Science.gov

Sample records for biosphere reserve chile

  1. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  2. The First International Biosphere Reserve Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1984-01-01

    Presents objectives (and related activities) of a plan designed for international collaboration in conserving key natural areas (biosphere reserves) of the globe. The plan (focusing on such areas as management, conservation, research, monitoring, and environmental education/training) was formulated during the First International Biosphere Reserve…

  3. Reviewing Biosphere Reserves globally: effective conservation action or bureaucratic label?

    PubMed

    Coetzer, Kaera L; Witkowski, Edward T F; Erasmus, Barend F N

    2014-02-01

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) model of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme reflects a shift towards more accountable conservation. Biosphere Reserves attempt to reconcile environmental protection with sustainable development; they explicitly acknowledge humans, and human interests in the conservation landscape while still maintaining the ecological values of existing protected areas. Conceptually, this model is attractive, with 610 sites currently designated globally. Yet the practical reality of implementing dual 'conservation' and 'development' goals is challenging, with few examples successfully conforming to the model's full criteria. Here, we review the history of Biosphere Reserves from first inception in 1974 to the current status quo, and examine the suitability of the designation as an effective conservation model. We track the spatial expansion of Biosphere Reserves globally, assessing the influence of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and Seville strategy in 1995, when the BR concept refocused its core objectives on sustainable development. We use a comprehensive range of case studies to discuss conformity to the Programme, the social and ecological consequences associated with implementation of the designation, and challenges in aligning conservation and development. Given that the 'Biosphere Reserve' label is a relatively unknown designation in the public arena, this review also provides details on popularising the Biosphere Reserve brand, as well as prospects for further research, currently unexploited, but implicit in the designation. PMID:23701641

  4. Biosphere reserves in action: Case studies of the American experience

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-26

    For nearly 20 years, biosphere reserves have offered a unique framework for building the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems. The 12 case studies in this volume chronicle many of the cooperative efforts to implement the biosphere reserve concept in the United States. Considered together, these efforts involve more than 20 types of protected areas, and the participation of all levels of government, and many private organizations, academic institutions, citizens groups, and individuals. Biosphere reserves are multi-purpose areas that are nominated by the national committee of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) and designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to serve as demonstration areas for cooperation in building harmonious relationships between human activities and the conservation of ecosystems and biological diversity. Each biosphere reserve exemplifies the characteristic ecosystems of one of the worlds biogeographical regions. It is a land or coas%arine area involving human communities as integral components and including resources managed for objectives ranging from complete protection to intensive, yet sustainable development. A biosphere reserve is envisioned as a regional ''landscape for learning'' in which monitoring, research, education, and training are encouraged to support sustainable conservation of natural and managed ecosystems. It is a framework for regional cooperation involving government decisionmakers, scientists, resource managers, private organizations and local people (i.e., the biosphere reserve ''stakeholders''). Finally, each biosphere reserve is part of a global network for sharing information and experience to help address complex problems of conservation and development. The 12 case studies presented in this report represent only a few of the possible evolutions of a biosphere reserve in its efforts to reach out to the local

  5. POLLUTANT MONITORING IN THE OLYMPIC NATIONAL PARK BIOSPHERE RESERVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in global contamination has been instrumental in the establishment of over 33 Biosphere Reserves in the United States. These reserves include pristine areas that have been protected from industrial development. They serve as areas in which present and future environmenta...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A POLLUTANT MONITORING SYSTEM FOR BIOSPHERE RESERVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents an initial approach to identifying and solving the problems of developing a monitoring system for Biosphere Reserves. To date, most proposals have only focused on the selection of Reserves, pollutants to monitor, etc.; the real-world problems of how to monito...

  7. LEAD PARTICLES IN THE GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE RESERVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote air monitoring using 0.45-micrometer Millipore filters at eight remote sites in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park has shown that lead particulates are contributing to the contamination of this designated biosphere reserve. Analytical results of these filters by atomi...

  8. USA: Glacier National Park, Biosphere Reserve and GLORIA Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.

    2004-01-01

    The area now managed as Glacier National Park was first set aside as a Forest Reserve in 1897 and then designated as a national park in 1910, six years before a national park service was created to oversee the growing number of parks that the US Congress was establishing. Waterton National Park was created by Canada immediately north of the US–Canada border during the same period. In 1932, a joint lobbying effort by private citizens and groups convinced both the United States and Canada to establish the world’s first trans-boundary park to explicitly underscore and symbolize the neighbourly relationship between these two countries. This became the world’s first ‘peace’ park and was named Waterton–Glacier International Peace Park. The combined park is managed collaboratively on many issues but each national park is separately funded and operates under different national statutes and laws. It was, however, jointly named a Biosphere Reserve in 1976 and a World Heritage Site in 1995. There have been recent efforts to significantly increase the size of Waterton National Park by adding publicly owned forests on the western side of the continental divide in British Columbia, Canada. For the purposes of this chapter, I will emphasize the US portion of the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park and refer to it as the Glacier Mountain Biosphere Reserve (MBR).

  9. Migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: Why place matters

    PubMed Central

    Carr, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Virtually all migration research examines international migration or urbanization. Yet understudied rural migrants are of critical concern for environmental conservation and rural sustainable development. Despite the fact that a relatively small number of all migrants settle remote rural frontiers, these are the agents responsible for perhaps most of the tropical deforestation on the planet. Further, rural migrants are among the most destitute people worldwide in terms of economic and human development. While a host of research has investigated deforestation resulting from frontier migration, and a modest literature has emerged on frontier development, this article explores the necessary antecedent to tropical deforestation and poverty along agricultural frontiers: out-migration from origin areas. The data come from a 2000 survey with community leaders and key informants in 16 municipios of migrant origin to the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR), Petén, Guatemala. A common denominator among communities of migration origin to the Petén frontier was unequal resource access, usually land. Nevertheless, the factors driving resource scarcity were widely variable. Land degradation, land consolidation, and population growth prevailed in some communities but not in others. Despite similar exposure to community and regional level push factors, most people in the sampled communities did not out-migrate, suggesting that any one or combination of factors is not necessarily sufficient for out-migration. PMID:19657470

  10. [A phylogenetic analysis of plant communities of Teberda Biosphere Reserve].

    PubMed

    Shulakov, A A; Egorov, A V; Onipchenko, V G

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of communities is based on the comparison of distances on the phylogenetic tree between species of a community under study and those distances in random samples taken out of local flora. It makes it possible to determine to what extent a community composition is formed by more closely related species (i.e., "clustered") or, on the opposite, it is more even and includes species that are less related with each other. The first case is usually interpreted as a result of strong influence caused by abiotic factors, due to which species with similar ecology, a priori more closely related, would remain: In the second case, biotic factors, such as competition, may come to the fore and lead to forming a community out of distant clades due to divergence of their ecological niches: The aim of this' study Was Ad explore the phylogenetic structure in communities of the northwestern Caucasus at two spatial scales - the scale of area from 4 to 100 m2 and the smaller scale within a community. The list of local flora of the alpine belt has been composed using the database of geobotanic descriptions carried out in Teberda Biosphere Reserve at true altitudes exceeding.1800 m. It includes 585 species of flowering plants belonging to 57 families. Basal groups of flowering plants are.not represented in the list. At the scale of communities of three classes, namely Thlaspietea rotundifolii - commumties formed on screes and pebbles, Calluno-Ulicetea - alpine meadow, and Mulgedio-Aconitetea subalpine meadows, have not demonstrated significant distinction of phylogenetic structure. At intra level, for alpine meadows the larger share of closely related species. (clustered community) is detected. Significantly clustered happen to be those communities developing on rocks (class Asplenietea trichomanis) and alpine (class Juncetea trifidi). At the same time, alpine lichen proved to have even phylogenetic structure at the small scale. Alpine (class Salicetea herbaceae) that

  11. Man and the Biosphere: Ground Truthing Coral Reefs for the St. John Island Biosphere Reserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.; And Others

    Research on the coral species composition of St. John's reefs in the Virgin Islands was conducted through the School for Field Studies (SFS) Coral Reef Ecology course (winter 1984). A cooperative study program based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's (Unesco) program, Man and the Biosphere, was undertaken by…

  12. Access: A Directory of Contacts, Environmental Data Bases, and Scientific Infrastructure on 175 Biosphere Reserves in 32 Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of State, Washington, DC. Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs.

    Following the EuroMAB meeting in Strasbourg, France (September 1991) and on an initiative of the Man and the Biosphere National Committee of the United States, a decision was made to create a research network from information available in biosphere reserves in 30 European countries, Canada and the United States. This Directory of EuroMAB Biosphere…

  13. Land Cover and Landscape Diversity Analysis in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Szymon; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to present the land cover structure and landscape diversity in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve. The land cover classification was performed using Object Based Image Analysis in Trimble eCognition Developer 8 software. The retrospective land cover changes analysis in 3 lake catchments (Kleszczów, Moszne, Bia³eW³odawskie Lakes)was performed on the basis of archival aerial photos taken in 1952, 1971, 1984, 1992, 2007 and one satellite scene from 2003 (IKONOS).On the basis of land cover map structure, Shannon diversity index was estimated with the moving window approach enabled in Fragstats software. The conducted research has shown that the land cover structure of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve is diverse and can be simply described by selected landscape metrics. The highest level of land cover diversity, as showed by Shannon Diversity Index, was identified in the western part of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve, which is closely related to the agricultural character of land cover structure in those regions. The examples of three regional retrospective land cover analyses demonstrated that the character of land cover structure has changed dramatically over the last 40 years.

  14. Pharmaceutical Residues Affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike Wetlands: Sources and Sinks.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Erland; Svahn, Ola; Bak, Søren; Bekoe, Samuel Oppong; Hansen, Martin

    2016-10-01

    This study is the first to investigate the pharmaceutical burden from point sources affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden. The investigated Biosphere Reserve is a >1000 km(2) wetland system with inflows from lakes, rivers, leachate from landfill, and wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). We analysed influent and treated wastewater, leachate water, lake, river, and wetland water alongside sediment for six model pharmaceuticals. The two WWTPs investigated released pharmaceutical residues at levels close to those previously observed in Swedish monitoring exercises. Compound-dependent WWTP removal efficiencies ranging from 12 to 100 % for bendroflumethiazide, oxazepam, atenolol, carbamazepine, and diclofenac were observed. Surface-water concentrations in the most affected lake were ≥100 ng/L for the various pharmaceuticals with atenolol showing the highest levels (>300 ng/L). A small risk assessment showed that adverse single-substance toxicity on aquatic organisms within the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve is unlikely. However, the effects of combinations of a large number of known and unknown pharmaceuticals, metals, and nutrients are still unknown. PMID:27480162

  15. Entangling the complexity of protected area management: the case of Wolong Biosphere Reserve, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bojie; Wang, Kelin; Lu, Yihe; Liu, Shiliang; Keming, Ma; Chen, Liding; Liu, Guohua

    2004-06-01

    Protected Area (PA) management is a complex issue that requires the consideration of many factors and relationships. A conceptual framework for the analysis of biodiversity change, local human communities, and PA management was put forward, accordingly. Under the framework, we investigated the economic status, livelihood activities, biodiversity use and perceptions of local communities, and the land use history in Wolong Biosphere Reserve, southwestern China through household survey and document review in order to gain a better understanding of the complexity of PA management. According to the land use history, the preservation of agro-biodiversity, and the raising of productivity, ecological rehabilitation and the regulation of the human pressures are indispensable in the management of the reserve. Livelihood activities and the perceptions of local communities were largely determined by the socioeconomic background, which has important implications in solving the conflicts or incompatibilities in the reserve. In Wolong Biosphere Reserve, it is beneficial to support local farmers in solving their socioeconomic problems such as the overabundance of labor force and the lack of livelihood alternatives. Without this, there will be scarcely any effective biodiversity conservation and successful reserve management in the long term. PMID:15517679

  16. Ecuador's Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: a brief modern history and conservation challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Vijay, Varsha; Ponce, Fernando; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Kahn, Ted R.

    2009-07-01

    Ecuador's Yasuní Man and the Biosphere Reserve—located at the intersection of the Amazon, the Andes mountains, and the equator—is home to extraordinary biodiversity and a recently contacted Amazonian indigenous group known as the Waorani (or Huaorani). Relatives of the Waorani, the Tagaeri and Taromenane, still live in voluntary isolation deep in the reserve, with no peaceful contact with the outside world. The Yasuní Biosphere Reserve also sits atop large reserves of crude oil, Ecuador's chief export, and contains an abundance of valuable timber species. This volatile combination has led to intense conflicts, and subsequently, increased international interest and concern. To make the issues confronting Yasuní more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties, we synthesized information on the biological, social, and political issues of the region, providing a concise overview of its modern history and conservation challenges. We constructed a chronology of key events in the Yasuní region over the past century and a series of maps designed to guide readers to a better understanding of the area's complicated array of overlapping designations. Main topics of analysis and discussion include: the Waorani and their ancestors living in voluntary isolation, Yasuní National Park, illegal logging, missionary impacts, oil-development-related impacts and conflicts, and the Ecuadorian government's innovative Yasuní-ITT Initiative (ITT: Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha).

  17. [Historical presence of invasive fish in the biosphere reserve sierra de Huautla, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Mojica, Humberto; de Rodríguez-Romero, Felipe Jesús; Díaz-Pardo, Edmundo

    2012-06-01

    The effects of invasive species on native ecosystems are varied, and these have been linked to the disappearance or decline of native fauna, changes in community structure, modification of ecosystems and as vectors of new diseases and parasites. Besides, the development of trade in species for ornamental use has contributed significantly to the import and introduction of invasive fish in some important areas for biodiversity conservation in Mexico, but the presence of these species is poorly documented. In this study we analyzed the fish community in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra de Huautla by looking at diversity changes in the last 100 years. For this, we used databases of historical records and recent collections for five sites in the Amacuzac river, along the Biosphere Reserve area. We compared the values of similarity (Jaccard index) between five times series (1898-1901, 1945-1953, 1971-1980, 1994-1995 and 2008-2009), and we obtained values of similarity (Bray-Curtis) between the five sites analyzed. In our results we recognized a total of 19 species for the area, nine non-native and ten native, three of which were eliminated for the area. Similarity values between the early days and current records were very low (.27); the major changes in the composition of the fauna occurred in the past 20 years. The values of abundance, diversity and similarity among the sampling sites, indicate the dominance of non-native species. We discuss the role of the ornamental fish trade in the region as the leading cause of invasive introduction in the ecosystem and the possible negative effects that at least four non-native species have had on native fauna and the ecosystem (Oreochromis mossambicus, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus and P pardalis). There is an urgent need of programs for registration, control and eradication of invasive species in the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve and biodiversity protection areas in Mexico. PMID:23894937

  18. Social Structure of Lions (Panthera leo) Is Affected by Management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin

    PubMed Central

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé A.; Bauer, Hans; Loveridge, Andrew; Funston, Paul J.; De Snoo, Geert R.; Sinsin, Brice; De Iongh, Hans H.

    2014-01-01

    Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296), it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168) than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128). Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67) in the National Park and towards males (1.67) in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting. PMID:24416263

  19. Human Migration and Agricultural Expansion: An Impending Threat to the Maya Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven; Reining, Conard; Sever, Thomas L.; Soza, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    Evidence is presented of the current threats to the Maya Biosphere Reserve in northern Guatemala as derived through time-series Landsat Thematic Mapper observations and analysis. Estimates of deforestation rates and trends are examined for different management units within the reserve and buffer zones. The satellite imagery was used to quantify and monitor rates, patterns, and trends of forest clearing during a time period corresponding to new road construction and significant human migration into the newly accessible forest region. Satellite imagery is appropriate technology in a vast and remote tropical region where aerial photography and extensive field-based methods are not cost-effective and current, timely data is essential for establishing conservation priorities.

  20. The UNESCO biosphere reserve concept as a tool for urban sustainability: the CUBES Cape Town case study.

    PubMed

    Stanvliet, R; Jackson, J; Davis, G; De Swardt, C; Mokhoele, J; Thom, Q; Lane, B D

    2004-06-01

    The Cape Town Case Study (CTCS) was a multi-institutional collaborative project initiated by CUBES, a knowledge networking initiative of UNESCO's Ecological Sciences Division and the Earth Institute at Columbia University. Cape Town was selected as a CUBES site on the basis of its high biological and cultural significance, together with its demonstrated leadership in promoting urban sustainability. The CTCS was conducted by the Cape Town Urban Biosphere Group, a cross-disciplinary group of specialists drawn from national, provincial, municipal, and civil society institutions, mandated to examine the potential value of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve concept as a tool for environmental management, social inclusion, and poverty alleviation in Cape Town. This article provides a contextualization of the CTCS and its collaborative process. It also reviews the biosphere reserve concept relative to urban sustainability objectives and proposes a more functional application of that concept in an urban context. A detailed analysis of key initiatives at the interface of conservation and poverty alleviation is provided in table format. Drawing on an examination of successful sustainability initiatives in Cape Town, specific recommendations are made for future application of the biosphere reserve concept in an urban context, as well as a model by which urban areas might affiliate with the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves, and criteria for such affiliation. PMID:15253900

  1. Comparative Assessment of Public Opinion on the Landscape Quality of Two Biosphere Reserves in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowińska-Świerkosz, Barbara; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.

    2014-09-01

    The European Landscape Convention (2000) obligates European Union countries to identify and implement landscape quality objectives (LQOs) understood as the specification of public expectations and preferences concerning the landscape of a given area, expressed by competent public authorities. The convention emphasizes the important role of local community representatives in this field. In Poland, the implementation of the LQO concept was first undertaken in two regions with radically different landscape characteristics: (1) the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve and (2) the selected protected areas of the Roztocze-Solska Forest, nominated to the rank of a biosphere reserve. The first stage of the presented study was the recognition of public opinion on the quality of key features of landscape, based on a questionnaire ( n = 470). The primary objective of the study was to provide an answer to the following questions: (1) Whether similar social expectations regarding landscape quality exist in spite of radically different landscape characteristics of the regions investigated (landscape quality is understood as spatial arrangement, scenic beauty, and lack of environmental pollution); (2) which landscape features are considered to be most preservation worthy by the representatives of both local communities; and (3) What processes or development impacts pose the greatest threat to the landscape quality of both regions according to the public opinion? The conducted comparative assessment revealed that it is possible to define a set of features fundamental to the quality of both areas and that representatives of local communities pointed out the same threats to the natural and cultural values of both regions investigated.

  2. Rural aquaculture as a sustainable alternative for forest conservation in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-García, José; Manzo-Delgado, Lilia L; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    Forest conservation plays a significant role in environmental sustainability. In Mexico only 8.48 million ha of forest are used for conservation of biodiversity. Payment for Environmental Services in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important national protected areas, contributes to the conservation of these forests. In the Reserve, production of rainbow trout has been important for the rural communities who need to conserve the forest cover in order to maintain the hibernation cycle of the butterfly. Aquaculture is a highly productive activity for these protected areas, since it harnesses the existing water resources. In this study, changes from 1999 to 2012 in vegetation and land-use cover in the El Lindero basin within the Reserve were evaluated in order to determine the conservation status and to consider the feasibility of aquaculture as a means of sustainable development at community level. Evaluation involved stereoscopic interpretation of digital aerial photographs from 1999 to 2012 at 1:10,000 scale, comparative analysis by orthocorrected mosaics and restitution on the mosaics. Between 1999 and 2012, forested land recovered by 28.57 ha (2.70%) at the expense of non-forested areas, although forest degradation was 3.59%. Forest density increased by 16.87%. In the 46 ha outside the Reserve, deforestation spread by 0.26%, and land use change was 0.11%. The trend towards change in forest cover is closely related to conservation programmes, particularly payment for not extracting timber, reforestation campaigns and surveillance, whose effects have been exploited for the development of rural aquaculture; this is a new way to improve the socio-economic status of the population, to avoid logging and to achieve environmental sustainability in the Reserve. PMID:24582304

  3. The first case of anoxia in waters of the Far East Marine Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stunzhas, P. A.; Tishchenko, P. Ya.; Ivin, V. V.; Barabanshchikov, Yu. A.; Volkova, T. I.; Vyshkvartsev, D. I.; Zvalinskii, V. I.; Mikhailik, T. A.; Semkin, P. Ju.; Tishchenko, P. P.; Khodorenko, N. D.; Shvetsova, M. G.; Golovchenko, F. M.

    2016-03-01

    In August 2013, anoxia of the bottom waters was established in the southern region of the Far East Marine Biosphere Reserve, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Science, in the depression between Furugelm Island and coastal waters. Death of the benthic community was registered using a remotely operated underwater vehicle. The hydrochemical studies revealed that the area of the absence and/or presence of low oxygen contents corresponds to an area of anomalously high contents of ammonium, phosphates, and silicates, a high partial pressure of carbon dioxide and normalized alkalinity, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide. The microbiological decomposition of diatoms precipitated on the seafloor in the absence of oxygen regeneration was the reason for anoxia. Its formation in summer of 2013 was caused by anomalously abundant precipitates in the Far East.

  4. Small-scale co-management for the sustainable use of Xilingol biosphere reserve, inner Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Bijoor, Neeta; Li, WenJun; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Ganlin

    2006-02-01

    There exists a negative externality of livestock breeding due to the difference between private and social breeding cost in Xilingol Biosphere Reserve (XBR), Inner Mongolia, that has caused extensive ecological degradation of the grassland. The property rights regime, the household production responsibility system (HPRS), was adopted in the 1980s to increase livestock production in XBR. Although HPRS has successfully increased production by promoting private economic interests, it has led to grassland degradation due to inefficient enforcement of stock rate. Through interviews conducted with government representatives and herding families in all management units of XBR, we elucidate the shortfalls of the current management regime and the Fencing Grassland and Moving Users policy initiated in 2002 to restore grassland. We propose an alternative property rights regime, small-scale co-management, to concurrently promote both individual economic interests and grassland conservation by improving the enforcement of stock rate. PMID:16615695

  5. Changing glacial lakes and associated outburst floods risks in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Indian Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal, S.; Singh, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    Glacial lakes and associated outburst floods (GLOFs) have increased in the Himalayan region due to climate change during the last century that has led to huge losses to society. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to map glacial lakes, their increasing extent, and associated damage potential in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Indian Himalaya. The glacial lakes were mapped on Landsat TM (3 November, 2009 and 6 November 2010) and Landsat MSS satellite images (15 November 1976 and 26 October 1979) to assess their changing area. Potential GLOFs sites have been identified and studied for their damage potentials using site characteristics and past occurrence of GLOFs. A total of 35 lakes were mapped, of which 14 lakes are located at more than 4500 m. The size and damage potentials of lakes have increased. Some lakes grew so much that they merged to form a big lake. All of these are potential GLOFs and can cause severe damage to society.

  6. Biodiversity, biosphere reserves, and the Big Apple: a study of the New York Metropolitan Region.

    PubMed

    Solecki, William D; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2004-06-01

    The objectives of this article were to assess the dimensions of biodiversity-urban society interactions within the New York Metropolitan Region, a 31-county area with a population of 21.5 million, and to explore pathways to reconcile dysfunctional relationships between these two ever-entwined systems. The article builds on the premise that urban biodiversity exists at a crucial nexus of ecological and societal interactions, linking local, regional, and global scales, and that urban ecologies are projected to become even more dynamic in the future, particularly as a result of global climate change. The pathway proposed to reconcile the biodiversity-urban society relationships is the incorporation of biosphere reserve strategies into regional environmental planning efforts focused on the New York/New Jersey Harbor/Estuary specifically and on the greater New York Metropolitan Region in general. The concepts of the "ecological footprint" and vulnerability to global environmental change are used to analyze the current interactions between biodiversity and urban society, and to evaluate the efficacy of adopting biosphere reserve strategies in the region. New York has long been at the forefront of American environmentalism and landscape planning. Coupled with this history is a still small but growing interest in regional environmental planning efforts (e.g., the U.S. EPA Harbor Estuary Program) and green infrastructure (e.g., the 2002 Humane Metropolis Conference organized by the Ecological Cities Project). The research presented here aims to contribute to these nascent activities. As a megacity, New York may serve as a model for other major cities of the world. PMID:15253901

  7. The Efficacy of Landscape-Level Conservation in Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Fangzheng; Cui, Guofa

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape alteration is rather common in many protected areas (PAs), jeopardizing the efficacy of PAs conservation. However, the general consensus is that PAs still remain effective in habitat conservation. To assess the efficacy of landscape-level conservation, we examined landscape alterations in the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR), which was established in 1960 as a “flagship” protected area in China. Based on analyses of high-resolution satellite images and data of forest inventory, field survey and interview, we developed two new indexes to assess the efficacy of landscape conservation, i.e. the quality index of protected landscape and the interference index of anthropogenic landscape. From 1993 to 2012, the quality index increased from 74.48 to 75.50, and the interference index decreased from 0.49 to 0.06, suggesting that the overall quality of protected landscape improved and the degree of anthropogenic interference decreased in CMBR. The increase in landscape quality was mainly due to the progressive vegetation recovery of previous cutover land in the windthrow area, the cease of the use of the cultivated land, and the amelioration of spatial pattern of protected landscape. We conclude that the current landscape conservation methods used in CMBR are effective, and the method we developed has the potential to be used to assess the efficacy of landscape-level conservation in nature reserves worldwide. PMID:24743693

  8. Chile.

    PubMed

    1988-09-01

    Allende government resulted in enormous fiscal deficits, economic recession, inflation, and severe decline in the gross domestic product. In 1982 the government devalued the peso and agreed to the International Monetary Fund's 2-year austerity program to lower the $20.5 billion national debt. In 1987 the gross domestic product was $18.4 billion, $1465 per capita; the annual real growth rate was 5.4%, and inflation had fallen from an annual rate of over 1000% to 21.5%. 245 Chilean pesos equal US1$. Chile's chief export is copper ($2.2 billion in 1987), of which Chile is the world's largest producer and exporter. Chile also exports gold, silver, iron ore, molybdenum, iodine, and nitrates. Chile has 20% of the world's copper reserves and 33% of the world's lithium. 21% of Chile's gross domestic product consists of textiles, metal manufacturing, food processing, pulp, paper, and wood products; and 10% consists of agricultural produce. Relations with the United States deteriorated after the 1976 murder in Washington, DC, of former Chilean ambassador Orlando Letelier. Arms and security assistance to Chile were banned, and in 1981 the US Agency for International Development and the Peace Corps ceased operations in Chile. PMID:12177976

  9. Crop damage and livestock depredation by wildlife: a case study from Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, K S; Maikhuri, R K; Nautiyal, S; Saxena, K G

    2002-11-01

    The success of conserving biological resources in any Biosphere Reserve or protected area depends on the extent of support and positive attitudes and perceptions of local people have towards such establishments. Ignoring the dependence of the local people for their subsistence needs on resources of such areas leads to conflicts between protected area managers and the local inhabitants. Crop yield losses and livestock depredation were serious problems observed in most buffer zone villages of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. In the present study 10 villages situated in the buffer zone of Nanada Devi Biosphere Reserve (1612 km2 area) in Chamoli district of Uttaranchal, India were studied during 1996-97 using a questionnaire survey of each household (419 = households; 2253 = total population in 1991; 273 ha = cultivated area). Estimates of crop yield losses were made using paired plots technique in four representative villages for each crop species. The magnitude of crop yield losses varied significantly with the distance of agricultural field from forest boundary. The total crop yield losses were high for wheat and potato in all the villages. The spatial distribution of total crop yield losses in any village indicated that they were highest in the area near to forest and least in the area near to village for all crops. Losses from areas near to forest contributed to more than 50% of total losses for each crop in all villages. However, in Lata, Peng and Tolma villages, the losses are high for kidney bean and chemmi (local variety of kidney bean) which varied between 18.5% to 30% of total losses in those villages. Potato alone represents 43.6% of total crop yield loss due to wildlife in Dronagiri village in monetary terms. Among the crops, the monetary value of yield losses are least for amaranth and highest for kidney bean. The projected total value of crop yield losses due to wildlife damage for buffer zone villages located in Garhwal Himalaya is about Rs. 538,620 (US

  10. Analysis of heavy metals concentration in water and sediment in the Hara biosphere reserve, southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Nowrouzi, Mohsen; Mansouri, Borhan; Nabizadeh, Sahar; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza

    2014-02-01

    This study determined the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn) in water and sediments at nine sites in the Hara biosphere reserve of southern Iran during the summer and winter 2010. Determination of Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn in water was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (Shimadzu, AA 610s) and in sediment by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin Elmer, AA3030). Results showed that the heavy metal concentrations in the water samples decreased in the sequence of Zn > Al > Cu > Cr, while in sediment samples were Cr > Zn > Cu > Al. Data analysis indicated that with the exception of Al, there was a Pearson's correlation coefficient between pH and Cu, Zn, and Cr at α = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.001 in sediment (in winter), respectively. There were also significant differences between heavy metals of Cr, Cu, and Zn during the two seasons (p < 0.001) in the water and sediment. PMID:22740619

  11. Modeling the biophysical impacts of global change in mountain biosphere reserves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bugmann, H.K.M.; Bjornsen, F. Ewert; Haeberli, W.; Guisan, A.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Kaab, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mountains and mountain societies provide a wide range of goods and services to humanity, but they are particularly sensitive to the effects of global environmental change. Thus, the definition of appropriate management regimes that maintain the multiple functions of mountain regions in a time of greatly changing climatic, economic, and societal drivers constitutes a significant challenge. Management decisions must be based on a sound understanding of the future dynamics of these systems. The present article reviews the elements required for an integrated effort to project the impacts of global change on mountain regions, and recommends tools that can be used at 3 scientific levels (essential, improved, and optimum). The proposed strategy is evaluated with respect to UNESCO's network of Mountain Biosphere Reserves (MBRs), with the intention of implementing it in other mountain regions as well. First, methods for generating scenarios of key drivers of global change are reviewed, including land use/land cover and climate change. This is followed by a brief review of the models available for projecting the impacts of these scenarios on (1) cryospheric systems, (2) ecosystem structure and diversity, and (3) ecosystem functions such as carbon and water relations. Finally, the cross-cutting role of remote sensing techniques is evaluated with respect to both monitoring and modeling efforts. We conclude that a broad range of techniques is available for both scenario generation and impact assessments, many of which can be implemented without much capacity building across many or even most MBRs. However, to foster implementation of the proposed strategy, further efforts are required to establish partnerships between scientists and resource managers in mountain areas.

  12. Intracultural variation of knowledge about wild plant uses in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Leading scholars in ethnobiology and ethnomedicine continuously stress the need for moving beyond the bare description of local knowledge and to additionally analyse and theorise about the characteristics and dynamics of human interactions with plants and related local knowledge. Analyses of the variation of local knowledge are thereby perceived as minimal standard. In this study we investigate the distribution and variation of wild plant knowledge in five domains: food, drinks, human medicine, veterinary medicine and customs. We assess relations between the wild plant knowledge of informants and their socio-demographic as well as geographic background. Method Research was conducted in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria. Structured questionnaires were used to inquire wild plant knowledge from 433 informants with varying socio-demographic and geographic background. Children assisted in the data collection. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear models. Results and discussion A majority of respondents is familiar with wild plant uses, however to varying degrees. Knowledge variations depend on the socio-demographic and geographic background of the informants as well as on the domains of knowledge under investigation: women, older informants and homegardeners report more human medicinal applications and applications in drinks than men, younger informants and non-homegardeners; farmers know a greater variety of veterinary medicinal applications than non-farmers; the place of residence relates significantly to food and veterinary uses. Customs are difficult to investigate in standardized matrices. The household-related distribution of work and the general socio-cultural context are especially helpful in order to explain intracultural variation of knowledge in the Grosses Walsertal. Conclusions Research on the intracultural variation of local knowledge exposes cultural characteristics and highlights the cultural

  13. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Santanu K.; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C.; Parida, Debraj

    2015-01-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 4 –2.1 × 10 5 and 5.1 × 10 4 –4.7 × 10 5 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium . PMID:26221092

  14. Multidimensional spatial characterization of plant invasions in 'El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar' Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Flores, Erick

    Invasive species are considered an agent of ecological change with more significant effects than global warming. Exotic plant invasions threaten biodiversity and ecosystem viability worldwide. Their effects in the Sonoran Desert ecosystems are a growing concern among ecologists and land managers. We hypothesized that highly dynamic desert environments are unstable, therefore more vulnerable to invasion by exotic plant species. To test this hypothesis we used a multidimensional approach to assess the spatial distribution of two exotic species: Brassica tournefortii (Saharan mustard) and Schismus arabicus (Arabian grass), in a portion of 'El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar' Biosphere Reserve (PBR) in northwestern Sonora, Mexico. This approach combined genetic algorithms, geographic information systems, field methods, statistical analysis, and remote sensing modeling at multiple spatial and temporal scales to predict and test the current and potential distribution of the invasives over dynamic landscapes. Predicted probability of invasion was influenced strongly by human factors: Road networks were the strongest predictors of presence, revealing the potential importance of humans as vectors of invasiveness. Dynamic landscapes, associated mostly with vegetation losses, were detected spectrally in the eastern portion of the study area, very likely associated with past agricultural and current grazing activity. Combined models of high probability for invasion by B. tournefortii and S. arabicus over dynamic landscapes were tested against confirmed locations of the invasives and land cover types associated with invasion. Results confirmed the hypothesis of the study and suggest that more dynamic landscapes are more prone to invasion by these two exotic plants in the PBR. B. tournefortii was found associated mostly with landscapes occupied by microphyllous desert scrub and grassland, as well as sarcocaulescent desert scrub. S. arabicus was found more abundantly in the

  15. Mapping Topoclimate and Microclimate in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2006-12-01

    Overwintering monarch butterflies in Mexico select areas of the high elevation Oyamel fir -pine forest providing a canopy that protects them from extremes of cold, heat, sun, and wind. These exacting microclimatic conditions are found in relatively small areas of forest with appropriate topography and canopy cover. The major goal of this investigation is to map topoclimatic and microclimatic conditions within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve by combining temperature monitoring (iButton Thermochrons), hemispherical canopy photography, multiple regression, and GIS modeling. Temperature measurements included base weather stations and arrays of Thermochrons (on the north-side of trees at 2m height) across local topographic and canopy cover gradients. Topoclimatic models of minimum temperatures included topographic position, slope, and elevation, and predicted that thermal belts on slopes and cold air drainage into canyons create local minimum temperature gradients of 2°C. Topoclimatic models of maximum temperatures models included elevation, topographic position, and relative solar exposure, with local gradients of 3°C. These models, which are independent of forest canopy structure, were then projected across the entire region. Forest canopy structure, including direct and diffuse solar radiation, was assessed with hemispherical photography at each Thermochron site. Canopy cover affected minimum temperatures primarily on the calmest, coldest nights. Maximum temperatures were predicted by direct radiation below the canopy. Fine- scale grids (25 m spacing) at three overwintering sites characterized effects of canopy gaps and edges on temperature and wind exposure. The effects of temperature variation were considered for lipid loss rates, ability to take flight, and freezing mortality. Lipid loss rates were estimated by measured hourly temperatures. Many of the closed canopy sites allowed for substantial lipid reserves at the end of the season (March 15), but

  16. Applying fuzzy logic to assess human perception in relation to conservation plan efficiency measures within a biosphere reserve.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-López, Dulce M; Aragón-Noriega, Alberto E; Luna-Gonzalez, Antonio; Gonzalez-Ocampo, Hector A

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to present an efficiency-perception impact assessment based upon the integration of fuzzy logic (FL) of the "Productive Reconversion" conservation program (PRP) instituted by the Mexican government, in the upper Gulf of California and the Colorado Delta Biosphere Reserve. This approach enables environmental analysts to deal with the intrinsic imprecision and ambiguity associated with people's judgments and conclusions. The application of FL to the assessment of program efficiency is illustrated in this work, demonstrating how subjective perceptions can be converted into quantitative values easy to evaluate during the decision-making process. PMID:22351598

  17. Silicon's organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-ji; Lin, Peng; He, Jian-yuan; Yang, Zhi-wei; Lin, Yi-ming

    2006-11-01

    Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon's biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon's erosion of soil particles.A study on the organic pool and biological cycle of silicon (Si) of the moso bamboo community was conducted in Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve, China. The results showed that: (1) the standing crop of the moso bamboo community was 13355.4 g/m2, of which 53.61%, 45.82% and 0.56% are represented by the aboveground and belowground parts of moso bamboos, and the understory plants, respectively; (2) the annual net primary production of the community was 2887.1 g/(m2 x a), among which the aboveground part, belowground part, litterfalls, and other fractions, accounted for 55.86%, 35.30%, 4.50% and 4.34%, respectively; (3) silicon concentration in stem, branch, leaf, base of stem, root, whip of bamboos, and other plants was 0.15%, 0.79%, 3.10%, 4.40%, 7.32%, 1.52% and 1.01%, respectively; (4) the total Si accumulated in the standing crop of moso bamboo community was 448.91 g/m2, with 99.83% of Si of the total community stored in moso bamboo populations; (5) within moso bamboo community, the annual uptake, retention, and return of Si were 95.75, 68.43, 27.32 g/(m2 x a), respectively; (6) the turnover time of Si, which is the time an average atom of Si remains in the soil before it is recycled into the trees or shrubs, was 16.4 years; (7) the enrichment ratio of Si in the moso bamboo community, which is the ratio of the mean concentration of nutrients in the net primary production to the mean concentration of nutrients in the biomass of a community, was 0.64; and lastly, (8) moso bamboo plants stored about 1.26x10(10) kg of silicon in the

  18. Temporal variation of vegetation litterfall and oil characteristics at Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve, Pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhanim, M. N.; Juliana, W. A. Wan

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine temporal variation of vegetation litterfall and soil nutrients at Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve (TCBR), Pahang. A total of 1.5 ha sampling area consisting of 30 permanent sampling plots (20 × 25 m) was selected in the three TCBR management zones i.e the core, buffer and transition zones. Each zone consisted of 10 permanent sampling plots. Litter traps were installed in the 30 permanent sampling plots and the litters were collected started in December 2012. Soil samples from each sampling plot were obtained in December 2012 to represent the wet season and the soils were analysed. This paper reports our initial findings for the first five months of the litterfall data. Mean annual litterfall of the study site was estimated at 7,670.58±1.32 kg ha-1y-1. The proportion of leaf litter component (82.16%) was the highest compared to other components. The litterfall varied monthly, whereby April 2013 had the highest value at 10.37 kg and the highest mean monthly litterfall at 0.35±0.2 kg. Core zone had the highest litterfall at 0.37±0.03 kg in April 2013, whilst buffer zone recorded 0.07±0.01 kg in January 2013 that was the lowest value of litterfall production. However, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed there was no significant difference amongst the mean monthly dry weight (kg) of litterfall between the three zones (p=0.05) at TCBR from December 2012 to April 2013. Physical characteristics of the soil revealed that the core zone had sandy clay texture while the buffer and transition zones were clay loam texture. The percentage of organic matter and air dry moisture were the highest at core zone. For the soil chemical characteristics, soil pH of the three study sites were very acidic. Exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were low whilst the electrical capacity (EC) was between 2.16±0.09 until 2.24±0.07 mS/cm for all three management zones. However, ANOVA also showed there were no significant differences in

  19. Silicon’s organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen-ji; Lin, Peng; He, Jian-yuan; Yang, Zhi-wei; Lin, Yi-ming

    2006-01-01

    Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon’s biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon’s erosion of soil particles. A study on the organic pool and biological cycle of silicon (Si) of the moso bamboo community was conducted in Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve, China. The results showed that: (1) the standing crop of the moso bamboo community was 13355.4 g/m2, of which 53.61%, 45.82% and 0.56% are represented by the aboveground and belowground parts of moso bamboos, and the understory plants, respectively; (2) the annual net primary production of the community was 2887.1 g/(m2·a), among which the aboveground part, belowground part, litterfalls, and other fractions, accounted for 55.86%, 35.30%, 4.50% and 4.34%, respectively; (3) silicon concentration in stem, branch, leaf, base of stem, root, whip of bamboos, and other plants was 0.15%, 0.79%, 3.10%, 4.40%, 7.32%, 1.52% and 1.01%, respectively; (4) the total Si accumulated in the standing crop of moso bamboo community was 448.91 g/m2, with 99.83% of Si of the total community stored in moso bamboo populations; (5) within moso bamboo community, the annual uptake, retention, and return of Si were 95.75, 68.43, 27.32 g/(m2·a), respectively; (6) the turnover time of Si, which is the time an average atom of Si remains in the soil before it is recycled into the trees or shrubs, was 16.4 years; (7) the enrichment ratio of Si in the moso bamboo community, which is the ratio of the mean concentration of nutrients in the net primary production to the mean concentration of nutrients in the biomass of a community, was 0.64; and lastly, (8) moso bamboo plants stored about 1.26×1010 kg of silicon in

  20. Land change in the southern Yucatán and Calakmul biosphere reserve: effects on habitat and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Vester, Henricus F M; Lawrence, Deborah; Eastman, J Ronald; Turner, B L; Calmé, Sophie; Dickson, Rebecca; Pozo, Carmen; Sangermano, Florencia

    2007-06-01

    The southern Yucatán contains the largest expanse of seasonal tropical forests remaining in Mexico, forming an ecocline between the drier north of the peninsula and the humid Petén, Guatemala. The Calakmul Biosphere Reserve resides in the center of this region as part of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. The reserve's functions are examined in regard to land changes throughout the region, generated over the last 40 years by increasing settlement and the expansion and intensification of agriculture. These changes are documented from 1987/1988 to 2000, and their implications regarding the capacity of the reserve to protect the ecocline, forest habitats, and butterfly diversity are addressed. The results indicate that the current landscape matrix serves the biotic diversity of the reserve, with several looming caveats involving the loss of humid forests and the interruption of biota flow across the ecocline, and the amount and proximity of older forest patches beyond the reserve. The highly dynamic land cover changes underway in this economic frontier warrant an adaptive management approach that monitors the major changes underway in mature forest types, while the paucity of systematic ecological and environment-development studies is rectified in order to inform policy and practice. PMID:17555213

  1. Bioaccumulation and distribution of metals in sediments and Avicenna marina tissues in the Hara Biosphere Reserve, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nowrouzi, Mohsen; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohammadreza

    2012-10-01

    The metal pollution in Sediments and Avicenna marina tissues in the Hara Biosphere Reserve was monitored for Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), and Nickel (Ni) with atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that the mean concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in the water and sediments were much higher than the recommended threshold limits in the most stations, also the highest means of Pb, Cd, and Ni were observed in Avicenna roots and it were 25.26 ± 4.86, 2.17 ± 0.74, and 26.72 ± 6.17 (μg g(-1)) respectively. Calculating BCF (bioconcentration factor) index illustrates that A. marina accumulates Pb, Cd, and Ni 1.62, 1.52 and 0.73 times greater than sediment levels respectively, So it can show that A. marina may be employed as a biological indicator exposure of Cd, Pb, and Ni with temporal monitoring, also the factories were main sources of metals contamination in the Hara Biosphere Reserve. PMID:22829000

  2. Long term changes in forest cover and land use of Similipal Biosphere Reserve of India using satellite remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranya, K. R. L.; Reddy, C. Sudhakar

    2016-04-01

    The spatial changes in forest cover of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India over seven decades (1930-2012) in the last century has been quantified by using multi-temporal data from different sources. Over the period, the forest cover reduced by 970.8 km2 (23.6% of the total forest), and most significantly during the period, 1930-1975. Human-induced activities like conversion of forest land for agriculture, construction of dams and mining activities have been identified as major drivers of deforestation. Spatial analysis indicates that 399 grids (1 grid = 1 × 1 km) have undergone large-scale changes in forest cover (>75 ha) during 1930-1975, while only 3 grids have shown >75 ha loss during 1975-1990. Annual net rate of deforestation was 0.58 during 1930-1975, which has been reduced substantially during 1975-1990 (0.04). Annual gross rate of deforestation in 2006-2012 is indeed low (0.01) as compared to the national and global average. This study highlights the impact and effectiveness of conservation practices in minimizing the rate of deforestation and protecting the Similipal Biosphere Reserve.

  3. Local peoples' knowledge, aptitude and perceptions of planning and management issues in nanda devi biosphere reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kottapalli S; Nautiyal, Sunil; Maikhuri, Rakesh K; Saxena, Krishna G

    2003-02-01

    Local peoples' knowledge, aptitude, and perceptions of planning and management issues were investigated in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) in Uttaranchal State of India. Conflicts ensued between local inhabitants and the management authority due to lack of community participation. Although most respondents seem to claim the knowledge of the objectives of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, the source of information indicates their interaction with the management authority is not frequent. While local population seem to agree on reduced intensity of agriculture with compensation equal to loss of net income, there is a perceptible difference in responses among different age groups. While the younger generation seems to agree to move away to other areas with suitable compensation packages, the older generation prefer those options that require some adjustments in use and access to natural resources. The option of ecotourism as a source of income is acceptable to most respondents, but young and old respondents disagreed about impact of such activity on social behavior of local inhabitants. Among those groups studied, only the "self-employed group" seem to be more interested in ecotourism in comparison to other occupation classes. Gender differences in perceptions are prominent with reference to development options. While the men preferred economic opportunities, the women preferred improved living conditions. An evaluation mechanism similar to the one described in this paper will be helpful to the management authority to assess and modify their management plans to mitigate conflicts with local people. PMID:12520374

  4. Long term changes in forest cover and land use of Similipal Biosphere Reserve of India using satellite remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranya, K. R. L.; Reddy, C. Sudhakar

    2016-04-01

    The spatial changes in forest cover of Similipal biosphere reserve, Odisha, India over eight decades (1930-2012) has been quantified by using multi-temporal data from different sources. Over the period, the forest cover reduced by 970.8 km2 (23.6% of the total forest), and most significantly during the period, 1930-1975. Human-induced activities like conversion of forest land for agriculture, construction of dams and mining activities have been identified as major drivers of deforestation. Spatial analysis indicates that 399 grids (1 grid = 1 × 1 km) have undergone large-scale changes in forest cover (>75 ha) during 1930-1975, while only 3 grids have shown >75 ha loss during 1975-1990. Annual net rate of deforestation was 0.58 during 1930-1975, which has been reduced substantially during 1975-1990 (0.04). Annual gross rate of deforestation in 2006-2012 is indeed low (0.01) as compared to the national and global average. This study highlights the impact and effectiveness of conservation practices in minimizing the rate of deforestation and protecting the Similipal Biosphere Reserve.

  5. Access 1996: A directory of permanent plots which monitor flora, fauna, climate, hydrology, soil, geology, and the effects of anthropogenic changes at 132 biosphere reserves in 27 countries

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This directory summarizes information about environmental data collected in permanent monitoring and research plots in 132 biosphere reserves in Canada, the United States, and 25 European countries. The text of the directory is organized alphabetically by country and, within each country, alphabetically according to the name of the biosphere reserve. Tabular summaries of information on permanent plots are provided. The summaries are organized topically . A general summary of basic information on permanent plots is followed by more detailed information on permanent plots dedicated primarily to monitroing and research on particular topics.

  6. The Impact of Hydrodynamics in Erosion - Deposition Process in Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve, South Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo-Luong, H. P.

    2014-12-01

    Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve is always considered as a friendly green belt to protect and bring up the habitants. However, recently some mangrove areas in the Dong Tranh estuary are being eroded seriously. Based on the field measurements in SW and NE monsoons as well as data of topography changes in 10 years, it is proved that hydrodynamics of waves, tidal currents and riverine currents are the main reasons for erosion-deposition processes at the studied site. The erosion-deposition process changes due to monsoon. The analysed results show that high waves and tidal oscillation cause the increase of the erosion rate in NE monsoon. However, high sediment deposition occurs in SW monsoon due to weak waves and more alluvium from upstream. Many young mangrove trees grow up and develop in the SW monsoon. From the research, it is strongly emphasized the role of mangrove forests in soil retention and energy dissipation.

  7. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity. PMID:26577861

  8. Spatio-temporal dynamics of mosquitoes in stream pools of a biosphere reserve of Southern Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Anbalagan, S; Arunprasanna, V; Kannan, M; Dinakaran, S; Krishnan, M

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of mosquitoes in stream pools were examined in a biosphere reserve of the Southern Western Ghats, India. The immature mosquitoes in stream pools were collected from stream substrates of bedrock pool, boulder cavity and sand puddle. The collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified. In total, 16 species from four genera of mosquitoes were collected. The mosquito species from Culex and Anopheles were predominantly occurred. The bedrock pool had the highest diversity and abundance of mosquitoes. The statistical analyses showed that the substrate specificity and the seasons were positively related to the distribution of mosquitoes rather than spatial pattern. This study described the spatial and temporal pattern of mosquitoes in stream pools of the Southern Western Ghats. This information would be helpful to National Vector borne disease control program for surveillance and control. PMID:26434940

  9. Legal framework for biosphere reserves as learning sites for sustainable development: a comparative analysis of Ukraine and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, Marine; Hahn, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Volker; Angelstam, Per; Axelsson, Robert

    2013-03-01

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) concept aims at encouraging sustainable development (SD) towards sustainability on the ground by promoting three core functions: conservation, development, and logistic support. Sweden and Ukraine exemplify the diverse governance contexts that BRs need to cope with. We assessed how the BR concept and its core functions are captured in national legislations. The results show that the core functions are in different ways reflected in legal documents in both countries. While in Ukraine the BR concept is incorporated into legislation, in Sweden the concept is used as a soft law. In Ukraine managers desired stronger legal enforcement, while in Sweden managers avoided emphasis on legislation when collaborating with local stakeholders. Hence, BR implementation have adapted to different political cultures by development of diverse approaches. We conclude that a stronger legal support might not be needed for BRs, rather SD needs to be recognized as an integrated place-based process at multiple levels. PMID:23475654

  10. Decadal time-scale monitoring of forest fires in Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India using remote sensing and GIS.

