexual motivation declines across repeated encounters with a familiar partner, but resuscitates when encountering a novel female. Experimental tests of male mate choice via mechanisms such as the Coolidge effect, however, remain scarce. Moreover, it is untested to date whether the Coolidge effect occurs in a sex-specific manner in simultaneous hermaphrodites, where the motivation to mate with a familiar partner may vary with previous mating activity in the male or female role. Results We exposed focal hermaphroditic freshwater snails, Biomphalaria glabrata, repeatedly to either a familiar or a novel partner. None of our proxies of sexual motivation (remating likelihood, mating delay, copulation duration) varied between the novel and familiar partner treatments. Moreover, the mating role taken during the first copulation did not affect the subsequent choice of mating roles in the familiar partner treatment as would be expected if focals preferred to avoid mating twice in the same role with a familiar partner. This indicates the absence of sex-specific effects of partner novelty. Conclusion Our data indicate that mate novelty does affect neither overall sexual motivation nor the choice of mating roles in B. glabrata. Hence, male mate choice via a Coolidge effect appears inexistent in this invertebrate hermaphrodite. We discuss the possible roles of insufficient fitness gains for discriminatory behaviour in populations with frequent mate encounters as well as poor mate discrimination capacities. Our findings lend also no support to the novel prediction that sexual motivation in simultaneous hermaphrodites varies with the mating roles taken during previous copulations, calling for empirical investigation in further hermaphrodite systems.

Haderer, Ines K; Werminghausen, Johanna; Michiels, Nico K; Timmermeyer, Nadine; Anthes, Nils

2009-01-01

44

DETERMINATION OF ESTIVATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE AMINO ACID CONTENT OF BIOMPHALARIA GLABRATA SNAILS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY-DENSITOMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance thin-layer chromatography-densitometry (HPTLC-Dens) was used to determine changes in the amino acid content of the digestive-gland gonad complex (DGG) of Biomphalaria glabrata snails as a function of estivation. Amino acids were extracted in ethanol-water (70:30) from the DGG of B. glabrata snails estivated for 7 days, and determined on silica gel or cellulose layers developed with either 2-butanol-pyridine-glacial

James D. Vasta; Bernard Fried; Joseph Sherma

2010-01-01

45

Displacement of Biomphalaria glabrata by the snail Thiara granifera in field habitats in St. Lucia, West Indies.  

PubMed

Thiara granifera is a melaniid snail capable of maintaining very high densities in a variety of habitats. It has been introduced into the New World from the Far East and is now spreading rapidly throughout the Caribbean. In Puerto Rico and Dominica casual observations following natural invasion by T. granifera suggest that it may exert a powerful restraining influence on populations of Biomphalaria glabrata, the major intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in the Caribbean. The potential of T. granifera in biological control is being investigated in St. Lucia. In four field trials, B. glabrata was apparently eliminated from marshes and streams six to 22 months after the introduction of T. granifera. Thiara granifera shows promise as a major factor in the suppression of schistosomiasis in the Caribbean, but it is unsuitable for universal use as it is an intermediate host of the lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani. PMID:6882056

Prentice, M A

1983-02-01

46

Nimbus (BgI): an active non-LTR retrotransposon of the Schistosoma mansoni snail host Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

The freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata is closely associated with the transmission of human schistosomiasis. An ecologically sound method has been proposed to control schistosomiasis using genetically modified snails to displace endemic, susceptible ones. To assess the viability of this form of biological control, studies towards understanding the molecular makeup of the snail relative to the presence of endogenous mobile genetic elements are being undertaken since they can be exploited for genetic transformation studies. We previously cloned a 1.95kb BamHI fragment in B. glabrata (BGR2) with sequence similarity to the human long interspersed nuclear element (LINE or L1). A contiguous, full-length sequence corresponding to BGR2, hereafter-named nimbus (BgI), has been identified from a B. glabrata bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Sequence analysis of the 65,764bp BAC insert contained one full-length, complete nimbus (BgI) element (element I), two full-length elements (elements II and III) containing deletions and flanked by target site duplications and 10 truncated copies. The intact nimbus (BgI) contained two open-reading frames (ORFs 1 and 2) encoding the characteristic hallmark domains found in non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons belonging to the I-clade; a nucleic acid binding protein in ORF1 and an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, reverse transcriptase and RNase H in ORF2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nimbus (BgI) is closely related to Drosophila (I factor), mosquito Aedes aegypti (MosquI) and chordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis (CiI) retrotransposons. Nimbus (BgI) represents the first complete mobile element characterised from a mollusk that appears to be transcriptionally active and is widely distributed in snails of the neotropics and the Old World. PMID:17521654

Raghavan, Nithya; Tettelin, Hervé; Miller, André; Hostetler, Jessica; Tallon, Luke; Knight, Matty

2007-04-19

47

Expression profiling and binding properties of fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs), plasma proteins from the schistosome snail host Biomphalaria glabrata  

PubMed Central

A growing body of evidence suggests an important role for fibrinogen-like proteins in innate immunity in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It has been shown that fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs), plasma proteins present in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, are diverse and involved in snail innate defense responses. To gain further insight into the functions of FREPs, recombinant FREP proteins (rFREPs) were produced in Escherichia coli and antibodies (Abs) were raised against the corresponding rFREPs. We first show that most FREP proteins exist in their native conformation in snail hemolymph as multimeric proteins. Western blot analyses reveal that expression of multiple FREPs including FREP4 in plasma from M line and BS-90 snails, which are susceptible and resistant to S. mansoni infection, respectively, is up-regulated significantly after infection with the trematode Echinostoma paraensei. Moreover, our assays demonstrate that FREPs are able to bind E. paraensei sporocysts and their secretory/excretory products (SEPs), and a variety of microbes (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeast). Furthermore, this binding capability shows evidence of specificity with respect to pathogen type; for example, 65–75-kDa FREPs (mainly FREP4) bind to E. paraensei sporocysts and their SEPs whereas 95-kDa and 125-kDa FREPs bind the microbes assayed. Our results suggest that FREPs can recognize a wide range of pathogens, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, and different categories of FREPs seem to exhibit functional specialization with respect to the pathogen encountered.

Zhang, Si-Ming; Zeng, Yong; Loker, Eric S.

2013-01-01

48

Nimbus (BgI): An active non-LTR retrotransposon of the Schistosoma mansoni snail host Biomphalaria glabrata?  

PubMed Central

The freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata is closely associated with the transmission of human schistosomiasis. An ecologically sound method has been proposed to control schistosomiasis using genetically modified snails to displace endemic, susceptible ones. To assess the viability of this form of biological control, studies towards understanding the molecular makeup of the snail relative to the presence of endogenous mobile genetic elements are being undertaken since they can be exploited for genetic transformation studies. We previously cloned a 1.95 Kb BamHI fragment in B. glabrata (BGR2) with sequence similarity to the human long interspersed nuclear element (LINE or L1). A contiguous, full-length sequence corresponding to BGR2, hereafter-named nimbus (BgI), has been identified from a B. glabrata bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Sequence analysis of the 65,764 bp BAC insert contained one full-length, complete nimbus (BgI) element (element I), two full-length elements (elements II and III) containing deletions and flanked by target site duplications and 10 truncated copies. The intact nimbus (BgI) contained two open reading frames (ORFs 1 and 2) encoding the characteristic hallmark domains found in non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons belonging to the I clade; a nucleic acid binding protein in ORF1 and an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, reverse transcriptase and RNase H in ORF2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nimbus (BgI) is closely related to Drosophila (I factor), mosquito Aedes aegypti (MosquI) and chordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis (CiI) retrotransposons. Nimbus (BgI) represents the first complete mobile element characterized from a mollusk that appears to be transcriptionally active and is widely distributed in snails of the neotropics and the Old World.

Raghavan, Nithya; Tettelin, Herve; Miller, Andre; Hostetler, Jessica; Tallon, Luke; Knight, Matty

2009-01-01

49

Kinetic potentials of certain scavenger enzymes in fresh water snails susceptible and non-susceptible to Schistosoma infection.  

PubMed

The activities of catalase (H2O2-oxidoreductase EC 1.11.1.6)- and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) as two important scavenger enzymes, were measured in tissue homogenates of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, the snail vectors of Schistosomiasis. A parallel study was done on Lymnea truncatula snails which are not susceptible to Schistosoma infection. The apparent Michaelis constant (Km) for both anzymes were determined in tissue homogenates of the three studied species. The results obtained showed that both susceptible species have higher affinity to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) than the non-susceptible one. PMID:8329984

Nabih, I; el Ansary, A

1993-06-01

50

Contrasting the distribution of phenotypic and molecular variation in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Population differentiation was investigated by confronting phenotypic and molecular variation in the highly selfing freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. We sampled seven natural populations separated by a few kilometers, and characterized by different habitat regimes (permanent/temporary) and openness (open/closed). A genetic analysis based on five microsatellite markers confirms that B. pfeifferi is a selfer (s?0.9) and exhibits limited variation within populations. Most pairwise FST were significant indicating marked population structure, though no isolation by distance was detected. Families from the seven populations were monitored under laboratory conditions over two generations (G1 and G2), allowing to record several life-history traits, including growth, fecundity and survival, over 25 weeks. Marked differences were detected among populations for traits expressed early in the life cycle (up to sexual maturity). Age and size at first reproduction had high heritability values, but such a trend was not found for early reproductive traits. In most populations, G1 snails matured later and at a larger size than G2 individuals. Individuals from permanent habitats matured at a smaller size and were more fecund than those from temporary habitats. The mean phenotypic differentiation over all populations (QST) was lower than the mean genetic differentiation (FST), suggesting stabilizing selection. However, no difference was detected between QST and FST for both habitat regime and habitat openness. PMID:23321708

Tian-Bi, Y-N T; Jarne, P; Konan, J-N K; Utzinger, J; N'Goran, E K

2013-01-16

51

HPTLC Determination of Amino Acids in Snail-Conditioned Water From Biomphalaria glabrata, Two Strains of Helisoma trivolvis, and Lymnaea elodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was used to analyze amino acids in water conditioned by Biomphalaria glabrata, a Pennsylvania and Colorado strain of Helisoma trivolvis, and Lymnaea elodes. The snail-conditioned water (SCW) samples were dried with air and reconstituted in 10% n-propanol and then applied to cellulose HPTLC plates and developed with n-propanol-water (7:3). Amino acids were detected with ninhydrin

R. A. Steiner; B. Fried; J. Sherma

1998-01-01

52

EFFECTS OF MAINTENANCE TEMPERATURE ON THE AMINO ACID CONTENT OF BIOMPHALARIA GLABRATA SNAILS AS DETERMINED BY HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY-DENSITOMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance thin-layer chromatography-densitometry (HPTLC-Dens) was used to determine the free-pool amino acid content of whole bodies of sexually immature Biomphalaria glabrata snails maintained at 15, 24, or 31°C. Amino acids were extracted from whole snail bodies in 70:30 ethanol-water and separated on either silica gel or cellulose stationary phases with 2-butanol-pyridine-glacial acetic acid-deionized water (39:34:10:26) or 2-butanol-pyridine-25% ammonia-deionized water

Natalie S. Holman; James D. Vasta; Bernard Fried; Joseph Sherma

2011-01-01

53

Biological studies on the snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis with a special emphasis on using larval echinostomes as biocontrol agent against larval schistosomes and snails.  

PubMed

The present investigation deals with the infectivity of the two snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus collected from nine drains in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. The rate of infection among the snails was general low being 0% in many drains. Regarding B. alexandrina, the rate of infection ranged from 4-16%, and in B. truncatus ranged from 4-8%. Infection with larval echinostomes was dominant over larval schistosomes in the two snail vectors. The distribution of larval schistosomes was restricted to the hepatopancreas of the two snail vectors, while larval echinostomes were distributed in head, foot, kidney, haemocoelic cavity, hepatopancreas...etc. The predation of larval schistosomes by larval echinostomes and the severe histopathological effects induced by larval ecbinostomes strongly enhances using them as biocontrol agent. The physico-chemical parameters and pollution condition in the drains seem to have no effect on the process of snails infectivity. It is concluded that larval echinostomes can resist the polluting conditions in the drain. The two snail vectors exhibit very minimal or rare host response against larval echinostomes. Probably, the toxicants and pollutants in the drain may act as stressor that makes the snails much more susceptible to infection by larval trematodes. PMID:12512810

Rashed, A A

2002-12-01

54

Schistosoma mansoni: analysis of an unusual infection phenotype in the intermediate host snail Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

Snails from a B. glabrata stock, selected for nonsusceptibility to the NMRI strain of S. mansoni, exhibited unusual schistosome infections, with multiple sporocysts prominent in the head-foot (foot-sporocysts). When F1 progeny from numerous crosses between well-defined susceptible (S) and resistant (R) parental snails were exposed, 60% of the infected snails also exhibited this unusual phenotype. F1 progeny from S x S snail crosses developed normal infections. Foot-sporocysts usually developed much later than secondary sporocysts of normal infections and before 12 weeks postexposure the tissue reaction surrounding foot-sporocysts was less intense than reactions to sporocysts in other tissues of the body. Cercariae were seen emerging directly from foot-sporocysts. Infection of S x R hybrid progeny by three other strains of S. mansoni also resulted in the production of foot-sporocysts. Development of the foot-sporocyst infection phenotype in progeny from many snail crosses suggests that this phenotype is more common than previously recognized. Over 50% of the F1 progeny from S x R parental crosses developed patent infections, a fact relevant to the possible biological control of schistosomiasis by the introduction of refractory snails into endemic areas. PMID:8224090

Lewis, F A; Richards, C S; Knight, M; Cooper, L A; Clark, B

1993-11-01

55

Schistosomiasis in newly reclaimed areas in Egypt. 1-distribution and population seasonal fluctuation of intermediate host snails.  

PubMed

Two newly reclaimed areas located west & east of Suez Canal, namely El Manayef area and El Morra area, were studied for patterns of distribution and population seasonal fluctuation of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, the intermediate host snails of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively. In this study Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were utilized for producing maps and analyzing the results. Habitats of the two vector snail species were categorized into suitability levels depending on the frequency with which snails were collected over a 12 months period. Data obtained from the most suitable habitats were only used for studying the seasonal fluctuation of snail population. The results showed that both study areas were almost similar in major physico-chemical parameters. However, oxygen content in canals was higher than in drains and conductivity was higher in drains than in canals. As regards snail distribution and density, most snails of both considered species were clustering in much fewer numbers of sites, more pronouncedly in the case of Biomphalaria than Bulinus. Population density of snails was significantly higher in El-Manayef area than in El-Morra area and in canals than in drains. Both species exhibited 2 population peaks/year, the peaks of Biomphalaria were in March-April & August in both study areas, while for Bulinus these peaks occurred in March-May and August in El-Manayef area and in May and March, respectively, in El-Morra area. PMID:9914712

Yousif, F; el-Emam, M; Abdel-Kader, A; el-Din, A S; el-Hommossany, K; Shiff, C

1998-12-01

56

Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426?mg/L and LC(50) 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94?mg/L, LC(50) 13.51?mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceição, Adilva S; Moura, Flávia de B Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

2011-12-11

57

Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of schistosomes, by Marisa cornuarietis in ponds of Guadeloupe: long-term impact on the local snail fauna and aquatic flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of Marisa cornuarietis, a Venezuelan freshwater prosobranch was tested against Biomphalaria glabrata, a pulmonate snail which plays the role of intermediate host of human schistosomes in the Caribbean area. M. cornuarietis was introduced to 15 experimental ponds in Guadeloupe, while 15 control ponds were left unchanged. Populations of all species of freshwater molluscs as well as representative plant

J. P Pointier; P David

2004-01-01

58

Infectivity of Echinostoma friedi miracidia to different snail species under experimental conditions.  

PubMed

The infectivity of Echinostoma friedi (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) miracidia was studied experimentally in a range of laboratory-reared snails that coexist in the same natural locality, namely Radix peregra, Lymnaea fuscus, L. truncatula (Lymnaeidae), Gyraulus chinensis, Helisoma duryi (Planorbidae) and Physella acuta (Physidae), and snails from different geographical origins acting naturally or experimentally as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma spp., namely Planorbarius metidjensis (from Málaga, Spain), Biomphalaria glabrata (Guadeloupe), B. alexandrina (Egypt) (Planorbidae), Bulinus cernicus (Mauritius), B. globosus (Zambia), B. natalensis (South Africa) and B. truncatus (Niger) (Bulinidae). Six species of snails were found to be susceptible, with the rate of infection ranging from 0 to 36.7%. The highest infection was detected in R. peregra. The low host specificity of E. friedi might have an epidemiological significance as a requisite for a recent establishment in a new geographical area. PMID:16923279

Muñoz-Antoli, C; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J G

2006-09-01

59

Molluscicidal effect of three monoterpenes oils on schistosomiasis and fascioliasis vector snails in Egypt.  

PubMed

Thymol, Linalool and Eugenol showed considerable molluscicidal effect against Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus and Lymnneae natalensis. The thymol was the potent one at least LC50 and LC90) followed by euganol then linalool. L. natalensis were more sensitive to these compounds followed by B. truncatus and then B. alexandrina. The LC50 & LC90) of thymol were 22 and 34 ppm against B. alexaldrina, 20 and 30 ppm for B. truncatuts and 18 and 29 ppm for L. nalalensis. These values were higher with Eugenol, 28 and 48 ppm for B. alexuadrina, 24 and 44 ppm for B. truncatus and 22 and 40 ppm for L. natalensis. Linalool showed highest values of LCs5 and LC90 against B. alexandrina, 34 and 56 ppm, against B. truncatus 30 and 52 ppm and for L. natalensis 28 and 48 ppm, respectively. Maintaining of B. alexandrina at LC10 of Thymol for one week induced an inhibitory effect in the level of some enzymes (AchE, SDH). It led to increase in the activity of other enzymes (ACP, ALP & G-6-PD). Acetylcholine-sterase activity (AchE) of treated B. alexandrina was significantly reduced by 45.9% when compared to control. The results showed a significant decrease in succinate dehydrogenase activity (SDH) by 46.4% together with a concomitant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity level (G-6-PD) by 47.5% in comparison with control. The activities of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes were found to be higher in the treated snails than in control ones. The percentage increases were 47.2% & 73.2% respectively. The results also showed an elevation in the hemolymph glucose content of treated snails by 51.9% while the tissue glycogen content was reduced by 48.1%. The infection of B. alexandrina with S. mansoni miracidia was greatly reduced by thymol LC10 (sublethal dose). The infection rate reduction was 43.1%. The treated snails' prepatent period was prolonged (34.2 +/- 3.3 days) compared to control (28.4 +/- 1.2 days). A highly significant reduction of total cercarial production per snail occurred in experimental snails as compared to control. PMID:16927871

el-Din, Ahmed T Sharaf

2006-08-01

60

Correlation between snails and fish in fish ponds of World Fish Center (ICLARM) with special reference to snail vectors of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis.  

PubMed

The abundance of snail species in earthen fish ponds, irrigation and drainage canals at World Fish Center (ICLARM) in descending order was Bellamya unicolor (50.89%) > Physa acuta (18.94%) > Cleopatra bulimoides (7.6%) > Lanistes carinatus (6.73%) > Bulinus truncatus (5.19%) > Melanoides tuberculata (4.83%) > Lymnaea natalensis (3.14%) > Gabbiella senaariensis (0.9%) > Biomphalaria alexandrina (0.55%) > Lym naea truncatula (0.4%) > Planorbis planorbis and Succinea cleopatra (0.33%) > Ferrissia isseli (0.18%). Dead snails constituted about 5.19% of all the collected specimens. There were dramatic decrease in the total number of pulmonates in fish ponds which contained only Tilapia sp., and a very small number of cat fish, whereas the numbers of prosobranchia snails were much higher in these ponds. In fish ponds which accommodated a variety of fish species, the most dominant snail was B. unicolor followed by L. carinatus. However, pulmonate snails were absent in these ponds. B. truncatus was the only snail species found in concrete tank which contained only young tilapias with a very small size (5-8 cm in standard length). In irrigation canals, the number of snails and diversity was much higher than those in fish ponds. Out of 191 snails collected from inlet irrigation canal, 71 were dead, but in the outside irrigation canals, seven out of 564 snails were dead. P. acuta was absent in all examined fish ponds, but it was alive and in a high number (497 snails) in the outside irrigation canals. The number of snails collected from Bahnasawy drain was remarkably low (128 snails), however the diversity of snails was much higher compared to those in fish ponds and irrigation canals. Snail populations were stable with constant recruitment of young to adult snails for all the studied species. PMID:14964656

Ismail, Nahed M M; El Gamal, Abd El Rahman A

2003-08-01

61

Biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea by the competitor snail Thiara tuberculata in a transmission site of schistosomiasis in Martinique, French West Indies.  

PubMed

In Martinique, intestinal schistosomiasis was discovered at the beginning of this century. The intermediate host snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, was considered in the past as a common species in the different habitats of the island, but during the last decade it has been found only in water-cress beds. Several of these water-cress cultures contained mixed populations of B. glabrata and B. straminea. Moreover, these habitats also constituted transmission sites for Schistosoma mansoni infection. In 1979 the thiarid snail Thiara ( = Melanoides) tuberculata was discovered in Madame river, Fort-de-France, and in the following years at other sites. In 1983 a programme of biological control using this snail was started in two groups of water-cress beds. In 1981-1982 the study site, Roxelane valley, sheltered important populations of B. glabrata (45-256 individuals/m2) and of B. straminea (2-30 ind./m2). In January 1983 the competitor T. tuberculata was introduced into the two groups of water-cress beds (1.3 and 1.7 ind./m2 respectively) and during subsequent years snail population sampling was carried out. The results showed rapid colonization by the competitor snail, whose densities reached 178 and 325 ind./m2 in November 1983 and a maximum of 9941 and 13,388 ind./m2 in October 1984. During that time, B. glabrata populations declined: 153 and 41 ind./m2 in November 1983, 4 and 0 ind./m2 in October 1984, and 0 ind./m2 in the two groups of water-cress beds in October 1985. A similar phenomenon was observed for B. straminea. Since October 1985 neither planorbid species has been found by exhaustive sampling of the habitats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2513787

Pointier, J P; Guyard, A; Mosser, A

1989-06-01

62

Laboratory Studies on the Prevalence and Cercarial Rhythms of Trematodes from Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria Pfeifferi Snails from Khartoum State, Sudan  

PubMed Central

ObjectiveS: (a) To determine the natural infection rate of Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails with trematodes’ cercariae. (b) To determine the emergence and rhythmicity of cercariae. (c) To elucidate the high-risk time for man and other animals to acquire infection. Methods: Snails were collected from Dawar El Mahadi Agricultural Scheme, Khartoum State, identified in the laboratory, kept at room temperature and fed on lettuce. The snails were screened weekly for six weeks for natural infection and infected snails were kept in the dark. The swimming patterns and resting position of the freshly emerged cercariae were studied using a stereomicroscope. The rhythmicity of the different types of cercariae was studied by screening three sets of 5 naturally infected snails under fluorescent light from 07.00 to 19.00 and similar sets from 19.00 to 07.00. Results: Out of 1,257 screened Bulinus truncatus, 187 (14.9%) shed four types of cercariae. The highest prevalence of natural infection (9.5%) was by schistosome cercariae followed by amphistome (2.5%), xiphidiocercariae (2.4%) and lastly by avian cercariae (0.5%). However, out of 200 screened B. pfeifferi, 22 (11%) shed only xiphidiocercariae. The rhythmicity studies showed that the emergence of schistosome cercariae increased steadily from 07.00 to reach its peak at 11.00–13.00. The emergence rhythms of avian cercariae are similar to those of the schistosome, but with an early peak at 09.00–11.00. The xiphidiocercariae and amphistome cercariae started with high rate of emergence at 07.00. and decreased gradually to very low levels or complete disappearance, respectively, around sunset. Conclusion: Information on cercarial rhythmicity and chronobiological characteristics are thought to be useful in avoiding water contact during high-risk time of infection and may be helpful in the identification of closely related species and strains of cercariae.

Ahmed, Abdel Aziz M; Ibrahim, Nidal A; Idris, Mohamed A

2006-01-01

63

The molluscicidal activity of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii on Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae), a snail associated with habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae).  

PubMed

The use of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii was considered as an effective control method for Biomphalaria glabrata in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro. However, the appearance and expansion of the snail Melanoides tuberculata since August 1997, with the concomitant reduction of the population of B. glabrata suggest that competitive exclusion might be taking place. Depending on the susceptibility of the thiarid to the E. splendens toxin, the natural control that is occurring could be interrupted by the employment of the latex if the planorbid were less susceptible to the toxin. The aim of this study is to investigate the molluscicidal activity of the latex on M. tuberculata. We used 420 M. tuberculata, from Sumidouro. Fourteen different latex concentrations were tested using World Health Organization general methodology. Probit analysis was used for LD90 and LD50 determination. The LD50 was 3.57 mg/l and LD90 was 6.22 mg/l. At the highest concentration (10 mg/l) there was no survival. No significant differences among replicas (chi2 = 8.31; gl = 13; p > 0.05) were found. The LD90 dose for M. tuberculata was 13.8 times greater than that for B. glabrata, so that the molluscicide in the presence of the thiarid may have a synergic effect on reduction of Biomphalaria populations. PMID:11285483

Giovanelli, A; da Silva, C L; Medeiros, L; de Vasconcellos, M C

2001-01-01

64

Elimination of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus tropicus and Lymnaea natalensis by the ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in a man-made dam in northern Tanzania.  

PubMed

Marisa cornuarietis is a well known ampullarid competitor/predator of Biomphalaria glabrata in Puerto Rico. For the first time in Africa a flourishing population of Marisa has been established in a small, permanent, man-made dam at Kisangara, near Moshi, Tanzania. Prior to the release of M. cornuarietis in June 1977, this dam supported thriving populations of the pulmonate snail hosts Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis; Bulinus tropicus and the melaniid Melanoides tuberculata were also common. Some 24 months after the establishment of Marisa the three pulmonate species had been eliminated; only M. tuberculata remained at about the same population density as originally recorded. Marisa has not caused any obvious adverse environmental impact in the dam. There is at present no valid evidence that this ampullarid would be a threat to local rice production, which is the only crop at risk, but carefully designed field trials should be undertaken to confirm or refute this view. In view of the vast number of permanent, lentic habitats throughout the Afrotropical region, which act as important transmission sites of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, the role of Marisa cornuarietis as a cost-effective biological control agent in integrated control operations deserves henceforth to be energetically explored. PMID:6122367

Nguma, J F; McCullough, F S; Masha, E

1982-03-01

65

Biomphalaria glabrata transcriptome: cDNA microarray profiling identifies resistant- and susceptible-specific gene expression in haemocytes from snail strains exposed to Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Background Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate snail host for Schistosoma mansoni, one of the important schistosomes infecting man. B. glabrata/S. mansoni provides a useful model system for investigating the intimate interactions between host and parasite. Examining differential gene expression between S. mansoni-exposed schistosome-resistant and susceptible snail lines will identify genes and pathways that may be involved in snail defences. Results We have developed a 2053 element cDNA microarray for B. glabrata containing clones from ORESTES (Open Reading frame ESTs) libraries, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries and clones identified in previous expression studies. Snail haemocyte RNA, extracted from parasite-challenged resistant and susceptible snails, 2 to 24 h post-exposure to S. mansoni, was hybridized to the custom made cDNA microarray and 98 differentially expressed genes or gene clusters were identified, 94 resistant-associated and 4 susceptible-associated. Quantitative PCR analysis verified the cDNA microarray results for representative transcripts. Differentially expressed genes were annotated and clustered using gene ontology (GO) terminology and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. 61% of the identified differentially expressed genes have no known function including the 4 susceptible strain-specific transcripts. Resistant strain-specific expression of genes implicated in innate immunity of invertebrates was identified, including hydrolytic enzymes such as cathepsin L, a cysteine proteinase involved in lysis of phagocytosed particles; metabolic enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of polyamines, important in inflammation and infection processes, as well as scavenging damaging free radicals produced during production of reactive oxygen species; stress response genes such as HSP70; proteins involved in signalling, such as importin 7 and copine 1, cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) protein and transcription enzymes such as elongation factor 1? and EF-2. Conclusion Production of the first cDNA microarray for profiling gene expression in B. glabrata provides a foundation for expanding our understanding of pathways and genes involved in the snail internal defence system (IDS). We demonstrate resistant strain-specific expression of genes potentially associated with the snail IDS, ranging from signalling and inflammation responses through to lysis of proteinacous products (encapsulated sporocysts or phagocytosed parasite components) and processing/degradation of these targeted products by ubiquitination.

Lockyer, Anne E; Spinks, Jenny; Kane, Richard A; Hoffmann, Karl F; Fitzpatrick, Jennifer M; Rollinson, David; Noble, Leslie R; Jones, Catherine S

2008-01-01

66

Larval excretory-secretory products from the parasite Schistosoma mansoni modulate HSP70 protein expression in defence cells of its snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata  

PubMed Central

Synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) following cellular stress is a response shared by many organisms. Amongst the HSP family, the ?70 kDa HSPs are the most evolutionarily conserved with intracellular chaperone and extracellular immunoregulatory functions. This study focused on the effects of larval excretory-secretory products (ESPs) from the parasite Schistosoma mansoni on HSP70 protein expression levels in haemocytes (defence cells) from its snail intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata. S. mansoni larval stage ESPs are known to interfere with haemocyte physiology and behaviour. Haemocytes from two different B. glabrata strains, one which is susceptible to S. mansoni infection and one which is resistant, both showed reduced HSP70 protein levels following 1 h challenge with S. mansoni ESPs when compared to unchallenged controls; however, the reduction observed in the resistant strain was less marked. The decline in intracellular HSP70 protein persisted for at least 5 h in resistant snail haemocytes only. Furthermore, in schistosome-susceptible snails infected by S. mansoni for 35 days, haemocytes possessed approximately 70% less HSP70. The proteasome inhibitor, MG132, partially restored HSP70 protein levels in ESP-challenged haemocytes, demonstrating that the decrease in HSP70 was in part due to intracellular degradation. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway appears to regulate HSP70 protein expression in these cells, as the mitogen-activated protein-ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor, U0126, significantly reduced HSP70 protein levels. Disruption of intracellular HSP70 protein expression in B. glabrata haemocytes by S. mansoni ESPs may be a strategy employed by the parasite to manipulate the immune response of the intermediate snail host.

Zahoor, Zahida; Davies, Angela J.; Kirk, Ruth S.; Rollinson, David

2010-01-01

67

Molecular and functional characterization of a tandem-repeat galectin from the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a tandem-repeat type galectin was characterized from an embryonic cell line (Bge) and circulating hemocytes of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. The predicted B. glabrata galectin (BgGal) protein of 32 kDa possessed 2 carbohydrate recognition domains, each displaying 6 of 8 conserved amino acids involved in galactoside-binding activity. A recombinant BgGal (rBgGal) demonstrated hemagglutinating activity against rabbit erythrocytes, which was specifically inhibited by galactose-containing sugars (lacNAc/lac > galNAc/gal). Although native galectin was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of Bge cells and the plasma membrane of a subset of snail hemocytes (60%), it was not detected in cell-free plasma by Western blot analysis. The findings that rBgGal selectively recognizes the schistosome-related sugar, lacNAc, and strongly binds to hemocytes and the tegument of S. mansoni sporocysts in a sugar-inhibitable fashion suggest that hemocyte-bound galectin may be serving as pattern recognition receptor for this, or other pathogens possessing appropriate sugar ligands. Based on molecular and functional features, BgGal represents an authentic galectin, the first to be fully characterized in the medically-important molluscan Class Gastropoda.

Yoshino, Timothy P.; Dinguirard, Nathalie; Kunert, John; Hokke, Cornelius H.

2008-01-01

68

Impact of certain plants and synthetic molluscicides on some fresh water snails and fish.  

PubMed

The LC50 (78, 85 ppm) and LC90 (88, 135 ppm) of Anagalis arvensis and Calendula micrantha respectively against Biomphalaria alexandrina were higher than those of the non-target snails, Physa acuta, Planorbis planorbis, Helisoma duryi and Melanoides tuberculata. In contrast, the LC50 of Niclosamide (0.11 ppm) and Copper sulphate (CuSO4) (0.42 ppm) against B. alexandrina were lower than those of the non-target snails. The mortalities percentage among non-target snails ranged between 0.0 & 20% when sublethal concentrations of CuSO4 against B. alexandrina mixed with those of C. micrantha and between 0.0 & 40% when mixed with A. arvensis. Mortalities ranged between 0.0 & 50% when Niclosamide was mixed with each of A. arvensis and C. micrantha. A. arvensis induced 100% mortality on Oreochromis niloticus after 48 hrs exposure and after 24 hrs for Gambusia affinis. C. micrantha was non-toxic to the fish. The survival rate of O. niloticus and G. affinis after 48 hrs exposure to 0.11 ppm of Niclosamide were 83.3% & 100% respectively. These rates were 91.7% & 93.3% respectively when each of the two fish species was exposed to 0.42 ppm of CuSO4. Mixture of sub-lethal concentrations of A. arvensis against B. alexandrina and those of Niclosamide or CuSO4 at ratios 10:40 & 25:25 induced 66.6% mortalities on O. niloticus and 83.3% at 40:10. These mixtures caused 100% mortalities on G. affinis at all ratios. A. arvensis CuSO4 mixtures at 10:40 induced 83.3% & 40% mortalities on O. niloticus and G. affinis respectively and 100% mortalities on both fish species at ratios 25:25 & 40:10. A mixture of sub-lethal concentrations of C. micrantha against B. alexandrina and of Niclosamide or CuSO4 caused mortalities of O. niloticus between 0.0 & 33.3% and between 5% & 35% of G. affinis. The residue of Cu in O. niloticus were 4.69, 19.06 & 25.37 mg/1kgm fish after 24, 48 & 72 hrs exposure to LC0 of CuSO4 against B. alexandrina respectively. PMID:16333905

Mosta-Fa, B B; el-Deeb, Fatma A; Ismail, Nahid M; el-Said, K M

2005-12-01

69

Immunolocalization of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium antigens reacting with their Egyptian snail vectors.  

PubMed

The reaction of the haemolymph and the tissue of infected intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus to Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium antigens were investigated using the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A new technique, Agarose cell block was used in collection of haemolymph which helped in collecting plenty of well formed cells in comparison to the ordinary one using the cytospin. Collected haemolymph and prepared tissues of uninfected and infected B. alexandria and B. truncatus were fixed and then reacted with anti-S. mansoni and anti-S. haematobium IgG polyclonal antibodies. The haemolymph and tissue of infected B. alexandrina and B. truncatus gave a positive peroxidase reaction represented by a brown colour. In haemolymph, the positive peroxidase reaction was detected mainly in the cytoplasm of the amoebocytes. In the tissue, it was detected in epithelial cells lining the tubules, male cells in the lumen of the tubules and in female oogonia cells along the periphery of the tubules. The similarity in the strength and distribution of positive reaction in B. alexandrina and B. truncates was observed as compared to control. Thus, the immunoperoxidase technique proved to be an effective indicator for the schistosome-antigen in the snails. PMID:18383803

El-Dafrawy, Shadia M; Mohamed, Amira H; Hammam, Olfat A; Rabia, Ibrahim

2007-12-01

70

Discriminant analysis of free fatty acids of some Egyptian snails as a step for schistosomiasis control: new trends.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is still the most common occupational health problem of rural workers in Egypt. The use of molluscicides, either chemical or biological, and environmental changing are the most successful methods of snail control. The new trend in Schistosoma control programs is to study the ecological factors that attract miracidium Schistosoma specific snails, to emphasizing to find out new environmental safe control methods. Since Schistosoma worms do not make fatty acids de novo, they require host lipids for survival and to complete their life cycle. Discriminate analysis of the estimated free fatty acids was done in this study in Biomphalaria alexandrina, Biomphalaria glabrata, and Bulinus truncatus, viz. Lymnaea truncatula and Physa acuta (Schistosoma intermediate and non-intermediate respectively). With the objective of determination of the biochemical difference that attract the infestation of Schistosoma miracidium to the target snails, as a step of the new control trends. Caprylic acid (C8:0), and Oleic acid (C18:1) are significantly lower in the tissues of Schistosoma intermediate snails compared to the non-intermediate snails. While, Capric acid (C10:0), Margaric acid (C17:0), and Lenoleic acid (C18:2) of the intermediate snails are significantly higher than that of non-intermediate snails. The percent of correct medical classification of snails are more than 80% according to Caprylic acid, Margaric acid, and Lenoleic acid, the other 15 fatty acids are less than 80%. These three free fatty acids could be chemoattractive of Schistosoma miracidium, and could be used as safe environmental control compounds, which needs further research. PMID:17219851

Saad, A; Sayed, N

2000-01-01

71

The introduction of Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) to the island of Saint Lucia (West Indies) and its role in the decline of Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

A malacological survey was carried out in May 1992 in the whole hydrographic system of Saint Lucia 11 years after the end of a biological control programme to eliminate Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. A competitor snail, Melanoides tuberculata, was introduced to Saint Lucia in 1978 and field experiments in several habitats were conducted by Prentice between 1978 and 1986. At the present time M. tuberculata is the most common freshwater snail in Saint Lucia. The results of the survey, undertaken in sites where B. glabrata occurred in large populations in the past showed (i) the absence of the snail hosts from seven sites now extensively colonized by the competitor (ii) the presence of B. glabrata in low or very low densities in 17 sites together with the competitor and (iii) the presence of the intermediate hosts in large populations in only two sites where M. tuberculata was absent. These results confirm the positive results observed by Prentice. The presence of another planorbid snail, B. straminea, is reported for the first time in Saint Lucia. PMID:8103624

Pointier, J P

1993-06-01

72

Habitat characteristics for different freshwater snail species as determined biologically through macroinvertebrate information.  

PubMed

Macro-invertebrates including freshwater snails collected from 643 sites over 8 successive seasons among the River Nile, branches, main canals and certain drains in eight Egyptian Governorates. Thirteen snail species and one bivalve species were identified. The most distributed were Lanistus carinatus and Physa acuta while the most abundant were Cleopatra bulimoides and Physa acuta during the whole study. The sites that harbored each snail species in all the examined water-courses were grouped seasonally and their biological assessment was determined by their minimum and maximum total point similarity percentage to that of the corresponded reference site and mean of the total points. Habitats for most snail species attained minimum total point's similarity percentage less than 21% (very poor habitat) during autumn and winter then spring while during summer very poor habitat was harbored by only few snail species. P. acuta was the only survived snails in habitat which attained 0 as a minimum total point's similarity percentage during two seasons and L. carinatus and Succinea cleopatra during one season. With respect to medically important snails very poor sites constituted 23% of Biomphalaria alexandrina sites, 14% of Lymnaea natalensis and 9.4% of Bulinus truncatus sites. The studied macroinvertebrate matrices, total number of organisms, taxa richness, the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) index, ratio of EPT index to chironomidae, ratio of scraper to filtering collector, contribution of dominant macroinvertebrate major group, comparison revealed descending tolerances from B. alexanrina followed by L. natalensis then B. truncates, but Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) showed the same tolerance to organic pollution. PMID:22435158

El-Khayat, Hanaa M M; Mahmoud, Kadria M A; Mostafa, Bayomy B; Tantawy, Ahmad A; El-Deeb, Fatma A; Ragb, Fawzy M; Ismail, Nahed M; El-Said, Kalil M; Taleb, Hoda M Abu

2011-12-01

73

Update of fasciolosis-transmitting snails in Egypt (review and comment).  

PubMed

Several snail species may contribute in transmission of fasciolosis in Egypt. These molluscs show a variable sensibility to natural infections with Fasciola species. Radix natalensis is considered to be the essential intermediate host for F. gigantica based on field and experimental studies. Cercarial production from R. natalensis experimentally infected with F. gigantica is affected by the species of definitive host from which the eggs are obtained, as well as the different laboratory conditions. Another lymnaeid, Galba truncatula, may play a role in transmitting this parasite in Egypt, as it was found naturally infected with F. gigantica. Latter snail species, originated from France, was susceptible to experimental infections with Egyptian miracidia of F. gigantica and it had a cercarial production close to that of local R. natalensis. Two other snails, Pseudosuccinea columella and Biomphalaria alexandrina, were naturally found harboring larvae of Fasciola sp. At the level of intermediate hosts of F. gigantica, the conditions are thus favorable in Egypt to transmit fasciolosis which could also be caused by another fasciolid, F. hepatica, as the existance of this fluke was confirmed in Egypt. PMID:16083061

Dar, Y D; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

2005-08-01

74

The molluscicidal activity of niclosamide (Bayluscide WP70(R)) on Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae), a snail associated with habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity of niclosamide (Bayluscide (R)) on Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata under laboratory conditions. The latter species is the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon 1917). M. tuberculata was successfully used as competitor of B. glabrata in biological control programs in French West Indies. Both molluscicide and biological control using M. tuberculata have proved to be successful in reducing the population density of B. glabrata. The associated use of molluscicide in this area would be an effective measure if M. tuberculata were less susceptibility to the molluscicide than B. glabrata. Three hundreds individuals each of B. glabrata and of M. tuberculata, collected in Sumidouro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were used in the experiment. The molluscs were exposed to 14 different concentrations of niclosamide as recommended by the World Health Organization. Probit analysis was used to determine the LC 50 and LC 90. The LC 50 and LC 90 values for B. glabrata were 0.077 mg/l and 0.175 mg/l, respectively and the LC 50 and LC 90 values for M. tuberculata were 0.082 mg/l and 0.221 mg/l respectively. As the lethal concentrations of niclosamide were approximately the same to both species, this could be a disadvantage when controlling B. glabrata with niclosamide in an area of M. tuberculata occurrence. It might therefore be preferable to utilize the latex extracted from the Euphorbia splendens, which presented a much higher efficiency for B. glabrata than to M. tuberculata. PMID:12219145

Giovanelli, Alexandre; Silva, Cesar Luiz Pinto Ayres Coelho da; Medeiros, Luisa; Vasconcellos, Maurício Carvalho de

2002-07-01

75

Genetics of Biomphalaria glabrata: Linkage analysis of genes for pigmentation, enzymes, and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

The snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, is a major intermediate host of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, in the Americas. The inheritance and linkage relationships of a gene enabling adult snails to resist infection by a Puerto Rican strain of the parasite were analyzed using two laboratory stocks that differed in susceptibility, pigmentation, and five electrophoretically detectable enzyme markers. Segregation ratios

Margaret Mulvey; David S. Woodruff

1985-01-01

76

Activity of some hydrolytic enzymes in tissue homogenates and haemolymph of fresh water snails, intermediate hosts in schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

The activities of 5-nucleotidase (Ec.3.1.3.5), alkaline phosphatase (Ec.3.1.3.1), glucose-6-phosphatase (Ec.3.1.3.9), and ribonuclease (Ec.3.1.13) had been measured in tissue homogenate and in haemolymph of Biomphalaria alexandrina, the specific intermediate host for the parasitic disease schistosomiasis, induced by the parasite Schistosoma mansoni. PMID:1657390

Nabih, I; el-Ansary, A

1991-01-01

77

Breeding of Biomphalaria tenagophila in mass scale.  