    PubMed

    Saranya, K R L; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Rao, P V V Prasada; Jha, C S

    2014-05-01

    Analyzing the spatial extent and distribution of forest fires is essential for sustainable forest resource management. There is no comprehensive data existing on forest fires on a regular basis in Biosphere Reserves of India. The present work have been carried out to locate and estimate the spatial extent of forest burnt areas using Resourcesat-1 data and fire frequency covering decadal fire events (2004-2013) in Similipal Biosphere Reserve. The anomalous quantity of forest burnt area was recorded during 2009 as 1,014.7 km(2). There was inconsistency in the fire susceptibility across the different vegetation types. The spatial analysis of burnt area shows that an area of 34.2 % of dry deciduous forests, followed by tree savannah, shrub savannah, and grasslands affected by fires in 2013. The analysis based on decadal time scale satellite data reveals that an area of 2,175.9 km(2) (59.6 % of total vegetation cover) has been affected by varied rate of frequency of forest fires. Fire density pattern indicates low count of burnt area patches in 2013 estimated at 1,017 and high count at 1,916 in 2004. An estimate of fire risk area over a decade identifies 12.2 km(2) is experiencing an annual fire damage. Summing the fire frequency data across the grids (each 1 km(2)) indicates 1,211 (26 %) grids are having very high disturbance regimes due to repeated fires in all the 10 years, followed by 711 grids in 9 years and 418 in 8 years and 382 in 7 years. The spatial database offers excellent opportunities to understand the ecological impact of fires on biodiversity and is helpful in formulating conservation action plans. PMID:24473680

  11. Trends in deforestation and forest degradation after a decade of monitoring in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Omar; López-García, José; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    We used aerial photographs, satellite images, and field surveys to monitor forest cover in the core zones of the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico from 2001 to 2012. We used our data to assess the effectiveness of conservation actions that involved local, state, and federal authorities and community members (e.g., local landowners and private and civil organizations) in one of the world's most iconic protected areas. From 2001 through 2012, 1254 ha were deforested (i.e., cleared areas had <10% canopy cover), 925 ha were degraded (i.e., areas for which canopy forest decreased), and 122 ha were affected by climatic conditions. Of the total 2179 ha of affected area, 2057 ha were affected by illegal logging: 1503 ha by large-scale logging and 554 ha by small-scale logging. Mexican authorities effectively enforced efforts to protect the monarch reserve, particularly from 2007 to 2012. Those efforts, together with the decade-long financial support from Mexican and international philanthropists and businesses to create local alternative-income generation and employment, resulted in the decrease of large-scale illegal logging from 731 ha affected in 2005-2007 to none affected in 2012, although small-scale logging is of growing concern. However, dire regional social and economic problems remain, and they must be addressed to ensure the reserve's long-term conservation. The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) overwintering colonies in Mexico-which engage in one of the longest known insect migrations-are threatened by deforestation, and a multistakeholder, regional, sustainable-development strategy is needed to protect the reserve. PMID:24001209

  12. Ethnomedicinal plant use by Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in North Sikkim, India

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Bharat K; Badola, Hemant K

    2008-01-01

    Lepcha is the oldest and the first tribe reported from Sikkim, India; majority of its population inhabiting in Dzongu valley, an officially demarcated reserve for Lepcha community, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in north district. Lepchas of Dzongu are known for their retention of rich cultural heritage. In view of the on-going cultural and economic changes brought in by the process of globalization, the immediate need was felt to document in details the under-explored ethnomedicinal practices of Lepchas of Dzongu valley. This paper reports 118 species, belonging to 71 families and 108 genera, under ethnomedicinal utility by the Lepchas for curing approximately 66 ailments, which could be grouped under 14 broad categories. Zingiberaceae appeared as the most used family (8 species and 5 genera). As per use pattern, maximum of 30.50% species are to cure stomach related disorders/ailments, followed by 19.49% for curing cut, wounds, inflammation, sprains and joint pains. Administration of medicine orally is recorded in 75% cases. Root and rhizome harvesting targeted 30 species. The changing scenario over time both at socio-cultural front and passing traditional knowledge interests from older to younger generation and rich ethnomicinal wealth of the oldest tribe of Sikkim are discussed in the light of conservation strategies and techniques to adopt. PMID:18826658

  13. Trends in Deforestation and Forest Degradation after a Decade of Monitoring in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    VIDAL, OMAR; LÓPEZ-GARCÍA, JOSÉ; RENDÓN-SALINAS, EDUARDO

    2014-01-01

    We used aerial photographs, satellite images, and field surveys to monitor forest cover in the core zones of the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico from 2001 to 2012. We used our data to assess the effectiveness of conservation actions that involved local, state, and federal authorities and community members (e.g., local landowners and private and civil organizations) in one of the world’s most iconic protected areas. From 2001 through 2012, 1254 ha were deforested (i.e., cleared areas had <10% canopy cover), 925 ha were degraded (i.e., areas for which canopy forest decreased), and 122 ha were affected by climatic conditions. Of the total 2179 ha of affected area, 2057 ha were affected by illegal logging: 1503 ha by large-scale logging and 554 ha by small-scale logging. Mexican authorities effectively enforced efforts to protect the monarch reserve, particularly from 2007 to 2012. Those efforts, together with the decade-long financial support from Mexican and international philanthropists and businesses to create local alternative-income generation and employment, resulted in the decrease of large-scale illegal logging from 731 ha affected in 2005–2007 to none affected in 2012, although small-scale logging is of growing concern. However, dire regional social and economic problems remain, and they must be addressed to ensure the reserve’s long-term conservation. The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) overwintering colonies in Mexico—which engage in one of the longest known insect migrations—are threatened by deforestation, and a multistakeholder, regional, sustainable-development strategy is needed to protect the reserve. PMID:24001209

  14. Chile.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  15. Larval fish habitats and hydrography in the Biosphere Reserve of the Upper Gulf of California (June 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Velasco, L.; Lavín, M. F.; Jiménez-Rosenberg, S. P. A.; Montes, J. M.; Turk-Boyer, P. J.

    2012-02-01

    The Upper Gulf of California (UGC) is a Biosphere Reserve that despite its extreme environmental conditions (macrotidal inverse estuary) houses a high fish species richness. An intensive sampling of fish larvae and hydrography was carried out during June 2008 in the UGC. From 56 zooplankton sampling stations with a maximum of three sampling strata (each 5 m deep, from 0 to 15 m), a total of 29,505 fish larvae were collected, included in 99 taxa and 32 families. The Bray-Curtis Index defined three main larval fish habitats that varied in composition. (i) The "Mixed" larval habitat was mostly defined in the vertically mixed western sector of the UGC; the coastal pelagic Anchoa spp. presented high abundance in this habitat, associated with demersal species such as Gobulus crescentalis and Scianidae type 1. The lowest diversity and abundance, and the highest salinity, temperature and chlorophyll distinguished this larval habitat. (ii) The "Front" habitat was located mostly on the physical-chemical frontal zone between the UGC and the Northern Gulf; it had the highest specific richness and larval abundance. The dominant species were the coastal pelagics Anchoa spp. and Opisthonema sp. 1; the latter was almost limited to the north by the frontal zone. (iii) The "Shelf" habitat, found over the shelf off the mainland, was the deepest and less salty, and was also dominated by Opisthonema sp. 1, but included epipelagic species such as Scombridae (e.g., Scomber japonicus, Auxis spp., Scomberomerus sierra), probably from the adjacent deeper zone. These larval fish habitats had well-defined limits that coincided with marked environmental gradients, with the lowest larval diversity in the saltiest environment; this suggests that the human-induced shift to hypersaline conditions may have reduced the preferred larval habitat for some species. The habitats most likely change with the seasons, with implications for the management of the reserve.

  16. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT)

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  17. Role of forest conservation in lessening land degradation in a temperate region: the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manzo-Delgado, Lilia; López-García, José; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    With international concern about the rates of deforestation worldwide, particular attention has been paid to Latin America. Forest conservation programmes in Mexico include Payment for Environmental Services (PES), a scheme that has been successfully introduced in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve. To seek further evidence of the role of PES in lessening land degradation processes in a temperate region, the conservation state of the Cerro Prieto ejido within the Reserve was assessed by an analysis of changes in vegetation cover and land-use between 1971 and 2013. There were no changes in the total forest surface area, but the relative proportions of the different classes of cover density had changed. In 1971, closed and semi-closed forest occupied 247.81 ha and 5.38 ha, 82.33% and 1.79% of the total area of the ejido, respectively. By 2013, closed forest had decreased to 230.38 ha (76.54% of the ejido), and semi-closed cover was 17.23 ha (5.72% of the ejido), suggesting that some semi-closed forest had achieved closed status. The final balance between forest losses and recovery was: 29.63 ha were lost, whereas 13.72 ha were recovered. Losses were mainly linked to a sanitation harvest programme to control the bark beetle Scolytus mundus. Ecotourism associated with forest conservation in the Cerro Prieto ejido has been considered by inhabitants as a focal alternative for economic development. Consequently, it is essential to develop a well-planned and solidly structured approach based on social cohesion to foster a community-led sustainable development at local level. PMID:24332200

  18. Challenges to conservation: land use change and local participation in the Al Reem Biosphere Reserve, West Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    One response to humanity's unsustainable use of natural resources and consequent degradation, even destruction of the environment, is to establish conservation areas to protect Nature and preserve biodiversity at least in selected regions. In Qatar, the government has shown strong support for this approach, confronted by the environmental consequences of oil and gas extraction and rapid urban development, by designating about one-tenth of the country a conservation area. Located in the west of the peninsula, it comprises the Al Reem Reserve, subsequently declared a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Several approaches have figured in conservation, currently popular is co-management featuring participation of the local population, which recognises that people's activities often contribute to today's environment, with the promotion of bio-cultural diversity. However, these assumptions may not hold where rapid social and cultural change occurs, as in Qatar. We explore the implications of such change, notably in land use. We detail changes resulting with the move from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles: in land access, which now features tribal-state control, and herding strategies, which now feature migrant labour and depend on imported fodder and water, underwritten by the country's large gas and oil revenues. Current stocking arrangements - animals herded in much smaller areas than previously - are thought responsible for the degradation of natural resources. The place of animals, notably camels, in Qatari life, has also changed greatly, possibly further promoting overstocking. Many local people disagree. What are the implications of such changes for the participatory co-management of conservation areas? Do they imply turning the clock back to centrally managed approaches that seek to control access and local activities? PMID:20964818

  19. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT).

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  20. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in the tribal population of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forest, Western Ghats, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Srinivasan, R; Anish, T S; Nandakumar, G; Jambulingam, P

    2015-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, is reported to be prevalent in tribal villages located in the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forests of Western Ghats, Kerala state, India. We carried out an investigation to characterize the species of Leishmania parasites involved in these infections prevalent among one of the oldest human tribal populations in India. Skin aspirates collected from 13 clinically diagnosed cases were subjected to histopathological investigations, serological rapid tests using 'rk39' and molecular diagnostics. Clinical manifestations recorded among the patients were hypo-pigmented erythematous nodules/papules on limbs and other parts of the body. Histopathological investigations of these skin lesions among patients showed Leishman-Donovan bodies in macrophages. None of the patients were found to be positive for rk39 tests, which detect active visceral leishmaniasis. Using three different genetic markers [kinetoplast minicircle DNA, 3' UTR region of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp70 gene] we identified the parasite species involved in these infections to be Leishmania donovani. The 6-phosphogluconate (6-PGDH) gene sequences of the parasite isolates from Western Ghats indicated close genetic relatedness to L. donovani isolates reported from Sri Lanka, also causing CL. This could be cited as another instance of 'local endemism' of organisms in this single 'bio-geographic unit'. PMID:25480880

  1. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles attracted to different ages of cow dung at Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve, Pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruchunnan, Ganaswary; Foo, Ng Yong; Ling, Wee Suk; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    The attractiveness of cow dung of different ages towards dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) was studied in Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve from February to April 2014. A total of 1,371 individuals belonging to 29 species and 11 genera had successfully collected in traps baited with cow dung aged at 1, 3 and 5 days. Cow dung was highly attractive at first 24 hours, and its attractiveness greatly reduced at Day 3 and Day 5. The result shows significant differences in the means of abundance (F = 4.60, d f= 2 & 24, P = 0.02) and species richness (F = 15.13, df = 2 & 24, P = 5.6 × 10-5). Bray Curtis similarity index indicated high community similarity between trap captures on Day 3 and Day 5 (59.7 %) compare to Day 1 (15.1 %) that leads to an assumption that some species preferentially colonized fresh dung while some species prefer aged dung. Species Copris agnus, Onthophagus aphodiodes, O. rorarius, O. orientalis, O. rutilans, O. vulpes, Oniticellus tessellatus and Paragymnopleurus maurus were captured on Day-1, while O. peninsularis and O. sumaveiensis captured on Day-3 and Day-5. Among the 11 genera, Onthophagus species was found to be most abundant with 762 individuals representing 55.6 % of the total captures. The most abundant species was Sisyphus thoracicus with 524 individuals (38.2 %). The dung beetle fauna's species accumulation curve in Tasik Chini did not reach to an asymptote suggesting more sampling effort is needed.

  2. Chile.

    PubMed

    1986-04-01

    In 1985, Chile's population stood at 12 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.7%. 1984's infant mortality rate was 20/1000 live births and life expectancy was 67 years. The literacy rate was 94%. Of the work force of 3,841,000 in 1985, 15.9% were engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 31.3% were employed in industry and commerce; 38.6% were in the service sector; 8.7% worked in mining; and 4.4% were employed in construction. Chile's military junta is scheduled to be replaced by an elected legislature in 1990. The GDP was US $19.2 billion in 1984, with an annual real growth rate of 6.3%, and per capita GDP stood at US$1590. Inflation averages 23%. Industry comprises 21% of the GDP. Longterm prospects for the Chilean economy are influenced by a high debt service ratio, very low domestic savings and investment, the prospect of little or no increase in copper prices, and continuing problems in the domestic financial sector. In 1985-88, under the International Monetary Fund macroeconomic program, Chile will strive for moderate economic growth while managing its external debt servicing burden. PMID:12178144

  3. Wild leafy vegetables: a study of their subsistence dietetic support to the inhabitants of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Shalini; Maikhuri, R K; Kala, C P; Rao, K S; Saxena, K G

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of greens is a major source of vitamins and micro-nutrients for people using only vegetarian diets rich in carbohydrates. In remote rural settlements where vegetable cultivation is not practiced and market supplies are not organized, local inhabitants depend on indigenous vegetables, both cultivated in kitchen gardens and wild, for enriching the diversity of food. Knowledge of such foods is part of traditional knowledge which is largely transmitted through participation of individuals of households. A total of 123 households in six villages of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve buffer zone was surveyed using a schedule to assess the knowledge, availability and consumption pattern of wild leafy vegetables. Quantity estimations were done using regular visits with informants from 30 sample households of the six study villages during the collections. Monetization was used to see the value of wild leafy vegetables harvested during a year. The diversity of wild leafy vegetables being use by the local inhabitants is 21 species belonging to 14 genera and 11 families. This is far less than that being reported to be used by the communities from Western Ghats in India and some parts of Africa. Irrespective of social or economic status all households in the study villages had the knowledge and used wild leafy vegetables. The number of households reported to consume these wild leafy vegetables is greater than the number of households reporting to harvest them for all species except for Diplazium esculentum and Phytolacca acinosa. The availability and use period varied for the species are listed by the users. The study indicated that the knowledge is eroding due to changing social values and non participation of younger generation in collection and processing of such wild leafy vegetables. PMID:18510780

  4. Spatial and temporal variation of fish assemblages in a coastal lagoon of the Biosphere Reserve La Encrucijada, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Velázquez, Ernesto; Vega-Cendejas, M Eugenia; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Composition and abundance of the ichthyofauna in estuarine and coastal lagoon systems of the South Pacific in Mexico have been scarcely studied. In particular, there is a lack of information on how environmental variables determine the spatio-temporal structure of fish assemblages in those habitats. In this study, fishes were sampled by drop net during twelve months (May 2004 - April 2005) in 22 sites distributed along the Carretas-Pereyra lagoon, located in the Biosphere Reserve La Encrucijada, Chiapas, Mexico. We recorded 11,797 individuals (40 species, in 30 genera and 21 families). Dormitator latifrons was the most dominant species in terms of the Importance Value index, IV (23.05%), followed by Lile gracilis (10.31%), Poecilia sphenops (8.60%) and Poecilia butleri (7.30%). D. latifrons also accounted for more than one half of the total biomass (50.14%). Species richness and Shannon-Wiener's diversity indexes showed similar temporal fluctuations, reaching their highest values during the dry season. The system evidenced temporal variations in salinity, having observed four different regimes: freshwater, oligohaline, mesohaline and polyhaline. Mean richness and diversity indexes achieved their highest values during the mesohaline period. On the other hand, mean abundances (CPUE) were highest during the freshwater period. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that salinity and temperature were the most important environmental parameters affecting associations of fishes in terms of their abundances. Correlation analyses revealed that among the environmental variables measured in this study, transparency showed the most significant negative correlation with fish richness and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index. At a local scale, results suggest that spatial and temporal distribution of fish assemblages are determined by differences in the regimes of salinity and transparency, primarily driven by freshwater input from rivers. PMID:19256428

  5. Satellite image based quantification of invasion and patch dynamics of mesquite ( Prosopis juliflora) in Great Rann of Kachchh, Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasha, S. Vazeed; Satish, K. V.; Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Prasada Rao, P. V. V.; Jha, C. S.

    2014-10-01

    The invasion of alien species is a significant threat to global biodiversity and the top driver of climate change. The present study was conducted in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India, which has been severely affected by invasion of Prosopis juliflora. The invasive weed infestation has been identified using multi-temporal remote sensing datasets of 1977, 1990, 1999, 2005 and 2011. Spatial analyses of the transition matrix, extent of invasive colonies, patchiness, coalescence and rate of spread were carried out. During the study period of three and half decades, almost 295 km2 of the natural land cover was converted into Prosopis cover. This study has shown an increment of 42.9% of area under Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of the Kachchh Biosphere Reserve during 1977 to 2011. Spatial analysis indicates high occupancy of Prosopis cover with most of the invasion (95.9%) occurring in the grasslands and only 4.1% in other land cover types. The process of Prosopis invasion shows high patch initiation, followed by coalescence, indicating aggressive colonization of species. The number of patches within an area of < 1 km2 increased from 1977 to 2011, indicating the formation of new Prosopis habitats by replacing the grasslands. The largest patch of Prosopis cover increased from 144 km2 in 1977 to 430 km2 in 2011. The estimated mean patch size was 7.8 km2 in 1977. The mean patch size was largest during 2011, i.e., 9 km2. The annual spread rate for Prosopis has been estimated as 2.1% during 2005-2011. The present work has investigated the long term changes in Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve. The spatial database generated will be useful in preparing strategies for the management of Prosopis juliflora.

  6. Relevance of the Paraná River hydrology on the fluvial water quality of the Delta Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Puig, Alba; Olguín Salinas, Héctor F; Borús, Juan A

    2016-06-01

    The increasing frequency of extreme events in large rivers may affect not only their flow, but also their water quality. In the present study, spatial and temporal changes in fluvial physico-chemical variables were analyzed in a mega-river delta during two extreme hydrological years (La Niña-El Niño) and related to potential explanatory factors. Basic water variables were evaluated in situ at 13 points (distant 2-35 km from each other) in watercourses of the Delta Biosphere Reserve (890 km(2)) in the Lower Paraná River (Argentina) in nine surveys (October 2008-July 2010) without meteorological tides. Samples for laboratory analyses were collected from each main river. Multivariate tests by permutations were applied. The period studied was influenced by a drought, within a long period dominated by low flows combined with dry weather and wildfires, and a large (10 years of recurrence) and prolonged (7 months) flood. The hydrological phase, followed by the season and the hydrological year (according to the ENSO event) were the principal explanatory factors of the main water quality changes, whereas the drainage sub-basin and the fluvial environment (river or stream) were secondary explanatory factors. During the drought period, conductivity, turbidity, and associated variables (e.g., major ions, silicon, and iron concentrations) were maximal, whereas real color was minimal. In the overbanking flood phase, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration were minimal, whereas real color was maximal. Dissolved oxygen saturation was also low in the receding flood phase and total major ion load doubled after the arrival of the overbanking stage. The water quality of these watercourses may be affected by the combination of several influences, such as the Paraná River flow, the pulses with sediments and solutes from the Bermejo River, the export of the Delta floodplain properties mainly by the flood, the season, and the saline tributaries to the Lower Paraná River. The high

  7. Displacement, Deprivation and Development: The Impact of Relocation on Income and Livelihood of Tribes in Similipal Tiger and Biosphere Reserve, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, Ajay Kumar; Tewari, D. D.; Baboo, Biplab

    2015-08-01

    A large volume of literature describes adverse consequences of conservation-induced displacement on indigenous communities depended on natural resources of wildlife habitat. Resettlement policies in protected areas the world over are mainly designed and implemented without consideration of social and economic costs of exclusion. This study examined income and poverty profile of tribal residents in Similipal Tiger and Biosphere Reserve in India, relative to the households relocated out of the reserve. The income from different sources and livelihood diversification of displaced reserve dwellers reflected changes resulting from the loss of access to natural and household assets. The results contradicted common perception about impoverishment outcome of relocation. It showed an increase in the per capita income for poorer segments with an overall 8 % increase in absolute household income and corresponding improvement in the poverty ratio (head count ratio) and FGT index (0.241) for the relocated community. Contrary to other studies, the finding did not observe social alignment or marginalization; however, on-farm livelihood diversification reduced with increased dependence on off-farm sources. Expulsion of people from forest reserves to support conservation is inadequate in restricting habitat use of locals unless suitable alternative livelihood options are available for forest dependent was proven from the study.

  8. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions. PMID:24027904

  9. Gathering “tea” – from necessity to connectedness with nature. Local knowledge about wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wild plant gathering is an essential element in livelihood strategies all over the world. However due to changing circumstances in Europe, the reason for gathering has altered from one of necessity in the past to a pleasurable activity today. Wild plant gathering has therefore also received renewed attention as a form of intangible cultural heritage expressing local preferences, habits and man’s relationship with nature. In the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria), local people’s knowledge of the gathering of wild plants and their perception of their own gathering activities are being documented. The focus of this paper is on the uses of herbal teas and the informal guidelines for gathering plants that have been issued by the Bergtee (mountain tea) association. Methods Thirty-six free-list interviews were conducted with subsequent semi-structured interviews and three focus group meetings held with members of the Bergtee association. Participatory observation (gathering and processing plants, mixing and marketing tea) also allowed for greater understanding of what had been reported. Results In total, 140 different gathered plant species were listed by respondents. Herbal tea is the most frequently mentioned use. The Bergtee association, founded by a young man and two middle-aged women in the valley, is a good example of the link between biological and cultural diversity, with the aim of sharing the biosphere reserve’s natural treasures as well as local plant-related knowledge in the form of herbal tea products. The association’s informal guidelines for gathering reflect people’s attitude to nature: monetary income does not play a major role in gathering plants; instead people’s appreciation of the value of the nature around them is to the fore. Conclusions Gathering wild plants can be seen as an expression of people’s regional identity. The conscious appreciation of nature and related local knowledge is crucial for the sustainable

  10. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles using wild medicinal mushroom Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Singdevsachan, Sameer Kumar; Parida, Umesh Kumar; Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, green synthesis and cost effective approach of silver nanoparticles using wild medicinal mushroom Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India is reported. The biosynthesised AgNPs were characterised using UV-visible spectroscopy, particle analyser and scanning electron microscopy studies. It was found by dynamic light scattering analysis, that the average size and charges of the AgNPs were 133.0 ± 0.361 nm and -6.01 ± 5.30 mV, respectively. Moreover, the Fourier transform infrared study was also conducted to identify the biomolecules or functional groups responsible for the reduction of Ag and stabilisation of the AgNPs. The potential biomedical application with reference to antimicrobial activity of the synthesised AgNPs was investigated against some pathogenic microorganisms viz. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri. PMID:27463787

  11. Resource management and fertility in Mexico’s Sian Ka’an Biosphere Reserve: Campos, cash, and contraception in the lobster-fishing village of Punta Allen

    PubMed Central

    Carr, David L.

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines the link between marine resource management, and the universal contraceptive use among married couples in the lobster- fishing village of Punta Allen, located in the Sian Ka’an Biosphere Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Several reasons appear to contribute to small desired and actual family sizes. Some of these include a medical clinic staff effective in promoting family planning, cooperative and private resource ownership, changing cultural attitudes, geographical limitations to population and economic growth, and a desire to conserve the environment for aesthetic and economic motives. Lastly, families desired to preserve a sustained balance between benefiting from lobster harvests today and safeguarding this marine resource for their children in the future. PMID:19672473

  12. Spatio-temporal variability of hydro-chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve (GoMMBR), South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, K.; Natesan, Usha; Vishnunath, R.

    2014-11-01

    The intention of this study was to appraise the spatial and temporal variations in the physico-chemical parameters of coastal waters of Rameswaram Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, south India, using multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, factor analysis and principal component analysis. Spatio-temporal variations among the physico-chemical parameters are observed in the coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar, especially during northeast and post monsoon seasons. It is inferred that the high loadings of pH, temperature, suspended particulate matter, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll a, nutrient species of nitrogen and phosphorus strongly determine the discrimination of coastal water quality. Results highlight the important role of monsoonal variations to determine the coastal water quality around Rameswaram Island.

  13. Biodiversity and distribution of helminths and protozoa in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", México.

    PubMed

    Güiris, A D M; Rojas, H N M; Berovides, A V; Sosa, P J; Pérez, E M E; Cruz, A E; Chávez, H C; Moguel, A J A; Jimenez-Coello, M; Ortega-Pacheco, A

    2010-06-24

    A cross sectional survey was performed to identify gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve known as "La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", Mexico (El Triunfo and La Sepultura). During a three-year survey, fecal samples from 90 horses and parasites from 2 necropsied animals were collected. Five families from the Nematoda class: Ascaridae, Kathlanidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae and Trichostrongylidae were found, whereas, only one family from the class Cestoda, was observed: Anoplocephalidae. One family from the class Insecta, was observed: Gasterophiilidae. The number of species of parasites ranged from 13 to 18 with an average of 15 per animal. Adult parasites were recovered from the large intestine luminal contents at necropsy. Species recovered included: Strongylus vulgaris, S. equinus, S. edentatus, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Coronocyclus coronatum, C. labiatus, C. labratus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus insigne, C. leptostomus, Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, Cylicostephanus asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, Petrovinema poculatum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, Triodontophorus serratus and T. tenuicollis. One species of Diptera were recovered from stomach and identified: Gasterophilus intestinalis. Furthermore, different species of protozoa were recovered from fresh horse-dung and identified in four classes: Sporozoa, Litostomatea, Ciliasida and Suctoria. Nine families: Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Balantidiidae, Buetschliidae, Blepharocorythidae, Cycloposthiidae, Spirodiniididae, Ditoxidae, Acinetidae; and 31 ciliates species were recorded: Allantosoma dicorniger, A. intestinalis, Alloiozona trizona, Blepharosphaera intestinalis, Blepharoprosthium pireum, Blepharoconus benbrooki, Bundleia postciliata, Didesmis ovalis, D. quadrata, Sulcoarcus pellucidulus, Blepharocorys angusta, B. cardionucleata, B. curvigula, B. juvata, B

  14. A Regional-Scale Groundwater Model Supporting Management of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve and its Catchment, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, B. R.; Merediz Alonso, G.; Rebolledo Vieyra, M.; Marin, L.; Supper, R.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2007-05-01

    The Caribbean Coast of the Yucatan Peninsula is a rapidly developing area featuring a booming tourism industry. The number of hotel rooms in the Riviera Maya has increased from 2600 in 1996 to 26,000 in 2005, while the total population in the Mexican federal state of Quintana Roo has grown from 500,000 in 1990 to 1,115,000 in 2005. This explosive growth threatens the region's water resources, which primarily consist of a less than 50m thick freshwater lens residing in the regional karst aquifer underlying the entire Yucatan Peninsula. The Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, a 6400 km2 combined marine/terrestrial nature protection area is situated south of Tulum (approx. 87.3° - 88° W, 19° - 20° N). The site is listed as a UNESCO world heritage site and is protected under the Ramsar Convention. It includes extensive freshwater wetlands, saline/brackish mangrove swamps, tropical rainforests and parts of the world's second largest coral reef. The freshwater supply to the system occurs primarily via subsurface inflow. Large freshwater springs emerge through vertical sinkholes (cenotes) in the lagoons of Sian Ka'an. Management of this unique ecosystem in view of the rapid development and urbanization of the surrounding areas requires detailed knowledge on the groundwater flow paths in and around the reserve. Moreover, mapping and delineation of its groundwater catchment zone and groundwater traveling time zones is essential. To this end, a regional-scale steady-state groundwater flow model of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere reserve and its catchment was developed. The model is implemented in MIKE SHE with a finite-difference cell size of 1 km2 and is driven with temporally averaged climate forcings. The karst aquifer is treated as an equivalent porous medium. Darcy's law is assumed to be valid over regional scales and the main structural elements of the karst aquifer are included in the model as zones of varying hydraulic conductivity. High conductivity zones in the Sian Ka

  15. The Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Preston

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the earth's biosphere, considering how the microbial, animal and plant life (which make up the biosphere) are sustained by the earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Also considers how these three earth features have powerfully shaped the evolution of these organisms. (JN)

  16. Water area variations in seasonal lagoons from the Biosphere Reserve of "La Mancha Húmeda" (Spain) determined by remote sensing classification methods and data mining techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dona, Carolina; Niclòs, Raquel; Chang, Ni-Bin; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Camacho, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    La Mancha Húmeda is a wetland-rich area located in central Spain that was designated as a Biosphere reserve in 1980. This area includes several dozens of temporal lagoons, mostly saline, whose water level fluctuates and usually become dry during the warmest season. Water inflows into these lagoons come from both runoff of very small catchment and, in some cases, from groundwater although some of them also receive wastewater from nearby towns. Most lack surface outlets and they behave as endorheic systems, with the main water withdrawal due to evaporation causing salt accumulation in the lake beds. Under several law protection coverage additional to that of Biosphere Reserve, including Ramsar and Natura 2000 sites, management plans are being developed in order to accomplish the goals enforced by the European Water Framework Directive and the Habitats Directive, which establish that all EU countries have to achieve a good ecological status and a favorable conservation status of these sites, and especially of their water bodies. A core task to carry out the management plans is the understanding of the hydrological trend of these lagoons with a sound monitoring scheme. To do so, an estimation of the temporal evolution of the flooded area for each lagoon, and its relationship with meteorological patterns, which can be achieved using remote sensing technologies, is a key procedure. The current study aims to develop a remote sensing methodology capable of estimating the changing water coverage areas in each lagoon with satellite remote sensing images and ground truth data sets. ETM+ images onboard Landsat-7 were used to fulfill this goal. These images are useful to monitor small-to-medium size water bodies due to its 30-m spatial resolution. In this work several methods were applied to estimate the wet and dry pixels, such as water and vegetation indexes, single bands, supervised classification methods and genetic programming. All of the results were compared with ground

  17. Multi-taxa coral reef community structure in relation to habitats in the Baa Atoll Man and Biosphere UNESCO Reserve (Maldives), and implications for its conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, H.; Bigot, L.; Bourmaud, C.; Chabanet, P.; Gravier-Bonnet, N.; Hamel, M. A.; Payri, C.; Mattio, L.; Menou, J. L.; Naeem, S.; Rilwan, Y.; Sattar, S.; Scott, L.; Shiham, A.; Vigliola, L.; Andréfouët, S.

    2012-08-01

    The distribution of species in their environment is largely defined by habitat characteristics. Both species and habitat distributions can be used to define conservation areas, especially in highly diversified ecosystems like coral reefs where biodiversity inventories are lacking. The main objective of this study was to test the relationship between multi-taxa community structure (defined by richness, species lists, and taxonomic distinctness) and habitat typology in the Man and Biosphere UNESCO Reserve of Baa Atoll (Maldives). Species richness per taxon was described at 18 stations located on different habitats mapped using high resolution satellite imagery. A total of 1012 species were described including 178 macroalgae, 173 corals, 121 hydroids, 351 fish and 189 (other) macro-invertebrates. Rarity was extremely high for macro-invertebrates, algae and hydrozoans. The results highlighted a marked difference in species composition between stations for macro-algae and corals but not for other groups (hydroids, fish and macro-invertebrates). These distribution patterns were not strongly correlated to differences in habitat characteristics, which created a weak spatial structure of communities between habitats probably caused by differential exposure of atolls to monsoons and the 1998 bleaching event. Community differences between stations were often due to rarity. Therefore, identifying a network of protected areas that includes occurrences of all species may pose challenges. This is overcome by conservation planning scenarios using medium-size (of the order of 1 km2) management units.

  18. Additive partitioning of testate amoeba species diversity across habitat hierarchy within the pristine southern taiga landscape (Pechora-Ilych Biosphere Reserve, Russia).

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Komarov, Alexander A; Mitchell, Edward A D; Shimano, Satoshi; Smirnova, Olga V; Aleynikov, Alexey A; Mazei, Yuri A

    2015-02-01

    In order to better understand the distribution patterns of terrestrial eukaryotic microbes and the factors governing them, we studied the diversity partitioning of soil testate amoebae across levels of spatially nested habitat hierarchy in the largest European old-growth dark coniferous forest (Pechora-Ilych Biosphere Reserve; Komi Republic, Russia). The variation in testate amoeba species richness and assemblage structure was analysed in 87 samples from six biotopes in six vegetation types using an additive partitioning procedure and principal component analyses. The 80 taxa recorded represent the highest value of species richness for soil testate amoebae reported for taiga soils so far. Our results indicate that testate amoeba assemblages were highly aggregated at all levels and were mostly controlled by environmental factors rather than dispersal processes. The variation in species diversity of testate amoebae increased from the lowest to the highest hierarchical level. We conclude that, similarly to macroscopic organisms, testate amoeba species richness and community structure are primarily controlled by environmental conditions within the landscape and suggest that metacommunity dynamics of free-living microorganisms are driven by species sorting and/or mass effect processes. PMID:25553551

  19. Use of a tool-set by Pan troglodytes troglodytes to obtain termites (Macrotermes) in the periphery of the Dja Biosphere Reserve, southeast Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Deblauwe, Isra; Guislain, Patrick; Dupain, Jef; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2006-12-01

    At the northern periphery of the Dja Biosphere Reserve (southeastern Cameroon) we recorded a new use of a tool-set by Pan troglodytes troglodytes to prey on Macrotermes muelleri, M. renouxi, M. lilljeborgi, and M. nobilis. We recovered 79 puncturing sticks and 47 fishing probes at 17 termite nests between 2002 and 2005. The mean length of the puncturing sticks (n = 77) and fishing probes (n = 45) was 52 cm and 56 cm, respectively, and the mean diameter was 9 mm and 4.5 mm, respectively. Sixty-eight percent of 138 chimpanzee fecal samples contained major soldiers of four Macrotermes species. The chimpanzees in southeastern Cameroon appeared to be selective in their choice of plant material to make their tools. The tools found at our study site resemble those from other sites in this region. However, in southeastern Cameroon only one tool-set type was found, whereas two tool-set types have been reported in Congo. Our study suggests that, along with the different vegetation types and the availability of plant material around termite nests, the nest and gallery structure and foraging behavior of the different Macrotermes spp. at all Central African sites must be investigated before we can attribute differences in tool-use behavior to culture. PMID:17096418

  20. Gender and climate change in the Indian Himalayas: global threats, local vulnerabilities, and livelihood diversification at the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogra, M. V.; Badola, R.

    2015-08-01

    Global climate change has numerous implications for members of mountain communities who feel the impacts in both physical and social dimensions. In the western Himalayas of India, a majority of residents maintain a livelihood strategy that includes a combination of subsistence or small-scale agriculture, livestock rearing, seasonal or long-term migration, and localized natural resource extraction. While warming temperatures, irregular patterns of precipitation and snowmelt, and changing biological systems present challenges to the viability of these traditional livelihood portfolios in general, we find that climate change is also undermining local communities' livelihood assets in gender-specific ways. In this paper, we present a case study from the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (Uttarakhand, India) that both outlines the implications of climate change for women farmers in the area and highlights the potential for ecotourism (as a form of livelihood diversification) to strengthen both key livelihood assets of women and local communities' adaptive capacity more broadly. The paper intentionally employs a categorical focus on women but also addresses issues of inter-group and gender diversity. With this special issue in mind, suggestions for related research are proposed for consideration by climate scientists and social systems and/or policy modelers seeking to support gender justice through socially transformative perspectives and frameworks.

  1. Density variations and their influence on carbon stocks: case-study on two Biosphere Reserves in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ridder, Maaike; De Haulleville, Thalès; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    It is commonly acknowledged that allometric equations for aboveground biomass and carbon stock estimates are improved significantly if density is included as a variable. However, not much attention is given to this variable in terms of exact, measured values and density profiles from pith to bark. Most published case-studies obtain density values from literature sources or databases, this way using large ranges of density values and possible causing significant errors in carbon stock estimates. The use of one single fixed value for density is also not recommended if carbon stock increments are estimated. Therefore, our objective is to measure and analyze a large number of tree species occurring in two Biosphere Reserves (Luki and Yangambi). Nevertheless, the diversity of tree species in these tropical forests is too high to perform this kind of detailed analysis on all tree species (> 200/ha). Therefore, we focus on the most frequently encountered tree species with high abundance (trees/ha) and dominance (basal area/ha) for this study. Increment cores were scanned with a helical X-ray protocol to obtain density profiles from pith to bark. This way, we aim at dividing the tree species with a distinct type of density profile into separate groups. If, e.g., slopes in density values from pith to bark remain stable over larger samples of one tree species, this slope could also be used to correct for errors in carbon (increment) estimates, caused by density values from simplified density measurements or density values from literature. In summary, this is most likely the first study in the Congo Basin that focuses on density patterns in order to check their influence on carbon stocks and differences in carbon stocking based on species composition (density profiles ~ temperament of tree species).

  2. Water Resources Estimation of the Biosphere Reserve "Sierra de las Minas" in Guatemala, by Using a Distributed Hydrological Model and Considering Lack of Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-de La Cruz, M.; Frances Garcia, F.

    2007-12-01

    The UNESCO Biosphere Reserve "Sierra de las Minas" is part of the Guatemalan System of Protected Areas and contains the largest cloud forests of Guatemala. Its southern slopes flow into the Motagua Valley, one of the more active zones in the country and paradoxically, the most arid and driest zone of Central America. The main objective of this work was to obtain a better estimation of the water resources coming from the southern slopes of the "Sierra de las Minas", and to have an analysis tool to better understand key hydrological processes involved on water sustainable management practices, as the environmental services initiatives on the zone. Unfortunately, the lack of data was the general framework. The selected model was the so called TETIS, which is a conceptual distributed model developed by our research group. A simple and efficient method was used for parameter maps estimation with a 100 m cell size. The model was calibrated at daily time step in the Teculután basin with 187 km2, by applying a new split-parameter structure coupled with the SCE-UA automatic optimization algorithm, in order to obtain the set of optimal correction factors of the model. For a period of medium daily precipitation within the validation period, we obtained a simulated discharge very close to the observed data (the monthly Nash and Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient was 0.83). We present here a precipitation spatial and sensitivity analysis, and a simple approach for estimate the contribution of cloud forests to the hydrological balance. Finally, the calibration results were extrapolated to the Uyús ungaged basin to simulate its flow regime and to evaluate its water resources.

  3. An assessment of metal contamination risk in sediments of Hara Biosphere Reserve, southern Iran with a focus on application of pollution indicators.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Iman; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Khuzestani, Reza Bashiri

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pollution status of metals in sediments of Hara Biosphere Reserve using pollution indicators. For this purpose, sediment samples from nine locations were collected and characterized for metal content (Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Fe) using the total digestion technique. Comparison of metal concentrations with that of sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) demonstrated no association with negative biological effects for Cu and Zn, while the values of Pb and Cr mainly illustrated to have association with negative biological effects. The results of the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) indicated no contamination for Cr, Cu, Zn, and Fe, while the values of Pb demonstrated to have moderate contamination based on I geo values. The analysis of the enrichment factor (EF) showed no enrichment for Cu and Zn and minor enrichment for Pb and Cr. Similar results were also found for quantification of contamination (QoC) analysis, where the values of Cu and Zn demonstrated to have a geogenic source of contamination, while the values of Pb and Cr mainly illustrated to have an anthropogenic source of contamination. According to EF and QoC calculations, the values of Cu and Zn were derived mainly from natural processes and exposure of material from the earth's crust, while the values for Pb and Cr were enriched by anthropogenic activities. The results of the contamination factor (Cf(i)) demonstrated low contamination levels for Fe, Cr, Zn, and Cu and moderate contamination levels for Pb. The pollution load index (PLI), showing the overall contamination of metals, demonstrated moderate pollution status in the study area. PMID:24861588

  4. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope quantitative structural assessment of dominant species from the Vaccarès Lagoon trophic web (Camargue Biosphere Reserve, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persic, Ana; Roche, Hélène; Ramade, François

    2004-06-01

    The Vaccarès Lagoon (Camargue Biosphere Reserve), a complex brackish ecosystem, is the natural habitat for numerous freshwater, marine and euryhaline species forming a particularly intricate food web. The main objectives of this study were to describe its trophic relations and investigate factors influencing its structure and dynamics. The combined stable C and N isotope method was used to establish a quantitative assessment of the trophic status of Vaccarès organisms. Although the levels of δ15N and δ13C showed large intraspecific and interspecific variations, the isotopic signatures of the species assessed revealed a general trend of 15N enrichment with trophic level. Distribution of the biota into four trophic compartments—depositivore, zooplanktivore, predator, and top-predator—was corroborated by the general analysis of the relationship between δ13C and δ15N. Analysis of seasonal and annual isotopic variations showed that natural environmental changes (increase in food abundance, climatic and salinity variations) as well as individual metabolic capacities would affect the relative stability of an organism's trophic position. No significant correlation was found between isotopic variation and size and growth in fishes except for the eel population where the positive correlation between these two parameters confirmed intra-population trophic variations. Finally, separately examined species exhibited significant, although incoherent, correlation between their isotopic signature and lipid content. This study confirms the efficiency of the isotopic approach in trophic studies and highlights the need for further investigations of anthropic environmental modifications occurring in this protected area and frequently disturbing its food web.

  5. Five new species of the genera Heerz Marsh, Lissopsius Marsh and Ondigus Braet, Barbalho and van Achterberg (Braconidae, Doryctinae) from the Chamela-Cuixmala biosphere reserve in Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Martínez, Juan José; Ceccarelli, Fadia Sara; Shaw, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Five new species belonging to the poorly known Neotropical doryctine parasitoid wasps genera Heerz Marsh (Heerz ecmahla sp. n. and Heerz macrophthalma sp. n.), Lissopsius Marsh (Lissopsius pacificus sp. n. and Lissopsius jalisciensis sp. n.) and Ondigus Braet, Barbalho & van Achterberg (Ondigus cuixmalensis sp. n.) are described from the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere reserve in Jalisco, Mexico. Keys to the described species of the above three genera are provided. The phylogenetic placement of the examined taxa is investigated based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S, 2nd and 3rd domain regions) DNA sequence data. PMID:22328849

  6. Impact of typhoon disturbance on the diversity of key ecosystem engineers in a monoculture mangrove forest plantation, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diele, K.; Tran Ngoc, D. M.; Geist, S. J.; Meyer, F. W.; Pham, Q. H.; Saint-Paul, U.; Tran, T.; Berger, U.

    2013-11-01

    Mangrove crabs as key ecosystem engineers may play an important role in the recovery process of storm-damaged forests. Yet, their response to storm disturbance is largely unknown. Here we compare the ground-dwelling brachyuran crab community of intact mangrove stands with that of typhoon gaps having experienced 100% tree mortality. Field work was conducted in two adjacent areas in Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, southern Vietnam. In each area, an 18-20 yr old monoculture Rhizophora apiculata stand served as control and was compared with typhoon gaps where downed stems had been removed or left on-site. The gaps were 14 and 20 months old when studied in the dry and rainy season 2008, respectively. Time-based sampling of ground-dwelling crabs with hand or shovel was conducted by 4 persons inside 100 m2 plots for 30 min (7 replicate plots per area, treatment and month). Abiotic (sediment pH, salinity, temperature, grain size, water content, carbon and nitrogen content), and biotic measures (e.g. canopy coverage, woody debris, number of trees, leaf litter) were also taken. Despite complete canopy loss, total crab abundance has not changed significantly (in contrast to biomass) and all 12 species found in the forest were also found in the gaps, demonstrating their robustness. Another 9 gap-exclusive species were recorded and average species number and Shannon diversity were thus higher in the gaps. Perisesarma eumolpe was the most abundant species, both in the forest and in the gaps, and a shift from sesarmids (typical forest species) to ocypodids (generally more prominent in open areas) has not occurred. The persistence of litter-feeding sesarmid crabs prior to the re-establishment of a mangrove canopy is likely to depend on the availability of woody debris on the ground of the gaps, fuelling a mangrove detritus based food web, rather than one based on microphytobenthos and deposit-feeding ocypodids. The presence of burrowing crabs in the gaps suggests that important

  7. Bovine Tuberculosis in Doñana Biosphere Reserve: The Role of Wild Ungulates as Disease Reservoirs in the Last Iberian Lynx Strongholds

    PubMed Central

    Gortázar, Christian; Torres, María José; Vicente, Joaquín; Acevedo, Pelayo; Reglero, Manuel; de la Fuente, José; Negro, Juan José; Aznar-Martín, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Doñana National Park (DNP) in southern Spain is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve where commercial hunting and wildlife artificial feeding do not take place and traditional cattle husbandry still exists. Herein, we hypothesized that Mycobacterium bovis infection prevalence in wild ungulates will depend on host ecology and that variation in prevalence will reflect variation in the interaction between hosts and environmental risk factors. Cattle bTB reactor rates increased in DNP despite compulsory testing and culling of infected animals. In this study, 124 European wild boar, 95 red deer, and 97 fallow deer were sampled from April 2006 to April 2007 and analyzed for M. bovis infection. Modelling and GIS were used to identify risk factors and intra and inter-species relationships. Infection with M. bovis was confirmed in 65 (52.4%) wild boar, 26 (27.4%) red deer and 18 (18.5%) fallow deer. In the absence of cattle, wild boar M. bovis prevalence reached 92.3% in the northern third of DNP. Wild boar showed more than twice prevalence than that in deer (p<0.001). Modelling revealed that M. bovis prevalence decreased from North to South in wild boar (p<0.001) and red deer (p<0.01), whereas no spatial pattern was evidenced for fallow deer. Infection risk in wild boar was dependent on wild boar M. bovis prevalence in the buffer area containing interacting individuals (p<0.01). The prevalence recorded in this study is among the highest reported in wildlife. Remarkably, this high prevalence occurs in the absence of wildlife artificial feeding, suggesting that a feeding ban alone would have a limited effect on wildlife M. bovis prevalence. In DNP, M. bovis transmission may occur predominantly at the intra-species level due to ecological, behavioural and epidemiological factors. The results of this study allow inferring conclusions on epidemiological bTB risk factors in Mediterranean habitats that are not managed for hunting purposes. Our results support the need to consider wildlife

  8. Do canopy disturbances drive forest plantations into more natural conditions? — A case study from Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Juliane; Kautz, Markus; Fontalvo Herazo, Martha Liliana; Triet, Tran; Walther, Denny; Saint-Paul, Ulrich; Diele, Karen; Berger, Uta

    2013-11-01

    Large areas of mangrove forests were devastated in South Viet Nam during the second Indochina war. After its end in 1975, extensive reforestation with monocultures took place. Can Gio, one of the biggest replanted sites with about 20,000 ha of mangroves mainly Rhizophora apiculata, was declared a biosphere reserve by the UNESCO in 2000. Although this status now enables progressive forest dynamics, there are still drawbacks resulting from the unnatural character of the plantations. For example, the homogeneous size and age structure as well as the regular arrangement of the planted trees make larger forest stands more vulnerable to synchronized collapsing which can be triggered by stronger winds and storms. A transformation into a more natural forest characterized by a heterogeneous age and size structure and a mixed species composition is of urgent need to avoid a synchronized dieback. In this study we test the capability of natural canopy disturbances (e.g. lightning strikes) to facilitate this transformation.Canopy gaps created by lightning strikes were detected and quantified by remote sensing techniques. SPOT satellite images from the years 2003, 2005 and 2007 provided information about the spatial distribution, size, shape, and formation frequency of the gaps. Lightning strike gaps were identified based on their shape and size. They form small openings (mean: 0.025 ha) and their yearly probability of occurrence was determined to be approximately 0.012 per hectare. Selected gaps were surveyed in the field in 2008 to complement the remote sensing data and to provide information upon forest structure and regeneration.Simulation experiments were carried out with the individual-based KiWi mangrove model for quantifying the influence of different lightning regimes on the vertical and horizontal structure of the R. apiculata plantation. In addition, we conducted simulations with a natural and thus randomly generated forest to compare the structure of the two

  9. The rare bacterial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    All communities are dominated by a few species that account for most of the biomass and carbon cycling. On the other hand, a large number of species are represented by only a few individuals. In the case of bacteria, these rare species were until recently invisible. Owing to their low numbers, conventional molecular techniques could not retrieve them. Isolation in pure culture was the only way to identify some of them, but current culturing techniques are unable to isolate most of the bacteria in nature. The recent development of fast and cheap high-throughput sequencing has begun to allow access to the rare species. In the case of bacteria, the exploration of this rare biosphere has several points of interest. First, it will eventually produce a reasonable estimate of the total number of bacterial taxa in the oceans; right now, we do not even know the right order of magnitude. Second, it will answer the question of whether "everything is everywhere." Third, it will require hypothesizing and testing the ecological mechanisms that allow subsistence of many species in low numbers. And fourth, it will open an avenue of research into the immense reserve of genes with potential applications hidden in the rare biosphere. PMID:22457983

  10. Conservation, Conflict and the Governance of Fisher Wellbeing: Analysis of the Establishment of the Gulf of Mannar National Park and Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavinck, Maarten; Vivekanandan, Vriddagiri

    2011-04-01

    This article examines one MPA—the Gulf of Mannar National Park and Biosphere Reserve—located in southern India, and four types of social conflict that have surrounded its establishment. Taking the strength of wellbeing aspirations as point of departure, we focus on two themes: the implications of MPA embeddedness in wider societal systems, and the consequences of natural and social variety for governance. We conclude first of all that conflict resolution depends on MPA authorities' willingness to engage with the interferences that emerge from outside the MPA area. Secondly, we point out the varying wellbeing aspirations of the population and the need to develop governance partnerships. The latter are argued to contribute to more balanced decision making, as well as to a greater appreciation among the target population of the `fairness' of MPA policy.

  11. The Role of Biosphere Reserves in Environmental Education and Training = Le Role des reserves de la biosphere dans l'education et la formation environnementales. Report of the Unesco/MAB Symposium Held During the Unesco/UNEP International Congress on Environmental Education and Training (Moscow, USSR, August 17-21, 1987). Report 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, George, Ed.