PubMed

An efficient method for breeding Biomphalaria tenagophila (Taim lineage/RS) was developed over a 5-year-period (2005-2010). Special facilities were provided which consisted of four cement tanks (9.4 x 0.6 x 0.22 m), with their bottom covered with a layer of sterilized red earth and calcium carbonate. Standard measures were adopted, as follows: each tank should contain an average of 3000 specimens, and would be provided with a daily ration of 35,000 mg complemented with lettuce. A green-house effect heating system was developed which constituted of movable dark canvas covers, which allowed the temperature to be controlled between 20 - 24 ºC. This system was essential, especially during the coldest months of the year. Approximately 27,000 specimens with a diameter of 12 mm or more were produced during a 14-month-period. The mortality rates of the newly-hatched and adult snails were 77% and 37%, respectively. The follow-up of the development system related to 310 specimens of B. tenagophila demonstrated that 70-day-old snails reached an average of 17.0 ± 0.9 mm diameter. The mortality rates and the development performance of B. tenagophila snails can be considered as highly satisfactory, when compared with other results in literature related to works carried out with different species of the genus Biomphalaria, under controlled laboratory conditions. PMID:23328724

Rosa, Florence Mara; Marques, Daisymara P Almeida; Maciel, Engels; Couto, Josiane Maria; Negrão-Corrêa, Deborah A; Teles, Horácio M Santana; Santos, João Batista dos; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech

78

Biological control and invading freshwater snails.A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introductions of four species of freshwater snails occurred between 1972 and 1996 onto Guadeloupe Island. Two of them, Melanoides tuberculata and Marisa cornuarietis, were subsequently used as biological control agents against Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of intestinal schistosomiasis. In 1996, a general survey was carried out in 134 sites which had already been investigated in 1972. The total

Jean-Pierre Pointier; David Augustin

1999-01-01

79

Evolutionary Relationships and Biogeography of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) with Implications Regarding Its Role as Host of the Human Bloodfluke, Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wide geographic distribution of Schistosoma mansoni, a digenetic trematode and parasite of humans, is determined by the occurrence of its intermediate hosts, freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria (Preston 1910). We present phylogenetic analyses of 23 species of Biomphalaria, 16 Neotropical and seven African, including the most important schistosome hosts, using partial mitochondrial ribosomal 16S and complete nuclear ribosomal

Randall J. DeJong; Jess A. T. Morgan; W. Lobato Paraense; Jean-Pierre Pointier; Manuel Amarista; Patrick F. K. Ayeh-Kumi; Ahmed Babiker; Constanca S. Barbosa; Philippe Bremond; Andres Pedro Canese; Cecilia Pereira de Souza; Claudio Dominguez; Sharon File; Alfredo Gutierrez; R. Nino Incani; Toshie Kawano; Francis Kazibwe; John Kpikpi; Nicholas J. S. Lwambo; Remy Mimpfoundi; Flobert Njiokou; Jean Noel Poda; M. Sene; Luz Elena Velasquez; Mary Yong; Coen M. Adema; Bruce V. Hofkin; Gerald M. Mkoji; Eric S. Loker

2001-01-01

80

O-Glycosylation of snails.  

PubMed

The glycosylation abilities of snails deserve attention, because snail species serve as intermediate hosts in the developmental cycles of some human and cattle parasites. In analogy to many other host-pathogen relations, the glycosylation of snail proteins may likewise contribute to these host-parasite interactions. Here we present an overview on the O-glycan structures of 8 different snails (land and water snails, with or without shell): Arion lusitanicus, Achatina fulica, Biomphalaria glabrata, Cepaea hortensis, Clea helena, Helix pomatia, Limax maximus and Planorbarius corneus. The O-glycans were released from the purified snail proteins by ?-elimination. Further analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and - for the main structures - by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Snail O-glycans are built from the four monosaccharide constituents: N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, mannose and fucose. An additional modification is a methylation of the hexoses. The common trisaccharide core structure was determined in Arion lusitanicus to be N-acetylgalactosamine linked to the protein elongated by two 4-O-methylated galactose residues. Further elongations by methylated and unmethylated galactose and mannose residues and/or fucose are present. The typical snail O-glycan structures are different to those so far described. Similar to snail N-glycan structures they display methylated hexose residues. PMID:22581130

Stepan, Herwig; Pabst, Martin; Altmann, Friedrich; Geyer, Hildegard; Geyer, Rudolf; Staudacher, Erika

2012-05-12

81

Use of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems to model the distribution and abundance of snail intermediate hosts in Africa: a preliminary model for Biomphalaria pfeifferi in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Geographic information system (GIS) risk models for the snail-borne diseases caused by Schistosoma spp. and Fasciola spp. have recently been developed based on climate and satellite-retrieved data on temperature and vegetation coverage. By using these models, it was possible to describe a relationship between vegetation index (Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI)), land surface temperature (T(max)) and disease prevalence, but little reference was made to the distribution of the corresponding intermediate host snail. Presence of the intermediate host snail is a key factor determining distribution of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and a good snail distribution mode would probably mirror the endemic area of schistosomiasis. In the present analysis, it was shown that snail distribution data corresponds with schistosomiasis prevalence data in relation to a forecast model based on NDVI and T(max) data derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite series. The 'best fit' model included NDVI values from 125 to 145 and a T(max) data range of 10-32 degrees C. This model included 92.3, 90.4 and 94.6% of the positive snail sample sites in GIS query overlay areas extracted from annual, dry season and wet season composite maps, respectively. For other sites in Africa, other NDVI and T(max) ranges may be more appropriate, depending on the species of snail present, a topic that will be examined in further studies. PMID:11378143

Kristensen, T K; Malone, J B; McCarroll, J C

2001-04-27

82

The effect of calcium concentration on the crushing resistance, weight and size of Biomphalaria sudanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomphalaria sudanica (intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni) were raised in the laboratory in media with seven different calcium concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 2.0 mmol\\/l. After 10 weeks, snails were killed and shell diameter, inorganic dry weight, ash free dry weight and crushing resistance were measured. Snails raised at lower calcium concentrations were found to be significantly smaller than snails

Jakob Brodersen; Henry Madsen

2003-01-01

83

HPTLC ANALYSIS OF AMINO ACIDS IN BIOMPHALARIA GLABRATA INFECTED WITH SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPTLC analysis was used to determine the amino acid content in the digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) of Biomphalaria glabrata snails infected with larval Schistosoma mansoni for eight weeks. DGGs of infected and control snails were pooled, extracted in ethanol, and chromatographed using various sorbent-mobile phase combinations applicable to amino acid analysis. Zones were detected with ninhydrin and quantified by densitometry.Qualitative

Janna Pachuski; Bernard Fried; Joseph Sherma

2002-01-01

84

Freshwater snails in Asser region, Saudi Arabia with special refernce to the zoonotic trematode.  

PubMed

The present study gave information about the recent distribution of freshwater snails in Asser region, and the current status of trematode infection specially schistosomiasis within the snails. Fifteen localities were visited from Septeinber 2007 to December 2008 and the collected snails were examined for the presence of trematode infection. Seven species of snails were collected: Biomphalaria arabica, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus beccari, Physa acuta, Lymnaea palustris, Lymnaea arabica and Melanoides tuberculata. The parasitological examination revealed none trematode immature stages. PMID:19795761

Bin Dajem, Saad M

2009-08-01

85

Snail Snooping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity in which students in grades 5-8 learn about snail reproduction by observing and charting the activities of land snails, freshwater snails, and slugs. Instructions to implement and extend the activity are provided. (MDH)|

Miller, Dorothy

1993-01-01

86

Invading freshwater snails and biological control in Martinique Island, French West Indies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight alien freshwater snail species were introduced into Martinique Island during the last 50 years. The introduced snails include four planorbids (Biomphalaria straminea, Helisoma duryi, Amerianna carinata and Gyraulus sp.), three thiarids (Melanoides tuberculata, M. amabilis and Tarebia granifera) and one ampullarid (Marisa cornuarietis). Four of these species rapidly colonized the whole Martinican hydrographic system whereas the other four remained

Jean-Pierre Pointier

2001-01-01

87

Cloning of a ? integrin subunit cDNA from an embryonic cell line derived from the freshwater mollusc, Biomphalaria glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA encoding an integrin subunit was cloned and structurally characterized from an embryonic cell line derived from Biomphalaria glabrata, snail intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. Cells of the B. glabrata embryonic (Bge) snail cell line were initially tested for their sensitivity to the integrin-specific tetrapeptide inhibitor Arg–Gly–Asp–Ser (RGDS). Washed Bge cells when exposed to 0.5

Barbara J. Davids; Xiao-Jun Wu; Timothy P. Yoshino

1999-01-01

88

Simultaneous infection of Schistosoma mansoni and S. rodhaini in Biomphalaria glabrata: impact on chronobiology and cercarial behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The chances of a schistosome cercaria encountering a suitable definitive host may be enhanced by emergence from the molluscan intermediate host with maximal glycogen stores and by an appropriate chronobiological rhythm. This study aimed to identify and characterize the effects of potential competitive interactions in the snail host Biomphalaria glabrata, between the closely-related Schistosoma mansoni and S. rodhaini, on

Alice Norton; David Rollinson; Louisa Richards; Joanne Webster

2008-01-01

89

[Immunity in parasite-vector snails].  

PubMed

Aquatic snails play a key role in the transmission of parasites such as the human blood or liver flukes (Schistosomes and Fasciola sp.). During the last decade, particular efforts have been made by a small number of scientists to progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying snail immune responses and/or host parasite interactions. Complementary approaches using the gastropod snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, have yielded a number of unexpected results such as the existence of highly diversified pathogen-binding proteins (FREPs), or potential immune regulators similar to mammalian cytokines. Although molecular immune processes largely remain to be elucidated, accumulating data support the idea that snail innate immunity is much more complex than originally thought. PMID:19409193

Coustau, Christine

2009-04-01

90

Biological control of the snail hosts of schistosomiasis in areas of low transmission: the example of the Caribbean area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological control of schistosomiasis has already proven its efficiency in several habitats in the Caribbean area. Two main types of biological control agents, either trematode parasites or competitor snails have been studied and tested against the snail hosts of schistosomiasis in this region. The first one, Ribeiroia guadeloupensis, a trematode sterilizing Biomphalaria glabrata was successfully tested in a Guadeloupean

J. P. Pointier; J. Jourdane

2000-01-01

91

Transmission studies of intestinal schistosomiasis in Lake Albert, Uganda and experimental compatibility of local Biomphalaria spp.  

PubMed

Despite ongoing preventive chemotherapy campaigns, intestinal schistosomiasis is hyper-endemic in shoreline communities living along Lake Albert, Uganda. To provide a deeper insight into the local epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, a variety of field-based studies were undertaken focusing upon schistosome-snail interactions and confirmation of transmission foci. Cercarial shedding patterns of field-caught Biomphalaria spp., as identified by morphology, were hourly observed over a ten day period and showed that Biomphalaria stanleyi produced significantly more cercariae than Biomphalaria sudanica. Peak production times in both species were between 12.00 and 14.00h indicating greatest infection risk from lake water exposure is during the early afternoon. Laboratory-bred snails were exposed to locally hatched miracidia and susceptibility of Biomphalaria spp. was confirmed experimentally. Biomphalaria stanleyi was a more permissive host. After ascertaining appropriate conditions for infection of laboratory mice, 28 groups of between 5 and 6 naïve mice were placed in floatation cages at four suspected shoreline transmission sites for a 30 minute period of exposure. Eight weeks later, mice (n=142) were culled and S. mansoni adult worms were retrieved from 10 animals. Taken as a whole, these observations highlight the local importance of B. stanleyi in transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis and clearly demonstrate the risk of infection on the Lake Albert shoreline. To mitigate this risk local environmental modification(s), i.e. improvement in sanitation and hygiene and control of snail populations, is needed to bolster the impact of chemotherapy-based interventions. PMID:19837188

Kazibwe, F; Makanga, B; Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Ouma, J; Kariuki, C; Kabatereine, N B; Vennervald, B J; Rollinson, D; Stothard, J R

2009-10-18

92

Effect of three dormant oils on schistosomiasis and fascioliasis vector snails and its relation with some non-target snails.  

PubMed

Three oils were tested for their molluscicidal activity, Caple-2, Kemasol and Super-max. Super-max had the strongest toxic effect on B. alexandrina and other snail species. Its LC50 was 0.53 ppm, meanwhile LC50 of Kemasol 3.2 ppm and 4.21 ppm for Caple 2. The LC50 & LC90 of the oils were lower in Lymneae natalensis as compared to B. alexandrina. The LC50 & LC90 of the oils against non-target snails (Physa acuta, Helisoma duryi, Planorbis planorbis and Melanoides tuberculata) were higher as compared to B. alexandrina. Hatchability of snails' eggs exposed to Super-max (3.0 & 5.0 ppm) was stopped completely and l.0 ppm showed the lower percent of egg hatchability 22.7 %. Caple 2 and Kemasol did not affect eggs hatchability. Supermax had the strongest harmful effect on both miracidia and cercariae of S. mansoni. 100% mortality values were obtained for both larval stages after 8 & 9 minutes respectively when maintained at LC50. 100% mortality of miracidia occurred after 35 & 155 minutes when maintained at LC50 of Kemasol & Caple 2 respectively. The infection rate of B. alexandrina with S. mansoni miracidia was greatly reduced by the sublethal concentrations of the oils. The reduction of infection rate was higher in snails treated with Supermax (42.9%). A highly significant reduction of total cercarial production per snail was in the experimental groups as compared with controls. The prepatent period of treated snails was prolonged compared to control. Moreover, Total protein content and enzyme activities of snails treated with LC10 of oils showed a significant reduction as compared with control in haemolymyph. There was an increase of protein contents in the tissue. AlkP enzyme activity was slightly increased in haemolymph of experimental groups than controls and was significantly higher in the tissues as compared to control. ALT enzyme activity in haemolymph of experimental groups was higher than control, but lower in tissue. AST enzyme activity was higher in haemolymph and tissue of experimental groups than controls. The SDS-PAGE pattern of tissue soluble proteins extracted from treated B. alexandrina and controls showed different oils effects on the synthesis of protein within snails yielded a complex pattern of polypeptides ranging in molecular weight between 13.775 to 156.7 kDa. Many bands were present in treated snails. At least, one band was detected for snails treated with each of the oils and not in controls. The difference in the similarity indices between treatment and control; for Kemasol was 0.86 & 0.64, for Caple 2 was 0.61 & 0.55 and for Supermax was 0.64 & 0.86. LC25 of Supermax did not cause any mortality to Daphnia after 6 hr. But, LC50 & LC90 caused lower mortality after 6 hr. Kemasol caused 100% mortality after 4 hr at LC50 and 2 hr in LC90. Caple 2 caused 50% mortality of Daphnia after 5 hr at LC25 &100% mortality after 30 minutes in LC50 & LC90. PMID:17153697

Mostafa, Bayaumy B

2006-12-01

93

Predation of Biomphalaria and non-target molluscs by the crayfish Procambarus clarkii: implications for the biological control of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

The North American crayfish Procambarus clarkii was examined under laboratory conditions for its ability to prey on Biomphalaria pfeifferi and B. glabrata, molluscan intermediate hosts of human schistosomiasis, and other, non-target gastropod species. Both male and female adult crayfish significantly reduced survival of neonate snails, even though alternative animal and plant foods were both available. In subsequent experiments, no differences in snail consumption were detected, for either adult or juvenile crayfish, in the presence or absence of a plant food alternative. Both adult and juvenile crayfish were able to consume small (2.5 mm) and large (17.5 mm) B. glabrata, suggesting that no size refuge from predation exists. Both adult and juvenile crayfish consumed Biomphalaria egg masses, although this consumption was significantly greater for juveniles. Procambarus clarkii adults were unable to consume substantial numbers of the relatively thick-shelled prosobranch snails Pila ovata and Lanistes carinatus. Crayfish did consume a third prosobranch, Melanoides tuberculata, and the pulmonate snail Physa acuta, but at a lower rate relative to consumption of Biomphalaria. Physa acuta, itself of North American origin, responded to the presence of crayfish by rapidly leaving the water and thereby avoided predation. Implications of these results for the biological control of schistosome-transmitting snails in East Africa are discussed. PMID:1304709

Hofkin, B V; Hofinger, D M; Koech, D K; Loker, E S

1992-12-01

94

[Susceptibility of Biomphalaria glabrata to Schistosoma mansoni from Venezuela and Brazil].  

PubMed

Schistosoma mansoni partially develops its life cycle into snails of the Family Planorbid. Biomphalaria glabrata represents an important host-intermediate. This paper reports experimental infection with miracidia vs. snail in sympatric and parapatric combination. The infection assay to sympatric combination were: BH snail (Belo Horizonte, Brasil) vs. a common geographic origin parasite, and Barbula, Carabobo State, Venezuela vs. SM Venezuela parasitic. The parapatric combination were: BH snail vs. SM; Barbula vs. BH; Caripe Monagas State, Venezuela vs. SM and Caripe vs. SM. During the study period was observed not miracid penetration. The infection percentage ranged from 88.89% in Barbula vs. SM combination to 0.00% in the Caripe vs. BH and BH vs. SM combination. We concluded which different existence of susceptibility from evaluated combination. PMID:10932760

Moreno Alvarez, M J; Delgado, V

95

Toxicity of a novel suspension concentrate of niclosamide against Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

As a new suspension concentrate of niclosamide (SCN) was more effective in controlling Oncomelania snails than a wettable powder of the same drug, it was tested against Biomphalaria glabrata. There were no differences in the effect of the suspension concentrate, the wettable powder of niclosamide and ball-milled pure niclosamide against the adult snails, but at after 48h 0.125mg/l SCN killed 100% of eggs compared with 84.3% for WPN and 17.7% for pure niclosamide. Because of the improved handling characteristics of SCN over the other formulations, further field tests on Biompharia and Bulinus species are warranted. PMID:19716575

Dai, Jian-rong; Coles, Gerald C; Wang, Wei; Liang, You-sheng

2009-08-28

96

Water snails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water snails have a shell for protection. They have two tentacles, a foot, and a head and a tail region. Water snails have eyes at the base of their sensory stalks. The stalks are used to smell and feel around the snail's environment.

Scott Bauer (USDA;ARS)

2005-08-03

97

Malacological survey and geographical distribution of vector snails for schistosomiasis within informal settlements of Kisumu City, western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Although schistosomiasis is generally considered a rural phenomenon, infections have been reported within urban settings. Based on observations of high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in schools within the informal settlements of Kisumu City, a follow-up malacological survey incorporating 81 sites within 6 informal settlements of the City was conducted to determine the presence of intermediate host snails and ascertain whether active transmission was occurring within these areas. Methods Surveyed sites were mapped using a geographical information system. Cercaria shedding was determined from snails and species of snails identified based on shell morphology. Vegetation cover and presence of algal mass at the sites was recorded, and the physico-chemical characteristics of the water including pH and temperature were determined using a pH meter with a glass electrode and a temperature probe. Results Out of 1,059 snails collected, 407 (38.4%) were putatively identified as Biomphalaria sudanica, 425 (40.1%) as Biomphalaria pfeifferi and 227 (21.5%) as Bulinus globosus. The spatial distribution of snails was clustered, with few sites accounting for most of the snails. The highest snail abundance was recorded in Nyamasaria (543 snails) followed by Nyalenda B (313 snails). As expected, the mean snail abundance was higher along the lakeshore (18 ± 12 snails) compared to inland sites (dams, rivers and springs) (11 ± 32 snails) (F1, 79 = 38.8, P < 0.0001). Overall, 19 (1.8%) of the snails collected shed schistosome cercariae. Interestingly, the proportion of infected Biomphalaria snails was higher in the inland (2.7%) compared to the lakeshore sites (0.3%) (P = 0.0109). B. sudanica was more abundant in sites along the lakeshore whereas B. pfeifferi and B. globosus were more abundant in the inland sites. Biomphalaria and Bulinus snails were found at 16 and 11 out of the 56 inland sites, respectively. Conclusions The high abundance of Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp. as well as observation of field-caught snails shedding cercariae confirmed that besides Lake Victoria, the local risk for schistosomiasis transmission exists within the informal settlements of Kisumu City. Prospective control interventions in these areas need to incorporate focal snail control to complement chemotherapy in reducing transmission.

2011-01-01

98

Interaction Between The Intermediate Host Of Schistosomiasis In Brazil, Biomphalaria Glabrata (Say, 1818) And A Possible Competitor, Melanoides Tuberculata (Muller, 1774): A Field Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The snail Melanoidestuberculata has been used successfully in the control of Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Melanoidestuberculata has been introduced in Brazil, but its effects on populations of B. glabrata have not yet been evaluated in the field. Here we describe the population dynamics of B. glabrata before and after the invasion by M. tuberculata in an irrigation

ALEXANDRE GIOVANELLI; MARCUS V. VIEIRA; CESAR L. P. A. COELHO

2005-01-01

99

Interaction between the Intermediate Host of Schistosomiasis in Brazil Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae) and a Possible Competitor Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae): I. Laboratory Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, is one the accepted options to fight schistosomiasis. One of the most promising candidates to control B. glabrata is the snail Melanoides tuberculata, a potential competitor. However, the mechanisms of interaction between the two species are not clear. Our objective is to determine if M. tuberculata indeed compete with

Alexandre Giovanelli; Cesar Luiz; Pinto Ayres; Coelho da Silva

100

Snail Trails  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The slime trails of snails lead the author's students to a better understanding of science as inquiry and the processes of science. During this five-day activity, students get up close and personal with one of her favorite creatures, the land snail. Students begin by observing the organism and recording their observations. After making initial…

Galus, Pamela

2002-01-01

101

Effects of host outcrossing on the interaction between an aquatic snail and its locally adapted parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the interaction between host outcrossing and infection in the Biomphalaria glabrata–Schistosoma mansoni system. Snails collected from three susceptible isofemale lines were mated with either siblings or snails recently derived\\u000a from a field site in Brazil. Resulting inbred and outcrossed progeny were then exposed to S. mansoni larvae and monitored for a 10-week period. Interestingly, all

Gregory J. Sandland; Amy R. Wethington; Alice V. Foster; Dennis J. Minchella

2009-01-01

102

Epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni infection and its relationship to snail distribution in a village at the Nile bank south to Cairo.  

PubMed

The relationship between epidemiology of S. mansoni infection and snail distribution at a village, related to Guiza Governorate and lies south to Cairo, was investigated. A systematic random sample of houses was selected. All inhabitants of the houses were invited to share in the study. The Number examined was 704. Urine and stools were examined using Nucleopore filtration and standard Kato-Katz techniques, respectively. Snail collection was done from 35 sites along the water bodies related to the village. Snails collected were examined by cercariae shedding under light. Snail differentiation was done. The results showed that the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni human infection was 25.1 % and GMEC was 2.4 +/- 5.5. Schistosoma haematobium infection was zero percent. Biomphlaria alexandrina snail infection rate was 3.7% with density equal 0.5 +/- 1.3. Bulinus truncatus snail infection rate was zero percent. The pattern of S. mansoni human infection was closely related to snail distribution and infection. Presence of a hybrid species of B. alexandrina and B. glabrata may explain the epidemiological pattern found in the studied village. PMID:16916052

Sayed, Hanan A; El-Ayyat, Afaf; Kader, Ahmed Abdel; Sabry, Hoda Y; Amer, Neimat M

2004-01-01

103

Ecology of freshwater snails in south-western Nigeria. I: Distribution and habitat preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry and rainy season investigations of diverse freshwater habitats in south-western Nigeria revealed fourteen species of snail comprised of nine pulmonates: Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krauss, Bulinus globosus Morelet, Bulinus rohlfsi Clessin, Lymnaea natalensis Krauss, Physa ( ˜ Aplexa) waterloti Germain, Bulinus forskali Ehrenberg, Gyraulus costulatus Krauss, Ferrissia sp, Segmentorbis sp. and five prosobranchs namely, Lanistes libycus Morelet, Lanistes ovum Peters, Pila

G. T. Ndifon; F. M. A. Ukoli

1989-01-01

104

Food selection by freshwater snails in the Gezira irrigation canals, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stomach content analysis was carried out on samples of the freshwater snail species Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus forskalii (Pulmonata, Planorbidae), Lymnaea natalensis (Pulmonata, Lymnaeidae), Melanoides tuberculata, Cleopatra bulimoides (Prosobranchia, Thiaridae) and Lanistes carinatus (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae) from different irrigation canals in Sudan. In order to evaluate overlap in diet selection\\u000a among these species, sites with two or more of the

Henry Madsen

1992-01-01

105

An Evaluation of the Interactions Between Freshwater Pulmonate Snail Hosts of Human Schistosomes and Macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of a laboratory investigation designed to evaluate the extent to which the freshwater pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say) can utilize various species of aquatic plants, mainly macrophytes, when presented in the following forms over different time scales: (i) normal plants; (ii) dried plant material; (iii) homogenized plant material in calcium alginate matrices; (iv) water-soluble filtrates of

J. D. Thomas

1987-01-01

106

Involvement of the Cytokine MIF in the Snail Host Immune Response to the Parasite Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified and characterized a Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) family member in the Lophotrochozoan invertebrate, Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. In mammals, MIF is a widely expressed pleiotropic cytokine with potent pro-inflammatory properties that controls cell functions such as gene expression, proliferation or apoptosis. Here we show that the MIF

Alvaro Baeza Garcia; Raymond J. Pierce; Benjamin Gourbal; Elisabeth Werkmeister; Dominique Colinet; Jean-Marc Reichhart; Colette Dissous; Christine Coustau

2010-01-01

107

INTERACTION BETWEEN THE INTERMEDIATE HOST OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN BRAZIL BIOMPHALARIA GLABRATA (SAY 1818) AND A POSSIBLE COMPETITOR MELANOIDES TUBERCULATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The snail Melanoidestuberculata has been used successfully in the control of Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Melanoidestuberculata has been introduced in Brazil, but its effects on populations,of B. glabrata have not yet been evaluated,in the field. Here we describe the population dynamics,of B. glabrata before and,after the invasion by M. tuberculata in an irrigation channel,in the municipality

Alexandre Giovanelli; Marcus V. Vieira; Cesar L. P. A. Coelho; Da Silva

108

Distribution of freshwater snails in the river Niger basin in Mali with special reference to the intermediate hosts of schistosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snail surveys were carried out in various parts of Mali. All areas surveyed are part of the Niger basin being either affluents\\u000a or irrigation schemes fed by this river. The snail species present varied greatly between areas. The following potential hosts\\u000a of schistosomes were recorded: Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, B. globosus, B. umbilicatus, B. forskalii and B. senegalensis.\\u000a \\u000a In the

Henry Madsen; Godefroy Coulibaly; Peter Furu

1987-01-01

109

Assessment of the potential of competitor snails and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) as biocontrol agents against snail hosts transmitting schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the potential of the snails Physa acuta and Melanoides tuberculata and the African catfish Clarias gariepinus as biological control agents against the Schistosoma mansoni intermediate host Biomphalaria pfeifferi under laboratory conditions. Groups of five target and five competitor snails were raised together in experimental aquaria and same number in separate aquaria as controls. Shell size, number of eggs and mortality rate were recorded for twelve consecutive weeks. The stocking density for C. gariepinus was one fish per aquarium. Fish were provided with adequate or inadequate supplementary food and fifteen B. pfeifferi were added to each aquarium. The snails and their eggs were counted daily. Significant differences in shell growth and fecundity were noted between B. pfeifferi and M. tuberculata. Physa acuta was noted to be voracious in food consumption. Snail consumption was faster by fish provided with inadequate supplementary food. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the two competitor snails and African catfish could be used as biological control agents against B. pfeifferi. Nevertheless, the susceptibility of the competitor snails to other trematodes in Ethiopia must first be ruled out before introducing these snails into new habitats. Follow-up field observation and rigorous laboratory studies remain areas for further research. PMID:18582914

Gashaw, Fikru; Erko, Berhanu; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Habtesellasie, Redeat

2008-06-25

110

Impact of Invasive Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) on Snail Hosts of Schistosomiasis in Lake Victoria, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive plants may change ecologic conditions to contribute to transmission of human diseases. This study examined whether water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) had an effect on the snails Biomphalaria sudanica and B. choanomphala, hosts of the disease organism Schistosoma mansoni in Lake Victoria, East Africa. Eight 16-m2 enclosures were established in shallow shoreline areas and were paired for water depth, substrate,

Mary L. Plummer

2005-01-01

111

Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883), Gundlachia radiata (Guilding, 1828), Helisoma (=Planorbella) trivolvis (Say, 1817), Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774), Neritina punctulata Lamarck, 1816, and Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as G. radiata and H. trivolvis are established on Dominica, West Indies. We tested a limited number

Will K. Reeves; Robert T. Dillon; Gregory A. Dasch

2008-01-01

112

[Geographic distribution of Schistosoma mansoni transmitter snail species in State of São Paulo].  

PubMed

A thorough knowledge of the geographic distribution of Schistosoma mansoni vector snails is indispensable for the control of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomiasis and its epidemiologic surveillance. From the water masses of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) 8,771 lots of snails--total of 108,244 individuals of the genus Biomphalaria--were captured between 1982 and 2002. These specimens are now part of the malacological collection of (Superintendência de Controle de Endemias--São Paulo). According to species: Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818), 225 lots (6%)--8,002 (7.4%); specimens Biomphalaria tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835), 3,402 lots (91.7%)--88,068 (81.4%) specimens and Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848), 85 lots (2.3%)--12,174 (11.2%) specimens. The geographic distribution of B. tenagophila and B. glabrata breeding sites tends to be compact and their occupation of territory is clear-cut. B. tenagophila habitats characteristically show a tendency to cluster around municipalities with high levels of urbanization and organic pollution. The presence of B. straminea is isolated in all hydrographic basins. This situation suggests that the persistence of schistosomiasis endemic areas in the State of São Paulo depends on the chance of host-parasite contacts resulting from the concentration of B. tenagophila and B. glabrata breeding sites. PMID:16172761

Teles, Horacio Manuel Santana

2005-09-12

113

Toxic activities of the plant Jatropha curcas against intermediate snail hosts and larvae of schistosomes.  

PubMed

The aim of studies on plant molluscicides is to complement methods for controlling snails acting as intermediate hosts of schistosomes. We report on the toxic activity of extracts from Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) against snails transmitting Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. We studied different extracts' effects on infectious larvae, cercariae and miracidia of S. mansoni. Compared to aqueous extract, methanol extract showed the highest toxicity against all tested organisms with LC100-values of 25 p.p.m. for cercariae and the snail Biomphalaria glabrata and 1 p.p.m. for the snails Bulinus truncatus and B. natalensis. Attenuation of cercariae leading to reduced infectivity in mice could be achieved in concentrations below those exerting acute toxicity. In view of our results and the ongoing exploitation of J. curcas for other purposes, this plant could become an affordable and effective component of an integrated approach to schistosomiasis control. PMID:10929142

Rug, M; Ruppel, A

2000-06-01

114

Biological control of the snail intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in Martinique, French West Indies.  

PubMed

In Martinique water-cress beds constituted the last transmission sites for schistosomiasis. The competitor snail, Melanoides tuberculata, was introduced at the beginning of 1983 to a group of water-cress beds and eliminated the snail hosts, Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea, in less than two years. Following this first success, M. tuberculata was introduced to the other groups of beds which were inventoried at the beginning of the eighties. At the present time, B. glabrata and B. straminea have totally disappeared from eight sites and only a few individuals have been recorded from 12 sites. The two remaining water-cress beds have dried up and were abandoned. PMID:1519033

Pointier, J P; Guyard, A

1992-06-01

115

Molluscicidal activities of six species of Bignoniaceae from north-eastern Brazil, as measured against Biomphalaria glabrata under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

The molluscicidal profile and brine-shrimp bio-activity of the ethanolic extracts of plants from the Bignoniaceae family were determined. The six extracts investigated were of the stems of Melloa quadrivalvis and Tabebuia aurea, and whole plants of Adenocalymma comosum, Arrabidaea parviflora, Cuspidaria argentea and Clytostoma binatum. When tested in the laboratory, with Biomphalaria glabrata as the test snail, all six extracts gave median lethal concentrations (9-54 microg/ml) that fell well below the upper threshold, of 100 mug/ml, set for a potential molluscicide by the World Health Organization. PMID:17524251

Silva, T M S; Da Silva, T G; Martins, R M; Maia, G L A; Cabral, A G S; Camara, C A; Agra, M F; Barbosa-Filho, J M

2007-06-01

116

Toxicity of some glucose/mannose-binding lectins to Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis or bilharzia, which affects millions of people living in Africa, Asia and Latin America, is closely associated with certain species of aquatic snails. One way of attacking the disease is to eradicate the host snails. Molluscicidal activities of natural compounds are especially important in the widespread control of this tropical disease. As part of our search for natural compounds with molluscicidal properties for the vector control of schistosomiasis, we are now evaluating for the first time the toxicity of the plant lectins from Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr), Cratylia floribunda (CFL), Dioclea guianensis (Dgui), Dioclea grandiflora (DGL) and Dioclea virgata (Dvir) to Biomphalaria glabrata Say and Artemia salina Leach. Results indicate that all the samples were toxic to A. salina Leach, some of them with values of lethal concentration that kills 90% of the population (LC(90))<10 microg mL(-1). They are also active against B. glabrata Say, killing 100% of adult snails, at a concentration of 50 microg mL(-1). The lectins CFL and Dgui possess properties lethal to mollusks, with values of LC(90)=50.3 microg mL(-1) and LC(90)=41.0 microg mL(-1), respectively. PMID:19765980

dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; da Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

2009-09-17

117

Biological control and invading freshwater snails. A case study.  

PubMed

Introductions of four species of freshwater snails occurred between 1972 and 1996 onto Guadeloupe Island. Two of them, Melanoides tuberculata and Marisa cornuarietis, were subsequently used as biological control agents against Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of intestinal schistosomiasis. In 1996, a general survey was carried out in 134 sites which had already been investigated in 1972. The total number of mollusc species had increased from 19 to 21. Site numbers housing B. glabrata and two other species had strongly declined. This decline may be mainly attributed to a competitive displacement by M. tuberculata and M. cornuarietis as illustrated by several biological control programmes. There were no changes in the remainder of the malacological fauna. PMID:10656149

Pointier, J P; Augustin, D

1999-12-01

118

Apparent competition through facilitation between Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata and the control of schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Interactions between two species that result in reduced growth rates for both and extinction of one of the species are generally considered cases of asymmetric interspecific competition. Exploitative or interference competition is the usual mechanism invoked. Here we describe another mechanism producing the same result, named apparent competition through facilitation (ACF), observed between Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata populations. The superior competitor actually gives some benefit to the other species, whose population becomes unstable with progressively increasing oscillations, leading to extinction. A model of ACF using difference equations suggests initial dynamics distinct from traditional interspecific competition. The dynamics of two freshwater snails in the field and in laboratory experiments suggest ACF, and these relations should be considered in studies of schistosomiasis control. ACF could occur in natural populations, but might have gone undetected because the final result is similar to traditional interspecific competition. PMID:12886429

Giovanelli, Alexandre; Vieira, Marcus Vinicius; da Silva, Cesar Luiz Pinto Ayres Coelho

2003-07-18

119

Molecular evidence supports an african affinity of the neotropical freshwater gastropod, Biomphalaria glabrata, say 1818, an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed Central

Freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria, Preston 1910, are the most important and widely distributed intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the blood fluke responsible for human intestinal schistosomiasis, in Africa and the Neotropics. S. mansoni is thought to have been imported repeatedly into the Americas during the last 500 years with the African slave trade. Surprisingly considering that the New and Old World separated 95-106 million years (Myr) ago, the disease rapidly became established due to the presence of endemic susceptible hosts. Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships within Biomphalaria may provide insights into the successful intercontinental spread of S. mansoni. Parsimony and distance analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear sequences show African taxa to be monophyletic and Neotropical species paraphyletic, with Biomphalaria glabrata forming a separate clade from other Neotropical Biomphalaria, and ancestral to the African taxa. A west to east trans-Atlantic dispersal of a B. glabrata-like taxon, possibly as recently as the Plio-Pleistocene (1.8-3.6 Myr ago) according to a general mitochondrial clock, would fit these observations. Vicariance or an African origin for B. glabrata followed by multiple introductions to South America over the past 500 years with the African slave trade seem unlikely explanations. Knowledge of the phylogenetic relationships among important intermediate host species may prove useful in furthering control measures which exploit genetic differences in susceptibility to parasites, and in elucidating the evolution of schistosome resistance.

Campbell, G; Jones, C S; Lockyer, A E; Hughes, S; Brown, D; Noble, L R; Rollinson, D

2000-01-01

120

Localization of Serotonin in the Nervous System of Biomphalaria glabrata, an Intermediate Host for Schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

The digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni that causes the form of schistosomiasis found in the Western Hemisphere requires the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as its primary intermediate host. It has been proposed that the transition from the free-living S. mansoni miracidium to parasitic mother sporocyst depends on uptake of biogenic amines, e.g. serotonin, from the snail host. However, little is known about potential sources of serotonin in B. glabrata tissues. This investigation examined the localization of serotonin-like immunoreactivity (5HTli) in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues of B. glabrata. Emphasis was placed on the cephalic and anterior pedal regions that are commonly the sites of S. mansoni miracidium penetration. The anterior foot and body wall were densely innervated by 5HTli fibers but no peripheral immunoreactive neuronal somata were detected. Within the CNS, clusters of 5HTli neurons were observed in the cerebral, pedal, left parietal, and visceral ganglia, suggesting that the peripheral serotonergic fibers originate from the CNS. Double-labeling experiments (biocytin backfill × serotonin immunoreactivity) of the tentacular nerve and the three major pedal nerves (Pd n. 10, Pd n. 11, and Pd n. 12) disclosed central neurons that project to the cephalopedal periphery. Overall, the central distribution of 5HTli neurons suggests that, as in other gastropods, serotonin regulates the locomotion, reproductive, and feeding systems of Biomphalaria. The projections to the foot and body wall indicate that serotonin may also participate in defensive, nociceptive, or inflammation responses. These observations identify potential sources of host-derived serotonin in this parasite-host system.

Delgado, Nadia; Vallejo, Deborah; Miller, Mark W.

2013-01-01

121

The geographic mosaic of sex and infection in lake populations of a new zealand snail at multiple spatial scales.  

PubMed

Abstract Understanding how sexual and asexual forms of the same species coexist is a challenge for evolutionary biology. The Red Queen hypothesis predicts that sex is favored by parasite-mediated selection against common asexual genotypes, leading to the coexistence of sexual and asexual hosts. In a geographic mosaic, where the risk of infection varies in space, the theory also predicts that sexual reproduction would be positively correlated with disease prevalence. We tested this hypothesis in lake populations of a New Zealand freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, by comparing pairwise difference matrices for infection frequency and male frequency using partial Mantel tests. We conducted the test at three spatial scales: among lakes on the South Island, among depths within an intensively sampled lake (Lake Alexandrina), and within depths at Lake Alexandrina. We found that the difference in infection risk and the difference in the proportion of sexual snails were significantly and positively correlated at all spatial scales. Our results thus suggest that parasite-mediated selection contributes to the long-term coexistence of sexual and asexual individuals in coevolutionary hotspots, and that the "warmth" of hotspots can vary on small spatial scales. PMID:24021401

Vergara, Daniela; Lively, Curtis M; King, Kayla C; Jokela, Jukka

2013-08-20

122

Key to the identification of East and Central African freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance*  

PubMed Central

This identification key has been prepared to enable field workers in eastern and centra Africa to identify the species and subspecies of snails acting as intermediate hosts of various flukes causing bilharziasis and related diseases in man and his domestic stock. The area covered by the key is eastern Africa from the Sudan and Somalia in the north to Southern Rhodesia in the south. The key includes all species and subspecies of the three medically and veterinarily important genera, Lymnaea, Bulinus and Biomphalaria. All other freshwater pulmonates of the area can be identified as to genus only. Those features of the shells and soft parts of snails which are used in identification are discussed in some detail, and indications are given as to methods of collection, preservation and dissection of snails.

Mandahl-Barth, G.

1962-01-01

123

Simultaneous infection of Schistosoma mansoni and S. rodhaini in Biomphalaria glabrata: impact on chronobiology and cercarial behaviour  

PubMed Central

Background The chances of a schistosome cercaria encountering a suitable definitive host may be enhanced by emergence from the molluscan intermediate host with maximal glycogen stores and by an appropriate chronobiological rhythm. This study aimed to identify and characterize the effects of potential competitive interactions in the snail host Biomphalaria glabrata, between the closely-related Schistosoma mansoni and S. rodhaini, on phenotypic behavioural traits. It was predicted that inter-specific competition would affect chronobiological emergence rhythms and reduce the activity of schistosome swimming behavioural traits. Biomphalaria glabrata snails (120) were exposed to either S. mansoni or S. rodhaini single infections, or a mixed infection of both species simultaneously and the resulting cercarial phenotypic traits were characterised. Cercariae were identified from co-exposed snails by amplification and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1). Results S. mansoni and S. rodhaini largely maintained their distinct chronobiological rhythms after mixed exposures and infections. However, inter-specific competition appeared to result in a restriction of the shedding pattern of S. rodhaini and slight shift in the shedding pattern of S. mansoni. Inter-specific competition also significantly lowered hourly cercarial production for both parasite species in comparison to single exposures and infections and reduced cercarial swimming activity. Conclusion Inter-specific competition was shown to influence cercarial production, chronobiology and activity and should therefore be investigated further in field situations to determine the effects of these changes on parasite fitness (incorporating both host finding and infectivity) where these two species overlap. Importantly this competition did not result in a large change in chronobiological emergence of cercariae for either species indicating that it would not have a large influence on the species of hosts available for infection at time of emergence. This study has furthermore demonstrated the potential for phenotypic measures to provide markers for species-specific identification even in conditions of co-infection.

Norton, Alice; Rollinson, David; Richards, Louisa; Webster, Joanne

2008-01-01

124

The production of toxic oxygen metabolites by hemocytes of different snail species.  

PubMed

The phagocytic hemocytes of four snail species were investigated for their ability to generate reactive oxygen metabolites upon stimulation by foreign material. Hemocytes of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis and of the garden snail Helix aspersa showed a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) when they phagocytosed zymosan particles. This CL was inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and sodium azide, indicating the involvement of oxygen intermediates. Hemocytes of the planorbid snails Planorbarius corneus and Biomphalaria glabrata did not give a detectable CL response. This is probably due to the presence of hemoglobin in the hemolymph; after isolation of the cells and subsequent stimulation, however, still no CL could be measured. Hemocytes of all four snail species showed a SOD-sensitive nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction, indicating the generation of superoxide anions. Regarding the NBT reaction, no differences were observed between strains of B. glabrata that were susceptible or resistant to PR-1 Schistosoma mansoni; neither did exposure to the parasite have an effect on the ability of the hemocytes to reduce NBT. Also, hemocytes from Trichobilharzia ocellata-infected L. stagnalis did not react differently from hemocytes of uninfected snails. It is now clear that phagocytically stimulated hemocytes of several molluscan species can generate reactive forms of oxygen; the relevance of this fact for the phylogeny of killing systems operative in leukocytes is discussed. PMID:3169350

Dikkeboom, R; van der Knaap, W P; van den Bovenkamp, W; Tijnagel, J M; Bayne, C J

1988-01-01

125

Biological control of the snail hosts of schistosomiasis in areas of low transmission: the example of the Caribbean area.  

PubMed

The biological control of schistosomiasis has already proven its efficiency in several habitats in the Caribbean area. Two main types of biological control agents, either trematode parasites or competitor snails have been studied and tested against the snail hosts of schistosomiasis in this region. The first one, Ribeiroia guadeloupensis, a trematode sterilizing Biomphalaria glabrata was successfully tested in a Guadeloupean pond housing a natural population of B. glabrata. The second agent involves several species of competitor snails belonging to the Ampullariidae (Pomacea glauca, Marisa cornuarietis) and Thiaridae (Tarebia granifera, Melanoides tuberculata) families. Ampullarid snails were tested with success in several West Indian islands such as Guadeloupe. Thiarid snails have also proven their efficiency but also their limits in several types of habitats in Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Lucia and Venezuela. Competitor snails have also proven to be useful in preventing the recolonization by the snail hosts after molluscicide treatments. The case of the rivers of the littoral central part of Venezuela is particularly relevant to this issue. The island of Martinique also constitutes a good example of the importance of competitor snails in a post-transmission phase of schistosomiasis control. This island is a well-developed country where schistosomiasis transmission was interrupted in the 1970s. However, the reactivation of some transmission sites was observed in the 1980s. The introduction of M. tuberculata into these sites resulted in the interruption of transmission and the near total disappearance of the snail hosts. Presently, the thiarid snails have colonized the whole Martinican hydrographic system and maintain dense populations preventing an eventual recolonization by the planorbid snails and thus are maintaining a sustainable control. PMID:10996120

Pointier, J P; Jourdane, J

2000-10-23

126

The Classroom Animal: Snails.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)|

Kramer, David S.

1985-01-01

127

Snail Shell Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents three inquiry-based lessons to develop the science process skills of observation, identification, and classification. Activities use whelk eggs and snail shells as the focus of the students' inquiries. Provides a list of 19 facts about whelks and snails. (MDH)|

Matthews, Catherine

1992-01-01

128

WITHDRAWN: Comparative study of the karyotypes and electrophoretic patterns of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus and the ova of their corresponding trematode hosts.  

PubMed

The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published, doi:10.1016/j.parint.2011.05.006. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn. PMID:21658469

Bakry, Fayez A; El Garhy, Manal F

2011-05-31

129

Large-scale determinants of intestinal schistosomiasis and intermediate host snail distribution across Africa: does climate matter?  

PubMed

The geographical ranges of most species, including many infectious disease agents and their vectors and intermediate hosts, are assumed to be constrained by climatic tolerances, mainly temperature. It has been suggested that global warming will cause an expansion of the areas potentially suitable for infectious disease transmission. However, the transmission of infectious diseases is governed by a myriad of ecological, economic, evolutionary and social factors. Hence, a deeper understanding of the total disease system (pathogens, vectors and hosts) and its drivers is important for predicting responses to climate change. Here, we combine a growing degree day model for Schistosoma mansoni with species distribution models for the intermediate host snail (Biomphalaria spp.) to investigate large-scale environmental determinants of the distribution of the African S. mansoni-Biomphalaria system and potential impacts of climatic changes. Snail species distribution models included several combinations of climatic and habitat-related predictors; the latter divided into "natural" and "human-impacted" habitat variables to measure anthropogenic influence. The predictive performance of the combined snail-parasite model was evaluated against a comprehensive compilation of historical S. mansoni parasitological survey records, and then examined for two climate change scenarios of increasing severity for 2080. Future projections indicate that while the potential S. mansoni transmission area expands, the snail ranges are more likely to contract and/or move into cooler areas in the south and east. Importantly, we also note that even though climate per se matters, the impact of humans on habitat play a crucial role in determining the distribution of the intermediate host snails in Africa. Thus, a future contraction in the geographical range size of the intermediate host snails caused by climatic changes does not necessarily translate into a decrease or zero-sum change in human schistosomiasis prevalence. PMID:22142789

Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope; Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Saarnak, Christopher F L; Simoonga, Christopher; Mubita, Patricia; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Rahbek, Carsten; Kristensen, Thomas K

2011-11-28

130

Effects of varying concentrations of the crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Dalbergia sissoo plant parts on Biomphalaria pfeifferi egg masses.  

PubMed

This study evaluated, using replicated laboratory bioassays, the toxicities of the crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. 1832 (family Leguminosae) fruits, leaves, roots and stem bark against egg masses of Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848), the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907) in Nigeria. Viable 0-24 hr-old embryonated egg masses were separately exposed to five different concentrations (7.81-2000 mg/l) of extracts for 24 hrs, washed in dechlorinated tap water and incubated at room temperature for a maximum of 4 weeks. The LC(50) and LC(90) values of test extracts for egg masses were calculated by probit analysis. The activities of the tested extracts were concentration-dependent. However, only the ethanolic extract of the fruits demonstrated significant activity (24 hr-LC(90) value < 100 mg/l: 89.29 mg/l). Mortalities of eggs were manifested at the gastrula/exogastrula and or the prehatch snail stage of development. The percentage of dead embryos at the prehatch snail stage decreased while the deaths of embryos at the gastrula/exogastrula stage increased, with increasing concentration of extract. Lethality of the ethanolic extract of D. sissoo fruits to embryonated egg masses of B. pfeifferi is an added advantage to its potential development for use as a plant molluscicide, as the overall efficacy of a molluscicide is greatly enhanced if it also shows significant toxicity towards snail eggs. PMID:20209005

Adenusi, Adedotun A; Odaibo, Alexander B

2009-03-07

131

Electrophoretic studies on the digestive gland esterases of some biomphalarid and lymnaeid snails  

PubMed Central

Because of the problems encountered in the classification of snails of medical importance, biochemical methods have been sought to help clarify the situation. Of these, the separation of the enzymes of adult snails by electrophoresis seems the most promising but very few attempts have been made so far to use the results for taxonomic studies. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the use of the enzyme systems of neotropical planorbid and of lymnaeid snails to elucidate their taxonomy and also snail—schistosome relationships at the species and population levels. The findings show the characteristic electrophoretic patterns of digestive gland esterases of the planorbid and lymnaeid snails used, as well as their variation and the level of such variation among certain populations and the consistency of the patterns among others. The results also show that, in general, the extent of variation between some populations of the same species is greater than the differences between species of the same group. However, at the specific level, there are similarities suggesting close relationships between some populations of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila on the one hand, and of certain populations of B. peregrina and of B. obstructa on the other hand. The present study has thrown some light on the question of electrophoretic variation in enzymes, and the ways in which this can be applied to studies of the genetics of snails. A correlation is suggested between certain patterns that indicate biochemical similarities or differences among the planorbid snail populations and the susceptibility of the species or the population to infection with the schistosomes. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 2

Malek, Emile A.; File, Sharon K.

1971-01-01

132

Biological control of the snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in the Caribbean area using Thiara spp.  

PubMed

Field observations and experiments using thiarid snails as competitors of Biomphalaria spp., potential intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in the Caribbean area, are reviewed. The parthenogenetic snails, Thiara granifera and T. (= Melanoides) tuberculata, were introduced to the Neotropical area in recent decades. In numerous islands and countries, these oriental species have demonstrated their capacity to colonize rapidly and densely many types of habitats while at the same time reducing and even eliminating populations of Biomphalaria spp. The results of field experiments, carried out in several Caribbean islands, have shown the efficiency as well as the limitations of T. tuberculata as a competitor of B. glabrata and B. straminea. In St. Lucia, B. glabrata was apparently eliminated from marshes and streams, 6 to 22 months after the introduction of the competitor. In Martinique, T. tuberculata was introduced into two groups of water-cress beds which constituted the last transmission sites of schistosomiasis on the island. In just less than three years after the introduction of the competitor, both B. glabrata and B. straminea have been eliminated from the transmission sites. In Guadeloupe, several introductions have been carried out in different types of habitat such as permanent ponds, canals, streams and temporary marshes. The findings of all field experiments have indicated that thiarid snails as competitors of pulmonates are favoured by the presence of permanent and stable habitats, preferably shallow, with emergent plants and well oxygenated. On the other hand, the competitor snails are at a disadvantage in waterbodies which are temporary, extremely deep, poorly oxygenated or with a dense mat of floating aquatic vegetation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2566267

Pointier, J P; McCullough, F

1989-05-01

133

Comparative toxicity of Euphorbia milii latex and synthetic molluscicides to Biomphalaria glabrata embryos.  

PubMed

Plant molluscicides have been regarded as possible alternatives to the costly and environmentally hazardous molluscicides currently available. This study was undertaken to compare the developmental toxicity of a plant molluscicide (Euphorbia milii latex, LAT) with that of three synthetic molluscicidal compounds. Biomphalaria glabrata egg masses (0-15 h after spawning) were exposed to molluscicides for 96 h and thereafter examined up to the 14th day after spawning. Embryo deaths, abnormal embryo development (malformations) and the day of hatching were recorded. Although exhibiting a weak ovicidal effect, LAT markedly impaired the development of snail embryos at concentrations 1000 microg L(-1) and produced anomalies (EC(50)=2040 microg L(-1)) such as abnormal shells, hydropic embryos, cephalic and non-specific malformations. Embryolethal potencies of molluscicides were as follows: triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH; LC(50)=0.30 microg L(-1))>niclosamide (NCL; LC(50)=70 microg L(-1))>copper sulphate (CuSO(4); LC(50)=2190 microg L(-1)) > LAT (LC(50)=34030 microg L(-1)). A few malformations were recorded in embryos exposed to concentrations of TPTH within the range of lethal concentrations, while almost no anomalies were noted among those treated with NCL or CuSO(4). A hatching delay (hatching on day 10 after spawning or later) was observed among LAT-exposed embryos. The effects of NCL, TPTH and CuSO4 on hatching were to some extent masked by their marked embryolethality. The no-observed effect concentrations (NOEC) for embryotoxicity were as follows: TPTH, 0.1 microg L(-1); NCL, 25.0 microg L(-1); CuSO(4), 500.0 microg L(-1) and LAT, 500.0 microg L(-1). Results from this study suggest that, although LAT was not acutely embryolethal after a short-term exposure, it markedly disrupted snail development. The marked embryotoxicity of E. milii possibly contributes to its effectiveness as a molluscicide. PMID:20594574

Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo C; Geraldino, Barbara R; Coelho, Deise R; De-Carvalho, Rosângela R; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

2010-07-01

134

Effects of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium infections on calcium content in their intermediate hosts.  

PubMed

Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was performed to determine the alteration of calcium concentration in the soft parts and shells of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus due to the infection with Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively. The results showed significant lowering in the calcium content of the shells of cercariae shedding B. alexandrina and B. truncatus relative to the calcium content in the shells of uninfected ones. In contrast, the calcium content in the soft parts of cercariae shedding snails was higher than in the soft parts of uninfected snails; the differences were statistically significant. Generally, calcium content was significantly higher in the shells than in the soft parts of the snails, regardless infected or uninfected. The results obtained and the hypothesis of hypercalcification in shells of infected snails were discussed. PMID:17497170

Mostafa, Osama Mohammad Sayed

2007-05-12

135

Biomphalysin, a New ? Pore-forming Toxin Involved in Biomphalaria glabrata Immune Defense against Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Aerolysins are virulence factors belonging to the ? pore-forming toxin (?-PFT) superfamily that are abundantly distributed in bacteria. More rarely, ?-PFTs have been described in eukaryotic organisms. Recently, we identified a putative cytolytic protein in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, whose primary structural features suggest that it could belong to this ?-PFT superfamily. In the present paper, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterization of this protein, which we call Biomphalysin, and demonstrate that it is indeed a new eukaryotic ?-PFT. We show that, despite weak sequence similarities with aerolysins, Biomphalysin shares a common architecture with proteins belonging to this superfamily. A phylogenetic approach revealed that the gene encoding Biomphalysin could have resulted from horizontal transfer. Its expression is restricted to immune-competent cells and is not induced by parasite challenge. Recombinant Biomphalysin showed hemolytic activity that was greatly enhanced by the plasma compartment of B. glabrata. We further demonstrated that Biomphalysin with plasma is highly toxic toward Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts. Using in vitro binding assays in conjunction with Western blot and immunocytochemistry analyses, we also showed that Biomphalysin binds to parasite membranes. Finally, we showed that, in contrast to what has been reported for most other members of the family, lytic activity of Biomphalysin is not dependent on proteolytic processing. These results provide the first functional description of a mollusk immune effector protein involved in killing S. mansoni.

Mone, Yves; Allienne, Jean Francois; Henri, Helene; Delbecq, Stephane; Mitta, Guillaume; Gourbal, Benjamin; Duval, David

2013-01-01

136

Biomphalaria straminea (Mollusca: Planorbidae) as an Intermediate Host of Ribeiroia sp. (Trematoda: Psilostomidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Abstract : Species of Ribeiroia are trematode parasites of birds and mammals that have acquired notoriety since Ribeiroia ondatrae was identified as a cause of mortality and malformations in North American amphibians. Although species of Ribeiroia have been reported in vertebrate hosts in South America, the snails involved in its transmission remain unknown in Brazil. During malacological studies conducted at Pampulha Reservoir, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between January 2009 and February 2012, in total 14,264 specimens of Biomphalaria straminea were collected, of which 192 (1.35%) were infected with gymnocephalous cercariae. The larvae were used for experimental infection of laboratory-reared guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ); metacercariae obtained in these fishes were orally administered to domestic ducks (Cairina moschata); and adult parasites were obtained from the proventriculus 10 days after infection. Based on morphological and molecular analyses, the parasite was identified as Ribeiroia sp., a species morphologically similar to R. ondatrae , but distinctly different at the molecular level. This is the first report of larvae of Ribeiroia in Brazil and B. straminea as a new intermediate host for this genus. PMID:23421393

Pinto, H A; Jadin, R C; Orlofske, S A; Johnson, P T J; Melo, A L

2013-02-19

137

Biomphalysin, a new ? pore-forming toxin involved in Biomphalaria glabrata immune defense against Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Aerolysins are virulence factors belonging to the ? pore-forming toxin (?-PFT) superfamily that are abundantly distributed in bacteria. More rarely, ?-PFTs have been described in eukaryotic organisms. Recently, we identified a putative cytolytic protein in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, whose primary structural features suggest that it could belong to this ?-PFT superfamily. In the present paper, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterization of this protein, which we call Biomphalysin, and demonstrate that it is indeed a new eukaryotic ?-PFT. We show that, despite weak sequence similarities with aerolysins, Biomphalysin shares a common architecture with proteins belonging to this superfamily. A phylogenetic approach revealed that the gene encoding Biomphalysin could have resulted from horizontal transfer. Its expression is restricted to immune-competent cells and is not induced by parasite challenge. Recombinant Biomphalysin showed hemolytic activity that was greatly enhanced by the plasma compartment of B. glabrata. We further demonstrated that Biomphalysin with plasma is highly toxic toward Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts. Using in vitro binding assays in conjunction with Western blot and immunocytochemistry analyses, we also showed that Biomphalysin binds to parasite membranes. Finally, we showed that, in contrast to what has been reported for most other members of the family, lytic activity of Biomphalysin is not dependent on proteolytic processing. These results provide the first functional description of a mollusk immune effector protein involved in killing S. mansoni. PMID:23555242

Galinier, Richard; Portela, Julien; Moné, Yves; Allienne, Jean François; Henri, Hélène; Delbecq, Stéphane; Mitta, Guillaume; Gourbal, Benjamin; Duval, David

2013-03-21

138

Trematode infections in freshwater snails and cattle from the Kafue wetlands of Zambia during a period of highest cattle-water contact.  

PubMed

A total of 984 snails, comprising nine species, were collected from six areas in the Kafue wetlands between August and October 2003 to assess larval trematode infections. Of these, 135 (13.7%) were positive. Most trematode infections were recorded from Lymnaea natalensis (42.8%), which harboured four of the five morphologically different cercariae found. No trematodes were recovered from Bellamya capillata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata, Physa acuta and Cleopatra nswendweensis. One snail (0.2%) of 416 Bulinus snails shed brevifurcate-apharyngeate distome cercariae while three (0.7%) shed amphistomes. Gymnocephalous and longifurcate-pharyngeate distome were the commonest types of cercariae recorded while xiphidiocercaria was the least common. The highest prevalence rates of F. gigantica (68.8%) and amphistomes (50.0%) in cattle (n = 101) were in Chiyasa while those in Kaleya had the lowest (9.1 and 18.2%, respectively). In most habitats, infections were recorded in both cattle and snails. Critical determinants of infection may have been the distance of settlements and/or cattle kraals, the number of animals in nearby homesteads and the presence of susceptible host snails. This study suggests that fascioliasis and amphistomiasis could be major constraints of cattle production in the Kafue wetlands because favourable factors were available to introduce and maintain the infections. It further provides a starting point for some comprehensive studies on snail-related aspects of transmission and snail host ecology in Zambia. PMID:17381873

Phiri, A M; Phiri, I K; Chota, A; Monrad, J

2007-03-01

139

Female biased sex-ratio in Schistosoma mansoni after exposure to an allopatric intermediate host strain of Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

For parasites that require multiple hosts to complete their development, the interaction with the intermediate host may have an impact on parasite transmission and development in the definitive host. The human parasite Schistosoma mansoni needs two different hosts to complete its life cycle: the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata (in South America) as intermediate host and a human or rodents as final host. To investigate the influence of the host environment on life history traits in the absence of selection, we performed experimental infections of two B. glabrata strains of different geographic origin with the same clonal population of S. mansoni. One B. glabrata strain is the sympatric host and the other one the allopatric host. We measured prevalence in the snail, the cercarial infectivity, sex-ratio, immunopathology in the final host and microsatellite frequencies of individual larvae in three successive generations. We show that, even if the parasite population is clonal based on neutral markers, S. mansoni keeps the capacity of generating phenotypic plasticity and/or variability for different life history traits when confront to an unusual environment, in this study the intermediate host. The most dramatic change was observed in sex-ratio: in average 1.7 times more female cercariae were produced when the parasite developed in an allopatric intermediate host. PMID:23948341

Lepesant, Julie M J; Boissier, Jérôme; Climent, Déborah; Cosseau, Céline; Grunau, Christoph

2013-08-13

140

Current advances on the study of snail-snail interactions, with special emphasis on competition process.  

PubMed

Field work research on population dynamic of snails from the regions of Belo Horizonte and Lagoa Santa give much information about interactions among two or more species of mollusks: Pomacea haustrum, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila, B. straminea and Melanoides tuberculata. Data ranging from two years to several decades ago suggest that the Pampulha reservoir is like a cemetery of B. glabrata and B. straminea, species that coexist for more than 14 years in a small part of a stream, whereas only B. glabrata lives in all the streams of the basin. In the last ten to twenty years B. tenagophila has coexisted with P. haustrum and M. tuberculata in the Serra Verde ponds and in the Pampulha dam. However these species have not settled in any of the brooks, except temporarily. The data suggest that the kind of biotope and the habitat conditions are decisive factors for the permanence of each species in its preferencial biotope. B. glabrata, natural from streams and riverheads, quickly disappears from the reservoirs and ponds where it coexists with other species for a short time, independently of the competitive process. Competition needs to be better studied, since in Central America and Caribean islands this kind of study has favored the biological control of planorbid species. PMID:8531669

de Freitas, J R; dos Santos, M B

141

No effect of mate novelty on sexual motivation in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: When mating effort (e.g. via ejaculates) is high, males are expected to strategically allocate their resources depending on the expected fitness gains from a given mating opportunity. One mechanism to achieve strategic mating is the Coolidge effect, where male sexual motivation declines across repeated encounters with a familiar partner, but resuscitates when encountering a novel female. Experimental tests of

Ines K Häderer; Johanna Werminghausen; Nico K Michiels; Nadine Timmermeyer; Nils Anthes

2009-01-01

142

Environmental epidemiology of intestinal schistosomiasis and genetic diversity of Schistosoma mansoni infections in snails at Bugoigo village, Lake Albert.  

PubMed

Intestinal schistosomiasis continues to be hyper-endemic in the fishing community of Bugoigo located on the eastern shore of Lake Albert, Uganda. Our study aimed to identify the factors that determine the local distribution and abundance of Biomphalaria, as well as infection(s) with Schistosoma mansoni inclusive of their genetic diversity. In addition, a DNA barcoding approach was taken to genotype schistosome cercariae, exploring the micro-epidemiology of infections. Over a 3-week period in June-July 2010, several hundred Biomphalaria spp. were collected, together with environmental information, from 10 selected sites, representive of both putative wave-exposed (n=5) and wave-sheltered shorelines (n=5). A Mann-Whitney U-test and a generalized linear model were used to assess associations with snail abundance and parasite infections across the shoreline. Levels of local wave action were recorded over the 19-day period using digital accelerometers. The general absence of wave action on the sheltered shoreline likely helped to raise and focalize other environmental parameters, such as water conductivity by lack of mixing, that foster transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis. Over the study period, a total of 10 infected snails were encountered and a selection of schistosome cercariae from each infected snail was harvested for analysis by DNA barcoding. In total, 91 DNA barcodes were generated with 15 unique barcode types identified. Of these, 4 barcodes had been found previously in Lake Albert and (or) Victoria, the remaining 11 were newly encountered here and described. The distribution of DNA barcodes across infected snails and sampled locations revealed a complicated spatial sub-structuring. By shedding new light on the fine-scale patterning of infections, DNA barcoding has revealed a rather heterogeneous landscape of cercariae, likely inclusive of multi-miracidial infections within the snail, which will in turn interplay with human water contact activities to shape the genetic diversity of worm populations within infected people. PMID:23085327

Levitz, Sarah; Standley, Claire J; Adriko, Moses; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Stothard, J Russell

2012-10-17

143

Small Snails, Enormous Elephants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 2 of PDF) introduces learners to the real size of animals using nonstandard measurement. Learners use Unifix cubes and yarn lengths to measure a variety of animals (photos), from the very small like a snail to the very large like an elephant. As an extension, learners can use the cubes to create a bar graph depicting the animals' lengths.

Museum, Chicago C.

2011-01-01

144

Lichen endozoochory by snails.  

PubMed

Endozoochory plays a prominent role for the dispersal of seed plants. However, for most other plant taxa it is not known whether this mode of dispersal occurs at all. Among those other taxa, lichens as symbiotic associations of algae and fungi are peculiar as their successful dispersal requires movement of propagules that leaves the symbiosis functional. However, the potential for endozoochorous dispersal of lichen fragments has been completely overlooked. We fed sterile thalli of two foliose lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria and Physcia adscendens) differing in habitat and air-quality requirements to nine snail species common in temperate Europe. We demonstrated morphologically that L. pulmonaria regenerated from 29.0% of all 379 fecal pellets, whereas P. adscendens regenerated from 40.9% of all 433 fecal pellets, showing that lichen fragments survived gut passage of all snail species. Moreover, molecular analysis of regenerated lichens confirmed the species identity for a subset of samples. Regeneration rates were higher for the generalist lichen species P. adscendens than for the specialist lichen species L. pulmonaria. Furthermore, lichen regeneration rates varied among snail species with higher rates after gut passage of heavier snail species. We suggest that gastropods generally grazing on lichen communities are important, but so far completely overlooked, as vectors for lichen dispersal. This opens new ecological perspectives and questions the traditional view of an entirely antagonistic relationship between gastropods and lichens. PMID:21533256

Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Werth, Silke; Rüetschi, Jörg; Fischer, Markus

2011-04-13

145

Effects of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (sod1) Genotype and Genetic Background on Growth, Reproduction and Defense in Biomphalaria glabrata  

PubMed Central

Resistance of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to the trematode Schistosoma mansoni is correlated with allelic variation at copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (sod1). We tested whether there is a fitness cost associated with carrying the most resistant allele in three outbred laboratory populations of snails. These three populations were derived from the same base population, but differed in average resistance. Under controlled laboratory conditions we found no cost of carrying the most resistant allele in terms of fecundity, and a possible advantage in terms of growth and mortality. These results suggest that it might be possible to drive resistant alleles of sod1 into natural populations of the snail vector for the purpose of controlling transmission of S. mansoni. However, we did observe a strong effect of genetic background on the association between sod1 genotype and resistance. sod1 genotype explained substantial variance in resistance among individuals in the most resistant genetic background, but had little effect in the least resistant genetic background. Thus, epistatic interactions with other loci may be as important a consideration as costs of resistance in the use of sod1 for vector manipulation.

Bonner, Kaitlin M.; Bayne, Christopher J.; Larson, Maureen K.; Blouin, Michael S.

2012-01-01

146

Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces land snails for use in inquiry-based science activities. Describes common characteristics and safety considerations while introducing students to land snails. Explains procedures for inquiry-based use of land snails in classrooms. (YDS)|

Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

2002-01-01

147

Experimental evaluation of Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Crustacea: Ostracoda) in the biocontrol of Schistosomiasis mansoni transmission  

PubMed Central

Objective To test Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Baird) (C. novaezelandiae), sub-class Ostracoda, obtained from the Nile, Egypt for its predatory activity on snail, Biomphalaria alexandrina (B. alexandrina), intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) and on the free-living larval stages of this parasite (miracidia and cercariae). Methods The predatory activity of C. novaezelandiae was determined on B. alexandrina snail (several densities of eggs, newly hatched and juveniles). This activity was also determined on S. mansoni miracidia and cercariae using different volumes of water and different numbers of larvae. C. novaezelandiae was also tested for its effect on infection of snails and on the cercarial production. Results C. novaezelandiae was found to feed on the eggs, newly hatched and juvenile snails, but with significant reduction in the consumption in the presence of other diet like the blue green algae (Nostoc muscorum). This ostracod also showed considerable predatory activity on the free-living larval stages of S. mansoni which was affected by certain environmental factors such as volume of water, density of C. novaezelandiae and number of larvae of the parasite. Conclusions The presence of this ostracod in the aquatic habitat led to significant reduction of snail population, infection rate of snails with schistosme miracidia as well as of cercarial production from the infected snails. This may suggest that introducing C. novaezelandiae into the habitat at schistosome risky sites could suppress the transmission of the disease.

Yousif, Fouad; Hafez, Sherif; El Bardicy, Samia; Tadros, Menerva; Taleb, Hoda Abu

2013-01-01

148

A large-scale experiment in the control of aquatic snails by the use of molluscicides on a sugar estate in the Northern Region of Tanganyika*  

PubMed Central

The author describes a large-scale experiment in which the molluscicide Bayer 73 (Bayluscide) was used in an attempt to eliminate Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the snail host of Schistosoma mansoni, from an irrigation system in Tanganyika. Applied at a concentration of 1 p.p.m., the molluscicide gave a very high kill of snails and much of the treated area remained completely free of vector snails for seven months after treatment. However, there were a few survivors in small pockets associated with a drainage area that became flooded during heavy rains coincident with the application of molluscicide. From these survivors a dramatic resurgence of snails occurred in some of the treated canals. This resurgence may be analogous to similar phenomena observed in some insecticide work. The suggestion is made that removal of parasites and predators, in particular trematode parasites, by a molluscicide might increase the snail's capacity for repopulation. Studies of the seasonal fluctuations of snail population density in an adjacent, but separate, irrigation system suggest that molluscicide applications would be more effective if timed to coincide with the end of the rainy seasons. ImagesFIG. 2

Crossland, N. O.

1963-01-01

149

Invading freshwater snails and biological control in Martinique Island, French West Indies.  

PubMed

Eight alien freshwater snail species were introduced into Martinique Island during the last 50 years. The introduced snails include four planorbids (Biomphalaria straminea, Helisoma duryi, Amerianna carinata and Gyraulus sp.), three thiarids (Melanoides tuberculata, M. amabilis and Tarebia granifera) and one ampullarid (Marisa cornuarietis). Four of these species rapidly colonized the whole Martinican hydrographic system whereas the other four remained restricted to some particular sites. The invasion processes were documented during the last 20 years and showed (i) a rapid invasion of the island by several morphs of M. tuberculata at the beginning of the 80's; (ii) the introduction of T. granifera in 1991 and M. amabilis in 1997; and (iii) the rapid spread of these last two species throughout the island. In the years following its introduction, M. tuberculata was used in biological control experiments against the snail hosts of schistosomiasis, B. glabrata and B. straminea. Experiments were conducted with success in several groups of water-cress beds which constituted the latest transmission sites for schistosomiasis at the beginning of the 80's. A malacological survey carried out in 2000 all over the island showed the absence of B. glabrata but the presence of some residual populations of B. straminea. Long-term studies carried out in Martinique have shown that the thiarids are able to maintain relatively stable populations over a long period of time, thus preventing recolonization by the snail hosts. Within this context the invasion of the hydrographic system of Martinique by thiarid snails has resulted in an efficient and sustainable control of the intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis. PMID:11586428

Pointier, J P

2001-01-01

150

Involvement of the Cytokine MIF in the Snail Host Immune Response to the Parasite Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

We have identified and characterized a Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) family member in the Lophotrochozoan invertebrate, Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. In mammals, MIF is a widely expressed pleiotropic cytokine with potent pro-inflammatory properties that controls cell functions such as gene expression, proliferation or apoptosis. Here we show that the MIF protein from B. glabrata (BgMIF) is expressed in circulating immune defense cells (hemocytes) of the snail as well as in the B. glabrata embryonic (Bge) cell line that has hemocyte-like features. Recombinant BgMIF (rBgMIF) induced cell proliferation and inhibited NO-dependent p53-mediated apoptosis in Bge cells. Moreover, knock-down of BgMIF expression in Bge cells interfered with the in vitro encapsulation of S. mansoni sporocysts. Furthermore, the in vivo knock-down of BgMIF prevented the changes in circulating hemocyte populations that occur in response to an infection by S. mansoni miracidia and led to a significant increase in the parasite burden of the snails. These results provide the first functional evidence that a MIF ortholog is involved in an invertebrate immune response towards a parasitic infection and highlight the importance of cytokines in invertebrate-parasite interactions.

Baeza Garcia, Alvaro; Pierce, Raymond J.; Gourbal, Benjamin; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Colinet, Dominique; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Dissous, Colette; Coustau, Christine

2010-01-01

151

Inhibition of cholinesterases and carboxylesterases of two invertebrate species, Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus, by the carbamate pesticide carbaryl.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of sublethal concentrations of the carbamate carbaryl on the cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CES) activities present in the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and in the pigmented Biomphalaria glabrata gastropod were investigated. The results showed that ChE activity from both species was inhibited by in vivo and in vitro exposure to carbaryl, with EC(50) and IC(50) values approximately 20 times lower for the oligochaete than for the gastropod. On the other hand, the recovery process in uncontaminated media was more efficient in oligochaetes than in snails. Thus, in only 2h the oligochaetes showed no inhibition with respect to control values whereas the snails did not reach control values even after 48h of being in pesticide-free water. CES activity was investigated in whole body soft tissue homogenates using three different substrates: p-nitrophenyl butyrate, 1-naphthyl acetate (NA) and 2-NA. In addition, the presence of multiple CES isozymes in L. variegatus and B. glabrata extracts, with activity towards 1- and 2-NA, was confirmed by native polyacrylamide electrophoresis. In both species, the activities measured using the naphthyl substrates were higher than the activity towards p-nitrophenyl butyrate. In addition, B. glabrata showed a higher CES activity than L. variegatus independently of the substrate used. In L. variegatus, in vivo CES activity towards the different substrates was less sensitive to carbaryl inhibition than ChE activity. In contrast, in B. glabrata, CES activity towards p-nitrophenyl butyrate was inhibited at lower insecticide concentrations than ChE. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the sensitivity of non-target freshwater invertebrate Type B-esterases towards pesticides. PMID:19879661

Kristoff, Gisela; Guerrero, Noemi R Verrengia; Cochón, Adriana C

2009-10-08

152

Identification of a genetic marker associated with the resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

In schistosomiasis, the host/parasite interaction remains not completely understood. Many questions related to the susceptibility of snails to infection by respective trematode still remain unanswered. The control of schistosomiasis requires a good understanding of the host/parasite association. In this work, the susceptibility/resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection within Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were studied starting one month post infection and continuing thereafter weekly up to 10 weeks after miracidia exposure. Genetic variations between susceptible and resistant strains to Schistosoma infection within B. alexandrina snails using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis technique were also carried out. The results showed that 39.8% of the examined field snails were resistant, while 60.2% of these snails showed high infection rates.In the resistant genotype snails, OPA-02 primer produced a major low molecular weight marker 430 bp. Among the two snail strains there were interpopulational variations, while the individual specimens from the same snail strain, either susceptible or resistant, record semi-identical genetic bands. Also, the resistant character was ascendant in contrast to a decline in the susceptibility of snails from one generation to the next. PMID:17293980

Abdel-Hamid, Abdel-Hamid Z; Rawi, Sayed M; Arafa, Azza F

2006-12-01

153

Identification of protein components of egg masses indicates parental investment in immunoprotection of offspring by Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Mollusca)  

PubMed Central

The macromolecules contributed by the freshwater gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, to developing offspring inside egg masses are poorly known. SDS-PAGE fractionated egg mass fluids (EMF) of M line and BB02 B. glabrata were analyzed by MALDI-TOF (MS and tandem MS). A MASCOT database was assembled with EST data from B. glabrata and other molluscs to aid in sequence characterization. Of approximately 20 major EMF polypeptides, 16 were identified as defense-related, including protease inhibitors, a hemocyanin-like factor and tyrosinase (each with possible phenoloxidase activity), extracellular Cu-Zn SOD, two categories of C-type lectins, Gram negative bacteria-binding protein (GNBP), aplysianin/achacin-like protein, as well as versions of lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) that differed from those previously described from hemocytes. Along with two sequences that were encoded by “unknown” ESTs, EMF also yielded a compound containing a vWF domain that is likely involved in defense and a polypeptide with homology to the Aplysia pheromone temptin. Further study of B. glabrata pheromones is warranted as these could be useful in efforts to control these schistosome-transmitting snails. Several of the EMF polypeptides were contained in the albumen gland, the organ that produces most EMF. Thus parental investment of B. glabrata in immunoprotection of its offspring is indicated to be considerable.

Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Adema, Coen M.; Stout, Barbara A.; Mobarak, Charlotte D; Loker, Eric S

2009-01-01

154

Susceptibility of Biomphalaria straminea from Peixe Angical dam, Tocantins, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Environmental changes from water resource developmental projects affect the epidemiology of water-associated diseases, as well as malaria and schistosomiasis. Aiming to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area of influence of the Peixe Angical hydroelectric dam, a survey has been conducted over four years (2004-2008). The study has revealed the occurrence of populations of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker) in all municipalities surrounding the lake. Studies on parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using 35 populations of B. straminea, descendants of specimens obtained from that area and three strains of Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon) (BH, CM and CMO). The main results are as follows: (i) among the 1,314 specimens used, eight had been infected (infection index of 0.6%) with only the BH strain, (ii) for B. straminea populations, the mortality index was 6.8% and, depending on the strain used, the indexes were 4.6%, 8.49% and 19% with BH, CM and CMO strains, respectively, (iii) the infection indexes varied according to the B. straminea populations, ranging from 0-12.5% and (iv) the duration of the precercarial period varied from 25-49 days. These results, in addition to environmental and social changes that took place in the Peixe Angical dam region, indicate the possibility of B. straminea emerging as a schistosomiasis vector in this area. PMID:20721496

Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

2010-07-01

155

Time series analysis of the transcriptional responses of Biomphalaria glabrata throughout the course of intramolluscan development of Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma paraensei  

PubMed Central

Successful colonization of a compatible snail host by a digenetic trematode miracidium initiates a complex, proliferative development program requiring weeks to reach culmination in the form of production of cercariae which, once started, may persist for the remainder of the life span of the infected snail. How are such proliferative and invasive parasites able to circumvent host defenses and establish chronic infections? Using a microarray designed to monitor the internal defense and stress-related responses of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we have undertaken a time course study to monitor snail responses following exposure to two different trematode species to which the snail is susceptible: the medically important Schistosoma mansoni, exemplifying sporocyst production in its larval development, or Echinostoma paraensei, representing an emphasis on rediae production in its larval development. We sampled eight time points (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days p.i.) that cover the period required for cercariae to be produced. Following exposure to S. mansoni, there was a preponderance of up-regulated over down-regulated array features through 2 days p.i. but by 4 days p.i. and thereafter, this pattern was strongly reversed. For E. paraensei, there was a preponderance of down-regulated array features over up-regulated features at even 0.5 days p.i., a pattern that persists throughout the course of infection except for 1 day p.i., when up-regulated array features slightly outnumbered down-regulated features. Examination of particular array features revealed several that were up-regulated by both parasites early in the course of infection and one, fibrinogen related protein 4 (FREP 4), that remained significantly elevated throughout the course of infection with either parasite, effectively serving as a marker of infection. Many defense-related transcripts were persistently down-regulated, including several fibrinogen-containing lectins and homologs of molecules best known from vertebrate phagocytic cells. Our results are consistent with earlier studies suggesting that both parasites are able to interfere with host defense responses, including a tendency for E. paraensei to do so more rapidly and strongly than S. mansoni They further suggest mechanisms for how trematodes are able to establish the chronic infections necessary for their continued success.

Hanington, Patrick C.; Lun, Cheng-Man; Adema, Coen M; Loker, Eric S

2010-01-01

156

Adaptive responses and latent costs of multigeneration cadmium exposure in parasite resistant and susceptible strains of a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Population response to anthropogenic activities will be influenced by prior adaptation to environmental conditions. We tested how parasite-resistant and -susceptible strains of the freshwater snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, responded to cadmium and elevated temperature challenges after having been exposed to low-level cadmium continuously for multiple generations. Snails exposed to cadmium for three generations were removed for the fourth generation, and challenged in the fifth generation with (1) chronic cadmium exposure over the entire life cycle; (2) lethal cadmium exposure of adults; and (3) elevated temperature challenge of adults. The parasite susceptible NMRI strain is more cadmium tolerant than the parasite resistant BS90 strain and remained more tolerant than BS90 throughout this study. Additionally, NMRI exhibited greater adaptive capacity for cadmium than BS90 and became more tolerant of both chronic and lethal cadmium challenges, while BS90 became more tolerant of lethal cadmium challenge only. Fitness costs, reflected in population growth rate, were not apparent in fifth generation snails maintained in control conditions. However, costs were latent and expressed as decreased tolerance to a secondarily imposed temperature stress. Adaptation to prior selection pressures can influence subsequent adaptation to anthropogenic stresses and may have associated costs that reduce fitness in novel environments. PMID:20703799

Salice, Christopher J; Anderson, Todd A; Roesijadi, G

2010-08-12

157

The Development of Snail Control Methods on an Irrigated Sugar-Cane Estate in Northern Tanzania*  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to prevent the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni on an irrigated sugar-cane estate, molluscicide experiments were carried out to find the optimum methods for controlling the intermediate-host snails, Biomphalaria pfeifferi. The ease of application of N-tritylmorpholine led to its adoption as the molluscicide of choice for the two separate irrigation systems on the estate. Experiments on the frequency and duration of molluscicide treatments were carried out, and from these it was concluded that 5-day applications of N-tritylmorpholine at 0.025 ppm every 7 weeks might lead to a break in transmission by control of the snails. In another set of trials, drainage ditches were treated alternately with N-tritylmorpholine and niclosamide ethanolamine salt, and although the chemicals differed only slightly in their effect, the latter—being ovicidal—was chosen to be applied at approximately 4 ppm by knapsack sprayer every 8 weeks. Extra treatment of small pools with the same compound was carried out during the long rains when irrigation was unnecessary and most of the canals were dry. It is pointed out that the effect of the control methods on S. mansoni transmission will need to be evaluated by studying the incidence of the disease in the population.

Fenwick, A.

1970-01-01

158

Effect of crude extract of Solanum xanthocarpum against snails and mosquito larvae.  