    Environmental education and training have been key elements of Unesco's Program on Man and the Biosphere (MAB) since its inception in 1971. The MAB Program is an intergovernmental program of research, training, demonstration and distribution of information, aimed at providing the scientific background and the trained personnel to deal with…

  12. Recent changes (1973-2014 versus 1903-1972) in the flow regime of the Lower Paraná River and current fluvial pollution warnings in its Delta Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Puig, Alba; Olguín Salinas, Héctor F; Borús, Juan A

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in flow regimes of large rivers may originate or increase risks to ecosystems and humans. The Paraná River basin (South America) undergoes human pressures (e.g., heavy damming in the upper basin, deforestation, and mixed pollution) that may affect the water quantity and quality of its terminal Delta (Argentina). In this study, after applying univariate and multivariate change-point detection and trend analyses to the daily data series of flows incoming to the Delta (Paraná-Santa Fe section), flow characteristics were compared by Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) and Environmental Flow Components (EFC). Some flood characteristics were also compared from hydrometric levels in the middle Delta (San Pedro station). Chemical and microbiological water variables in the main rivers of the "Paraná Delta" Biosphere Reserve were examined during two extreme hydrologic years (October 2008 to July 2010) to detect potential risk factors in association with hydrologic conditions. In the Lower Paraná River, a historical period (1903-1972) and two more altered periods (1973-1999 wet period and 2000-2014 dry period) were identified. Flow duration curves evidenced different changes in both altered periods, reflecting the joint effect of climatic variability and human influence. The most evident alterations in the flow regime were the lack of record of the extreme-low-flow component, the attenuation of monthly flow seasonality, and the increase in the number of reversals (dry period) and in the variability of maximum and minimum flow dates. These alterations are consistent with the monthly and daily flow regulation by upstream dams evidenced by available data from the current dry period. In the middle Delta, the marked monthly seasonality in flood days decreased only in the wet period. The proportion between the number of flood days exceeding the evacuation level and that of those exceeding the warning level doubled in the wet period but decreased only

  13. Biosphere Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Wu; A.J. Smith

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), TSPA-LA. The ERMYN provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs) (Section 6.2), the reference biosphere (Section 6.1.1), the human receptor (Section 6.1.2), and approximations (Sections 6.3.1.4 and 6.3.2.4); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model (Section 6.3) and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); (8) Validating the ERMYN by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  14. Biosphere Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Wu

    2003-07-16

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), the TSPA-LA. The ERMYN model provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs), the reference biosphere, the human receptor, and assumptions (Section 6.2 and Section 6.3); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN model compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN model by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); and (8) Validating the ERMYN model by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  15. Biosphere Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-10-27

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), the TSPA-LA. The ERMYN model provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs), the reference biosphere, the human receptor, and assumptions (Section 6.2 and Section 6.3); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN model compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN model by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); and (8) Validating the ERMYN model by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  16. Biosphere Process Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schmitt

    2000-05-25

    To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor

  17. Earth's early biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  18. A Biospheric Natural History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomashow, Mitchell

    2001-01-01

    A group of Maine birdwatchers recognizes that the presence or absence of migrating songbirds is related to complex biospheric patterns. For schoolchildren, community groups, and environmental scientists, such local natural history observations can be a pathway to perceiving and understanding global ecological change and then to developing…

  19. Biosphere2 and Earthbuzz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburne, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In an attempt to reach a broader audience, Biosphere 2, near Tucson, AZ, is participating in a network of science centers thanks to new funding through the Science Museum of Minnesota (SMM) and the National Center for Earth System Dynamics (NCED). Each of these centers will be tied together through an Earthbuzz kiosk, basically a networked web site that allows visitors to learn more about the work of leading local scientists in a very personal and captivating format. Content is currently being developed by Biosphere 2 researchers, staff, and graduate students that range from a public question and answer forum called “Scientist on the Spot” to science blogs by Biosphere 2 Fellows. It is hoped that this project will help educate the public about the Anthropocene, that is, the current geologic period that is so greatly affected by humankind’s impact on the health of the planet. Biosphere 2 provides a unique location to engage the public in this conversation for several reasons. First, no other destination on Earth gives the public such a physical immersion into what climate change might mean as does Biosphere 2. On the regular walking tour, visitors are guided through scaled down versions of an African savannah, a semi-arid thorn scrub, a coastal fog desert and a tropical rainforest. Digital displays of temperature and humidity confirm what your body is feeling - conditions ranging from desert aridity to tropical humidity. As one passes through the biomes of Biosphere 2, climate change is a whole body experience. Second, Biosphere 2 is also an active ecological research site - part of a unique network of sites run by the University of Arizona that allow scientists to study ecosystem processes across a range of scales - from microscopic root studies to studies encompassing large watersheds. In particular, a group of researchers is studying why large stands of pinion-juniper forests across the southwest have died in recent years. Biosphere2’s role in this

  20. Biosphere Model Report, Errata 1

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasolek

    2003-09-18

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), the TSPA-LA. The ERMYN model provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs), the reference biosphere, the human receptor, and assumptions (Section 6.2 and Section 6.3); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN model compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN model by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); (8) Validating the ERMYN model by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  1. The biosphere rules.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them. PMID:18314639

  2. Biospheric energization and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, E.; Ozel, M. E.; Gunduz, G.

    2013-09-01

    We utilize the physical properties of a hypothetical molecular schema giving rise to an autocatalytic biosphere. A key concept is the driving of terrestrial life as a parametric oscillation: i.e. that the biosphere behaves fundamentally as an oscillatory system into which solar energy is diurnally deposited. The schema, containing 'A, B and C' type components acting together in a 'bottom-up' driving mechanism, underlies all biospheric superstructure. Surviving modes of the oscillation are consistent with Darwinian organization, or hierarchical structures appearing to have top-down propagation through the growth of cellular replication. The model was detailed by Budding et al (2012), where experimental support from the work of Powner et al (2009) is presented, as well as suggestions on supportive fossil evidence. Although the growth in total energization is very slow in this model, it is important to notice its exponential character, suggestive of potential instability. The model is applicable to generally expectable processes on planets, including zonal segregation, complexity growth and Haeckel's biogenic principle within surviving life-forms. Fermi's exobiological paradox can be resolved in terms of the exponential growth and low L solutions of Drake's equation. Feasible values for the particular growth of selected species (the human one in herelevent terrestrial case) allow for L to be less than a few  100 y, recalling Rees' (2004) 'final century' discussion. This arises when the species' disposable energization attains a value comparable to that of the total available daily driving energy. At that point, accidental, or stochastic disturbances of this species' energy ("error") can significantly disrupt the daily driving mechanism.

  3. Biosphere 2: The True Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keeffe, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history and current developments of the Biosphere 2 Project, a prototype for enclosed self-sustaining structures for space colonization built in the Arizona Desert. Biosphere 2 was created to educate and provide solutions to environmental problems and revenue from research. (MCO)

  4. European Biospheric Network Takes Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovkin, Victor; Reick, Christian; van Bodegom, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Opening Symposium of the TERRABITES Network; Hamburg, Germany, 9-11 February 2010; The huge amount of recently acquired information about the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere and the ever increasing spatial resolution of Earth system models call for a new level of integrating efforts among biosphere modelers, developers of ecological theory, and data-gathering communities. Responding to this call, a new European network, Terrestrial Biosphere in the Earth System (TERRABITES), held its opening symposium in Germany. The meeting was organized jointly with another recently founded European network, Advancing the Integrated Monitoring of Trace Gas Exchange Between Biosphere and Atmosphere (ABBA). Almost 100 scientific contributions covered the latest advances in modeling ecophysiological and biogeochemical processes; analyses of model constraints set by measurements of water and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, including carbon isotopes; and new perspectives in using remote sensing data for evaluation of global terrestrial biosphere models.

  5. The Earth's Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  6. Fires in Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. The biosphere: Problems and solutions; Proceedings of the Miami International Symposium on the Biosphere, Miami Beach, FL, April 23, 24, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    The objective of the Miami International Symposium on the Biosphere was to provide a forum for the presentation of the latest research findings on the environmental effects of human activities. The topics discussed are related to biosphere reserves, environmental aspects of hydrocarbon fuels, radioactivity and nuclear waste, land management, acid rains, water quality, water resources, coastal resources management, the pollution of rivers, industrial waste, economic development and the environment, health hazards and solutions, endangered species, environmentally compatible systems, space pollution, and global considerations. Attention is given to questions regarding global security and sustainable development, environethics as a global strategy for environmental quality, a gestalt approach to the environment, potential indicators for monitoring biosphere reserves, a review of regional impacts associated with the development of U.S. synthetic fuel resources, water resources in the Soviet Union, and pollution-free pesticides.

  8. Bottom-up control of consumers leads to top-down indirect facilitation of invasive annual herbs in semiarid Chile.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, Jaime; Kelt, Douglas A; Meserve, Peter L; Gutierrez, Julio R; Squeo, Francisco A

    2011-02-01

    The abundance of exotic plants is thought to be limited by competition with resident species (including plants and generalist herbivores). In contrast, observations in semiarid Chile suggest that a native generalist rodent, the degu (Octodon degus), may be facilitating the expansion of exotic annual plants. We tested this hypothesis with a 20-year data set from a World Biosphere Reserve in mediterranean Chile. In this semiarid environment, rainfall varies annually and dramatically influences cover by both native and exotic annual plants; degu population density affects the composition and cover of exotic and native annual plants. In low-rainfall years, cover of both native and exotic herbs is extremely low. Higher levels of precipitation result in proportional increases in cover of all annual plants (exotic and native species), leading in turn to increases in degu population densities, at which point they impact native herbs in proportion to their greater cover, indirectly favoring the expansion of exotic plants. We propose that bottom-up control of consumers at our site results in top-down indirect facilitation of invasive annual herbs, and that this pattern may be general to other semiarid ecosystems. PMID:21618907

  9. The Biosphere: A Decadal Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.; Curran, Paul J.; Mlynzcak, Marty; Miller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on biosphere-climate interactions including the influences of human activities. Recognizing this is only one aspect of biospheric processes, this places an emphasis of those biogeochemical processes that have a profound effect on numerous other aspects of the biosphere and the services it provides, services which are critical to sustaining life on Earth. And, the paper will focus on the various scientific aspects of assessing the availability of fresh water, including its sensitivity to climate variance and land use changes. Finally, this paper hopes to emphasize the potential role that greatly expanded space observations and interactive modeling can play in developing our understanding of Earth and its the living systems.

  10. Oxygen loss in biosphere 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Broecker, Wallace S.; Dempster, William F.; MacCallum, Taber; Wahlen, Martin

    Oxygen concentrations have dropped sharply in the air of “Biosphere 2,” an enclosed experimental ecosystem located in southern Arizona. Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre airtight structure roofed in glass and underlain by an impermeable liner. It houses an artificial ecosystem containing soil, air, water, flora, and fauna and was built primarily as an apparatus for the experimental investigation of biogeochemical cycles, whole ecosystems, and life-support systems for space habitation [see Nelson et al., 1993].O2 in Biosphere 2 decreased during the first 16 months of closure from the ambient 21% to 14%, enough to cause health problems in the human occupants. We present evidence that the O2 loss is caused by microbial respiration of the excessive amount of organic matter incorporated into the experiment's soils and furthermore, that the respired CO2 is reacting with the structure's concrete to form calcium carbonate.

  11. Developing Starlight connections with UNESCO sites through the Biosphere Smart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Cipriano

    2015-08-01

    The large number of UNESCO Sites around the world, in outstanding sites ranging from small islands to cities, makes it possible to build and share a comprehensive knowledge base on good practices and policies on the preservation of the night skies consistent with the protection of the associated scientific, natural and cultural values. In this context, the Starlight Initiative and other organizations such as IDA play a catalytic role in an essential international process to promote comprehensive, holistic approaches on dark sky preservation, astronomical observation, environmental protection, responsible lighting, sustainable energy, climate change and global sustainability.Many of these places have the potential to become models of excellence to foster the recovery of the dark skies and its defence against light pollution, included some case studies mentioned in the Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy.Fighting light pollution and recovering starry sky are already elements of a new emerging culture in biosphere reserves and world heritage sites committed to acting on climate change and sustainable development. Over thirty territories, including biosphere reserves and world heritage sites, have been developed successful initiatives to ensure night sky quality and promote sustainable lighting. Clear night skies also provide sustainable income opportunities as tourists and visitors are eagerly looking for sites with impressive night skies.Taking into account the high visibility and the ability of UNESCO sites to replicate network experiences, the Starlight Initiative has launched an action In cooperation with Biosphere Smart, aimed at promoting the Benchmark sites.Biosphere Smart is a global observatory created in partnership with UNESCO MaB Programme to share good practices, and experiences among UNESCO sites. The Benchmark sites window allows access to all the information of the most relevant astronomical heritage sites, dark sky protected areas and other places

  12. Planetary Bootstrap: A Prelude to Biosphere Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazansky, Alexander B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper deals with systemic status as well as with some phenomenological and evolutionary aspects of biosphere. Biosphere is represented as multilevel autopoietic system in which different organizational levels are nested into each other. The conceptual model of punctuated epigenesis, biosphere evolutionary process is suggested, in which endogenous planetary organizational crises play role of evolutionary mechanism, creating novelty. The hypothesis is proposed, that the biosphere reaction on the humankind destructive activity reminds the distributed immune response of biological organism, described by F.Varela in his "cognitive immunology". The biosphere evolution is interpreted as the hermeneutical spiral of "Process Being" self-uncovering thus illustrating the historical process of transformation of biosphere as the type of Being in the periods of crises. Some arguments are adduced in favor of biosphere phenomenology development and application of the methods of second-order cybernetics to actual problems of planetary scale.

  13. Seismology in Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kausel, E.

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Geology and Geophysics, which is under the faculties of Mathematics and Physical Sciences of the University of Chile, is the organization that is responsible for the Seismological Service of Chile and for installing,operating, and maintaining the seismological stations as well as all the strong-motion stations in Chile.

  14. Biospheres and solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Thomas O.

    1990-01-01

    The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly critical for future interplanetary operations during the coming extraterrestrial century. They include the following: (1) a highway to Space (earth orbits); (2) Orbital Spaceports to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, launch, and recovery; (3) a Bridge Between Worlds to transport cargo and crews to the moon and beyond to Mars; (4) Prospecting and Resource Utilization Systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons, and asteroids; and (5) Closed Ecology Biospheres. The progress in these five field is reviewed.

  15. A global biogeocenotical biosphere simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseyev, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    This model of the D. Forrester type, constructed in differential equations, predicts the food and mineral supply for the factors biosphere population, depending on two socio-economic factors, until about the year 2500. If contemporary rates of natural resources utilization are maintained and there is no management of the environment, food resources will begin to limit human population growth after 2200, and mineral resources will after 2300. A decrease in the biosphere pollution, increase in effective agricultural production, and discovery of new energy sources may forestall or completely avert the onset of a crisis situation. Conservation measures, according to the model, are to a considerable extent realizable only if carried out simultaneously in both areas.

  16. Biospheric theory and report on overall Biosphere 2 design and performance.

    PubMed

    Allen, J

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the structural complexity of Biospheres as well as Vernadsky's two laws of biospherics generalized into laws of thermodynamics. The history of designing and building apparatuses to test biospheric hypothesis are summarized: Drs. Shepelev and Gitelson's experiments in Russia, and Space Biospheres Ventures' 10,974 ft3 Test Module and 3.15-acre Biosphere 2 systems. Critical parameters in building Biosphere 2 are outlined: species lists, state descriptors, ecosystems, key variables, closure, and the necessity of observer-managers. Some results of the 2-year Mission One experiment in Biosphere 2 are summarized: human health, light-CO2 coupling, food production, redundancy in maintenance. Change made to the Biosphere 2 system after the first 2-year mission and before the start-up of the second mission are listed. As well, the future of artificial biospheres is considered. PMID:11542295

  17. The spider genus Cyrioctea Simon on Chañaral Island (Pingüino de Humboldt National Reserve, Atacama, Chile): description of a new species, and the male of Cyrioctea cruz Platnick (Araneae, Zodariidae).

    PubMed

    Grismado, Cristian J; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    A faunistic survey on Chañaral Island, Atacama, near the northern Pacific coast of Chile, allowed the discovery and description of a new species of the spider genus Cyrioctea: C. islachanaral sp. nov., based on females collected by pitfall traps. Strikingly, this new species shares morphological characters with some Southern African representatives of this genus rather than with the species of continental South America. The male of the species C. cruz Platnick, previously known from continental Chile (northern Coquimbo), is described for the first time based on specimens collected in the same locality. PMID:27394818

  18. Historical overview of the Biosphere 2 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, John P.

    1990-01-01

    An extensive historical overview is given of the Biosphere 2 project. The overview begins in late 1969, as the moon landings commenced, when work began on ecological projects which laid the conceptual foundation for the current Biosphere 2 project. Continuing through to taking a complete functional suite of microbes together with their associated aquatic elements and an air volume and putting them inside a closed lab flask in which to measure the oxygen and CO2 levels, study energy flows and visually observe the changes therein. The laws of biospherics formulated by the author which can be tested in the Biosphere 2 project are listed.

  19. Learning for Resilience? Exploring Learning Opportunities in Biosphere Reserves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Lisen; Lundholm, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The interdependence of society and nature, the inherent complexity of social-ecological systems, and the global deterioration of ecosystem services provide the rationale for a growing body of literature focusing on social-ecological resilience--the capacity to cope with, adapt to and shape change--for sustainable development. Processes of…

  20. The Study of Socio-Biospheric Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Andrew M.

    Concepts, tools, and a methodology are needed which will permit the analysis of emergent socio-biospheric problems and facilitate their effective management. Many contemporary problems may be characterized as socio-biospheric; for example, pollution of the seas, acid rain, the growth of cities, and an atmosphere loaded with carcinogens. However,…

  1. Causes and timing of future biosphere extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; von Bloh, W.

    2005-11-01

    We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle, ocean floor, continental crust, biosphere, and the kerogen, as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere. The model is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere: procaryotes, eucaryotes, and complex multicellular life. We find that from the Archaean to the future a procaryotic biosphere always exists. 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears. The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0.54 Gyr ago. In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance. We show that there is no evidence for an implosion-like extinction in contrast to the Cambrian explosion. The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1.6 Gyr.

  2. Life span of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, J. E.; Whitfield, M.

    1982-04-01

    Since main sequence stars appear to increase their burning rate as they age, the sun may be thought to have increased its output by 30% since the earth's origin 4.5 billion years ago. Due to the requirement for some means of planetary thermostasis in the maintenance of an equable climate since life began, possible links are considered between the biological, Gaia hypothesis of Lovelock and Margulis (1974) for climate control, and Walker et al's (in press) model of automatic thermostasis, in which the abundance of such atmospheric greenhouse gases as CO2 adjusts to resist the warming tendency of the increased solar flux. It is concluded that, since atmospheric CO2 is now close to its partial pressure lower limit, the biosphere will on a geological time-scale be soon exposed, without protection, to the predicted solar luminosity increases.

  3. Remote sensing of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The current state of understanding of the biosphere is reviewed, the major scientific issues to be addressed are discussed, and techniques, existing and in need of development, for the science are evaluated. It is primarily concerned with developing the scientific capabilities of remote sensing for advancing the subject. The global nature of the scientific objectives requires the use of space-based techniques. The capability to look at the Earth as a whole was developed only recently. The space program has provided the technology to study the entire Earth from artificial satellites, and thus is a primary force in approaches to planetary biology. Space technology has also permitted comparative studies of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. These studies coupled with the growing awareness of the effects that life has on the entire Earth, are opening new lines of inquiry in science.

  4. Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-07-21

    This analysis report, ''Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'', is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the ERMYN (Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada) biosphere model for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, its input parameters, and the application of the model to perform the dose assessment for the repository. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of the two reports that develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs), which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164186]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and lists its input parameters. Model input parameters are developed and described in detail in five analysis report (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160964], BSC 2003 [DIRS 160965], BSC 2003 [DIRS 160976], BSC 2003 [DIRS 161239], and BSC 2003 [DIRS 161241]). The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the volcanic ash exposure scenario and the dose factors (DFs) for calculating inhalation doses during volcanic eruption (eruption phase of the volcanic event). The volcanic ash exposure scenario is hereafter referred to as the volcanic ash scenario. For the volcanic ash scenario, the mode of radionuclide release into the biosphere is a volcanic eruption through the repository with the resulting entrainment of contaminated waste in the tephra and the subsequent atmospheric transport and dispersion of contaminated material in the biosphere. The biosphere process

  5. Anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erle C

    2011-03-13

    Human populations and their use of land have transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes), causing a variety of novel ecological patterns and processes to emerge. To assess whether human populations and their use of land have directly altered the terrestrial biosphere sufficiently to indicate that the Earth system has entered a new geological epoch, spatially explicit global estimates of human populations and their use of land were analysed across the Holocene for their potential to induce irreversible novel transformation of the terrestrial biosphere. Human alteration of the terrestrial biosphere has been significant for more than 8000 years. However, only in the past century has the majority of the terrestrial biosphere been transformed into intensively used anthromes with predominantly novel anthropogenic ecological processes. At present, even were human populations to decline substantially or use of land become far more efficient, the current global extent, duration, type and intensity of human transformation of ecosystems have already irreversibly altered the terrestrial biosphere at levels sufficient to leave an unambiguous geological record differing substantially from that of the Holocene or any prior epoch. It remains to be seen whether the anthropogenic biosphere will be sustained and continue to evolve. PMID:21282158

  6. [Search for life in deep biospheres].

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Takeshi

    2003-12-01

    The life in deep biospheres bridges conventional biology and future exobiology. This review focuses the microbiological studies from the selected deep biospheres, i.e., deep-sea hydrothermal vents, sub-hydrothermal vents, terrestrial subsurface and a sub-glacier lake. The dark biospheres facilitate the emergence of organisms and communities dependent on chemolithoautotrophy, which are overwhelmed by photoautotrophy (photosynthesis) in the surface biospheres. The life at deep-sea hydrothermal vents owes much to chemolithoautotrophy based on the oxidation of sulfide emitted from the vents. It is likely that similarly active bodies such as the Jovian satellite Europa may have hydrothermal vents and associated biological communities. Anoxic or anaerobic condition is characteristic of deep subsurface biospheres. Subsurface microorganisms exploit available oxidants, or terminal electron acceptors (TEA), for anaerobic respiration. Sulfate, nitrate, iron (III) and CO2 are the representative TEAs in the deep subsurface. Below the 3000-4000 m-thick glacier on Antarctica, there have been >70 lakes with liquid water located. One of such sub-glacial lakes, Lake Vostok, is about to be drill-penetrated for microbiological studies. These deep biosphere "platforms" provide new knowledge about the diversity and potential of the Earth's life. The expertise obtained from the deep biosphere expeditions will facilitate the capability of exobiologial exploration. PMID:15136755

  7. Biosphere 2 test module experimentation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alling, Abigail; Leigh, Linda S.; Maccallum, Taber; Alvarez-Romo, Norberto

    1990-01-01

    The Biosphere 2 Test Module is a facility which has the capability to do either short or long term closures: five month closures with plants were conducted. Also conducted were investigations of specific problems, such as trace gas purification by bioregenerative systems by in-putting a fixed concentration of a gas and observing its uptake over time. In other Test Module experiments, the concentration of one gas was changed to observe what effects this has on other gases present or on the system. The science of biospherics which encompasses the study of closed biological systems provides an opening into the future in space as well as in the Earth's biosphere.

  8. Delving into the Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, S. L.; Sogin, M. L.; Boetius, A.; Briggs, B. R.; Brazelton, W. J.; D'Hondt, S. L.; Edwards, K. J.; Fisk, M. R.; Gaidos, E.; Gralnick, J.; Hinrichs, K.; Lazar, C.; Lavalleur, H.; Lever, M. A.; Marteinsson, V.; Moser, D. P.; Orcutt, B.; Pedersen, K.; Popa, R.; Ramette, A.; Schrenk, M. O.; Sylvan, J. B.; Smith, A. R.; Teske, A.; Walsh, E. A.; Colwell, F. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Census of Deep Life organized an international survey of microbial community diversity in terrestrial and marine deep subsurface environments. Habitats included subsurface continental fractured rock aquifers, volcanic and metamorphic subseafloor sedimentary units from the open ocean, subsurface oxic and anoxic sediments and underlying basaltic oceanic crust, and their overlying water columns. Our survey employed high-throughput pyrosequencing of the hypervariable V4-V6 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and archaea. We detected 1292 bacterial genera representing 40 phyla, and 99 archaeal genera from 30 phyla. Of these, a core group of thirteen bacterial genera occurred in every environment. A genus of the South African Goldmine Group (Euryarchaeota) was always present whenever archaea were detected. Members of the rare biosphere in one system often represented highly abundant taxa in other environments. Dispersal could account for this observation but mechanisms of transport remain elusive. Ralstonia (Betaproteobacteria) represented highly abundant taxa in marine communities and terrestrial rock, but generally low abundance organisms in groundwater. Some of these taxa could represent sample contamination, and their extensive distribution in several systems requires further assessment. An unknown Sphingobacteriales (Bacteroidetes) genus, Stenotrophomonas (Gammaproteobacteria), Acidovorax and Aquabacterium (both Betaproteobacteria), a Chlorobiales genus, and a TM7 genus were in the core group as well but more prevalent in terrestrial environments. Similarly, Bacillus (Firmicutes), a new cyanobacterial genus, Bradyrhizobium and Sphingomonas (both Alphaproteobacteria), a novel Acidobacteriaceae genus, and Variovorax (Betaproteobacteria) frequently occurred in marine systems but represented low abundance taxa in other environments. Communities tended to cluster by biome and material, and many genera were unique to systems. For example, certain Rhizobiales

  9. Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169671]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis''. The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the volcanic ash

  10. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose

  11. Biomedical program at Space Biospheres Ventures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walford, Roy

    1990-01-01

    There are many similarities and some important differences between potential health problems of Biosphere 2 and those of which might be anticipated for a space station or a major outpost on Mars. The demands of time, expense, and equipment would not readily allow medical evacuation from deep space for a serious illness or major trauma, whereas personnel can easily be evacuated from Biosphere 2 if necessary. Treatment facilities can be somewhat less inclusive, since distance would not compel the undertaking of heroic measures or highly complicated surgical procedures on site, and with personnel not fully trained for these procedures. The similarities are given between medical requirements of Biosphere 2 and the complex closed ecological systems of biospheres in space or on Mars. The major problems common to all these would seem to be trauma, infection, and toxicity. It is planned that minor and moderate degrees of trauma, including debridement and suturing of wounds, x ray study of fractures, will be done within Biosphere 2. Bacteriologic and fungal infections, and possibly allergies to pollen or spores are expected to be the commonest medical problem within Biosphere 2.

  12. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2005-04-28

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1-1). The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the

  13. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2003-07-25

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164186]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160964]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 160965]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 160976]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 161239]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 161241]) contain detailed description of the model input parameters. This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs and conversion factors for the TSPA. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides.

  14. Causes and timing of future biosphere extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; von Bloh, W.

    2006-03-01

    We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle, ocean floor, continental crust, biosphere, and the kerogen, as well as the combined ocean and atmosphere reservoir. The model is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere: procaryotes, eucaryotes, and complex multicellular life. During the entire existence of the biosphere procaryotes are always present. 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears. The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0.54 Gyr ago. In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance. We show that there is no evidence for an implosion-like extinction in contrast to the Cambrian explosion. In dependence of their temperature tolerance complex multicellular life and eucaryotes become extinct in about 0.8-1.2 Gyr and 1.3-1.5 Gyr, respectively. The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1.6 Gyr.

  15. Geochemical determination of biospheric CO/sub 2/ fluxes to the atmosphere. Annual progress report, June 1, 1979-August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Stuiver, M

    1981-03-24

    Research progress is reported - for an investigation of aspects of the carbon cycle through the use of C13/C12 and C14/C12 abundance ratios. The objective is to increase knowledge of past biospheric carbon reservoir changes that have resulted in increases or reductions of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels. C13 trends in trees from Kodiak Island, Alaska, and from Chile were determined. (ACR)

  16. Deep Biospheres on Earth, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Sean

    2013-02-01

    Over the last two decades, living organisms have been found below the surface of the Earth at ever greater depths. The “deep biosphere” exploits geochemical energy sources and nutrients as well as photosynthetic organic carbon and oxidants delivered from the surface. Although the presence of liquid water on a planetary or lunar surface is traditionally regarded as the key criterion for global habitability, these discoveries suggest that planets and moons with frozen surfaces might be able to support subsurface biospheres where liquid water is maintained by geothermal heat. Here, I briefly summarize current knowledge of the distribution and diversity of Earth’s deep biosphere, the possibility of a similar biosphere on Mars or in the icy moons of the outer solar system, implications for the detection of life in the universe, and forthcoming space missions that may extend our understanding.

  17. Dynamics of a terraformed Martian biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, Martyn J.

    1993-08-01

    The outcome of terraforming on Mars is examined by considering the function of its biosphere. By borrowing a life-support model of the Earth's biosphere, scenarios of ecopoiesis and full terraforming are contrasted in terms of their energy flow and matter cycling. It is argued that Martian colonists are unlikely to be satisfied with the services provided by the anaerobic biosphere produced by ecopoiesis and that full terraforming will be the specific goal of planetary engineering. The distance of Mars from the sun and its probable lack of a closed rock cycle will require small scale, conscious intervention in biogeochemical cycles to maintain the habitability of the planet. Vernadsky's concept of the noosphere (an envelope of mind) will thus have more relevance to Mars as an abode of life than Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis.

  18. Victor Kovda, Soil Science and Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovda, I.

    2012-04-01

    Victor Kovda (1904-1991) was one of the most famous soil scientists at the national and international soil science community. He published more than 500 scientific works including about 400 papers, 17 collective monographs, 30 personal monographs, and more than 200 interviews and popular papers describing the role of soils not only for food production, but for the functioning of the biosphere. Victor Kovda was a talented organizer, who founded the new Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry (known at the present time as the Institute of physico-chemical and biological problems of soil science in Pushchino, Russia). During six years from 1959 to 1964 he was the head of Science Department in UNESCO, where he initiated a set of international projects (ex. Soil World Map of FAO-UNESCO, Source-book on irrigation and drainage). He continued his international activity after UNESCO as a President of the International Soil Science Society (1968-1974), organizer of the X international Soil Science Congress in Moscow (1974), president of SCOPE (1973-1976), working for ICSU. The last three decades of his national and international activities Victor Kovda initiated and was strongly involved in the popularization of biosphere role and functions of soils and soil cover. The start point for this activity was his special talk "Biosphere and man" presented during the intergovernmental conference in the framework of the international program "Man and Biosphere" organized by UNESCO in 1968 in Paris. The next key presentation "Soil as a component of biosphere" Victor Kovda gave as a plenary lecture during the X International congress of soil scientists. This presentation determined the focus of soil science for the next decades: at least Russian soil science became oriented towards the investigation of biosphere functions and role of soils. Soils science was accepted not only for agriculture and food production, but also as a fundamental science with a large environmental

  19. Green Chile Pepper Harvest Mechanization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pungent green chile (genus /Capsicum/, also spelled chili) is a large, fragile fruit growing on berry shrubs. Chile is harvested by hand to maximize yields and minimize fruit damage. Labor for hand harvesting chile is increasingly costly and difficult to obtain. Harvest mechanization is viewed as...

  20. Past and Future of the Anthropogenic Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2010-12-01

    Human populations and their use of land have now transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes). As anthromes have emerged as the dominant global forms of ecological pattern and process, human interactions with terrestrial ecosystems have become a key earth system process, determining the structure and functioning of the biosphere. This presentation explores Ester Boserup’s land use intensification theories as models for understanding the emergence and dynamics of anthromes and their ecological processes, including their biogeochemistry and community structure, from the mostly wild biosphere of the Holocene to the primarily anthropogenic biosphere of the present and future. Existing global models and data for human population growth and land use over the Holocene differ in their portrayal of the global transition to a mostly anthropogenic biosphere. Yet there is little doubt that human populations have continued to grow over the long term and that anthromes have been increasingly important global ecological systems for millennia. This is conclusive evidence that human interactions with ecosystems can be sustained over the long-term, albeit under conditions that may no longer be realizable by either Earth or human systems. The classic Malthusian paradigm, in which human population growth outstrips natural resources leading to population collapse is unsupported by historical observations at global scale. Boserupian intensification is the better model, providing a robust theoretical foundation in which socio-ecological systems evolve as human populations increase, towards increasingly efficient use of limiting natural resources and enhanced production of anthropogenic ecological services such as food. This is not a story of technical advance, but rather of the forced adoption of ever more energy-intensive technical solutions in support of ever increasing population demands. And it does explain historical changes in the biosphere

  1. [Hospital medicine in Chile].

    PubMed

    Eymin, Gonzalo; Jaffer, Amir K

    2013-03-01

    After 15 years of development of Hospital Medicine in Chile, there are several benefits of this discipline. Among others, a reduction in the length of hospital stay, readmissions, costs, and improved medical teaching of students, residents and fellows have been observed. However, in South América there are only isolated groups dedicated to Hospital Medicine in Chile, Argentina and Brazil, with a rather slow growth. The unjustified fear of competition from sub specialists, and the fee for service system of payment in our environment may be important factors to understand this phenomenon. The aging of the population makes imperative to improve the safety of our patients and to optimize processes and resources within the hospital, to avoid squandering healthcare resources. The following is a detailed and evidence-based article, on how hospital medicine might benefit both the public and prívate healthcare systems in Chile. PMID:23900327

  2. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    PubMed

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed. PMID:25424674

  3. The legacy of Biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Allen, J P; Nelson, M; Alling, A

    2003-01-01

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trace gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and

  4. The legacy of biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. P.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trice gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and

  5. The World Campaign for the Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and discusses goals of The World Campaign for the Biosphere and strategies designed to achieve these goals. Also lists eight suggestions for science teachers to help incorporate the goals into school curricula and programs. These include organizing assemblies which present information about environmental problems and presenting environmental…

  6. Indian Reservations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weewish Tree, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Answers to questions asked by junior high school students about American Indian reservations are given. The areas covered include nearly every facet of reservation life from the first Federal issuance of particles of land to the American Indians to present conditions on the reservations. (AH)

  7. Country Profiles, Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Alfredo; And Others

    A profile of Chile is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  8. The Legacy of Biosphere 2 for Biospherics and Closed Ecological System Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Alling, A.; Nelson, M.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review these accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research accomplishments and publications which have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of leak detection and sealing, and achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trace gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal b ogeochemical cycling and ranges ofi atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained down to 15% oxygen could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and planetary/lunar settlements. The improved

  9. The life span of the biosphere revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Kasting, James F.

    1992-01-01

    How much longer the biosphere can survive on earth is reexamined using a more elaborate model than that of Lovelock and Whitfield (1982). The model includes a more accurate treatment of the greenhouse effect of CO2, a biologically mediated weathering parametrization, and the realization that C4 photosynthesis can persist to much lower concentrations of atmospheric CO2. It is found that a C4-plant-based biosphere could survive for at least another 0.9 Gyr to 1.5 Gyr after the present time, depending respectively on whether CO2 or temperature is the limiting factor. Within an additional 1 Gyr, earth may lose water to space, thereby following the path of Venus.

  10. Data management at Biosphere 2 center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCreary, Leone F.

    1997-01-01

    Throughout the history of Biosphere 2, the collecting and recording of biological data has been sporadic. Currently no active effort to administer and record regular biological surveys is being made. Also, there is no central location, such as an on-site data library, where all records from various studies have been archived. As a research institute, good, complete data records are at the core of all Biosphere 2's scientific endeavors. It is therefore imperative that an effective data management system be implemented within the management and research departments as soon as possible. Establishing this system would require three general phases: (1) Design/implement a new archiving/management program (including storage, cataloging and retrieval systems); (2) Organize and input baseline and intermediate data from existing archives; and (3) Maintain records by inputting new data.

  11. Assessing biosphere feedbacks on Earth System Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwain, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    The evolution and ecology of plant life has been shaped by the direct and indirect influence of plate tectonics. Climatic change and environmental upheaval associated with the emplacement of large igneous provinces have triggered biosphere level ecological change, physiological modification and pulses of both extinction and origination. This talk will investigate the influence of large scale changes in atmospheric composition on plant ecophysiology at key intervals of the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, I will assess the extent to which plant ecophysiological response can in turn feedback on earth system processes such as the global hydrological cycle and biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon. Palaeo-atmosphere simulation experiments, palaeobotanical data and recent historical (last 50 years) data-model comparison will be used to address the extent to which plant physiological responses to atmospheric CO2 can modulate global climate change via biosphere level feedback.

  12. Global Change and the Terrestrial Biosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Alistair

    2009-04-22

    Terrestrial ecosystems sustain life on Earth through the production of food, fuel, fiber, clean air, and naturally purified water. But how will agriculture and ecosystems be affected by global change? Rogers describes the impact of projected climate change on the terrestrial biosphere and explains why plants are not just passive respondents to global change, but play an important role in determining the rate of change.

  13. International Geosphere/Biosphere Program, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The present status of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program (IGBP) is discussed. The IGBP will contribute to the understanding of the Earth as a system, and could deal with problems such as acid rain and the CO/sub 2/ greenhouse effect. The IGBP will be an international and interdisciplinary study of the Earth as a system and the man induced and natural changes in that system. In the U.S. it will involve several Federal agencies and universities.

  14. Harvesting the biosphere: the human impact.

    PubMed

    Smil, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    The human species has evolved to dominate the biosphere: global anthropomass is now an order of magnitude greater than the mass of all wild terrestrial mammals. As a result, our dependence on harvesting the products of photosynthesis for food, animal feed, raw materials, and energy has grown to make substantial global impacts. During the past two millennia these harvests, and changes of land use due to deforestation and conversions of grasslands and wetlands, have reduced the stock of global terrestrial plant mass by as much as 45 percent, with the twentieth-century reduction amounting to more than 15 percent. Current annual harvests of phytomass have been a significant share of the global net primary productivity (NPP, the total amount of new plant tissues created by photosynthesis). Some studies put the human appropriation of NPP (the ratio of these two variables) as high as 40 percent but the measure itself is problematic. Future population growth and improved quality of life will result in additional claims on the biosphere, but options to accommodate these demands exist without severely compromising the irreplaceable biospheric services. PMID:22319767

  15. The life span of the biosphere revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Kasting, James F.

    1992-12-01

    A DECADE ago, Lovelock and Whitfield1 raised the question of how much longer the biosphere can survive on Earth. They pointed out that, despite the current fossil-fuel induced increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration, the long-term trend should be in the opposite direction: as increased solar luminosity warms the Earth, silicate rocks should weather more readily, causing atmospheric CO2 to decrease. In their model1, atmospheric CO2 falls below the critical level for C3 photosynthesis, 150 parts per million (p.p.m.), in only 100 Myr, and this is assumed to mark the demise of the biosphere as a whole. Here, we re-examine this problem using a more elaborate model that includes a more accurate treatment of the greenhouse effect of CO2 (refs 2-4), a biologically mediated weathering parameterization, and the realization that C4 photosynthesis can persist to much lower concentrations of atmospheric CO2(<10 p.p.m.)5,6. We find that a C4-plant-based biosphere could survive for at least another 0.9 Gyr to 1.5 Gyr after the present time, depending respectively on whether CO2 or temperature is the limiting factor. Within an additional 1 Gyr, Earth may lose its water to space, thereby following the path of its sister planet, Venus.

  16. [Microbes on the edge of global biosphere].

    PubMed

    Naganuma, T

    2000-12-01

    The search for life on the edge of global biosphere is a frontier to bridge conventional bio/ecology and exo/astrobiology. This communication reviews the foci of microbiological studies on the inhabitants of the selected "edges", i.e., deep-sea, deep subsurface and Antarctic habitats. The deep-sea is characterized as the no-light (non-photosynthetic) habitat, and the primary production is mostly due to the chemosynthetic autotrophy at the hydrothermal vents and methane-rich seeps. Formation of the chemosynthesis-dependent animal communities in the deep leads to the idea that such communities may be found in "ocean" of the Jovian satellite, Europa. The oxygen minimal layer (OML) in mid-water provides another field of deep-sea research. Modern OML is a relatively thin layer, found between the water depth of 200 and 1000 m, but was much thicker during the periods of oceanic anoxia events (OAEs) in the past. The history of oceanic biosphere is regarded as the cycle of OAE and non-OAE periods, and the remnants of the past OAEs may be seen in the modem OML. Anoxic (no-O2) condition is also characteristic of deep subsurface biosphere. Microorganisms in deep subsurface biosphere exploit every available oxidant, or terminal electron acceptor (TEA), for anaerobic respiration. Sulfate, nitrate, iron (III) and CO2 are the representative TEAs in the deep subsurface. Subsurface of hydrothermal vents, or sub-vent biosphere, may house brine (high salt) habitats and halophilic microorganisms. Some sub-vent halophiles were phylogenetically closely similar to the ones found in the Antarctic habitats which are extremely dry by the liophilizing climate. Below the 3000-4000 m-thick glacier on Antarctica, there have been >70 lakes with liquid water located. One of such sub-glacial lakes, Lake Vostok, has been a target of "life in extreme environments" and is about to be drill-penetrated for microbiological studies. These 'microbiological platforms' will provide new knowledge about the

  17. Could undermining biosphere integrity trigger catastrophic climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lade, Steven; Anderies, J. Marty; Cornell, Sarah; Donges, Jonathan; Norberg, Jon; Richardson, Katherine; Rockström, Johan; Steffen, Will

    2016-04-01

    The carbon stored in the terrestrial biosphere, were it all released into the atmosphere instantaneously as carbon dioxide, would catastrophically change the Earth's climate. Human actions that, both directly and indirectly, damage the integrity of the biosphere risk undermining's the biosphere capacity to maintain this store of carbon. Here, we investigate the risk that degradation of the biosphere will trigger catastrophic climate change, even if future fossil emissions are kept to low levels. Whether terrestrial carbon stores can be maintained depends critically on the speed and strength of feedbacks involving the global carbon cycle, climate change, and dynamics of the biosphere. Many of the interactions that comprise these feedbacks are highly uncertain, such as the vulnerability of the biosphere to the magnitude and rate of temperature changes and how changes to the biosphere affect its ability to store carbon, and therefore are rarely implemented in climate models. We extend a previous stylised dynamical model of the global carbon cycle to include interactions with biosphere integrity. We use this model to integrate the range of current knowledge on climate-biosphere interactions and study its possible consequences. Our model constitutes a study of the interactions between the two core planetary boundaries: climate change and biosphere integrity.

  18. Ecosystem engineering by invasive exotic beavers reduces in-stream diversity and enhances ecosystem function in Cape Horn, Chile.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher B; Rosemond, Amy D

    2007-11-01

    Species invasions are of global significance, but predicting their impacts can be difficult. Introduced ecosystem engineers, however, provide an opportunity to test the underlying mechanisms that may be common to all invasive engineers and link relationships between changes in diversity and ecosystem function, thereby providing explanatory power for observed ecological patterns. Here we test specific predictions for an invasive ecosystem engineer by quantifying the impacts of habitat and resource modifications caused by North American beavers (Castor canadensis) on aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure and stream ecosystem function in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile. We compared responses to beavers in three habitat types: (1) forested (unimpacted) stream reaches, (2) beaver ponds, and (3) sites immediately downstream of beaver dams in four streams. We found that beaver engineering in ponds created taxonomically simplified, but more productive, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Specifically, macroinvertebrate richness, diversity and number of functional feeding groups were reduced by half, while abundance, biomass and secondary production increased three- to fivefold in beaver ponds compared to forested sites. Reaches downstream of beaver ponds were very similar to natural forested sections. Beaver invasion effects on both community and ecosystem parameters occurred predominantly via increased retention of fine particulate organic matter, which was associated with reduced macroinvertebrate richness and diversity (via homogenization of benthic microhabitat) and increased macroinvertebrate biomass and production (via greater food availability). Beaver modifications to macroinvertebrate community structure were largely confined to ponds, but increased benthic production in beaver-modified habitats adds to energy retention and flow for the entire stream ecosystem. Furthermore, the effects of beavers on taxa richness (negative) and measures of

  19. Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutjes, R. W. A.; Kabat, P.; Running, S. W.; Shuttleworth, W. J.; Field, C.; Bass, B.; da Silva Dias, M. F.; Avissar, R.; Becker, A.; Claussen, M.; Dolman, A. J.; Feddes, R. A.; Fosberg, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Gash, J. H. C.; Guenni, L.; Hoff, H.; Jarvis, P. G.; Kayane, I.; Krenke, A. N.; Liu, Changming; Meybeck, M.; Nobre, C. A.; Oyebande, L.; Pitman, A.; Pielke, R. A., Sr.; Raupach, M.; Saugier, B.; Schulze, E. D.; Sellers, P. J.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Valentini, R.; Victoria, R. L.; Vörösmarty, C. J.

    1998-12-01

    The Core Project Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle (BAHC) of the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) addresses the biospheric aspects of the hydrological cycle through experiments and modelling of energy, water, carbon dioxide and sediment fluxes in the soil- vegetation-atmosphere system at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Active regulation of water, energy and carbon dioxide fluxes by the vegetation make it an important factor in regulating the Earth's hydrological cycle and in the formation of the climate. Consequently, human induced conversion of vegetation cover is an important driver for climate change. A number of recent studies, discussed in this paper, emphasise the importance of the terrestrial biosphere for the climate system. Initially, these studies demonstrate the influence of the land surface on tropical weather and climate, revealing the mechanisms, acting at various scales, that connect increasing temperatures and decreasing rainfall to large-scale deforestation and other forms of land degradation. More recently, the significance of the land surface processes for water cycle and for weather and climate in temperate and boreal zones was demonstrated. In addition the terrestrial biosphere plays a significant role in the carbon dioxide fluxes and in global carbon balance. Recent work suggests that many ecosystems both in the tropics and in temperate zones may act as a substantial sink for carbon dioxide, though the temporal variability of this sink strength is yet unclear. Further, carbon dioxide uptake and evaporation by vegetation are intrinsically coupled, leading to links and feedbacks between land surface and climate that are hardly explored yet. Earth's vegetation cover and its changes owing to human impact have a profound influence on a lateral redistribution of water and transported constituents, such as nutrients and sediments, and acts therefore as an important moderator of Earth's biogeochemical cycles. In

  20. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Rasmuson; K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-14

    This analysis is one of 10 technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) (i.e., the biosphere model). It documents development of agricultural and environmental input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters.

  1. The water cycle in closed ecological systems: perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    To achieve sustainable and healthy closed ecological systems requires successful solutions to the challenge of closing the water cycle - recycling wastewater/soil leachate and evaporateed water and supplying water of required quality as needed for different needs within the facility. Engineering Biosphere 2, the first multi-biome closed ecological system, total footprint of the airtight area is 12,700 m2 with a combined volume of 200,000 m3 with a total water capacity of some 6 x 106 liters of water presented a complex challenge because it included human inhabitants, their agricultural and technical systems, as well as a range of analogue ecosystems ranging from rainforest to desert, freshwater ecologies to mini-ocean coral reef ecosystems. By contrast, the Laboratory Biosphere - a small (40m3 volume) soil-based plant growth facility with a footprint of 15m3 - is a very simplified system, but with some similar issues such as salinity management and the provision of water quality sufficient for plant growth. In Biosphere 2, water needs included supplying potable water for people and domestic animals, irrigation water for a wide variety of food crops, and recycling and recovering soil nutrients from wastewater. In the wilderness biomes, adequately freshwater was needed for terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining appropriate salinity and pH in aquatic/marine ecosystems. The largest reservoirs in Biosphere 2 were the ocean/marsh with some 4x106 liters, soil with 2 x 106 liters, primary storage tanks with a capacity for up to 8 x 105 liters and storage tanks for condensate collection and mixing tanks with 1.5 x 105 liters to supply irrigation for farm and wilderness ecosystems. Other reservoirs were far smaller - humidity in the atmosphere (2 x 103 liters), streams in the rainforest and savannah, and seasonal pools in the desert were orders of magnitude smaller (8 x 103 liters). Key technologies included condensation from humidity in the airhandlers and from the glass

  2. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  3. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-10

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA-LA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) (TWP). This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA). This report is one of the five reports that develop input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the conceptual model and the mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters. The output of this report is used as direct input in the ''Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' and in the ''Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' that calculate the values of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios, respectively. The purpose of this analysis was to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or in volcanic ash). The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]).

  4. Snowball Earth: Response of the biosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2001-05-01

    Snowball Earth is a script for global catastrophe that rivals giant impact theories in the likely severity of its environmental effects. This is particularly true for the "hard" version of the hypothesis, which requires the atmosphere to be effectively isolated from the ocean so that its carbon dioxide concentration can build up to the level ( ~100 PAL) ultimately required to melt the ice. However, coupled GCM-EMB models (Hyde et al. Nature 405, 425-430; Crowley & Hyde, GRL 28, 283-286) allow equatorial open water solutions under plausible Neoproterozoic conditions. These "softer" scenarios are more appealing if one considers the possible effects of snowball Earth episodes on the global biosphere. The meager Neoproterozoic fossil record makes it difficult to observe the biospheric response directly, but we know from evolutionary trees constructed from aligned protein and DNA sequences from living organisms, calibrated by the fossil record, that many lines of descent passed through the Cryogenian glacial periods. They include various kinds of prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae, a range of protists, and probably, a number of different kinds of animals and fungi. In addition, most of the microbial groups shown on comprehensive 16S rRNA trees have molecular clock ages that predate the snowball episodes. As the global environmental perturbations associated with the "hard" snowball hypothesis (freezing temperatures; huge and rapid changes in temperature; sudden carbon dioxide overload) are thought to have been biologically limiting during the Phanerozoic, the inferred response of the biosphere to Neoprotereozic glaciations may, indeed, provide a way of testing alternative snowball Earth scenarios.

  5. Biospheric Cooling and the Emergence of Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George

    The long-term cooling history of the Earth's biosphere implies a temperature constraint on the timing of major events in biologic evolution, e.g., emergence of cyanobacteria, eucaryotes and Metazoa apparently occurred at times when temperatures were near their upper growth limits. Could biospheric cooling also have been a necessary condition for the emergence of veterbrates and their encephalization? The upper temperature limit for vertebrate growth is about 10 degrees below the limit for Metazoa (50 degrees C). Heterothermy followed by full homeothermy was likely a necessary condition for greater encephalization because of the energy requirement of larger brains. The temperature differential between an animal and a cooler environment, all other factors equal, will increase the efficiency of heat loss from the brain, but too large a differential will shift metabolic energy away from the brain to the procurement of food. Encephalization has also entailed the evolution of internal cooling mechanisms to avoid overheating the brain. The two periods of pronounced Phanerozoic cooling, the PermoCarboniferous and late Cenozoic, corresponded to the emergence of mammal-like reptiles and hominids respectively, with a variety of explanations offered for the apparent link. The origin of highly encephalized whales, dolphins and porpoises occurred with the drop in ocean temperatures 25-30 mya. Of course, other possible paths to encephalization are conceivable, with radically different solutions to the problem of heat dissipation. But the intrinsic requirements for information processing capacity necessary for intelligence suggest our terrestrial pattern may resemble those of alien biospheres given similar histories.

  6. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kaylie Rasmuson; Kurt Rautenstrauch

    2003-06-20

    This analysis is one of nine technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. It documents input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCF). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in the biosphere Technical Work Plan (TWP, BSC 2003a). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development and therefore not available at the time this document is issued. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003b) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters. This analysis report, ANL-MGR-MD-000006, ''Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. This report defines and justifies values for twelve parameters required in the biosphere model. These parameters are related to use of contaminated groundwater to grow crops. The parameter values recommended in this report are used in the soil, plant, and carbon-14 submodels of the ERMYN.

  7. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  8. The water cycle in closed ecological systems: Perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    To achieve sustainable, healthy closed ecological systems requires solutions to challenges of closing the water cycle - recycling wastewater/irrigation water/soil medium leachate and evaporated water and supplying water of required quality as needed for different needs within the facility. Engineering Biosphere 2, the first multi-biome closed ecological system within a total airtight footprint of 12,700 m 2 with a combined volume of 200,000 m 3 with a total water capacity of some 6 × 10 6 L of water was especially challenging because it included human inhabitants, their agricultural and technical systems, as well as five analogue ecosystems ranging from rainforest to desert, freshwater ecologies to saltwater systems like mangrove and mini-ocean coral reef ecosystems. By contrast, the Laboratory Biosphere - a small (40 m 3 volume) soil-based plant growth facility with a footprint of 15 m 2 - is a very simplified system, but with similar challenges re salinity management and provision of water quality suitable for plant growth. In Biosphere 2, water needs included supplying potable water for people and domestic animals, irrigation water for a wide variety of food crops, and recycling and recovering soil nutrients from wastewater. In the wilderness biomes, providing adequately low salinity freshwater terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining appropriate salinity and pH in aquatic/marine ecosystems were challenges. The largest reservoirs in Biosphere 2 were the ocean/marsh with some 4 × 10 6 L, soil with 1 to 2 × 10 6 l, primary storage tank with 0 to 8 × 10 5 L and storage tanks for condensate and soil leachate collection and mixing tanks with a capacity of 1.6 × 10 5 L to supply irrigation for farm and wilderness ecosystems. Other reservoirs were far smaller - humidity in the atmosphere (2 × 10 3 L), streams in the rainforest and savannah, and seasonal pools in the desert were orders of magnitude smaller (8 × 10 4 L). Key technologies included condensation from

  9. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  10. "Biospheric medicine" as viewed from the two-year first closure of Biosphere 2.