PubMed

The ethanolic crude extract from Solanum xanthocarpum was investigated for its molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, and Indoplanorbis exustus, the snail vector of intestinal echinostomiasis and Schistosoma spindale, together with the larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti, mosquito vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever and Culex quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of urban bancroftian filariasis. The bioassays were carried out following the methods recommended by the World Health Organization. For molluscicidal activity, the LC50 against Bi. glabrata and I. exustus were reported at 163.85 and 198.00 mg/l while the LC90 were 219.33 and 236.80 mg/l, respectively. Regarding mosquito larvicidal activity, the LC50 against the larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 788.10 and 573.20 mg/l, while the LC90 were 1288.91 and 1066.93 mg/l, respectively. These results suggest a preparation of ingredients from this plant may be used as a biological larvicide for these vectors in the field. PMID:20578514

Changbunjong, Tanasak; Wongwit, Waranya; Leemingsawat, Somjai; Tongtokit, Yuwadee; Deesin, Vanida

2010-03-01

159

Terrestrial snails use predator-diet to assess danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aquatic snails are able to use chemical cues (kairomones) to differentiate between predators that have fed on snails and predators that have eaten other prey. However, it is unknown if terrestrial snails are able to differentiate between snail-fed predators and predators that have not recently consumed snails. Here we document diet-based chemical discrimination of a predator, the ground beetle

Hugh Lefcort; Frida Ben-Ami; Joseph Heller

2006-01-01

160

Effects of azinphos-methyl exposure on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus.  

PubMed

Azinphos-methyl is an organophosphate insecticide used for pest control on a number of food crops in many parts of the world. The oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and pigmented and non-pigmented specimens of the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata are freshwater invertebrates that have been recommended for contamination studies. Recently, it has been shown that L. variegatus worms exhibit a higher cholinesterase (ChE) activity and a greater sensitivity to in vivo ChE inhibition by azinphos-methyl than pigmented B. glabrata snails. The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate if, in addition to its anticholinesterase action, azinphos-methyl has also pro-oxidant activity in L. variegatus and B. glabrata, and (2) to examine if species that are highly susceptible to the neurotoxic effects of organophosphates also suffer a greater degree of oxidative stress. Therefore, total glutathione (t-GSH) levels and activities of cholinesterase (ChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were measured in the whole body soft tissue of organisms exposed for 48 and 96 h to a level of azinphos-methyl that produces 50% of inhibition on ChE. Results showed different patterns of antioxidant responses between the gastropods and the oligochaetes, and even between the two phenotypes of gastropods: (1) in exposed L. variegatus t-GSH levels increased and CAT and SOD activities decreased with respect to control organisms, (2) in pigmented gastropods, SOD decreased while CAT transiently diminished, and (3) in non-pigmented gastropods, SOD activity showed a biphasic response. GST and G6PDH were not altered by azinphos-methyl exposure. Of note, t-GSH levels were 4-fold times higher in L. variegatus than in both phenotypes of B. glabrata. This may suggest that GSH could play a more important role in antioxidant defense in L. variegatus than in B. glabrata. PMID:18533225

Kristoff, Gisela; Verrengia Guerrero, Noemí R; Cochón, Adriana C

2008-06-03

161

Celss nutrition system utilizing snails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

162

Fungal farming in a snail.  

PubMed

Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria irrorata grazes fungus-infected wounds on live marsh grass throughout its range. Field experiments demonstrate a facultative, farming mutualism between Littoraria and intertidal fungi. Snails graze live grass primarily not to feed but to prepare substrate for fungal growth and consume invasive fungi. Fungal removal experiments show that snails and fungi act synergistically to suppress marsh grass production. These results provide a case of fungus farming in the marine environment and outside the class Insecta and reveal a previously undemonstrated ecological mechanism (i.e., facilitation of fungal invasion) by which grazers can exert top-down control of marine plant production. PMID:14657360

Silliman, Brian R; Newell, Steven Y

2003-12-04

163

Fungal farming in a snail  

PubMed Central

Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria irrorata grazes fungus-infected wounds on live marsh grass throughout its range. Field experiments demonstrate a facultative, farming mutualism between Littoraria and intertidal fungi. Snails graze live grass primarily not to feed but to prepare substrate for fungal growth and consume invasive fungi. Fungal removal experiments show that snails and fungi act synergistically to suppress marsh grass production. These results provide a case of fungus farming in the marine environment and outside the class Insecta and reveal a previously undemonstrated ecological mechanism (i.e., facilitation of fungal invasion) by which grazers can exert top-down control of marine plant production.

Silliman, Brian R.; Newell, Steven Y.

2003-01-01

164

Desmettianosides A and B, bisdesmosidic furostanol saponins with molluscicidal activity from Yucca desmettiana.  

PubMed

Bioactivity-guided separation of the aqueous methanolic extract of Yucca desmettiana leaves, which in a preliminary screening exhibited significant molluscicidal activity, led to the isolation and structure elucidation of two new steroidal saponins (1 and 2). The structures of desmettianosides A and B, identified as bisdesmosidic furostanol glycosides with six and five sugar units, respectively, were established by detailed spectroscopic analyses of their NMR and MS data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited high molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails with LC100 values of 6 and 11 mg/L, respectively. PMID:22406421

Diab, Yasser; Ioannou, Efstathia; Emam, Ahmed; Vagias, Constantinos; Roussis, Vassilios

2012-03-03

165

Schistosomiasis in newly reclaimed areas in Egypt. 2--Patterns of transmission.  

PubMed

The distribution, abundance and seasonality of infected Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus were studied for 2 years (1992-1994) in two newly reclaimed areas, namely El Manayef and El-Morra areas located on both sides of Suez Canal near Ismailia City. The results confirm the occurrence of transmission of both Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium since infected snails of both species were recovered in these areas. This consequently proves that reclamation of parts of the desert utilizing Nile water had led to spread of schistosomiasis to these areas. Analysis of the data shows that the infected snails, especially B. alexandrina, were found clustered in a relatively few numbers of transmission sites and furthermore the greater majority of these sites were found located within a less number of transmission foci. This pattern of focality is clearly demonstrated by Geographical Information System (GIS) produced maps. Infected B. alexandrina snails fluctuated seasonally showing 2 peaks, a minor peak in August and a higher one in November. Only one peak of infected B. truncatus was recognized in July. PMID:10605512

Yousif, F; el-Emam, M; Abdel Kader, A; el-Din, A S; el-Hommossany, K; Shiff, C

1999-08-01

166

Molluscicidal and schistosomicidal activities of a steroidal saponin containing fraction from Dracaena fragrans (L.).  

PubMed

The steroidal saponin-containing fraction from methanolic extract of Dracaena fragrans (Family: Agavaceae) was tested for molluscicidal and ovicidal activities against Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, the snail vectors of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in Egypt, respectively. It was also tested for schistosemicidal activity in vitro on adult S. mansoni and against the free-living miracidia and cercariae of the parasite. The homogenated soft body of B. alexandrina was used to determine the effect of the saponin fraction on total protein, albumen, aminotransferase enzymes and acetylcholin esterase. The results showed that the saponin fraction had considerable molluscicidal activity; LC50 & LC90 were 2.7 ppm & 3.7 ppm for B. alexandrina and 2 ppm & 2.5 ppm for B. truncatus, respectively. Snail eggs did not hatch in concentration as low as half molluscicidal LC50 (1.35 ppm). The LC50 killed all miracidia and cercariae in 30 seconds and after 22 & 40 minutes at a very low concentration (0.165 ppm) respectively, and had in vitro lethal effect on adults with LC50 18.4 microg/ml 4 days post-exposure. The snail tissue homogenate showed significant increase in total protein content & albumen, in aminotransferases and acetylcholinesterase activities. PMID:18853630

Tadros, M M; Ghaly, N S; Moharib, M N

2008-08-01

167

Laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal and cercaricidal activities of the Egyptian weed, Solanum nigrum L.  

PubMed

The molluscicidal properties of Solanum nigrum L. were tested against three Egyptian snail species (Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus and Lymnaea natalensis), each an intermediate host of parasites causing human schistosomiasis or fascioliasis. The plant was collected in two regions within Egypt: Fayium and Giza. Snails were exposed for 24 and 48 h, to the dry powdered fruits and leaves or to crude water extracts of the powders, and mortality was recorded. The water extract of the leaves collected in Fayium (FLWE) had the highest molluscicidal activity, with median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 18.6 mg/litre for Bi. alexandrina, 14.5 mg/litre for Bu. truncatus and 17.7 mg/litre for L. natalensis. When Bi. alexandrina infected with Schistosoma mansoni were exposed to FLWE (20 or 25 mg/litre), they shed significantly fewer cercariae than unexposed snails (P < 0.02). The cercaricidal properties of FLWE were directly tested against S. haematobium, S. mansoni and Fasciola gigantica cercariae and a time-concentration relationship was observed; the concentrations needed to kill all cercariae (LC100) within 30 min of exposure were 30 mg/litre for both S. haematobium and S. mansoni and 40 mg/litre for F. gigantica. PMID:9579213

Ahmed, A H; Ramzy, R M

1997-12-01

168

Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells.  

PubMed

Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of key enzymes. This results in enhanced glucose dependency and leads to cell death under low-glucose conditions. On the other hand, the reduced requirements for oxygen and nutrients from the surrounding environment, might confer the resistance to cell death induced by hypoxia and malnutrition. PMID:23438434

Haraguchi, Misako; Indo, Hiroko P; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Fukushige, Tomoko; Majima, Hideyuki J; Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Kanekura, Takuro; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Ozawa, Masayuki

2013-02-21

169

Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: V - Norte fluminense mesoregion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the forth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Sul Fluminense Mesoregion from 2000 to 2002 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 18 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria peregrina; Biomphalaria straminea; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex;

Silvana C Thiengo; Aline C Mattos; M Fernanda Boaventura; Monica A Fernandez; Sonia B Santos

2004-01-01

170

Interaction between the intermediate host of Schistosomiasis in Brazil Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae) and a possible competitor Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae): I. Laboratory experiments.  

PubMed

The biological control of Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, is one the accepted options to fight schistosomiasis. One of the most promising candidates to control B. glabrata is the snail Melanoides tuberculata, a potential competitor. However, the mechanisms of interaction between the two species are not clear. Our objective is to determine if M. tuberculata indeed compete with B. glabrata, using two laboratory experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the effect of the presence of M. tuberculata on the fecundity and mortality rates of B. glabrata. In Experiment 2, we tested if there was a direct or indirect interaction between the two species. In Experiment 1, M. tuberculata was eliminated after the peak in reproductive activity of B. glabrata. In Experiment 2, B. glabrata produced more egg masses when raised with M. tuberculata. The conditions leading to this unexpected positive effect of M. tuberculata on the fecundity of B. glabrata need further clarification, but emphasize that detailed studies of the interaction between these species in the conditions of the local environment should be considered. PMID:12048567

Giovanelli, Alexandre; Vieira, Marcus Vinícius; Coelho da Silva, Cesar Luiz Pinto Ayres

2002-04-01

171

Study of a population of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835) and of schistosomiasis transmission in "Alto da Boa Vista", Rio de Janeiro.  

PubMed

The present study was performed using data from a Biomphalaria tenagophila population located in a watercress garden in the Alto da Boa Vista region representing an isolated focal point of schistosomiasis in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The density and age structure of this B. tenagophila population and its rate of infection by Schistosoma mansoni were studied for a period of 15 months. The snail population showed seasonal variation in density, with a decrease in number of individuals at the beginning of the rainy season. At the end of this season, the population consisted mainly of adults (92.8% in May 1985 and 82.8% in April 1986). The population growth curve was logistic and of sigmoidal configuration. Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were eliminated over a short period of time (March, April and May 1986). The release of cercariae of S. mansoni and of birds seems to depend on environmental temperature, which during certain months would show a daily variation of up to 13 degrees C, with the lower thermal limit approaching the limit value for sporocyte development. PMID:2520827

Baptista, D F; Vasconcelos, M C; Schall, V T

172

Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Land snails are common invertebrates that fascinate children. Unfortunately, they are seldom used for activities in the science classroom. Snails are inexpensive, take up little space in the classroom, and require only low maintenance, and their learning dividends can be enormous. For example, students can use them in inquiry-based activities…

Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

2005-01-01

173

Can snails ever be effective and safe biocontrol agents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of snails as biocontrol agents against other snails and against aquatic weeds is reviewed, evaluating their success and their impacts on non-target organisms. The predatory snail Euglandina rosea (and other species), although widely used against Achatina fulica (the giant African land snail) on Pacific and Indian Ocean islands, has not been shown to control A. fulica but has

Robert H. Cowie

2001-01-01

174

Invertebrate host-parasite relationships: convergent evolution of a tropomyosin epitope between Schistosoma sp., Fasciola hepatica, and certain pulmonate snails.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against Schistosoma mansoni tropomyosin isoform, SMTM (Xu et al. Experimental Parasitology 69, 373-392, 1989), were used to test for cross-reactivity with Biomphalaria glabrata antigens. One mAb (1F10) recognized antigens of 39, 41, and 80 kDa in a snail head/foot antigen preparation but not a hepatopancreas antigen preparation. Another mAb (1C1) cross-reacted with a 39-kDa antigen in the head/foot extract but not in the hepatopancreas extract. Epitope mapping revealed the 1F10 epitope to be between amino acids 135 and 188 of both Bg39 (Dissous et al. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 43, 245-256, 1990) and BgTMII (Weston and Kemp, Experimental Parasitology 76, 358-370, 1993), while the 1C1 epitope was located between amino acids 189 and 213 of BgTMII. Various invertebrate species, including members from Trematoda, Pulmonata, Annelida, and Arthropoda, were tested for cross-reactivity with the monoclonal antibodies. While the 1F10 mAb displayed broad invertebrate cross-reactivity, the 1C1 mAb cross-reactivity was restricted to schistosomes, F. hepatica, and the pulmonate snails B. glabrata and Physa sp. PMID:7512930

Weston, D; Allen, B; Thakur, A; LoVerde, P T; Kemp, W M

1994-05-01

175

Susceptibility of wild populations of Biomphalaria spp. from neotropical South America to Schistosoma mansoni and interference of Zygocotyle lunata.  

PubMed

Populations of Biomphalaria straminea, Biomphalaria peregrina , Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria orbignyi, and Biomphalaria oligoza from different Argentine localities were exposed to miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni EC strain, and Biomphalaria tenagophila, in addition to the SJ2 strain. Biomphalaria straminea and B. tenagophila displayed different susceptibility and compatibility (Frandsen's total cercariae production index class 0-II), whereas B. orbigny and B. oligoza were incompatible. Although B. peregrina and B. tenagophila were found naturally infected with the amphistome Zygocotyle lunata, all 5 species could be experimentally infected with Z. lunata. Exposure to Z. lunata infections with S. mansoni were obtained in natural populations of B. straminea and B. tenagophila with the EC strain (13.5-17.1% and 1.2%), respectively, and in B. tenagophila with the SJ2 strain (2.6%), 60 days postexposure [PE]), and in B. orbignyi and B. oligoza (31.1% and 26.7% 60 days PE, respectively, including single infections with S. mansoni and double infections with Z. lunata). The high susceptibility of B. orbignyi and B. oligoza is noteworthy, as these 2 species are considered resistant to S. mansoni . PMID:22524265

Spatz, Linus; Cappa, Stella Maris Gonzalez; de Núñez, Margarita Ostrowski

2012-04-23

176

Biomphalaria straminea and Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Planorbidae) as new intermediate hosts of the fish eyefluke Austrodiplostomum compactum (Trematoda: Diplostomidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Austrodiplostomum compactum has been involved in cases of ocular diplostomiasis in several species of fish in Brazil, but the molluscan intermediate hosts of the parasite remain unknown. In the present study, malacological surveys were carried out at Pampulha Reservoir, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between January 2009 and July 2012. A total of 16,119 specimens of Biomphalaria spp. were collected and examined, of which 68/14,948 specimens (0.45%) of Biomphalaria straminea and 6/541 (1.11%) of Biomphalaria glabrata were found harboring a strigeid cercariae. Groups of 5 specimens of Cyprinius carpio were experimentally infected with these cercariae (100 larvae/fish), and metacercariae were recovered from the eyes of the fish, 65 days after infection, with a mean intensity of infection of 10.4 (8-13) metacercariae/fish. Morphological study on cercariae and metacercariae identified them as A. compactum . This is the first record of cercariae of A. compactum in Brazil, and B. straminea and B. glabrata as new intermediate hosts for the parasite. PMID:23360402

Pinto, H A; Melo, A L

2013-01-29

177

Apparent competition through facilitation between Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata and the control of schistosomiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between two species that result in reduced growth rates for both and extinction of one of the species are generally considered cases of asymmetric interspecific competition. Exploitative or interference competition is the usual mechanism invoked. Here we describe another mechanism producing the same result, named apparent competition through facilitation (ACF), observed between Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria glabrata popu- lations.

Alexandre Giovanelli; Marcus Vinicius Vieira; Cesar Luiz Pinto Ayres Coelho da Silva

2003-01-01

178

Molluscicidal activity of Solanum species of the Northeast of Brazil on Biomphalaria glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven species of Solanum were screened for their molluscicidal properties against Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediated host of Schistosoma mansoni, Solanum agrarium, S. jabrense, S. melissarum, S. megalonyx, S. paludosum, S. paraibanum and S. stipulaceum. Four extracts showed molluscicidal activity with LC50 from 22 to 56 ?g\\/ml.

Tania Maria Sarmento Silva; Celso Amorim Câmara; Maria de Fátima Agra; Mário Geraldo de Carvalho; Marli Terezinha Frana; Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco Brandoline; Luciana da Silva Paschoal; Raimundo Braz-Filho

2006-01-01

179

Molluscicidal activity of Solanum species of the northeast of Brazil on Biomphalaria glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven species of Solanum were screened for their molluscicidal properties against Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediated host of Schistoma mansoni, Solanum agrarium, S. jabrense, S. melissarum, S. megalonyx, S. paludosum, S. paraibanum and S. stipulaceum. Four extracts showed molluscicidal activity with LC50 from 22 to 56 mg\\/ml.

Tania Maria Sarmento Silva; Celso Amorim Câmara; Maria de Fátima Agra; Mário Geraldo de Carvalho; Marli Terezinha Frana; Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco Brandoline; Luciana da Silva Paschoal; Raimundo Braz-Filho

180

Molluscicidal activity of Solanum species of the Northeast of Brazil on Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

Seven species of Solanum were screened for their molluscicidal properties against Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediated host of Schistosoma mansoni, Solanum agrarium, S. jabrense, S. melissarum, S. megalonyx, S. paludosum, S. paraibanum and S. stipulaceum. Four extracts showed molluscicidal activity with LC(50) from 22 to 56 microg/ml. PMID:16842935

Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Câmara, Celso Amorim; Agra, Maria de Fátima; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo; Frana, Marli Terezinha; Brandoline, Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco; da Silva Paschoal, Luciana; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

2006-05-24

181

[Remarks on the ecological adaptation of the snail aquatic fauna in saline medium of the Dallol ponds. (Republique du Niger) (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Human vesical and intestinal bilharziasis, bovine fasciolosis and paramphistomosis, equine gastrodiscosis and ovine carmyeriosis, are frequent in the Dallols'region, (12 degrees - 13 degrees 30 N. lat. ; 3 degrees E. long.), Republique du Niger, Africa. Dallols are fossil valleys pouring water from late Saharian lakes. They are also tributaries of the Niger River. During the dry season, they become dry and many residual ponds of varied dimensions; from tens feet to one or two miles long, are lying along the valley bottom. The water is sometimes fresh but more frequently salt, (sodium, calcium and potassium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates and bicarbonate), are in solution of variable proportions. From november to april, the total salt concentration is increasing by high evaporation and the medium becomes non likely to live for aquatic vector snails, Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus forskalii, Lymnaea natalensis and Afrogyrus coretus. PMID:1221913

Gretillat, S; Gaston, G

182

Large-scale snail control trial with trifenmorph in the Gezira irrigation scheme, Sudan  

PubMed Central

A large-scale field trial was carried out during December 1973 to assess the effect of trifenmorph on Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi in 379 000 feddans (?159 000 ha) of the Gezira irrigation system in the Sudan. The commercial formulation used (Frescon) is an emulsifiable concentrate containing 16.5% trifenmorph. Five dispensers were used to add the commercial product to the water continuously for 7.5 days; 18 121 litres were used to treat 28.4 million m3 of water. In addition, each minor canal was hand-sprayed from the tail to 300 m upstream of the last open field outlet pipe; 360 litres of the commercial formulation were used for this operation. A minimum concentration of 0.035 mg trifenmorph per litre of water was produced at the head of each minor canal. The use of caged snails showed that a concentration as low as 0.015 mg/litre was sufficient to produce 100% mortality in B. truncatus in 7.5 days; this is equivalent to a concentration × time product of 0.12 mg/litre days.

Amin, M. A.; Fenwick, A.; Osgerby, J. M.; Warley, A. P.; Wright, A. N.

1976-01-01

183

Cercarial Dermatitis Transmitted by Exotic Marine Snail  

PubMed Central

Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer’s itch) is caused by the penetration of human skin by cercariae of schistosome parasites that develop in and are released from snail hosts. Cercarial dermatitis is frequently acquired in freshwater habitats, and less commonly in marine or estuarine waters. To investigate reports of a dermatitis outbreak in San Francisco Bay, California, we surveyed local snails for schistosome infections during 2005–2008. We found schistosomes only in Haminoea japonica, an Asian snail first reported in San Francisco Bay in 1999. Genetic markers place this schistosome within a large clade of avian schistosomes, but do not match any species for which there are genetic data. It is the second known schistosome species to cause dermatitis in western North American coastal waters; these species are transmitted by exotic snails. Introduction of exotic hosts can support unexpected emergence of an unknown parasite with serious medical or veterinary implications.

Cohen, Andrew N.; James, David; Hui, Lucia; Hom, Albert; Loker, Eric S.

2010-01-01

184

The role of Snail in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the sixth leading cause of death from cancer in men. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which cancer cells invade and migrate, and is characterized by loss of cell-cell adhesion molecules such as E-cadherin and increased expression of mesenchymal proteins such as vimentin; EMT is also associated with resistance to therapy. Snail, a master regulator of EMT, has been extensively studied and reported in cancers such as breast and colon; however, its role in prostate cancer is not as widely reported. The purpose of this review is to put together recent facts that summarize Snail signaling in human prostate cancer. Snail is overexpressed in prostate cancer and its expression and activity is controlled via phosphorylation and growth factor signaling. Snail is involved in its canonical role of inducing EMT in prostate cancer cells; however, it plays a role in non-canonical pathways that do not involve EMT such regulation of bone turnover and neuroendocrine differentiation. Thus, studies indicate that Snail signaling contributes to prostate cancer progression and metastasis and therapeutic targeting of Snail in prostate cancer holds promise in future. PMID:23076049

Smith, Bethany N; Odero-Marah, Valerie A

2012-09-01

185

Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. In order to attain this objective, the method of bait formulation in order to contain an attractant and a molluscicide is an expedient approach to lure the target snail population to the molluscicide. This study identifies certain carbohydrates, namely sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and starch, for preparing such baits. These were tested on Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the digenean trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The behavioural responses of snails to these carbohydrates were examined. Significant variations in behavioural responses were observed in the snail even when the five carbohydrates were used in low concentrations in snail-attractant pellets. Starch emerged as the strongest attractant for Lymnaea acuminata, followed by maltose.

Tiwari, Farindra; Singh, D. K.

186

Effects of Temperature on Growth and Reproduction of Aquatic Snails.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of temperature on the following freshwater snails were studied: Lymnaea stagnalis, L. emarginata, Helisoma trivolvis, H. anceps, H. campanulatum and Physa gyrina -- all pulmonate 'pond' snails; one gill-breathing operculate (Amnicola limosa); ...

H. van der Schalie E. G. Berry D. I. Mount

1973-01-01

187

Octopamine boosts snail locomotion: behavioural and cellular analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the reduction in locomotion of unrestrained pond snails, Lymnaea stagnalis, subsequent to transdermal application of two selective octopamine antagonists, epinastine and phentolamine. After 3 h in fresh standard snail water following treatment with 4 mM epinastine or 3.5 mM phentolamine, the snails’ speed was reduced to 25 and 56% of the controls (P P = 0.02, respectively). The snails’ speed decreased as the drug

Jennifer C. Ormshaw; Christopher J. H. Elliott

2006-01-01

188

Field tests of hexabutyldistannoxane (TBTO) in slow-release formulations against Biomphalaria spp  

PubMed Central

Hexabutyldistannoxane (TBTO) in an asphalt base was found to retain molluscicidal activity for more than a year in the field. It was not deactivated by immersion in mud or by drying and exposure to the sun. Complete elimination of planorbid snails was achieved and maintained when repopulation pressure was sporadic, but control of a continuously entering population was not practicable. Fixing the product at the site is important, and a formulation in fragments of rubber that floated failed after 1-2 months. TBTO apparently acts cumulatively in snails, but is only initially toxic to aquatic insects and fish, which return to repopulate treated areas that remain snail-free.

Gilbert, B.; Leme, L. A. Paes; Ferreira, A. M.; Bulhoes, M. S.; Castleton, C.

1973-01-01

189

Eosinophilic meningitis risk associated with raw Ampullarium canaliculatus snails consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Taiwan, Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection has been reported in foreign laborers who had consumed raw Ampullarium canaliculatus snails. This study analyzed three foreign laborers who had contracted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-confirmed A cantonensis infection while working in Taiwan. All three workers had consumed either roasted snails or raw snails flavored with seasoning while drinking wine. This study investigated possible risk factors

Jiun-Jye Wang; Li-Yu Chung; Rong-Jyh Lin; June-Der Lee; Chaio-Wen Lin; Chuan-Min Yen

2011-01-01

190

Extinction or survival: partulid tree snails in American Samoa?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four partulid tree snail species are known from American Samoa. In 1998, we surveyed the recently established National Park (units on three islands: Tutuila, Tau, Ofu) and neighboring areas for partulids. On Tutuila, Samoana abbreviata, previously considered probably extinct, was extremely rare (15 snails seen); Samoana conicawas more common (288 snails) but still rare; Eua zebrina was the most common

ROBERT H. COWIE; ROBERT P. COOK

2001-01-01

191

Larval trematodes: double infections in common mud-flat snail.  

PubMed

Larvae of the trematode Zoogonus lasius are involved in most double infections of Nassarius obsoleta. The two most common trematode parasites of this snail do not occur together in double infections. Double infections were found in 14 of 340 infected snails in a total sample of 5025 snails. PMID:5770621

Vernberg, W B; Vernberg, F J; Beckerdite, F W

1969-06-13

192

Mineral contents of tissues and body fluids and heavy metal contaminants of four predominant snail species in the Niger Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral contents and heavy metal contaminants of four predominant snail species in the Niger Delta: African giant land snail (Archachatina marginata), African land snail (Achatina fulica), water snail (Pila ovata) and garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) were evaluated. Snail tissues and body fluids were harvested having cracked the tail-end of the shell. Triplicate samples of macerated snail tissues and body fluids

H. D. Mepba; C. U. Ogunka-Nnoka

193

Aquatic Snails, Passive Hosts of Mycobacterium ulcerans  

PubMed Central

Accumulative indirect evidence of the epidemiology of Mycobacterium ulcerans infections causing chronic skin ulcers (i.e., Buruli ulcer disease) suggests that the development of this pathogen and its transmission to humans are related predominantly to aquatic environments. We report that snails could transitorily harbor M. ulcerans without offering favorable conditions for its growth and replication. A novel intermediate link in the transmission chain of M. ulcerans becomes likely with predator aquatic insects in addition to phytophage insects. Water bugs, such as Naucoris cimicoides, a potential vector of M. ulcerans, were shown to be infected specifically by this bacterium after feeding on snails experimentally exposed to M. ulcerans.

Marsollier, Laurent; Severin, Tchibozo; Aubry, Jacques; Merritt, Richard W.; Saint Andre, Jean-Paul; Legras, Pierre; Manceau, Anne-Lise; Chauty, Annick; Carbonnelle, Bernard; Cole, Stewart T.

2004-01-01

194

Complex interactions among fish, snails and macrophytes: implications for biological control of an invasive snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata), a native of freshwater wetlands of South America, has invaded many Asian countries and grazed heavily in agricultural and\\u000a wild areas. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been proposed as a biological control agent against this snail, but little is known about its impact on non-target aquatic\\u000a plants and animals. In a 8-week enclosure experiment,

Pak Ki Wong; King Lun Kwong; Jian-Wen Qiu

2009-01-01

195

Density-dependent effects of snail grazing on the growth of a submerged macrophyte, Vallisneria spiralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand the role of herbivorous snails in freshwater ecosystems, we conducted experiments investigating food preference of the snail Radix swinhoei on leaves of the submerged plant Vallisneria spiralis with and without periphyton coverage. The effects of snail grazing on the growth of V. spiralis were assessed in a no-snail control and at three snail densities (80,

Kuan-Yi Li; Zheng-Wen Liu; Bin-He Gu

2009-01-01

196

Freshwater snails of Oman, South Eastern Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic account is given of the extant freshwater snail fauna of Oman, based on recent collections made in Dhofar and in the northern mountainous areas. Also included are certain species found in brackish coastal localities. A total of 8 freshwater species is regarded as belonging to the fauna of normal freshwater; 7 have been found alive (Thiara scabra, Melanoides

D. S. Brown; M. D. Gallagher

1985-01-01

197

Effect of non target snails on some biological of Lymnaea natalensis snails and their infection to Fasciola gigantica.  

PubMed

The influence of non-target freshwater snails (Melanoides tuberculata and Planorbis planorbis) on the capacity of Fasciola egg production F. gigantica miracidia to infect Lymnaea natalensis and their effect on mortality and growth rates showed that the snails exhibited a competitive ability against L. natalensis. The mortality rate existed in mixed cultures with snails was greatly increased, and increased with increase of snails number. The egg production and growth rate were negatively affected by the presence of M. tuberculata and P. planorbis which was more pronounced when snails were at higher ratio lL: 10D. Also, the snails showed significant degree of reduction in infection rate of L. natalensis with F. gigantica miracidia. PMID:17153707

Bakry, Fayez A; Hamdi, Salwa A H

2006-12-01

198

Biological studies on the snail, Bulinus truncatus, in central Iraq*  

PubMed Central

This paper presents some results of field and laboratory studies on Bulinus truncatus, the snail intermediate host of urinary bilharziasis in Iraq, made in 1958 as part of the work of the WHO Bilharziasis Control Project in that country. Observations on the linear distribution and size composition of Bulinus populations in the canals of central Iraq indicate that molluscicides might most suitably be applied in May before the entire snail population reaches breeding size, or early in November when most snails are juveniles. However, laboratory experiments appear to show that isolation of individual bulinid snails does not diminish, but may actually increase, their egg-laying capacity in comparison with that of grouped snails; this suggests that, even if the snail population were drastically reduced by treatment of the canals and all further importation of snails rendered impossible, the snail population would nevertheless soon renew itself from the few individuals remaining. Results are also given of laboratory experiments on egg masses, hatching and growth of B. truncatus and on the egg-laying of random populations of that snail.

Najarian, H. H.

1961-01-01

199

Is Schistosoma mansoni replacing Schistosoma haematobium in the Fayoum?  

PubMed

Schistosoma mansoni is progressively replacing S. haematobium along the Nile River in Egypt. This change has occurred in the past 15-20 years following construction of the Aswan High Dam in the 1960s. The cause is a shift in relative abundance of the snail vectors Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus. Biomphalaria is increasing while the latter has disappeared from a village in the Fayoum where formerly only schistosomiasis haematobia was endemic. A cross-sectional household survey in this village in 1991 showed the following prevalence values: S. mansoni, 22.3%; S. haematobium, 3.4%; and mixed infections, 2.8%. Only two children less than 10 years of age had S. haematobium infections. A review of the local Ministry of Health records showed that 1) both species were parasitologically diagnosed during the past 7.5 years, 2) Biomphalaria had been abundantly present in the local waterways for the past 10 years and has been found infected with S. mansoni since 1985, 3) Bulinus has not been detected in the local canals and drains since 1986 and the few found between 1981 and 1985 were not infected, and 4) Biomphalaria in this village and in two others in the Fayoum were believed infected by laborers from the Delta who helped build schools in 1984. This change in the distribution of schistosomiasis will impact upon public health and medical practice in Middle and Upper Egypt as it already has in Lower Egypt. PMID:8279637

Abdel-Wahab, M F; Yosery, A; Narooz, S; Esmat, G; el Hak, S; Nasif, S; Strickland, G T

1993-12-01

200

How Stress Alters Memory in 'Smart' Snails  

PubMed Central

Cognitive ability varies within species, but whether this variation alters the manner in which memory formation is affected by environmental stress is unclear. The great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is commonly used as model species in studies of learning and memory. The majority of those studies used a single laboratory strain (i.e. the Dutch strain) originating from a wild population in the Netherlands. However, our recent work has identified natural populations that demonstrate significantly enhanced long-term memory (LTM) formation relative to the Dutch strain following operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behaviour. Here we assess how two populations with enhanced memory formation (i.e. ‘smart’ snails), one from Canada (Trans Canada 1: TC1) and one from the U.K. (Chilton Moor: CM) respond to ecologically relevant stressors. In control conditions the Dutch strain forms memory lasting 1–3 h following a single 0.5 h training session in our standard calcium pond water (80 mg/l [Ca2+]), whereas the TC1 and CM populations formed LTM lasting 5+ days following this training regime. Exposure to low environmental calcium pond water (20 mg/l [Ca2+]), which blocks LTM in the Dutch strain, reduced LTM retention to 24 h in the TC1 and CM populations. Crowding (20 snails in 100 ml) immediately prior to training blocks LTM in the Dutch strain, and also did so in TC1 and CM populations. Therefore, snails with enhanced cognitive ability respond to these ecologically relevant stressors in a similar manner to the Dutch strain, but are more robust at forming LTM in a low calcium environment. Despite the two populations (CM and TC1) originating from different continents, LTM formation was indistinguishable in both control and stressed conditions. This indicates that the underlying mechanisms controlling cognitive differences among populations may be highly conserved in L. stagnalis.

Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

2012-01-01

201

Crayfish predation on the common pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis): the effect of habitat complexity and snail size on foraging efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal foraging theory was used to explain selective foraging by the introduced signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus)\\u000a on the thin-shelled common pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). Crayfish predation efficiency was studied in relation to habitat\\u000a complexity and snail size. In a pool experiment (area 1.3 m2) single adult crayfish were allowed to feed on four size classes of snails for one week.

Per Nyström; Jose R. Pérez

1998-01-01

202

Pink eggs and snails: field oviposition patterns of an invasive snail, Pomacea insularum , indicate a preference for an invasive macrophyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oviposition of non-calcareous or thinly shelled eggs represents an important life stage of many insects, amphibians, and several\\u000a gastropods. A recently identified invasive species of apple snail, Pomacea insularum, exhibits alarming invasive characteristics of high reproductive rates and generalist consumption patterns. This snail takes\\u000a the opposite approach to egg laying compared to most aquatic insects as adult snails crawl out

Romi L. BurksColin; Colin H. Kyle; Matthew K. Trawick

2010-01-01

203

Dragonfly predators influence biomass and density of pond snails.  

PubMed

Studies in lakes show that fish and crayfish predators play an important role in determining the abundance of freshwater snails. In contrast, there are few studies of snails and their predators in shallow ponds and marshes. Ponds often lack fish and crayfish but have abundant insect populations. Here we present the results of field surveys, laboratory foraging trials, and an outdoor mesocosm experiment, testing the hypothesis that insects are important predators of pulmonate snails. In laboratory foraging trials, conducted with ten species of insects, most insect taxa consumed snails, and larval dragonflies were especially effective predators. The field surveys showed that dragonflies constitute the majority of the insect biomass in fishless ponds. More focused foraging trials evaluated the ability of the dragonflies Anax junius and Pantala hymenaea to prey upon different sizes and species of pulmonate snails (Helisoma trivolvis, Physa acuta, and Stagnicola elodes). Anax junius consumed all three species up to the maximum size tested. Pantala hymenaea consumed snails with a shell height of 3 mm and smaller, but did not kill larger snails. P. acuta were more vulnerable to predators than were H. trivolvis or S. elodes. In the mesocosm experiment, conducted with predator treatments of A. junius, P. hymenaea, and the hemipteran Belostoma flumineum, insect predators had a pronounced negative effect on snail biomass and density. A. junius and B. flumineum reduced biomass and density to a similar degree, and both reduced biomass more than did P. hymenaea. Predators did not have a strong effect on species composition. A model suggested that A. junius and P. hymenaea have the largest effects on snail biomass in the field. Given that both pulmonate snails and dragonfly nymphs are widespread and abundant in marshes and ponds, snail assemblages in these water bodies are likely regulated in large part by odonate predation. PMID:17457617

Turner, Andrew M; Chislock, Michael F

2007-04-25

204

The invasive snail Melanoides tuberculata in Argentina and Paraguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the spread and current distribution of the invasive snail Melanoides tuberculata in Argentina and Paraguay based on data from specimens deposited in museums, published reports and field collections. Field collections were made between April 1999 and May 2010. Snails were searched for using different collecting methods in a variety of habitats. Specimens were identified according to a

Juana G. Peso; Diego C. Pérez; Roberto E. Vogler

2011-01-01

205

Treatment Of Waste Water From Food Industry Using Snail Shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste water from a food- factory was characterized and treated using snail shell. The aim was to find out the effectiveness of snail shell as a coagulant in waste water treatment. The result of the parameter studied before and after treatment, shows a change in color from dark brown before treatment to light brown after treatment, there was reduction in

E. O Jatto; I. O Asia; E. E Egbon; J. O Otutu; M. E Chukwuedo; C. J Ewansiha

2010-01-01

206

Snails as Biomonitors of Oil-Spill and Bioremediation Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic and pulmonate snails were evaluated for their suitability as biomonitors of habitat recovery following an experimental oil spill in a freshwater marshland. The mystery snail, Viviparus georgianus, and the mimic pondsnail, Pseudosuccinea columella, were used as sediment quality biomonitors for a controlled oil-spill experiment at a wetland site along the St. Lawrence River (Ste. Croix, Quebec) to assess the

L. E. J. Lee; J. Stassen; A. McDonald; C. Culshaw; A. D. Venosa; K. Lee

2002-01-01

207

Supercharged Snails for Stream Ecology & Water-Quality Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gill-breathing freshwater snails (Family "Pleuroceridae") are ecologically important, abundant in many streams in the United States, and easy to collect and maintain under classroom conditions. These snails can be used in classroom tests to demonstrate effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. In more advanced classes, students can cage the…

Stewart, Arthur J.; Ryon, Michael G.

2003-01-01

208

Long-term sensitization and environmental conditioning in terrestrial snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that a long-term increase of behavioural responses in snails (over a period of days) might be due to environmental conditioning was examined. Training consisted of delivering electric shocks non-contingently with test stimuli twice per day for 5 days to freely moving snails on a ball floating in water. After training, a significant difference in amplitude of a withdrawal

P. Balaban; N. Bravarenko

1993-01-01

209

Sex and darts in slugs and snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Stylommatophora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the final stages of an elaborate courtship, many slugs and snails shoot calcareous 'love' darts into each other. While darts improve the reproductive success of the shooter, by promoting sperm survival in the recipient, it is unclear why some species have darts and others do not. In fact, dart use has barely been studied, except in the garden snail

Angus Davison; Christopher M. Wade; Peter B. Mordan; Satoshi Chiba

2005-01-01

210

Biological Control of Brown Garden Snails in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A snail of Mediterranean origin, Rumina has been in the USA since the 1820's and in California since the 1950's. Considered a nuisance and a pest by some homeowners, the decollate snail is nonetheless the only natural enemy that has proved effective again...

T. W. Fisher

1984-01-01

211

Snail silencing effectively suppresses tumour growth and invasiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor Snail has been recently proposed as an important mediator of tumour invasion because of its role in downregulation of E-cadherin and induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transitions (EMT). This behaviour has led to the consideration of Snail as a potential therapeutic target to block tumour progression. In this report, we provide evidence for this hypothesis. We show that silencing

D Olmeda; M Jordá; H Peinado; Á Fabra; A Cano

2007-01-01

212

Supercharged Snails for Stream Ecology & Water-Quality Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gill-breathing freshwater snails (Family "Pleuroceridae") are ecologically important, abundant in many streams in the United States, and easy to collect and maintain under classroom conditions. These snails can be used in classroom tests to demonstrate effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. In more advanced classes, students can cage the…

Stewart, Arthur J.; Ryon, Michael G.

2003-01-01

213

Inverse temperature acclimation of heart rate in hibernating land snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heart rates of quiescent land snailsHelix lucorum andH. aspersa were recorded by impedance pneumography over several days. When snails acclimated to warm, humid, long days were transferred in late autumn to cool, dry, short days, in order to permit hibernation inverse rotational acclimation occurred, so that heart rates at low temperatures were lowered. However, temperature dependence increased so that

Stuart E. R. Bailey; Maria Lazaridou-Dimitriadou

1991-01-01

214

Calcium cells from snails: Response to vitamin D metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium is one of the most important substances affecting the life of molluscs, and vitamin D was shown to be an essential nutrient for land snails. In an attempt to elucidate the role that vitamin D plays in calcium metabolism of land snails, we have developed a procedure for the isolation of specialized calcium cells from digestive gland of land

L. Kriajev; I. Otremski; S. Edelstein

1994-01-01

215

Neuron-independent Ca 2+ signaling in glial cells of snail’s brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

To directly monitor the glial activity in the CNS of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, we optically measured the electrical responses in the cerebral ganglion and median lip nerve to electrical stimulation of the distal end of the median lip nerve. Using a voltage-sensitive dye, RH155, we detected a composite depolarizing response in the cerebral ganglion, which consisted of a

S Kojima; H Ogawa; T Kouuchi; T Nidaira; T Hosono; E Ito

2000-01-01

216

Calcareous Septa Formed in Snail Shells by Larvae of Snail-Killing Flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of 13 species of Pherbellia and Colobaea that feed in exposed aquatic snails uitilize a product of the Malpighian tubules before they pupate to form a plate-like structure within the shell or to reinforce the anterior end of the puparium. The substance is partly calcium carbonate, and carbonic anhydrase may be involved in its production.