    PubMed

    Walford, R L; Bechtel, R; MacCallum, T; Paglia, D E; Weber, L J

    1996-07-01

    Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre, 7-million ft. enclosed ecological space near Tucson, AZ. It contains five wilderness and two domestic biomes (rain forest, savanna, desert, ocean, marsh; agricultural station, living quarters), an original introduction of 3,800 species (approximately 20% extinctions have occurred), and a large basement "technosphere." Sealed inside Biosphere 2 in September 1991, four women and four men, including two of the authors, maintained themselves and the various systems for 2 yr, the longest-sustained "isolated confined environment" period on record. MMPI psychological profile scores for Biosphere 2 crewmembers correlated closely with those reported for astronauts and shuttle applicants. Major medical problems encountered during the 2 yr included adaptation to a low-calorie (1800-2200 kcal.d-1 per person) but otherwise nutritionally adequate diet, with substantial weight loss (18% for men, 10% for women), and a declining oxygen atmosphere (down to 14.2%). Life in a miniworld such as Biosphere 2 may differ substantially from life in a space station or temporary planetary base. These differences include multiple, shifting, sometimes opposing post-launch objectives; complete self-sustenance with recycling of virtually all materials within a highly complex biologic system; retooling of some areas of practical medicine; an attention to "culture" as a social dynamic and how that may influence crew and leadership selection in a societal rather than a quasi-military community. Assuming that long-term planetary colonies must be largely self-sustaining (due to costs of supply over great distances), they must of necessity approach the condition of biospheres. Subject to chaos dynamic (nonlinear dynamic) perturbations, the behavior of complex biospheres will be inherently non-predictable--as opposed to the linear dynamic situation of most space missions--and will require of the inhabitants, including the medical team, a wide range of coping abilities. Under

  11. The water cycle in closed ecological systems: Perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    To achieve sustainable, healthy closed ecological systems requires solutions to challenges of closing the water cycle - recycling wastewater/irrigation water/soil medium leachate and evaporated water and supplying water of required quality as needed for different needs within the facility. Engineering Biosphere 2, the first multi-biome closed ecological system within a total airtight footprint of 12,700 m 2 with a combined volume of 200,000 m 3 with a total water capacity of some 6 × 10 6 L of water was especially challenging because it included human inhabitants, their agricultural and technical systems, as well as five analogue ecosystems ranging from rainforest to desert, freshwater ecologies to saltwater systems like mangrove and mini-ocean coral reef ecosystems. By contrast, the Laboratory Biosphere - a small (40 m 3 volume) soil-based plant growth facility with a footprint of 15 m 2 - is a very simplified system, but with similar challenges re salinity management and provision of water quality suitable for plant growth. In Biosphere 2, water needs included supplying potable water for people and domestic animals, irrigation water for a wide variety of food crops, and recycling and recovering soil nutrients from wastewater. In the wilderness biomes, providing adequately low salinity freshwater terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining appropriate salinity and pH in aquatic/marine ecosystems were challenges. The largest reservoirs in Biosphere 2 were the ocean/marsh with some 4 × 10 6 L, soil with 1 to 2 × 10 6 l, primary storage tank with 0 to 8 × 10 5 L and storage tanks for condensate and soil leachate collection and mixing tanks with a capacity of 1.6 × 10 5 L to supply irrigation for farm and wilderness ecosystems. Other reservoirs were far smaller - humidity in the atmosphere (2 × 10 3 L), streams in the rainforest and savannah, and seasonal pools in the desert were orders of magnitude smaller (8 × 10 4 L). Key technologies included condensation from

  12. [Health research in Chile].

    PubMed

    Stockins, B

    2000-12-01

    An analysis of health research in Chile is made, considering factors like exaggerated professional training during undergraduate studies and clinical residencies, and displacement of professionals from academic activities to more remunerative positions. Additionally, the limited role of the Ministry of Health in research promotion, evidenced by the almost absent participation of public hospitals in clinical research is discussed. Research investment, among a 0.6 to 0.8% of the GNP, is far from developed countries and Chile has not defined relevant health problems where a search effort would have an impact in public health. The marked centralism of the country attempts against regional application to financed projects. The following suggestions are made: to increase the financing for investigation, to reassign resources allowing the access of regional institutions, to financing, to discuss in the Chilean Association of Medical Faculties (ASOFAMECH) the creation of an academic degree by means of a thesis during the professional studies and to give facilities to develop research during clinical residencies. Also, the Ministry of Health should be involved, creating a national agenda or research priorities and increasing its association with Universities. Also training programs for professionals with a special interest in investigation should be devised. PMID:11227251

  13. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    PubMed

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. PMID:23102739

  14. Water: the bloodstream of the biosphere.

    PubMed Central

    Ripl, Wilhelm

    2003-01-01

    Water, the bloodstream of the biosphere, determines the sustainability of living systems. The essential role of water is expanded in a conceptual model of energy dissipation, based on the water balance of whole landscapes. In this model, the underlying role of water phase changes--and their energy-dissipative properties--in the function and the self-organized development of natural systems is explicitly recognized. The energy-dissipating processes regulate the ecological dynamics within the Earth's biosphere, in such a way that the development of natural systems is never allowed to proceed in an undirected or random way. A fundamental characteristic of self-organized development in natural systems is the increasing role of cyclic processes while loss processes are correspondingly reduced. This gives a coincidental increase in system efficiency, which is the basis of growing stability and sustainability. Growing sustainability can be seen as an increase of ecological efficiency, which is applicable at all levels up to whole landscapes. Criteria for necessary changes in society and for the design of the measures that are necessary to restore sustainable landscapes and waters are derived. PMID:14728789

  15. Extrasolar Planetary Complex Biosphere Organization as Exemplified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Martin; Williams, Darren; Doyle, Laurence

    Planetary habitability has usually been defined with reference to the physiological tolerances of human beings, or, in a more general sense, in terms of a modelled planet's ability to retain liquid water (essential for life as we know it) on its surface for a few Gyr. Another way of investigating habitability is with regard to the global mode of biosphere organization. Every combination of stellar composition and main sequence luminosity evolution, planetary characteristics and history, and biosphere organisation is unique, and will have its own specific inner and outer Habitable Zone radii. We illustrate this with modelled equilibrium partial pressures of CO_2. Although, as pointed out by previous workers, plants' CO_2 compensation points (where respiration exactly balances photosynthetic production) are just a few p.p.m. for some species, plants in the real world need to grow, repair tissue loss, reproduce and colonise new areas as they become available. This means that Earth-type forest ecosystems will require CO_2 levels comparable to those of the present day Earth. Reductions in equilibrium CO_2 with progressievely higher insolation, will define different inner margins for the Forest H.Z. with different axial obliquities and continential configurations.

  16. Characteristics of the Receptor for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Wasiolek; K.R. Rautenstrauch

    2003-06-27

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2003). Some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development and not available at the time this report is issued. This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and access to the listed documents is not required to understand the contents of this report. This report is one of the reports that develop input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003), describes the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. The purpose of this analysis report is to define values for biosphere model parameters that are related to the dietary, lifestyle, and dosimetric characteristics of the receptor. The biosphere model, consistent with the licensing rule at 10 CFR Part 63, uses a hypothetical person called the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) to represent the potentially exposed population. The parameters that define the RMEI are based on the behaviors and characteristics of the Amargosa Valley population, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.312. Amargosa Valley is the community, located in the direction of the projected groundwater flow path, where most of the farming in the area occurs. The parameter values developed in this report support the

  17. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-10

    This analysis is one of 10 reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This analysis report defines and justifies values of mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of ERMYN to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception.

  18. Eso's Situation in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  19. NEW DIRECTIONS: VOCS AND BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE FEEDBACKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shallcross and Monks [New Directions: a Role For Isoprene in Biosphere-Climate-Chemistry Feedbacks, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 34 (2000) pp. 1659-1660] recently summarized the importance of biogenic isoprene in a biosphere-atmosphere system under constant change. In this art...

  20. Characteristics of the Receptor for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek; K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-09

    This analysis report is one of a series of technical reports that document the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This report is one of the five biosphere reports that develop input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the conceptual model, as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. Figure 1-1 is a graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN. This figure shows relationships among the products (i.e., scientific analyses and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). The purpose of this analysis report is to define values for biosphere model parameters that are related to the dietary, lifestyle, and dosimetric characteristics of the receptor. The biosphere model, consistent with the licensing rule at 10 CFR Part 63 [DIRS 156605], uses a hypothetical person called the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) to represent the potentially exposed population. The parameters that define the RMEI are based on the behaviors and characteristics of the residents of the unincorporated town of Amargosa Valley, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.312 [DIRS 156605]. The output of this report is used as direct input in the two analyses identified in Figure 1-1 that calculate the values of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios. The parameter values developed in this report are reflected in the TSPA through the BDCFs. The analysis was performed in accordance with AP-SIII.9Q, ''Scientific Analyses'', and the technical work plan (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]).

  1. Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition.

    PubMed

    Behrenfeld, M J; Randerson, J T; McClain, C R; Feldman, G C; Los, S O; Tucker, C J; Falkowski, P G; Field, C B; Frouin, R; Esaias, W E; Kolber, D D; Pollack, N H

    2001-03-30

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) provides global monthly measurements of both oceanic phytoplankton chlorophyll biomass and light harvesting by land plants. These measurements allowed the comparison of simultaneous ocean and land net primary production (NPP) responses to a major El Niño to La Niña transition. Between September 1997 and August 2000, biospheric NPP varied by 6 petagrams of carbon per year (from 111 to 117 petagrams of carbon per year). Increases in ocean NPP were pronounced in tropical regions where El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impacts on upwelling and nutrient availability were greatest. Globally, land NPP did not exhibit a clear ENSO response, although regional changes were substantial. PMID:11283369

  2. Summer Research Internships at Biosphere 2 Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Through the support of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, Biosphere 2 Center hosted 10 research interns for a 10 week period during the summer of 1998. In addition, we were able to offer scholarships to 10 students for Columbia University summer field courses. Students participating in these programs were involved in numerous earth systems activities, collecting data in the field and conducting analyses in the laboratory. Students enrolled in the field program were expected to design independent research projects as part of their coursework. In addition to laboratory and field research, students participated in weekly research seminars by resident and visiting scientists. Field school students were involved in field trips exposing them to the geology and ecology of the region including Arizona Sonora Desert Museum, Mount Lemmon, Aravaipa Canyon and the Gulf of California. Interns participated in laboratory-based research. All students were expected to complete oral and written presentations of their work during the summer.

  3. Disruptive Event Biosphere Doser Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2000-12-28

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to, and the results of, development of radionuclide-, exposure scenario-, and ash thickness-specific Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postulated postclosure extrusive igneous event (volcanic eruption) at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations were done for seventeen radionuclides. The selection of radionuclides included those that may be significant dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, as well as radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure. The approach documented in this report takes into account human exposure during three different phases at the time of, and after, volcanic eruption. Calculations of disruptive event BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. The pathway analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. BDCFs for volcanic eruption, when combined with the concentration of radioactivity deposited by eruption on the soil surface, allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculation of radioactivity deposition is outside the scope of this report and so is the transport of contaminated ash from the volcano to the location of the receptor. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), in which doses are calculated to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  4. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Maryla A.

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  5. Precambrian paleontology and acrochrons of the biosphere evolution: On the theory of the expanding biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, B. S.

    2012-04-01

    What is pre-life? We have no idea, since it is hidden in chemical molecules that conceal its future genetic potential. From the biological standpoint, a prokaryotic cyanobacteria cell represents a culmination of biochemical evolution. Its appearance on the Earth marked the starting point of the formation of the first biogeocoenosis on the planet, i.e., the onset of its biosphere. After having started, approximately 4.0-3.7 Ga ago, biosphere evolution has continued uninterrupted on the Earth. Its whole course is reflected in the geochronological record of the stratisphere, the stratified shell of the Earth. In the stratigraphic sense, this record comprises the Archean, Proterozoic (i.e., Karelian and Riphean), and Phanerozoic (i.e., Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic). They correspond to acrochrons, i.e., the main stages in biosphere evolution. According to the Precambrian paleontology, the first three acrochrons represent a pre-Vendian stage in the evolution of unicellular prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that terminated in the Riphean with the appearance of their colonial communities. The true metacellular structure of tissue Metaphyta and Metazoa started forming only in the Late Neoproterozoic (Late Riphean). The Vendian Period was marked by a radiation of macrotaxonomic diversity with the appearance of the main multicellular types of the Phanerozoic organization level. Therefore, the last acrochron (lasting from approximately 650 Ma ago) should be considered as corresponding to the Vendian-Phanerozoic period. The Cambrian explosion corresponds to the mass expansion of skeletal Metazoa.

  6. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2006-06-05

    This analysis is one of the technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), referred to in this report as the biosphere model. ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'' is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1 (based on BSC 2006 [DIRS 176938]). This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This analysis report defines and justifies values of atmospheric mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of the biosphere model to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception. This report is concerned primarily with the

  7. A simplified biosphere model for global climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Y.; Sellers, P. J.; Kinter, J. L.; Shukla, J.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the simple biosphere model (SIB) of Sellers et al. (1986) is performed in an effort to bridge the gap between the typical hydrological treatment of the land surface biosphere and the conventional general circulation model treatment, which is specified through a single parameter. Approximations are developed that stimulate the effects of reduced soil moisture more simply, maintaining the essence of the biophysical concepts utilized in SIB. Comparing the reduced parameter biosphere with those from the original formulation in a GCM and a zero-dimensional model shows the simplified version to reproduce the original results quite closely.

  8. Soil-related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Smith

    2003-07-02

    This analysis is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2003 [163602]). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development at the time this report is issued and therefore not available. This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this report. This report, ''Soil Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five analysis reports that develop input parameters for use in the ERMYN model. This report is the source documentation for the six biosphere parameters identified in Table 1-1. ''The Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [160699]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. The purpose of this analysis was to develop the biosphere model parameters needed to evaluate doses from pathways associated with the accumulation and depletion of radionuclides in the soil. These parameters support the calculation of radionuclide concentrations in soil from on-going irrigation and ash

  9. The Cretaceous iron belt of northern Chile: role of oceanic plates, a superplume event, and a major shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzun, Roberto; Oyarzún, Jorge; Ménard, Jean Jacques; Lillo, Javier

    2003-08-01

    The Cretaceous constitutes a turning point in the tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic history of Chile. The geological evidence indicates that a major change occurred in late Neocomian time when superplume emplacement (Mid-Pacific Superplume) and plate reorganization processes took place in the Pacific. The superplume event resulted in a major ridge-push force resulting in increased coupling between the subducting and overriding plates. This completely changed the tectonic setting of Chile ending the Early Cretaceous extensional period (aborted rifting in the back-arc basin), and increasing stress at a crustal scale. As a consequence, overpressurized dioritic magmas were pushed up mainly along the best possible structural path in northern Chile, i.e., the Atacama Fault Zone, eventually forming a +500-km-long belt of Kiruna-type iron deposits with reserves of ~2,000 Mt (60% Fe), a unique case in Chile's geological history.

  10. Environmental Consequences of an Emerging Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2003-01-01

    It seems feasible to detect biological signatures ("biosignatures") in other planetary systems using the tools of astronomy. There are at least two types of biosignatures; spectral and/or polarization features created by biological products, and electromagnetic signals created by technology. The latter example of a biosignature requires SETI-like searches. This presentation addresses only spectral signatures of biological products and properties of habitable planets. Spectral biosignatures are indeed promising targets for near-term exploration. They can arise from organic constituents (e.g., vegetation) and/or inorganic products (e.g., atmospheric O2). Features originating from a planet's surface are likely to be localized in specific regions, whereas gaseous biosignatures can become globally distributed by atmospheric circulation. Biosignatures should be most abundant within environments that are, or once were, habitable. We currently believe that habitable environments necessarily provide Liquid water and biochemically useful energy. However, we do not yet fully comprehend the diversity of features that might arise within these environments that are non-biological in origin, yet mimic biosignatures. For example, atmospheres reflect the events leading to their origins as well as a host of ongoing planetary processes that might include biological activity. We are persuaded that abundant atmospheric oxygen in an environment with abundant liquid water constitutes definitive evidence of life. However, our own early biosphere thrived for more than a billion years in the absence of abundant atmospheric oxygen. The production of other, more reduced, gaseous biomarkers of "young" and/or anaerobic biospheres has not been systematically studied. Biological gas production is strongly controlled by the structure and function of microbial ecosystems. Investigations of microbial ecosystems that are close analogs of ancient communities offer multiple benefits. Such studies can

  11. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    This ASTER image covers 30 by 37 km in the Atacama Desert, Chile and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida Cu-Au-Ag open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and came on stream in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentration of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9 pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. This image is a conventional 3-2-1 RGB composite. Figure 1 displays SWIR bands 4-6-8 in RGB, and highlights lithologic and alteration differences of surface units. The image is located at 24.3 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  13. Erosion dynamics in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretier, Sebastien; Tolorza, Violeta; Regard, Vincent; Riquelme, Rodrigo; Aguilar, German

    2016-04-01

    Erosion and sediment transport in arid environments is thought to depend on the frequency of large floods as well as on mean precipitation rate and slope, but their relative impact remains a matter of active debate. The Chilean Andes are elongated along a sharp precipitation rate gradient, offering the possibility to rank these factors over different time spans. We compare suspended load measurements-derived decennial erosion rates and 10Be-derived millennial erosion rates along this gradient. Both parameters follow the same latitudinal trend and peak where the climate is Mediterranean (mean runoff ~0.55 m/m), confirming that slope is the main factor even along this contrasted climate. The comparison of these erosion rates documents the progressive contribution of rare and strong climatic events on the millennial erosion from humid to arid catchments. In the wetter BíoBio catchment, the separation of suspended sediment yield during base and direct flows shows that the dynamics of groundwater circulation controls most of the sediment hysteresis at gauging stations at annual scale. In addition, the mega El Maule earthquake (Mw8.8 in 2010), in front of humid to semi-arid catchments, has not increased the suspended sediment concentration in rivers, excepted in the steepest and driest catchments. Over millennial scales, preliminary 10Be concentrations in individual gravels and cobbles suggest mean river transport rates of several m/yr in an arid canyon of north Chile.

  14. Country watch: Chile.

    PubMed

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented. PMID:12347181

  15. Bruggen Glacier, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Expedition 3 crew of the International Space Station caught a rare glimpse of the massive ice fields and glaciers of Patagonia early in the afternoon on September 25, 2001. This part of the South American coast sees frequent storms and is often obscured from view by cloud cover. Bruggen Glacier in southern Chile is the largest western outflow from the Southern Patagonian Ice Field and, unlike most glaciers worldwide, advanced significantly since 1945. From 1945 to 1976, Bruggen surged 5 km across the Eyre Fjord, reaching the western shore by 1962 and cutting off Lake Greve from the sea. The glacier continued advancing both northward and southward in the fjord to near its present position before stabilizing. The growth covers a distance of more than 10 km north to south, adding nearly 60 square km of ice. Additional information on this and other Patagonian glaciers may be found at the following link: USGS - Historic Fluctuations of Outlet Glaciers from the Patagonian Ice Fields. Image ISS003-E-6061 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  16. Evaluation of atmosphere-biosphere exchange estimations with TCCON measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerschmidt, J.; Parazoo, N.; Deutscher, N. M.; Roehl, C.; Warneke, T.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.

    2012-05-01

    Three estimates of the atmosphere-biosphere exchange are evaluated using Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) measurements. We investigate the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA), the Simple Biosphere (SiB) and the GBiome-BGC models transported by the GEOS-Chem model to simulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations for the time period between 2006 and 2010. The CO2 simulations are highly dependent on the choice of the atmosphere-biosphere model and large-scale errors in the estimates are identified through a comparison with TCCON data. Enhancing the CO2 uptake in the boreal forest by 40% and shifting the onset of the growing season significantly improve the simulated seasonal CO2 cycle using CASA estimates. The SiB model gives the best estimate for the atmosphere-biosphere exchange in the comparison with TCCON measurements.

  17. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-06-27

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2003 [163602]). Some documents in Figure 1-1 may be under development and not available when this report is issued. This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA), but access to the listed documents is not required to understand the contents of this report. This report is one of the reports that develops input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [160699]) describes the conceptual model, the mathematical model, and the input parameters. The purpose of this analysis is to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or volcanic ash). The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2003 [163602]). This analysis develops values of parameters associated with many features, events, and processes (FEPs) applicable to the reference biosphere (DTN: M00303SEPFEPS2.000 [162452]), which are addressed in the biosphere model (BSC 2003 [160699]). The treatment of these FEPs is described in BSC (2003 [160699], Section 6.2). Parameter values

  18. Summer Research Internships at Biosphere 2 Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, Wallace S.; Colodner, Debra; Griffin, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    Through the support of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, Biosphere 2 Center hosted 11 research interns for 6 to 8 weeks each during the summer of 1997. In addition, we were able to offer scholarships to 14 students for Columbia University summer field courses. These two types of programs engaged students in much of the range of activity of practicing Earth Scientists, with an emphasis on the collection and analysis of data in both the field and the laboratory. Research interns and students in the field courses also played an important part in the design and evolution of their research projects. In addition to laboratory and field research, students participated in weekly research seminars by resident and visiting scientists. Research interns were exposed to the geology and ecology of the region via short field trips to the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum, Mount Lemmon, Aravaipa Canyon and the Gulf of California, while field course students were exposed to laboratory-based research via intern-led hands-on demonstrations of their work. All students made oral and written presentations of their work during the summer, and two of the research interns have applied to present their results at the National Conference on Undergraduate Research in Maryland in April, 1998.

  19. Toward "optimal" integration of terrestrial biosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Michalak, Anna M.; Bowman, Kevin; Ciais, Philippe; Cook, Robert; El-Masri, Bassil; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul; King, Anthony W.; Lei, Huimin; Liu, Junjie; Lu, Chaoqun; Mao, Jiafu; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ricciuto, Daniel; Schaefer, Kevin; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Tian, Hanqin; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Jia; Zeng, Ning

    2015-06-01

    Multimodel ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multiscale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naïve ("one model-one vote") integration. MsTMIP optimal and naïve mean land sink strength estimates (-1.16 versus -1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materially change MME values. This suggests that carbon metabolism has predictability limits and/or that all models and references are misspecified. Resolving this issue requires addressing specific uncertainty types (initial conditions, structure, and references) and a change in model development paradigms currently dominant in the TBM community.

  20. High Performance Geostatistical Modeling of Biospheric Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedelty, J. A.; Morisette, J. T.; Smith, J. A.; Schnase, J. L.; Crosier, C. S.; Stohlgren, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    We are using parallel geostatistical codes to study spatial relationships among biospheric resources in several study areas. For example, spatial statistical models based on large- and small-scale variability have been used to predict species richness of both native and exotic plants (hot spots of diversity) and patterns of exotic plant invasion. However, broader use of geostastics in natural resource modeling, especially at regional and national scales, has been limited due to the large computing requirements of these applications. To address this problem, we implemented parallel versions of the kriging spatial interpolation algorithm. The first uses the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in a master/slave paradigm on an open source Linux Beowulf cluster, while the second is implemented with the new proprietary Xgrid distributed processing system on an Xserve G5 cluster from Apple Computer, Inc. These techniques are proving effective and provide the basis for a national decision support capability for invasive species management that is being jointly developed by NASA and the US Geological Survey.

  1. Characteristics of the Receptor for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2005-04-05

    This analysis report is one of a series of technical reports that document the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This report is one of the five biosphere reports that develop input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the conceptual model, as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. Figure 1-1 is a graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN. This figure shows relationships among the products (i.e., scientific analyses and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172782]). The purpose of this analysis report is to define values for biosphere model parameters that are related to the dietary, lifestyle, and dosimetric characteristics of the receptor. The biosphere model, consistent with the licensing rule at 10 CFR Part 63 [DIRS 173164], uses a hypothetical person called the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) to represent the potentially exposed population. The parameters that define the RMEI are based on the behaviors and characteristics of the residents of the unincorporated town of Amargosa Valley, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.312 [DIRS 173164]. The output of this report is used as direct input in the two analyses identified in Figure 1-1 that calculate the values of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios. The parameter values developed in this report are reflected in the TSPA through the BDCFs. The analysis was performed in accordance with LP-SIII.9Q-BSC, ''Scientific Analyses'', and the technical work plan (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172782]). The scope of the revision was

  2. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-09-24

    This analysis is one of the nine reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003a) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents a set of input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. This report, ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2003b). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development at the time this report is issued and therefore not available at that time. This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this analysis report. This analysis report defines and justifies values of mass loading, which is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Measurements of mass loading are used in the air submodel of ERMYN to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air surrounding crops and concentrations in air inhaled by a receptor. Concentrations in air to which the

  3. Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion.

    PubMed

    Galy, Valier; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy

    2015-05-14

    Riverine export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean affects the atmospheric carbon inventory over a broad range of timescales. On geological timescales, the balance between sequestration of POC from the terrestrial biosphere and oxidation of rock-derived (petrogenic) organic carbon sets the magnitude of the atmospheric carbon and oxygen reservoirs. Over shorter timescales, variations in the rate of exchange between carbon reservoirs, such as soils and marine sediments, also modulate atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The respective fluxes of biospheric and petrogenic organic carbon are poorly constrained, however, and mechanisms controlling POC export have remained elusive, limiting our ability to predict POC fluxes quantitatively as a result of climatic or tectonic changes. Here we estimate biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes for a suite of river systems representative of the natural variability in catchment properties. We show that export yields of both biospheric and petrogenic POC are positively related to the yield of suspended sediment, revealing that POC export is mostly controlled by physical erosion. Using a global compilation of gauged suspended sediment flux, we derive separate estimates of global biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes of 157(+74)(-50) and 43(+61)(-25) megatonnes of carbon per year, respectively. We find that biospheric POC export is primarily controlled by the capacity of rivers to mobilize and transport POC, and is largely insensitive to the magnitude of terrestrial primary production. Globally, physical erosion rates affect the rate of biospheric POC burial in marine sediments more strongly than carbon sequestration through silicate weathering. We conclude that burial of biospheric POC in marine sediments becomes the dominant long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide sink under enhanced physical erosion. PMID:25971513

  4. Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, Valier; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    Riverine export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean affects the atmospheric carbon inventory over a broad range of timescales. On geological timescales, the balance between sequestration of POC from the terrestrial biosphere and oxidation of rock-derived (petrogenic) organic carbon sets the magnitude of the atmospheric carbon and oxygen reservoirs. Over shorter timescales, variations in the rate of exchange between carbon reservoirs, such as soils and marine sediments, also modulate atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The respective fluxes of biospheric and petrogenic organic carbon are poorly constrained, however, and mechanisms controlling POC export have remained elusive, limiting our ability to predict POC fluxes quantitatively as a result of climatic or tectonic changes. Here we estimate biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes for a suite of river systems representative of the natural variability in catchment properties. We show that export yields of both biospheric and petrogenic POC are positively related to the yield of suspended sediment, revealing that POC export is mostly controlled by physical erosion. Using a global compilation of gauged suspended sediment flux, we derive separate estimates of global biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes of and megatonnes of carbon per year, respectively. We find that biospheric POC export is primarily controlled by the capacity of rivers to mobilize and transport POC, and is largely insensitive to the magnitude of terrestrial primary production. Globally, physical erosion rates affect the rate of biospheric POC burial in marine sediments more strongly than carbon sequestration through silicate weathering. We conclude that burial of biospheric POC in marine sediments becomes the dominant long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide sink under enhanced physical erosion.

  5. [New medical schools in Chile].

    PubMed

    Castillo, P

    1994-03-01

    In Chile there are six established medical schools at public (Chile, Valparaiso and Temuco) or private (Catholic, Concepción and Austral) universities created between 1833 and 1971. Since 1990, three new medical schools (two private) were created and a fourth is projected, concerning the chilean medical corps. We present three position articles on the subject written by Dean Pedro Rosso, from the Catholic University, Dr Pedro Castillo, Chief of Human Resources of the Ministry of Health and Dean Alejandro Goic from the University of Chile. Dean Rosso emphasizes the need to have assessment procedures that guarantee quality standards in the new medical schools. Dr Castillo attracts attention on preserving the compromise with the society, inherent to chilean medicine. Dean Goic analyzes systematically the reasons to prevent the proliferation of medical schools in the country, maintaining an equilibrium between freedom of teaching and public faith protection. PMID:7809525

  6. Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment of radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Cancio, D; Simón, I; Moraleda, M; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Trueba, C

    2007-10-01

    The development of radioactive waste disposal facilities requires implementation of measures that will afford protection of human health and the environment over a specific temporal frame that depends on the characteristics of the wastes. The repository design is based on a multi-barrier system: (i) the near-field or engineered barrier, (ii) far-field or geological barrier and (iii) the biosphere system. Here, the focus is on the analysis of this last system, the biosphere. A description is provided of conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools used to develop the Biosphere Assessment Methodology in the context of high-level waste (HLW) disposal facilities in Spain. This methodology is based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology" and provides a logical and systematic approach with supplementary documentation that helps to support the decisions necessary for model development. It follows a five-stage approach, such that a coherent biosphere system description and the corresponding conceptual, mathematical and numerical models can be built. A discussion on the improvements implemented through application of the methodology to case studies in international and national projects is included. Some facets of this methodological approach still require further consideration, principally an enhanced integration of climatology, geography and ecology into models considering evolution of the environment, some aspects of the interface between the geosphere and biosphere, and an accurate quantification of environmental change processes and rates. PMID:17588645

  7. Commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Sean R; MacNeil, M Aaron; Caley, M Julian; Knowlton, Nancy; Cripps, Ed; Hisano, Mizue; Thibaut, Loïc M; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar D; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Brainard, Russell E; Brandt, Angelika; Bulleri, Fabio; Ellingsen, Kari E; Kaiser, Stefanie; Kröncke, Ingrid; Linse, Katrin; Maggi, Elena; O'Hara, Timothy D; Plaisance, Laetitia; Poore, Gary C B; Sarkar, Santosh K; Satpathy, Kamala K; Schückel, Ulrike; Williams, Alan; Wilson, Robin S

    2014-06-10

    Explaining patterns of commonness and rarity is fundamental for understanding and managing biodiversity. Consequently, a key test of biodiversity theory has been how well ecological models reproduce empirical distributions of species abundances. However, ecological models with very different assumptions can predict similar species abundance distributions, whereas models with similar assumptions may generate very different predictions. This complicates inferring processes driving community structure from model fits to data. Here, we use an approximation that captures common features of "neutral" biodiversity models--which assume ecological equivalence of species--to test whether neutrality is consistent with patterns of commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere. We do this by analyzing 1,185 species abundance distributions from 14 marine ecosystems ranging from intertidal habitats to abyssal depths, and from the tropics to polar regions. Neutrality performs substantially worse than a classical nonneutral alternative: empirical data consistently show greater heterogeneity of species abundances than expected under neutrality. Poor performance of neutral theory is driven by its consistent inability to capture the dominance of the communities' most-abundant species. Previous tests showing poor performance of a neutral model for a particular system often have been followed by controversy about whether an alternative formulation of neutral theory could explain the data after all. However, our approach focuses on common features of neutral models, revealing discrepancies with a broad range of empirical abundance distributions. These findings highlight the need for biodiversity theory in which ecological differences among species, such as niche differences and demographic trade-offs, play a central role. PMID:24912168

  8. Soil-Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Smith

    2004-09-09

    This report presents one of the analyses that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the details of the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and the required input parameters. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A schematic representation of the documentation flow for the Biosphere input to TSPA is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the evolutionary relationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this report. This report, ''Soil-Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five analysis reports that develop input parameters for use in the ERMYN model. This report is the source documentation for the six biosphere parameters identified in Table 1-1. The purpose of this analysis was to develop the biosphere model parameters associated with the accumulation and depletion of radionuclides in the soil. These parameters support the calculation of radionuclide concentrations in soil from on-going irrigation or ash deposition and, as a direct consequence, radionuclide concentration in other environmental media that are affected by radionuclide concentrations in soil. The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) where the governing procedure was defined as AP-SIII.9Q, ''Scientific Analyses''. This

  9. Inferring deep biosphere function and diversity through (near) surface biosphere portals (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Woycheese, K. M.; Swingley, W.; Schubotz, F.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    The consideration of surface expressions of the deep subsurface- such as springs- remains one of the most economically viable means to query the deep biosphere's diversity and function. Hot spring source pools are ideal portals for accessing and inferring the taxonomic and functional diversity of related deep subsurface microbial communities. Consideration of the geochemical composition of deep vs. surface fluids provides context for interpretation of community function. Further, parallel assessment of 16S rRNA data, metagenomic sequencing, and isotopic compositions of biomass in surface springs allows inference of the functional capacities of subsurface ecosystems. Springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), the Philippines, and Turkey are considered here, incorporating near-surface, transition, and surface ecosystems to identify 'legacy' taxa and functions of the deep biosphere. We find that source pools often support functional capacity suited to subsurface ecosystems. For example, in hot ecosystems, source pools are strictly chemosynthetic, and surface environments with measureable dissolved oxygen may contain evidence of community functions more favorable under anaerobic conditions. Metagenomic reads from a YNP ecosystem indicate the genetic capacity for sulfate reduction at high temperature. However, inorganic sulfate reduction is only minimally energy-yielding in these surface environments suggesting the potential that sulfate reduction is a 'legacy' function of deeper biosphere ecosystems. Carbon fixation tactics shift with increased surface exposure of the thermal fluids. Genes related to the rTCA cycle and the acetyl co-A pathway are most prevalent in highest temperature, anaerobic sites. At lower temperature sites, fewer total carbon fixation genes were observed, perhaps indicating an increase in heterotrophic metabolism with increased surface exposure. In hydrogen and methane rich springs in the Philippines and Turkey, methanogenic taxa dominate source

  10. ARIZONA INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in Arizona. Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location source are included with the coverage. A...

  11. REGION 9 INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada). Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location...

  12. NEVADA INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in Nevada. Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location source are included with the coverage. As...

  13. Reserve battery

    SciTech Connect

    Thiess, G.H.

    1988-12-27

    A reserve battery is described comprising: a battery cell compartment; an electrolyte reservoir containing pressurized electrolyte fluid; an elongate member formed of rigid material having interior walls defining a closed orifice between the battery cell compartment and the electrolyte fluid reservoir; and the elongate member including a groove adjacent the orifice to define a frangible portion such that upon angular displacement of the elongate member the elongate member is severed at the frangible portion to open the orifice and allow pressurized electrolyte fluid to be conveyed through the orifice to the battery cell compartment.

  14. Venus and Mars as Failed Biospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, D.

    2014-04-01

    What kinds of planets can support life? A widely held belief is that to support life, a planet should have stable bodies of liquid surface water. This assumption has in turn led to the conventional notion of a habitable zone (HZ) as a range of distances from a star where water can exist on the surface of a solid planet for biologically relevant timescales. As our understanding of terrestrial planet evolution has increased, the importance of water abundance as a substance controlling many evolutionary factors has become increasingly clear. This is true of biological evolution, as the presence of liquid water is widely regarded as the key to the possibility of finding "life as we know it" on other worlds. It is also true of geological and climatic evolution. Water is among the most important climatically active atmospheric gasses on the terrestrial planets. It is also a controlling variable for tectonic style and geologic processes, as well as a mediator of surface-atmosphere chemical reactions. Of the three local terrestrial planets, two have lost their oceans either to a subsurface cryosphere or to space, and one has had liquid oceans for most of its history. It is likely that planetary desiccation in one form or another is common among extrasolar terrestrial planets near the edges of their habitable zones. Thus, understanding the sources and sinks for surface water and characterizing the longevity of oceans and the magnitude of loss mechanisms on terrestrial planets of differing size, composition and proximity to stars of various stellar types, as well as the range of physical parameters which facilitates plate tectonics, is key to defining stellar habitable zones. The global biosphere of Earth has greatly altered many physical properties of the planet, and it is unclear to what extent the long-term habitability of Earth is the result of its inhabitation. Only comparative planetology, eventually including comparison with other inhabited planets, will answer this

  15. A conceptual design and implementation of the Lunar Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Yunping; Rong, Long; Liu, Hong

    It is necessary for human beings to establish a lunar biosphere on the moon similar to the biosphere on the earth in order to realize long-term human habitation, which will make it possible to exploit the resources there. This paper analyzes the environmental factors on the lunar surface; selects the appropriate location on the moon to set up the lunar biosphere; and designs two conceptual architecture configurations. Moreover, after comprehensively con-sidering the functions and running mechanism of lunar biosphere, we designed the internal configuration of the lunar biosphere and divided the whole system into several parallel sub-systems. Each subsystem was mainly composed of six parts: human habitation, cultivation, resource storage, food and water processing, wastes treatment and wastes storage; these parts are mutually connected through mass exchange and run circularly. Being one system, these subsystems possess independence, i.e. they can be individually isolated and run independently when accidents happen. In space distribution, the highest efficiency is achieved with the op-timization of the system structure. As for the function, the extensibility of the system's scale was also considered and the processing of lunar soil using earth worm was designed.

  16. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.

    The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

    Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

    These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A

  17. Biosphere dose conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-10-15

    This report presents importance and sensitivity analysis for the environmental radiation model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN). ERMYN is a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis concerns the output of the model, biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater, and the volcanic ash exposure scenarios. It identifies important processes and parameters that influence the BDCF values and distributions, enhances understanding of the relative importance of the physical and environmental processes on the outcome of the biosphere model, includes a detailed pathway analysis for key radionuclides, and evaluates the appropriateness of selected parameter values that are not site-specific or have large uncertainty.

  18. Closed ecological systems: From test tubes to Earth's biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Robert J.; Mignon, George

    1992-01-01

    Artificially constructed closed ecological systems (CES) have been researched both experimentally and theoretically for over 25 years. The size of these systems have varied from less than one liter to many thousands of cubic meters in volume. The diversity of the included components has a similarly wide range from purely aquatic systems to soil based systems that incorporate many aspects of Earth's biosphere. While much has been learned about the functioning of these closed systems, much remains to be learned. In this paper, we compare and contrast the behavior of closed ecological systems of widely different sizes through an analysis of their atmospheric composition. In addition, we will compare the performance of relatively small CES with the behavior of Earth's biosphere. We address the applicability of small CES as replicable analogs for planetary biospheres and discuss the use of small CES as an experimental milieu for an examination of the evolution of extra-terrestrial colonies.

  19. An Estimate of the Total DNA in the Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Landenmark, Hanna K. E.; Forgan, Duncan H.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Modern whole-organism genome analysis, in combination with biomass estimates, allows us to estimate a lower bound on the total information content in the biosphere: 5.3 × 1031 (±3.6 × 1031) megabases (Mb) of DNA. Given conservative estimates regarding DNA transcription rates, this information content suggests biosphere processing speeds exceeding yottaNOPS values (1024 Nucleotide Operations Per Second). Although prokaryotes evolved at least 3 billion years before plants and animals, we find that the information content of prokaryotes is similar to plants and animals at the present day. This information-based approach offers a new way to quantify anthropogenic and natural processes in the biosphere and its information diversity over time. PMID:26066900

  20. Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance. PMID:14561299

  1. Influence of weather-climatic conditions on biospheric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorushko, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    The significance of meteorological processes and phenomena in the biosphere functioning is revealed. The influence of various weather conditions on human health is considered; the factors and mechanisms of their action are described. The impact of meteorological processes on animals is discussed and concrete examples of such impacts are presented. The influence of meteorological processes and phenomena on plants at different stages of their life (pollination, growth, ripening, transport of seeds, damage, and death) and on some abiotic natural components is shown. It is inferred that weather-climatic conditions have a great influence on biospheric processes.

  2. [The epidemiological transition in Chile].

    PubMed

    Albalá, C; Vio, F; Robledo, A; Icaza, G

    1993-12-01

    Aiming to describe the place that Chile has in the epidemiological transition, a descriptive study of the changes in demographic and epidemiological profiles of the country during the last 30 years is presented. The important decrease in general and child mortality rates, that has lead to an increase in life expectancy and ageing of the population, is emphasized. A 82% reduction in the proportion of deaths among less than one year old children and a 62% increase in mortality among people 65 years or older is observed. In agreement with these changes, non transmissible chronic diseases appear as the principal cause of mortality (65% of all deaths). However, regarding morbidity, an increase in digestive infectious and sexually transmitted diseases and a decrease in immuno-preventable diseases, excepting measles, is noted. It is concluded that, according to mortality, Chile is in a post transition stage, but there is persistence of some infectious diseases, typical of a pre-transition stage. PMID:8085073

  3. AGRO-ECOLOGICAL DRIVERS OF RURAL OUT-MIGRATION TO THE MAYA BIOSPHERE RESERVE, GUATEMALA.

    PubMed

    López-Carr, David

    2012-01-01

    Migration necessarily precedes environmental change in the form of deforestation and soil degradation in tropical agricultural frontiers. But what environmental factors may contribute to these migration streams in the first place? Identifying environmental characteristics related to this process is crucial for understanding how environmental change and migration may form recurrent feedback loops. Further understanding this process could be useful for developing policies to reduce both environmentally induced migration from origin areas and also to palliate significant environmental change unleashed by settler deforestation in destination areas. Evidently, apprehending this holistic process cannot be approached only from the destination since this ignores environmental and other antecedents to rural out-migration. This paper presents data from surveys conducted in areas of high out-migration to the agricultural frontier in northern Guatemala. Results suggest that land scarcity and degradation in origin communities are linked to out-migration in general and to the forest frontier of northern Guatemala in particular. PMID:24069068

  4. Agro-ecological drivers of rural out-migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Carr, David

    2012-12-01

    Migration necessarily precedes environmental change in the form of deforestation and soil degradation in tropical settlement frontiers. But what environmental factors may contribute to these migration streams in the first place? Identification of the environmental characteristics related to this process is crucial for understanding how environmental change and migration may form recurrent feedback loops. Further understanding of this process could be useful for developing policies to both reduce environmentally induced migration from origin areas and also palliate significant environmental change unleashed by settler deforestation in destination areas. Evidently, apprehension of this holistic process cannot be approached only from the destination since this ignores environmental and other antecedents to rural out-migration. This letter presents data from surveys conducted in areas of high out-migration to the agricultural frontier in northern Guatemala. The results suggest that land scarcity and degradation in origin communities are linked to out-migration in general and to the forest frontier of northern Guatemala in particular.

  5. Assessment of environmental factors that affect the fireflies for ecotourism in Unesco Tasik Chini biosphere reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslan, Norzeana; Sulaiman, Norela

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to study the firefly species found in Tasik Chini, the soil factors that suitable for larval development fireflies flashes, and the sociological aspects of the community's availability to engage in firefly ecotourism. This was achieved through firefly sampling, soil analysis, abiotic data collection and by questionnaire surveys from local community perceptions and knowledge on fireflies and ecotourism. Fireflies sampling were conducted from December 2011 to January 2013 at Kampung Melai and Kampung Cenahan. Three non-synchronize fireflies genus were found, namely Colophotia sp., Pygoluciola sp., and Pyrocoelia sp. A total of 25 questionnaires were given to four groups of respondents consisting orang asli (5 respondents), boat operator (2 respondents), resort workers (5 respondents) and FELDA residents (13 respondents). The questionnaires were analysed using Rasch Winstep Software based on Rasch Measurement Model. Results of the survey indicated that the local community was not ready for ecotourism in their area. Meanwhile, the soil pH was very acidic and the heavy metals concentration was high, which is not good for the development of firefly larvae. In conclusion, Tasik Chini was not having the potential for ecotourism. Despite the fact, improvement of soils with soil remediation methods can be apply for enhancing larvae development and having more awareness campaign of ecotourism to local community.

  6. Factors affecting ethnobotanical knowledge in a mestizo community of the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, mestizo communities’s ethnobotanical knowledge has been poorly studied. Based on a mestizo group in Mexico, this study assesses a) the use value (UV) of the local flora, b) gendered differences in plant species, and c) the association between socio-economic variables and ethnobotanical knowledge. Methods To assess the degree of knowledge of plant resources, we conducted 41 interviews collecting information on knowledge of local plant resources and the socio-economic situation of the informant. We also collected free listings of useful plants by category of use to identify the UV of each species. With the support of key informants, we photographed and collected the plant material recorded during the interviews and free listings on five different habitats. Paired t-tests and a Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to determine differences in the number of species known by men and women. Differences in distribution were analyzed by means of the Shapiro–Wilk’s W normality tests. To determine the association of socio-economic factors and ethnobotanical knowledge, we used a non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS). Results Informants listed 185 species. Medicinal plants constituted the most diverse group (90 species). Tropical deciduous forest is the habitat that concentrates the highest proportion of plant resources (80 species). The use-values were classified into three groups: A (4–6 UV; three species), B (0.35-1.37 UV; 39 species) and C (0–0.29 UV; 143 species). High-quality wood species and those associated to religious ceremonies had the highest UV. Women’s and men’s knowledge of plant species showed statistically significant differences at the interspecific and the intracategorical levels (Student’s test, T15 = 4.8, p < 0.001). Occupation, gender and age were statistically significant associated to ethnobotanical knowledge (p < 0.05), whereas income, education level, and place of origin were not. Conclusion This research improves our understanding of the socio-economic activities associated with the intracultural distribution of ethnobotanical knowledge among mestizo Mexican communities. It also provides information on plant resources and habitats and how local peasants value them. This information could help in the development of proposals to improve biocultural conservation and strengthen traditional knowledge systems for effective forest management. PMID:24467777

  7. Biological effects of extreme environmental conditions. [considering limits of biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imshenetskiy, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    Actions of extreme physical and chemical space factors on microorganisms and plants are elaborated in order to establish limits for the biosphere. Considered are effects of low and high temperatures; ionizing and ultraviolet radiation; various gases; and effects of vibration, desiccation and acceleration.

  8. Publications of the biospheric research program: 1981-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Janice S. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a list of publications of investigators supported by the Biospheric Research Program of the Biological Systems Research Branch, Life Sciences Division, and the Office of Space Science and Applications. It includes publications dated as of December 31, 1987 and entered into the Life Sciences Bibliographic Database at the George Washington University. Publications are organized by the year published.

  9. Second annual southern Appalachian man and the biosphere conference

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.R.

    1991-11-01

    Brief summaries are presented from the Southern Appalachian Man and Biosphere Conference. Topics include, but are not limited to, Hardwood and Red Spruce decline; land use and management; forest/atmosphere interactions; environmental monitoring; wetland habitats; fish studies in Tennessee reservoirs; tree plantations for energy use.

  10. Viral infections as controlling factors for the deep biosphere? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelen, B.; Engelhardt, T.; Sahlberg, M.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere represents the largest biotope on Earth. Throughout the last years, we have obtained interesting insights into its microbial community composition. However, one component that was completely overlooked so far is the viral inventory of deep-subsurface sediments. While viral infections were identified to have a major impact on the benthic microflora of deep-sea surface sediments (Danavaro et al. 2008), no studies were performed on deep-biosphere samples, so far. As grazers probably play only a minor role in anoxic and highly compressed deep sediments, viruses might be the main “predators” for indigenous microorganisms. Furthermore, the release of cell components, called “the viral shunt”, could have a major impact on the deep biosphere in providing labile organic compounds to non-infected microorganisms in these generally nutrient depleted sediments. However, direct counting of viruses in sediments is highly challenging due to the small size of viruses and the high background of small particles. Even molecular surveys using “universal” PCR primers that target phage-specific genes fail due to the vast phage diversity. One solution for this problem is the lysogenic viral life cycle as many bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the host genome. It is estimated that up to 70% of cultivated bacteria contain prophages within their genome. Therefore, culture collections (Batzke et al. 2007) represent an archive of the viral composition within the respective habitat. These prophages can be induced to become free phage particles in stimulation experiments in which the host cells are set under certain stress situations such as a treatment with UV exposure or DNA-damaging antibiotics. The study of the viral component within the deep biosphere offers to answer the following questions: To which extent are deep-biosphere populations controlled by viral infections? What is the inter- and intra-specific diversity and the host-specific viral

  11. Biospheric 129I concentrations in the pre-nuclear and nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Handl, J.; Oliver, E.; Jakob, D.; Johanson, K.J.; Schuller, P.

    1993-09-01

    In order to detect characteristic regional differences or temporal changes of 129I concentrations in the biosphere, thyroids from humans, grazing livestock, and herbivorous wildlife species (reindeer and roedeer) were collected in various areas of the world which are not affected by reprocessing plants. For reasons of comparison, all samples were analyzed for their 129I:127I atom ratios. Human and bovine thyroids taken from the 10th region in Southern Chile (39 degrees-41 degrees South) indicated values of the 129I:127I atom ratio between 1.1 x 10(-9) and 2.0 x 10(-9) and between 1.2 x 10(-10) and 9 x 10(-9), respectively. They showed no significant increase in the concentration of biospheric 129I in comparison with that established in the pre-nuclear age. Atom ratios found in human thyroids collected in Lower Saxony (Federal Republic of Germany), which is a region not directly affected by reprocessing plants, exhibited 129I:127I values between 8 x 10(-9) and 6 x 10(-8) from February 1988 to September 1990. Thyroid glands of reindeer and roedeer as well as heather, moss, and lichen were taken from the Vilhelmina, Heby, and Gaevle communes in Sweden and analyzed for 129I and 127I. All three communes were found to be seriously contaminated by fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Highest 129I:127I atom ratios between 3.5 x 10(-7) and 1 x 10(-6) were found in the Gaevle commune (approximately 150 km northwest of Stockholm) where the highest 137Cs ground deposition (70-80 kBq m-2) was measured. Two soil samples taken from Krasnaya Gora and Mirny locations in Russia (approximately 200 km northeast of Chernobyl) exhibited ratios of about 1 x 10(-6). These locations showed a 137Cs ground deposition of 370 and 1,300 kBq m-2, respectively.

  12. Biospheric 129I concentrations in the pre-nuclear and nuclear age.

    PubMed

    Handl, J; Oliver, E; Jakob, D; Johanson, K J; Schuller, P

    1993-09-01

    In order to detect characteristic regional differences or temporal changes of 129I concentrations in the biosphere, thyroids from humans, grazing livestock, and herbivorous wildlife species (reindeer and roedeer) were collected in various areas of the world which are not affected by reprocessing plants. For reasons of comparison, all samples were analyzed for their 129I:127I atom ratios. Human and bovine thyroids taken from the 10th region in Southern Chile (39 degrees-41 degrees South) indicated values of the 129I:127I atom ratio between 1.1 x 10(-9) and 2.0 x 10(-9) and between 1.2 x 10(-10) and 9 x 10(-9), respectively. They showed no significant increase in the concentration of biospheric 129I in comparison with that established in the pre-nuclear age. Atom ratios found in human thyroids collected in Lower Saxony (Federal Republic of Germany), which is a region not directly affected by reprocessing plants, exhibited 129I:127I values between 8 x 10(-9) and 6 x 10(-8) from February 1988 to September 1990. Thyroid glands of reindeer and roedeer as well as heather, moss, and lichen were taken from the Vilhelmina, Heby, and Gävle communes in Sweden and analyzed for 129I and 127I. All three communes were found to be seriously contaminated by fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Highest 129I:127I atom ratios between 3.5 x 10(-7) and 1 x 10(-6) were found in the Gävle commune (approximately 150 km northwest of Stockholm) where the highest 137Cs ground deposition (70-80 kBq m-2) was measured. Two soil samples taken from Krasnaya Gora and Mirny locations in Russia (approximately 200 km northeast of Chernobyl) exhibited ratios of about 1 x 10(-6). These locations showed a 137Cs ground deposition of 370 and 1,300 kBq m-2, respectively. PMID:8244695

  13. Implementation of the Biosphere Compatibility Principle in Urban Planning: How to Train Next-Generation Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Zinaida Ilyinichna; Yudenkova, Olga Valeryevna; Ishkov, Aleksandr Dmitrievich; Shnyrenkov, Evgeny Anatolyevich

    2015-01-01

    The co-authors address the relevant issues concerning the need to implement the principle of the biosphere compatibility as the core prerequisite for the symbiotic co-existence of man and nature. Caring treatment of the biosphere, termination of its excessive exploitation, analysis of the ratio between the biospheric potential of specific areas…

  14. Group dynamics challenges: Insights from Biosphere 2 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Gray, Kathelin; Allen, John P.