L. V. Knutson; C. O. Berg; L. J. Edwards; A. D. Bratt; B. A. Foote

1967-01-01

217

Biological Control of Aquatic Pest Snails by the Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some freshwater snail species are severe pests to human health or agriculture. We tested the hypothesis that the fish Mylopharyngodon piceus, the black carp, may serve as a biological control agent of two pest snails, Physella acuta (a bank-dwelling snail) and Melanoides tuberculata (a substratum-dwelling snail). Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and under controlled field conditions. In the

Frida Ben-Ami; Joseph Heller

2001-01-01

218

How parasitism, stream substrate, and movement patterns mediate response to disturbance in the snail Elimia flava  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snails in the genus Elimia are abundant in southeastern USA streams, and also serve as intermediate hosts to parasitic trematodes. Previous work indicated that high-flows decrease snail abundance and trematode prevalence, and others have shown substrate type and snail size affect likelihood of snail dislodgement. To investigate how parasitism, size, substrate, and snail behavior influenced dislodgement, we placed Elimia flava in artificial streams containing tile or gravel substrates, and then exposed them to progressively increasing flow velocities ( ~10, 40, 90 cm/s) for 5 minutes each. We recorded snail behavior and time to dislodgement, and then preserved snails to quantify their size and parasite load. Snails on tile dislodged significantly faster than snails on gravel, and snails with high parasite loads also dislodged faster than snails without parasites. Parasitism also appeared to affect movement patterns: snails showing predominantly downstream movement had higher parasite loads than those that did not. Behavior also affected dislodgement probability, as snails moving upstream or to the waterline remained on the substrate longer than snails not showing those behaviors. Parasitism, substrate composition, and snail movement are useful predictors of the likelihood of dislodgement, and parasitism and substrate may both increase snail vulnerability to flow disturbance.

Tomba, A. M.; Feminella, J. W.

2005-05-01

219

Responses of Mud Snails and Periwinkles to Environmental Odors and Disaccharide Mimics of Fish Odor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estuarine snails, periwinkles (Littoraria irorata), and mud snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta) were tested for behavioral responses to aqueous extracts of tissue macerates, odors of living intact organisms, and to disaccharides derived from heparin. Extracts included salt-marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), crushed periwinkles, and crushed mud snails. Odors included live periwinkles, mud snails, stone crab (Menippe mercenaria), striped hermit

Yasmin J. Rahman; Richard B. Forward; Dan Rittschof

2000-01-01

220

Sediment copper bioavailability to freshwater snails in south Florida: risk implications for the Everglade snail kite ( Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many properties being acquired as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) are heavily contaminated with\\u000a copper. Estimated copper bioaccumulation in the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) has led to the prediction of risk to the Everglade snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) at some CERP projects. Field study results presented in this paper examine the relationship between copper levels

Robert A. Frakes; Timothy A. Bargar; Emily A. Bauer

2008-01-01

221

Molluscicidal activity of some Brazilian Solanum spp. (Solanaceae) against Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

Plants in the genus Solanum (Solanaceae) produce a great variety of steroidal saponins and glycoalkaloids that confer natural resistance against several pests. Methanolic extracts of 13 Solanum species have now been tested for molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata. The extracts investigated were prepared from the fruit of S. asperum, S. capsicoides, S. palinacantum, S. paludosum, S. paniculatum, S. paraibanum and S. sisymbriifolium, the aerial parts of S. asperum, S. capsicoides, S. crinitum, S. diamantinense, S. megalonyx, S. palinacantum, S. paniculatum, S. sisymbriifolium and S. torvum, and the roots of S. asperum, S. asterophorum, S. palinacantum, S. paludosum, S. paniculatum and S. stipulaceum. Encouragingly, the extracts from S. asperum, S. diamantinese, S. paludosum, S. sisymbriifolium and S. stipulaceum showed significant molluscicidal activity, the median lethal concentrations recorded (20-50 microg/ml) falling well below the threshold, of 100 microg/ml, set for a potential molluscicide by the World Health Organization. PMID:15949190

Silva, T M S; Batista, M M; Camara, C A; Agra, M F

2005-06-01

222

Influence of Age and Body Size on Alarm Responses in a Freshwater Snail Pomacea canaliculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypothesis that size selection of prey by predators elicits size-specific responses from prey was examined. Freshwater snails, Pomacea canaliculata, ages 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, or 60 days, were given an extract of 3-day-old snails, and 3-day-old snails were given extracts of snails of the other ages or eggs. Snails 15 days or younger crawled out of the water

Katsuya Ichinose

2002-01-01

223

Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits  

PubMed Central

Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus) and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi), we examined three components of this interaction: 1) spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2) whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3) whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity) and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses.

Johnson, Steven G; Hulsey, C Darrin; de Leon, Francisco J Garcia

2007-01-01

224

Population dynamics of aquatic snails in Pampulha reservoir.  

PubMed

An attempt was made to determine more accurately the density of molluskan populations in the Pampulha reservoir, using the quadrate method, intending to detect the fluctuation of the populations density, the habitat conditions and the possible competitive interactions among Biomphalaria tenagophila, Melanoides tuberculata, Pomacea haustrum and Biomphalaria glabrata, through the analysis of populational parameters. Among the most significative facts observed in the reservoir it has to be mentioned: the almost disappearance of B. glabrata; the invasion, colonization, fixation and fast growing of M. tuberculata population until reaching about 11,000 individuals/m2; the density fluctuations of B. tenagophila, P. haustrum and M. tuberculata alives and deads; differences on the habitat preference of these three molluskan species at the edge (at the limit earth-water, at 0.70m and 1.40m from the shore line); monthly mortality rates and reproduction seasons of the species. PMID:3509186

Freitas, J R; Bedê, L C; De Marco Júnior, P; Rocha, L A; Santos, M B

1987-01-01

225

Controlled Chaos of Polymorphic Mucins in a Metazoan Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) Interacting with Its Invertebrate Host (Biomphalaria glabrata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites.

Emmanuel Roger; Christoph Grunau; Raymond J. Pierce; Hirohisa Hirai; Benjamin Gourbal; Richard Galinier; Rémi Emans; Italo M. Cesari; Céline Cosseau; Guillaume Mitta

2008-01-01

226

Effects of azinphos-methyl exposure on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azinphos-methyl is an organophosphate insecticide used for pest control on a number of food crops in many parts of the world. The oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and pigmented and non-pigmented specimens of the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata are freshwater invertebrates that have been recommended for contamination studies. Recently, it has been shown that L. variegatus worms exhibit a higher cholinesterase (ChE) activity

Gisela Kristoff; Noemí R. Verrengia Guerrero; Adriana C. Cochón

2008-01-01

227

Inhibition of cholinesterase activity by azinphos-methyl in two freshwater invertebrates: Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, some biochemical features and the extent of inhibition induced by the organophosphorous pesticide azinphos-methyl on the cholinesterase (ChE) activity present in whole soft tissue of two freshwater invertebrate species, the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata and the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus were investigated. Both invertebrate organisms presented marked differences in ChE activity, type of enzymes and subcellular location. Acetylthiocholine was

Gisela Kristoff; Noemi Verrengia Guerrero; Ana María Pechén de D’Angelo; Adriana C. Cochón

2006-01-01

228

Inhibition of cholinesterases and carboxylesterases of two invertebrate species, Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus, by the carbamate pesticide carbaryl  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of sublethal concentrations of the carbamate carbaryl on the cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CES) activities present in the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and in the pigmented Biomphalaria glabrata gastropod were investigated. The results showed that ChE activity from both species was inhibited by in vivo and in vitro exposure to carbaryl, with EC50 and IC50 values

Gisela Kristoff; Noemi R. Verrengia Guerrero; Adriana C. Cochón

2010-01-01

229

Laboratory experiments on snail predation by Sargochromis codringtoni, a candidate for biological control of the snails that transmit schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

The potential efficacy of Sargochromis codringtoni, a species of cichlid fish, in the biological control of snails carrying the Schistosoma spp. infecting man has long been recognized. A laboratory study to produce much-needed data on the malacophagous characteristics of this fish was conducted, to see if field studies on its possible role as a biological agent for snail control in Zimbabwe were likely to be worthwhile. The fish can consume large numbers of snails within a short period: a single fish, provided with trout pellets as an alternative food, not only chose to eat the snails but also consumed > 800 within 3 weeks. Addition of macrophytes to the aquaria used appeared to offer the snails no protection from predation. For fish measuring 15-18 cm in length, there was no size preference among snails measuring up to 12 mm in shell height nor was any species preference observed in experiments involving Bulinus globosus, B. tropicus and Melanoides tuberculata. The fish crushed B. globosus which were > 3.0 mm in shell height in their pharynges but swallowed smaller snails of this species whole. Before field trials are conducted, further laboratory studies, in which field conditions are simulated, should be carried out. PMID:9093434

Chimbari, M J; Madsen, H; Ndamba, J

1997-01-01

230

Energy saving through trail following in a marine snail  

PubMed Central

Most snails and slugs locomote over a layer of mucus and although the resultant mucus trail is expensive to produce, we show that this expense can be reduced by trail following. When tracking over fresh conspecific trails, the marine intertidal snail Littorina littorea (L.) produced only approximately 27% of the mucus laid by marker snails. When tracking over weathered trails, snails adjusted their mucus production to recreate a convex trail profile of similar shape and thickness to the trail as originally laid. Maximum energy saving occurs when following recently laid trails which are little weathered. Many and diverse ecological roles for trail following have been proposed. Energy saving is the only role that applies across the Gastropoda and so may help to explain why trail following is such a well-established behaviour.

Davies, Mark S; Blackwell, Janine

2007-01-01

231

Population structure and coil dimorphism in a tropical land snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree snails of the subgenus Amphidromus s. str. are unusual because of the chiral dimorphism that exists in many species, with clockwise (dextrally) and counter-clockwise (sinistrally) coiled individuals co-occurring in the same population. Given that mating in snails is normally impeded when the two partners have opposite coil, positive frequency-dependent selection should prevent such dimorphism from persisting. We test the

M Schilthuizen; B J Scott; A S Cabanban; P G Craze

2005-01-01

232

Ecdysteroid metabolism in the terrestrial snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garden snails (Cepaea nemoralis) contain both ecdysone and ecdysterone. Attempts to determine whether they originate from their food or are endogenously synthesized did not allow a definite conclusion.The metabolism of ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone in Cepaea nemoralis has been investigated by using tritiated hormone injections followed by HPLC analysis of labelled compounds. It was observed that snails convert ecdysone into 20-hy-hroxyecdysone

M. Garcia; J.-P. Girault; R. Lafont

1986-01-01

233

Dragonfly predators influence biomass and density of pond snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in lakes show that fish and crayfish predators play an important role in determining the abundance of freshwater snails.\\u000a In contrast, there are few studies of snails and their predators in shallow ponds and marshes. Ponds often lack fish and crayfish\\u000a but have abundant insect populations. Here we present the results of field surveys, laboratory foraging trials, and an

Andrew M. Turner; Michael F. Chislock

2007-01-01

234

Respiration rates and population metabolism of woodland snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were done to measure the respiration rates of twenty species of terrestrial snail. Acclimatization phenomena were sought in two species, Discus rotundatus and Hygromia striolata, but not detected. The Q10s between 5 and 15° C for the twenty species varied between 1.20 and 4.27, with a mean Q10 of 2.21. Q10 was higher in larger snail species. There was

C. F. Mason; Botanic Gardens

1971-01-01

235

Snail Hepatopancreatic Lipase: A New Member of Invertebrates Lipases' Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher animal's lipases are well characterized; however, much less is known about lipases from mollusks. A lipolytic activity\\u000a was located in the land snail (Eobania vermiculata) digestive glands (hepatopancreas), from which a snail digestive lipase (SnDL) was purified. Pure SnDL has a molecular mass\\u000a of 60 kDa; it does not present the interfacial activation phenomenon. It was found to be more

Sawsan Amara; Ahmed Fendri; Nadia Ben Salem; Youssef Gargouri; Nabil Miled

2010-01-01

236

Pak1 Phosphorylation of Snail, a Master Regulator of Epithelial-to-Mesenchyme Transition, Modulates Snail's Subcellular Localization and Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition plays a pivotal role in the conversion of early stage tumors into invasive malignancies, and has been shown to be regulated by the zinc finger phosphoprotein, Snail; however, no upstream signaling kinases have been shown to modulate Snail functions. Since the invasiveness of breast cancer cells is also influenced by p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) signaling,

Zhibo Yang; Suresh Rayala; Diep Nguyen; Ratna K. Vadlamudi; Shiuan Chen

2005-01-01

237

Sediment copper bioavailability to freshwater snails in south Florida: risk implications for the Everglade snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus).  

PubMed

Many properties being acquired as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) are heavily contaminated with copper. Estimated copper bioaccumulation in the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) has led to the prediction of risk to the Everglade snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) at some CERP projects. Field study results presented in this paper examine the relationship between copper levels in sediments, snails, and other biota. Copper concentrations in all biota (snails, aquatic vascular plants, and periphyton) were strongly correlated with those in sediments. No correlation with water copper concentrations was evident. Mean copper concentrations in snails ranged from 23.9 mg/kg at the reference site to 732 mg/kg at a high copper site. Calculated biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) ranged from 36.7 to 7.0 over the range of copper levels in sediments. BSAFs were highest at low copper levels in sediments and declined sharply as copper levels in sediment increased. Risk for the snail kite is discussed in light of the results of this study. PMID:18679796

Frakes, Robert A; Bargar, Timothy A; Bauer, Emily A

2008-08-05

238

The Hypoxia-controlled FBXL14 Ubiquitin Ligase Targets SNAIL1 for Proteasome Degradation*  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor SNAIL1 is a master regulator of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. SNAIL1 is a very unstable protein, and its levels are regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase ?-TrCP1 that interacts with SNAIL1 upon its phosphorylation by GSK-3?. Here we show that SNAIL1 polyubiquitylation and degradation may occur in conditions precluding SNAIL1 phosphorylation by GSK-3?, suggesting that additional E3 ligases participate in the control of SNAIL1 protein stability. In particular, we demonstrate that the F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXl14 interacts with SNAIL1 and promotes its ubiquitylation and proteasome degradation independently of phosphorylation by GSK-3?. In vivo, inhibition of FBXl14 using short hairpin RNA stabilizes both ectopically expressed and endogenous SNAIL1. Moreover, the expression of FBXl14 is potently down-regulated during hypoxia, a condition that increases the levels of SNAIL1 protein but not SNAIL1 mRNA. FBXL14 mRNA is decreased in tumors with a high expression of two proteins up-regulated in hypoxia, carbonic anhydrase 9 and TWIST1. In addition, Twist1 small interfering RNA prevents hypoxia-induced Fbxl14 down-regulation and SNAIL1 stabilization in NMuMG cells. Altogether, these results demonstrate the existence of an alternative mechanism controlling SNAIL1 protein levels relevant for the induction of SNAIL1 during hypoxia.

Vinas-Castells, Rosa; Beltran, Manuel; Valls, Gabriela; Gomez, Irene; Garcia, Jose Miguel; Montserrat-Sentis, Barbara; Baulida, Josep; Bonilla, Felix; de Herreros, Antonio Garcia; Diaz, Victor M.

2010-01-01

239

Functional Changes in the Snail Statocyst System Elicited by Microgravity  

PubMed Central

Background The mollusk statocyst is a mechanosensing organ detecting the animal's orientation with respect to gravity. This system has clear similarities to its vertebrate counterparts: a weight-lending mass, an epithelial layer containing small supporting cells and the large sensory hair cells, and an output eliciting compensatory body reflexes to perturbations. Methodology/Principal Findings In terrestrial gastropod snail we studied the impact of 16- (Foton M-2) and 12-day (Foton M-3) exposure to microgravity in unmanned orbital missions on: (i) the whole animal behavior (Helix lucorum L.), (ii) the statoreceptor responses to tilt in an isolated neural preparation (Helix lucorum L.), and (iii) the differential expression of the Helix pedal peptide (HPep) and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide genes in neural structures (Helix aspersa L.). Experiments were performed 13–42 hours after return to Earth. Latency of body re-orientation to sudden 90° head-down pitch was significantly reduced in postflight snails indicating an enhanced negative gravitaxis response. Statoreceptor responses to tilt in postflight snails were independent of motion direction, in contrast to a directional preference observed in control animals. Positive relation between tilt velocity and firing rate was observed in both control and postflight snails, but the response magnitude was significantly larger in postflight snails indicating an enhanced sensitivity to acceleration. A significant increase in mRNA expression of the gene encoding HPep, a peptide linked to ciliary beating, in statoreceptors was observed in postflight snails; no differential expression of the gene encoding FMRFamide, a possible neurotransmission modulator, was observed. Conclusions/Significance Upregulation of statocyst function in snails following microgravity exposure parallels that observed in vertebrates suggesting fundamental principles underlie gravi-sensing and the organism's ability to adapt to gravity changes. This simple animal model offers the possibility to describe general subcellular mechanisms of nervous system's response to conditions on Earth and in space.

Balaban, Pavel M.; Malyshev, Aleksey Y.; Ierusalimsky, Victor N.; Aseyev, Nikolay; Korshunova, Tania A.; Bravarenko, Natasha I.; Lemak, M. S.; Roshchin, Matvey; Zakharov, Igor S.; Popova, Yekaterina; Boyle, Richard

2011-01-01

240

Laboratory Survivorship of Aerially Exposed Pond Snails ('Physella integra') from Illinois. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many aquatic snails occupy ephemeral habitats that are occasionally subjected to severe environmental conditions. To investigate the physiological capacity of these animals to resist environmental changes, the authors aerially exposed aquatic pond snails ...

J. K. Tucker F. J. Janzen G. L. Paukstis

1997-01-01

241

Effects of Dietary Exposure to Forest Pesticides on the Brown Garden Snail 'Helix aspersa' Mueller.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brown garden snails, Helix aspersa, were fed prepared diets with 12 pesticides used in forest spraying practices where endangered arboreal and terrestrial snails may be at risk. Acephate, atrazine, glyphosate, hexazinone, and picloram were not lethal at c...

G. S. Schuytema A. V. Nebeker W. L. Griffis

1994-01-01

242

Cercarial production of Fascioloides magna in the snail Galba truncatula (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-miracidium infections of Fascioloides magna in two populations of Galba truncatula were carried out under laboratory conditions to count free rediae and cercariae in snail cadavers just after death. Cercaria-shedding\\u000a snails were in low numbers, and their shell height at day 60 p.e. was significantly greater than that of numerous infected\\u000a snails that died without cercarial shedding. In snails that died

P. Vignoles; A. Novobilský; D. Rondelaud; V. Bellet; P. Treuil; B. Koudela; G. Dreyfuss

2006-01-01

243

Angiostrongylus cantonensis : morphological and behavioral investigation within the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the main causative agent for human eosinophilic encephalitis, can be acquired through the consumption of the freshwater\\u000a snail Pomacea canaliculata. This snail also provides a suitable model to study the developmental morphology and behavior of A. cantonensis larvae, facilitated by the snail’s distinct lung structure. We used microanatomy for studying the natural appearance and\\u000a behavior

Shan Lv; Yi Zhang; He-Xiang Liu; Chao-Wei Zhang; Peter Steinmann; Xiao-Nong Zhou; Jürg Utzinger

2009-01-01

244

Heavy metal concentrations in common freshwater snails of Azraq Oasis, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal concentrations in three freshwater snails, an aquatic plant, sediment, and water from Azraq Oasis pools in the Jordanian desert were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were significant differences in metal accumulation among snail species. These snails are ranked according to their metal accumulation capacity in the order: Melanoides tuberculata > Melanopsis praemorsa > Theodoxus jordani. Although there

Khaled M. Swaileh; Mohamed N. Mesmar; Naim S. Ismail

1994-01-01

245

JUVENILE SNAILS, ADULT APPETITES: CONTRASTING RESOURCE CONSUMPTION BETWEEN TWO SPECIES OF APPLESNAILS (POMACEA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on aquatic snails usually examines consumption of periphyton, but emergence of large, invasive aquatic snails that prefer macrophytes has necessitated a new understanding about snail her- bivory. Ample research exists detailing invasive potential of certain species of applesnails, such as Pomacea canaliculata, to successfully invade aquatic ecosystems. However, very few studies examine differ- ences in resource utilization between different

BRANDON B. BOLAND; M ARIANA MEERHOFF; CLAUDIA FOSALBA; NESTOR MAZZEO; MATTHEW A. BARNES; ROMI L. BURKS

2008-01-01

246

Genetic differentiation of aquatic snails (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) from artesian springs in and Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoretic surveys of 10 species of hydrobiid snails in two indigenous genera (Fonscochlea and Trochidrobia) living in arid-zone artesian ‘mound’ springs are reported. The study is based on 96 populations of hydrobiid snails living in 32 different springs representing 18 spring groups in the Lake Eyre Supergroup, northern South Australia. The species-level taxonomy of these snails, previously based on morphological

Winston F. Ponder; Peter Eggler; Donald J. Colgan

1995-01-01

247

Biochemical response of the brown garden snails, Helix aspersa to chlorfluazuron and flufenoxuron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two insect growth inhibitors, chlorfluazuron (IKI7899) and flufenoxuron (Cascade) were evaluated for their toxic and biochemical action against the terrestrial snails Helix aspersa (Müller). Chlorfluazuron was found to be more toxic to the snails than flufenoxuron. The experimental snails were fed on lettuce discs treated with low concentration (1%) of each compound for a duration time of 1,2,3 and

M. A. Radwan; K. A. Osman; A. K. Salama

1993-01-01

248

Persistence and extinction of local populations of the garden snail Helix aspersa in unfavorable environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In southern California, previously disturbed but currently uncultivated habitats are unfavorable environments for the introduced snail Helix aspersa. In these habitats, snails were often distributed in small, local populations only a few meters apart. Migration between neighboring populations was minimal because the snails have strong homing tendencies. Local micro-environmental differences produced differences in the demographic properties of 4 adjacent populations

D. C. Potts

1975-01-01

249

Periphytic food and predatory crayfish: relative roles in determining snail distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the laboratory and field, we examined how periphyton (food of snails) and predatory crayfish influenced snail distribution in Trout Lake, a permanent, northern Wisconsin lake. Laboratory experiments (with no crayfish) tested the importance of periphyton biomass in determining snail preference among rocks, and among rock, sand, and macrophyte substrates. Among rocks with four different amounts of periphyton, periphyton biomass

L. M. Weber; D. M. Lodge

1990-01-01

250

Lats2 kinase potentiates Snail1 activity by promoting nuclear retention upon phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Snail1 is a central regulator of epithelial cell adhesion and movement in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) during embryo development; a process reactivated during cancer metastasis. While induction of Snail1 transcription precedes EMT induction, post-translational regulation of Snail1 is also critical for determining Snail1's protein level, subcellular localization, and capacity to induce EMT. To identify novel post-translational regulators of Snail1, we developed a live cell, bioluminescence-based screen. From a human kinome RNAi screen, we have identified Lats2 kinase as a novel regulator of Snail1 protein level, subcellular localization, and thus, activity. We show that Lats2 interacts with Snail1 and directly phosphorylates Snail1 at residue T203. This occurs in the nucleus and serves to retain Snail1 in the nucleus thereby enhancing its stability. Lats2 was found to positively influence cellular EMT and tumour cell invasion, in a Snail1-dependent manner. Indeed during TGF?-induced EMT Lats2 is activated and Snail1 phosphorylated at T203. Analysis in mouse and zebrafish embryo development confirms that Lats2 acts as a positive modulator of Snail1 protein level and potentiates its in vivo EMT activity.

Zhang, Kun; Rodriguez-Aznar, Eva; Yabuta, Norikazu; Owen, Robert J; Mingot, Jose M; Nojima, Hiroshi; Nieto, M Angela; Longmore, Gregory D

2012-01-01

251

Interference with Fasciola hepatica snail finding by various aquatic organisms.  

PubMed

Previous studies using radioactive miracidia have shown that a number of non-host snails and bivalves, interposed as 'decoys' in linear test channels, may interfere with the capacity of Fasciola hepatica miracidia to infect Lymnaea truncatula. Applying similar experimental principles, the role of several other potential interferents have been analysed in the present study. Daphnia pulex (Cladocera) and larvae of Corethra sp. (Diptera) exercised significant interfering effects by protecting 'target' snails from infection. Evidence suggested that this effect was a result of their normal predatory behaviour. Other organisms including Herpobdella testacea and Helobdella stagnalis (Hirudinea), Acellus aquaticus (Isopoda), Planaria lugubris (Turbellaria) and L. truncatula egg clusters failed to interfere with miracidial host-finding. Nor did P. lugubris and L. truncatula 'conditioned water' interfere with the capacity of the miracidia to infect their host snail. PMID:876683

Christensen, N O; Nansen, P; Frandsen, F

1977-06-01

252

Snail Cooperates with KrasG12D to Promote Pancreatic Fibrosis.  

PubMed

Patients with pancreatic cancer, which is characterized by an extensive collagen-rich fibrotic reaction, often present with metastases. A critical step in cancer metastasis is epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which can be orchestrated by the Snail family of transcription factors. To understand the role of Snail (SNAI1) in pancreatic cancer development, we generated transgenic mice expressing Snail in the pancreas. Because chronic pancreatitis can contribute to pancreatic cancer development, Snail-expressing mice were treated with cerulein to induce pancreatitis. Although significant tissue injury was observed, a minimal difference in pancreatitis was seen between control and Snail-expressing mice. However, because Kras mutation is necessary for tumor development in mouse models of pancreatic cancer, we generated mice expressing both mutant Kras(G12D) and Snail (Kras(+)/Snail(+)). Compared with control mice (Kras(+)/Snai(-)), Kras(+)/Snail(+) mice developed acinar ectasia and more advanced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia. The Kras(+)/Snail(+) mice exhibited increased fibrosis, increased phosphorylated Smad2, increased TGF-?2 expression, and activation of pancreatic stellate cells. To further understand the mechanism by which Snail promoted fibrosis, we established an in vitro model to examine the effect of Snail expression in pancreatic cancer cells on stellate cell collagen production. Snail expression in pancreatic cancer cells increased TGF-?2 levels, and conditioned media from Snail-expressing pancreatic cancer cells increased collagen production by stellate cells. Additionally, inhibiting TGF-? signaling in stellate cells attenuated the conditioned media-induced collagen production by stellate cells. Together, these results suggest that Snail contributes to pancreatic tumor development by promoting fibrotic reaction through increased TGF-? signaling. Implications: Expression of the EMT regulator Snail in the context of mutant Kras provides new insight into pancreatic cancer progression. Mol Cancer Res; 11(9); 1078-87. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23761168

Shields, Mario A; Ebine, Kazumi; Sahai, Vaibhav; Kumar, Krishan; Siddiqui, Kulsumjehan; Hwang, Rosa F; Grippo, Paul J; Munshi, Hidayatullah G

2013-06-12

253

Prioritized phenotypic responses to combined predators in a marine snail.  

PubMed

Although many species face numerous predators in nature, the combined impact of multiple predators on the inducible defenses of prey has rarely been studied. Prey may respond with an intermediate phenotype that balances the risk from several sources or may simply respond to the most dangerous predator. I examined the separate and combined effects of the presence of shell-breaking (crabs, Cancer productus) and shell-entry (seastars, Pisaster ochraceus) predators fed conspecific snails on the defensive shell morphology and antipredator behavior of a marine snail (Nucella lamellosa). When exposed to each feeding predator separately, snails responded with a combination of morphological defenses that reflect the attack mode of the predator and a generalized behavioral response. Snails responded to feeding crabs by increasing refuge use and producing a thick, rotund shell. Snails responded to feeding seastars with increased refuge use but produced elongate shells with high spires that allowed for greater retraction of the soft tissue. Seastar-induced phenotypes reduced susceptibility to seastars relative to crab-induced phenotypes, but crab-induced phenotypes did not significantly reduce susceptibility to crabs, indicating an asymmetrical functional trade-off. When feeding predators were combined, snails produced a morphological phenotype similar to that expressed in the presence of the predator that imposed the highest mortality at the population level, suggesting that predator-induced morphology was prioritized according to predation risk. These results suggest that prioritizing conflicting defenses according to predator danger may be a common strategy for prey responding to combined predators, particularly in conjunction with generalized behavioral responses that reduce overall risk in multiple-predator environments. PMID:19569380

Bourdeau, Paul E

2009-06-01

254

Efficacy of Euphorbia hirta latex as plant derived molluscicides against freshwater snails.  

PubMed

The toxic effect of binary and tertiary combinations of Euphorbia hirta Linn latex powder with other plant molluscicidal compounds, were evaluated against the freshwater snails Lymnaea (Radix) acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus in pond. These combinations showed significant time and dose dependent effect against both the snails. These compounds at higher doses were also lethal to freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) (Channidae {Ophicephalidae}), which shares the habitat with these snails, but the LC90 (24h) doses of snails have no apparent killing properties in fish populations when treated in mixed population of snails and fish. PMID:21537758

Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

255

Cercarial production of Fascioloides magna in the snail Galba truncatula (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae).  

PubMed

Single-miracidium infections of Fascioloides magna in two populations of Galba truncatula were carried out under laboratory conditions to count free rediae and cercariae in snail cadavers just after death. Cercaria-shedding snails were in low numbers, and their shell height at day 60 p.e. was significantly greater than that of numerous infected snails that died without cercarial shedding. In snails that died between days 44 and 60 p.e. (at 20 degrees C), the numbers of second-generation rediae significantly increased with increasing shell heights of infected snails. First-generation rediae showed insignificant, quantitative variations, while scarce rediae of the third generation were only found in the highest snails. Cercariae were only produced by the second redial generation. In both groups of snails, free cercariae appeared from 6 mm of shell height, and their numbers increased in the upper classes up to 32.9 per snail. Metacercariae were only found from 9 mm of shell height and were in low numbers. The global cercarial production ranged from 163.5 to 210.0 in the highest classes of snail size from both groups and was limited, whereas the mean burdens of free rediae fluctuated from 39.5 to 43.9. The death of numerous infected snails without cercarial shedding might be explained by the presence of a very high number of second-generation rediae simultaneously growing within the body of these snails. PMID:16416118

Vignoles, P; Novobilský, A; Rondelaud, D; Bellet, V; Treuil, P; Koudela, B; Dreyfuss, G

2006-01-14

256

Food Preference and Reproductive Plasticity in an Invasive Freshwater Snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculata has become a major crop pest in southeast Asia and Hawai'i and threatens natural wetland habitats in these regions and elsewhere. Deliberately introduced as a potential human food resource, it has also been proposed as a possible biocontrol agent against aquatic weeds. Various factors may facilitate its rapid invasion of new areas; we focus

Lori Lach; David K. Britton; Rebecca J. Rundell; Robert H. Cowie

2000-01-01

257

Food preference and reproductive plasticity in an invasive freshwater snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater apple snail Pomacea canaliculatahas become a major crop pest in southeast Asia and Hawai'i and threatens natural wetland habitats in these regions and elsewhere. Deliberately introduced as a potential human food resource, it has also been proposed as a possible biocontrol agent against aquatic weeds. Various factors may facilitate its rapid invasion of new areas; we focus on

Lori Lach; David K. Britton; Rebecca J. Rundell; Robert H. Cowie

2000-01-01

258

Structuring of schistosomes and snails: Genetic insights and epidemiological consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosoma mansoni is the digenean trematode responsible for chronic schistosomiasis in South America and the Caribbean and is one of several species of schistosomes that infect an estimated 200 million people across 74 countries worldwide. Lack of a vaccine, inconsistent sociopolitical will to maintain sanitation and control measures, and anthropogenic ecological disturbances that expand habitat range of the aquatic snail

Elizabeth A Thiele

2011-01-01

259

Sex and genetic variation in a helicid snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation at enzyme loci has been investigated in the endemic Madeiran land snail Heterostoma paupercula (Gastropoda: Helicidae). There is a high degree of differentiation between populations. Part of the variation (about half of the total as measured by F statistics based on three polymorphic loci) is the result of divergence between populations of different islands. There are morphological differences between

L M Cook; L A Lace

1993-01-01

260

Respiratory behavior in the pond snail Lynmaea stagnalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously (Syed et al. 1991) we described the ventilatory behavior of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis and identified motor neurons that innervate various muscles involved in this behavior. In the present study we describe an interneuronal network that controls ventilatory behavior in Lymnaea. An identified interneuron, termed the input 3 interneuron (Ip.3.I), was found to be involved in the opening

N. I. Syed; W. Winlow

1991-01-01

261

Character displacement and coexistence in mud snails (Hydrobiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of coexisting and of allopatrically occurring species of hydrobiid snails (Hydrobia ulvae, H. neglecta, H. ventrosa and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi) have been studied in 90 localities within three different areas. When H. ventrosa coexists with H. ulvae they show character displacement, i.e., the average body size of the former is smaller and that of the latter is larger. When these

Tom Fenchel

1975-01-01

262

Apple Snail: a Bio Cleaner of the Water Free Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil spills from tankers represent a threat for shorelines and marine life. Despite continuing research, there has been little change in the fundamental technology for dealing with oil spills. An experimental investigation of the feeding strategy of Apple snails from the water free surface, called surface film feeding, is being studied motivated by the need to develop new techniques to

Golnaz Bassiri

2005-01-01

263

Food Choice in the Common Snail (Helix Aspersa).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The easily obtained common snail shows interesting dietary preferences which can be the source of several simple experiments. Specific student instructions are given for quantitative and comparative studies using cabbage, lettuce, carrot, rutabaga, and onion. Suggestions for laboratory setup and further work are included. (DH)|

Gill, John; Howell, Pauline

1985-01-01

264

Larval productivity of Fasciola gigantica in two lymnaeid snails.  

PubMed

Two groups of Galba truncatula and two groups of Lymnaea natalensis were experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica to determine if snail species had an influence on the redial burden and cercarial shedding of this trematode when snails of both species were infected with the same isolate of miracidia. In the two groups used for the study of redial burden, the total number of free rediae was significantly higher at day 49 post-exposure in L. natalensis than in G. truncatula. In the groups used for cercarial shedding, the life-span of cercaria-shedding snails and those of infected snails which died without cercarial emission, and the duration of the prepatent period were significantly longer in L. natalensis than those noted in G. truncatula. However, the mean numbers of shed cercariae did not significantly differ and showed no differences in their daily distribution throughout the shedding period. These results demonstrate that G. truncatula might be the principal intermediate host of F. gigantica in Egypt, at least in the areas where this lymnaeid species lives. PMID:15469623

Dar, Y; Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

2004-09-01

265

Flying shells: historical dispersal of marine snails across Central America  

PubMed Central

The geological rise of the Central American Isthmus separated the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans about 3 Ma, creating a formidable barrier to dispersal for marine species. However, similar to Simpson's proposal that terrestrial species can ‘win sweepstakes routes’—whereby highly improbable dispersal events result in colonization across geographical barriers—marine species may also breach land barriers given enough time. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether intertidal marine snails have crossed Central America to successfully establish in new ocean basins. We used a mitochondrial DNA genetic comparison of sister snails (Cerithideopsis spp.) separated by the rise of the Isthmus. Genetic variation in these snails revealed evidence of at least two successful dispersal events between the Pacific and the Atlantic after the final closure of the Isthmus. A combination of ancestral area analyses and molecular dating techniques indicated that dispersal from the Pacific to the Atlantic occurred about 750 000 years ago and that dispersal in the opposite direction occurred about 72 000 years ago. The geographical distribution of haplotypes and published field evidence further suggest that migratory shorebirds transported the snails across Central America at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in southern Mexico. Migratory birds could disperse other intertidal invertebrates this way, suggesting the Central American Isthmus may not be as impassable for marine species as previously assumed.

Miura, Osamu; Torchin, Mark E.; Bermingham, Eldredge; Jacobs, David K.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

2012-01-01

266

Snail Shells in a Practical Application of Statistical Procedures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is based upon a laboratory exercise designed for biology students in secondary schools or those taking introductory biology laboratory courses in colleges and universities. This exercise requires a set of calipers, a calculator and populations of snail shells collected either from the wild or obtained from a biological supply house.…

Banks, Stephen W.; Shepherd, Deborah K.; Williams-Hart, Tara; Gossett, Dalton R.; Crnkovic, Amanda C.

2007-01-01

267

Microgeographic evolution of snail shell shape and predator behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractGenetic divergence in geographically isolated populations is a prerequisite for allopatric speciation, one of the most common modes of speciation. In ecologically equivalent populations existing within a small, environmentally homogeneous area, an important role for environmentally neutral divergence is often found or inferred. We studied a species complex of conspicuously shaped Opisthostoma land snails on scattered limestone outcrops within a

Menno Schilthuizen; Angelique van Til; Merijn Salverda; Thor-Seng Liew; S. Sheena James; Berjaya bin Elahan; Jaap J. Vermeulen

2006-01-01

268

Opiates stimulate food consumption in the land snail Helix aspersa.  

PubMed

Morphine stimulates food consumption in the land snail Helix aspersa. This stimulation of food consumption can be blocked by naloxone, the potent opiate antagonist. In addition, this opiate-induced food consumption exhibits tolerance by the sixth day of treatment. This study further highlights opioid mechanisms in relatively simple organisms and also suggests that these mechanisms are "ancient" signal systems. PMID:3123967

Ndubuka, C; Brown, D; Pratt, S; Braham, E; Leung, M K; Stefano, G B

1986-01-01

269

Impairment of Context Memory by ?-Amyloid Peptide in Terrestrial Snail  

PubMed Central

We examined influence of the ?-amyloid peptide (?AP) (25–35) neurotoxic fragment on Helix lucorum food-aversion learning. Testing with aversively conditioned carrot showed that 2, 5 and 14 days after training the ?AP-injected group responded in a significantly larger number of cases and with a significantly smaller latency than the sham-injected control group. The results demonstrate that the AP partially impairs the learning process. In an attempt to specify what component of memory is impaired we compared responses in a context in which the snails were aversively trained, and in a neutral context. It was found that the sham-injected learned snails significantly less frequently took the aversively conditioned food in the context in which the snails were shocked, while the ?AP-injected snails remembered the aversive context 2 days after associative training, but were not able to distinguish two contexts 5, and 14 days after training. In a separate series of experiments a specific context was associated with electric shock, and changes in general responsiveness were tested in two contexts several days later. It was found that the ?AP-injected snails significantly increased withdrawal responses in all tested contexts, while the sham-injected control animals selectively increased responsiveness only in the context in which they were reinforced with electric shocks. These results demonstrate that the ?AP (25–35) interferes with the learning process, and may play a significant role in behavioral plasticity and memory by selectively impairing only one component of memory?– the context memory.

Korshunova, Tatiana A.; Bravarenko, Natalia I.; Balaban, Pavel M.

2008-01-01

270

Trematode communities in snails can indicate impact and recovery from hurricanes in a tropical coastal lagoon.  

PubMed

In September 2002, Hurricane Isidore devastated the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. To understand its effects on the parasites of aquatic organisms, we analyzed long-term monthly population data of the horn snail Cerithidea pliculosa and its trematode communities in Celestún, Yucatán, Mexico before and after the hurricane (February 2001 to December 2009). Five trematode species occurred in the snail population: Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Euhaplorchis californiensis, two species of the genus Renicola and one Heterophyidae gen. sp. Because these parasites use snails as first intermediate hosts, fishes as second intermediate hosts and birds as final hosts, their presence in snails depends on food webs. No snails were present at the sampled sites for 6 months after the hurricane. After snails recolonised the site, no trematodes were found in snails until 14 months after the hurricane. It took several years for snail and trematode populations to recover. Our results suggest that the increase in the occurrence of hurricanes predicted due to climate change can impact upon parasites with complex life cycles. However, both the snail populations and their parasite communities eventually reached numbers of individuals and species similar to those before the hurricane. Thus, the trematode parasites of snails can be useful indicators of coastal lagoon ecosystem degradation and recovery. PMID:22079832

Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M; Lafferty, Kevin D

2011-11-09

271

The human Lgl polarity gene, Hugl-2, induces MET and suppresses Snail tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Lethal giant larvae proteins have key roles in regulating polarity in a variety of cell types and function as tumour suppressors. A transcriptional programme initiated by aberrant Snail expression transforms epithelial cells to potentially aggressive cancer cells. Although progress in defining the molecular determinants of this programme has been made, we have little knowledge as to how the Snail-induced phenotype can be suppressed. In our studies we identified the human lethal giant larvae homologue 2, Hugl-2, (Llgl2/Lgl2) polarity gene as downregulated by Snail. Snail binds E-boxes in the Hugl-2 promoter and represses Hugl-2 expression, whereas removal of the E-boxes releases Hugl-2 from Snail repression. We demonstrate that inducing Hugl-2 in cells with constitutive Snail expression reverses the phenotype including changes in morphology, motility, tumour growth and dissemination in vivo, and expression of epithelial markers. Hugl-2 expression reduced the nuclear localization of Snail and thus binding of Snail to its target promoters. Our results placing Hugl-2 within the Snail network as well as its ability to suppress Snail carcinogenesis identifies Hugl-2 as a target molecule driving cascades, which may have preventative and therapeutic promise to minimize cancer progression. PMID:22580609

Kashyap, A; Zimmerman, T; Ergül, N; Bosserhoff, A; Hartman, U; Alla, V; Bataille, F; Galle, P R; Strand, S; Strand, D

2012-05-14

272

Snail2 controls mesodermal BMP/Wnt induction of neural crest  

PubMed Central

The neural crest is an induced tissue that is unique to vertebrates. In the clawed frog Xenopus laevis, neural crest induction depends on signals secreted from the prospective dorsolateral mesodermal zone during gastrulation. The transcription factors Snail2 (Slug), Snail1 and Twist1 are expressed in this region. It is known that Snail2 and Twist1 are required for both mesoderm formation and neural crest induction. Using targeted blastomere injection, morpholino-based loss of function and explant studies, we show that: (1) Snail1 is also required for mesoderm and neural crest formation; (2) loss of snail1, snail2 or twist1 function in the C2/C3 lineage of 32-cell embryos blocks mesoderm formation, but neural crest is lost only in the case of snail2 loss of function; (3) snail2 mutant loss of neural crest involves mesoderm-derived secreted factors and can be rescued synergistically by bmp4 and wnt8 RNAs; and (4) loss of snail2 activity leads to changes in the RNA levels of a number of BMP and Wnt agonists and antagonists. Taken together, these results identify Snail2 as a key regulator of the signals involved in mesodermal induction of neural crest.

Shi, Jianli; Severson, Courtney; Yang, Jianxia; Wedlich, Doris; Klymkowsky, Michael W.

2011-01-01

273

Biology of the snail-killing fly, Sepedon spangleri Beaver (Diptera: Sciomyzidae). II. Ability of the larvae to kill snails of medical importance in Thailand.  

PubMed

S. spangleri larvae preferred five species of non-operculate snails; Gyraulus convexiusculus Hutton, Segmentina hemisphaerula Benson, Hippeutis umbilicalis Benson, Indoplanorbis exustus Larambergue, and Trochobis trochoideus Benson. They occasionally consumed the operculate snails: Melanoides tuberculata Muller, Lithoglyphopsis aperta, Hubendickia siamensis Brandt, Lacunopis munensis Brandt, Tarebia granifera, Lamarch and Viviparus sp. but were innocuous to Bithynia laevis Lea. PMID:1025750

Sucharit, S; Chandavimol, Y; Sornmani, S

1976-12-01

274

Molluscicidal activity of Physalis angulata L. extracts and fractions on Biomphalaria tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835) under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

The main objective of this research is to evaluate the molluscicide activity of Physalis angulata L. Biomphalaria tenagophila specimens under laboratory conditions. Extracts and fractions were supplied by the Laborat rio de Qu mica de Produtos Naturais, Farmanguinhos-Fiocruz. Experiments were performed according to the methodology described by the World Health Organization for molluscicide tests using the concentrations from 0.1 to 500 mg/l of the extracts, fractions and of a pool of physalins modified steroids present in this species. The results show that ethyl acetate and acetone extracts from the whole plant, the ethanolic extracts of the roots and the physalins pool from stems and leaves were active. Only the whole plant extracts were available in sufficient quantity for the determination of LD50 and LD90 values. PMID:12886428

dos Santos, José Augusto A; Tomassini, Therezinha Coelho B; Xavier, Deise Cristina Drummond; Ribeiro, Ivone Maria; da Silva, Melissa Teixeira G; de Morais Filho, Zenildo Buarque

2003-07-18

275

Controlled Chaos of Polymorphic Mucins in a Metazoan Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) Interacting with Its Invertebrate Host (Biomphalaria glabrata)  

PubMed Central

Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites. Consequently, the generally accepted arms race hypothesis predicts that molecular diversity and polymorphism also exist in parasites of invertebrates. We investigated the diversity and polymorphism of parasite molecules (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins, SmPoMucs) that are key factors for the compatibility of schistosomes interacting with their host, the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. We have elucidated the complex cascade of mechanisms acting both at the genomic level and during expression that confer polymorphism to SmPoMuc. We show that SmPoMuc is coded by a multi-gene family whose members frequently recombine. We show that these genes are transcribed in an individual-specific manner, and that for each gene, multiple splice variants exist. Finally, we reveal the impact of this polymorphism on the SmPoMuc glycosylation status. Our data support the view that S. mansoni has evolved a complex hierarchical system that efficiently generates a high degree of polymorphism—a “controlled chaos”—based on a relatively low number of genes. This contrasts with protozoan parasites that generate antigenic variation from large sets of genes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Our data support the view that the interaction between parasites and their invertebrate hosts are far more complex than previously thought. While most studies in this matter have focused on invertebrate host diversification, we clearly show that diversifying mechanisms also exist on the parasite side of the interaction. Our findings shed new light on how and why invertebrate immunity develops.

Roger, Emmanuel; Grunau, Christoph; Pierce, Raymond J.; Hirai, Hirohisa; Gourbal, Benjamin; Galinier, Richard; Emans, Remi; Cesari, Italo M.; Cosseau, Celine; Mitta, Guillaume

2008-01-01

276

Expression of Snail and Slug in renal cell carcinoma: E-cadherin repressor Snail is associated with cancer invasion and prognosis.  

PubMed

The Snail family transcription factors have been proposed as important mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition because of their role in down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of Snail, Slug and their associations with cancer invasion and prognosis in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). Ninety-seven primary RCCs were analyzed for the protein expression of Snail, Slug, MMP2 and MMP9 by immunohistochemistry. Snail protein expression level was positively correlated with pathological tumor stage, histological grade and the presence of sarcomatoid carcinoma. On the contrary, Slug protein expression level was negatively correlated with pathological tumor stage, suggesting that Slug was down-regulated in advanced RCCs. Because Snail was positively associated with malignant potential of RCCs, involvement of Snail in the invasiveness of an RCC cell line 786-O was examined in the Matrigel invasion assay by down-regulating the gene expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA). Targeting the Snail, not Slug, expression in 786-O cells with siRNA caused down-regulation of the gene expression of Snail, vimentin, MMP2 and MMP9, but up-regulated the E-cadherin. Invasion of the cells through Matrigel in vitro was inhibited under this condition. Furthermore, expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 were positively correlated with pathological tumor stage and the presence of sarcomatoid carcinoma. Statistical analysis indicated that elevated Snail, MMP2 and MMP9 protein expression are significantly worse predictors of disease-free and disease-specific survival of the patients with RCC. In conclusion, these data suggest that Snail has an important role in invasion and metastasis, and that silencing the gene may be a potential therapeutic target in RCCs. PMID:21808237

Mikami, Shuji; Katsube, Ken-Ichi; Oya, Mototsugu; Ishida, Masaru; Kosaka, Takeo; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Mukai, Makio; Okada, Yasunori

2011-08-01

277

Use of Bayluscide (Bayer 73) for Snail Control in Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayluscide applied to ponds on two commercial fish farms at five rates (from L1 to 13.5 kilogram per surface hectare) effectively controlled aquatic snails. Laboratory toxicity tests confirmed susceptibility of three endemic species of aquatic snail—Melanoides tuberculatus, Physella hendersoni, and Planorbella duryi—to Bayluscide. Observed 24-h concentrations lethal to 50% of snails (LC50) ranged from 0.062 to 0.085 mg\\/L, and 24-h

Ruth Francis-Floyd; James Gildea; Peggy Reed; Ruthellen Klinger

1997-01-01

278

Calcium metabolism in two populations of the snail Helix aspersa on a high lead diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft tissue concentrations of lead, calcium, and magnesium were measured in the garden snail,Helix aspersa, over a 64-day dosing regime. Snails were compared from an uncontaminated site and from a grossly polluted car park. In each case, 25 snails were given a diet with 500 µg\\/g Pb (as PbSO4), and 25 were removed to a Pb-free diet after two days

Alan Beeby; Larry Richmond

1988-01-01

279

Effects of dietary exposure to forest pesticides on the brown garden snail Helix aspersa mueller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brown garden snails, Helix aspersa, were fed prepared diets with 12 pesticides used in forest spraying practices where endangered arboreal and terrestrial snails may be at risk. Acephate, atrazine, glyphosate, hexazinone, and picloram were not lethal at concentrations of 5,000 mg\\/kg in 14-day screening tests. The remaining seven pesticides, lethal to 13-100% of the tested snails at 5,000 mg\\/kg, were

G. S. Schuytema; A. V. Nebeker; W. L. Griffis

1994-01-01

280

Effects of dietary exposure to forest pesticides on the brown garden snail Helix aspersa Müller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brown garden snails, Helix aspersa, were fed prepared diets with 12 pesticides used in forest spraying practices where endangered arboreal and terrestrial snails may be at risk. Acephate, atrazine, glyphosate, hexazinone, and picloram were not lethal at concentrations of 5,000 mg\\/kg in 14-day screening tests. The remaining seven pesticides, lethal to 13–100% of the tested snails at 5,000 mg\\/kg, were

G. S. Schuytema; A. V. Nebeker; W. L. Griffis

1994-01-01

281

The LIM Protein AJUBA Recruits Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 To Mediate SNAIL-Dependent Transcriptional Repression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SNAIL transcription factor contains C-terminal tandem zinc finger motifs and an N-terminal SNAG repression domain. The members of the SNAIL family have recently emerged as major contributors to the processes of development and metastasis via the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition events during embryonic development and tumor progression. However, the mechanisms by which SNAIL represses gene expression are largely undefined.

Zhaoyuan Hou; Hongzhuang Peng; Kasirajan Ayyanathan; Kai-Ping Yan; Ellen M. Langer; Gregory D. Longmore; Frank J. Rauscher

2008-01-01

282

Repression of PTEN phosphatase by Snail1 transcriptional factor during gamma radiation-induced apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The product of the Snail1 gene is a transcriptional repressor required for triggering the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Snail1 in epithelial cells promotes resistance to apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate that this resistance to gamma radiation-induced apoptosis caused by Snail1 is associated with the inhibition of PTEN phosphatase. In MDCK cells, mRNA levels of the p53 target

Sandra Peiro; Nicolas Herranz; Patricia Villagrasa; Natalia Dave; Sentis B Montserrat; Stephen A. Murray; C. Franci; Thomas Gridley; Ismo Virtanen; de Herreros Garcia

2008-01-01

283

Exploring the Temporal Effects of Seasonal Water Availability on the Snail Kite of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is an endangered raptor that occurs as an isolated population, currently of about 2,000 birds, in the wetlands of southern\\u000a and central Florida, USA. Its exclusive prey species, the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) is strongly influenced by seasonal changes in water abundance. Droughts during the snail kite breeding season have a direct\\u000a negative effect

WOLF M. MOOIJ; JULIEN MARTIN; WILEY KITCHENS; DONALD DEANGELIS

2007-01-01

284

Intertidal snail-trematode communities on the southern Thailand before and after the South Asia tsunami.  

PubMed

Intertidal snail-trematode communities in southern Thailand were examined before and after the South Asia tsunami. Infection rates and species diversity of cercaria in the host snail Cerithidea in tidal zones did not change significantly from one year before to one month after the tsunami. However, the host snails C. quadrata, C. alata and C. obtusa disappeared from greatly damaged sites. It is important to follow up on the intertidal snail-trematode community recovery process after destruction of the intertidal ecosystem. PMID:17883003

Harada, Masakazu; Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Lohachit, Chantima; Fujimoto, Chigusa; Arif-Ul- Hasan; Itaki, Rodney; Suguri, Setsuo; Chusongsang, Yupa; Chusongsang, Phiraphol

2007-07-01

285

Analysis of Snail1 function and regulation by Twist1 in palatal fusion.  

PubMed

Palatal fusion is a tightly controlled process which comprises multiple cellular events, including cell movement and differentiation. Midline epithelial seam (MES) degradation is essential to palatal fusion. In this study, we analyzed the function of Snail1 during the degradation of the MES. We also analyzed the mechanism regulating the expression of the Snail1 gene in palatal shelves. Palatal explants treated with Snail1 siRNA did not degrade the MES and E-cadherin was not repressed leading to failure of palatal fusion. Transforming growth factor beta 3 (Tgf?3) regulated Snail1 mRNA, as Snail1 expression decreased in response to Tgf?3 neutralizing antibody and a PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Twist1, in collaboration with E2A factors, regulated the expression of Snail1. Twist1/E47 dimers bond to the Snail1 promoter to activate expression. Without E47, Twist1 repressed Snail1 expression. These results support the hypothesis that Tgf?3 may signal through Twist1 and then Snail1 to downregulate E-cadherin expression during palatal fusion. PMID:23424071

Yu, Wenli; Zhang, Yanping; Ruest, L Bruno; Svoboda, Kathy K H

2013-02-19

286

The LIM protein AJUBA recruits protein arginine methyltransferase 5 to mediate SNAIL-dependent transcriptional repression.  

PubMed

The SNAIL transcription factor contains C-terminal tandem zinc finger motifs and an N-terminal SNAG repression domain. The members of the SNAIL family have recently emerged as major contributors to the processes of development and metastasis via the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition events during embryonic development and tumor progression. However, the mechanisms by which SNAIL represses gene expression are largely undefined. Previously we demonstrated that the AJUBA family of LIM proteins function as corepressors for SNAIL and, as such, may serve as a platform for the assembly of chromatin-modifying factors. Here, we describe the identification of the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) as an effector recruited to SNAIL through an interaction with AJUBA that functions to repress the SNAIL target gene, E-cadherin. PRMT5 binds to the non-LIM region of AJUBA and is translocated into the nucleus in a SNAIL- and AJUBA-dependent manner. The depletion of PRMT5 in p19 cells stimulates E-cadherin expression, and the SNAIL, AJUBA, and PRMT5 ternary complex can be found at the proximal promoter region of the E-cadherin gene, concomitant with increased arginine methylation of histones at the locus. Together, these data suggest that PRMT5 is an effector of SNAIL-dependent gene repression. PMID:18347060

Hou, Zhaoyuan; Peng, Hongzhuang; Ayyanathan, Kasirajan; Yan, Kai-Ping; Langer, Ellen M; Longmore, Gregory D; Rauscher, Frank J

2008-03-17

287

Analysis of Snail1 function and regulation by Twist1 in palatal fusion  

PubMed Central

Palatal fusion is a tightly controlled process which comprises multiple cellular events, including cell movement and differentiation. Midline epithelial seam (MES) degradation is essential to palatal fusion. In this study, we analyzed the function of Snail1 during the degradation of the MES. We also analyzed the mechanism regulating the expression of the Snail1 gene in palatal shelves. Palatal explants treated with Snail1 siRNA did not degrade the MES and E-cadherin was not repressed leading to failure of palatal fusion. Transforming growth factor beta 3 (Tgf?3) regulated Snail1 mRNA, as Snail1 expression decreased in response to Tgf?3 neutralizing antibody and a PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Twist1, in collaboration with E2A factors, regulated the expression of Snail1. Twist1/E47 dimers bond to the Snail1 promoter to activate expression. Without E47, Twist1 repressed Snail1 expression. These results support the hypothesis that Tgf?3 may signal through Twist1 and then Snail1 to downregulate E-cadherin expression during palatal fusion.

Yu, Wenli; Zhang, Yanping; Ruest, L. Bruno; Svoboda, Kathy K. H.

2013-01-01

288

Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (<3 m in depth) of the reservoir, then the total adult population in this impoundment is estimated to be 253,570 snails, and the total Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

2012-01-01

289

Phenotypic plasticity in two marine snails: constraints superseding life history.  

PubMed

In organisms encountering predictable environments, fixed development is expected, whereas in organisms that cannot predict their future environment, phenotypic plasticity would be optimal to increase local adaptation. To test this prediction we experimentally compared phenotypic plasticity in two rocky-shore snail species; Littorina saxatilis releasing miniature snails on the shore, and Littorina littorea releasing drifting larvae settling on various shores, expecting L. littorea to show more phenotypic plasticity than L. saxatilis. We compared magnitude and direction of vectors of phenotypic difference in juvenile shell traits after 3 months exposure to different stimuli simulating sheltered and crab-rich shores, or wave-exposed and crab-free shores. Both species showed similar direction and magnitude of vectors of phenotypic difference with minor differences only between ecotypes of the nondispersing species, indicating that plasticity is an evolving trait in L. saxatilis. The lack of a strong plastic response in L. littorea might be explained by limits rather than costs to plasticity. PMID:17040383

Hollander, J; Collyer, M L; Adams, D C; Johannesson, K

2006-11-01

290

Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum  

PubMed Central

Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring.

Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M

2012-01-01

291

Sexual selection maintains whole-body chiral dimorphism in snails  

PubMed Central

Although the vast majority of higher animals are fixed for one chiral morph or another, the cause for this directionality is known in only a few cases. In snails, for example, rare individuals of the opposite coil are unable to mate with individuals of normal coil, so directionality is maintained by frequency-dependent selection. The snail subgenus Amphidromus presents an unexplained exception, because dextral (D) and sinistral (S) individuals occur sympatrically in roughly equal proportions (so-called ‘antisymmetry’) in most species. Here we show that in Amphidromus there is sexual selection for dimorphism, rather than selection for monomorphism. We found that matings between D and S individuals occur more frequently than expected by chance. Anatomical investigations showed that the chirality of the spermatophore and the female reproductive tract probably allow a greater fecundity in such inter-chiral matings. Computer simulation confirms that under these circumstances, sustained dimorphism is the expected outcome.

SCHILTHUIZEN, M.; CRAZE, P. G.; CABANBAN, A. S.; DAVISON, A.; STONE, J.; GITTENBERGER, E.; SCOTT, B. J.

2007-01-01

292

Environment-dependent inbreeding depression in a hermaphroditic freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Inbreeding depression was simultaneously studied under contrasted environments, laboratory and natural conditions, using individuals originating from 14 families of the freshwater snail Physa acuta. Both survival and growth of juveniles showed inbreeding depression under laboratory conditions. The same fitness components were monitored with mature snails either kept under laboratory conditions or released at a natural site and analysed using capture-mark-recapture models. Genetic composition of both samples was similar. Inbreeding depression on survival was highest in the laboratory while strong outbreeding depression was revealed in the field. Thus inbreeding depression may not be always higher under natural conditions, at the opposite of what is commonly assumed. We suggest that inbreeding depression is dependent on metabolic requirements imposed by the environment. Other evidences showing that inbreeding depression is environment-dependent are reviewed. We conclude that genetic models should include both genetic and environmental variance in inbreeding depression for studying mating system evolution. PMID:14640413

Henry, P Y; Pradel, R; Jarne, P

2003-11-01

293

Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)  

SciTech Connect

Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century. Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem`s food web. Recent research by Malley et al. has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A. [National Biological Services, Laurel, MD (United States); Bennetts, R.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1997-05-01

294

Controllable Snail-Paced Light in Biological Bacteriorhodopsin Thin Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observe that the group velocity of light is reduced to an extremely low value of 0.091mm\\/s in a biological thin film of bacteriorhodopsin at room temperature. By exploiting unique features of a flexible photoisomerization process for coherent population oscillation, the velocity is all-optically controlled over an enormous span, from snail-paced to normal light speed, with no need of modifying

Pengfei Wu

2005-01-01

295

Effect of Glyphosate on the Development of Pseudosuccinea columella Snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Glyphosate (Roundup) is one of the most commonly used broad-spectrum herbicides with little to no hazard to animals, man,\\u000a or the environment. Due to its widespread use, there is continuous contamination of the environment in both soil and water\\u000a with this herbicide. There is a paucity of long-term exposure studies with sublethal concentrations of glyphosate on aquatic\\u000a snails. This

T. M. Tate; J. O. Spurlock; F. A. Christian

1997-01-01

296

Physical constraints on the foraging ecology of a predatory snail  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of aerial exposure and high summer temperatures on the southern oyster drill (Stramonita haemastoma), feeding on the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica. In the laboratory, oyster drill feeding rates and growth were highest at 25 and 30°C, some mortality occurred at 35°C, all snails died at 40 and 45°C, and the 28-day LC 50 was 35.7°C. In

Kenneth M. Brown; William B. Stickle

2002-01-01

297

The Helix aspersa (Brown Garden Snail) Allergen Repertoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ingestion of snails can induce strong asthmatic or anaphylactic responses, mainly in house-dust-mite-sensitized patients. The aim of this study was to identify the Helix aspersa (Hel a), Theba pisana (The p) and Otala lactea (Ota l) allergens and the extent of their cross-reactivity with the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) mite. Patients and Methods: In 60 atopicpatients, skin prick tests

Luís Miguel Lourenço Martins; Gabriel Peltre; Carlos José Fialho da Costa Faro; Euclides Manuel Vieira Pires; Filipe Fernando da Cruz Inácio

2005-01-01

298

Lead reduces shell mass in juvenile garden snails ( Helix aspersa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper examining inherited tolerance to Pb, the shell growth of laboratory-bred offspring of Helix aspersa from contaminated sites was compared with that of juveniles from na??ve populations on dosed and undosed diets. Eight-week-old snails were fed either 500 ?g g?1 Pb or a control food in competitive trials between two populations. In the first series of trials,

Alan Beeby; Larry Richmond; Florian Herpé

2002-01-01

299

Determinants of paternity in the garden snail Helix aspersa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the likely importance of post-copulatory sexual selection in simultaneous hermaphrodites, the factors influencing sperm competition in these organisms are generally unknown. We have investigated the effects of dart-shooting, mating order, and several other predictors on the proportion of offspring fathered by penultimate (Pn-1) and ultimate (Pn) sperm donors in multiply mated garden snails, Helix aspersa. While paternity ratios were

David W. Rogers; Ronald Chase

2002-01-01

300

Functional Changes in the Snail Statocyst System Elicited by Microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe mollusk statocyst is a mechanosensing organ detecting the animal's orientation with respect to gravity. This system has clear similarities to its vertebrate counterparts: a weight-lending mass, an epithelial layer containing small supporting cells and the large sensory hair cells, and an output eliciting compensatory body reflexes to perturbations.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn terrestrial gastropod snail we studied the impact of 16- (Foton

Pavel M. Balaban; Aleksey Y. Malyshev; Victor N. Ierusalimsky; Nikolay Aseyev; Tania A. Korshunova; Natasha I. Bravarenko; M. S. Lemak; Matvey Roshchin; Igor S. Zakharov; Yekaterina Popova; Richard Boyle; Hiromu Tanimoto

2011-01-01

301

Toxins from cone snails: properties, applications and biotechnological production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cone snails are marine predators that use venoms to immobilize their prey. The venoms of these mollusks contain a cocktail\\u000a of peptides that mainly target different voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels. Typically, conopeptides consist of ten to\\u000a 30 amino acids but conopeptides with more than 60 amino acids have also been described. Due to their extraordinary pharmacological\\u000a properties, conopeptides gained

Stefan Becker; Heinrich Terlau

2008-01-01

302

Clonal diversity driven by parasitism in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

One explanation for the widespread abundance of sexual reproduction is the advantage that genetically diverse sexual lineages have under strong pressure from virulent coevolving parasites. Such parasites are believed to track common asexual host genotypes, resulting in negative frequency-dependent selection that counterbalances the population growth-rate advantage of asexuals in comparison with sexuals. In the face of genetically diverse asexual lineages, this advantage of sexual reproduction might be eroded, and instead sexual populations would be replaced by diverse assemblages of clonal lineages. We investigated whether parasite-mediated selection promotes clonal diversity in 22 natural populations of the freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata. We found that infection prevalence explains the observed variation in the clonal diversity of M. tuberculata populations, whereas no such relationship was found between infection prevalence and male frequency. Clonal diversity and male frequency were independent of snail population density. Incorporating ecological factors such as presence/absence of fish, habitat geography and habitat type did not improve the predictive power of regression models. Approximately 11% of the clonal snail genotypes were shared among 2-4 populations, creating a web of 17 interconnected populations. Taken together, our study suggests that parasite-mediated selection coupled with host dispersal ecology promotes clonal diversity. This, in return, may erode the advantage of sexual reproduction in M. tuberculata populations. PMID:24118641

Dagan, Y; Liljeroos, K; Jokela, J; Ben-Ami, F

2013-10-01

303

Phosphorylated P68 RNA Helicase Activates Snail1 Transcription by Promoting HDAC1 Dissociation from the Snail1 Promoter  

PubMed Central

The nuclear p68 RNA helicase is a prototypical member of the DEAD box family of RNA helicases. P68 RNA helicase has been implicated in cell proliferation and early organ development and maturation. However, the functional role of p68 RNA helicase in these biological processes at the molecular level is not well understood. We previously reported that tyrosine phosphorylation of p68 RNA helicase mediates the effects of PDGF in induction of EMT by promoting ?-catenin nuclear translocation (Yang et.al. Cell 127:139-155 2006). Here we report that phosphorylation of p68 RNA helicase at Y593 up-regulates transcription of the Snail1 gene. The phosphorylated p68 activates transcription of the Snail1 gene by promoting HDAC1 dissociation from the Snail1 promoter. Our results showed that p68 interacted with the nuclear remodeling and deacetylation complex MBD3:Mi-2/NuRD. Thus, our data suggested that a DEAD box RNA unwindase can potentially regulate gene expression by functioning as a protein ‘displacer’ to modulate protein-protein interactions at the chromatin remodeling complex.

Carter, Christie L.; Lin, Chunru; Liu, Chia-yi; Yang, Liuqing; Liu, Zhi-Ren

2010-01-01

304

Plagiorchis elegans (Trematoda) and incompatible snail hosts: implications for snail life history traits and biocontrol of human schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of Plagiorchis elegans on egg production and survival on Bulinus truncatus and Helisoma trivolvis trivolvis. Both species are incompatible hosts for P. elegans. Helisoma t. trivolvis occurs sympatrically with P. elegans; B. truncatus does not. Overall, P. elegans had no effect on survivorship or egg production in H. t. trivolvis or on the survivorship of B. truncatus. Its effect on egg production in B. truncatus was transitory; egg production was reduced by 50% for 5 wk following exposure but returned to normal thereafter. Neither egg production nor survivorship was affected in adult H. t. trivolvis. Egg production ceased at 14 wk post-exposure (PE), but resumed when the snails were paired. Young H. t. trivolvis also produced eggs after exposure, but later than the adults and only after they had been paired with another snail. This suggests that a need for periodic cross-fertilization in H. t. trivolvis rather than the effect of the parasite is responsible for the cessation of egg production in this species. Survivorship in young H. t. trivolvis was significantly higher in exposed snails between wk 7 to 10 PE than in controls. PMID:19566345

Daoust, Simon P; Mader, Brian J; McLaughlin, J Daniel; Rau, Manfred E

2009-12-01

305

The influence of chemical cues and conspecific density on the temperature selection of a freshwater snail ( Melanoides tuberculata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effects of predation risk (via chemical cues) and conspecific density on temperature selection of the freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata were assessed within a circular thermal gradient.2. Chemical cues from crushed conspecifics elicited the strongest avoidance response of snails in isothermal conditions.3. Following the addition of chemical cues to the thermal gradient, snails became more active and did not

Gary W. Gerald; Lawrence C. Spezzano

2005-01-01

306

Migration and trail affinity of snails, Littoraria scabra, on mangrove trees of Nananu-i-ra, Fiji Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of mobile species such as grazing snails may be influenced by migration patterns, which often are excluded from ecological studies. To highlight this point, the migration patterns of Littoraria scabra on mangrove trees were investigated during incoming and outgoing tides at Nanaru-i-ra, Fiji Islands. Marked snails were used to track the position of snails, relative to the ground,

Andrea C. Alfaro

2007-01-01

307

Measuring Animal Movements in a Natural Ecosystem: A Mark-Recapture Investigation Using Stream-Dwelling Snails  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this investigation, students measure and describe movements of animals in a natural ecosystem. Students mark stream-dwelling snails with nail polish, then search for these snails 1-7 days later. Distances and directions moved by recaptured snails are recorded. Simple statistical techniques are used to answer specific research questions and…

Stewart, Timothy W.

2007-01-01

308

Survival of the Faucet Snail after Chemical Disinfection, pH extremes, and Heated Water Bath Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The faucet snail Bithynia tentaculata, a nonindigenous aquatic snail from Eurasia, was introduced into Lake Michigan in 1871 and has spread to the mid-Atlantic states, the Great Lakes region, Montana, and most recently, the Mississippi River. The faucet snail serves as intermediate host for several trematodes that have caused large-scale mortality among water birds, primarily in the Great Lakes region

Andrew J. Mitchell; Rebecca A. Cole

2008-01-01

309

Temperature Tolerance of Red-Rim Melania Melanoides tuberculatus, an Exotic Aquatic Snail Established in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus (family Thiaridae), a tropical, nonindigenous aquatic snail, has become established and is spreading in the United States. Concerns associated with the spread of this snail include its potential to displace native snail populations and to transmit trematodes. Of particular concern is the gill trematode Centrocestus formosanus now found in U.S. commercial and wild fish stocks.

Andrew J. Mitchell; Thomas M. Brandt

2005-01-01

310

Soil moisture and soil type influence the breeding behavior of the pest snail Cernuella virgata (da Costa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common white snail (Cernuella virgata) (da Costa) is an exotic pest of grain crops in southern Australia. In order to better control these snails and develop optimal management strategies, it is important to understand how their breeding behavior is influenced by soil moisture and soil type. Pairs of adult snails were placed into vials containing either a calcareous or

V. L. Carne-Cavagnaro; M. A. Keller; G. H. Baker

2006-01-01

311

Inhibition of egg hatching with apple wax solvent as a novel method for controlling golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is an important pest of rice in Asia. Among chemicals screened for ability to inhibit hatching of snail eggs, morpholine which is a solvent of apple wax was very effective in suppressing hatching of snail eggs. At a concentration of 60%, or higher, morpholine completely suppressed egg hatching in the laboratory and outdoor conditions. Scanning

Der-Chung Wu; Jih-Zu Yu; Bing-Huei Chen; Chien-Yih Lin; Wen-Hsiung Ko

2005-01-01

312

Snail Grazing Effects on the Composition and Metabolism of Benthic Diatom Communities and Subsequent Effects on Fish Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eastern mud snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta) in densities of zero, six or twelve snails were placed in flow-through laboratory microcosms and incubated for five weeks. Other tanks were raked daily to a depth of 10 mm. Grazing by low densities of snails signifi...

M. S. Connor

1980-01-01

313

The Application of Electric Shock as a Novel Pest Control Method for Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, brought to Japan from Taiwan for human consumption in the 1980s, has come to be considered as deleterious for rice cultivation. The snail is unable to injure young rice plants while receiving electric shock because the snail retracts its entire body into its shell and shuts its aperture with its operculum. Electric shock should be

Yoshihito Yagyu; Satoshi Tsuji; Saburoh Satoh; Chobei Yamabe

2005-01-01

314

A molecular phylogeography approach to biological invasions of the New World by parthenogenetic Thiarid snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parthenogenetic snail Melanoides tuberculata , present in tropical fresh waters of most of the Old World before 1950, has now invaded the Neotropical area. The phylogeography of this snail was studied to evaluate the pathways and number of such invasions. Because of parthenogenetic reproduction, individuals are structured into genetical clones. Within populations from both the original and invaded areas,

B. FACON; J.-P. POINTIER; M. GLAUBRECHT; C. POUX; P. JARNE; P. DAVID

2003-01-01

315

The Introduction of an Invasive Snail (Melanoides tuberculata) to Spring Ecosystems of the Bonneville Basin, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanoides tuberculata is an invasive tropical prosobranch snail that was first introduced to the Bonneville Basin, Utah, sometime in the 1960's. During 2001 and 2002 we searched 276 sites\\/habitat types (limnocrenes, rheocrenes, and helocrenes) in 124 springs, nested in 14 valleys distributed throughout the Bonneville Basin and found this snail abundant in 17 of the 124 springs and occurring in

Russell B. Rader; Mark C. Belk; M. Jane Keleher

2003-01-01

316

Factors Affecting the Distribution and Abundance of Two Prosobranch Snails in a Thermal Spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the distribuiton and abundance of two prosobranch snails (Melanopsis praemorsa and Melanoides tuberculata) in a thermal spring (27°C) in southeast Morocco. Of the physicochemical and ecological parameters measured, food availability and water velocity appeared to be the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of these snails.

Hammou Laamrani; Khalid Khallayoune; Bernard Delay; Jean-Pierre Pointier

1997-01-01

317

TREMATODE INFECTIONS OF THE FRESHWATER SNAIL FAMILY THIARIDAE IN THE KHEK RIVER, THAILAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater snail family Thiaridae was studied at five different locations: water sources for the Khek River, Thailand. Snail samples were collected by hand using counts per unit of time sampling method between December 2004 and October 2005. The physico-chemi- cal quality of the water changed with the seasons and affected the sampling areas during both the dry season and

Wivitchuta Dechruksa; Duangduen Krailas; Suluck Ukong; Wasin Inkapatanakul; Tunyarut Koonchornboon

318

Larval stages of digenetic trematodes in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from freshwater bodies in Palestine  

PubMed Central

Objective To detect the species of larval trematodes (cercariae) in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from 5 different fresh water bodies in Palestine. Methods A total of 1 880 Melanopsis praemorsa snails were collected from different fresh water bodies in Palestine from October, 2008 to November, 2010. Cercariae in Melanopsis praemorsa snails were obtained by lighting and crushing methods. The behavior of cercariae was observed using a dissecting microscope. Results Three different species of larval trematodes were identified from Melanopsis praemorsa snails collected only from Al-Bathan fresh water body, while snails from other water bodies were not infected. These species were microcercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria and brevifurcate lophocercous cercaria. These cercariae called Cercaria melanopsi palestinia I, Cercaria melanopsi palestinia II and Cercaria melanopsi palestinia III have not been described before from this snail in Palestine. The infection rate of Melanopsis praemorsa collected from Al-Bathan fresh water body was 5.7%, while the overall infection rate of snails collected from all fresh water bodies was 4.3%. Details are presented on the morphology and behavior of the cercariae as well as their development within the snail. Conclusions These results have been recorded for the first time and these cercariae may be of medical and veterinary importance.

Bdir, Sami; Adwan, Ghaleb

2011-01-01

319

The influence of TCS on the growth and behavior of the freshwater snail, Physa acuta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triclosan (TCS) is among the top 10 most persistent contaminants found in U.S. rivers, streams, lakes, and aquifers. Although TCS has not been found to be hazardous to humans, it can be toxic to aquatic environments and animals. The effects of TCS on growth rates and the locomotive behavior of the freshwater snail, Physa acuta, were studied by exposing snails

Jenell Brown; Melody J. Bernot; Randall J. Bernot

2012-01-01

320

Additions to the Pulmonate Snails of Oklahoma (With Notes on Anatomical Techniques)  

Microsoft Academic Search

bottom. Using a common large pulmonate snail, a few trial experiments in dissection will soon permit one to devise a satisfactory method. If material is abundant, identifications should be based on the dissection of many specimens. Living snails to be dissected may be drowned or fixed for several minutes in boiling water, both methods being good for reo vealing particular

GLENN R. WEBB

321

Aquatic snails of the Bulinus africanus group in Zambia identified according to morphometry and enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bulinus africanus species group (Planorbidae) of freshwater snails has been reported to be represented in Zambia by two species, B. africanus (Krauss) and B. globosus (Morelet), both named as intermediate hosts for Schistosoma haematobium. Uncertainty in identification of these snails from morphology led to the present investigation, combining morphometry (shell and copulatory organ) with enzyme analysis. Observations of both

D. S. Brown; D. Rollinson

1996-01-01

322

Distribution of freshwater snails in the man-made Oyan Reservoir, Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors influencing patterns of snail distribution in Oyan Reservoir, a typically medium sized man-made reservoir in southwest Nigeria, were investigated once a month, for 28 months (August 1990-November 1992). During each monthly visit, seven stations were sampled for relative snail density, vegetation cover and physical and chemical properties of the lake water. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the

Ifeanyi Emmanuel Ofoezie

1999-01-01

323

The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail  

PubMed Central

Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures.

Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M.; Garcia de Leon, Francisco J.; Johnson, Steven G.

2012-01-01

324

The effects of endosulfan on the great ramshorn snail Planorbarius corneus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata): a histopathological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the great ramshorn snail (Planorbarius corneus), one of the most abundant gastropod of Turkish limnic systems, was investigated to determine the histopathological effects of endosulfan on the digestive gland, foot and mantle under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected from small artificial pools in Karaot at Gelendost-Isparta (Southwest of Turkey), where agricultural activities are widespread. The snails were

Birgül Otludil; Elif Ipek Cengiz; M. Zeki Yildirim; Özkan Ünver; Erhan Ünlü

2004-01-01

325

Detection of micronuclei in haemocytes of zebra mussel and great ramshorn snail exposed to pentachlorophenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of micronuclei (MN) induced by pentachlorophenol (PCP) in haemocytes of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha Pall. and great ramshorn snail, Planorbarius corneus L. was determined over a 14 days of exposure (sampling after 4, 7 and 14 days) under laboratory conditions. PCP doses for zebra mussel ranged from 10 to 150 ?g\\/l, and for ramshorn snail from 10 to

Mirjana Pavlica; Göran I. V Klobu?ar; Nataša Vetma; Radovan Erben; Dražena Papeš

2000-01-01

326

Local adaptation of the trematode Fasciola hepatica to the snail Galba truncatula  

PubMed Central

Experimental infections of six riverbank populations of Galba truncatula with Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine if the poor susceptibility of these populations to this digenean might be due to the scarcity or the absence of natural encounters between these snails and the parasite. The first three populations originated from banks frequented by cattle in the past (riverbank group) whereas the three others were living on islet banks without any known contact with local ruminants (islet group). After their exposure, all snails were placed in their natural habitats from the end of October up to their collection at the beginning of April. Compared to the riverbank group, snails, which died without cercarial shedding clearly predominated in the islet group, while the other infected snails were few in number. Most of these last snails released their cercariae during a single shedding wave. In islet snails dissected after their death, the redial and cercarial burdens were significantly lower than those noted in riverbank G. truncatula. Snails living on these islet banks are thus able to sustain larval development of F. hepatica. The modifications noted in the characteristics of snail infection suggest the existence of an incomplete adaptation between these G. truncatula and the parasite, probably due to the absence of natural contact between host and parasite.

Dreyfuss, G.; Vignoles, P.; Rondelaud, D.

2012-01-01

327

A repetitive DNA probe for the sensitive detection of Fasciola hepatica infected snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epizootiologic studies on F. hepatica frequently use microscopic techniques for the detection of infected snails, however, the poor efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity associated with these techniques limit their usefulness. A DNA-based test for the identification of snails infected with larval stages of F. hepatica would solve these problems and enable a level of detection accuracy previosly unavailable. We have cloned

R. M. Kaplan; J. B. Dame; G. R. Reddy; C. H. Courtney

1995-01-01

328

Local adaptation of the trematode Fasciola hepatica to the snail Galba truncatula.  

PubMed

Experimental infections of six riverbank populations of Galba truncatula with Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine if the poor susceptibility of these populations to this digenean might be due to the scarcity or the absence of natural encounters between these snails and the parasite. The first three populations originated from banks frequented by cattle in the past (riverbank group) whereas the three others were living on islet banks without any known contact with local ruminants (islet group). After their exposure, all snails were placed in their natural habitats from the end of October up to their collection at the beginning of April. Compared to the riverbank group, snails, which died without cercarial shedding clearly predominated in the islet group, while the other infected snails were few in number. Most of these last snails released their cercariae during a single shedding wave. In islet snails dissected after their death, the redial and cercarial burdens were significantly lower than those noted in riverbank G. truncatula. Snails living on these islet banks are thus able to sustain larval development of F. hepatica. The modifications noted in the characteristics of snail infection suggest the existence of an incomplete adaptation between these G. truncatula and the parasite, probably due to the absence of natural contact between host and parasite. PMID:22910670

Dreyfuss, G; Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D

2012-08-01

329

Tales of two snails: sexual selection and sexual conflict in Lymnaea stagnalis and Helix aspersa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Sexual selection and sexual conflict have been shown to play key roles in the evolution of species with separate sexes. Experimental evidence is accumulating that this is also true for simultaneous hermaphrodites. For example, many species of land snails forcefully stab their mating partners with love darts. In the brown garden snail (Helix aspersa, now called Cantareus asperses), this

Joris M. Koene

2006-01-01

330

Snail ( Helix aspersa ) exposure history and possible adaptation to lead as reflected in shell composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead sequestration in shell was examined for English and Welsh populations of the common garden snail (Helix aspersa) with different Pb exposure histories. Isotopic Pb ratios provided signatures for Pb source and a means of implying duration of population exposure from decades to millennia. Total Pb concentrations were used to quantify the intensity of exposure experienced by the populations. Snails

M. C. Newman; M. Mulvey; A. Beeby; R. W. Hurst; L. Richmond

1994-01-01

331

Growing snails used as sentinels to evaluate terrestrial environment contamination by trace elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young garden snails (Helix aspersa) reared in standard conditions (aged two months, mean weight 4.6±0.5 g) set as sentinels in cages laid on the soil for four weeks, give data for biomonitoring the environmental impact of chemicals on soil ecosystems in the field. The survival and the growth of the snails are influenced by the nature of the biotope and

A Gomot de Vaufleury; F Pihan

2000-01-01

332

Dissociation of sexual arousal and sexual proclivity in the garden snail, Helix aspersa.  

PubMed

Sexual arousal (intensity of courtship) and sexual proclivity (tendency to court) in Helix aspersa can be reliably measured using externally observable correlates. Snails with sexual proclivity are significantly more likely to turn toward an anesthetized conspecific after contacting it than are sexually unreceptive snails. Sexual arousal can be inferred from the stage of a snail's genital eversion, which appears only during courtship. The higher the stage of the eversion, the shorter the time required to complete introductory courtship behavior and the higher the rate of successful copulation, the fewer the number of breaks and pauses during courtship, and the longer the time a snail will spend in contact with an anesthetized conspecific. Sexual proclivity has no effect on feeding or locomotory behavior; however, sexual arousal inhibits feeding and increases locomotor activity. Snails that were allowed daily contact with conspecifics required less time to complete introductory courtship behavior relative to snails that were isolated from conspecifics for 1 week. This suggests that daily contact increases sexual arousal. A greater percentage of isolated snails exhibited courtship behavior than did snails which had experienced daily conspecific contact. This suggests that isolation increases sexual proclivity. These differences indicate that sexual arousal is not merely due to an increase in sexual proclivity. PMID:2241758

Adamo, S A; Chase, R

1990-09-01

333

Environmental impact of the golden snail (Pomacea sp.) on rice farming systems in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary report of the workshop held at the Freshwater Aquaculture Center, Central Luzon State University, Nueva Ecija, Philippines, on 9-10 November 1989. It discusses the effects wrought by the golden snail since its introduction to the Philippines, particularly on rice farming systems. Ways to control the snail are presented.