    2015-07-01

    Successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups is vital for long duration space exploration/habitation and for terrestrial CELSS (Controlled Environmental Life Support System) facilities with human participants. Biosphere 2 had important differences and shares some key commonalities with both Antarctic and space environments. There were a multitude of stress factors during the first two year closure experiment as well as mitigating factors. A helpful tool used at Biosphere 2 was the work of W.R. Bion who identified two competing modalities of behavior in small groups. Task-oriented groups are governed by conscious acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time and resources, and intelligent management of challenges. The opposing unconscious mode, the "basic-assumption" ("group animal") group, manifests through Dependency/Kill the Leader, Fight/Flight and Pairing. These unconscious dynamics undermine and can defeat the task group's goal. The biospherians experienced some dynamics seen in other isolated teams: factions developing reflecting personal chemistry and disagreements on overall mission procedures. These conflicts were exacerbated by external power struggles which enlisted support of those inside. Nevertheless, the crew evolved a coherent, creative life style to deal with some of the deprivations of isolation. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 vividly illustrates both vicissitudes and management of group dynamics. The crew overrode inevitable frictions to creatively manage both operational and research demands and opportunities of the facility, thus staying 'on task' in Bion's group dynamics terminology. The understanding that Biosphere 2 was their life support system may also have helped the mission to succeed. Insights from the Biosphere 2 experience can help space and remote missions cope successfully with the inherent challenges of small, isolated crews.

  15. Group dynamics challenges: Insights from Biosphere 2 experiments.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Mark; Gray, Kathelin; Allen, John P

    2015-07-01

    Successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups is vital for long duration space exploration/habitation and for terrestrial CELSS (Controlled Environmental Life Support System) facilities with human participants. Biosphere 2 had important differences and shares some key commonalities with both Antarctic and space environments. There were a multitude of stress factors during the first two year closure experiment as well as mitigating factors. A helpful tool used at Biosphere 2 was the work of W.R. Bion who identified two competing modalities of behavior in small groups. Task-oriented groups are governed by conscious acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time and resources, and intelligent management of challenges. The opposing unconscious mode, the "basic-assumption" ("group animal") group, manifests through Dependency/Kill the Leader, Fight/Flight and Pairing. These unconscious dynamics undermine and can defeat the task group's goal. The biospherians experienced some dynamics seen in other isolated teams: factions developing reflecting personal chemistry and disagreements on overall mission procedures. These conflicts were exacerbated by external power struggles which enlisted support of those inside. Nevertheless, the crew evolved a coherent, creative life style to deal with some of the deprivations of isolation. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 vividly illustrates both vicissitudes and management of group dynamics. The crew overrode inevitable frictions to creatively manage both operational and research demands and opportunities of the facility, thus staying 'on task' in Bion's group dynamics terminology. The understanding that Biosphere 2 was their life support system may also have helped the mission to succeed. Insights from the Biosphere 2 experience can help space and remote missions cope successfully with the inherent challenges of small, isolated crews. PMID:26256631

  16. Boundaries of life: estimating the life span of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; von Bloh, W.

    We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle ocean floor continental crust continental biosphere and the Kerogen as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere and obtain reasonable values for the present distribution of carbon in the surface reservoirs of the Earth The Earth system model for the long-term carbon cycle is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere prokaryotes eucaryotes and complex multicellular life They are characterized by different global temperature tolerance windows prokaryotes 2oC 100oC eucaryotes 5oC 45oC complex multicellular life 0oC 30oC From the Archaean to the future there always exists a prokaryotic biosphere 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears because the global surface temperature reaches the tolerance window for eucaryotes The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0 54 Gyr ago In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance For realistic values of the biotic enhancement of weathering there is no bistability in the future solutions for complex life Therefore complex organisms will not extinct by an implosion in comparison to the Cambrian explosion Eucaryotes and complex life become extinct because of too high surface temperatures in the future The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1 6 Gyr

  17. Drivers and patterns of land biosphere carbon balance reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christoph; Stehfest, Elke; van Minnen, Jelle G.; Strengers, Bart; von Bloh, Werner; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Kram, Tom; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The carbon balance of the land biosphere is the result of complex interactions between land, atmosphere and oceans, including climatic change, carbon dioxide fertilization and land-use change. While the land biosphere currently absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, this carbon balance might be reversed under climate and land-use change (‘carbon balance reversal’). A carbon balance reversal would render climate mitigation much more difficult, as net negative emissions would be needed to even stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We investigate the robustness of the land biosphere carbon sink under different socio-economic pathways by systematically varying climate sensitivity, spatial patterns of climate change and resulting land-use changes. For this, we employ a modelling framework designed to account for all relevant feedback mechanisms by coupling the integrated assessment model IMAGE with the process-based dynamic vegetation, hydrology and crop growth model LPJmL. We find that carbon balance reversal can occur under a broad range of forcings and is connected to changes in tree cover and soil carbon mainly in northern latitudes. These changes are largely a consequence of vegetation responses to varying climate and only partially of land-use change and the rate of climate change. Spatial patterns of climate change as deduced from different climate models, substantially determine how much pressure in terms of global warming and land-use change the land biosphere will tolerate before the carbon balance is reversed. A reversal of the land biosphere carbon balance can occur as early as 2030, although at very low probability, and should be considered in the design of so-called peak-and-decline strategies.

  18. Reserve battery

    SciTech Connect

    Theiss, G.H.

    1990-05-15

    This patent describes a reserve battery. It comprises: a battery cell compartment defined by housing walls surrounding rounding battery cells and having an open top; a lower bulkhead member spanning the open top of the battery cell compartment and having fill tubes depending from a downwardly facing surface of the lower bulkhead member, one fill tube being provided for each of the battery cells, and each fill tube having internal walls defining a passageway between the interior of the battery cell compartment and an upwardly facing surface of the lower bulkhead member; an upper bulkhead member having a downwardly facing surface opposite and spaced apart from the upwardly facing surface of the lower bulkhead member to form a bulkhead cavity; an elastic reservoir bag in an expanded state containing an electrolyte fluid under pressure and having an opening connected to a passageway to the bulkhead cavity; operable means for sealing the passageway between the reservoir bag opening and the cavity; and housing walls defining a containment for the reservoir bag.

  19. WEB-DHM: A distributed biosphere hydrological model developed by coupling a simple biosphere scheme with a hillslope hydrological model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coupling of land surface models and hydrological models potentially improves the land surface representation, benefiting both the streamflow prediction capabilities as well as providing improved estimates of water and energy fluxes into the atmosphere. In this study, the simple biosphere model 2...

  20. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  1. Chile Pepper Response to Nitrogen Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, we evaluated the effects of N fertilization (6 N rates) on chile pepper fresh yield and biomass accumulation following two years of continuous corn production. A polymer-coated urea, ESN® (Environmentally Smart Nitrogen), N fertilizer source was used. Fresh chile pepper yields increased ...

  2. Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmgren, C.A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18??S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human domination of the biosphere: Rapid discharge of the earth-space battery foretells the future of humankind.

    PubMed

    Schramski, John R; Gattie, David K; Brown, James H

    2015-08-01

    Earth is a chemical battery where, over evolutionary time with a trickle-charge of photosynthesis using solar energy, billions of tons of living biomass were stored in forests and other ecosystems and in vast reserves of fossil fuels. In just the last few hundred years, humans extracted exploitable energy from these living and fossilized biomass fuels to build the modern industrial-technological-informational economy, to grow our population to more than 7 billion, and to transform the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity of the earth. This rapid discharge of the earth's store of organic energy fuels the human domination of the biosphere, including conversion of natural habitats to agricultural fields and the resulting loss of native species, emission of carbon dioxide and the resulting climate and sea level change, and use of supplemental nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics governing the trickle-charge and rapid discharge of the earth's battery are universal and absolute; the earth is only temporarily poised a quantifiable distance from the thermodynamic equilibrium of outer space. Although this distance from equilibrium is comprised of all energy types, most critical for humans is the store of living biomass. With the rapid depletion of this chemical energy, the earth is shifting back toward the inhospitable equilibrium of outer space with fundamental ramifications for the biosphere and humanity. Because there is no substitute or replacement energy for living biomass, the remaining distance from equilibrium that will be required to support human life is unknown. PMID:26178196

  4. Exploring frontiers of the deep biosphere through scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; D'Hondt, S.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since the first deep biosphere-dedicated Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201 using the US drill ship JOIDES Resolution in 2002, scientific ocean drilling has offered unique opportunities to expand our knowledge of the nature and extent of the deep biosphere. The latest estimate of the global subseafloor microbial biomass is ~1029cells, accounting for 4 Gt of carbon and ~1% of the Earth's total living biomass. The subseafloor microbial communities are evolutionarily diverse and their metabolic rates are extraordinarily slow. Nevertheless, accumulating activity most likely plays a significant role in elemental cycles over geological time. In 2010, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329, the JOIDES Resolutionexplored the deep biosphere in the open-ocean South Pacific Gyre—the largest oligotrophic province on our planet. During Expedition 329, relatively high concentrations of dissolved oxygen and significantly low biomass of microbial populations were observed in the entire sediment column, indicating that (i) there is no limit to life in open-ocean sediment and (ii) a significant amount of oxygen reaches through the sediment to the upper oceanic crust. This "deep aerobic biosphere" inhabits the sediment throughout up to ~37 percent of the world's oceans. The remaining ~63 percent of the oceans is comprised of higher productivity areas that contain the "deep anaerobic biosphere". In 2012, during IODP Expedition 337, the Japanese drill ship Chikyu explored coal-bearing sediments down to 2,466 meters below the seafloor off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. Geochemical and microbiological analyses consistently showed the occurrence of methane-producing communities associated with the coal beds. Cell concentrations in deep sediments were notably lower than those expected from the global regression line, implying that the bottom of the deep biosphere is approached in these beds. Taxonomic composition of the deep coal-bearing communities profoundly

  5. The past, present and future supernova threat to Earth's biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Martin

    2011-12-01

    A brief review of the threat posed to Earth's biosphere via near-by supernova detonations is presented. The expected radiation dosage, cosmic ray flux and expanding blast wave collision effects are considered, and it is argued that a typical supernova must be closer than ˜10-pc before any appreciable and potentially harmful atmosphere/biosphere effects are likely to occur. In contrast, the critical distance for Gamma-ray bursts is of order 1-kpc. In spite of the high energy effects potentially involved, the geological record provides no clear-cut evidence for any historic supernova induced mass extinctions and/or strong climate change episodes. This, however, is mostly a reflection of their being numerous possible (terrestrial and astronomical) forcing mechanisms acting upon the biosphere and the difficulty of distinguishing between competing scenarios. Key to resolving this situation, it is suggested, is the development of supernova specific extinction and climate change linked ecological models. Moving to the future, we estimate that over the remaining lifetime of the biosphere (˜2 Gyr) the Earth might experience 1 GRB and 20 supernova detonations within their respective harmful threat ranges. There are currently at least 12 potential pre-supernova systems within 1-kpc of the Sun. Of these systems IK Pegasi is the closest Type Ia pre-supernova candidate and Betelgeuse is the closest potential Type II supernova candidate. We review in some detail the past, present and future behavior of these two systems. Developing a detailed evolutionary model we find that IK Pegasi will likely not detonate until some 1.9 billion years hence, and that it affords absolutely no threat to Earth's biosphere. Betelgeuse is the closest, reasonably well understood, pre-supernova candidate to the Sun at the present epoch, and may undergo detonation any time within the next several million years. The stand-off distance of Betelgeuse at the time of its detonation is estimated to fall

  6. Evaluation of Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek; P. Rogers

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of biosphere features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP along with the corresponding technical basis for the excluded FEPs and the descriptions of how the included FEPs were incorporated in the biosphere model. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report concern characteristics of the reference biosphere, the receptor, and the environmental transport and receptor exposure pathways for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios considered in biosphere modeling. This revision provides the summary of the implementation of included FEPs in TSPA-LA, (i.e., how the FEP is included); for excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report is one of the 10 documents constituting the biosphere model documentation suite. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' describes in detail the biosphere conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters and their development. Outputs from these six reports are used in the ''Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis and Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' to generate the biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs), which are input parameters for

  7. Energy requirements of a biosphere. [in outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kok, B.; Radmer, R.

    1976-01-01

    The question is considered of whether a biosphere similar to that on earth could exist in the region of the outer planets, where relatively little light is available for photosynthetic processes. The type of photosynthesis most abundant on earth is discussed along with light conversion in photosynthesis, the light-harvesting system in plants, photosynthetic efficiency, and carbon production in nature. The dynamic range of metabolic rates is examined, and photosynthesis in anaerobic organisms is described. It is suggested that organisms having very large photosynthetic pigment units would thrive in the light intensities prevailing on Titan and that the surface of Titan might well be able to maintain a biosphere driven by oxygen-generating photosynthesis.

  8. Lunar subsurface architecture enhanced by artificial biosphere concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klassi, Jason D.; Rocha, Carlos J.; Carr, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of artificial biosphere technology with subselene architecture can create a life-enhancing, productive habitat that is safe from solar radiation and extreme temperature fluctuations while maximizing resources brought from Earth and derived from lunar regolith. In the short term, the resulting biotectural (biosphere and architectural) designs will not only make the structures more habitable, productive, and manageable, but will ultimately provide the self-sufficiency factors necessary for the mature lunar settlement. From a long-term perspective, this biotecture approach to astronautics and extraterrestrial development (1) helps reduce mass lift requirements, (2) contributes to habitat self-sufficiency, and (3) actualizes at least one philosophy of solar system exploration, which is to exploit nonterrestrial resources in an effort to conserve our natural resources on this planet.

  9. Cambrian explosion triggered by geosphere-biosphere feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bloh, Werner; Bounama, Christine; Franck, Siegfried

    2003-09-01

    A new hypothesis for the cause of the Cambrian explosion is presented. For that the evolution of the planet Earth is described by the co-evolution of the geosphere-biosphere system. Here we specify our previously published Earth system model for the long-term carbon cycle by introducing three different types of biosphere: procaryotes, eucaryotes, and complex multicellular life. They are characterized by different global temperature tolerance windows. The biotic enhancement of silicate weathering by complex multicellular life adds an additional feedback to the system and triggers the Cambrian explosion. The Cambrian explosion is characterized by a sudden increase of biomass and a rapid cooling, which amplified the spread of complex multicellular life. Cooling events in the Neoproterozoic, however, could force a premature appearance of complex multicellular life.

  10. Information in the Biosphere: Biological and Digital Worlds.

    PubMed

    Gillings, Michael R; Hilbert, Martin; Kemp, Darrell J

    2016-03-01

    Evolution has transformed life through key innovations in information storage and replication, including RNA, DNA, multicellularity, and culture and language. We argue that the carbon-based biosphere has generated a cognitive system (humans) capable of creating technology that will result in a comparable evolutionary transition. Digital information has reached a similar magnitude to information in the biosphere. It increases exponentially, exhibits high-fidelity replication, evolves through differential fitness, is expressed through artificial intelligence (AI), and has facility for virtually limitless recombination. Like previous evolutionary transitions, the potential symbiosis between biological and digital information will reach a critical point where these codes could compete via natural selection. Alternatively, this fusion could create a higher-level superorganism employing a low-conflict division of labor in performing informational tasks. PMID:26777788

  11. Technical review of the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, W. F.; Thillo, M. Van; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory Biosphere is a 40 m 3 closed life system that commenced operation in May 2002. Light is from 12,000 W of high pressure sodium lamps over planting beds with 5.37 m 2 of soil. Water is 100% recycled by collecting condensate from the temperature and humidity control system and mixing with leachate collected from under the planting beds. Atmospheric leakage was estimated during the first closure experiment to be 0.5-1% per day in general plus about 1% for each usage of the airlock door. The first trial run of 94 days was with a soybean crop grown from seeds (May 17, 2002) to harvest (August 14, 2002) plus 5 days of post-harvest closure. The focus of this initial trial was system testing to confirm functionality and identify any necessary modifications or improvements. This paper describes the organizational and physical features of the Laboratory Biosphere.

  12. An extensive phase space for the potential martian biosphere.

    PubMed

    Jones, Eriita G; Lineweaver, Charles H; Clarke, Jonathan D

    2011-12-01

    We present a comprehensive model of martian pressure-temperature (P-T) phase space and compare it with that of Earth. Martian P-T conditions compatible with liquid water extend to a depth of ∼310 km. We use our phase space model of Mars and of terrestrial life to estimate the depths and extent of the water on Mars that is habitable for terrestrial life. We find an extensive overlap between inhabited terrestrial phase space and martian phase space. The lower martian surface temperatures and shallower martian geotherm suggest that, if there is a hot deep biosphere on Mars, it could extend 7 times deeper than the ∼5 km depth of the hot deep terrestrial biosphere in the crust inhabited by hyperthermophilic chemolithotrophs. This corresponds to ∼3.2% of the volume of present-day Mars being potentially habitable for terrestrial-like life. PMID:22149914

  13. Exploration and protection of Europa's biosphere: implications of permeable ice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Europa has become a high-priority objective for exploration because it may harbor life. Strategic planning for its exploration has been predicated on an extreme model in which the expected oceanic biosphere lies under a thick ice crust, buried too deep to be reached in the foreseeable future, which would beg the question of whether other active satellites might be more realistic objectives. However, Europa's ice may in fact be permeable, with very different implications for the possibilities for life and for mission planning. A biosphere may extend up to near the surface, making life far more readily accessible to exploration while at the same time making it vulnerable to contamination. The chances of finding life on Europa are substantially improved while the need for planetary protection becomes essential. The new National Research Council planetary protection study will need to go beyond its current mandate if meaningful standards are to be put in place. PMID:21417946

  14. A quantitative assessment of a terrestrial biosphere model's data needs across North American biomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Michael C.; Serbin, Shawn P.; Davidson, Carl; Desai, Ankur R.; Feng, Xiaohui; Kelly, Ryan; Kooper, Rob; LeBauer, David; Mantooth, Joshua; McHenry, Kenton; Wang, Dan

    2014-03-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models are designed to synthesize our current understanding of how ecosystems function, test competing hypotheses of ecosystem function against observations, and predict responses to novel conditions such as those expected under climate change. Reducing uncertainties in such models can improve both basic scientific understanding and our predictive capacity, but rarely are ecosystem models employed in the design of field campaigns. We provide a synthesis of carbon cycle uncertainty analyses conducted using the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer ecoinformatics workflow with the Ecosystem Demography model v2. This work is a synthesis of multiple projects, using Bayesian data assimilation techniques to incorporate field data and trait databases across temperate forests, grasslands, agriculture, short rotation forestry, boreal forests, and tundra. We report on a number of data needs that span a wide array of diverse biomes, such as the need for better constraint on growth respiration, mortality, stomatal conductance, and water uptake. We also identify data needs that are biome specific, such as photosynthetic quantum efficiency at high latitudes. We recommend that future data collection efforts balance the bias of past measurements toward aboveground processes in temperate biomes with the sensitivities of different processes as represented by ecosystem models. ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Evolution of the Early Earth and Its Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of life on Earth is a rich tapestry of adaptation and innovation which was shaped, at least in part, by the changing surface environment of our planet. To the extent that all rocky planets have followed similar evolutionary paths, studies of our own biosphere can guide us in our search for extraterrestrial life. Understanding the nature, timing, and causes of long-term changes in the global environment is a key objective.

  16. SeaWiFS Third Anniversary Global Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    September 18,2000 is the third anniversary of the start of regular SeaWiFS operations of this remarkable planet called Earth. This SeaWiFS image is of the Global Biosphere depicting the ocean's long-term average phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration acquired between September 1997 and August 2000 combined with the SeaWiFS-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) over land during July 2000.

  17. Technical Review of the Laboratory Biosphere Closed Ecological System Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, W.; van Thillo, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.

    The "Laboratory Biosphere", a new closed ecological system facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) has been constructed and became operational in May 2002. Built and operated by the Global Ecotechnics consortium (Biosphere Technologies and Biosphere Foundation with Biospheric Design Inc., and the Institute of Ecotechnics), the research apparatus for intensive crop growth, biogeochemical cycle dynamics and recycling of inedible crop biomass comprises a sealed cylindrical steel chamber and attached variable volume chamber (lung) to prevent pressures caused by the expansion and contraction of the contained air. The cylindrical growing chamber is 3.7m (12 feet) long and 3.7m (12 foot) diameter, giving an internal volume of 34 m3 (1200 ft 3 ). The two crop growth beds cover 5.5 m2, with a soil depth of 0.3m (12 inches), with 12 x 1000 watt high-pressure sodium lights capable of variable lighting of 40-70 mol per m2 per day. A small soil bed reactor in the chamber can be activated to help with metabolism of chamber trace gases. The volume of the attached variable volume chamber (lung) can range between 0-11 m3 (0-400 ft 3 ). Evapotranspired and soil leachate water are collected, combined and recycled to water the planting beds. Sampling ports enable testing of water quality of leachate, condensate and irrigation water. Visual inspection windows provide views of the entire interior and growing beds. The chamber is also outfitted with an airlock to minimize air exchange when people enter and work in the chamber. Continuous sensors include atmospheric CO2 and oxygen, temperature, humidity, soil moisture, light level and water levels in reservoirs. Both "sniffer" (air ports) and "sipper" (water ports) will enable collection of water or air samples for detailed analysis. This paper reports on the development of this new soil-based bioregenerative life support closed system apparatus and its technical challenges and capabilities.

  18. Unifying principles of the deep terrestrial and deep marine biospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colwell, Frederick S.; Smith, Richard P.

    Recent estimates of the amount of microbial biomass in the combined marine and terrestrial subsurface boost this portion of the biosphere to a level which needs to be considered when integrating where life exists on our planet. Additionally, the subsurface serves practical needs associated with groundwater, waste disposal, and resource recovery. Although our view of this isolated ecosystem is restricted by technologies used to access samples, we are learning more about places where life thrives in the subsurface and where life is severely repressed. Until studies of hyperthermophiles provide different information, a thermal boundary to life exists at the 120°C isotherm. Other locations in the subsurface are barren where they are impoverished by low fluid flux to supply electron donors and acceptors or by limited pore space in which microorganisms can reside. Examples of such locations include deep vadose zones and igneous rock masses with limited fractures. In contrast, subsurface locations that show evidence of gaseous or liquid flux are the most likely to yield higher numbers of microorganisms. Locations that have marine and terrestrial hydrothermal convection cells, active methane venting, solid-liquid-gas phase changes, as well as zones of salinity and porosity contrasts are all examples of demonstrated or potential subsurface oases. Our ability to conceptualize and quantify the subsurface biosphere will be accelerated by new sampling tools and molecular characterization methods for microbes. The merging of disparate disciplines such as microbiology, geophysics, and tectonic research will extend our ability to fully comprehend the deep biosphere.

  19. Nonlinear geosphere-biosphere interactions and the Cambrian explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bloh, W.; Bounama, C.; Franck, S.

    2003-04-01

    A conceptual model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle, ocean floor, continental crust, continental biosphere, the kerogen , as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere is presented. In this study the evolution of the mean global surface temperature, the biomass, and reservoir sizes over the whole history and future of the Earth under a maturing Sun is investigated. Reasonable values for the present distribution of carbon in the surface reservoirs of the Earth are obtained and a pronounced global minimum of mean surface temperature at the present state of the Earth is found. Furthermore, three different biosphere types are introduced: procaryotes, eucaryotes, and higher metazoa. They all differ in their temperature tolerance interval and their biogenic enhancement of silicate rock weathering. Around 500 Myr in the past we find a rise of higher metazoa caused by the nonlinear feedback between biosphere and climate. Biotic amplifying of weathering provides and maintains the environment of higher life forms. Such a mechanism may explain the so-called Cambrian explosion.

  20. Indian Reserved Water Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

  1. Qualitative properties of the minimal model of carbon circulation in the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestunov, Aleksandr; Fedotov, Anatoliy; Medvedev, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Substantial changes in the biosphere during recent decades have caused legitimate concern in the international community. The fact that feedbacks between the atmospheric CO2 concentration, global temperature, permafrost, ocean CO2 concentration and air humidity increases the risk of catastrophic phenomena on the planetary scale. The precautionary principle allows us to consider greenhouse effect using the mathematical models of the biosphere-climate system. Minimal models do not allow us to make a quantitative description of the "biosphere-climate" system dynamics, which is determined by the aggregate effect of the set of known climatic and biosphere processes. However, the study of such models makes it possible to understand the qualitative mechanisms of biosphere processes and to evaluate their possible consequences. The global minimal model of long-term dynamics of carbon in biosphere is considered basing on assumption that anthropogenous carbon emissions in atmosphere are absent [1]. Qualitative analysis of the model shows that there exists a set of model parameters (taken from the current estimation ranges), such that the system becomes unstable. It is also shown that external influences on the carbon circulation can lead either to degradation of the biosphere or to global temperature change [2]. This work is aimed at revealing the conditions under which the biosphere model can become unstable, which can result in catastrophic changes in the Earth's biogeocenoses. The minimal model of the biosphere-climate system describes an improbable, but, nevertheless, a possible worst-case scenario of the biosphere evolution takes into consideration only the most dangerous biosphere mechanisms and ignores some climate feedbacks (such as transpiration). This work demonstrates the possibility of implementing the trigger mode in the biosphere, which can lead to dramatic changes in the state of the biosphere even without additional burning of fossil fuels. This mode

  2. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning

  3. Earth's Early Biosphere and the Biogeochemical Carbon Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David

    2004-01-01

    Our biosphere has altered the global environment principally by influencing the chemistry of those elements most important for life, e g., C, N, S, O, P and transition metals (e.g., Fe and Mn). The coupling of oxygenic photosynthesis with the burial in sediments of photosynthetic organic matter, and with the escape of H2 to space, has increased the state of oxidation of the Oceans and atmosphere. It has also created highly reduced conditions within sedimentary rocks that have also extensively affected the geochemistry of several elements. The decline of volcanism during Earth's history reduced the flow of reduced chemical species that reacted with photosynthetically produced O2. The long-term net accumulation of photosynthetic O2 via biogeochemical processes has profoundly influenced our atmosphere and biosphere, as evidenced by the O2 levels required for algae, multicellular life and certain modem aerobic bacteria to exist. When our biosphere developed photosynthesis, it tapped into an energy resource that was much larger than the energy available from oxidation-reduction reactions associated with weathering and hydrothermal activity. Today, hydrothermal sources deliver globally (0.13-1.1)x10(exp l2) mol yr(sup -1) of reduced S, Fe(2+), Mn(2+), H2 and CH4; this is estimated to sustain at most about (0.2-2)xl0(exp 12)mol C yr(sup -1) of organic carbon production by chemautotrophic microorganisms. In contrast, global photosynthetic productivity is estimated to be 9000x10(exp 12) mol C yr(sup -1). Thus, even though global thermal fluxes were greater in the distant geologic past than today, the onset of oxygenic photosynthesis probably increased global organic productivity by some two or more orders of magnitude. This enormous productivity materialized principally because oxygenic photosynthesizers unleashed a virtually unlimited supply of reduced H that forever freed life from its sole dependence upon abiotic sources of reducing power such as hydrothermal emanations

  4. Putting the Deep Biosphere on the Map for Oceanography Courses: Gas Hydrates As a Case Study for the Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, J. J.; Briggs, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is essential for life on our planet. It covers 71% of the Earth's surface, is the source of the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the food we eat. Yet, the exponential growth in human population is putting the ocean and thus life on our planet at risk. However, based on student evaluations from our introductory oceanography course it is clear that our students have deficiencies in ocean literacy that impact their ability to recognize that the ocean and humans are inextricably connected. Furthermore, life present in deep subsurface marine environments is also interconnected to the study of the ocean, yet the deep biosphere is not typically covered in undergraduate oceanography courses. In an effort to improve student ocean literacy we developed an instructional module on the deep biosphere focused on gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, our module utilizes Google Earth and cutting edge research about microbial life in the ocean to support three inquiry-based activities that each explore different facets of gas hydrates (i.e. environmental controls, biologic controls, and societal implications). The relevant nature of the proposed module also makes it possible for instructors of introductory geology courses to modify module components to discuss related topics, such as climate, energy, and geologic hazards. This work, which will be available online as a free download, is a solid contribution toward increasing the available teaching resources focused on the deep biosphere for geoscience educators.

  5. An Energy Overview of Chile

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Chile. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  6. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  7. Report on the ESO Chile Science Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Science Days in Santiago are an annual gathering of ESO's geographically dispersed team in Chile to learn more about each other's research, to celebrate scientific achievements of the past year and to encourage new collaborations.

  8. Public Information and Education in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argandona, G.; Mirabel, F.

    2005-09-01

    One of the initiatives of ESO in Chile is the strengthening of the links with Chilean and Latin American media, to provide the information needed to educate the public in Latin America on the latest advancements in astronomy and astrophysics. This initiative has produced a considerable increase in the media coverage of ESO science activities, as described in Figure 1, which shows the evolution in the number of media publications in Chile on recent achievements at ESO.

  9. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  10. Drastic environmental change and its effects on a planetary biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N.; Fairén, Alberto G.

    2013-07-01

    Environmental conditions can change drastically and rapidly during the natural history of a planetary body. These changes affect the biosphere and can spur evolution via the mechanism of directional selection leading to the innovation of new processes and forms of life, or alternatively leading to the extinction of certain life forms. Based on the natural history of Earth, the effect on a planet's biosphere depends on three factors: (1) the nature and time scale of change, (2) the composition of the biosphere prior to change, and (3) the nature of the environment following the change. Though Earth has undergone various periods of drastic environmental change, life has shown an enormous resiliency and became more diverse and complex as a consequence of these events. Mars and Venus have undergone even larger environmental changes, both from habitable conditions under which the origin of life (or transfer of life from Earth) seem plausible, to a dry and cold planet punctuated by wetter conditions, and a hyperthermic greenhouse, respectively. Given its planetary history, life on Mars could have retreated to a psychrophilic lifestyle in the deep subsurface or to environmental near-surface niches, such as hydrothermal regions and caves. Further, strong directional selection could have pushed putative martian life to evolve alternating cycles between active and dormant forms, as well as the innovation of new traits adapted to challenging near-surface conditions. Life in the subsurface or on the surface of Venus seems impossible today, but microorganisms may have adapted to thrive in the lower cloud layer, possibly using a biochemical strategy analogous to Photosystem I and chemoautotrophic sulfur metabolism, and employing cycloocta sulfur for UV protection.

  11. Lipids biomarkers of the deep terrestrial subsurface biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, M. R.; Momper, L.; Schubotz, F.; Summons, R. E.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lipid biomarkers are key tools for the interpretation of past and present environments, and specifically, intact polar lipids (IPLs) reflect contributions from the living biosphere. While several studies have documented intact polar lipid (IPL) distributions in the marine subsurface, the organic geochemistry of terrestrial subsurface communities remains poorly characterized. Here we present IPL distributions from a portal into deep terrestrial biosphere, the former Homestake Mine, SD USA. Interpretation of IPL distributions can be hampered by a lack of comparative pure culture information or comparative molecular and geochemical data, thus we performed IPL analysis in conjunction with detailed geochemistry and DNA sequencing. A large diversity of lipid structures is observed including phospholipids, aminolipids, glycolipids, GDGTs, and a number of unidentified compounds. Variability in lipid distributions is not random with individual samples clustering based on physical and geochemical parameters. For instance, biofilm samples contain abundant aminolipids relative to filtered subsurface fluid samples. Does this difference reflect phosphorus scarcity in the biofilms, or production of aminolipids by specific microbial phyla? Using comparative analysis between the IPL, molecular, and geochemical datasets we address this, and similar questions, as well as identify potential microbial sources of unknown biomarkers. In the case of the aminolipids, we observe strong covariation between the lipid distribution and that of the bacteroidetes, epsilonproteobacteria, and spirochaetes, but no correlation with P concentration. We can also extend this comparison globally; asking how similar IPL distributions of the deep terrestrial subsurface are previously studied sites. A surprising finding from this work is the total lack of similarity between deep marine and terrestrial subsurface sites. This contribution will help to define the phylogenetic and geochemical mechanisms driving

  12. Crucial crises in biology: life in the deep biosphere.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R

    1998-12-01

    The origin and evolution of life on Earth are the result of a series of crises that have taken place on the planet over about 4500 millions of years since it originated. Biopoiesis (origin of life), ecopoiesis (origin of ecosystems) and the first ecosystems (stromatolites and microbial mats), as well as eukaryopoiesis (origin of nucleated cells) are revised. The paper then focuses on the study of the deep biosphere, describing ecosystems never found before, which are independent of solar radiation and have changed previous assumptions about the requirements of life; even the concept of biosphere, as Vernadsky defined it, has increased its scope. Since the discovery, in 1987, of bacteria growing in the crevices of rocks at 500 m deep, in boreholes drilled near the Savanna River, Aiken, South Carolina, other bacteria have been found in the deep subsurface reaching depths of about 3 km (e.g., in the Columbia River Basalt Group, near Richland, Washington state), in an anaerobic, hot, high-pressure environment. Some kinds of microorganisms can thrive at such depths, living in many cases a geochemical existence, by using very specialized metabolisms, which depend on the local environments. The existence of organisms independent from photosynthetic production is the most outstanding, novel feature of the deep biosphere. Living beings might not need other energy and chemical sources than those which occur in the development of all planetary bodies. Life, therefore, could even be an ineluctable outcome of planetary evolution and, as a corollary, a natural continuation of the usual development of physical phenomena in the universe. PMID:10943376

  13. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Energetics of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, V. G.; Dol'nik, V. R.

    1980-07-01

    Heterotrophic organisms live on accumulated plant and animal biomass. By harvesting the output of a land area that exceeds their coverage of the Earth's surface they attain consumption rates (per unit coverage by the organism) that exceed by several orders of magnitude the rate of production of vegetation (per unit Earth surface area). This occurs as a result of the fact that organisms move over the area they utilize due to the accumulation of production as biomass. Plants use photons, which have zero rest mass. Photons cannot be stored so that plants cannot increase their utilization of photons by moving about. For this reason, plants are stationary and the area they utilize coincides with the Earth surface area that they cover. Under natural conditions, approximately 90% of the vegetation is consumed by immobile microscopic organisms, for which the rate of consumption equals the rate of production of vegetation. As organisms become larger, their rates of consumption increase and the fraction of the production of vegetation that they consume decreases. (All vertebrates in the wild consume about 1% of the vegetation produced.) This results in a rapid increase in the area utilized as the size of the animal increases and increases the energy expended on grazing, which limits the increase in size. Man falls into the class of large organisms and under natural conditions must expend a large amount of energy on locomotion, which leads to all of his energy problems. When man learned how to combust the products of the biosphere and the fossil fuels outside the body and how to use this energy for locomotion, he became a more competitive mammal and he was able to increase his share of the total consumption in the biosphere to 25% of the vegetation produced on land by displacing the natural consumers. Such a high anthropogenic share of the total consumption in the biosphere can only be achieved through the use of nonrenewable energy resources.

  14. Terrestrial Biosphere Dynamics in the Climate System: Past and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, J.; Whitlock, C.; Huntley, B.

    2002-12-01

    The paleoenvironmental record makes it clear that climate change as large as is likely to occur in the next two centuries will drive change in the terrestrial biosphere that is both large and difficult to predict, or plan for. Many species, communities and ecosystems could experience rates of climate change, and "destination climates" that are unprecedented in their time on earth. The paleorecord also makes it clear that a wide range of possible climate system behavior, such as decades-long droughts, increases in large storm and flood frequency, and rapid sea level rise, all occurred repeatedly in the past, and for poorly understood reasons. These types of events, if they were to reoccur in the future, could have especially devastating impacts on biodiversity, both because their timing and spatial extent cannot be anticipated, and because the biota's natural defenses have been compromised by land-use, reductions in genetic flexibility, pollution, excess water utilization, invasive species, and other human influences. Vegetation disturbance (e.g., by disease, pests and fire) will undoubtedly be exacerbated by climate change (stress), but could also speed the rate at which terrestrial biosphere change takes place in the future. The paleoenvironmental record makes it clear that major scientific challenges include an improved ability to model regional biospheric change, both past and future. This in turn will be a prerequisite to obtaining realistic estimates of future biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks, and thus to obtaining better assessments of future climate change. These steps will help generate the improved understanding of climate variability that is needed to manage global biodiversity. However, the most troubling message from the paleoenvironmental record is that unchecked anthropogenic climate change could make the Earth's 6th major mass extinction unavoidable.

  15. Estimating the seasonal carbon source-sink geography of a natural, steady-state terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Box, Elgene O.

    1988-01-01

    The estimation of the seasonal dynamics of biospheric-carbon sources and sinks to be used as an input to global atmospheric CO2 studies and models is discussed. An ecological biosphere model is given and the advantages of the model are examined. Monthly maps of estimated biospheric carbon source and sink regions and estimates of total carbon fluxes are presented for an equilibrium terrestrial biosphere. The results are compared with those from other models. It is suggested that, despite maximum variations of atmospheric CO2 in boreal latitudes, the enormous contributions of tropical wet-dry regions to global atmospheric CO2 seasonality can not be ignored.

  16. The biosphere as a driver of global atmospheric change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the biosphere on the evolution of atmospheric oxygen and ozone, and the consequences of that development for global atmospheric change, are discussed. Attention is given to the impact of oxygen and ozone on atmospheric photolysis rates, the effect of oxygen on the biogenic production of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide, and the effects of the evolution of atmospheric oxygen on fires and biomass burning. The influence of the latter on atmospheric processes, particularly the production of methane, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide, is considered.

  17. Preliminary pathway analysis for YMP preclosure biosphere dose assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.; Liu, N.; Tappen, J.J.; Tung, C.H.

    1998-05-13

    The preliminary preclosure biosphere dose assessment for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) involves the calculation of a radiation dose to a subsistence farmer living near the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Eight radionuclides, H-3, Co-60, Kr-85, Sr-90, Ru-106, I-129, Cs-134, and Cs-137, are considered in this study. Radiation doses resulting from unit release rates of these radionuclides are analyzed. Total dose has been broken down into components that result from various exposure pathways. By using this approach, the most important pathways that deliver a radiation dose to a subsistence farmer can be clearly identified.

  18. Tracing the microbial biosphere into the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natalicchio, Marcello; Dela Pierre, Francesco; Birgel, Daniel; Lozar, Francesca; Peckmann, Jörn

    2016-04-01

    The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), one of the largest environmental crises in Earth history, occurred in the Mediterranean Basin about 6 Ma ago. The isolation of the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean caused the transformation of the Mediterranean sea into a giant salina. The establishment of harsh conditions (hypersalinity and anoxia) in the water mass had a strong impact on the aquatic biosphere, resulting in the apparent disappearance of many marine biota. This aspect is however controversial, mostly because of the finding of fossils of biota that actually survived the onset of the MSC. To trace the response of life to this catastrophic event, we studied the microbial biosphere (both body fossils and molecular fossils) archived in the sediments straddling the MSC onset (shales, carbonates and sulphates) from marginal subbasins (Piedmont Basin, northern Italy, and Nijar Basin, southern Spain). Despite the significant reduction of calcareous plankton, the progressive rise of other microorganisms (prokaryotes and eukaryotes) is documented in the studied sediments at the MSC onset. These microorganisms include remains of euryhaline and stenohaline diatoms and filamentous microfossils interpreted as vacuolated sulphide-oxidizing bacteria. This fossil assemblage, which typifies both marginal (gypsum) and more distal (carbonates and shale) deposits, indicates conditions of high primary productivity in the surface waters, favoured by increased nutrient influx in the course of high riverine runoff. Molecular fossils allow tracing of the microbial biosphere into the geological past. The rise of algal compounds (e.g. dinosterol) in the basal MSC deposits (gypsum, carbonate and shales), accompanied by the simultaneous increase of terrigenous organic material (n-alkanes), agree with the eutrophication of the basin. In addition, the MSC deposits show an instant and significant increase of archaeal biomarkers, including the archaeal membrane lipids archaeol and extended

  19. Cosmic Rays as a Factor of Biosphere Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    2014-11-01

    There are no doubts that the Earth's space environment in the past inevitably exerted direct and/or indirect influence [1--4] on the conditions of terrestrial life and biospheric evolution. Well-known cosmic factors are usually streams of cosmic dust and gas, comets and asteroids, cosmic rays (energetic particles of galactic and/or solar origin), interplanetary plasma (solar wind), and electromagnetic radiation of different energies, wavelengths, or frequencies. Of great interest are radiation conditions and their variations, especially in the remote past (over the geological time scales). The Sun, the most important and indispensable condition for the existence of the Earth's biosphere, is also a potential source of dangerous emissions. In continuation of (and in addition to) our review paper [3], below we summarize the observational data and results of theoretical works that have been carried out and/or published mainly after 2012. These studies are actually in the frontier region between the Astrobiology and Space Weather. Our main attention is paid to cosmic rays (CR) of galactic and solar origin (GCR and SCR, respectively).

  20. Cosmic Rays as a Factor of Biospheric Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    2014-10-01

    There are no doubts that the Earth's space environment in the past inevitably has exerted direct and/or indirect influence [1-4] on the conditions of terrestrial life and biospheric evolution. Well-known space factors are usually the fluxes of cosmic dust and gas, comets and asteroids, cosmic rays (energetic particles of galactic and/or solar origin), interplanetary plasma (solar wind) and electromagnetic radiation of different energies, wave lengths, or frequencies. Of great interest are radiation conditions and their variations, especially in the remote past (over the geological time scales). The Sun, the most important and indispensable condition for the existence of the Earth's biosphere, is also a potential source of dangerous emissions. In continuation of (and in addition to) our review paper [3], below we summarize the observational data and results of theoretical works that have been carried out and/or published mainly after 2012. These studies are actually in the frontier region between the Astrobiology and Space Weather. Our main attention is paid to cosmic rays (CR) of galactic and solar origin (GCR and SCR, respectively).

  1. Microbial activity in the marine deep biosphere: progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Orcutt, Beth N.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Colwell, Frederick S.; Glazer, Brian T.; Reese, Brandi Kiel; Kirkpatrick, John B.; Lapham, Laura L.; Mills, Heath J.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Wankel, Scott D.; Wheat, C. Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The vast marine deep biosphere consists of microbial habitats within sediment, pore waters, upper basaltic crust and the fluids that circulate throughout it. A wide range of temperature, pressure, pH, and electron donor and acceptor conditions exists—all of which can combine to affect carbon and nutrient cycling and result in gradients on spatial scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. Diverse and mostly uncharacterized microorganisms live in these habitats, and potentially play a role in mediating global scale biogeochemical processes. Quantifying the rates at which microbial activity in the subsurface occurs is a challenging endeavor, yet developing an understanding of these rates is essential to determine the impact of subsurface life on Earth's global biogeochemical cycles, and for understanding how microorganisms in these “extreme” environments survive (or even thrive). Here, we synthesize recent advances and discoveries pertaining to microbial activity in the marine deep subsurface, and we highlight topics about which there is still little understanding and suggest potential paths forward to address them. This publication is the result of a workshop held in August 2012 by the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) “theme team” on microbial activity (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:23874326

  2. A computational framework for a database of terrestrial biosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Holger; Müller, Markus; Ceballos-Núñez, Verónika; Sierra, Carlos A.

    2016-04-01

    Most terrestrial biosphere models consist of a set of coupled ordinary first order differential equations. Each equation represents a pool containing carbon with a certain turnover rate. Although such models share some basic mathematical structures, they can have very different properties such as number of pools, cycling rates, and internal fluxes. We present a computational framework that helps analyze the structure and behavior of terrestrial biosphere models using as an example the process of soil organic matter decomposition. The same framework can also be used for other sub-processes such as carbon fixation or allocation. First, the models have to be fed into a database consisting of simple text files with a common structure. Then they are read in using Python and transformed into an internal 'Model Class' that can be used to automatically create an overview stating the model's structure, state variables, internal and external fluxes. SymPy, a Python library for symbolic mathematics, helps to also calculate the Jacobian matrix at possibly given steady states and the eigenvalues of this matrix. If complete parameter sets are available, the model can also be run using R to simulate its behavior under certain conditions and to support a deeper stability analysis. In this case, the framework is also able to provide phase-plane plots if appropriate. Furthermore, an overview of all the models in the database can be given to help identify their similarities and differences.

  3. Deep-sea smokers: windows to a subsurface biosphere?

    PubMed

    Deming, J W; Baross, J A

    1993-07-01

    Since the discovery of hyperthermophilic microbial activity in hydrothermal fluids recovered from "smoker" vents on the East Pacific Rise, the widely accepted upper temperature limit for life (based on pure culture data) has risen from below the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure to approximately 115 degrees C. Many microbiologists seem willing to speculate that the maximum may be closer to 150 degrees C. We have postulated not only higher temperatures than these (under deep-sea hydrostatic pressures), but also the existence of a biosphere subsurface to accessible seafloor vents. New geochemical information from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicative of subsurface organic material caused us to re-examine both the literature on hyperthermophilic microorganisms cultured from deep-sea smoker environments and recent results of microbial sampling efforts at actively discharging smokers on the Endeavour Segment. Here we offer the case for a subsurface biosphere based on an interdisciplinary view of microbial and geochemical analyses of Endeavour smoker fluids, a case in keeping with rapidly evolving geophysical understanding of organic stability under deep-sea hydrothermal conditions. PMID:11538298

  4. Evaluating the Response of the Terrestrial Biosphere to Significant Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiach, I.; Baker, I. T.; Denning, A.

    2011-12-01

    The response of terrestrial fluxes of energy, water, and carbon to drought is evaluated. Major droughts should be clearly evident in reanalyzed precipitation data, although this is not always the case. With reduced precipitation we can expect a suppression in Gross Primary Photosynthesis (GPP) if physiological stress is sufficient, with atttendant changes in energy partitioning due to stomatal closure. There may also be a response in respiratory release of CO2 with temperature increase. This study aimed to investigate the behavior of the terrestrial biosphere using the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB3) during and following times of drought and to identify any model responses inconsistent with observational relationships. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was evaluated from 1983 to 2006 in order to evaluate historical drought maps, and to facilitate a qualitative analysis of modeled drought behavior. Standardized and raw anomaly maps were produced for modeled physiological variables (GPP, transpiration, respiration, heat fluxes, carbon flux, and stress factors) in order to determine general response patterns for comparison with observations. The SiB model was determined to be generally accurate in its representation of significant drought, with regard to perturbations in Bowen ratio, GPP, and CO2 respiration. However, model response was heterogeneous, and did not always respond in a manner consistent with published descriptions of drought.

  5. Groundwater activity on Mars and implications for a deep biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Joseph R.; Cuadros, Javier; Niles, Paul B.; Parnell, John; Deanne Rogers, A.; Wright, Shawn P.

    2013-02-01

    By the time eukaryotic life or photosynthesis evolved on Earth, the martian surface had become extremely inhospitable, but the subsurface of Mars could potentially have contained a vast microbial biosphere. Crustal fluids may have welled up from the subsurface to alter and cement surface sediments, potentially preserving clues to subsurface habitability. Here we present a conceptual model of subsurface habitability of Mars and evaluate evidence for groundwater upwelling in deep basins. Many ancient, deep basins lack evidence for groundwater activity. However, McLaughlin Crater, one of the deepest craters on Mars, contains evidence for Mg-Fe-bearing clays and carbonates that probably formed in an alkaline, groundwater-fed lacustrine setting. This environment strongly contrasts with the acidic, water-limited environments implied by the presence of sulphate deposits that have previously been suggested to form owing to groundwater upwelling. Deposits formed as a result of groundwater upwelling on Mars, such as those in McLaughlin Crater, could preserve critical evidence of a deep biosphere on Mars. We suggest that groundwater upwelling on Mars may have occurred sporadically on local scales, rather than at regional or global scales.

  6. Phosphorus cycling in the deep subseafloor biosphere at North Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defforey, D.; Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Phosphorus is a macronutrient involved both in functional and structural components of all living cells. This makes it an essential nutrient for life, including microbial life in the deep subseafloor habitat. Phosphorus availability in this environment is limited since it is thought to be mainly present in refractory mineral phases. However, recent estimates suggest that the deep biosphere may contain up to 1% of Earth's total biomass, which implies that microorganisms may possess mechanisms to harvest recalcitrant phosphorus compounds in this environment. This study sheds light on those mechanisms by investigating phosphorus cycling in deep open-ocean sediments using stable oxygen isotope ratios in phosphate. Furthermore, this study provides insight into changes in phosphorus bioavailability and mobility under a range of natural environmental conditions within the deep biosphere. Sediment samples were collected from four boreholes drilled during the IODP Expedition 336 to North Pond, an isolated sediment pond on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Sedimentary phosphorus compounds are characterized using sequential extractions (SEDEX), which separate them into five distinct pools. Phosphate from the various extracts are then concentrated, purified through a series of steps, then converted to silver phosphate, which is pyrolyzed and analyzed by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). The isotopic signatures and/or fractionations associated with many of the potential reactions and transformations operating in the P cycle have been determined, and provide the basis for interpreting isotopic data that are obtained from the phosphate extracts.

  7. Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cockell, Charles S.; Voytek, Mary A.; Gronstal, Aaron L.; Finster, Kai; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Howard, Kieren; Reitner, Joachim; Gohn, Gregory S.; Sanford, Ward E.; Horton, J. Wright, Jr.; Kallmeyer, Jens; Kelly, Laura; Powars, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Although a large fraction of the world's biomass resides in the subsurface, there has been no study of the effects of catastrophic disturbance on the deep biosphere and the rate of its subsequent recovery. We carried out an investigation of the microbiology of a 1.76 km drill core obtained from the ~35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA, with robust contamination control. Microbial enumerations displayed a logarithmic downward decline, but the different gradient, when compared to previously studied sites, and the scatter of the data are consistent with a microbiota influenced by the geological disturbances caused by the impact. Microbial abundance is low in buried crater-fill, ocean-resurge, and avalanche deposits despite the presence of redox couples for growth. Coupled with the low hydraulic conductivity, the data suggest the microbial community has not yet recovered from the impact ~35 million years ago. Microbial enumerations, molecular analysis of microbial enrichment cultures, and geochemical analysis showed recolonization of a deep region of impact-fractured rock that was heated to above the upper temperature limit for life at the time of impact. These results show how, by fracturing subsurface rocks, impacts can extend the depth of the biosphere. This phenomenon would have provided deep refugia for life on the more heavily bombarded early Earth, and it shows that the deeply fractured regions of impact craters are promising targets to study the past and present habitability of Mars.

  8. Prospects for the Study of Evolution in the Deep Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Jennifer F.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Brazelton, William J.; Tully, Benjamin J.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Moyer, Craig L.; Heidelberg, John F.; Nelson, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:22319515

  9. 1999 KUIPER PRIZE LECTURE. Cometary Origin of the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsemme, Armand H.

    2000-08-01

    Most of the biosphere was brought on the primitive Earth by an intense bombardment of comets. This included the atmosphere, the seawater and those volatile carbon compounds needed for the emergence of life. Comets were thrown into the inner Solar System by the strong perturbation induced by the growth of the giant planets' cores. The bulk of the Earth's bombardment came from those comets that accreted in Jupiter's zone, where the original deuterium enrichment had been diminished by steam coming from the hot, inner parts of the Solar System. This steam had condensed into icy chunks before their accretion into larger cometary nuclei. In contrast, comets that accreted in the zones of the outer giant planets kept their interstellar isotopic enrichments. Those comets contributed to the Earth's bombardment for a small amount only; they were mostly ejected into the Oort cloud and are the major source of the long-period comets observed today. The short-period comets, which come from the Kuiper Belt, should also have the same interstellar enrichment. The deuterium enrichment of seawater, accurately predicted by the previous scenario, has become one of the best telltales for the cometary origin of our biosphere. This cometary origin may have far-reaching cosmological consequences, in particular for the origin of life in other planetary systems.

  10. Analysis of village hybrid systems in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D J; Corbus, D; Holz, R

    1996-06-01

    Chile recently began a major rural electrification program to electrify those 240,000 families (about half of the rural people) who lack electricity access. In this paper, we discuss a pilot project to electrify three remote villages in Chile`s Region IX using wind/genset/battery hybrids. The intent of this project is to demonstrate the reliability and cost-effectiveness of wind/genset/battery hybrids and to encourage replication of these types of systems in Chile`s electrification program. For each village, electricity connections are planned for several residences, and also schools, health posts, community centers, or chapels. Projected average daily loads are small, ranging from 4 to 10 kWh. Using the optimization program HOMER and the simulation program Hybrid2, we evaluated options to maximize technical performance, minimize costs, and gain experience with a variety of systems and components. We find that wind/genset/battery hybrids will be able to provide cost-effective, reliable power for these sites. More importantly, their inherent flexibility allows for variations in load and resource without greatly affecting the cost of energy.

  11. History of Chile from the Conquest to Arturo Alessandri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, William F.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of materials on the history of Chile from the 1500s to the twentieth century. The bibliography includes works from the United States, England, and Chile on a variety of topics, including the colonial period, Pre-Columbian Chile, Indian life, culture, political structure, the impact of Spanish Imperialism, land…

  12. Human domination of the biosphere: Rapid discharge of the earth-space battery foretells the future of humankind

    PubMed Central

    Schramski, John R.; Gattie, David K.; Brown, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Earth is a chemical battery where, over evolutionary time with a trickle-charge of photosynthesis using solar energy, billions of tons of living biomass were stored in forests and other ecosystems and in vast reserves of fossil fuels. In just the last few hundred years, humans extracted exploitable energy from these living and fossilized biomass fuels to build the modern industrial-technological-informational economy, to grow our population to more than 7 billion, and to transform the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity of the earth. This rapid discharge of the earth’s store of organic energy fuels the human domination of the biosphere, including conversion of natural habitats to agricultural fields and the resulting loss of native species, emission of carbon dioxide and the resulting climate and sea level change, and use of supplemental nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics governing the trickle-charge and rapid discharge of the earth’s battery are universal and absolute; the earth is only temporarily poised a quantifiable distance from the thermodynamic equilibrium of outer space. Although this distance from equilibrium is comprised of all energy types, most critical for humans is the store of living biomass. With the rapid depletion of this chemical energy, the earth is shifting back toward the inhospitable equilibrium of outer space with fundamental ramifications for the biosphere and humanity. Because there is no substitute or replacement energy for living biomass, the remaining distance from equilibrium that will be required to support human life is unknown. PMID:26178196

  13. Expedition Atacama - project AMOS in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, J.; Kaniansky, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Slovak Video Meteor Network operates since 2009 (Tóth et al., 2011). It currently consists of four semi-automated all-sky video cameras, developed at the Astronomical Observatory in Modra, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Two new generations of AMOS (All-sky Meteor Orbit System) cameras operate fully automatically at the Canary Islands, Tenerife and La Palma, since March 2015 (Tóth et al., 2015). As a logical step, we plan to cover the southern hemisphere from Chile. We present observational experiences in meteor astronomy from the Atacama Desert and other astronomical sites in Chile. This summary of the observations lists meteor spectra records (26) between Nov.5-13, 2015 mostly Taurid meteors, single and double station meteors as well as the first light from the permanent AMOS stations in Chile.

  14. Non university sources of science in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2016-05-01

    The following ideas are widely accepted in Chile with respect to scientific activity: is carried out mainly in universities and science is considered a naturally university activity, that was developed in a period of more than 150 years by isolated individual efforts, c) it was transformed into an institutionalized activity at the universities after the university reform movement at the end of the 1960 decade, d) the activity is finally institutionalized in the country with the creation of the “Comisión Nacional de Investigatión Científica y Tecnológica, CONICYT (National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research) in 1967. This work presents preliminary findings showing that there are other institutional initiatives, different to the efforts from universities and directly dependent of the Chilean Government, in order to produce science and technology in Chile. This governmental initiatives start at the beginning of the Republic of Chile circa of 1810.

  15. Impact of Biomass Burning Aerosols on the Biosphere over Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavelle, F.; Haywood, J.; Mercado, L.; Folberth, G.; Bellouin, N.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) smoke from deforestation and the burning of agricultural waste emit a complex cocktail of aerosol particles and gases. BB emissions show a regional hotspot over South America on the edges of Amazonia. These major perturbations and impacts on surface temperature, surface fluxes, chemistry, radiation, rainfall, may have significant consequent impacts on the Amazon rainforest, the largest and most productive carbon store on the planet. There is therefore potential for very significant interaction and interplay between aerosols, clouds, radiation and the biosphere in the region. Terrestrial carbon production (i.e. photosynthesis) is intimately tied to the supply of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR - i.e. wavelengths between 300-690 nm). PAR in sufficient intensity and duration is critical for plant growth. However, if a decrease in total radiation is accompanied by an increase in the component of diffuse radiation, plant productivity may increase due to higher light use efficiency per unit of PAR and less photosynthetic saturation. This effect, sometimes referred as diffuse light fertilization effect, could have increased the global land carbon sink by approximately one quarter during the global dimming period and is expected to be a least as important locally. By directly interacting with radiation, BB aerosols significantly reduce the total amount of PAR available to plant canopies. In addition, BB aerosols also play a centre role in cloud formation because they provide the necessary cloud condensation nuclei, hence indirectly altering the water cycle and the components and quantity of PAR. In this presentation, we use the recent observations from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) to explore the impact of radiation changes on the carbon cycle in the Amazon region caused by BB emissions. A parameterisation of the impact of diffuse and direct radiation upon photosynthesis rates and net primary productivity in the

  16. Comets, Carbonaceous Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    The biosphere comprises the Earth s crust, atmosphere, oceans, and ice caps and the living organisms that survive within this habitat. The discoveries of barophilic chemolithoautotrophic thermophiles living deep within the crust and in deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and psychrophiles in permafrost and deep within the Antarctic Ice Sheet indicate the Earth s biosphere is far more extensive than previously recognized. Molecular biomarkers and Bacterial Paleontology provide evidence that life appeared very early on the primitive Earth and the origin of the biosphere is closely linked with the emergence of life. The role of comets, meteorites, and interstellar dust in the delivery of water, organics and prebiotic chemicals has long been recognized. Deuterium enrichment of seawater and comets indicates that comets delivered oceans to the early Earth. Furthermore, the similarity of the D/H ratios and the chemical compositions of CI carbonaceous meteorites and comets indicate that the CI meteorites may be remnants of cometary nuclei with most volatiles removed. Comets, meteorites, and interstellar dust also contain complex organic chemicals, amino acids, macromolecules, and kerogen-like biopolymers and may have played a crucial role in the delivery of complex organics and prebiotic chemicals during the Hadean (4.5-3.8 Gyr) period of heavy bombardment. The existence of indigenous microfossils of morphotypes of cyanobacteria in the CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites suggests that the paradigm that life originated endogenously in the primitive oceans of early Earth may require re-consideration. Recent data on the hot (300-400 K) black crust on comet P/Halley and Stardust images of P/Wild 2 showing depressions, tall cliffs, and pinnacles, indicate the presence of thick, durable, dark crusts on comets. If cavities within the ice and crust sustain vapor pressures in excess of 10 millibar, then localized pools of liquid water and brines could exist within the comet. Since life

  17. Deep Biosphere Secrets of the Mediterranean Salt Giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Giovanni; Lugli, Stefano; McGenity, Terry; Kuroda, Junichiro; Takai, Ken; Treude, Tina; Camerlenghi, Angelo

    2015-04-01

    One component of the IODP multi-platform drilling proposal called DREAM (Deep-Sea Record of Mediterranean Messisnian Events), plans to investigate the deep biosphere associated to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) Salt Giant. We propose that the MSC Salt Giant, because of the variety of chemical environments it produces, has the potential to harbour an unprecedented diversity of microbial life with exceptional metabolic activity. Gypsum and anhydrite deposits provide a virtually unlimited source of sulphate at depths where oxidants are a rarity in other sedimentary environments. When reduced organic carbon comes into contact with these minerals there is the potential for a dynamic deep biosphere community of sulphate reducers to develop, with implications for sedimentary biogeochemical cycles and the souring of cruide oil. But the thickness of the Messinian evaporites and the range of chemical environments it harbours poses fundamental questions: will the interaction of several extreme conditions of temperature, salinity, pressure and chemical composition limit the ability of microbes to take advantage of such favourable thermodynamic conditions? And has such a diverse set of physical and chemical environments fostered microbal diversity, rather than phylogenetic specialization, as recent research into deep Mediterranean brine systems seems to indicate ? Over three kilometres in thickness, approaching the known temperature limits of life and with fluids precipitating carbonate, sulphate, halite and potash salts, microbes living within and around the MSC Salt Giant will be subject to the most exotic combinations of extremes, and have likely evolved yet unknown adaptations. Gypsum and Halite crystals contain fluid inclusions that are a micro-habitat in which microbes survive for tens of thousands, to possibly millions, of years, posing the fundamental question of cells devoting nearly all of their energy flow to somatic maintenance needs, rather than growth and

  18. [Co-piloting economic development and the biosphere].

    PubMed

    Passet, R

    1992-01-01

    Development has reached a stage of evolution in which its effects on the biosphere have become critical, but the discipline of economics has not yet fully absorbed this change. Economic development is in conflict with the ability of ecosystems to regulate themselves largely because of its focus on the immediate exploitation of resources and neglect of bio- geo-chemical cycles and of effects on the larger environment. Development driven solely by economic considerations is destined to end in destruction. A co-management of economic development and the biosphere is required. Economics suffers from a reductionism in which the natural and the social are both denied their rightful places, and a single type of variable, usually monetary, is overemphasized. A new, multidimensional view of the relationship of the economy to the world is needed. The economy finds its raw materials and disposes of its wastes in the natural sphere, but its purpose and ends reside in the sociocultural sphere. The natural and social spheres are related to the economy, but they obey their own laws, which must be respected in economic calculations. The reproductive and renewing mechanisms of the biosphere should be considered constraints to be respected by development and included in economic calculations. Growth in per capita income should not be considered development when, as often happens, it is accompanied by destruction of sociocultural values and degradation of the relationship between individuals and their environment. The reality of economic development is that it is a process of creative destruction in which minerals, raw materials, and energy are transformed to create objects, while material and energy wastes are discarded in the environment. The models used by economists should take account of these processes. The concept of a multidimensional development in perpetual transformation and sensitive to human activity suggests the responsibility of each generation to its successors. Human

  19. Trends and future challenges in sampling the deep terrestrial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Michael J; Daly, Rebecca A; Mouser, Paula J; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R; Wrighton, Kelly C; Biddle, Jennifer F; Denis, Elizabeth H; Fredrickson, Jim K; Kieft, Thomas L; Onstott, Tullis C; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M; Phelps, Tommy J; Schrenk, Matthew O

    2014-01-01

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on "Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface" was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation's Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop. PMID:25309520

  20. Global Change and the Terrestrial Biosphere (449th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Alistair

    2009-04-22

    Since the Industrial Revolution, the increased use of fossil fuels has resulted in a dramatic and unprecedented rise in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Most scientists agree that increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have raised Earth's temperature and, without a reduction in emissions, will continue to do so. Terrestrial ecosystems sustain life on Earth through the production of food, fuel, fiber, clean air, and naturally purified water. But how will agriculture and ecosystems be affected by global change? Rogers will describe the impact of projected climate change on the terrestrial biosphere and explain why plants are not just passive respondents to global change, but play an important role in determining the rate of change.

  1. Contributions of Planetary Science to Studies of Early Biosphere Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The history of impact cratering on the Moon, and extrapolations of crater chronologies to the inner planets, suggests that the late accretionary history of the Earth overlapped with other crucial events in the its history, including the origin of terrestrial life. This evidence, acquired from studies of other planetary bodies in the inner solar system, has profoundly affected how we view the early history of the Earth and evolution of the biosphere. Pre-biotic chemical evolution and the origin of life would have been delayed by the probable existence of a global magma ocean until -4.2 Ga. The early crust was largely destroyed by recycling, thus accounting for the sparse Archean record on Earth. Once life had developed, large impacts may have extinguished it several times before it finally gained a foothold. Potentially sterilizing impacts could have occurred as late as 3.7 Ga. At the very least, large impacts would have forced the biosphere through major environmental "bottlenecks" thereby canalizing its subsequent evolution. One legacy of these early events may be the structure of the present RNA-tree which indicates that extreme thermophiles are primitive within the Archaea, and may be the last common ancestors of life. By 3.5 Ga, marine sedimentary sequences contain unequivocal microbial fossils that attest to the presence of a terrestrial biosphere. The diversity of microbial forms present in these earliest fossil assemblages implies a preceding interval of evolution during which major evolutionary advances (e.g. photosynthesis) could have taken place. Evidence cited above places the origin of life within the interval 3.5 and 4.2 Ga, a period of 700 Ma. Thus, it appears that terrestrial life not only evolved rapidly, but perhaps more than once. This expands the possibilities that life may have also developed elsewhere. Of the other planets in our solar system, Mars holds the greatest chance of having developed life. But, the present surface of Mars is hostile

  2. Exploring the oceanic crust deep biosphere through subsurface borehole observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, Beth

    2015-04-01

    During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 327 and 336, several new subsurface borehole observatories were installed in oceanic crust, with a primary motivation to access the deep biosphere in these poorly understood environments. These new observatories have enabled unprecedented opportunities to collect high-quality samples for microbiological analysis, including metagenomic and single cell genomic investigations of the unique microbial communities living "on the rocks." This presentation will provide an overview of recent discoveries, focusing on the observatories on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank and highlighting adaptations to life in the subsurface gleaned from genomic approaches. The presentation will also highlight opportunities for continued observatory-based research within the International Ocean Discovery Program.

  3. Potential Biospheres of the icy world in our solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul; Baqué, Mickael

    2016-04-01

    The challenge in astrobiology and planetary research in the near future is to realize space missions to study the habitability of Mars and the icy moons of the Jovian and Saturnian systems. Mars is an interesting object to search for habitable environments and for fossilized (and potentially present) life because of its past water driven wet history. On the other hand the Jovian moon Europa and the Saturnian moon Enceladus are promising candidates, where liquid water oceans beneath the surface are expected. These oceans can be habitable environments and the next challenge is to search there for present life. Some examples on potential biospheres and their biosignatures in Mars-like environments and in environmental conditions with reference to the icy moons will be given, which might exist in such kind of icy environments.

  4. Trends and future challenges in sampling the deep terrestrial biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Daly, Rebecca A.; Mouser, Paula J.; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Denis, Elizabeth H.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, Tullis C.; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on “Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface” was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation’s Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop. PMID:25309520

  5. Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Daly, Rebecca; Mouser, Paula J.; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Biddle , Jennifer F.; Denis, Elizabeth; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, T. C.; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.

    2014-09-12

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on “Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface” was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation’s Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop.

  6. Biospheric environmental monitoring at BOREAS with AVHRR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Kevin P.; Mulhern, Theresa; Goward, Samuel N.; Cihlar, Josef; Dubayah, Ralph O.; Prince, Stephen D.

    1997-12-01

    Global models of biospheric processes such as production efficiency models need environmental input and validation data sets at high temporal and spatial resolution. Methods developed to assess biospheric environmental conditions from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) observations, specifically air temperature and surface moisture, are explored through exploitation of field measurements collected at the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study site. The surface temperature/spectral vegetation index (TVX) concept provides the potential for estimating air temperature and surface moisture from AVHRR-type satellite observations. Initial results show that the slope of TVX over boreal landscapes is related to near-surface soil moisture in addition to vegetation type and solar irradiance. Also, the TVX air temperature estimation correlates well with shelter height observations. However, our analysis shows that challenges remain in using the TVX approach, largely because it is difficult to isolate the effects of variations in atmospheric conditions from physical environmental conditions at the Earth's surface. Clouds significantly limit the application of the TVX technique. It is also limited when the variability of the normalized difference vegetation index is low or a sharp vegetation boundary is contained within the TVX contextual array. The TVX air temperature can be used to approximate shelter height temperature to within ±5 K under most conditions; however, there are outliers with differences as large as 15 K which, at this time, cannot be explained. The air temperature estimation also exhibits a 3.2 K warm bias. Part of this bias is a result of errors in the split window surface temperature estimate used in the TVX regression.

  7. Factors responsible for a stable biosphere of silicon utilizing organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, D.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    Silicon utilizing microorganisms are defined as micro-organisms with high silicon content (≥ 1% dry weight) and the capability to metabolize silicon with or without demonstrable silicon transporter genes (SIT). Important characteristics found in these microorganisms, on account of having high silicon concentration in their body, include increased autotrophic activity, ability to encounter metal toxicities (including iron toxicity), increased mechanical strength, ability to prevent infections, capacity to survive in nutritionally compromised states and in high and low pressure zones, higher light transmission and reduced salinity stress. They can also grow in the dark for at least three months even in the absence of any organic substrate. In living cells, silicon helps in cell wall formation, regulates citric acid cycle (acting on an isoenzyme of isocitrate dehydrogenase), synthesizes special proteins for chromosomes and chloroplasts, and regulates chlorophyll synthesis. Silicon metabolism also requires 30% less energy than carbon and that might be one of the reasons why it was not abandoned in over 100 million years of evolution; even in the presence of a well advanced and dominating carbon world. Additionally, silicon utilizing organisms have undergone resistance and capacity adaptations during their long existence on the Earth. Their inherent ability to tolerate a wide variety of stress was manifested by their exceptional survival during periods of extinction on Earth. The phenomenon of 'selective survival' of the biosphere shaped by these organisms across major extinction boundaries in the geologic past is very prominent. Approximately 46% of diatom species, the most important silicon utilizing organisms, survived the transition from the Cretaceous to the Upper Paleocene period, suggesting their significant turnover across the K-Pg boundary. Another important silicon utilizing organism, radiolarian, also showed no evidence of mass extinction across the K

  8. Long-Term Variability in a Coupled Atmosphere Biosphere Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delire, Christine; Foley, Jonathan A.; Thompson, Starley

    2004-10-01

    A fully coupled atmosphere biosphere model, version 3 of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3) and the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), is used to illustrate how vegetation dynamics may be capable of producing long-term variability in the climate system, particularly through the hydrologic cycle and precipitation. Two simulations of the global climate are conducted with fixed climatological sea surface temperatures: one including vegetation as a dynamic boundary condition, and the other keeping vegetation cover fixed. A comparison of the precipitation power spectra over land from these two simulations shows that dynamic interactions between the atmosphere and vegetation enhance precipitation variability at time scales from a decade to a century, while damping variability at shorter time scales.In these simulations, the two-way coupling between the atmosphere and the dynamic vegetation cover introduces persistent precipitation anomalies in several ecological transition zones: between forest and grasslands in the North American midwest, in southern Africa, and at the southern limit of the tropical forest in the Amazon basin, and between savanna and desert in the Sahel, Australia, and portions of the Arabian Peninsula. These regions contribute most to the long-term variability of the atmosphere vegetation system.Slow changes in the vegetation cover, resulting from a “red noise” integration of high-frequency atmospheric variability, are responsible for generating this long-term variability. Lead and lag correlation between precipitation and vegetation leaf area index (LAI) shows that LAI influences precipitation in the following years, and vice versa. A mechanism involving changes in LAI resulting in albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration changes is proposed.


  9. Microbial Communities of the Okinawa Backarc Basin Subvent Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 m. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 m. Site C0014 is a unique location to study changes in microbial communities with depth, as the hydrothermal system generates a thermally and geochemically restrictive subvent biosphere. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data suggests that Archaea represent a significant proportion of the indigenous community throughout the top 15 m of sediment, where Archaea then abruptly disappear. Furthermore, a deeper classification of Archaeal sequences suggests a transition from a mesophilic community to a potentially thermophilic one, where there is an increasingly stronger signal of Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) followed by Terrestrial Hot Spring Crenarchaeotic Group (THSCG). Additionally, there are several horizons in which methanotrophy is likely supported, indicated by peaks in anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea. The cessation of Archaea as well as Chloroflexi, a common marine subsurface bacterial phylum, at approximately 15 meters below seafloor (mbsf) is suggestive of a potential boundary within Site C0014 in which the environmental conditions have become too restrictive

  10. On COBACC (COntinental Biosphere-Aerosol-Cloud-Climate) feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, Markku

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of GHGs have increased substantially during the past century. Elevated concentrations of CO2 and methane are the most important forcing agents causing global warming. However, it is not straightforward to attribute or predict the climate change in detail, as the internal variability of climate is only partially understood, aerosol forcings are still highly uncertain, and there are many feedback mechanisms that are difficult to quantify. It has been recognized for decades that the biosphere plays an important role in climate. For example, Kulmala et al. (2004) suggested a negative climate feedback mechanism whereby higher temperatures and CO2-levels boost continental biomass production, leading to increased biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, tending to cause cooling. This COBACC (COntinental Biosphere-Aerosol-Cloud-Climate) feedback is similar to the so-called CLAW-hypothesis by Charlson et al. (1987) which connects the ocean biochemistry and climate via a negative feedback loop involving CCN production due to sulphur emissions from plankton. The first quantification of the COBACC feedback loop (Kulmala et al. 2014) was based on continuous comprehensive observations at SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) station in Hyytiälä, Finland, and showed that a 10 ppm increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration leads to a significant (several percent) increase in both carbon sink and aerosol source. These effects operate through changes in gross primary production, volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and secondary aerosol formation associated with atmospheric oxidation of VOCs. Here we will describe the present knowledge from processes level understanding to whole COBACC feedback including some hints on biogenic and anthropogenic contributions to global aerosol number load. References: Charlson, R. J. et al. Nature 326, 655 1987 Kulmala, M. et al. Atmos

  11. Biogeography of Metabolically Active Microbial Populations within the Subseafloor Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, B. K.; Shepard, A.; St. Peter, C.; Mills, H. J.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial life in deep marine sediments is widespread, metabolically active and diverse. Evidence of prokaryotic communities in sediments as deep as 800 m below the seafloor (mbsf) have been found. By recycling carbon and nutrients through biological and geochemical processes, the deep subsurface has the potential to remain metabolically active over geologic time scales. While a vast majority of the subsurface biosphere remains under studied, recent advances in molecular techniques and an increased focus on microbiological sampling during IODP expeditions have provided the initial steps toward better characterizations of the microbial communities. Coupling of geochemistry and RNA-based molecular analysis is essential to the description of the active microbial populations within the subsurface biosphere. Studies based on DNA may describe the taxa and metabolic pathways from the total microbial community within the sediment, whether the cells sampled were metabolically active, quiescent or dead. Due to a short lifespan within a cell, only an RNA-based analysis can be used to identify linkages between active populations and observed geochemistry. This study will coalesce and compare RNA sequence and geochemical data from Expeditions 316 (Nankai Trough), 320 (Pacific Equatorial Age Transect), 325 (Great Barrier Reef) and 329 (South Pacific Gyre) to evaluate the biogeography of microbial lineages actively altering the deep subsurface. The grouping of sediments allows for a wide range of geochemical environments to be compared, including two environments limited in organic carbon. Significant to this study is the use of similar extraction, amplification and simultaneous 454 pyrosequencing on all sediment populations allowing for robust comparisons with similar protocol strengths and biases. Initial trends support previously described reduction of diversity with increasing depth. The co-localization of active reductive and oxidative lineages suggests a potential cryptic

  12. Alkaliphilic Clostridia and the Serpentinite-Hosted Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrenk, M. O.; George, C.; Twing, K. I.; Brazelton, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    Serpentinization is a process whereby ultramafic rocks characteristic of Earth's upper mantle are exposed to fluid flow and undergo aqueous alteration. Serpentinizing ultramafic rocks can serve as important conduits for the flux of carbon and energy from Earth's deep interior into the biosphere. Highly reducing, high pH conditions associated with serpentinization produce copious hydrogen and can lead to the production of methane and abiogenic hydrocarbons. Recent studies have found low diversity microbial communities consisting primarily of Betaproteobacteria and Firmicutes in samples of high pH wells, springs, and drill cores from serpentinite terrains. Cloning and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and pyrotag sequencing have indicated that several taxa within the Clostridia, including sequences related to the genera Dethiobacter and Desulfitibacter and the families Thermoanaerobacterales and Clostridiaceae are abundant in the sampled environments. In parallel, iron- and sulfur-containing, pH 11 microcosm experiments from these environments have resulted in the enrichment of populations of spore-forming bacteria related to the Clostridiales. Previously characterized relatives of these taxa can carry out metabolisms ranging from the fermentation of complex organic molecules, to autotrophy using hydrogen as an electron donor and sulfur compounds as electron acceptors. Metabolic and physiological studies of the microcosms combined with data on the distribution of these taxa in natural environments are being used to better understand their role in the in the functioning of serpentinite-hosted subsurface ecosystems. Areas of investigation include the supply of organic acids and fermentation products to other species in the ecosystems, the fixation of inorganic carbon into biomass, or the possibility that the Clostridia exists as spores simply surviving the harsh conditions. Spore-forming Clostridia species may play important roles in the extraction of energy and

  13. Comets, Carbonaceous Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites suggests that the paradigm of the endogenous origin of life on Earth should be reconsidered. It is now widely accepted that comets and carbonaceous meteorites played an important role in the delivery of water, organics and life critical biogenic elements to the early Earth and facilitated the origin and evolution of the Earth's Biosphere. However; the detection of embedded microfossils and mats in carbonaceous meteorites implies that comets and meteorites may have played a direct role in the delivery of intact microorganisms and that the Biosphere may extend far into the Cosmos. Recent space observations have found the nuclei of comets to have very low albedos (approx.0.03) and. these jet-black surfaces become very hot (T approx. 400 K) near perihelion. This paper reviews recent observational data-on comets and suggests that liquid water pools could exist in cavities and fissures between the internal ices and rocks and the exterior carbonaceous crust. The presence of light and liquid water near the surface of the nucleus enhances the possibility that comets could harbor prokaryotic extremophiles (e.g., cyanobacteria) capable of growth over a wide range of temperatures. The hypothesis that comets are the parent bodies of the CI1 and the CM2 carbonaceous meteorites is advanced. Electron microscopy images will be presented showing forms interpreted as indigenous-microfossils embedded' in freshly. fractured interior surfaces of the Orgueil (CI1) and Murchison (CM2) meteorites. These forms are consistent in size and morphologies with known morphotypes of all five orders of Cyanobacteriaceae: Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) elemental data shows that the meteoritic forms have anomalous C/O; C/N; and C/S as compared with modern extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These images and spectral data indicate that the clearly biogenic and embedded remains cannot be interpreted as recent biological

  14. National strategic petroleum reserve.

    PubMed

    Davis, R M

    1981-08-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is intended to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to interruptions in the oil supply from foreign sources. Storage for 248 million barrels of crude oil in salt caverns and mines, with equipment for pumping and distribution, was constructed and operationally tested in a 4-year period. Its present inventory is the largest known crude oil reserve in the world. Facilities for expanding the reserve's capacity by another 290 million barrels are being developed by solution-mining in salt domes. PMID:17847458

  15. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    PubMed

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period. PMID:26633117

  16. Bat rabies in urban centers in Chile.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, C A; Favi, M; Yung, V; Pavletic, C; de Mattos, C C

    2000-04-01

    One hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectivorous bats in Chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. These isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the Americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in Chile. The phylogenetic analyses showed that none of the Chilean isolates segregated with viruses from the terrestrial reservoirs. No non-rabies lyssaviruses were found in this study. The Chilean samples were not related to viruses of the sylvatic cycle maintained by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in Latin America. Five genetic variants were identified from insectivorous bats in Chile. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) was identified as the reservoir for the rabies genetic variant most frequently isolated in the country between 1977 and 1998. The close association of a group of viruses obtained from a domestic dog (Canis familiaris), Brazilian free-tailed bats, and a red bat (Lasiurus borealis) with viruses maintained by Lasiurus spp. in North America implicated species of this genus as the possible reservoirs of this particular genetic variant in Chile. Reservoirs for the other three variants remain unknown. PMID:10813604

  17. Education of the Televiewer in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Miguel T.

    This paper begins with a discussion of the origins of Chilean television, including its channels, programs, and transmission times, and how education for television has arisen in Chile as a defense against its influence. The initial concern of sociologists' about this influence and later development of ideas and programs by a number of…

  18. The Regional University Centers: Innovation in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feliz, George C.

    In 1960 a regional college at Temuco, Chile was established to take education to the people of that area and to reach citizens outside metropolitan areas where the only post-secondary institutions were located. In 1961 another regional college at La Serena was established with 6 additional regional centers in operation by 1970. These institutions,…

  19. Rubber finger stripper harvester for green chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvest mechanization as a system requires modifying or creating new components including cultivars, production practices, and harvest, transportation and processing plant machinery. New Mexican chile is one of the last segments of the pepper industry to still rely on hand labor. This paper reports ...

  20. Volunteer Outreach Activities at ESO Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESO-Chile Outreach Volunteer Team

    2012-06-01

    ESO staff in Chile are often asked to disseminate astronomical knowledge to schools and to the general public. A significant number of volunteers are now involved in these activities and the most recent projects in low-income schools and neighbourhoods are described and possible perspectives discussed.

  1. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    For several years, the administration has proposed selling the government's ownership interest in the Naval Petroleum Reserves, arguing that it would help reduce the federal budget deficit. The administration's latest proposal calls for the sale of reserves in fiscal year 1990. DOE estimates that if the reserves are sold in 1990, proceeds would amount to about $3.4 billion. The Naval Petroleum Reserve at Elk Hills, California, is the largest of the reserves. This report has reviewed and analyzed the new reserve data and found that DOE's reserve estimates for Elk Hills are still neither accurate nor up-to-date.

  2. 28 CFR 1101 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reserved 1101 PARTS 1101-1199 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE AND DEPARTMENT OF STATE TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS Victims of Severe Forms of Trafficking in Persons PARTS...

  3. Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.; Cisternas, M.; Salgado, I.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Shishikura, M.

    2003-12-01

    Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the 1960 earthquake had nearly twice the seismic slip expected from plate convergence since 1837, much of the strain released in 1960 may have been accumulating since 1575. Geologic evidence for such incubation comes from new paleoseismic findings at the R¡o Maullin estuary, which indents the Pacific coast at 41.5§ S midway along the 1960 rupture. The 1960 earthquake lowered the area by 1.5 m, and the ensuing tsunami spread sand across lowland soils. The subsidence killed forests and changed pastures into sandy tidal flats. Guided by these 1960 analogs, we inferred tsunami and earthquake history from sand sheets, tree rings, and old maps. At Chuyaquen, 10 km upriver from the sea, we studied sand sheets in 31 backhoe pits on a geologic transect 1 km long. Each sheet overlies the buried soil of a former marsh or meadow. The sand sheet from 1960 extends the entire length of the transect. Three earlier sheets can be correlated at least half that far. The oldest one, probably a tsunami deposit, surrounds herbaceous plants that date to AD 990-1160. Next comes a sandy tidal-flat deposit dated by stratigraphic position to about 1000-1500. The penultimate sheet is a tsunami deposit younger than twigs from 1410-1630. It probably represents the 1575 earthquake, whose accounts of shaking, tsunami, and landslides rival those of 1960. In that case, the record excludes the 1737 and 1837 events. The 1737 and 1837 events also appear missing in tree-ring evidence from islands of Misquihue, 30 km upriver from the sea. Here the subsidence in 1960 admitted brackish tidal water that defoliated tens of thousands of

  4. Insights into the Deep Biosphere from Petroleum Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larter, S.; Adams, J. J.; Huang, H.; Bennett, B.

    2008-12-01

    Petroleum reservoirs provide a unique and direct portal into the deep biosphere enabling microbiological and geochemical studies of microorganisms, carbon cycling processes, microbial reaction kinetics and the spatial distribution of the organisms. Detailed mapping of oil fluid property and chemical composition shows that microbially and geologically induced oil compositional gradients are ubiquitous at regional to sub-reservoir scales (1 m to 105 m) in heavy and super heavy oil deposits of the Alberta basin. Some oil columns shows a cascading series of gradients in one through three ring alkylaromatic hydrocarbons with increasingly deeper locations of complete compound removal related to increasing resistance of degrading hydrocarbon component to biodegradation and decreasing component diffusivity. Similar compositional profiles have been seen in other heavy oilfields around the globe. Vertical 1D compositional diffusion models coupling oil charge, diffusive mixing and the effects of geological barriers can match observed gradients when the active biodegradation zone extends across the oil-water transition zone and well into the oil column. We observe steepening compositional gradients at the base of the oil column coincident with up to 10-15 m thick, downward increasing water saturation zones, thicker than a capillary pressure controlled oil-water transition zone. These "burnout zones" possess the hallmarks of a vertically extensive bio-reactor with increased concentrations of biogeochemical parameters of microbial processes and commonly an immobile and probably discontinuous oil phase. In this zone and across an oilfield, the relative biodegradation susceptibility of different hydrocarbon components varies greatly, indicating a suite of biodegradation reaction pathways dependent in part on local mass transport controls. 1D models show that the top of the degradation zone is coincident with complete depletion of reactive components, when oil charge is active

  5. Possible cometary bioorganic compounds as sources of planetary biospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Takano, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Hashimoto, H.; Saito, T.

    Complex organi c compound s were discovered in the coma of Comet Halley [1], whi c h suggested that they w er e p ossibl e sources of the terr estria l biosp here. It has not been confirmed, however, that bioorganic compounds like amino acids were contained in comet ary nuclei. It has been hypothe sized that cometary organic compounds wer e formed in interstellar dust particles (ISDs) [2]. A great nu mber of experiments have been done s imulat i ng the condition o ISDf environments. Amino acids were reported to form in simulated ISD environments by proton irradiation [3] and by UV irradiation [4] of simulat ed ISD ice mantles. Here w e discuss nature of bioorganic compounds formed in simul a t e d ISD environments, and compare wit h those f ormed in simulated primitive planet ary atmospheres. A gas mixt ure of carbon monoxi d e, ammonia and water was irradiated wit h high - energy protons, gamma rays or UV light. All of hydrolysates o f the products gave a wide variety of a ino acids, t ogethe r with uracil a d cytosine. When amn mixture of methanol, ammonia and w at e r (1:1:2.8) was irradiated wit h gamma rays or UV light at 77K, 293K or 353K, am ino acids were also detect e d in each hydrolysates: The G-value ( energy yield) of glycine (the most abundant amino acids in the products) was ca. 0.01, which was independent from the temp eratur e or the phase (s olid, liquid or gas). These results s ugg est that amino acid precursors can be formed in ISD environments quite effe c t i vely even if the materials were frozen in low temperature. If comets can bring sufficient kinds and amount of bioorganic co mpou nds to planets, planetary biospheres can be generated, regardless of the comp osit ion of planet ary atmospheres. It will be quite interesting to find and analyze cometary organics left in planets and satellites such as the moon, as wel l as in cometary bodies. [1] J. Kissel and F. R. Kreuger, Natur e, 326, 755 (1987). [2] J. M. Greenberg and A. Li, Adv. Space

  6. Active Serpentinization and the Potential for a Diverse Subsurface Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canovas, P. A.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    the system and create a thermodynamic drive sufficient to convert all of the dissolved inorganic carbon into methane. This indicates that the system is poised to create the reducing conditions necessary to support a subsurface biosphere very early in the serpentinizing process, and that the subsurface biosphere could extend upwards to very near the surface. The mixing model simulates the percolation of surface water into the active serpentinization zone. During the mixing process, methane is calculated to be more stable than carbonate species until approximately 100g of surface water have been added to 1 kg of the serpentinizing fluid. These results suggest that unreacted surface water flowing directly into the serpentinizing zone can create the disequilibria necessary for methanogenesis, and possibly other metabolisms, to proceed while still maintaining the low redox state of the system. As long as the recharge to the hyperalkaline reservoir does not exceed ten percent of the reservoir, methanogenesis and other serpentinization metabolisms can thrive off the disequilibria generated through mixing.

  7. Atmosphere-Biosphere Exchange of Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Song-Miao

    1991-02-01

    The atmosphere-biosphere exchange was measured for CO_2 and O_3 in a tropical rain forest in the wet season of 1987, and for CO_2, CH_4 , and O_3 in a subarctic tundra in summer 1988. Photosynthesis and respiration were found to be in approximate balance in the rain forest. Net ecosystem uptake of CO_2 in the forest increased with intensity of light in the range of measurements. It is suggested that photosynthesis of a well-watered forest is primarily controlled by photosynthetically active radiation. Changes in the distribution of cloud cover, associated for example with El Nino, might induce globally significant changes in primary productivity and carbon storage. Soil moisture controls in tundra the distribution and association of vegetation types and the atmosphere -biosphere exchange of CO_2, although light intensity also influences the daily and seasonal net exchange of CO_2. Methane fluxes from the subarctic tundra averaged 25 +/- 1 (SE) mgCH_4/m ^2/d, representing 6 percent the net uptake of carbon for the 30 days of measurement. Wet meadow tundra emitted CH_4 at rates substantially higher than upland tundra. Lakes and lake margins are important sources of methane; lake emissions were dependent on surface wind speed. A global methane emission from tundra ecosystems is estimated to be ~ 11 megatons CH_4 per year based on this measurement, a small fraction (~ 3%) of the global source. Ozone deposition fluxes averaged ~ 1.0 times 10^ {11} molecules cm^{ -2}s^{-1} in the tropical forest and in the arctic tundra, similar in magnitude to the estimated mean stratospheric input. Ozone deposition fluxes were proportional to O_3 concentrations in the surface layer and regulated by turbulent transport and stomatal activity. Day-time ozone concentrations and deposition velocities measured at ~10 m above canopy averaged ~5 ppb and 1.8 cm s^ {-1} over the tropical forest and ~25 ppb and 0.25 cm s^{ -1} over the subarctic tundra, respectively. These results imply that

  8. Dissolved hydrogen and methane in the oceanic basaltic biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huei-Ting; Cowen, James P.; Olson, Eric J.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Jungbluth, Sean P.; Wilson, Samuel T.; Rappé, Michael S.

    2014-11-01

    The oceanic basaltic crust is the largest aquifer on Earth and has the potential to harbor substantial subsurface microbial ecosystems, which hitherto remains largely uncharacterized and is analogous to extraterrestrial subsurface habitats. Within the sediment-buried 3.5 Myr old basaltic crust of the eastern Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, the circulating basement fluids have moderate temperature (∼65 °C) and low to undetectable dissolved oxygen and nitrate concentrations. Sulfate, present in high concentrations, is therefore expected to serve as the major electron acceptor in this subsurface environment. This study focused on the availability and potential sources of two important electron donors, methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2), for the subseafloor biosphere. High integrity basement fluids were collected via fluid delivery lines associated with Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits (CORKs) that extend from basement depths to outlet ports at the seafloor. Two new CORKs installed during IODP 327 in 2010, 1362A and 1362B, were sampled in 2011 and 2013. The two CORKs are superior than earlier style CORKs in that they are equipped with coated casing and polytetrafluoroethylene fluid delivery lines, reducing the interaction between casing materials with the environment. Additional samples were collected from an earlier style CORK at Borehole 1301A. The basement fluids are enriched in H2 (0.05-1.8 μmol/kg), suggesting that the ocean basaltic aquifer can support H2-driven metabolism. The basement fluids also contain significant amount of CH4 (5-32 μmol/kg), revealing CH4 as an available substrate for subseafloor basaltic habitats. The δ13C values of CH4 from the three boreholes ranged from -22.5 to -58‰, while the δ2H values ranged from -316 to 57‰. The isotopic compositions of CH4 and the molecular compositions of hydrocarbons suggest that CH4 in the basement fluids is of both biogenic and abiotic origins, varying among sites

  9. Europa's crustal biosphere: Implications for exploration and contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, R.; Tufts, B. R.; Hoppa, G. V.; Geissler, P. E.

    2000-10-01

    Physical characterization of Europa's crust shows it to be rich in potentially habitable niches, with several timescales for change that would allow stability for organisms to prosper and still require and drive evolution and adaptation. Studies of tectonics on Europa indicate that tidal stress causes much of the surface cracking, that cracks penetrate through to liquid water (so the ice must be thin), and that cracks continue to be worked by tidal stress. Thus a global ocean is (or was until recently) well linked to the surface. Daily tidal flow (period 10-2 yr) transports substances up and down through the active cracks, mixing surface oxidants and fuels (cometary material) with the oceanic reservoir of endogenic and exogenic substances. Organisms moving with the flow or anchored to the walls could exploit the disequilibrium chemistry, and those within a few meters of the surface could photosynthesize. Cracks remain active for at least 104 yr, but deactivate as nonsynchronous rotation moves them to different stress regimes in <106 yr. Thus, to survive, organisms squeezed into the ocean must migrate to new cracks, and those frozen in place must hibernate. Most sites will remelt and release captive critters within 106 yr based on the prevalence of chaotic terrain, which covers nearly half of Europa. Linkage of the ocean to the surface also could help sustain life in the ocean by delivering oxidants and fuels. Suboceanic volcanism (if any) could provide additional sites and support for life, but is not necessary. Thus Europa's biosphere (habitable if not inhabited) likely extends from within the ocean up to the surface, with important implications for exploration strategies: The problem becomes not how to drill down to the ocean, but rather how to choose an active (or recently active) landing site where the ocean comes to the surface. Exploration resources need to go into high resolution reconnaissance. Also, with its biosphere reaching the surface, Europa may be

  10. Managing hazardous pollutants in Chile: arsenic.

    PubMed

    Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that faces the environmental challenge posed by extensive arsenic pollution, which exists in the northern part of the country. Chile has worked through various options to appropriately address the environmental challenge of arsenic pollution of water and air. Because of cost and other reasons, copying standards used elsewhere in the world was not an option for Chile. Approximately 1.8 million people, representing about 12% of the total population of the country, live in arsenic-contaminated areas. In these regions, air, water, and soil are contaminated with arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. For long periods, water consumed by the population contained arsenic levels that exceeded values recommended by the World Health Organization. Exposure to airborne arsenic also occurred near several large cities, as a consequence of both natural contamination and the intensive mining activity carried out in those areas. In rural areas, indigenous populations, who lack access to treated water, were also exposed to arsenic by consuming foods grown locally in arsenic-contaminated soils. Health effects in children and adults from arsenic exposure first appeared in the 1950s. Such effects included vascular, respiratory, and skin lesions from intake of high arsenic levels in drinking water. Methods to remove arsenic from water were evaluated, developed, and implemented that allowed significant reductions in exposure at a relatively low cost. Construction and operation of treatment plants to remove arsenic from water first began in the 1970s. Beginning in the 1990s, epidemiological studies showed that the rate of lung and bladder cancer in the arsenic-polluted area was considerably higher than mean cancer rates for the country. Cancer incidence was directly related to arsenic exposure. During the 1990s, international pressure and concern by Chile's Health Ministry prompted action to regulate arsenic emissions from copper smelters. A

  11. Re-Defining the Subsurface Biosphere: Characterization of Fungal Populations from Energy Limited Deep Marine Subsurface Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, B. K.; Ariza, M.; St. Peter, C.; Hoffman, C.; Edwards, K. J.; Mills, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    The detection and characterization of metabolically active fungal populations within the deep marine subsurface will alter current ecosystem models that are limited to bacterial and archaeal populations. Although marine fungi have been studied for over fifty years, a detailed description of fungal populations within the deep subsurface is lacking. Fungi possess metabolic pathways capable of utilizing previously considered non-bioavailable energy reserves. Therefore, metabolically active fungi would occupy a unique niche within subsurface ecosystems, with the potential to provide an organic carbon source for heterotrophic prokaryotic populations not currently being considered in subsurface energy budgets. Sediments from the South Pacific Gyre subsurface, one of the most energy-limited environments on Earth, were collected during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329. Anaerobic and aerobic sediment slurry cultures using fresh sediment began directly following the completion of the Expedition (December 2010). From these cultures, multiple fungal lineages have been isolated on several media types that vary in carbon concentrations. Physical growth parameters of these subsurface fungal isolates were determined and compared to previously characterized lineages. Additionally, the overall diversity of metabolically active and dormant fungal populations was determined using high throughput sequencing of nucleic acids extracted from in situ cryopreserved South Pacific Gyre sediments. This project provides a robust step in determining the importance and impact of fungal populations within the marine subsurface biosphere.

  12. Evaluating the Carbon Cycle of a Coupled Atmosphere-Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    Delire, C; Foley, J A; Thompson, S

    2002-08-21

    We investigate how well a coupled biosphere-atmosphere model, CCM3-IBIS, can simulate the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere and the carbon cycling through it. The simulated climate is compared to observations, while the vegetation cover and the carbon cycle are compared to an offline version of the biosphere model IBIS forced with observed climatic variables. The simulated climate presents some local biases that strongly affect the vegetation (e.g., a misrepresentation of the African monsoon). Compared to the offline model, the coupled model simulates well the globally averaged carbon fluxes and vegetation pools. The zonal mean carbon fluxes and the zonal mean seasonal cycle are also well represented except between 0{sup o} and 20{sup o}N due to the misrepresentation of the African monsoon. These results suggest that, despite regional biases in climate and ecosystem simulations, this coupled atmosphere-biosphere model can be used to explore geographic and temporal variations in the global carbon cycle.

  13. Pilot Institute on Global Change on Trace Gases and the Biosphere, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, J. A.; Moore, B.

    1998-01-01

    Table of Contents: Summary; Background; General Framework for a Series of Institutes on Global Change; The 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Changes: Trace Gases and the Biosphere; Budget; List of Acronyms; and Attachments.

  14. 10 CFR 63.305 - Required characteristics of the reference biosphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the region surrounding the Yucca Mountain site. (b) DOE should not project changes in society, the biosphere (other than climate), human biology, or increases or decreases of human knowledge or...

  15. 10 CFR 63.305 - Required characteristics of the reference biosphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the region surrounding the Yucca Mountain site. (b) DOE should not project changes in society, the biosphere (other than climate), human biology, or increases or decreases of human knowledge or...

  16. 10 CFR 63.305 - Required characteristics of the reference biosphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the region surrounding the Yucca Mountain site. (b) DOE should not project changes in society, the biosphere (other than climate), human biology, or increases or decreases of human knowledge or...

  17. 10 CFR 63.305 - Required characteristics of the reference biosphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the region surrounding the Yucca Mountain site. (b) DOE should not project changes in society, the biosphere (other than climate), human biology, or increases or decreases of human knowledge or...

  18. 10 CFR 63.305 - Required characteristics of the reference biosphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the region surrounding the Yucca Mountain site. (b) DOE should not project changes in society, the biosphere (other than climate), human biology, or increases or decreases of human knowledge or...

  19. Toward “optimal” integration of terrestrial biosphere models

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntingzger, Deborah; Fisher, Joshua B.; Michalak, A. M.; Bowman, Kevin; Cias, Philippe; Cook, Robert B.; El-Masri, Bassil; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, A.; Jain, Atul K.; King, Anthony W.; Lei, Huimin; Liu, Junjie; Lu, Chaoqun; Mao, Jiafu; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Schaefer, Kevin; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Tian, Hanqin; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Jia; Zeng, Ning

    2015-06-10

    Multi-model ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill-based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naïve (“one model – one vote”) integration. MsTMIP optimal and naïve mean land sink strength estimates (–1.16 vs. –1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materially change MME values. This suggests that carbon metabolism has predictability limits and/or that all models and references are misspecified. Resolving this issue requires addressing specific uncertainty types (initial conditions, structure, references) and a change in model development paradigms currently dominant in the TBM community.

  20. Biospheric-atmospheric coupling on the early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical calculations performed with a one-dimensional photochemical model have been performed to assess the biospheric-atmospheric transfer of gases. Ozone reached levels to shield the Earth from biologically lethal solar ultraviolet radiation (220-300 nm) when atmospheric oxygen reached about 1/10 of its present atmospheric level. In the present atmosphere, about 90 percent of atmospheric nitrous oxide is destroyed via solar photolysis in the stratosphere with about 10 percent destroyed via reaction with excited oxygen atoms. The reaction between nitrous oxide and excited oxygen atoms leads to the production of nitric oxide in the stratosphere, which is responsible for about 70 percent of the global destruction of oxygen in the stratosphere. In the oxygen/ozone deficient atmosphere, solar photolysis destroyed about 100 percent of the atmospheric nitrous oxide, relegating the production of nitric oxide via reaction with excited oxygen to zero. Our laboratory and field measurements indicate that atmospheric oxygen promotes the biogenic production of N2O and NO via denitrification and the biogenic production of methane by methanogenesis.