B. Acosta; R. S. V. Pullin

334

The detection of snail host habitats in liver fluke infected farms by use of plant indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field investigations in 361 liver fluke infected cattle- or sheep-breeding farms on acid soil were carried out during thirty years in March and April to record indicator plants in relation to the category of site colonized by the intermediate host of liver fluke, the snail Galba truncatula. Seven types of snail zones and six species of indicator plants were recorded

Daniel Rondelaud; Philippe Hourdin; Philippe Vignoles; Gilles Dreyfuss; Jacques Cabaret

2011-01-01

335

Sex expression of an immobile coral-inhabiting snail, Quoyula monodonta  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypotheses explaining the sex expression of the immobile snail Quoyula monodonta, which inhabits the surfaces of the branching coral, Pocillopora eydouxi, the size, sex, gonad development, penis length and the composition of neighboring individuals were investigated between November 1994 and August 1995 in southern Taiwan. Although the snails often aggregated and formed patches, more than 50% were

Keryea Soong; Ming-Hui Chen

2003-01-01

336

A tetraploid freshwater snail (Planorbidae: Bulinus) in the highlands of Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several levels of polyploidy are known in freshwater snails belonging to the Bulinus truncatus\\/tropicus complex. All are present in the highlands of Ethiopia, but only the tetraploid B. truncatus has been recorded from Kenya, living in the western lowlands. Observations are reported here on the chromosome number, shell, internal organs and egg-proteins of snails from 26 localities in the highlands

D. S. Brown

1976-01-01

337

Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rats and Snails after an Outbreak of Human Eosinophilic Meningitis, Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

After an outbreak in 2000 of eosinophilic meningitis in tourists to Jamaica, we looked for Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and snails on the island. Overall, 22% (24\\/109) of rats harbored adult worms, and 8% (4\\/48) of snails harbored A. cantonensis larvae. This report is the first of enzootic A. cantonensis infec- tion in Jamaica, providing evidence that this parasite is

John F. Lindo; Cecilia Waugh; John Hall; Colette Cunningham-Myrie; Deanna Ashley; Mark L. Eberhard; James J. Sullivan; Henry S. Bishop; David G. Robinson; Timothy Holtz; Ralph D. Robinson

2002-01-01

338

Genetic Diversity and Molecular Markers in Introduced and Thai Native Apple Snails (Pomacea and Pila)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity and species-diagnostic markers in the introduced apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata and in the native Thai apple snails; Pila ampullacea, P. angelica, P. pesmei, and P. polita, were investigated by restriction analysis of COI and are reported for the first time. Twenty- one composite haplotypes showing non-overlapping distributions among species were found. Genetic heterogeneity analysis indicated significant differences

Bungorn Thaewnon-ngiw; Sirawut Klinbunga; Nitsri Sangduen; Nitaya Lauhachinda; Piamsak Menasveta

2004-01-01

339

Herbivory on aquatic vascular plants by the introduced golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata ) in Lao PDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of naturally found densities of the exotic and herbivorous golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) on three dominant aquatic plants – duckweed (Lemna minor), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica) – was assessed in a wetland survey and quantified in a field experiment in Laos in southeast Asia. Snail grazing reduced plant biomass, but plant species

Nils O. L. Carlsson; Jean O. Lacoursière

2005-01-01

340

Occurrence of a blood group Alike substance in eggs of the prosobranch snail Pomacea canaliculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the eggs of the prosobranch snailsPomacea canaliculata andPomacea insularum a blood group A-like substance has been detected by anti-A from the snailsHelix pomatia, Helix aspersa andCepaea nemoralis.

G. Uhlenbruck; G. Steinhausen; D. F. Cheesman; B. Helm

1976-01-01

341

[Causation of Oncomelania snail recurrence in water-net areas of Jiaxing City].  

PubMed

From 2004 to 2012, fourteen Oncomelania snail remaining spots with an area of 31.954 hm2 were found in the historical snail areas of Xiuzhou District, Jiaxing City. The recurrence time of snails was 5-39 years. These spots were mainly distributed in the complex breeding environments, such as paddy fields (37.15%), nursery stock fields (36.93%), mulberry fields (16.09%), and ditches (6.82%). A total of 8 370 snails were dissected and no infected ones were found. It suggests that the nursery stock fields should be included in the key points for snail surveillance in water-net areas where schistosomiasis transmission has been interrupted. PMID:23593854

Xu, Hui-Qing; Zhu, Pei-Hua; Mo, Gen-Qiang

2012-12-01

342

Why are there few algae on snail shells? The effects of grazing, nutrients and shell chemistry on the algae on shells of Helisoma trivolvis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Freshwater snails often lack visible growths of algae on their shells. We tested three possible mechanisms that may account for this (grazing, snail-derived nutrients and chemical defences), using the ramshorn snail Helisoma trivolvis. 2. The experiments were carried out in floating plastic enclosures in a pond and comprised seven treatments. Grazing treatments were: a lone snail (ungrazed, as

LINDSEY L. ABBOTT; ELIZABETH A. BERGEY

2007-01-01

343

Expression of Snail and Slug in renal cell carcinoma: E-cadherin repressor Snail is associated with cancer invasion and prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Snail family transcription factors have been proposed as important mediators of epithelial–mesenchymal transition because of their role in down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of Snail, Slug and their associations with cancer invasion and prognosis in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). Ninety-seven primary RCCs were analyzed for the

Shuji Mikami; Ken-Ichi Katsube; Mototsugu Oya; Masaru Ishida; Takeo Kosaka; Ryuichi Mizuno; Makio Mukai; Yasunori Okada

2011-01-01

344

Investigations into the mechanism of lead toxicity to the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.  

PubMed

The freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is the most sensitive aquatic organism tested to date for Pb with an estimated EC20 for juvenile snail growth of 3 ?g l?¹. A previous study supported the hypothesis that this hypersensitivity to Pb was due to an extremely high Ca²? uptake rate needed to support shell formation. The current study sought to build upon this working hypothesis and develop a mechanistic predictive model for inhibition of snail growth as a function of Pb exposure. Initial experiments confirmed previous predictions that juvenile snails have net Ca²? uptake rates of 7000-8000 nmol g?¹ h?¹, approximately 100-fold higher than observed in a typical freshwater fish. However, an initial time course study revealed that the onset of growth inhibition occurs at least 4d prior to inhibition of net Ca²? flux in Pb-exposed snails indicating the latter is not the primary mechanism of action. Qualitative observations during this experiment indicated snail feeding was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. A subsequent experiment demonstrated that when food is withheld from snails for even 24 h, net Ca²? uptake is significantly (?50%) reduced. A second time course study demonstrated quantitatively that snail feeding is inhibited by Pb exposure by up to 98% at relatively high Pb concentrations (57 ?g l?¹) but no inhibition was observed at ? 10 ?g l?¹ Pb indicating feeding inhibition is not causing observed growth effects at concentrations approximating the EC20 of 3 ?g l?¹ Pb. A final experiment testing whether Pb-induced growth effects are related to inhibition of carbonic anhydrase activity in the snail mantle also failed to demonstrate an effect. We conclude that while both feeding and net Ca²? uptake in snails are affected by Pb exposure, they appear to be secondary effects. The primary mechanism of action explaining L. stagnalis hypersensitivity to Pb remains to be identified. PMID:22172541

Brix, Kevin V; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Munley, Kathleen M; Grosell, Martin

2011-11-23

345

Snails and slugs damaging the cut foliage, Cordyline fruticosa and use of biorationals towards their management.  

PubMed

Snails and slugs became a serious molluscan pests and damaging leaves of purple compacta, Cordyline fruticosa extensively grown for export at Green Farm Ltd, Sri Lanka. The export quality of leaves of C. fruticosa is lowered due to feeding of snails, Achantina fulica (Bowditch), Opeas pyrgula Schmacker and Boettgerx and Helix aspersa Muller and slugs incurring great loss to cut foliage industry. Paucity of information is available to understand snails and slugs damage and their host range that limits to develop suitable management practices. Therefore this study was aimed to determine damage, alternate hosts and to develop possible management practices. Snails and slugs damaged mainly fresh leaves of C. fruticosa. The severity of damage was 44.5% in infested field based on the visual rating method. Leaves of cassava, sting bean, okra, cucumber, passion fruit, papaya, Glyricidia and shoe flower were identified as alternate hosts and neem, Ixora and Dracaena spp were not served as alternate hosts. Among the plant materials tested for their repellence against snails and slugs revealed that neem seed powder was an irritant; neem leaves, mint leaves and Lantana leaves were acted as anti-feedant and Salt as chemical repellent. Among the barrier and bait experiments Bordeaux mixture exhibited a significant barrier effect against horizontal movement of snails. Baits made out of Metaldehyde bait, vegetables bait and jaggery had a strong effect in repelling the snails and slugs. Mulching with Madhuca longifolia punnac was the best to reduce the snails and slugs population compared to M. longifolia seed kernel powder. Oil from M. longifolia failed to reduce their population. Hence the results revealed that saponin containing M. longifolia punnac helped to eliminate snails and slugs when used as mulch. Metaldehyde, vegetable and jaggery baits are also useful to minimize their colonization further. Hence combination of these methods will help to prevent snails and slugs from damaging C. fruticosa and benefit to the cut foliage industry to sustain its export quality. PMID:23885439

Karthiga, S; Jegathambigai, V; Karunarathne, M D S D; Svinningen, A; Mikunthan, G

2012-01-01

346

Refuge function of marine algae complicates selection in an intertidal snail.  

PubMed

Species with restricted gene flow often show trait-shifts from one type of environment to another. In those rock-dwelling marine gastropods that lack larval dispersal, size generally decreases in wave-exposed habitats reducing risk of dislodgement, while increases in less exposed habitats to resist crab-crushing. In Littorina fabalis, however, snails of moderately exposed shores are generally much larger (11-14 mm) than snails of sheltered shores (5-8 mm). Observations from the White Sea (where crabs are not present) indicate that in the absence of crabs snails are small (6-7 mm) in both habitats. We assumed that the optimal size for L. fabalis in the absence of crabs is less than 8 mm, and thus that increased size in moderately exposed habitats in areas with crabs might be a response to crab predation. In a crab-rich area (Sweden) we showed that crab predation is an important mortality factor for this snail species in both sheltered and moderately exposed habitats. In sheltered habitats, snails were relatively more protected from crab-predation when dwelling on their habitual substrate, fucoid algae, than if experimentally tethered to rocks below the algae. This showed that algae function as snail refuges. Snail dislodgement increased, however, with wave exposure but tethering snails in moderately exposed habitats showed that large snails survived equally well on rocks under the algae as in the canopy of the algae. Thus in sheltered habitats a small snail size is favored, probably due to life-history reasons, while increased risk of being dislodged from the algae refuges promotes a large size in moderately exposed habitats. This study shows an example of selection of a trait depends on complex interactions of different factors (life-history optimization, crab predation, wave induced dislodgement and algal refuges). PMID:15711994

Kemppainen, Petri; van Nes, Solveig; Ceder, Christofer; Johannesson, Kerstin

2005-02-16

347

Crab scars reveal survival advantage of left-handed snails.  

PubMed

Biological asymmetries are important elements of the structure and function of many living organisms. Using the Plio-Pleistocene fossil record of crab predation on morphologically similar pairs of right- and left-handed snail species, we show here for the first time, contrary to traditional wisdom, that rare left-handed coiling promotes survival from attacks by right-handed crabs. This frequency-dependent result influences the balance of selection processes that maintain left-handedness at the species level and parallels some social interactions in human cultures, such as sports that involve dual contests between opponents of opposite handedness. PMID:17148425

Dietl, Gregory P; Hendricks, Jonathan R

2006-09-22

348

Controllable Snail-Paced Light in Biological Bacteriorhodopsin Thin Film  

SciTech Connect

We observe that the group velocity of light is reduced to an extremely low value of 0.091 mm/s in a biological thin film of bacteriorhodopsin at room temperature. By exploiting unique features of a flexible photoisomerization process for coherent population oscillation, the velocity is all-optically controlled over an enormous span, from snail-paced to normal light speed, with no need of modifying the characteristics of the incident pulse. Because of the large quantum yield for the photoreaction in this biochemical system, the ultraslow light is observed even at low light levels of microwatts, indicating high energy efficiency.

Wu Pengfei; Rao, D.V.G.L.N. [Physics Department, University of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts 02125 (United States)

2005-12-16

349

Controllable Snail-Paced Light in Biological Bacteriorhodopsin Thin Film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observe that the group velocity of light is reduced to an extremely low value of 0.091mm/s in a biological thin film of bacteriorhodopsin at room temperature. By exploiting unique features of a flexible photoisomerization process for coherent population oscillation, the velocity is all-optically controlled over an enormous span, from snail-paced to normal light speed, with no need of modifying the characteristics of the incident pulse. Because of the large quantum yield for the photoreaction in this biochemical system, the ultraslow light is observed even at low light levels of microwatts, indicating high energy efficiency.

Wu, Pengfei; Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

2005-12-01

350

Controllable snail-paced light in biological bacteriorhodopsin thin film.  

PubMed

We observe that the group velocity of light is reduced to an extremely low value of 0.091 mm/s in a biological thin film of bacteriorhodopsin at room temperature. By exploiting unique features of a flexible photoisomerization process for coherent population oscillation, the velocity is all-optically controlled over an enormous span, from snail-paced to normal light speed, with no need of modifying the characteristics of the incident pulse. Because of the large quantum yield for the photoreaction in this biochemical system, the ultraslow light is observed even at low light levels of microwatts, indicating high energy efficiency. PMID:16384460

Wu, Pengfei; Rao, D V G L N

2005-12-12

351

Toxicity of botanical insecticides on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).  

PubMed

The molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from five highly potential plants, Annona squamosa seed, Nerium indicum Leaves, Stemona tuberose root, Cyperus rotundus corm and Derris elliptica root was assessed to Pomacea canaliculata. D. elliptica root and C. rotundus corm extracts showed the highest toxicity against 3-month old snails which have LC50 as 23.68 +/- 2.96 mg/l and 133.20 +/- 7.94 mg/l, respectively. The C. rotundus corm extracts were chosen for detoxification enzyme in vivo assay which shows esterase and glutathione S-transferase activity in stomach, intestinal tracts and digestive glands of survival treated P. canaliculata were inhibited. PMID:21542482

Ruamthum, W; Visetson, S; Milne, J R; Bullangpoti, V

2010-01-01

352

Metabolism of Carotenoids in the Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding experiments with ?,?-carotene, canthaxanthin, (3R,3?R)-zeaxanthin, (3R,3?R,6?R)-lutein and racemic astaxanthin on the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata were investigated. Based on the experimental results, ?,?-carotene was oxidatively metabolized, and the resulting principal metabolic product (3S,3?S)-astaxanthin along with other keto carotenoids such as (3S)-3-hydroxy-?-echinenone, canthaxanthin, (3S,3?R)-4-ketozeaxanthin and (3S)-phoenicoxanthin was accumulated in the gonad. Similarly, (3R,3?R,6?R)-lutein was converted into fritschiellaxanthin [(3S,3?R,6?R)-3,3?-dihydroxy-?, ?-caroten-4-one]. It

Miyuki Tsushima; Masaaki Katsuyama; Takao Matsuno

1997-01-01

353

Overexpression of Snail is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a significant role in tumor progression and invasion. Snail is a known regulator of EMT in various malignant tumors. This study investigated the role of Snail in gastric cancer. Methods We examined the effects of silenced or overexpressed Snail using lenti-viral constructs in gastric cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays from 314 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) was used to determine Snail’s clinicopathological and prognostic significance. Differential gene expression in 45 GC specimens with Snail overexpression was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis. Results Silencing of Snail by shRNA decreased invasion and migration in GC cell lines. Conversely, Snail overexpression increased invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells, in line with increased VEGF and MMP11. Snail overexpression (?75% positive nuclear staining) was also significantly associated with tumor progression (P?Snail overexpression, including genes related to metastasis and invasion. Conclusion Snail significantly affects invasiveness/migratory ability of GCs, and may also be used as a predictive biomarker for prognosis or aggressiveness of GCs.

2012-01-01

354

Oxidation of glucose-U- 14 C and synthesis of glycogen in different tissues of the garden snail, Cryptozona ligulata with reference to aestivation and starvation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The per cent decrease of glycogen content in all the tissues investigated is more in 20-days starved snails than the 4-months\\u000a aestivated snails when compared to active snails. Recovery of administered glucose-U-14C in the respiratory CO2 is 42·27% in active snails, whereas it is 8·81% and 26·09% in aestivated and starved snails respectively. Maximal levels\\u000a of incorporation of labelled glucose

S Krupanidhi; K Raghavaiah; B Padmanabha Naidu; R Ramamurthi

1978-01-01

355

The effect of calcium and pH on Florida apple snail, Pomacea paludosa (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae), shell growth and crush weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomacea (Ampullariidae) snails, commonly referred to as apple snails, serve as prey for many freshwater-dependent predators, and\\u000a some species are highly invasive. Identifying limits to apple snail distribution and abundance are pertinent to understanding\\u000a their ecology. Calcium (Ca2+) availability and pH generally influences freshwater snail populations, yet scant data exist for Pomacea snails. We measured 6-week change in shell length

Nancy H. Glass; Philip C. Darby

2009-01-01

356

Snail intermediate host/Schistosoma haematobium relationships from three transmission sites in Benin (West Africa).  

PubMed

The relationships between three strains of Schistosoma haematobium (Doh, Sô-Tchanhoué and Toho-Todougba; from Benin, West Africa) and their snail hosts were assessed by measurement of several life-history traits, including the infection rate; pre-patent period; cercarial production of each parasite strain; and growth, fecundity and survival of the host snails. Adaptations to its local snail host was found for the Toho-Todougba strain and included a short pre-patent period, a long patent period and production of more cercariae in its local snail host. In contrast, the life-history traits of the Doh and Sô-Tchanhoué strains indicated non-local adaptations, as some sympatric host-parasite combinations were not compatible, the highest infection rates occurred in the allopatric snail Bulinus wrighti, and the duration of cercarial production was short because of the high level of mortality of the snails. Furthermore, snail reproduction ceased following infection by each of the three parasite strains, and the life-history traits were not influenced by the miracidial dose. PMID:23052762

Ibikounlé, Moudachirou; Mouahid, Gabriel; Mintsa Nguema, Rodrigue; Sakiti, Nestor; Massougbodji, Achille; Moné, Hélène

2012-10-04

357

Paleo-environmental implication of clumped isotopes in land snail shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clumped isotopes analyses in modern land snail shells are reported and used to interpret shell oxygen isotopes within the context of terrestrial paleo-climatology. Carbonate clumped isotopes thermometry is a new technique for estimating the temperature of formation of carbonate minerals. It is most powerful as an indicator of environmental parameters in combination with ? 18O, allowing the partitioning of the ? 18O signal into its temperature and water components. Results indicate that snail shell calcification temperatures are typically higher than either the mean annual or the snail activity season ambient temperatures. Small inter- and intra-snail variability suggests that shell aragonite forms at isotopic equilibrium so that the derived temperatures are an eco-physiological parameter reflecting snail body temperature at the time of calcification. We attribute these higher body temperatures to snail eco-physiological adaptations through shell color, morphology, and behavior. In combination with shell oxygen isotope composition, these temperatures allow us to calculate snail body water composition, which is in turn interpreted as a paleo-hydrological indicator, reflecting isotopic composition of local precipitation modified by local evaporation.

Zaarur, Shikma; Olack, Gerard; Affek, Hagit P.

2011-11-01

358

Snail-Mediated Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species in ARCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species increases in various diseases including cancer and has been associated with induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as evidenced by decrease in cell adhesion-associated molecules like E-cadherin, and increase in mesenchymal markers like vimentin. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which Snail transcription factor, an inducer of EMT, promotes tumor aggressiveness utilizing ARCaP prostate cancer cell line. An EMT model created by Snail overexpression in ARCaP cells was associated with decreased E-cadherin and increased vimentin. Moreover, Snail-expressing cells displayed increased concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), specifically, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, in vitro and in vivo. Real time PCR profiling demonstrated increased expression of oxidative stress-responsive genes, such as aldeyhyde oxidase I, in response to Snail. The ROS scavenger, N-acetyl cysteine partially reversed Snail-mediated EMT after 7 days characterized by increased E-cadherin levels and decreased ERK activity, while treatment with the MEK inhibitor, UO126, resulted in a more marked effect by 3 days, characterized by cells returning back to the epithelial morphology and increased E-cadherin. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time that Snail transcription factor can regulate oxidative stress enzymes and increase ROS-mediated EMT regulated in part by ERK activation. Therefore, Snail may be an attractive molecule for therapeutic targeting to prevent tumor progression in human prostate cancer.

Barnett, Petrina; Arnold, Rebecca S.; Mezencev, Roman; Chung, Leland W. K.; Zayzafoon, Majd; Odero-Marah, Valerie

2010-01-01

359

Glycogen synthase kinase 3?-dependent Snail degradation directs hepatocyte proliferation in normal liver regeneration  

PubMed Central

Liver regeneration proceeds under the well-orchestrated control of multiple transcription factors that lead hepatocytes to reenter the cell cycle, proliferate, and renew quiescence. Here, we found an important role of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail in liver regeneration. Snail was typically expressed in quiescent adult hepatocytes, but was rapidly degraded when the liver needed to regenerate itself. Decreased levels of Snail induced DNA synthesis in hepatocytes through up-regulation of cell cycle-related proteins. Snail degradation was dependent on phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3?, whose quantity and activity were immediately increased after loss of liver mass or hepatic injury. Inactivation of GSK-3? resulted in suppression of Snail degradation and DNA synthesis in hepatocytes, leading to impaired liver growth during regeneration. This GSK-3?–dependent Snail degradation occurred as a result of cytokine, growth factor, and bile acid signals that are known to drive liver regeneration. Thus, GSK-3?–dependent Snail degradation acts as a fundamental cue for the initiation of hepatocyte proliferation in liver regeneration.

Sekiya, Sayaka; Suzuki, Atsushi

2011-01-01

360

Snail1 is involved in the renal epithelial-mesenchymal transition  

SciTech Connect

The pathological significance of the tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in kidney diseases is becoming increasingly recognized, and the transcription factor Snail1 plays a critical role in EMT. The results of this study show that Snail1 mRNA and protein were upregulated in the tubular epithelial cells of the obstructed kidneys in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction and in human proximal tubule HKC-8 cells treated with TGF-{beta}1. Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) regulates the Snail1 level by degrading Snail1 protein. The level of the phosphorylated inactive form of GSK-3{beta} was increased in the tubular epithelial cells of the obstructed kidney. TGF-{beta}1 increased the phosphorylated form of GSK-3{beta} in HKC-8 cells, and inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by the selective inhibitors lithium and TDZD-8 caused Snail1 protein to accumulate. This study demonstrated that Snail1 is involved in renal tubular EMT and that TGF-{beta}1 regulates Snail1 at the transcription and protein degradation levels.

Yoshino, Jun [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Monkawa, Toshiaki [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)], E-mail: monkawa@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp; Tsuji, Mihoko; Inukai, Mai; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Matsuhiko [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

2007-10-12

361

Snail sperm production characteristics vary with sperm competition risk  

PubMed Central

Sperm competition is widespread and influences both male investment in spermatogenic tissue and ejaculate characteristics. Sperm competition models assume trade-offs between sperm size and number, although such trade-offs may be difficult to detect. This study examines the effects of sperm competition risk on the sperm production characteristics of the freshwater snail Viviparus ater. In this prosobranch, females mate frequently and store sperm, generating sperm competition. Males produce two sperm morphs, fertile eupyrene sperm and non-fertilizing oligopyrene sperm. Non-fertilizing sperm may play a role in sperm competition and therefore, like fertilizing sperm, the number produced could vary relative to sperm competition risk. In addition, trade-offs between sperm number and sperm size may be expected. We manipulated the sex ratio of sexually mature snails and found the presence of rivals affected the ratio of oligopyrene/eupyrene sperm males produced. In experimental and natural populations, the number of oligopyrene sperm produced, but not the number of eupyrene sperm, was significantly higher when the sex ratio was male biased. Testis mass did not vary between experimental treatments. We also found a negative relationship between the number and size of oligopyrene sperm produced, which is consistent with evolutionary models of sperm competition, and is, to our knowledge, the first intraspecific demonstration of a trade-off between these traits.

Oppliger, A.; Hosken, D. J.; Ribi, G.

1998-01-01

362

Imposex in the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) was introduced into Taiwan intentionally in the early 1980s and has become a recurring pest that seriously threatens aquatic crops. In this study, a field description of imposex with a developed penis sheath and penis in female golden apple snails from crop/domestic wastewater drainage sites and a six-order river is presented for the first time. Based on the five field collections and the aquarium group, the vas deferens sequence (VDS) of P. canaliculata in imposex development was categorized into four stages, i.e., stage 0: without male genital system; stage 1: with rudimentary penis; stage 2: with rudimentary penis and penis sheath; and stage 3: the rudimentary penis developing into penis pouch and penis. The VDS indices varied between 1.07 and 2.82 and were lowest in the aquarium group and Yuanlin2. Regarding the severity of imposex, the aquarium group was less pronounced, as illustrated by the length of penis sheath and penis length, than the field collections (p<0.05). In respect of the penis length, males of the most imposex-affected site were up to 15% shorter than that of the aquarium group. Negative correlations between male penis length and female imposex characters (i.e., penis length and penis sheath length) were also observed. PMID:17023028

Liu, Wen-Hui; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Ming-Yie; Lee, Ching-Chang; Liu, Li-Lian

2006-10-04

363

Snail2 promotes osteosarcoma cell motility through remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton and regulates tumor development  

PubMed Central

The function of Snail2 in mesenchymal tumors is, to date unknown. Using knockdown and overexpression studies, we show that Snail2 regulates migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. Knockdown resulted in significantly decreased motility, remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton, and loss of cellular protrusions. Over-expression increased motility, formation of actin-rich cellular protrusions, and altered expression of some non-canonical Wnt pathway components whilst decreasing expression of the adhesion molecule OB-cadherin. Unexpectedly, knockdown also resulted in significantly smaller tumors in an in vivo CAM assay. Therefore Snail2 may be a potential therapeutic target for clinical intervention of osteosarcoma.

Sharili, Amir-Shaya; Allen, Steve; Smith, Ken; Price, Joanna; McGonnell, Imelda M.

2013-01-01

364

Does social facilitation affect responses to natural and anthropogenic stressors in the freshwater snail Planorbella trivolvis?  

PubMed

Social facilitation is the initiation or increase of a trait, such as stressor tolerance, when in the presence of conspecifics, members of the same species. It has been shown to alter the outcome of toxicity experiments in colonial organisms. We evaluated whether social facilitation would impact responses to stressors in the noncolonial New Mexico ramshorn snail (Planorbella trivolvis) by exposing snails to stressors either singly or in groups of three. Social facilitation did not impact snail responses to malathion but did affect responses to predator cues and temperature stress. PMID:21935982

Plautz, Stephanie C; Salice, Christopher J

2011-10-14

365

Growth rate of the intermediate snail host Galba truncatula influences redial development of the trematode Fascioloides magna.  

PubMed

A total of 850 pre-adult Galba truncatula (shell height, 4 mm), originating from four French snail populations differing in shell height at the adult stage (from 6.5 to 12 mm), were individually subjected at 20°C to single-miracidium infections with Fascioloides magna. At day 75 post-exposure, the surviving snails were dissected, and rediae and cercariae were counted. Snail groups differed in shell growth during the experiment: from 1.8 ± 0.4 mm in group A up to 4.0 ± 1.1 mm in group D. The prevalence of F. magna infection, the numbers of free rediae and cercariae significantly increased together with increasing growth of infected snails during the experiment. Group A produced 1-6 first-generation rediae per snail and the mean daughter redia production ranged from 7.5 second-generation rediae (when a single first generation per snail developed) to 2.3 (6 first-generation rediae per snail). In contrast, up to ten first-generation rediae were noted in group D, and each mother redia gave daughter rediae with averages ranging from 1.5 (ten first-generation rediae per snail) to 13 (a single first generation per snail). In conclusion, the development of F. magna in G. truncatula exhibited both inter- and intrapopulation variability, where the development of rediae and cercariae was positively correlated with snail growth. PMID:23710885

Rondelaud, D; Novobilský, A; Höglund, J; Kašný, M; Pankrác, J; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

2013-05-28

366

The redial and cercarial production of a digenean in the snail host is lower when no cercarial shedding occurs.  

PubMed

Single- and double-miracidium exposures of Galba truncatula with Fasciola hepatica (two groups) or with Paramphistomum daubneyi (two groups) were carried out under laboratory conditions to compare parasite production in cercaria-shedding snails (CS snails) with that found in snails without emission (NCS snails). Free rediae and cercariae were thus counted in snails from both categories after their dissection at regular intervals (at 24 degrees C). In the four groups, the numbers of free rediae and free cercariae found at day 75 post-exposure (F. hepatica) or at day 85 (P. daubneyi) were significantly greater in CS snails than in NCS ones. The number of cercariae in NCS subgroups did not show any significant variation from day 45 p.e. to day 75 (F. hepatica, the two groups) or from day 55 to day 85 (P. daubneyi, single-miracidium infections), while it significantly decreased with increasing time of infection in the double-miracidium infections with P. daubneyi. In NCS snails, the presence of too numerous free cercariae within the snail's body (the volume of the body allows development only of a given number of rediae) might rapidly block out redial development and intraredial differentiation of other cercariae. The numerical diminution of P. daubneyi cercariae in the NCS snails (double-miracidium group) might probably be due to the lysis of new cercariae just formed, probably in reason of a lack of nutrients available for these larvae within the snail. PMID:20092063

Dreyfuss, G; Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D

2009-12-01

367

Susceptibility of Saudi Bulinus truncatus to infection with Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium with observations on protein electrophoretic pattern of the snails.  

PubMed

A laboratory-based susceptibility study was carried out on snails Bulinus truncatus collected from highland Abha, Asser, Saudi Arabia to Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium to investigate the potential role of Saudi B. truncatus in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium and to know the possibility that the parasite might be able to spread into Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that, compared to Egyptian snails, survival of snails at day 25 post-exposure was significantly higher in Saudi B. truncatus ones. The infection rate was higher in Saudi snails as compared to Egyptian ones. The incubation period was shorter in Saudi snails but the duration of cercarial shedding was longer in the Egyptian than in the Saudi snails. The production of S. haematobium cercariae per snail was higher in Egyptian snails than in Saudi ones. These results suggest that Saudi B. truncatus can play a role in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium in Saudi Arabia and therefore this parasite might be able to spread into the Kingdom. In addition, electrophoretic analysis of tissue soluble proteins was done to determine the effects of the parasite on both the Egyptian and Saudi snails. The electrophoretic analysis revealed the occasional presence or absence of certain bands in infected snails in comparison with non-infected one. PMID:19329256

Mostafa, Osama M S; Bin Dajem, Saad M; Abu El Einin, Hanaa M

2009-03-09

368

Suppression of SCARA5 by Snail1 is essential for EMT-associated cell migration of A549 cells.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence indicates that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) might be a key event for cancer progression. The upregulation of Snail1, one of the most extensively studied EMT regulators, has been implicated in cancer metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to identify that Snail1 targets regulating EMT-associated cancer cell migration. Human lung carcinoma A549 cells were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1), and EMT-associated phenotypic and functional alterations were monitored. TGF-?1 induced typical EMT-like morphological changes, 'cadherin switching' and cell migration in A549 cells. TGF-?1 stimulation induced rapid and persistent upregulation of Snail1. Moreover, Snail1 upregulation was required for EMT-associated cell migration. Several metastasis suppressors with putative Snail1-binding sites in their promoters were dramatically repressed in A549 cells during TGF-?1-induced EMT. Gain- and loss-of Snail1 function experiments demonstrated that scavenger receptor class A member 5 (SCARA5) was negatively regulated by Snail1. Importantly, SCARA5 downregulation was essential for EMT-induced migration in A549 cells. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Snail1 could bind to the E-box elements in SCARA5 promoter, implying that SCARA5 is a direct Snail1 target modulating cancer cell mobility during EMT. In addition, we showed that DNA methyltransferase 1 was physically associated with Snail1 to silence SCARA5 expression with an unidentified DNA methylation-independent mechanism, suggesting the complexity of Snail1-mediated epigenetic regulation. Collectively, our data demonstrated that EMT-regulator Snail1 suppresses the expression of SCARA5 to promote cancer progression, highlighting the possibility to target Snail1 and SCARA5 for cancer treatment. PMID:24061576

Liu, J; Hu, G; Chen, D; Gong, A-Y; Soori, G S; Dobleman, T J; Chen, X-M

2013-09-23

369

Transcription factor Snail is a novel regulator of adipocyte differentiation via inhibiting the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?.  

PubMed

Snail belongs to the superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors and plays a crucial role in processes regulating cell fate, such as the formation of mesoderm and initiation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We have previously discovered that Snail modulates adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 cells during adipogenesis. In the present study, we elucidated the functional role of Snail in adipocyte differentiation and its underlying molecular mechanism. Snail expression was dramatically decreased during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overexpression of Snail blocked adipocyte differentiation by suppressing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha, while knockdown of Snail expression stimulated adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and luciferase assay showed that Snail inhibits the transcriptional activity of the PPAR? gene by directly binding to the E-box motifs in the PPAR? promoter. Wnt10b induced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3?), leading to inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells in accordance with increased expression of Snail, whereas adipogenic capacity was restored in Snail siRNA-transfected preadipocytes. LiCl (a GSK3? inhibitor)-treated cells also showed increased expression of Snail, with a reduced adipogenic potential. Snail-overexpressing 3T3-F442A cells did not differentiate into mature adipocytes in immunodeficient nude mice. Taken together, Snail is a novel regulator of adipocyte differentiation, which acts by direct suppression of PPAR? expression. Our data also indicate that the expression of Snail is mediated by the Wnt-GSK3? signaling pathway. PMID:23689589

Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Soo Hyun; Lee, Yoo Jeong; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Byung-Wan; Cha, Bong Soo; Kim, Jae Woo; Song, Dae Hyun; Lee, Hyun Chul

2013-05-21

370

Habitat structure effects on size selection of snail kites ( Rostrhamus sociabilis ) and limpkins ( Aramus guarauna ) when feeding on apple snails ( Pomacea spp.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumer density can influence foraging patterns such as prey-size selection, but few studies have evaluated its effects in field conditions. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that habitat structure influences forager density, and that this in turn influences the size of prey consumed by two avian predators. The sizes of two apple snail species available to, and consumed by, snail kites and limpkins were determined at sites with high and low densities of snail kite foraging perches. Sites with more perches had higher densities of snail kites, but not of limpkins. Both predators consumed prey larger than those available in the marshes, but habitat structure influenced the probability of consumption of different prey sizes. Limpkins consumed larger prey at low-density sites when compared with high-density sites, in contrast to other studies that found no size selection. Thus, limpkins can present prey-size selectivity but the presence of other predators can influence the range of prey sizes consumed. When a wider range of prey sizes is available, limpkins can select larger prey; alternatively, higher densities of other predators can result in higher foraging risk, favoring the capture of smaller, easier to handle prey. Snail kites incorporated smaller prey to their diet at low-density sites than at high-density ones, probably due to the higher costs of carrying large prey, differential age distribution, or lower foraging risks. Thus, habitat structure can influence consumer density and foraging patterns in complex ways, influencing predator-prey interactions in natural systems.

Tanaka, Marcel O.; Souza, Andréa L. T.; Módena, Érica S.

2006-07-01

371

Bioluminescent signals spatially amplified by wavelength-specific diffusion through the shell of a marine snail  

PubMed Central

Some living organisms produce visible light (bioluminescence) for intra- or interspecific visual communication. Here, we describe a remarkable bioluminescent adaptation in the marine snail Hinea brasiliana. This species produces a luminous display in response to mechanical stimulation caused by encounters with other motile organisms. The light is produced from discrete areas on the snail's body beneath the snail's shell, and must thus overcome this structural barrier to be viewed by an external receiver. The diffusion and transmission efficiency of the shell is greater than a commercial diffuser reference material. Most strikingly, the shell, although opaque and pigmented, selectively diffuses the blue-green wavelength of the species bioluminescence. This diffusion generates a luminous display that is enlarged relative to the original light source. This unusual shell thus allows spatially amplified outward transmission of light communication signals from the snail, while allowing the animal to remain safely inside its hard protective shell.

Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Wilson, Nerida G.

2011-01-01

372

Susceptibility of Iraqi fresh water snails to infection with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni Egyptian strains.  

PubMed

A great number of Egyptian workers and farmers are seeking settlement in Iraq and some of them proved to have either Schistosoma Haematobium (S.h.) or Schistosoma mansoni (S.m) or even mixed infection. Besides, there is the possibility that some of the Iraqi fresh water snails may prove to be susceptible to infection by one or both of the Schistosoma Egyptian strains. The present study deals with investigations on the susceptibility of Iraqi B. truncatus, Gyranaulus ehrenbergi, Physa c.f. fontinalis, Lymnea lagetis, Melanoides tuberculata and Melanopsis nodes by these parasites. Egyptian S. haematobium but not Egyptian S. mansoni infect Iraqi B. truncatus and both proved to be unable to infect any of the other snails included in the study. Yet, the number of cercariae shedded by B. truncatus snails infected with the Egyptian S. haematobium strain, was much less that the number of cercariae shedded by these snails when infected with the Iraqi S. Haematobium strain. PMID:555668

Wajdi, N A; Hussain, W I; El-Hawary, M F

1979-01-01

373

Effect of snails (Elimia clavaeformis) on phosphorus cycling in stream periphyton and leaf detritus communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, the author examined the effect of grazing on phosphorus cycling in stream periphyton and leaf detritus communities using the snail Elimia clavaeformis. Phosphorus cycling fluxes and turnover rates were measured in a laboratory and in a natu...

E. A. Jay

1993-01-01

374

Detection of micronuclei in haemocytes of zebra mussel and great ramshorn snail exposed to pentachlorophenol.  

PubMed

The frequency of micronuclei (MN) induced by pentachlorophenol (PCP) in haemocytes of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha Pall. and great ramshorn snail, Planorbarius corneus L. was determined over a 14 days of exposure (sampling after 4, 7 and 14 days) under laboratory conditions. PCP doses for zebra mussel ranged from 10 to 150 microg/l, and for ramshorn snail from 10 to 450 microg/l. Micronuclei were detected after bisbenzimide fluorescent staining. Positive responses were observed in both species. The mean MN frequencies in treated mussels ranged between 0.69 and 7.50 per thousand, and between 2.07 and 13.80 per thousand in treated snails. The spontaneous MN levels in mussels averaged from 0.5 to 2.75 per thousand, and in snails from 1.56 to 2.00 per thousand. Our results suggest that haemolymph of both species represent an appropriate test tissue in environmental genotoxicity assessment. PMID:10708980

Pavlica, M; Klobucar, G I; Vetma, N; Erben, R; Papes, D

2000-02-16

375

Wet adhesion and adhesive locomotion of snails on anti-adhesive non-wetting surfaces.  

PubMed

Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However, the wetting properties that enable snails to generate strong temporary attachment and the effectiveness of this adhesive locomotion on modern super-slippy superhydrophobic surfaces are unclear. Here we report that snail adhesion overcomes a wide range of these microscale and nanoscale topographically structured non-stick surfaces. For the one surface which we found to be snail resistant, we show that the effect is correlated with the wetting response of the surface to a weak surfactant. Our results elucidate some critical wetting factors for the design of anti-adhesive and bio-adhesion resistant surfaces. PMID:22693563

Shirtcliffe, Neil J; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I

2012-05-31

376

Effects of acidic water on freshwater snails: results from a study of 1000 lakes throughout Norway.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes some results from a monograph which focused on ecological and biogeographical aspects of the biota in Norwegian lakes and rivers with particular reference to the snail fauna. Field studies were made in the course of 20 summers within the period of 1953-1987. Acidic water is the main reason why snails are absent from some 4000 lakes in a low-calcium area in southern Norway ('Acid south'). This area is heavily influenced by acidic precipitation. Snails were not detected in lakes with pH below 5.2. In one lake, three snail species disappeared in parallel with acidification from pH 5.2 to 4.2. The calcium level modified the effect of low pH. PMID:15091938

Økland, J

1992-01-01

377

Adaptation by an urban population of the snail Helix aspersa to a diet contaminated with lead.  

PubMed

Two populations of the garden snail Helix aspersa, from an urban car park and from a semi-rural site, were fed a diet containing 500 microg g(-1) of Pb as PbSO(4). After 2 days, half of each population was removed to a Pb-free diet and half continued on the dosed food, both for 64 days. The snails from the contaminated site had a significantly lower uptake of Pb compared with those from the rural, uncontaminated site. The car park snails also lost Pb more rapidly from their tissues. A second experiment evaluated the effect of a previous exposure to a high Pb diet on Pb uptake. The results suggest that the differences between the two populations are not due to a physiological adaptation, but rather that the car park snails represent an ecotype adapted to a high Pb diet. PMID:15092743

Beeby, A; Richmond, L

1987-01-01

378

Wet Adhesion and Adhesive Locomotion of Snails on Anti-Adhesive Non-Wetting Surfaces  

PubMed Central

Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However, the wetting properties that enable snails to generate strong temporary attachment and the effectiveness of this adhesive locomotion on modern super-slippy superhydrophobic surfaces are unclear. Here we report that snail adhesion overcomes a wide range of these microscale and nanoscale topographically structured non-stick surfaces. For the one surface which we found to be snail resistant, we show that the effect is correlated with the wetting response of the surface to a weak surfactant. Our results elucidate some critical wetting factors for the design of anti-adhesive and bio-adhesion resistant surfaces.

Shirtcliffe, Neil J.; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I.

2012-01-01

379

Pesticide Fact Sheet: Neu 1165M Slug and Snail Bait; Iron (Ferric) Phosphate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Iron phosphate is to be used as the pesticidal active ingredient in a slug and snail bait formulation, on terrestrial, non-commercial food crops (vegetables, berries, fruit trees including citrus), domestic outdoor ornamental, domestic lawn and garden use...