  1. Novel N4 Bacteriophages Prevail in the Cold Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yuanchao; Buchan, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Coliphage N4 is a lytic bacteriophage discovered nearly half a century ago, and it was considered to be a “genetic orphan” until very recently, when several additional N4-like phages were discovered to infect nonenteric bacterial hosts. Interest in this genus of phages is stimulated by their unique genetic features and propagation strategies. To better understand the ecology of N4-like phages, we investigated the diversity and geographic patterns of N4-like phages by examining 56 Chesapeake Bay viral communities, using a PCR-clone library approach targeting a diagnostic N4-like DNA polymerase gene. Many new lineages of N4-like phages were found in the bay, and their genotypes shift from the lower to the upper bay. Interestingly, signature sequences of N4-like phages were recovered only from winter month samples, when water temperatures were below 4°C. An analysis of existing metagenomic libraries from various aquatic environments supports the hypothesis that N4-like phages are most prolific in colder waters. In particular, a high number of N4-like phages were detected in Organic Lake, Antarctica, a cold and hypersaline system. The prevalence of N4-like phages in the cold biosphere suggests these viruses possess yet-to-be-determined mechanisms that facilitate lytic infections under cold conditions. PMID:26025897

  2. A unifying framework for dinitrogen fixation in the terrestrial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Houlton, Benjamin Z; Wang, Ying-Ping; Vitousek, Peter M; Field, Christopher B

    2008-07-17

    Dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation is widely recognized as an important process in controlling ecosystem responses to global environmental change, both today and in the past; however, significant discrepancies exist between theory and observations of patterns of N(2) fixation across major sectors of the land biosphere. A question remains as to why symbiotic N(2)-fixing plants are more abundant in vast areas of the tropics than in many of the mature forests that seem to be nitrogen-limited in the temperate and boreal zones. Here we present a unifying framework for terrestrial N(2) fixation that can explain the geographic occurrence of N(2) fixers across diverse biomes and at the global scale. By examining trade-offs inherent in plant carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus capture, we find a clear advantage to symbiotic N(2) fixers in phosphorus-limited tropical savannas and lowland tropical forests. The ability of N(2) fixers to invest nitrogen into phosphorus acquisition seems vital to sustained N(2) fixation in phosphorus-limited tropical ecosystems. In contrast, modern-day temperatures seem to constrain N(2) fixation rates and N(2)-fixing species from mature forests in the high latitudes. We propose that an analysis that couples biogeochemical cycling and biophysical mechanisms is sufficient to explain the principal geographical patterns of symbiotic N(2) fixation on land, thus providing a basis for predicting the response of nutrient-limited ecosystems to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO(2). PMID:18563086

  3. The Mojave vadose zone: a subsurface biosphere analogue for Mars.

    PubMed

    Abbey, William; Salas, Everett; Bhartia, Rohit; Beegle, Luther W

    2013-07-01

    If life ever evolved on the surface of Mars, it is unlikely that it would still survive there today, but as Mars evolved from a wet planet to an arid one, the subsurface environment may have presented a refuge from increasingly hostile surface conditions. Since the last glacial maximum, the Mojave Desert has experienced a similar shift from a wet to a dry environment, giving us the opportunity to study here on Earth how subsurface ecosystems in an arid environment adapt to increasingly barren surface conditions. In this paper, we advocate studying the vadose zone ecosystem of the Mojave Desert as an analogue for possible subsurface biospheres on Mars. We also describe several examples of Mars-like terrain found in the Mojave region and discuss ecological insights that might be gained by a thorough examination of the vadose zone in these specific terrains. Examples described include distributary fans (deltas, alluvial fans, etc.), paleosols overlain by basaltic lava flows, and evaporite deposits. PMID:23848498

  4. Quaternary climate - Terrestrial Biosphere Interaction: amplifying or stabilizing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    According to the Gaia hypothesis, interaction between climate and biological processes tend to homeostatically maintain, on a global scale, conditions favourable for life. Does the idea of homeostatic interaction between terrestrial biosphere and climate hold for the Quaternary glacial - interglacial changes? Interpretation of palaeoclimate and palaeobotanic evidence by using climate and Earth system models yields an interesting picture. The synergy between the sea-ice albedo - climate feedback and the taiga-tundra - climate feedback is suggested to amplify the orbitally forced climatic precession. This effect seems to be strong at regional scale, but small at global scale. Various simulations indicate that biogeophysical processes amplify the difference of some 4 to 6 K in global mean temperature between glacial and interglacial climate by some 10 percent. The combined effect of biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes, i.e. processes with involve carbon stored in biomass and soil, is less clear. Theoretical studies suggest that in pre-industrial, interglacial climate, a reduction in boreal and extratropical forests tend to cool the climate and a reduction in tropical forest, to warm the climate. Recent estimates in changes in organic carbon stored under ice sheets and in permafrost point at the possibility that the sum of all terrestrial biogeochemical processes might almost "carbon neutral" to the climate system. If corroborated, this observation would favour the assumption of a dominance of biogeophysical processes amplifying orbitally forced Quaternary climate variations.

  5. Terrestrial biosphere changes over the last 120 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Smith, R. S.; Singarayer, J. S.; Marchant, R.; Prentice, I. C.; Allen, J. R. M.; Anderson, R. S.; Bhagwat, S. A.; Behling, H.; Borisova, O.; Bush, M.; Correa-Metrio, A.; de Vernal, A.; Finch, J. M.; Fréchette, B.; Lozano-Garcia, S.; Gosling, W. D.; Granoszewski, W.; Grimm, E. C.; Grüger, E.; Hanselman, J.; Harrison, S. P.; Hill, T. R.; Huntley, B.; Jiménez-Moreno, G.; Kershaw, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Magri, D.; McKenzie, M.; Müller, U.; Nakagawa, T.; Novenko, E.; Penny, D.; Sadori, L.; Scott, L.; Stevenson, J.; Valdes, P. J.; Vandergoes, M.; Velichko, A.; Whitlock, C.; Tzedakis, C.

    2016-01-01

    A new global synthesis and biomization of long (> 40 kyr) pollen-data records is presented and used with simulations from the HadCM3 and FAMOUS climate models and the BIOME4 vegetation model to analyse the dynamics of the global terrestrial biosphere and carbon storage over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Simulated biome distributions using BIOME4 driven by HadCM3 and FAMOUS at the global scale over time generally agree well with those inferred from pollen data. Global average areas of grassland and dry shrubland, desert, and tundra biomes show large-scale increases during the Last Glacial Maximum, between ca. 64 and 74 ka BP and cool substages of Marine Isotope Stage 5, at the expense of the tropical forest, warm-temperate forest, and temperate forest biomes. These changes are reflected in BIOME4 simulations of global net primary productivity, showing good agreement between the two models. Such changes are likely to affect terrestrial carbon storage, which in turn influences the stable carbon isotopic composition of seawater as terrestrial carbon is depleted in 13C.

  6. Biosphere as a complex life-support system (LSS) for human civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechurkin, Nickolay

    As a continuously growing link of the Biosphere, we should keep in mind that biotic cycles induced by flows of a solar energy are the source of Biosphere and ecosystems functioning. Our pressure on the Biosphere which is connected with biotic cycle’s alterations and damages is menacingly growing. There are innumerable examples of atmosphere, water and soil pollution. We have contaminated even Earth-Space orbits with different uncontrolled debris. Ecological Footprint (EF) is a proper quantitative measure of anthropogenic impact on the Biosphere and ecosystems functioning. The comparative dynamics of the United Nations’ Human Development Index (HDI) and Ecological Footprint (EF) is discussed in the paper. The main call of sustainable development of mankind: all humans can have opportunity to fulfill their lives without degrading the Biosphere. To support sustainability, we should make an effort to develop each nation and the mankind as a whole with a high HDI and with a low ecological footprint. It means: to have high level of HDI at low level of EF. But current tendency of economical and social development shows: the higher HDI, the bigger EF. EF of mankind is rising threateningly. Now actual pressure of the human civilization of our planet (2014) upon 60 % exceeds its potential possibilities (biological capacity, measured as the area of "global" green hectares). It means that now we require more than 1.5 planets of the Earth’s type for sustainable development. It leads to ecological incident in the scale of Biosphere. Our Biosphere is the large, multilevel, hierarchically organized system, and our civilization is only a part of it. This part is not central; it can disappear for ever, if we do not cope to be included in the Biosphere as a great complex system. An example of Krasnoyarsk region as a representative region with high level of industry and technological energy production is considered in the paper. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation

  7. Post-closure biosphere assessment modelling: comparison of complex and more stylised approaches.

    PubMed

    Walke, Russell C; Kirchner, Gerald; Xu, Shulan; Dverstorp, Björn

    2015-10-01

    Geological disposal facilities are the preferred option for high-level radioactive waste, due to their potential to provide isolation from the surface environment (biosphere) on very long timescales. Assessments need to strike a balance between stylised models and more complex approaches that draw more extensively on site-specific information. This paper explores the relative merits of complex versus more stylised biosphere models in the context of a site-specific assessment. The more complex biosphere modelling approach was developed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) for the Formark candidate site for a spent nuclear fuel repository in Sweden. SKB's approach is built on a landscape development model, whereby radionuclide releases to distinct hydrological basins/sub-catchments (termed 'objects') are represented as they evolve through land rise and climate change. Each of seventeen of these objects is represented with more than 80 site specific parameters, with about 22 that are time-dependent and result in over 5000 input values per object. The more stylised biosphere models developed for this study represent releases to individual ecosystems without environmental change and include the most plausible transport processes. In the context of regulatory review of the landscape modelling approach adopted in the SR-Site assessment in Sweden, the more stylised representation has helped to build understanding in the more complex modelling approaches by providing bounding results, checking the reasonableness of the more complex modelling, highlighting uncertainties introduced through conceptual assumptions and helping to quantify the conservatisms involved. The more stylised biosphere models are also shown capable of reproducing the results of more complex approaches. A major recommendation is that biosphere assessments need to justify the degree of complexity in modelling approaches as well as simplifying and conservative assumptions. In light of

  8. Biosphere of the earth as a life-support system (LSS) for mankind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechurkin, Nickolay

    As a component of biosphere the mankind became the most powerful and active link recently. Exponential growth of human population number and of some technological indicators of its development becomes menacing for steady (stationary or close-to-stationary) functioning of biosphere as single whole. Anyway, we should be able to estimate quantitatively limits of pos-sible anthropogenic impact on functional parameters of biosphere. Considering biosphere as a natural LSS, we can receive the helpful information for working out and creation of artificial LSS of various types. Big biotic cycle induced with flows of a solar energy, is a basis of func-tioning of biosphere and its basic cells -ecosystems. In comparison with the majority natural ecosystems, the biosphere has very high factor of closure of substance circulation, especially limiting biogenic elements: nitrogen and phosphorus. Voluntarily or not, the mankind interferes in big biotic cycle and modifies it. For example, extracting mineral fertilizers for cultivation of agricultural crops, we return in circulation lost before substances, type nitric, potassic, phos-phoric salts. Burning fossils of organic carbon (oil, gas, coal), we raise concentration of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. The melting of a permafrost connected with activity of mankind, is capable to lead to excretion of other greenhouse gases, in particular, methane. It's possible to summarize briefly the main functional properties of the biosphere: Integrity, Closure, Substance cycling, Steady state, Energy dependence. These properties of the biosphere, as a LSS, ensure potentially everlasting life under the conditions of a limited quantity of substrate suitable for the life on the planet. But the selfish mankind is able to destroy harmonic adjustment of this unique natural mechanism

  9. What provides cerebral reserve?

    PubMed

    Staff, Roger T; Murray, Alison D; Deary, Ian J; Whalley, Lawrence J

    2004-05-01

    The cerebral reserve hypothesis is a heuristic concept used to explain apparent protection from the onset of cerebral disease and/or cognitive decline in old age. A significant obstacle when investigating the reserve hypothesis is the absence of baseline data with which to compare current cognitive status. We tested the influence of three hypothesized proxies of reserve (education, head size and occupational attainment [OCC]) in 92 volunteers born in 1921, whose cognitive function was measured at age 11 and 79 years, and who underwent brain MRI. The association between each proxy and old age cognitive function was tested, adjusting for variance contributed by childhood mental ability and detrimental age-related pathological changes measured using MRI. The results showed that education and OCC, but not total intracranial volume (TICV), contribute to cerebral reserve and help retain cognitive function in old age. Education was found to contribute between 5 and 6% of the variance found in old age memory function but was found to have no significant association with reasoning abilities. OCC was found to contribute around 5% of the variance found in old age memory function and between 6 and 8% of the variance found in old age reasoning abilities. We conclude that the intellectual challenges experienced during life, such as education and occupation, accumulate reserve and allow cognitive function to be maintained in old age. PMID:15047587

  10. Biosphere 2: a prototype project for a permanent and evolving life system for Mars base.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Allen, J P; Dempster, W F

    1992-01-01

    As part of the ground-based preparation for creating long-term life systems needed for space habitation and settlement, Space Biospheres Ventures (SBV) is undertaking the Biosphere 2 project near Oracle, Arizona. Biosphere 2, currently under construction, is scheduled to commence its operations in 1991 with a two-year closure period with a crew of eight people. Biosphere 2 is a facility which will be essentialy materially-closed to exchange with the outside environment. It is open to information and energy flow. Biosphere 2 is designed to achieve a complex life-support system by the integration of seven areas or "biomes"--rainforest, savannah, desert, marsh, ocean, intensive agriculture and human habitat. Unique bioregenerative technologies, such as soil bed reactors for air purification, aquatic waste processing systems, real-time analytic systems and complex computer monitoring and control systems are being developed for the Biosphere 2 project. Its operation should afford valuable insight into the functioning of complex life systems necessary for long-term habitation in space. It will serve as an experimental ground-based prototype and testbed for the stable, permanent life systems needed for human exploration of Mars. PMID:11537067

  11. Attitudes toward population control in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Hall, M F

    1975-01-01

    This article explores Chilean attitudes toward the national population's size and rate of growth, as indicated by a special survey conducted for this purpose. The survey sample consisted of 1,410 men 20 to 54 years of age in urban Santiago, who were separated into six categories on the basis of their education and socioeconomic status. The subjects were interviewed by 36 students from the University of Chile who utilized a prepared questionnaire including both open-ended and multiple-choice questions. The results clearly indicate that men in the lower socioeconomic categories tended to know less about the population's size and growth than their better-off counterparts. Nevertheless, they more often felt that Chile had "too many" inhabitants, that recent population growth had been rapid, and that this rate of growth should be reduced. PMID:1212535

  12. Medical genetics and genetic counseling in Chile.

    PubMed

    Margarit, Sonia B; Alvarado, Mónica; Alvarez, Karin; Lay-Son, Guillermo

    2013-12-01

    In the South American Republic of Chile genetic counseling is not currently recognized as an independent clinical discipline, and in general is provided by physicians with training in clinical genetics. At present only one genetic counselor and 28 clinical geneticists practice in this country of over 16 million inhabitants. Pediatric dysmorphology constitutes the primary area of practice in clinical genetics. Although the country has a universal health care system and an adequate level of health care, genetic conditions are not considered a health care priority and there is a lack of clinical and laboratory resources designated for clinical genetics services. Multiple educational, cultural and financial barriers exist to the growth and development of genetic counseling services in Chile. However, during the last 10 years increased awareness of the importance of identifying individuals at risk for inherited cancer syndromes led to growing interest in the practice of cancer genetics. PMID:23744184

  13. [Rabies in Chile: 1989-2005].

    PubMed

    Favi C, Myriam; Rodríguez A, Luis; Espinosa M, Carla; Yung P, Verónica

    2008-04-01

    A retrospective epidemiological study about epidemiology of rabies in Chile between years 1989 and 2005 was done. A data base of 39793 national registries of rabies samples was analyzed by means of statistical packages. Out of 39793 analyzed cases, 719 bats, 7 dogs, 7 cats, 1 bovine and 1 human were positive to rabies throughout the 17 years of this study. The statistical analysis established a significant increase in the proportions of positivity in bats, with predominance of variant 4 between the reservoirs. Given the complexity of the wild cycle of the rabies in Chile, it is necessary to maintain a program control of rabies, directed to educate people for a responsible possession of domestic animals, due to the risk of rabies transmission from bat to the susceptible species. PMID:18425219

  14. [Medical research in Chile: quantitative indicators].

    PubMed

    Krauskopf, M; Mackenzie, M R; Krauskopf, E; Clavel, E; Prat, A M

    1993-10-01

    Diverse indicators were used to examine medical research in Chile. According to participation in Fondecyt projects, it was concluded that 420 persons were involved in medical sciences research and that 41.9% of them had no postgraduate title. During the eighties, there was a clear aging of the community dedicated to medical research. The scientific productivity was assessed through the inventory of publications in indexed journals. During the eighties, the number of articles in Clinical Medicine and Biomedical Sciences increased two-fold. The University of Chile published the greatest number of articles, followed by the Catholic University and, with a remarkable lower amount, other Universities. The impact of the published articles in Clinical Medicine and Biomedical Sciences was calculated from the citations that they generated from 1986 to 1988. Likewise, the articles registered in 1985 with the higher citation indexes were identified. PMID:8191125

  15. [Risk groups for tuberculosis in Chile].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Tania

    2015-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global and national problem. In Chile the incidence rate has remained at 13 per 100,000 inhabitants for several years without tendency to the expected decline that would allow their elimination by 2020. As a low prevalence country, TB cases have been concentrated in risk groups, reaching 33% in 2013, and this proportion increases as younger people are analyzed. The main risk groups in Chile are HIV co-infection, foreigners and population of prisons. By 2013, the proportion of cases for these three groups was 8.7%, 8.4% and 3.9% respectively, and these percentages vary significantly when regional situation is analyzed. In addition, many of these patients have more than one risk factor, demons-rating the existence of clusters more vulnerable to TB. PMID:25860037

  16. Education in Chile. Bulletin, 1945, No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebaugh, Cameron D.

    1945-01-01

    Chile is a republic 2,630 miles long, extending along the western coast of South America from Peru to the southernmost tip of the continent. In width it averages about 110 miles, with snow-capped, volcano-studded Andes in the East, a low coastal range along the Pacific and a string of valleys and plains in between. It is estimated that 5,000…

  17. [Availability of physicians and specialists in Chile].

    PubMed

    Guillou, Michèle; Carabantes C, Jorge; Bustos F, Verónica

    2011-05-01

    The availability and planning of Human Resources are important issues in many countries, as it is a key factor to cope with the critical challenges of Health Care Systems. In Chile, the Ministry of Health has undertaken several studies in order to improve knowledge about the medical workforce both in public and private sectors. The aim of this paper is to update and systematize the existing data on physicians and specialists availability in Chile. Several information sources were crossed to obtain new and more precise figures about this topic. According to the Internal Revenue System, 29.996 physicians practice medicine in the country, 43% of them hired in public services, part or full time. There is a high concentration of professionals in the central regions of Chile. Being the overall density of physicians of one per 559 inhabitants, the figures in the central region is one per 471 and one per more than 800 in the South and North. Between 2004 and 2008, the public sector increased its physician workforce by more than 80% in primary health care and more than 20% in the secondary and tertiary levels. This paper presents a method for a more rigorous identification of the categories of general practitioner and specialist respectively, and the results obtained from the databases used. PMID:22051705

  18. [Neurocysticercosis: an neglected disease in Chile].

    PubMed

    Fica C, Alberto; Castro S, Marcelo; Soto S, Andrés; Flores M, Carlos; Oelker B, Carolina; Weitzel, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is not a notifiable disease in Chile and has received little attention on the national medical literature. In order to evaluate the relevance and clinical features of the disease, we performed a retrospective analysis in a general hospital of five cases of NCC during a 11 years period. Age ranged from 3 to 63 years and all had history of living or visiting southern Chile. Three patients had a solitary parenchymal cyst in vesicular or granulomatous stages and presented with generalized seizures. Their outcome was favorable after anticonvulsant and albendazole therapy and cysts reduced in size and calcified during follow-up. The other 2 patients had extra-parenchymal or mixed forms, including a pregnant woman with intraventricular cysts who developed endocraneal hypertension and recurrent dysfunction of her ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This patient died after discharge despite an initial favorable evolution with steroids and high-dose albendazole. This case series showed that NCC is still an epidemiological and clinical problem in Chile, affects patients within a wide range of age including children, requires multidisciplinary therapeutic interventions, and has two clinical presentations with different prognosis including one malignant form. To control this infection, a surveillance or reporting system should be initiated. PMID:22552515

  19. Biosphere modeling in waste disposal safety assessments -- An example using the terrestrial-aquatic model of the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Klos, R.A.

    1998-07-01

    Geological disposal of radioactive wastes is intended to provide long-term isolation of potentially harmful radionuclides from the human environment and the biosphere. The long timescales involved pose unique problems for biosphere modeling because there are considerable uncertainties regarding the state of the biosphere into which releases might ultimately occur. The key to representing the biosphere in long-timescale assessments is the flexibility with which those aspects of the biosphere that are of relevance to dose calculations are represented, and this comes from the way in which key biosphere features, events, and processes are represented in model codes. How this is done in contemporary assessments is illustrated by the Terrestrial-Aquatic Model of the Environment (TAME), an advanced biosphere model for waste disposal assessments recently developed in Switzerland. A numerical example of the release of radionuclides from a subterranean source to an inland valley biosphere is used to illustrate how biosphere modeling is carried out and the practical ways in which meaningful quantitative results can be achieved. The results emphasize the potential for accumulation of radionuclides in the biosphere over long timescales and also illustrate the role of parameter values in such modeling.

  20. Swansong biospheres: refuges for life and novel microbial biospheres on terrestrial planets near the end of their habitable lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley-James, Jack T.; Greaves, Jane S.; Raven, John A.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2013-04-01

    The future biosphere on Earth (as with its past) will be made up predominantly of unicellular micro-organisms. Unicellular life was probably present for at least 2.5 Gyr before multicellular life appeared and will likely be the only form of life capable of surviving on the planet in the far future, when the ageing Sun causes environmental conditions to become more hostile to more complex forms of life. Therefore, it is statistically more likely that habitable Earth-like exoplanets we discover will be at a stage in their habitable lifetime more conducive to supporting unicellular, rather than multicellular life. The end stage of habitability on Earth is the focus of this work. A simple, latitude-based climate model incorporating eccentricity and obliquity variations is used as a guide to the temperature evolution of the Earth over the next 3 Gyr. This allows inferences to be made about potential refuges for life, particularly in mountains and cold-trap (ice) caves and what forms of life could live in these environments. Results suggest that in high latitude regions, unicellular life could persist for up to 2.8 Gyr from present. This begins to answer the question of how the habitability of Earth will evolve at local scales alongside the Sun's main sequence evolution and, by extension, how the habitability of Earth-like planets would evolve over time with their own host stars.

  1. Naval Petroleum Reserve-1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    In March 1987, GAO reported on data inaccuracies at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California, stating that these inaccuracies probably result in incorrect computations of the maximum efficient production rates and could result in the government getting less than its share of remaining recoverable reserves should NPR-1 be sold. The Department of Energy's actions in response to the report's recommendations improved the accuracy of production data; other actions still underway, when completed, could largely correct the inaccuracies. DOE also established improved internal controls over review and evaluation.

  2. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1992-06-01

    This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

  3. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

  4. Comets, Asteroids, Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    During the past few decades, the delivery of water, organics, and prebiotic chemicals to the Biosphere of Earth during the Hadean (4.5-3.8 Ga) period of heavy bombardment by comets and asteroids has become more widely accepted. Comets are still largely regarded as frigid, pristine bodies of protosolar nebula material that are devoid of liquid water and therefore unsuitable for life. Complex organic compounds have been observed in comets and on the water-rich asteroid 1998 KY26 and near IR observations have indicated the presence of crystalline water ice and ammonia hydrate on the large Kuiper Belt object (50000) Quaoar that has resurfacing suggesting cryovolcanic outgassing. Spacecraft observations of the chemical compositions and characteristics of the nuclei of several comets (Halley, Borrelly, Wild 2, and Tempel 1) have shown that comets contain complex organic chemicals; that water is the predominant volatile; and that extremely high temperatures (approx. 350-400 K) can be reached on the surfae of the very black (albedo approx. 0.03) nuclei of comets when they approach the Sun. Impact craters and pinnacles observed on comet Wild 2 suggest a thick crust. Episodic outbursts and jets from the nuclei of several comets indicate that localized regimes of liquid water and water vapor can periodically exist beneath the comet crust. The Deep Impact mission found the temperature of the nucleus of comet Tempel 1 at 1.5 AU varied from a minimum of 280 plus or minus 8 K the 330K (57 C) on the sunlit side. In this paper it is argued that that pools and films of liquid water exist (within a wide range of temperatures) in cavities and voids just beneath the hot, black crust. The possibility of liquid water existing over a wide range of temperatures significantly enhances the possibility that comets might contain niches suitable for the growth of microbial communities and ecosystems. These regimes would be ideal for the growth of psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic

  5. Comets, Asteroids, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    During the past few decades, the role of comets in the delivery of water, organics, and prebiotic chemicals to the Biosphere of Earth during the Hadean (4.5-3.8 Ga) period of heavy bombardment has become more widely accepted. However comets are still largely regarded as frigid, pristine bodies of protosolar nebula material that are entirely devoid of liquid water and consequently unsuitable for life in any form. Complex organic compounds have been observed comets and on the water rich asteroid 1998 KY26, which has color and radar reflectivity similar to the carbonaceous meteorites. Near infrared observations have indicated the presence of crystalline water ice and ammonia hydrate on the large Kuiper Belt object (50000) Quaoar with resurfacing that may indicate cryovolcanic outgassing and the Cassini spacecraft has detected water-ice geysers on Saturn s moon Enceladus. Spacecraft observations of the chemical compositions and characteristics of the nuclei of several comets (Halley, Borrelly, Wild 2, and Tempel 1) have now firmly established that comets contain a suite of complex organic chemicals; water is the predominant volatile; and that extremely high temperatures (approx.350-400 K) can be reached on the surface of the very black (albedo-0.03) nuclei when the comets are with 1.5 AU from the Sun. Impact craters and pinnacles observed on comet Wild 2 suggest a thick crust and episodic outbursts and jets observed on the nuclei of several comets are interpreted as indications that localized regimes of liquid water and water vapor can periodically exist beneath the crust of some comets. The Deep Impact observations indicate that the temperature on the nucleus of of comet Tempel 1 at 1.5 AU varied from 330K on the sunlit side to a minimum of 280+/-8 K. It is interesting that even the coldest region of the comet surface was slightly above the ice/liquid water phase transition temperature. These results suggest that pools and films of liquid water can exist in a wide

  6. Comets, asteroids, meteorites, and the origin of the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2006-08-01

    During the past few decades, the delivery of water, organics, and prebiotic chemicals to the Biosphere of Earth during the Hadean (4.5-3.8 Ga) period of heavy bombardment by comets and asteroids has become more widely accepted. Comets are still largely regarded as frigid, pristine bodies of protosolar nebula material that are devoid of liquid water and therefore unsuitable for life. Complex organic compounds have been observed in comets and on the water-rich asteroid 1998 KY26 and near IR observations have indicated the presence of crystalline water ice and ammonia hydrate on the large Kuiper Belt object (50000) Quaoar that has resurfacing suggesting cryovolcanic outgassing. Spacecraft observations of the chemical compositions and characteristics of the nuclei of several comets (Halley, Borrelly, Wild 2, and Tempel 1) have shown that comets contain complex organic chemicals; that water is the predominant volatile; and that extremely high temperatures (~350-400 K) can be reached on the surface of the very black (albedo~0.03) nuclei of comets when they approach the Sun. Impact craters and pinnacles observed on comet Wild 2 suggest a thick crust. Episodic outbursts and jets from the nuclei of several comets indicate that localized regimes of liquid water and water vapor can periodically exist beneath the comet crust. The Deep Impact mission found the temperature of the nucleus of comet Tempel 1 at 1.5 AU varied from a minimum of 280 +/-8 K the 330K (57 °C) on the sunlit side. In this paper it is argued that that pools and films of liquid water exist (within a wide range of temperatures) in cavities and voids just beneath the hot, black crust. The possibility of liquid water existing over a wide range of temperatures significantly enhances the possibility that comets might contain niches suitable for the growth of microbial communities and ecosystems. These regimes would be ideal for the growth of psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic photoautotrophs and

  7. [Who finances medical research in Chile?].

    PubMed

    Reyes, H; Kauffmann, R; Goic, A

    1995-10-01

    To identify those institutions granting medical research in Chile, every issue of Revista Médica de Chile published between 1987 and 1994 was reviewed, under the assumption that a vast majority (over 70%) of papers released by Chilean authors in topics of internal medicine and related subspecialties would have been submitted for publication in this journal. This assumption was based in the solid prestige of Revista Médica de Chile among Chilean physicians and investigators: it is one of the oldest medical journals in the world (founded in 1872) and its inclusion in the most important international indexes (e.g. Index Medicus, Current Contents) qualifies it in the "mainstream literature". Papers classified as "Original Articles", "Clinical Experiences", "Review Articles", "Public Health", "Case Reports", "Clinical Laboratory", "Special Articles" and "Medical Education" were screened for acknowledgment of financial support beyond the resources needed for routine clinical work. Among 1,528 manuscripts published, 344 were "Original Articles" and 61.3% of them acknowledged special financial support. Five hundred and one manuscripts were "Clinical Experiences" and 21.5% of them received special financial support; similar proportions were detected in "Review Articles" and "Public Health" topics. The institution ranked as providing support most often was the "Fondo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología" (FONDECYT), a governmental fund that assigns resources to research in all areas of science and technology through a peer-reviewed nationwide annual contest. FONDECYT was identified as provider of financial support to 45.2% of the "Original Articles" and "Clinical Experiences"; Chilean universities were mentioned by 33.6% and other entities (including pharmaceutical companies, other national and foreign organizations) by 23.1%. The University of Chile was the main Chilean university mentioned in the acknowledgments. The proportion of papers receiving special financial support

  8. Biosphere Lost: Rethinking the Study of Global Environmental Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    It is fair to say that our planet's most precious resource is land. Land is the source of the vast majority of our food and freshwater, nearly all of our fiber and raw materials, and many other important goods and services. It is also our home. But our relationship to the land has been dramatically changing over the history of our species, mainly through the invention and evolution of agriculture. Today, with the emergence of modern agricultural practices, coupled with the population growth and technological developments of recent centuries, we have transformed a staggering amount of the Earth's surface into highly managed landscapes. Even more startling: the widespread use of irrigation and chemical fertilizers has fundamentally altered the flows of water and nutrients across large regions of the globe. These modifications to the land have driven fundamental changes to the ecology of our planet. Even the effects of future climate change may not have such a major, transformative effect on the environment and on human society as human land use practices. However, despite the importance of land use in the global environment, we still know relatively little about how it affects ecological systems across local, regional and global scales. Here I will discuss new approaches to the study of a human-dominated biosphere. This work requires new, interdisciplinary research to help us understand the changing relationships between human actions and Earth's complex ecological systems. It also requires integrating this latest science into real-world decision- making and public policy, with the ultimate goal of managing our planet's ecological systems sustainably into the future.

  9. On Detecting Biospheres from Chemical Thermodynamic Disequilibrium in Planetary Atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Bergsman, David S; Catling, David C

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric chemical disequilibrium has been proposed as a method for detecting extraterrestrial biospheres from exoplanet observations. Chemical disequilibrium is potentially a generalized biosignature since it makes no assumptions about particular biogenic gases or metabolisms. Here, we present the first rigorous calculations of the thermodynamic chemical disequilibrium in Solar System atmospheres, in which we quantify the available Gibbs energy: the Gibbs free energy of an observed atmosphere minus that of atmospheric gases reacted to equilibrium. The purely gas phase disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere is mostly attributable to O2 and CH4. The available Gibbs energy is not unusual compared to other Solar System atmospheres and smaller than that of Mars. However, Earth's fluid envelope contains an ocean, allowing gases to react with water and requiring a multiphase calculation with aqueous species. The disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere-ocean system (in joules per mole of atmosphere) ranges from ∼20 to 2 × 10(6) times larger than the disequilibria of other atmospheres in the Solar System, where Mars is second to Earth. Only on Earth is the chemical disequilibrium energy comparable to the thermal energy per mole of atmosphere (excluding comparison to Titan with lakes, where quantification is precluded because the mean lake composition is unknown). Earth's disequilibrium is biogenic, mainly caused by the coexistence of N2, O2, and liquid water instead of more stable nitrate. In comparison, the O2-CH4 disequilibrium is minor, although kinetics requires a large CH4 flux into the atmosphere. We identify abiotic processes that cause disequilibrium in the other atmospheres. Our metric requires minimal assumptions and could potentially be calculated from observations of exoplanet atmospheres. However, further work is needed to establish whether thermodynamic disequilibrium is a practical exoplanet biosignature, requiring an assessment of false positives, noisy

  10. Biosphere model for assessing doses from nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, M.I.; Zach, R.; Sheppard, S.C.; Amiro, B.D.

    1996-12-01

    In Canada`s nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, the waste would be placed in corrosion-resistant metal containers, surrounded by clay-based buffer and backfill materials, in a vault deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The engineered and natural barriers of the disposal system are designed to isolate the waste from the surface environment. Nevertheless, isolation may not be complete for all time and nuclides could reach the surface environment. Because this would likely occur far in the future, the impact on the environment and humans must be predicted with the help of mathematical models. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), a key regulator of Canada`s nuclear industry, requires that quantitative model simulations extend to at least 10,000 years. The AECB has established an individual risk limit for human exposure of 10{sup -6} serious health effects per year. This limit corresponds to a radiological dose of 0.05 mSv/a or about 2.5% of the natural background dose, based on the AECB`s risk conversion factor of 0.02. To demonstrate environmental and human safety, radiological doses are predicted to a member of a self-sufficient critical group, the most exposed people for up to 10,000 years. For times longer than 10,000 years, reasoned arguments are required to show that no sudden or dramatic increases will occur that would be unacceptable by today`s standards. Our predictions are based on linked vault, geosphere and biosphere models, which compose the system model.

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  12. Petroleum resources of South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program series

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.

    1983-01-01

    This report is an analysis of discovered crude oil reserves, undiscovered recoverable crude oil resources, and estimated annual oil field production. The countries analyzed are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All of the countries in this report have a history of petroleum exploration and development. Also, they maintain policies which support the search for, and exploitation of, petroleum resources. This systematic assessment provides estimates of the quantities of remaining known petroleum reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources. The future feasible production rates from the respective countries are also discussed. The FESAP assessments are limited to petroleum resources recoverable by conventional primary and secondary extraction technology. It is estimated that over 29.4 billion barrels of recoverable oil (both discovered and undiscovered) originally existed within the sedimentary basins of these countries, as follows: Argentina (9.4 billion barrels); Brazil (6.5 billion barrels); Colombia (5.0 billion barrels); Peru (3.6 billion barrels); Ecuador (over 3.0 billion barrels); Chile (1.1 billion barrels); and Bolivia (over 0.8 billion barrels). Through 1982, about 10.2 billion barrels of the oil had been produced. Thus, some 19.2 billion barrels constitute the remaining recoverable petroleum resource base. It is estimated that the most likely volume of crude oil remaining to be found in the seven countries is 12 billion barrels. 91 refs., 59 figs., 82 tabs.

  13. Linking biological conservation to healthy rural communities: a case history of the Janos – Casas Grandes Biosphere Reserve

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the late 1930’s, Aldo Leopold witnessed a striking contrast along the narrow boundary between the United States and Mexico. He later described Mexican ecosystems as a “lovely picture of ecological health” and those same ecosystems north of the U.S. - Mexico border as “so badly damaged that on...

  14. Social-ecological dynamics of change and restoration attempts in the Chihuahuan Desert Grasslands of Janos Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrub encroachment and grassland loss are widespread throughout the US-Mexico borderlands with negative consequences for production of livestock and ecosystem services. In this paper we detail the complex social and ecological phenomena associated with this pattern of degradation in a large area in ...

  15. Herpetofauna of the Beni Biological Station Biosphere Reserve, Amazonian Bolivia: Additional information, and current knowledge in context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middendorf, G.; Reynolds, R.

    2000-01-01

    Previous collections in the Departamento del Beni in tropical Bolivia only hinted at high levels of herpetological biodiversity (Fugler 1986, 1988; de la Riva 1990a; Fugler and de la Riva 1990). Fieldwork (totaling 48 days) in July-August 1988 and September 1987 (dry seasons) and November-December 1990 (wet season) has resulted in collection and identification of 401 amphibian and reptilian specimens from the general area of the Beni Biological Station's (EBB) headquarters at El Porvenir. These collections represent 33 amphibian and 17 reptilian species in 29 genera (14 amphibian, 15 reptilian). The inventory of herpetofauna scientifically documented to occur in the Departamento del Beni is considered to have been increased by 6 amphibian and 10 reptilian species. Specimens that could not be definitively identified (reflecting taxonomic uncertainty and/or probably species new to science) include 3 amphibian species (anurans) and 2 reptilian species (snakes). The EBB harbors the richest savanna for anuran species known in South America.

  16. Patterns in abundance and seasonality of insects in the siruvani forest of Western ghats, nilgiri biosphere reserve, southern India.

    PubMed

    Arun, P R; Vijayan, V S

    2004-06-01

    The seasonal abundance patterns of insects inhabiting the understory vegetation of a mixed deciduous forest were examined with the help of the sweep-net sampling method. During the study period of 2 years, insects were sampled regularly from the understory vegetation of the three selected habitats (moist-deciduous, riverine, and teak plantation) of the mixed deciduous forest. Insect abundance was maximum in the moist-deciduous habitat and minimum in the teak plantation. Generally, insect abundance was the highest during the southwest monsoon in all habitats. The temporal pattern of fluctuations in the insect abundance followed more or less the same pattern in all the three habitats studied. The insect abundance of the understory vegetation varied among the habitats studied, while the pattern of seasonal fluctuations in insect abundance was comparable among habitats. Composition of the insect community also indicated prominent seasonal changes within habitats than interhabitat changes within a season. PMID:15252690

  17. Conservation, Community, and Culture? New Organizational Challenges of Community Forest Concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peter Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Community-based forestry has received much recent attention as an effort to protect threatened Southern forests by linking conservation with sustainable livelihoods. Many researchers have emphasized the importance of effective organization for successful community-based forestry. While significant attention has been paid to community-level…

  18. Multicell reserve battery

    SciTech Connect

    Horning, R.J.; Eppley, W.J.

    1984-02-21

    A reserve battery having a plurality of galvanic cells and a series of ports through which electrolyte can flow into the cells. A spring activated valve opens the ports during periods of angular acceleration of the battery and closes the ports when there is no acceleration.

  19. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  20. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  1. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  2. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  3. 26 CFR 27 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Reserved 27 PARTS 27-29 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 PARTS 27-29...

  4. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  5. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoso, Patricio; Gajardo, Marcela

    This document contains two case studies of adult education programs in Chile. Both case studies begin with a "face sheet" on which is recorded basic information about the program and the description. The first case study, prepared by Patricio Donoso, reports on Centro El Canelo de Nos, an inservice center for educators who work with Chile's most…

  6. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  7. Honors in Chile: New Engagements in the Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skewes, Juan Carlos; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto Cioce; Conway, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    Honors programs are rare in Latin America, and in Chile they were unknown before 2003. At the Universidad Austral de Chile, an interdisciplinary group of scholars linked to environmental studies put forward a pilot project for implementing a new experience in higher education. Challenged by an educational environment where (i) apathy and…

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... national plant protection organization (NPPO) of Chile. To register, the production site must provide Chile..., the fruit must be washed, rinsed in a potable water bath, washed with detergent with brushing...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... national plant protection organization (NPPO) of Chile. To register, the production site must provide Chile..., the fruit must be washed, rinsed in a potable water bath, washed with detergent with brushing...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... national plant protection organization (NPPO) of Chile. To register, the production site must provide Chile..., the fruit must be washed, rinsed in a potable water bath, washed with detergent with brushing...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... national plant protection organization (NPPO) of Chile. To register, the production site must provide Chile..., the fruit must be washed, rinsed in a potable water bath, washed with detergent with brushing...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... national plant protection organization (NPPO) of Chile. To register, the production site must provide Chile..., the fruit must be washed, rinsed in a potable water bath, washed with detergent with brushing...

  13. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

  14. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  15. Benchmarking terrestrial biospheric models against CO2 observations from GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swetish, J. B.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Schwalm, C. R.; Fisher, J. B.; Liu, J.; Bowman, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    There is a large degree of uncertainty in terrestrial biospheric model (TBM) representation of both the magnitude and spatial distribution of carbon sources and sinks on the land surface. The lack of direct observations of land-atmosphere carbon exchange at the resolution of model estimates makes it difficult to assess the strengths and weaknesses of various modeling approaches in terms of their ability to represent the terrestrial carbon cycle. Atmospheric CO2 observations, however, provide an integrated view of surface sources and sinks of carbon, thus providing a potential powerful observational constraint for TBMs. Using the model results from the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) and the framework of NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) we assess the consistency of TBMs with satellite-based observations of atmospheric CO2. The MsTMIP TBM surface flux estimates, together with fossil fuel, air-sea fluxes, and biomass burning inventories, are coupled with the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model within CMS to generate the corresponding atmospheric CO2 signals. These signals are then pressure-averaged and directly compared with dry air column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 (ΧCO2) from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). Using model selection and multi-linear regression, we assess which model, or ensemble of models, best explain the ΧCO2 observations. By weighting each model based on its consistency with GOSAT ΧCO2 we identify the optimal weight for each individual model in a weighted multi-model ensemble. The inferred weights derived from the regression can help inform understanding of the relationship between surface flux representations and atmospheric CO2 measurements and can be linked back to process representation within the models themselves. Thus, comparing TBM estimates to atmospheric CO2 observations not only serves as an additional benchmark of model

  16. Confronting terrestrial biosphere models with forest inventory data.

    PubMed

    Lichstein, Jeremy W; Golaz, Ni-Zhang; Malyshev, Sergey; Shevliakova, Elena; Zhang, Tao; Sheffield, Justin; Birdsey, Richard A; Sarmiento, Jorge L; Pacala, Stephen W

    2014-06-01

    Efforts to test and improve terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) using a variety of data sources have become increasingly common. Yet, geographically extensive forest inventories have been under-exploited in previous model-data fusion efforts. Inventory observations of forest growth, mortality, and biomass integrate processes across a range of timescales, including slow timescale processes such as species turnover, that are likely to have important effects on ecosystem responses to environmental variation. However, the large number (thousands) of inventory plots precludes detailed measurements at each location, so that uncertainty in climate, soil properties, and other environmental drivers may be large. Errors in driver variables, if ignored, introduce bias into model-data fusion. We estimated errors in climate and soil drivers at U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots, and we explored the effects of these errors on model-data fusion with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory LM3V dynamic global vegetation model. When driver errors were ignored or assumed small at FIA plots, responses of biomass production in LM3V to precipitation and soil available water capacity appeared steeper than the corresponding responses estimated from FIA data. These differences became nonsignificant if driver errors at FIA plots were assumed to be large. Ignoring driver errors when optimizing LM3V parameter values yielded estimates for fine-root allocation that were larger than biometric estimates, which is consistent with the expected direction of bias. To explore whether complications posed by driver errors could be circumvented by relying on intensive study sites where driver errors are small, we performed a power analysis. To accurately quantify the response of biomass production to spatial variation in mean annual precipitation within the eastern United States would require at least 40 intensive study sites, which is larger than the number of sites typically available

  17. A comparison of bacterial communities in deep terrestrial and deep sub-seafloor biospheres (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, B. M.; Lesniewski, R.; Alexander, E. C.; Gralnick, J.; Orcutt, B.

    2009-12-01

    The distribution and community structure of microorganisms within the Earth’s crust are thought to be influenced - even controlled - by environmental factors. However, significant uncertainty remains in our understanding of microbial species distributions generally, and especially in the deep biosphere where 325 - 518 Pg of microbial biomass is estimated to reside globally. The potential magnitude and global significance of deep biosphere microbial communities has prompted active research focused on sub-seafloor biogeochemistry. Taxonomic analyses based on bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries from over 200 deep terrestrial and marine microbial communities, suggests that the deep terrestrial biosphere is distinct from the deep-sea biosphere in terms of microbial community composition. Therefore, our rapidly expanding understanding of the distribution, ecology, and biogeochemical significance of microorganisms in the deep sub-seafloor may not be transferable to deep terrestrial systems representing up to 70 % of the deep subsurface biomass globally. The long-term goal of this research is an integration of local and regional microbial community and geochemistry data into a global perspective on the biogeography of deep biosphere systems.

  18. HIV ISSUES AND MAPUCHES IN CHILE

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for

  19. Rapid Characterization of Large Earthquakes in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, S. E.; Team, C.

    2015-12-01

    Chile, along 3000 km of it 4200 km long coast, is regularly affected by very large earthquakes (up to magnitude 9.5) resulting from the convergence and subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate. These megathrust earthquakes exhibit long rupture regions reaching several hundreds of km with fault displacements of several tens of meters. Minimum delay characterization of these giant events to establish their rupture extent and slip distribution is of the utmost importance for rapid estimations of the shaking area and their corresponding tsunami-genic potential evaluation, particularly when there are only few minutes to warn the coastal population for immediate actions. The task of a rapid evaluation of large earthquakes is accomplished in Chile through a network of sensors being implemented by the National Seismological Center of the University of Chile. The network is mainly composed approximately by one hundred broad-band and strong motion instruments and 130 GNSS devices; all will be connected in real time. Forty units present an optional RTX capability, where satellite orbits and clock corrections are sent to the field device producing a 1-Hz stream at 4-cm level. Tests are being conducted to stream the real-time raw data to be later processed at the central facility. Hypocentral locations and magnitudes are estimated after few minutes by automatic processing software based on wave arrival; for magnitudes less than 7.0 the rapid estimation works within acceptable bounds. For larger events, we are currently developing automatic detectors and amplitude estimators of displacement coming out from the real time GNSS streams. This software has been tested for several cases showing that, for plate interface events, the minimum magnitude threshold detectability reaches values within 6.2 and 6.5 (1-2 cm coastal displacement), providing an excellent tool for earthquake early characterization from a tsunamigenic perspective.

  20. Estudio del campo ocupacional del traductor en Santiago de Chile (A Study of Opportunities for Professional Translators in Santiago, Chile).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Ileana; And Others

    A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…

  1. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  2. Familial chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands, Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Reginato, A J; Hollander, J L; Martinez, V; Valenzuela, F; Schiapachasse, V; Covarrubias, E; Jacobelli, S; Arinoviche, R; Silcox, D; Ruiz, F

    1975-01-01

    Studies about chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands (Chile) showed the high frequency of the disease there and how most of it is aggregated in a few highly involved families. Pedigrees and the high degree of consanguinity among parents of index cases pointed to a recessive inheritance. The presence of common Caucasian anthropological features of genetic value in the patients and the lack of Indian mixture in three of the involved families, documented back to 1600, suggest a Caucasian origin of the mutation. Biochemical studies of the patients' synovial fluid showed a significant rise in pyrophosphate concentration. Calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were not different from a control group. PMID:168817

  3. Center for oceanographic research opens in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Carina B.; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    The Humboldt Current System, with its coastal upwelling ecosystem off Peru and Chile, is one of the most productive marine systems in the world. Here, significant exchange of heat and CO2 takes place between the ocean and the atmosphere due to upwelling of sub-surface, cold, nutrient-rich, CO2-saturated waters. In addition, the eastern South Pacific holds one of the three most important oxygen minimum zones of the global ocean. Through the biologically mediated process of denitrification, the oxygen minimum zone contributes to the global sink of nitrogen in the ocean and as a source of the greenhouse gas N2O to the atmosphere.

  4. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application March 2, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange.... Applicants: The Chile Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the ``Current Funds''), Aberdeen Asset Management Asia Limited...

  5. In situ Detection of Microbial Life in the Deep Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Everett C.; Bhartia, Rohit; Anderson, Louise; Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.; Iturrino, Gerardo; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2015-01-01

    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 105 cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities. PMID:26617595

  6. In situ Detection of Microbial Life in the Deep Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust.

    PubMed

    Salas, Everett C; Bhartia, Rohit; Anderson, Louise; Hug, William F; Reid, Ray D; Iturrino, Gerardo; Edwards, Katrina J

    2015-01-01

    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 10(5) cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities. PMID:26617595

  7. Detecting the Deep-Biosphere in-Situ within Igneous Ocean Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in-situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 105 cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities.

  8. Analysis of Low-Biomass Microbial Communities in the Deep Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Morono, Y; Inagaki, F

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the subseafloor biosphere has been explored by scientific ocean drilling to depths of about 2.5km below the seafloor. Although organic-rich anaerobic sedimentary habitats in the ocean margins harbor large numbers of microbial cells, microbial populations in ultraoligotrophic aerobic sedimentary habitats in the open ocean gyres are several orders of magnitude less abundant. Despite advances in cultivation-independent molecular ecological techniques, exploring the low-biomass environment remains technologically challenging, especially in the deep subseafloor biosphere. Reviewing the historical background of deep-biosphere analytical methods, the importance of obtaining clean samples and tracing contamination, as well as methods for detecting microbial life, technological aspects of molecular microbiology, and detecting subseafloor metabolic activity will be discussed. PMID:27261783

  9. Attribution of urban greenhouse gas fluxes: Does the biosphere in cities matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutyra, L.; Gately, C.; Decina, S.; Reinmann, A.; Templer, P. H.; Nehrkorn, T.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are the dominant anthropogenic source of CO2, responsible for ~70% of fossil fuel emissions, representing a heterogeneous mix of stationary sources (buildings, trees) and sources that are constantly moving (people, vehicles) each with its own temporal pattern. This paper quantifies sources and cycles of urban CO2 fluxes, particularly exploring the role of the urban biosphere in understanding and attributing carbon fluxes. The biosphere has a major influence on daily temporal and spatial patterns of CO2 concentrations in urban areas, even though the net flux may be small. Thus, biosphere fluxes must be modeled accurately in order to use urban concentration data to infer emissions. We present the results of both top-down atmospheric inversions and bottom-up estimations, highlighting the importance of spatially and temporally resolved drivers for urban carbon monitoring.

  10. Poor ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  11. Poor ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-15

    This August 15, 1991, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1991, through June 30, 1991. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development program is proceeding on schedule. The Reserve's capacity is currently 726 million barrels. A total of 5.5 million barrels of new gross cavern volume was developed at Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw during the quarter. There were no crude oil deliveries to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the calendar quarter ending June 30, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of June 30, 1991, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve inventory was 568.5 million barrels. The reorganization of the Office of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve became effective June 28, 1991. Under the new organization, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office in Louisiana will report to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program Office in Washington rather than the Oak Ridge Field Office in Tennessee. 2 tabs.

  13. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  14. Attributing uncertainties in simulated biospheric carbon fluxes to different error sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. C.; Pejam, M. R.; Chan, E.; Wofsy, S. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Margolis, H. A.; McCaughey, J. H.

    2011-06-01

    Estimating the current sources and sinks of carbon and projecting future levels of CO2 and climate require biospheric carbon models that cover the landscape. Such models inevitably suffer from deficiencies and uncertainties. This paper addresses how to quantify errors in modeled carbon fluxes and then trace them to specific input variables. To date, few studies have examined uncertainties in biospheric models in a quantitative fashion that are relevant to landscape-scale simulations. In this paper, we introduce a general framework to quantify errors in biospheric carbon models that "unmix" the contributions to the total uncertainty in simulated carbon fluxes and attribute the error to different variables. To illustrate this framework we apply and use a simple biospheric model, the Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (VPRM), in boreal forests of central Canada, using eddy covariance flux measurement data from two main sites of the Canadian Carbon Program (CCP). We explicitly distinguish between systematic errors ("biases") and random errors and focus on the impact of errors present in biospheric parameters as well as driver data sets (satellite indices, temperature, solar radiation, and land cover). Biases in downward shortwave radiation accumulated to the most significant amount out of the driver data sets and accounted for a significant percentage of the annually summed carbon uptake. However, the largest cumulative errors were shown to stem from biospheric parameters controlling the light-use efficiency and respiration-temperature relationships. This work represents a step toward a carbon model-data fusion system because in such systems the outcome is determined as much by uncertainties as by the measurements themselves.

  15. Recent developments in assessment of long-term radionuclide behavior in the geosphere-biosphere subsystem.

    PubMed

    Smith, G M; Smith, K L; Kowe, R; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Thorne, M; Thiry, Y; Read, D; Molinero, J

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on permitting, controlling and monitoring releases of radioactivity into the environment rely on a great variety of factors. Important among these is the prospective assessment of radionuclide behavior in the environment, including migration and accumulation among and within specific environmental media, and the resulting environmental and human health impacts. Models and techniques to undertake such assessments have been developed over several decades based on knowledge of the ecosystems involved, as well as monitoring of previous radionuclide releases to the environment, laboratory experiments and other related research. This paper presents developments in the assessment of radiation doses and related research for some of the key radionuclides identified as of potential significance in the context of releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities for solid radioactive waste. Since releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities involve transfers from the geosphere to the biosphere, an important aspect is the combined effects of surface hydrology, near-surface hydrogeology and chemical gradients on speciation and radionuclide mobility in the zone in which the geosphere and biosphere overlap (herein described as the geosphere-biosphere subsystem). In turn, these aspects of the environment can be modified as a result of environmental change over the thousands of years that have to be considered in radioactive waste disposal safety assessments. Building on the experience from improved understanding of the behavior of the key radionuclides, this paper proceeds to describe development of a generic methodology for representing the processes and environmental changes that are characteristic of the interface between the geosphere and the biosphere. The information that is provided and the methodology that is described are based on international collaborative work implemented through the BIOPROTA forum, www.bioprota.org. PMID:24238917

  16. Pressure activated reserve battery

    SciTech Connect

    Garoutte, K.F.