1997-01-01

380

[Influence of brain grafts on growth restoration of snail (Helix aspersa) deprived of the midbrain].  

PubMed

Microsurgical removal of the mesocerebrum from the brain of juvenile snails stopped their growth whereas intracerebral implantation of desheathed cerebral ganglia (CG) re-established it. When the animals were grafted with CG from very young snails growth was much more stimulated than with CG from donors of the same age or from adults. Furthermore, young CG of juvenile fast growing specimens of the large species (Helix aspersa maxima) induced a higher growth rate than the CG of the ordinary small garden snails (Helix aspersa aspersa). Labelling of the neural grafts with the vital fluorescent dye fast blue enabled us to follow the repopulation of the lesioned area of the brain of the host during the functional integration of the implanted neurons into the circuits that control growth in snails. PMID:7834500

Gomot, A; Gomot, L

1994-01-01

381

Results of White Garden Snail Environmental Monitoring Program. Spring and Fall 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The white garden snail (Theba pisana Muller) is believed to have originated in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean and has invaded California on three separate occasions. Two infestations were successfully eradicated before 1970 and a third occurrence ...

B. Turner M. Bisbiglia N. Miller K. Hefner N. Carr

1988-01-01

382

Legacy of Disturbance on Habitat Associations of Terrestrial Snails in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors examined the abundance, distribution, and habitat associations of four species of land snail (Caracolus caracolla. Nenia tridens, Gaeotis nigrolineata, Polydontes acutangula) in the tabonuco forest at two sites (El Verde and Bisley) which were...

M. F. Secrest M. R. Willig L. L. Peppers

1996-01-01

383

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human importin ?-Snail zinc finger domain complex.  

PubMed

Snail is a C2H2-type zinc finger transcriptional repressor that induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by repression of E-cadherin expression levels during embryonic development and tumour progression. Snail is imported into the nucleus by importin ? through direct binding with its four zinc finger domain. The complex between importin ? and Snail four zinc finger domain was crystallized in order to understand the nuclear transport mechanism of Snail. The constituents of the complex were separately expressed and were then co-purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 228.2, b = 77.5, c = 72.0?Å, ? = 100.9° and diffracted to 2.5?Å resolution. PMID:23989161

Choi, Saehae; Song, Jinsue; Son, Se-Young; Park, Il Yeong; Yamashita, Eiki; Lee, Soo Jae

2013-08-23

384

Evolution of whole-body enantiomorphy in the tree snail genus Amphidromus  

PubMed Central

Diverse animals exhibit left–right asymmetry in development. However, no example of dimorphism for the left–right polarity of development (whole-body enantiomorphy) is known to persist within natural populations. In snails, whole-body enantiomorphs have repeatedly evolved as separate species. Within populations, however, snails are not expected to exhibit enantiomorphy, because of selection against the less common morph resulting from mating disadvantage. Here we present a unique example of evolutionarily stable whole-body enantiomorphy in snails. Our molecular phylogeny of South-east Asian tree snails in the genus Amphidromus indicates that enantiomorphy has likely persisted as the ancestral state over a million generations. Enantiomorphs have continuously coexisted in every population surveyed spanning a period of 10 years. Our results indicate that whole-body enantiomorphy is maintained within populations opposing the rule of directional asymmetry in animals. This study implicates the need for explicit approaches to disclosure of a maintenance mechanism and conservation of the genus.

SUTCHARIT, C; ASAMI, T; PANHA, S

2007-01-01

385

Reciprocal Repression between Sox3 and Snail Transcription Factors Defines Embryonic Territories at Gastrulation  

PubMed Central

Summary In developing amniote embryos, the first epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs at gastrulation, when a subset of epiblast cells moves to the primitive streak and undergoes EMT to internalize and generate the mesoderm and the endoderm. We show that in the chick embryo this decision to internalize is mediated by reciprocal transcriptional repression of Snail2 and Sox3 factors. We also show that the relationship between Sox3 and Snail is conserved in the mouse embryo and in human cancer cells. In the embryo, Snail-expressing cells ingress at the primitive streak, whereas Sox3-positive cells, which are unable to ingress, ensure the formation of ectodermal derivatives. Thus, the subdivision of the early embryo into the two main territories, ectodermal and mesendodermal, is regulated by changes in cell behavior mediated by the antagonistic relationship between Sox3 and Snail transcription factors.

Acloque, Herve; Ocana, Oscar H.; Matheu, Ander; Rizzoti, Karine; Wise, Clare; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Nieto, M. Angela

2011-01-01

386

Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain  

PubMed Central

Background Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM) exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH), relative shell height (RSH), and whorl number (WN). Results Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil–plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas. Conclusions The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability in soil. Long-term exposure to HMs via contaminated food might influence the variability of shell traits in snail populations. Therefore, our results highlight the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) potential to be used in environmental monitoring studies as bioindicator of HM pollution.

2012-01-01

387

Identification of stimuli and input pathways mediating food-attraction conditioning in the snail, Helix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snails become conditioned by a single feeding episode to locate foods which they were unable to locate prior to feeding. To\\u000a identify which of the different stimulus parameters of the food mediate learning, snails were presented with isolated stimulus\\u000a components during feeding and re-tested the next day for their ability to locate the food. None of the individual components\\u000a was

A. Friedrich; T. Teyke

1998-01-01

388

Expression of transcription factors snail, slug, and twist in human bladder carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Slug, Snail, and Twist are transcription factors that regulate the expression of tumor suppressors such as E-cadherin. In this study, we aimed to examine the expression of these transcription factors in human bladder carcinoma. METHODS: We first investigated expression of Slug, Snail, Twist and E-cadherin in five bladder Carcinoma cell lines by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting.

Qinchao Yu; Kejun Zhang; Xinsheng Wang; Xiangping Liu; Zemi Zhang

2010-01-01

389

Embryo toxicity of pesticides and heavy metals to the ramshorn snail, Marisa cornuarietis (Prosobranchia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An invertebrate embryo toxicity test with the ampullariid snail, Marisacornuarietis, to assess the toxicity of pesticides and heavy metals recently was established. Snail embryos were treated with atrazine (100, 1000, 10000, and 30000?g\\/L), imidacloprid (10000, 25000, and 50000?g\\/L), Ni2+ (0.1, 1, 10, and 100?g\\/L) or Zn2+ (100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, and 5000?g\\/L). The effect of these substances was examined

Banthita Sawasdee; Heinz-R. Köhler

2009-01-01

390

Organochlorine pesticides in anhingas, white ibises, and apple snails collected in Florida, 1989–1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) and eggs and nestlings of anhingas (Anhinga anhinga) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) were collected in Palm Beach County, Florida from 1989–1991 and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues. Pesticide residues were not detected in the apple snails. Residues of DDT, with maximum concentrations of 1,200 µg\\/kg wet weight occurred in 50% of the ibis samples

D. G. Rumbold; M. C. Bruner; M. B. Mihalik; E. A. Marti; L. L. White

1996-01-01

391

Leaf mechanical properties modulate feeding movements and ingestive success of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the mechanical properties of Butterhead and Iceberg lettuce leaves, and the rate at which they were eaten by the pond snail Lymnaea\\u000a stagnalis. The outer part of Butterhead leaves were less robust than either the inner Butterhead or outer Iceberg leaves (Young’s modulus 2.8, 5.2, 7.7 MPa respectively; ultimate tensile stress 0.18, 0.34 0.51 MPa) which were also thicker. Snails

Christopher J. Large; Tammi Smith; Gemma Foulds; John D. Currey; Christopher J. H. Elliott

2006-01-01

392

Random mating by size in the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Arianta arbustorum: experiments and an explanation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that size-assortative mating should occur in simultaneous hermaphrodites with reciprocal fertilization and size-related fecundity because all individuals invest substantially in mating. Mating patterns were recorded in two species of simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails. In a natural population of Helix pomatia, snails showed a slight (but non-significant) tendency towards size- assortative mating, whereas mating in a population

BRUNO BAUR

1992-01-01

393

Hemocytic Lysosome Response in the Snail Helix aspersa After Exposure to the Fungicide Copper Oxychloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the use of lysosomal responses of hemocytes of the common garden snail, Helix aspersa, as biomarker of stress due to exposure to the fungicide copper oxychloride. The neutral red retention (NRR) time assay was\\u000a employed for this purpose. Two groups of snails were exposed to 80 ?g g?1 and 240 ?g g?1 copper oxychloride in their food,

R. G. Snyman; S. A. Reinecke; A. J. Reinecke

2000-01-01

394

Unpredictable responses of garden snail ( Helix aspersa ) populations to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the impact of climate change on the population dynamics of the garden snail (Helix aspersa) in the Ecotron controlled environment facility. The experimental series ran for three plant generations, allowing the snails to reproduce. We investigated the isolated and combined effects of elevated CO2 (current + 200 ?mol mol–1) and warming (current + 2ºC) in three consecutive runs (CO2, Temperature and Combined). In

T. Martijn Bezemer; Kevin J. Knight

2001-01-01

395

Effects of light on the orientation of the snail Physa pomillia in a weak magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The orientation of fresh-water snails (Physa pomillia) in a symmetrical magnetic field was studied from February to March and from September to October, 1965, during the hours 8:30 to 17:30.2.The orientation of the snails was studied in an augmented magnetic field, 9 times that of the earth's field at Gainesville, Florida, with a bar magnet aligned parallel and at right

David G. Badman

1966-01-01

396

The effect of aquatic plant abundance on shell crushing resistance in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M; García de León, Francisco J; Johnson, Steven G

2012-09-06

397

BrainSnail: a dynamic information display system for the sciences.  

PubMed

Scientific reference management has become crucial in rapidly expanding fields of biology. Many of the reference management systems currently employed are reference centric and not object/process focused. BrainSnail is a reference management/knowledge representation application that tries to bridge disconnect between subject and reference in the fields of neuropharmacology, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. BrainSnail has been developed with considering both individual researcher and research group efforts. PMID:19293992

Telefont, Martin; Asaithambi, Asai

2009-02-26

398

The identity, distribution, and impacts of non-native apple snails in the continental United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since the mid 1990s populations of non-native apple snails (Ampullariidae) have been discovered with increasing frequency in the continental United States. Given the dramatic effects that introduced apple snails have had on both natural habitats and agricultural areas in Southeast Asia, their introduction to the mainland U.S. is cause for concern. We combine phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences with

Timothy A Rawlings; Kenneth A Hayes; Robert H Cowie; Timothy M Collins

2007-01-01

399

Snail herbivory on submerged macrophytes and nutrient release: Implications for macrophyte management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radix swinhoei (H. Adams) is a freshwater snail commonly found in shallow regions of Lake Taihu. This research estimated, based on experiments, the consumption rates of R. swinhoei on three young submerged plants (Vallisneria spiralis, Hydrilla verticillata and Potamogeton malaianus) and its rates of nutrient release. Results showed that the snails consumed V. spiralis at the highest rate (23.34mgg?1d?1), P.

Kuan-Yi Li; Zheng-Wen Liu; Yao-Hui Hu; Hong-Wei Yang

2009-01-01

400

Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, 1819) in Sabah, Malaysia - Current Situation and Management Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the control operation of the golden apple snail in Sabah implemented by the Department of Agriculture following the outbreak of the pest in the 1990s. The snail was sighted in Keningau in 1992. Two years later it mushroomed to most of the rice-growing districts with a total infested area of about 5,000 ha. The control operation employed

Su Sin

401

BrainSnail: A dynamic information display system for the Sciences  

PubMed Central

Scientific reference management has become crucial in rapidly expanding fields of biology. Many of the reference management systems currently employed are reference centric and not object/process focused. BrainSnail is a reference management/knowledge representation application that tries to bridge disconnect between subject and reference in the fields of neuropharmacology, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. BrainSnail has been developed with considering both individual researcher and research group efforts.

Telefont, Martin; Asaithambi, Asai

2009-01-01

402

Blocking of p53Snail Binding, Promoted by Oncogenic K-Ras, Recovers p53 Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentially from other kinds of Ras, oncogenic K-Ras, which is mutated approximately 30% of human cancer, does not induce apoptosis and senescence. Here, we provide the evidence that oncogenic K-Ras abrogates p53 function and expression through induction of Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related mediated Snail stabi- lization. Snail directly binds to DNA binding domain of p53 and diminishes the tumor-suppressive function

Sun-Hye Lee; Su-Jin Lee; Yeon Sang Jung; Yongbin Xu; Ho Sung Kang; Nam-Chul Ha

2009-01-01

403

Characterizing the embryonic transcriptome of the snail Ilyanassa.  

PubMed

The snail Ilyanassa obsoleta is a useful model for a variety of investigations in the fields of developmental biology, cell biology, larval ecology, ecotoxicology, parasitology, and chemical ecology. To enhance such studies, we have carried out two cDNA sequencing projects to characterize the mRNA transcripts that are present during development of this embryo. These efforts have generated 480 megabases of new sequence, which have been assembled into transcript contigs and represent thousands of newly identified Ilyanassa genes. We identified the orthologs of 182 transcription factors in these data, focusing on families that are likely to be sequence-specific transcriptional regulators. To demonstrate the utility of identifying and examining such transcripts, we describe the expression pattern during organogenesis for IoOnecut, an Ilyanassa ortholog of the HNF6/onecut family of transcription factors. PMID:21558239

Lambert, J David; Chan, Xin Yi; Spiecker, Barbara; Sweet, Hyla C

2010-08-30

404

Associative learning phenomena in the snail (Helix aspersa): conditioned inhibition.  

PubMed

Two experiments using garden snails (Helix aspersa) showed conditioned inhibition using both retardation and summation tests. Conditioned inhibition is a procedure by which a stimulus becomes a predictor of the absence of a relevant event--the unconditioned stimulus (US). Typically, conditioned inhibition consists of pairings between an initially neutral conditioned stimulus, CS(2), and an effective excitatory conditioned stimulus, CS(1), in the absence of the US. Retardation and summation tests are required in order to confirm that CS(2) has acquired inhibitory properties. Conditioned inhibition has previously been found in invertebrates; however, these demonstrations did not use the retardation and summation tests required for an unambiguous demonstration of inhibition, allowing for alternative explanations. The implications of our results for the fields of comparative cognition and invertebrate physiological models of learning are discussed. PMID:21877176

Acebes, Félix; Solar, Patricia; Moris, Joaquín; Loy, Ignacio

2012-03-01

405

Lead reduces shell mass in juvenile garden snails (Helix aspersa).  

PubMed

In an earlier paper examining inherited tolerance to Pb, the shell growth of laboratory-bred offspring of Helix aspersa from contaminated sites was compared with that ofjuveniles from naive populations on dosed and undosed diets. Eight-week-old snails were fed either 500 microg g(-1) Pb or a control food in competitive trials between two populations. In the first series of trials, a parental history of exposure to Pb did not confer any advantage to either of two populations (BI and MI) competing with a naïve population (LE). whether Pb was present in the diet or not. However, in the analysis of their metal concentrations reported here, LE are found to retain higher levels of Pb in the soft tissues than either BI or MI. Compared to their siblings on the unleaded diet, dosed LE and BI juveniles had lower soft tissue concentrations of Ca and Mg. Although the growth in shell height is unaffected by diet, LE and BI juveniles build lighter shells on the Pb-dosed diet, achieving around 75% of the shell mass of their controls. In contrast, the shell weights of dosed MI juveniles are depressed by only 15% and show no change in the essential metal concentrations of their soft tissues. A second experiment using five populations fed only the dosed food show that the shell weight/soft tissue weight ratios are comparable to the dosed snails of the previous experiment. Building a lighter shell thus appears to be the common response of all Helix populations to a high Pb diet, at least amongst juveniles. The reduction in its mass means that less Ca and Mg is added to the shell and, along with the lowered soft tissue concentrations observed in some populations. may be a consequence of an increased effort to excrete Pb. The possibility that the MI population shows a genotypic adaptation. perhaps as some form of modification of its Ca metabolism, is briefly discussed. PMID:12395840

Beeby, Alan; Richmond, Larry; Herpé, Florian

2002-01-01

406

The biocide tributyltin reduces the accumulation of testosterone as fatty acid esters in the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta).  

PubMed Central

Imposex, the development of male sex characteristics by female gonochoristic snails, has been documented globally and is causally associated with exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT). Elevated testosterone levels in snails also are associated with TBT, and direct exposure to testosterone has been shown to cause imposex. We discovered previously that the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta)biotransforms and retains excess testosterone primarily as fatty acid esters. The purpose of this study was to determine whether TBT interferes with the esterification of testosterone, resulting in the elevated free (unesterified) testosterone levels associated with imposex. Exposure of snails to environmentally relevant concentrations of TBT (> or = 1.0 ng/L as tin) significantly increased the incidence of imposex. Total (free + esterified) testosterone levels in snails were not altered by TBT; however, free testosterone levels increased with increasing exposure concentration of TBT. TBT-exposed snails were given [14C

Gooding, Meredith P; Wilson, Vickie S; Folmar, Leroy C; Marcovich, Dragoslav T; LeBlanc, Gerald A

2003-01-01

407

Age-dependent susceptibilities of Bulinus truncatus snails to an aqueous extract of Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. (Asteraceae) leaves.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate the potential use of the herb Pulicaria crispa in the biological control of different developmental stages of Bulinus truncatus, a major snail intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis. Age-dependent susceptibilities of mature adult snails, immature snails, juveniles, and one-day old egg masses to aqueous extracts of Pulicaria crispa leaves collected from Khartoum (Sudan) and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) was determined and compared. The results show the juvenile snails are the most susceptible, followed in descending order by one-day old egg masses, immature snails, and mature adult snails. The P. crispa sample collected from Riyadh was significantly more potent against B. truncatus than that collected from Khartoum, as indicated by the least (LC50) and (LC90) values for all B. truncatus ages. PMID:19842431

Ali, Elnour A; Bushara, Hamid O; Ali, Faisal S; Hussein, Mansour F

2009-05-01

408

Effects of dietary exposure to forest pesticides on the brown garden snail Helix aspersa mueller  

SciTech Connect

Brown garden snails, Helix aspersa, were fed prepared diets with 12 pesticides used in forest spraying practices where endangered arboreal and terrestrial snails may be at risk. Acephate, atrazine, glyphosate, hexazinone, and picloram were not lethal at concentrations of 5,000 mg/kg in 14-day screening tests. The remaining seven pesticides, lethal to 13-100% of the tested snails at 5,000 mg/kg, were evaluated in 10-day definitive feeding tests. Azinphosmethyl (Guthion) and aminocarb were the most toxic, with 10-day LC50s of 188 and 313 mg/kg, respectively. Paraquat, trichlorfon and fenitrothion had 10-day LC50s of 659, 664, and 7,058 mg/kg respectively. Avoidance of pesticide-containing foods occurred, e.g., 10-day LC50s of >10,000 mg/kg for carbaryl and ethyl parathion. Significant descreases (p<0.05) in snail weight (total, shell-only, body-only) or shell diameter were accompanied by a significant decrease in the amount of food consumed/snail/day. Concentrations of pesticide in tissues were measured in snails exposed to atrazine and azinphosmethyl; there was no bioaccumulation. (Copyright (c) 1994 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.)

Schuytema, G.S.; Nebeker, A.V.; Griffis, W.L.

1994-01-01

409

A PHD12-Snail2 repressive complex epigenetically mediates neural crest epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.  

PubMed

Neural crest cells form within the neural tube and then undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) to initiate migration to distant locations. The transcriptional repressor Snail2 has been implicated in neural crest EMT via an as of yet unknown mechanism. We report that the adaptor protein PHD12 is highly expressed before neural crest EMT. At cranial levels, loss of PHD12 phenocopies Snail2 knockdown, preventing transcriptional shutdown of the adhesion molecule Cad6b (Cadherin6b), thereby inhibiting neural crest emigration. Although not directly binding to each other, PHD12 and Snail2 both directly interact with Sin3A in vivo, which in turn complexes with histone deacetylase (HDAC). Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that PHD12 is recruited to the Cad6b promoter during neural crest EMT. Consistent with this, lysines on histone 3 at the Cad6b promoter are hyperacetylated before neural crest emigration, correlating with active transcription, but deacetylated during EMT, reflecting the repressive state. Knockdown of either PHD12 or Snail2 prevents Cad6b promoter deacetylation. Collectively, the results show that PHD12 interacts directly with Sin3A/HDAC, which in turn interacts with Snail2, forming a complex at the Cad6b promoter and thus revealing the nature of the in vivo Snail repressive complex that regulates neural crest EMT. PMID:22986495

Strobl-Mazzulla, Pablo H; Bronner, Marianne E

2012-09-17

410

Parasites alter host phenotype and may create a new ecological niche for snail hosts  

PubMed Central

By modifying the behaviour and morphology of hosts, parasites may strongly impact host individuals, populations and communities. We examined the effects of a common trematode parasite on its snail host, Batillaria cumingi (Batillariidae). This widespread snail is usually the most abundant invertebrate in salt marshes and mudflats of the northeastern coast of Asia. More than half (52.6%, n=1360) of the snails in our study were infected. We found that snails living in the lower intertidal zone were markedly larger and exhibited different shell morphology than those in the upper intertidal zone. The large morphotypes in the lower tidal zone were all infected by the trematode, Cercaria batillariae (Heterophyidae). We used a transplant experiment, a mark-and-recapture experiment and stable carbon isotope ratios to reveal that snails infected by the trematode move to the lower intertidal zone, resume growth after maturation and consume different resources. By simultaneously changing the morphology and behaviour of individual hosts, this parasite alters the demographics and potentially modifies resource use of the snail population. Since trematodes are common and often abundant in marine and freshwater habitats throughout the world, their effects potentially alter food webs in many systems.

Miura, Osamu; Kuris, Armand M; Torchin, Mark E; Hechinger, Ryan F; Chiba, Satoshi

2006-01-01

411

Studies of the snail vectors of bilharziasis mansoni in north-eastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The authors describe the bilharziasis endemic areas in north-eastern Brazil, giving the rainfall and general characteristics of the climate. The life-cycles of the two snail vectors—Australorbis glabratus and Tropicorbis centimetralis—in Pernambuco are described. Considerable attention is given to the effects on the snails of the annual drought, which causes many of the habitats to dry up and seriously affects the snail life-cycles and survival patterns. The snails are able to populate habitats that are dry for 5-7 months every year. They survive during the dry season in the protection of debris, vegetation, etc. A. glabratus is more susceptible to infection with Schistosoma mansoni than is T. centimetralis, but the latter is an effective vector, nevertheless, probably because it often occurs in very large numbers. A. glabratus with mature infections die or lose their infections when removed from the water for 20-30 days. Immature parasites are not killed under the same conditions. Infection with S. mansoni injures the snails and may kill them. It also reduces the reproductive capacity of the vectors, but it does not permanently castrate them. The epidemiological significance of these findings and their meaning in terms of snail control are discussed.

Barbosa, Frederico S.; Olivier, Louis

1958-01-01

412

Foraging and refuge use by a pond snail: Effects of physiological state, predators, and resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The costs and benefits of anti-predator behavioral responses should be functions of the actual risk of predation, the availability of the prey's resources, and the physiological state of the prey. For example, a food-stressed individual risks starvation when hiding from predators, while a well-fed organism can better afford to hide (and pay the cost of not foraging). Similarly, the benefits of resource acquisition are probably highest for the prey in the poorest state, while there may be diminishing returns for prey nearing satiation. Empirical studies of state-dependent behavior are only beginning, however, and few studies have investigated interactions between all three potentially important factors. Here I present the results of a laboratory experiment where I manipulated the physiological state of pond snails ( Physa gyrina), the abundance of algal resources, and predation cues ( Belostoma flumineum waterbugs consuming snails) in a full factorial design to assess their direct effects on snail behavior and indirect effects on algal biomass. On average, snails foraged more when resources were abundant, and when predators were absent. Snails also foraged more when previously exposed to physiological stress. Snails spent more time at the water's surface (a refuging behavior) in the presence of predation cues on average, but predation, resource levels, and prey state had interactive effects on refuge use. There was a consistent positive trait-mediated indirect effect of predators on algal biomass, across all resource levels and prey states.

Wojdak, Jeremy M.

2009-09-01

413

Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata.  

PubMed

Laboratory evaluation was made to access the seasonal variations in abiotic environmental factors temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrical conductivity and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets (SAP) against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata in each month of the years 2010 and 2011. On the basis of a 24-h toxicity assay, it was noted that lethal concentration values of 4.03, 3.73% and 4.45% in SAP containing starch and 4.16, 4.23% and 4.29% in SAP containing proline during the months of May, June and September, respectively, were most effective in killing the snails, while SAP containing starch/proline?+?ferulic acid was least effective in the month of January/February (24-h lethal concentration value was 7.67%/7.63% in SAP). There was a significant positive correlation between lethal concentration value of ferulic acid containing SAP and levels of dissolved O2 /pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was observed between lethal concentration value and dissolved CO2 /temperature of test water in the same months. To ascertain that such a relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not co-incidental, the nervous tissue of treated (40% and 80% of 24-h lethal concentration value) and control group of snails was assayed for the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in each of the 12?months of the same year. There was a maximum inhibition of 58.43% of AChE, in snails exposed to 80% of the 24-h lethal concentration value of ferulic acid?+?starch in the month of May. This work shows conclusively that the best time to control snail population with SAP containing ferulic acid is during the months of May, June and September. PMID:23170774

Agrahari, P; Singh, D K

2012-11-21

414

Population dynamics of Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae) snails in a desert spring, United Arab Emirates and infection with larval trematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dense population of Melanoides tuberculata was found at a brackish (5.93–6.98%) desert spring in the United Arab Emirates. A total of 232–300 snails were measured and\\u000a examined for larval trematodes during the period January 1990 to January 1991. The relative abundance of various size classes\\u000a of the snail has shown that the mass release of young snails occurred twice

Naim S. Ismail; Arif M. S. Arif

1993-01-01

415

Insights into the evolution of the snail superfamily from metazoan wide molecular phylogenies and expression data in annelids  

PubMed Central

Background An important issue concerning the evolution of duplicated genes is to understand why paralogous genes are retained in a genome even though the most likely fate for a redundant duplicated gene is nonfunctionalization and thereby its elimination. Here we study a complex superfamily generated by gene duplications, the snail related genes that play key roles during animal development. We investigate the evolutionary history of these genes by genomic, phylogenetic, and expression data studies. Results We systematically retrieved the full complement of snail related genes in several sequenced genomes. Through phylogenetic analysis, we found that the snail superfamily is composed of three ancestral families, snail, scratchA and scratchB. Analyses of the organization of the encoded proteins point out specific molecular signatures, indicative of functional specificities for Snail, ScratchA and ScratchB proteins. We also report the presence of two snail genes in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii, which have distinct expression patterns in the developing mesoderm, nervous system, and foregut. The combined expression of these two genes is identical to that of two independently duplicated snail genes in another annelid, Capitella spI, but different aspects of the expression patterns are differentially shared among paralogs of Platynereis and Capitella. Conclusion Our study indicates that the snail and scratchB families have expanded through multiple independent gene duplications in the different bilaterian lineages, and highlights potential functional diversifications of Snail and ScratchB proteins following duplications, as, in several instances, paralogous proteins in a given species show different domain organizations. Comparisons of the expression pattern domains of the two Platynereis and Capitella snail paralogs provide evidence for independent subfunctionalization events which have occurred in these two species. We propose that the snail related genes may be especially prone to subfunctionalization, and this would explain why the snail superfamily underwent so many independent duplications leading to maintenance of functional paralogs.

Kerner, Pierre; Hung, Johanne; Behague, Julien; Le Gouar, Martine; Balavoine, Guillaume; Vervoort, Michel

2009-01-01

416

Comparison of snail density, standing stock, and body size between Caribbean karst wetlands and other freshwater ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesizing data from multiple studies generates hypotheses about factors that affect the distribution and abundance of species\\u000a among ecosystems. Snails are dominant herbivores in many freshwater ecosystems, but there is no comprehensive review of snail\\u000a density, standing stock, or body size among freshwater ecosystems. We compile data on snail density and standing stock, estimate\\u000a body size with their quotient, and

Clifton B. RuehlJoel; Joel C. Trexler

2011-01-01

417

[Occurrence of the flagellated protozoan, Cryptobia helicis Leidy, 1846 (Kinetoplasta: Bodonea: Cryptobiidae) in the garden snail, Helix aspersa].  

PubMed

In this survey, the prevalence and cytological features of the flagellated protozoan, Cryptobia helicis living in the bursa copulatrix of the garden snail, Helix aspersa Müller 1774 found in the vicinity of Izmir, Turkey was investigated. The prevalence of Cryptobia helicis in garden snails collected in the spring of 2005 was found to be 68.65%. This study is the first record of the occurrence of Cryptobia helicis in the garden snail Helix aspersa found in Turkey. PMID:18351561

Göçmen, Bayram; Gürelli, Gözde

2008-01-01

418

Land snails as a model to understand the role of history and selection in the origins of biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is nearly 100 years since the first studies on variation in the shell patterns of land snails. Subsequently, snails have\\u000a come to play an important role in our understanding of natural selection in the wild. In particular, snails have been an ideal\\u000a model to understand the roles of history and selection in the origins of diversity. More recently, many

Angus Davison

2002-01-01

419

The detection and quantification of a digenean infection in the snail host with special emphasis on Fasciola sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, ten methods used to study digenean infections in their intermediate hosts were compared to determine which\\u000a one should be used either in the field or in the lab to establish the prevalence and intensity of infections in snails. Snail\\u000a crushing and snail dissection allow quick establishing of prevalence in natural or experimental infections, whereas histology\\u000a is considered

Yannick Caron; Daniel Rondelaud; Bertrand Losson

2008-01-01

420

Density-dependent growth and reproduction of the apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata : a density manipulation experiment in a paddy field  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine density dependence in the survival, growth, and reproduction of Pomacea canaliculata, we conducted an experiment in which snail densities were manipulated in a paddy field. We released paint-marked snails of\\u000a 15–20 mm shell height into 12 enclosures (pens) of 16 m2 at one of five densities – 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128 snails per pen. The survival

Koichi Tanaka; Tomonari Watanabe; Hiroya Higuchi; Kenji Miyamoto; Yoichi Yusa; Toru Kiyonaga; Hirotsugu Kiyota; Yoshito Suzuki; Takashi Wada

1999-01-01

421

Influence of Copper on the Feeding Rate, Growth and Reproduction of the Golden Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of copper on feeding rate, growth, and reproduction of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck was evaluated. Ten days of exposure to copper of relatively high concentration (67.5 ?g\\/L) reduced the snails’ feeding\\u000a rate and retarded their growth. Exposure to 20 ?g\\/L after 36 days increased feeding rate to 28%. After 20 days of exposure\\u000a at 30 ?g\\/L, snail’s growth was significant but thereafter

Silvia C. Peña; Glorina N. Pocsidio

2007-01-01

422

Effect of Sodium Chloride, Tricaine Methanesulfonate, and Light on New Zealand Mud Snail Behavior, Survival of Snails Defecated from Rainbow Trout, and Effects of Epsom Salt on Snail Elimination Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Zealand mud snail (NZMS) Potamopyrgus antipodarum is an invasive species that threatens fish populations in North America. Establishment of NZMS in fish hatcheries is particularly problematic because NZMS could be inadvertently spread through fish stocking. Herein, we present the results of tests conducted to improve our understanding of (1) the risk of stocking fish from NZMS-infested hatcheries and

Randall W. Oplinger; Pat Brown; Eric J. Wagner

2009-01-01

423

Adaptive Radiation in the Larval Feeding Habits of the Snail-Killing Fly Genus Tetanocera (Diptera: Sciomyzidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genus Tetanocera consists of 29 species in North America. The genus is unusual in that its larvae occupy five of the 17 feeding groups recognized in the family, as most other genera of the family occupy only one or two trophic guilds. Seven species have larvae that attack pulmonate aquatic snails, three species attack pulmonate snails stranded on shorelines, four species attack amber snails of the family Succineidae, three species attack slugs, and two species are predators of terrestrial snails. The larval feeding behavior of representative species of each of the five trophic guilds will be described and illustrated.

Foote, B. A.

2005-05-01

424

Effects of Washing Produce Contaminated with the Snail and Slug Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis with Three Common Household Solutions  

PubMed Central

The emerging infectious disease angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease) is caused by ingesting snails and slugs infected by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The definitive hosts of A. cantonensis are rats and the obligatory intermediate hosts are slugs and snails. Many cases result from accidentally ingesting infected snails or slugs on produce (eg, lettuce). This study assessed three readily available household products as washing solutions for removing snails and slugs from produce (romaine lettuce) to lower the probability of accidentally ingesting them. The solutions were acetic acid (vinegar), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), and sodium chloride (domestic salt). Snail and slug species known to be intermediate hosts and that are common in the Hawaiian Islands were used in the experiments: the alien snail Succinea tenella, the alien semi-slug Parmarion martensi, and the alien slugs Veronicella cubensis and Deroceras laeve. None of the products was any more effective than washing and rinsing with tap water alone. Most snails and slugs were removed after treatment but some remained on the lettuce even after washing and rinsing the produce. Only washing, rinsing, and then rinsing each leaf individually resulted in complete removal of all snails and slugs. The study did not address removal of any remaining slime left by the snails and slugs, nor did it address killing of worms.

Yeung, Norine W; Hayes, Kenneth A

2013-01-01

425

Influence of copper on the feeding rate, growth and reproduction of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck.  

PubMed

The influence of copper on feeding rate, growth, and reproduction of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck was evaluated. Ten days of exposure to copper of relatively high concentration (67.5 microg/L) reduced the snails' feeding rate and retarded their growth. Exposure to 20 microg/L after 36 days increased feeding rate to 28%. After 20 days of exposure at 30 microg/L, snail's growth was significant but thereafter declined. Growth of all snails including control was negligible by day 50 when snails were in the reproductive state. Copper did not affect reproduction. PMID:17999015

Peña, Silvia C; Pocsidio, Glorina N

2007-11-13

426

The Molluscicidal Activity of Melia azadirchta on The Fresh water snail Physa acuta ( Draparnaud , 1805 ) A snail Associated with habitat of Lymnaea auricularia ( L )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molluscicidal effect of Melia azadirachta was evaluated against the fresh water snail Physa acuta at juvenile freshly hatched stage. Calculating values of different concentrations ( Lc50 - Lc90 ) showed that melia was toxic against juvenile stage . The use of Melia azadirchta fruit extract was considered as an effective control method for Physa acuta in Mosul area .

Talib Hussen Ali; Azhar Abul; Jabbar Hamed

427

The Application of Electric Shock as a Novel Pest Control Method for Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, brought to Japan from Taiwan for human consumption in the 1980s, has come to be considered as deleterious for rice cultivation. The snail is unable to injure young rice plants while receiving electric shock because the snail retracts its entire body into its shell and shuts its aperture with its operculum. Electric shock should be applied intermittently to reduce the amount of energy that is wasted when the snail is in its shell made of one of the insulator. The minimum electric shock required for controlling snails and the time required for movement after application of electric shock to determine the frequency of each electric shock were investigated using two methods; vertical and horizontal application of the electrical stimulation. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between the strength of electric shock and the reaction of the snails, and electric shock made snails inactive when it was applied 0.35 A/m2 in the horizontal direction and 0.45 A/m2 in the vertical direction with water of 11 mS/m. A positive correlation was also found between electric shock and the reaction of the snails and shell height. In comparison with larger snails, the smaller snails had higher threshold levels against electric current density because their shorter feet tended to have lower voltage dorp. Moreover, the frequency of electric shock should be chosen the minimum duration for the inactive condition, and it was approximately 10 seconds. Consequently the direction of electric current should be in the horizontal direction above 0.35 A/m2 and the frequency of electric shock should be less than 10 seconds for practical use. However, electric shock would have to be maintained at greater than 0.35 A/m2 because snails might become habituated to electric shock and water in paddy field would have high electric conductivity.

Yagyu, Yoshihito; Tsuji, Satoshi; Satoh, Saburoh; Yamabe, Chobei

428

The intrinsic intracellular H+ buffering power of snail neurones.  

PubMed

1. We measured intracellular pH (pHi) in snail neurones using pH-sensitive glass microelectrodes. We then calculated the intracellular buffering power (beta i) from the pHi changes associated with the influx or efflux of a variety of weak acids or bases. 2. The weak acid anions butyrate and propionate (20 mM) gave similar values for beta i but those measured using 20 mM-acetate were on average twice as great. 3. Although solutions were nominally CO2-free, blockage of pHi regulation with SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) increased the sizes of the pHi changes upon weak acid addition and removal. The corresponding measured values of beta i were on average 26% lower with SITS than without. 4. With pHi regulation blocked, the use of 2.7% CO2 to measure beta i gave beta i values similar to those measured with butyrate or propionate. These values were about 50% less than those previously measured in snail neurones using CO2. 5. beta i values calculated from the pHi changes due to the removal of 5 mM of the weak bases trimethylamine, procaine and NH4Cl were all similar and comparable to those measured using butyrate or propionate. Removing the influence of pHi regulation on the undershoots after NH4Cl removal was found to decrease the apparent measured values of beta i by 10%. 6. Combining all the data (except the values obtained using CO2 and acetate), and adjusting for the errors due to pHi regulation reducing the sizes of the pHi changes, we found that the mean value for beta i was 10.4 +/- 0.6 mM (+/- S.E.M.) at a mean pHi of 7.36 +/- 0.05. 7. We also investigated the relationship between beta i and pHi using ionophoretic acid injection. By means of step-wise injections, with pHi regulation blocked, we found that at normal pHi levels beta i remained relatively constant. However, at a pHi of less than about 6.8 beta i increased with decreasing pHi. PMID:2585301

Szatkowski, M S; Thomas, R C

1989-02-01

429

Emergence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in upper Egypt: the Giza governorate.  

PubMed

We found an unexpectedly high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in a village in the Upper Egyptian governorate of Giza. Historically, S. mansoni is endemic in the northern Egyptian Nile Delta rather than in the southern Upper Egypt. This observation was made during an evaluation of a rural health care schistosomiasis surveillance program using a cross sectional survey for S. haematobium and S. mansoni in the village of El-Gezira El-Shakra El-Saf district in the Upper Egypt Giza Governorate. A 10% systematic random sample of households of the village was chosen. All persons in the selected houses were invited to submit urine and stool samples. All students from a primary school were also included in the study. Urine was screened by a polycarbonate filtration method and stool was examined using modified Kato-Katz technique. The prevalence of S. mansoni in the population sample and in the school children was 33.7% and 57.7%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of S. haematobium infection in the population sample and the school children was 7.4% and 10.6%, respectively. The prevalence of infection was highest in the younger age groups, and males were infected more than females. Review of Ministry of Health records showed that both species of vector snails, Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina, were present from 1991 to 1995, and that B. alexandrina was more abundant than B. truncatus in the canals surrounding this village. The unexpected high prevalence of S. mansoni in this village indicates an urgent need to include training programs for S. mansoni surveillance in the primary health care facilities of Giza and to educate villagers to request examinations for S. mansoni as well as for S. haematobium infection. PMID:10344658

Talaat, M; El-Ayyat, A; Sayed, H A; Miller, F D

1999-05-01

430

An Evaluation of Hydrated Lime and Predator Sunfish as a Combined Chemical–Biological Approach for Controlling Snails in Aquaculture Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic snails are vectors for several species of digenetic trematodes that infest many commercially cultivated fish. Most research on methods of controlling snails in aquaculture ponds has centered on the application of chemical solutions to pond margins and the stocking of mollusk-eating fish. We sought to evaluate both methods separately and in tandem as treatments for snails in research ponds

Matthew R. Noatch; Gregory W. Whitledge

2011-01-01

431

Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Cause and Effect Analysis in Conjunction with ISO 22000 to a Snails (Helix aspersa) Processing Plant; A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) has been applied for the risk assessment of snails manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the snails industry was attempted in conjunction with ISO 22000.Preliminary Hazard Analysis was used to analzse and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (snails processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and\\/or interactions

Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Theodoros H. Varzakas

2009-01-01

432

Decline and homogenization of Pacific faunas: the land snails of American Samoa ? ? Contribution number 2000-019 of Bishop Museum’s Pacific Biological Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native Pacific island biotas are disappearing rapidly. Among these native biotas the land snails are especially recognized not only for their high diversity and high levels of endemism but also for being under severe threat, with many species already extinct. Many non-indigenous snail species are being introduced, leading to a homogenization of land snail faunas across the Pacific. Field survey

Robert H. Cowie

2001-01-01

433

Sediment preference in the asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) and viviparid snail (Campeloma decisum) as a response to low-level metal and metalloid contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment preference experiments were performed with the asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) and viviparid snail (Campeloma decisum) to determine the potential use of clam and snail behavior as a response to low-level metal and metalloid contamination. Three sediment types with varying levels of metal contamination were paired in various combinations. Clams and snails were placed in aquaria along the interface between

J. T. McCloskey; M. C. Newman

1995-01-01

434

Evaluation of different duck varieties for the control of the golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata) in transplanted and direct seeded rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the potential of ducks for the control of the golden apple snail in irrigated rice. The varieties of duck recommended for the biological control of snail in decreasing preference were William Siam > Taiwan > Mallard > Peking > Muscovy. Cherry Valley, a variety with a bigger body size was not suitable for snail control because of

Su Sin Teo

2001-01-01

435

Effects of Deposited Sediment on the Growth and Behavior of Physa Snails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine sediment loading is one of the leading causes of ecological impairment to rivers and streams in the United States, yet few studies have addressed how deposited silt affects benthic invertebrates. We determined how deposited silt affects the growth and behavior of Physa integra snails from Emmons Creek, WI by exposing them to 3 levels of silt (ambient, low, high) in streamside once-through flumes and recirculating chambers. While there were no significant differences in snail growth rates among silt treatments, the behavioral differences were striking. Snails that received added silt spent less time on algal-covered tiles than those not receiving silt. Elemental analysis of periphyton revealed higher nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus levels for the silt addition treatments, which may be providing the snails with more nutritious food, although this was not reflected in their growth rates. Per