    1989-02-07

    A reserve pressure compensating battery is described comprising at least one reserve cell which contains a mean for storing a pair of cell electrodes and an electrolyte reservoir, separated by a fluid-tight barrier. It also includes a first rupturable seal means for providing a rupturable fluid tight barrier between the cell electrodes and the cell electrolyte reservoir, a second rupturable seal means across an external end of the cell electrolyte reservoir means, a deformable cup means within the electrolyte reservoir which provides a fluid-tight seal, a housing means surrounding the reserve cell and having an opening therein, a third rupturable seal means across the opening in the housing means, a flexible bladder means in the housing means for isolating the third seal means from the second seal means, and an electrically nonconductive fill fluid within the housing means between the bladder means and the second seal means whereby a movement of the bladder means allows an internal pressure of the fill fluid to match an external environmental pressure to minimize pressure resistance to the housing means.

  17. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve].

    PubMed

    Motz, W; Scheler, S

    2008-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. PMID:19085802

  18. The ecology of Chagas disease in Chile.

    PubMed

    Schofield, C J; Apt, W; Miles, M A

    1982-01-01

    Chagas disease probably affects over half a million people in Chile, principally in rural communities in the fertile valleys of the arid 'norte chico' region, north of Santiago. The main domestic vector is Triatoma infestans, but Triatoma spinolai, although mainly in rocky sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes, also invades houses. Since the Spanish invasion in the sixteenth century, and particularly during the last 100 years, the endemic region has suffered an ecological breakdown, largely due to excessive timbering and over-grazing, which has led to a denuded landscape with severe loss of agricultural productivity. This breakdown, combined with uneconomically sized farms and poor marketing, exacerbates the poverty of the rural communities. As in other similar areas of Latin America, the combination of poverty and poor education discourages improvements in housing which would reduce the risk of vector-transmitted Chagas disease. This paper reviews the historical and ecological background of the endemic region of Chile, both as a basis for further work, and as a point of comparison with other endemic areas. The review attempts to show how the current status of Chagas disease is likely to be maintained through its association with poor quality housing, poverty and ecological degradation, drawing parallels with other endemic++ areas and suggesting ways by which the ecological damage might be reversed. PMID:6821391

  19. Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile.

    PubMed

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2005-01-01

    The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae White; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Koch. (2) Probably established or endemic: Argas miniatus Koch; Ornithodoros spheniscus Hoogstraal, Wassef, Hays and Keirans; Ixodes abrocomae Lahille; I. neuquenensis Ringuelet; I. pararicinus Keirans and Clifford. (3) Doubtfully established: Argas reflexus Fabricius; Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville). (4) Exotic: Amblyomma argentinae Neumann; A. latum Koch, Rhipicephalus (= Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). (5) Erroneously identified as present in Chile: Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); A. maculatum Koch; A. varium Koch; Ixodes conepati Cooley and Kohls; I. frontalis (Panzer); I. ricinus (Linnaeus); Margaropus winthemi Karsch. (6) Nomina nuda: Argas reticulatus Gervais; Amblyomma inflatum Neumann; Ixodes lagotis Gervais. Hosts and localities (including new records) are presented. Argas neghmei, O. amblus, O. megnini, I. uriae and R. sanguineus may cause severe injury to their hosts, including humans. The Chilean Ixodes fauna is unique to the Neotropical Zoogeographic Region, and additional research is needed in order to understand the biological importance of these species. PMID:15777007

  20. Contributions to the mammalogy of Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.

    1979-01-01

    Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.

  1. HIV Issues and Mapuches in Chile.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. A total of 16 Mapuches participated voluntarily and showed some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are effective. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for further understanding their perceptions and health care needs. PMID:18457766

  2. [The Vida Chile program: results and challenges with health promotion policy in Chile, 1998-2006].

    PubMed

    Salinas, Judith; Cancino, Anselmo; Pezoa, Sergio; Salamanca, Fernando; Soto, Marina

    2007-01-01

    The Government of Chile has placed a high priority on health promotion. This is evident in the advances made through its National Plan for Health Promotion (Plan Nacional de Promoción de la Salud) and the Vida Chile National Council for Health Promotion (Consejo Nacional para la Promoción de la Salud Vida Chile). Chaired by the minister of health, Vida Chile is made up of 28 public and private institutions from around the country. Vida Chile has a network of local councils that have been established in the country's comunas (communes, or local-level divisions of the country's provinces) and that include government officials and representatives of local societal and community organizations and private businesses. This report details the methods used to evaluate the National Plan as well as provides a preliminary assessment of the technical and financial results for the 1998-2006 period. Coverage indicators (number of participants; number of accredited health-promoting schools, workplaces, and universities; and number of health promotion events) and the extent of strategy implementation were used to measure the success of the program. Health promotion activities grew markedly during this period. Among the notable accomplishments were the following four: (1) 98% of the communes now have their own community health promotion plan and intersectoral Vida Chile committee to implement the plan, (2) there has been an increase in societal and community groups involved in the health promotion strategies, (3) 34% of the primary and secondary schools have become accredited health-promoting schools, and (4) approximately 20% of the total population benefited directly from community-health-plan activities in 2006. The average per capita cost of the community health plans' activities in 2006 was US$ 6.60. The two most important factors that facilitated the operation of the local health promotion plans were participation by community and societal groups and having an adequate

  3. The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme: A study of global change (IGBP)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosswall, T.

    1992-09-01

    The International Geospher-biosphere Programme, initiated in 1986 as an interdisciplinariy study of global change, is an evolving program. It selects questions for study deemed to be of greatest importance in contributing to our understand of the changing nature of the global environment on time scales of decades to centuries that most affect the biosphere, that are most susceptible to human perturbations and that will most likely lead to practical, predictive capability. Seven key questions are listed and the planning for initiation of research is given.

  4. Exploring the deep biosphere through ophiolite-associated surface springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Woycheese, K. M.; Vallalar, B.; Arcilla, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    potential to yield energy for metabolism in these ecosystems. Media were diluted with filtered spring fluid to the desired concentration on location, and inoculated immediately. We found positive growth in cultures from all sample locations (seven in all), at temperatures ranging from 28-48C under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Growth on complex organic media was successful in five samples, and media including sugars or organic acids in two and four samples, respectively. Heterotrophic sulfate reduction was seen in six samples, and autotrophic sulfate reduction in only three samples. Four locations yielded heterotrophic iron reducers, and five locations host organisms capable of autotrophic iron reduction. This variety of positive growth indicates a metabolically flexible community, complementing data obtained from previously reported communities in serpentinizing systems. We begin to obtain a picture of community dynamics and functional diversity in these ecosystems that bridge the subsurface and surface biospheres.

  5. Plumes and Earth's Dynamic History : from Core to Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, V. E.

    2002-12-01

    The last half century has been dominated by the general acceptance of plate tectonics. Although the plume concept emerged early in this story, its role has remained ambiguous. Because plumes are singularities, both in space and time, they tend to lie dangerously close to catastrophism, as opposed to the calm uniformitarian view of plate tectonics. Yet, it has become apparent that singular events and transient phenomena are of great importance, even if by definition they cover only a small fraction of geological time, in diverse observational and theoretical fields such as 1) magnetic reversals and the geodynamo, 2) tomography and mantle convection, 3) continental rifting and collision, and 4) evolution of the fluid envelopes (atmospheric and oceanic "climate"; evolution of species in the biosphere). I will emphasize recent work on different types of plumes and on the correlation between flood basalts and mass extinctions. The origin of mantle plumes remains a controversial topic. We suggest that three types of plumes exist, which originate at the three main discontinuities in the Earth's mantle (base of lithosphere, transition zone and core-mantle boundary). Most of the hotspots are short lived (~ 10Ma) and seem to come from the transition zone or above. Important concentrations occur above the Pacific and African superswells. Less than 10 hotspots have been long lived (~ 100Ma) and may have a very deep origin. In the last 50 Ma, these deep-seated plumes in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres have moved slowly, but motion was much faster prior to that. This change correlates with major episodes of true polar wander. The deeper ("primary") plumes are thought to trace global shifts in quadrupolar convection in the lower mantle. These are the plumes that were born as major flood basalts or oceanic plateaus (designated as large igneous provinces or LIPs). Most have an original volume on the order or in excess of 2.5 Mkm3. In most provinces, volcanism lasted on

  6. The impact of solar UV radiation on the early biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    2007-08-01

    sensing mechanisms; (ii) application of external shielding, such as covering by mud, sand or rock material; (iii) development of intrinsic UV screening pigments, such as tanning, inductive flavonoid production of plants, intracellular mycosporin production in cyanobacteria, (iv) accumulation of antioxidants and quenching substances. However, if UV damage has been induced - in spite of all avoidance efforts, organisms may restore their functionality by numerous repair processes. Repair pathways of a rich diversity and functional universality include (i) direct repair with the reversal of photochemical abnormalities, e.g. in the DNA; (ii) recombination repair removing the UV-induced abnormality by homologous recombination; and (iii) excision repair, where the section of the DNA strand containing the abnormality is removed and a repair patch is synthesized using the intact strand as a template. In addition to efficient repair systems for radiation-induced DNA injury, life has developed a variety of defense mechanisms, such as the increase in the production of stress proteins and the activation of the immune defence system. Some of these capacities have certainly already been evolved in the early biosphere, when it was exposed to the extended UV-spectrum of the sun. Only since the early Proterozoic, due to a rapid rise in the atmospheric oxygen concentration and consequently a photochemical built up of the stratospheric ozone layer, a more moderate UV radiation climate prevailed with wavelengths shorter than 295 nm being effectively cut off.

  7. New Discoveries From The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedachi, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP), an international scientific drilling project involving scientists from the USA, Australia and Japan, was initiated in Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. The scientific objectives of the ABDP are the identification of microfossils and biomarkers, the clarification of geochemical environment of the early Earth, and the understanding of geophysical contribution to the co-evolution of life and environment. Through 2003 and 2004 activities, we have drilled 150 _| 300 m deep holes to recover _gfresh_h (modern weathering-free) geologic formations that range from 3.5 to 2.7 Ga in age. The drilling targets were: (1) 3.46 Ga Towers Formation, (2) mid-Archean Mosquito Formation, (3) 2.77 Ga Mt Roe Basalt, (4) 2.76 Ga Tumbiana Formation, (5) 2.74 Ga Hardey Formation. The initial investigations on the ABDP drill cores by Japanese members have already produced many exciting and interesting data and observations. 3.46 Ga Marble Bar Jasper could provide clues to the argument about the early photosynthetic cyanobacteria that have produced free oxygen and have evolved the oxygen level on the earth. There have been many ideas how the hematite in jasper was formed. Our most important discoveries are the confirmations that hematite, magnetite and siderite precipitated separately as primary minerals, and that there is a remaining texture which resembles microfossil using FE-SEM, ESCA, Laser-Raman and cathodoluminescence. Taking into account the carbon isotopic ratios of remains from _|25 to _|40 permil, these iron oxides might be biogenic. We need to identify the iron bacteria in detail to deduce the early earth_fs surface environment. In addition, the black shale of Apex Basalt overlying Marble Bar Jasper contains organic carbon from 0.7 to 5.2 percent, and the carbon isotopic ratio of which is from -26 to -30 per mil, suggesting that various microbes inhabited in the early Archean ocean. 2.77 Ga Mt Roe Basalt, which is composed of

  8. Windows into the Martian Subsurface: Prospects for a Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    -Mg varieties, indicative of low water-rock ratios. Mawrth Valles has a very high abundance of Al-rich clay minerals that suggests high water rock ratios in a near surface environment. Overall Nili Fossae exhibits phyllosilicate mineralogy typical of a lower water-rock ratio but with smaller regions with evidence of high water-rock ratios. However, the Nili Fossae region has a high concentration of short, linear ridges in the ancient basement interpreted to be fluidize fracture zones. Also, exposed in the high fractured and brecciated crust around Nili Fossae are abundant blocks with pristine, unaltered igneous minerals such as orthopyroxene that could serve as energy sources. Nili Fossae also has an abundance of olivine-rich outcrops on the surface strongly associated in places with carbonate. The suite of environments exposed in these regions provide strong evidence for habitable subsurface environments and may serve as windows into a deep subsurface biosphere on Mars.

  9. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  10. [Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese immigration: Chile 1860-1930].

    PubMed

    Gutierrez Roldan, H G

    1989-12-01

    "The paper refers to the amount and some characteristics of the Spanish, Italian and Portuguese immigration to Chile during the period 1860-1930. It is compared with [movements to] Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Uruguay.... Different information sources are used and in spite of data weakness, the low preference for Chile of the European migratory flows is ratified as compared with those to Argentina.... It is pointed out that the migratory flows to Latin America, in particular to Chile, are associated, on the one hand, with the favourable... European [immigration] policy in this country and on the other hand with the huge European emigration overseas during that period." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12342735

  11. 77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... FR 21846, is delayed from January 24, 2013, until June 27, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Regulation D, 12 CFR part 204, on April 12, 2012, (77 FR 21846) to implement the following four... AD 83 Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board...

  12. Patterns of new versus recycled primary production in the terrestrial biosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability regulate plant productivity throughout the terrestrial biosphere, influencing the patterns and magnitude of net primary production (NPP) by land plants both now and into the future. These nutrients enter ecosystems via geologic and atmospheric pathways, a...

  13. 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change on trace gases and the biosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, J.A.; Moore, B. III

    1998-07-01

    This proposal seeks multi-agency funding to conduct an international, multidisciplinary 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change to take place from August 7 through 21, 1988, on the topic: Trace Gases and the Biosphere. The institute, to be held in Snowmass, Colorado, is envisioned as a pilot version of a continuing series of institutes on Global Change (IGC). This proposal seeks support for the 1988 pilot institute only. The concept and structure for the continuing series, and the definition of the 1988 pilot institute, were developed at an intensive and multidisciplinary Summer Institute Planning Meeting in Boulder, Colorado, on August 24--25, 1987. The theme for the 1988 PIGC, Trace Gases and the Biosphere, will focus a concerted, high-level multidisciplinary effort on a scientific problem central to the Global Change Program. Dramatic year-to-year increases in the global concentrations of radiatively-active trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide are now well documented. The predicted climatic effects of these changes lend special urgency to efforts to study the biospheric sources and sinks of these gases and to clarify their interactions and role in the geosphere-biosphere system.

  14. Deuterobiosphere the chemosynthetic second biosphere of the globe. A first review.

    PubMed

    Por, Francis D

    2008-06-01

    With the discovery of Ophel, a chemosynthesis-based continental subterranean environment (Por 2007), it became evident that such environments, previously known only from the sea, are spanning the world as a parallel biosphere, the deuterobiosphere. In this preliminary contribution the different known biomes of the deuterobiosphere are reviewed and some general and comparative features are listed. PMID:21396058

  15. DETERMINING CARBON ISOTOPE SIGNATURES FROM MICROMETEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR STUDYING BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE EXCHANGE PROCESSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years considerable effort has been focused on combining micrometeorological and stable isotope techniques to elucidate and study biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes. At the ecosystem scale, these methods are increasingly being used to address a number of challenging problems, including...

  16. Sensitivity properties of a biosphere model based on BATS and a statistical-dynamical climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping

    1994-01-01

    A biosphere model based on the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the Saltzman-Vernekar (SV) statistical-dynamical climate model is developed. Some equations of BATS are adopted either intact or with modifications, some are conceptually modified, and still others are replaced with equations of the SV model. The model is designed so that it can be run independently as long as the parameters related to the physiology and physiognomy of the vegetation, the atmospheric conditions, solar radiation, and soil conditions are given. With this stand-alone biosphere model, a series of sensitivity investigations, particularly the model sensitivity to fractional area of vegetation cover, soil surface water availability, and solar radiation for different types of vegetation, were conducted as a first step. These numerical experiments indicate that the presence of a vegetation cover greatly enhances the exchanges of momentum, water vapor, and energy between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth. An interesting result is that a dense and thick vegetation cover tends to serve as an environment conditioner or, more specifically, a thermostat and a humidistat, since the soil surface temperature, foliage temperature, and temperature and vapor pressure of air within the foliage are practically insensitive to variation of soil surface water availability and even solar radiation within a wide range. An attempt is also made to simulate the gradual deterioration of environment accompanying gradual degradation of a tropical forest to grasslands. Comparison with field data shows that this model can realistically simulate the land surface processes involving biospheric variations.

  17. Self-organization of the earth's biosphere-geochemical or geophysiological?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzman, David W.; Shore, Steven N.; Volk, Tyler; Mcmenamin, Mark

    1994-01-01

    We explore the implications of indicating the biosphere's self-organization by the trend over time of the net entropic flow from the Earth's surface, the actual physical boundary of virtually all biotic mass. This flow, derived from the radiative surface entropy budget, is approximately inversely related to the surface temperature when the solar incident flux remains constant. In the geophysiological ('gaian') interpretation, biospheric self-organization has increased with the progressive colonization of the continents and evolutionary developments in the land biota, as a result of surface cooling arising from biotic enhancement of weathering. The key site for this self-organization is at the interface between land and atmosphere, the soil, where carbon is sequestered by its reaction (as carbonic and organic acids) with calcium magnesium silicates. Along with disequilibrium (steady-state) levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the occurrence of differentiated soil is the critical material evidence for biospheric self-organization, whether it be geophysiological or geochemical (ie., purely result of inorganic reactions). The computed equilibrium levels of carbon dioxide and corresponding equilibrium temperatures in the past are dramatically different from the steady-state levels. With future solar luminosity increase, the biospheric capacity for climatic regulation will decrease, leading to the ending of self-organization some two billion years from now. The Earth's surface will then approach chemical equilibrium with respect to the carbonate-silicate cycle.

  18. International Co-ordinating Council of the Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Man and the Biosphere Program is an interdisciplinary program of research which emphasizes an ecological approach to the study of interrelationships between man and the environment. It is concerned with subjects of global or major regional significance which require international cooperation. This final report discusses areas in which…

  19. The Anthropocene: a conspicuous stratigraphical signal of anthropogenic changes in production and consumption across the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Mark; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Waters, Colin N.; Edgeworth, Matt; Bennett, Carys; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Ellis, Erle C.; Ellis, Michael A.; Cearreta, Alejandro; Haff, Peter K.; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A.; Leinfelder, Reinhold; McNeill, John R.; Odada, Eric; Oreskes, Naomi; Revkin, Andrew; Richter, Daniel deB; Steffen, Will; Summerhayes, Colin; Syvitski, James P.; Vidas, Davor; Wagreich, Michael; Wing, Scott L.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Zhisheng, An

    2016-03-01

    Biospheric relationships between production and consumption of biomass have been resilient to changes in the Earth system over billions of years. This relationship has increased in its complexity, from localized ecosystems predicated on anaerobic microbial production and consumption to a global biosphere founded on primary production from oxygenic photoautotrophs, through the evolution of Eukarya, metazoans, and the complexly networked ecosystems of microbes, animals, fungi, and plants that characterize the Phanerozoic Eon (the last ˜541 million years of Earth history). At present, one species, Homo sapiens, is refashioning this relationship between consumption and production in the biosphere with unknown consequences. This has left a distinctive stratigraphy of the production and consumption of biomass, of natural resources, and of produced goods. This can be traced through stone tool technologies and geochemical signals, later unfolding into a diachronous signal of technofossils and human bioturbation across the planet, leading to stratigraphically almost isochronous signals developing by the mid-20th century. These latter signals may provide an invaluable resource for informing and constraining a formal Anthropocene chronostratigraphy, but are perhaps yet more important as tracers of a biosphere state that is characterized by a geologically unprecedented pattern of global energy flow that is now pervasively influenced and mediated by humans, and which is necessary for maintaining the complexity of modern human societies.

  20. Direct Measurement of Biosphere-Atmosphere Isotopic Exchange Using the Eddy Covariance Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying isotopic CO2 exchange between the biosphere and atmosphere presents a significant measurement challenge, but has the potential to provide important constraints on local, regional, and global carbon cycling. Past approaches have indirectly estimated isotopic CO2 exchange using relaxed edd...

  1. From Domination to Stewardship? Living with the Biosphere in the Age of the Anthropocene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The scientific community is now wrestling with the concept of the "Anthropocene" -- a new geologic era dominated by human activities. Regardless of the exact timing and nature of this new epoch, there is no doubt that human activities -- especially land use from agriculture, the loss of biodiversity from habitat destruction, changes in climate and ocean chemistry from greenhouse gas emissions, and changes to the hydrologic cycle from our water use -- are dominant forces in shaping the ecology of our planet. The question before us now is: How can we transition from an era of dominating the biosphere, as we do today, to learning how to be better stewards of our biosphere, helping to ensure a more sustainable and resilient future? In this overview presentation, I will attempt to describe the many transitions we have seen in the Earth's biosphere during the Anthropocene transition, and discuss potential ways we can learn from natural systems to become better stewards of the biosphere. The lessons from Earth System Science will likely prove instrumental in informing the policies and practices society will ultimately need to build a more sustainable future.

  2. Observation-based global biospheric excess radiocarbon inventory 1963-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naegler, Tobias; Levin, Ingeborg

    2009-09-01

    For the very first time, we present an observation-based estimate of the temporal development of the biospheric excess radiocarbon (14C) inventory IB14,E, i.e., the change in the biospheric 14C inventory relative to prebomb times (1940s). IB14,E was calculated for the period 1963-2005 with a simple budget approach as the difference between the accumulated excess 14C production by atmospheric nuclear bomb tests and the nuclear industry and observation-based reconstructions of the excess 14C inventories in the atmosphere and the ocean. IB14,E increased from the late 1950s onward to maximum values between 126 and 177 × 1026 atoms 14C between 1981 and 1985. In the early 1980s, the biosphere turned from a sink to a source of excess 14C. Consequently, IB14,E decreased to values of 108-167 × 1026 atoms 14C in 2005. The uncertainty of IB14,E is dominated by uncertainties in the total bomb 14C production and the oceanic excess 14C inventory. Unfortunately, atmospheric Δ14CO2 from the early 1980s lack the necessary precision to reveal the expected small change in the amplitude and phase of atmospheric Δ14C seasonal cycle due to the sign flip in the biospheric net 14C flux during that time.

  3. Earth applications of closed ecological systems: Relevance to the development of sustainability in our global biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Allen, J.; Ailing, A.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.

    The parallels between the challenges facing bioregenerative life support in artificial closed ecological systems and those in our global biosphere are striking. At the scale of the current global technosphere and expanding human population, it is increasingly obvious that the biosphere can no longer safely buffer and absorb technogenic and anthropogenic pollutants. The loss of biodiversity, reliance on non-renewable natural resources, and conversion of once wild ecosystems for human use with attendant desertification/soil erosion, has led to a shift of consciousness and the widespread call for sustainability of human activities. For researchers working on bioregenerative life support in closed systems, the small volumes and faster cycling times than in the Earth's biosphere make it starkly clear that systems must be designed to ensure renewal of water and atmosphere, nutrient recycling, production of healthy food, and safe environmental methods of maintaining technical systems. The development of technical systems that can be fully integrated and supportive of living systems is a harbinger of new perspectives as well as technologies in the global environment. In addition, closed system bioregenerative life support offers opportunities for public education and consciousness changing of how to live with our global biosphere.

  4. On the design of an interactive biosphere for the GLAS general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Y.; Sellers, P. J.; Willmott, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Improving the realism and accuracy of the GLAS general circulation model (by adding an interactive biosphere that will simulate the transfers of latent and sensible heat from land surface to atmosphere as functions of the atmospheric conditions and the morphology and physiology of the vegetation) is proposed.

  5. Comparing Amazon Basin CO2 fluxes from an atmospheric inversion with TRENDY biosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Alden, C. B.; Harper, A. B.; Ahlström, A.; Touma, D. E.; Miller, J. B.; Gatti, L. V.; Gloor, M.

    2015-12-01

    Net exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere is sensitive to environmental conditions, including extreme heat and drought. Of particular importance for local and global carbon balance and climate are the expansive tracts of tropical rainforest located in the Amazon Basin. Because of the Basin's size and ecological heterogeneity, net biosphere CO2 exchange with the atmosphere remains largely un-constrained. In particular, the response of net CO2 exchange to changes in environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation are not yet well known. However, proper representation of these relationships in biosphere models is a necessary constraint for accurately modeling future climate and climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. In an effort to compare biosphere response to climate across different biosphere models, the TRENDY model intercomparison project coordinated the simulation of CO2 fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, in response to historical climate forcing, by 9 different Dynamic Global Vegetation Models. We examine the TRENDY model results in the Amazon Basin, and compare this "bottom-up" method with fluxes derived from a "top-down" approach to estimating net CO2 fluxes, obtained through atmospheric inverse modeling using CO2 measurements sampled by aircraft above the basin. We compare the "bottom-up" and "top-down" fluxes in 5 sub-regions of the Amazon basin on a monthly basis for 2010-2012. Our results show important periods of agreement between some models in the TRENDY suite and atmospheric inverse model results, notably the simulation of increased biosphere CO2 loss during wet season heat in the Central Amazon. During the dry season, however, model ability to simulate observed response of net CO2 exchange to drought was varied, with few models able to reproduce the "top-down" inversion flux signals. Our results highlight the value of atmospheric trace gas observations for helping to narrow the

  6. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  7. Human pseudoterranovosis, an emerging infection in Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Jercic, M I; Weitz, J C; Dobrew, E K; Mercado, R A

    2007-04-01

    Fifteen cases of human pseudoterranovosis are reported for Chile, representing an emerging parasitic infection in this country caused by larvae of the nematode Pseudoterranova sp. Our observations also included an outbreak of pseudoterranovosis in 3 of 4 individuals who shared the same raw fish dish (cebiche). Most of the cases occurred in adult patients. The main source of infection was from consumption raw or fried marine fish, including hakes (Merluccius australis or Merlucciuts gayi), pomfret (Brama australis), Inca scad (Trachurus murphvi), and corvina (Cilus gilberti). Seasonal distribution showed most of the cases to occur in fall and spring. Parasite larvae were isolated from the mouths of most of the patients after they reported a pharyngeal tickling sensation, coughing, vomiting, or a foreign body in the mouth or throat. PMID:17539437

  8. The 2015 Chile-U.S. Astronomy Education Outreach Summit in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Sandra Lee; Arnett, Dinah; Hardy, Eduardo; Cabezón, Sergio; Spuck, Tim; Fields, Mary Sue; Smith, R. Chris

    2015-08-01

    The first Chile-U.S. Astronomy Education Outreach Summit occurred March 22-28, 2015. The Summit was organized and supported by the U.S. Embassy in Chile, Associated Universities Inc., Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, the Carnegie Institution for Science, the Image of Chile Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and La Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica. The Summit brought together a team of leading experts and officials from Chile and the U.S. to share best practices in astronomy education and outreach. In addition, Summit participants discussed enhancing existing partnerships, and building new collaborations between U.S. Observatories and astronomy education outreach leaders in Chile.The Summit was an exciting and intense week of work and travel. Discussions opened in Santiago on March 22 with a variety of astronomy education and public outreach work sessions, a public forum, and on March 23 the U.S. Embassy sponsored a Star Party. On Tuesday, March 24, the Summit moved to San Pedro de Atacama, where activities included work sessions, a visit to the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array telescope facilities, and a second public forum. From San Pedro, the team traveled to La Serena for additional work sessions, visits to Gemini and Cerro Tololo, a third public forum, and the closing session. At each stop, authorities and the broader community were invited to participate and provide valuable input on the current state, and the future, of astronomy education and public outreach.Following the Summit a core working committee has continued meeting to draft a “roadmap document” based on findings from the Summit. This document will help to identify potential gaps in astronomy outreach efforts, and how the U.S. facilities and Chilean institutions might work together strategically to address these needs. The first draft of this “roadmap document” will be made available for comment in both Spanish and

  9. Evaluation of Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Tappen

    2003-02-16

    The purpose of this revision of ''Evaluation of the Applicability of Biosphere-Related Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs)'' (BSC 2001) is to document the screening analysis of biosphere-related primary FEPs, as identified in ''The Development of Information Catalogued in REV00 of the YMP FEP Database'' (Freeze et al. 2001), in accordance with the requirements of the final U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations at 10 CFR Part 63. This database is referred to as the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) FEP Database throughout this document. Those biosphere-related primary FEPs that are screened as applicable will be used to develop the conceptual model portion of the biosphere model, which will in turn be used to develop the mathematical model portion of the biosphere model. As part of this revision, any reference to the screening guidance or criteria provided either by Dyer (1999) or by the proposed NRC regulations at 64 FR 8640 has been removed. The title of this revision has been changed to more accurately reflect the purpose of the analyses. In addition, this revision will address Item Numbers 19, 20, 21, 25, and 26 from Attachment 2 of ''U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission/U.S. Department of Energy Technical Exchange and Management Meeting on Total System Performance Assessment and Integration (August 6 through 10, 2001)'' (Reamer 2001). This Scientific Analysis Report (SAR) does not support the current revision to the YMP FEP Database (Freeze et al. 2001). Subsequent to the release of the YMP FEP Database (Freeze et al. 2001), a series of reviews was conducted on both the FEP processes used to support Total System Performance Assessment for Site Recommendation and to develop the YMP FEP Database. In response to observations and comments from these reviews, particularly the NRC/DOE TSPA Technical Exchange in August 2001 (Reamer 2001), several Key Technical Issue (KTI) Agreements were developed. ''The Enhanced Plan for Features, Events and Processes

  10. Evaluation of Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-10-09

    The purpose of this report is to document the evaluation of biosphere features, events, and processes (FEPs) that relate to the license application (LA) process as required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The evaluation determines whether specific biosphere-related FEPs should be included or excluded from consideration in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This analysis documents the technical basis for screening decisions as required at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. For FEPs that are included in the TSPA, this analysis provides a TSPA disposition, which summarizes how the FEP has been included and addressed in the TSPA model, and cites the analysis reports and model reports that provide the technical basis and description of its disposition. For FEPs that are excluded from the TSPA, this analysis report provides a screening argument, which identifies the basis for the screening decision (i.e., low probability, low consequence, or by regulation) and discusses the technical basis that supports that decision. In cases, where a FEP covers multiple technical areas and is shared with other FEP analysis reports, this analysis may provide only a partial technical basis for the screening of the FEP. The full technical basis for these shared FEPs is addressed collectively by all FEP analysis reports that cover technical disciplines sharing a FEP. FEPs must be included in the TSPA unless they can be excluded by low probability, low consequence, or regulation. A FEP can be excluded from the TSPA by low probability per 10 CFR 63.114(d) [DIRS 156605], by showing that it has less than one chance in 10,000 of occurring over 10,000 years (or an approximately equivalent annualized probability of 10{sup -8}). A FEP can be excluded from the TSPA by low consequence per 10 CFR 63.114 (e or f) [DIRS 156605], by showing that omitting the FEP would not significantly change the magnitude and

  11. Fleas (Insecta-Siphonaptera) of Chile: a review.

    PubMed

    Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Moreno, Lucila; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a revision of the fleas (Siphonaptera) in Chile, gathered from 1993-2013 in response to a request to update our knowledge of the fauna of this country, as catalogued by Beaucournu & Gallardo in 1991 and 1992. For each taxon we give the depository of the type, the main references concerning it, its general distribution, particularly in Chile, and its known hosts, mainly in this country. Our review of the existing literature on fleas of Chile gives information on a total of 8 families, 11 subfamilies, 31 genera, 9 subgenera and 112 species (with 11 subspecies). The hosts are represented by 21 families of mammals (91 species) and 16 of birds (27 species). In addition we present 21 new reports of fleas for Chile and 165 new localities.  PMID:25543732

  12. Avian influenza in Chile: a successful experience.

    PubMed

    Max, Vanessa; Herrera, José; Moreira, Rubén; Rojas, Hernán

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) was diagnosed in May 2002 for the first time in Chile and South America. The epidemic was caused by the highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 that emerged from a low pathogenic virus. The index farm was a broiler breeder, located in San Antonio, V Region, which at the time was a densely populated poultry area. Stamping of 465,000 breeders, in 27 sheds, was immediately conducted. Surveillance activities detected a second outbreak, 1 wk later, at a turkey breeding farm from the same company. The second farm was located 4 km from the index case. Only 25% of the sheds were infected, and 18,500 turkeys were destroyed. In both outbreaks, surveillance zones and across-country control measures were established: prediagnosis quarantine, depopulation, intensive surveillance, movement control, and increased biosecurity. Other measures included cleaning, disinfection, and controlling the farms with sentinels to detect the potential presence of the virus. Zoning procedures were implemented to allow the international trade of poultry products from unaffected areas. Positive serologic results to H5N2 virus also were detected in other poultry farms, but there was no evidence of clinical signs or virus isolation. Epidemiological investigation and laboratory confirmation determined that positive serology was related to a contaminated imported batch of vaccine against inclusion body hepatitis. All actions taken allowed the control of the epidemic, and within 7 mo, Chile was free of AI. Epidemic and control measures that prevented further spread are described in this article, which illustrates the importance of a combination of control measures during and after an outbreak of AI. This study is a good example of how veterinary services need to respond if their country is affected by HPAI. PMID:17494584

  13. Toward Reducing Uncertainties in Biospheric Carbon Uptake in the American West: An Atmospheric Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. C.; Stephens, B. B.; Mallia, D.; Wu, D.; Jacobson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the need for an understanding of terrestrial biospheric carbon fluxes to account for carbon cycle feedbacks and predict future CO2 concentrations, knowledge of such fluxes at the regional scale remains poor. This is particularly true in mountainous areas, where lack of observations combined with difficulties in their interpretation lead to significant uncertainties. Yet mountainous regions are also where significant forest cover and biomass are found—areas that have the potential to serve as carbon sinks. In particular, understanding carbon fluxes in the American West is of critical importance for the U.S. carbon budget, as the large area and biomass indicate potential for carbon sequestration. However, disturbances such as drought, insect outbreak, and wildfires in this region can introduce significant perturbations to the carbon cycle and thereby affect the amount of carbon sequestered by vegetation in the Rockies. To date, there have been few atmospheric CO2 observations in the American Rockies due to a combination of difficulties associated with logistics and interpretation of the measurements in the midst of complex terrain. Among the few sites are those associated with NCAR's Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON). As CO2 observations in mountainous areas increase in the future, it is imperative that they can be properly interpreted to yield information about biospheric carbon fluxes. In this paper, we will present CO2 observations from RACCOON, along with atmospheric simulations that attempt to extract information about biospheric carbon fluxes in the Western U.S. from these observations. We show that atmospheric models can significantly misinterpret the CO2 observations, leading to large errors in the retrieved biospheric fluxes, due to erroneous atmospheric flows. Recommendations for ways to minimize such errors and properly link the CO2 concentrations to biospheric fluxes are discussed.

  14. New records to Chile of the Family Paraonidae (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, Américo; Hilbig, Brigitte; Rozbaczylo, Nicolás

    2002-06-01

    The Paraonidae are a polychaete family of small body size which have not been reported for Chile until recently. Mainly due to improved sample-processing methods, research campaigns carried out in 1994 and 1996 on three areas off southern Chile have yielded numerous records. Several species proved to be new to the Chilean polychaete fauna, including species that have been known previously only from Antarctic areas. These new records and range extensions are reported in this paper.

  15. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  16. Estimation of resource and reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, M. A.; Houghton, J. C.; Kaufman, G.; Zimmerman, M.

    1982-03-01

    The economics of resource and reserve estimation are analyzed. The economic theory of natural resources and exhaustible resources are discussed. The measurement of already discovered deposits, undiscovered deposits, coal resource and reserve estimation, uranium, and a cumulative cost curve are also discussed.

  17. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  18. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  19. Perennial stream discharge in the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile during the latest Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Nester, Peter L.; Gayó, Eugenia; Latorre, Claudio; Jordan, Teresa E.; Blanco, Nicolás

    2007-01-01

    A large fraction of the vital groundwater in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile is likely composed of “fossil” or “ancient” reserves that receive little or no recharge in today's hyperarid climate. Here, we present evidence for latest Pleistocene perennial streamflow in canyons from the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile. Fluvial terraces in the Pampa del Tamarugal (PdT) basin (21°S) contain widespread fossil wood, in situ roots, and well preserved leaf litter deposits indicative of perennial surface flow currently absent in these channels. Nineteen radiocarbon dates on these deposits from four separate drainages within this endorheic basin indicate ages from 16,380 to 13,740 cal yr BP, synchronous with paleolake Tauca on the Bolivian Altiplano and other regional evidence for wetter conditions during the latest Pleistocene. Groundwater-fed riparian ecosystems and associated fluvial deposits abound today in the absence of direct rainfall in northern Atacama canyons with perennial discharge. Our relict riparian ecosystems from the PdT basin are indicative of conditions similar to these northern canyons. Given that discharge was higher than present during this time, we propose that these deposits represent the most important groundwater recharge events of the last 18,000 years. A lesser recharge event occurred during the Holocene, when phreatophytic trees also grew in these drainages between 1,070 and 700 cal yr BP, during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly. Taken together, our evidence lends further support for gradient changes in the equatorial Pacific as a major driver of hydrologic change in the Atacama on both centennial and millennial time scales. PMID:18056645

  20. Global and Regional Constraints on Exchanges of CO2 Between the Atmosphere and Terrestrial Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, S. C.

    2001-12-01

    The vigorous atmospheric circulation rapidly mixes CO2 that is exchanged with the terrestrial biosphere and oceans. Therefore, at time scales greater than 1 year, the approximate interhemispheric exchange time of the atmosphere, an average of CO2 measurements from a network of surface stations can be used to accurately determine the global net change in atmospheric CO2. By subtracting CO2 produced by fossil fuel combustion, which is well characterized by national statistics, the global the sum of terrestrial biospheric and oceanic net fluxes, here termed the "nonfossil" CO2 flux, can also be accurately determined. The nonfossil CO2 flux averaged -2.1+/-0.3 PgC/yr and -3.2+/-0.4 PgC/yr in the 1980s and 1990s respectively (negative denotes out of the atmosphere), and varied in annual average from about 0 to -4 PgC/yr over these two decades. Two primary methods have been used to further partition the nonfossil CO2 flux between land and oceans: the O2 and 13C/12C methods, which rely, respectively, on measurements of atmospheric O2 (actually O2/N2 for technical reasons) and of the 13C/12C ratio of CO2. Burning of fossil fuel consumes atmospheric O2 and releases CO2 with a 13C/12C ratio lower than that of atmospheric CO2 whereas uptake of CO2 by terrestrial plants releases O2, and increases the atmospheric 13C/12C ratio owing to the preferential assimilation of 12CO2 relative to 13CO2. In contrast, the uptake of CO2 by the oceans has little effect on either the atmospheric O2 or 13C/12C ratio. Therefore, the net CO2 uptake or release from the terrestrial biosphere can be calculated in either method by subtracting the change owing to fossil fuel emissions from the measured change in the atmosphere, utilizing known stoichiometric ratios of O2 and CO2 in the O2 method, and isotopic fractionation factors in the 13C/12C method. Currently, the O2 method gives a net global terrestrial biospheric CO2 flux of -0.2+/-0.7 PgC/yr and -1.4+/-0.7 PgC/yr for the 1980s and the 1990s

  1. Biomonitoring of river pollution by heavy metals in reserves on the basis of studies on metal accumulation in the body of aquatic invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhulidov, A.V.; Emets, V.M.; Shevtsov, A.S.

    1980-05-01

    In recent years particular importance has been attached to biological monitoring, with biosphere reserves moving into the forefront as background-monitoring stations. However, the biomonitoring of river pollution by heavy metals is poorly developed and is not carried out in reserves. The realization of this type of monitoring is prevented in no small degree by the inadequate extent to which the accumulation of heavy metals in the body of freshwater invertebrates has been studied; some data exist on individual species os bivalve and gastropod mollusks, leeches, crustaceans, mayflies, dragonflies dipterous insects, and caddis flies. A number of groups of large freshwater invertebrates important in the biocenological sense, especially bugs and beetles, have not been investigated at all in respect to heavy-metal accumulation. The present communication demonstrates the possibility of utilizing aquatic gastropod mollusks and insects (bugs and beetles) to characterize river pollution by heavy metals in the reserves.

  2. Geosphere-Biosphere Feedbacks as a Trigger for the Cambrian explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bloh, W.; Bounama, C.; Franck, S.

    2003-12-01

    A new hypothesis for the cause of the Cambrian explosion is presented. The Cambrian explosion 542 Myr ago is characterized by a sudden increase of biomass and a rapid cooling, which amplified the spread of complex multicellular life. The evolution of the planet Earth is described by the co-evolution of the geosphere-biosphere system. A conceptual model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle, ocean floor, continental crust, continental biosphere, the kerogen, as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere is presented. In this study the evolution of the mean global surface temperature, the biomass, and reservoir sizes over the whole history and future of the Earth under a maturing Sun is investigated. Here we specify our previously published Earth system model (Franck et al., 2002) by introducing three different types of biosphere: procaryotes, eucaryotes, and complex multicellular life. They are characterized by different temperature tolerance windows and biotic amplification factors of silicate weathering. The biotic enhancement of weathering by complex multicellular life adds an additional feedback to the system and triggers the Cambrian explosion. The Cambrian explosion was mainly driven by extrinsic environmental causes, i.e. a gradual cooling of the Earth. The Cambrian explosion was so rapid because of a positive feedback between the spread of biosphere, increased silicate weathering, and a consequent cooling of the climate. The environment itself has been actively changed by the biosphere maintaining the temperature conditions for its existence. Furthermore, it can be shown that the coupled geosphere-biosphere system exhibit s bistability: there exist two stable model solutions for a certain interval of the biotic enhancement factor, one solution with and one without complex multicellular life. In particular, cooling events in the Neoproterozoic, could force a premature appearance of complex multicellular life

  3. Human Transformation of the Terrestrial Biosphere: Form, Extent, Duration, and Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E. C.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Siebert, S.; Lightman, D.; Ramankutty, N.

    2009-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere has now been almost completely transformed by human populations and their use of land. Here we map and characterize anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere from 1700 to 2000 using a rule-based anthrome (anthropogenic biome) classification model applied to gridded global data for human population density and land use. Anthropogenic transformation of terrestrial biomes into anthromes was then characterized by map comparisons at century intervals. This analysis reveals that between 1700 and 2000, the terrestrial biosphere made the critical transition from mostly wild to mostly anthropogenic, passing the 50% mark early in the 20th century. In 1700, nearly half of the terrestrial biosphere was wild, without human settlements or substantial land use. Most of the remainder was in a Seminatural state (45%) having only minor use for agriculture and settlements. By 2000, the opposite was true, with the majority of the biosphere in agricultural and settled anthromes, less than 20% Seminatural and only a quarter left wild. Anthropogenic transformation of the biosphere during the Industrial Revolution resulted about equally from land use expansion into Wildlands and land use intensification within Seminatural anthromes. Transformation pathways differed strongly between biomes and regions, with some remaining mostly wild but with the majority almost completely transformed into Rangelands, Croplands and Villages. In the process of transforming almost 39% of Earth's total ice-free surface into agriculture and settlements, an additional 37% without such use have become embedded within agricultural and settled anthromes. At present and ever more in the future, terrestrial ecosystem form and process in most biomes will be predominantly anthropogenic, the product of land use and other direct human interactions with ecosystems. Earth science and ecological research and conservation efforts in all but a few biomes would benefit from a primary

  4. Effect of a nitrogen-carbon interaction on terrestrial carbon fluxes estimated by biosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2007-12-01

    It is important for the global warming to accurately understand the terrestrial carbon fluxes at global scale. Estimating spatial and temporal patterns in the carbon fluxes, recently, many global biosphere models were proposed and developed. However, since the model analyses have always some uncertainties. One of the major uncertainties is an effect of nitrogen cycle on the carbon cycle, as nitrogen largely controls carbon dynamics as plant and soil microbe nutrients. A goal of this study is to investigate the effect of terrestrial carbon-nitrogen interaction on NPP using new biosphere model. Firstly, a new nitrogen cycle model was constructed including twelve main nitrogen flows (nitrogen fixation, deposition, nitrifications, volatilization, nitrate leaching, plant uptake, allocation, translocation, retranslocation, soil organic and inorganic nitrogen dynamics), and fourteen pools (three biomass, four litter fall, five soil organic, and two inorganic). Secondly, the nitrogen model was integrated to the existing biosphere model, BEAMS (Biosphere model integrating Eco-physiological And Mechanistic approaches using Satellite data) [Sasai et al., 2005, 2007]. The new biosphere model was run for 20 years (1982-2001) at a global scale. The inputs datasets used were NCEP/NCAR re-analysis and fPAR/LAI based on NOAA/AVHRR produced by Boston University. The two-dimensional distributions of monthly GPP and NPP were calculated. And, the GPP estimates by the original and new BEAMS were compared with ground measurements at flux-tower sites. We compared seasonal changes in GPP between the new model and eddy covariance measurements at flux sites. As a result, the GPP estimates had good agreement with the GPP measurements (r2 = 0.91). In view of a comparison in GPP between the measurements and the original BEAMS (r2 = 0.84), the new model is better than the original BEAMS. Especially, we could observe an indisputable improvement of the new model on a seasonal change in the growing

  5. Electrochemical reserve battery

    SciTech Connect

    Koper, K.T.; Willard, S.L.; Abramowski, L.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes an electrochemical reserve battery comprising in combination: a housing including a separating wall forming two sealed chambers; a stack of dry cells disposed in one of the chambers; an expandable container occupying a portion of the space within the other of the chambers; an electrolyte completely filling the unoccupied space at a pressure sufficient to collapse the container; a source of high pressure gas within the container; frangible means operatively connected between the source and the container for releasing the gas into the container at a preselected expansion thereof; and actuating means operatively connected to the separating wall for selectively establishing communication between the chambers for permitting the electrolyte to transfer to the cells.

  6. Reserve electrochemical battery

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, F.; Slavin, M.A.

    1984-05-01

    A reserve battery of electrochemical cells employing several housing sections of conductive material stacked in a series arrangement with insulation at the points of connection. Each two adjacent housing sections form a chamber. Each chamber contains anode members in contact with one of the housing sections forming the chamber and cathode members in contact with the other of the housing sections forming the chamber. A central conduit through the stack of housing sections is formed by inner walls of the housing sections. Holes in these walls provide passageways from the conduit into the chambers. To activate the cells an electrolytic solution stored in a reservoir is forced into the conduit and through the passageways into each chamber. A series of one-way valves along the conduit physically and electrically seal off the solution in each chamber from that in every other chamber. Thus, each chamber contains an activated electrochemical cell with the cells connected in series to provide a battery.

  7. Zimbabwe's coal reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    The coal potential of Zimbabwe is not widely known, but the country has proved and inferred reserves of around 30,000,000,000 metric tons and intends to become an exporter by 1985. At present there is only one operating coal company in Zimbabwe, the Wankie Colliery Company Limited, but the interest in other coalfields is intensifying. Coal is seen as one of the country's resources with the greatest potential for production increases. The plan is to export 5,000,000 tons per year by 1985, increasing to 10,000,000 tons by 1990. Current exports are insignificant. Current production, from Wankie, is around 3,000,000 tons per year but, with the construction of a new power station, this is to be increased to 7,000,000 tons. Wankie currently operates two underground and three open pit mines.

  8. The International Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) in the northern Chile seismic gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.

    2009-04-01

    Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition

  9. Chile's dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad.

    PubMed

    Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Ramos, Maria-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

  10. Electronic reserves: copyright and permissions

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Karen J.

    2000-01-01

    Electronic reserves present a new service option for libraries to provide needed materials during hours that the library is not open and to user groups located some distance from library collections. Possible changes to current copyright law and publishers permissions policies have delayed the development of electronic reserves in many libraries. This paper reviews the current state of electronic reserves materials in the publishing and library communities and presents the results of a survey of publishers to determine permissions policies for electronic materials. Issues of concern to both libraries and publishers are discussed. PMID:10658960

  11. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  12. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian reservation shall be treated as nominated by a State and a local government if it is nominated by the reservation governing body. (b) For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, a reservation governing body must be the governing body of an Indian...

  13. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reasonable amount shall be reserved for this purpose. (e) Reserve for Advances of Allowance. Each State shall... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2020 Reserves. In developing its priority list the... delegated or scheduled to be delegated to a State. Funds reserved for this purpose that are not obligated...

  14. A modern earth narrative: What will be the fate of the biosphere?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    The modern Earth Narrative is the scientific description of the natural and human history of the Earth, and it is based on two fundamental concepts: Deep (or Geologic) Time and Biological Evolution. Changes in the Earth's biosphere and geosphere are discussed from the perspective of natural variability and impacts of the rapid increase in the human population. The failure of humans to comprehend and understand the Earth Narrative, especially the place of humans in it, presages dire consequences for the Earth's biosphere. The actions humans take, individually and collectively, during the 21st century will likely determine the fate of many millions of species, including our own. It is argued that we must quickly establish an Earth System-based conservation ethic that has the objective of complete preservation of the Earth's biotic inheritance. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric environmental concerns: a path analytic investigation of their determinants.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Snelgar, Rosemary; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that environmental concerns (ECs) can be reduced to a three-factor model - comprising altruistic, biospheric, and egoistic concerns - but there have been few studies examining individual difference predictors of ECs. In this study with 203 individuals from a British community sample, we show that biospheric concern was significantly associated with participants' age, political orientation, Machiavellianism, and the Big Five personality traits of Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness. Altruistic concern was significantly associated with sex, age, political orientation, and Machiavellianism, but not the Big Five traits, whereas egoistic concern was not significantly associated with any of these predictors except sex. These results are discussed in relation to previous work on ECs and pro-environmental behavior. PMID:19954494

  16. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake.

    PubMed

    Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C P; Malik, Javed K; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad

    2005-09-15

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. PMID:16163355

  17. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    PubMed

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level. PMID:3834878

  18. ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.

    2014-07-01

    High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

  19. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cisternas, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Torrejon, F.; Sawai, Y.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Youlton, C.; Salgado, I.; Kamataki, T.; Shishikura, M.; Rajendran, C.P.; Malik, J.K.; Rizal, Y.; Husni, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  20. Equity in health care utilization in Chile.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Alicia; Chi, Chunhuei

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile.The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992-2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index.Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly. PMID:23937894

  1. Equity in health care utilization in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile. The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992–2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index. Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly. PMID:23937894

  2. Sensitivity Properties of a Biosphere Model Based on BATS and a Statistical-Dynamical Climate Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Taiping

    1994-06-01

    A biosphere model based on the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the Saltzman-Vernekar (SV) statistical-dynamical climate model is developed. Some equations of BATS are adopted either intact or with modifications, some are conceptually modified, and still others are replaced with equations of the SV model.The model is designed so that it can be run independently as long as the parameters related to the physiology and physiognomy of the vegetation, the atmospheric conditions, solar radiation, and soil conditions are given. With this stand-alone biosphere model, a series of sensitivity investigations, particularly the model sensitivity to fractional area of vegetation cover, soil surface water availability, and solar radiation for different types of vegetation, were conducted as a first step. These numerical experiments indicate that the presence of a vegetation cover greatly enhances the exchanges of momentum, water vapor, and energy between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth. An interesting result is that a dense and thick vegetation cover tends to serve as an environment conditioner or, more specifically, a thermostat and a humidistat, since the soil surface temperature, foliage temperature, and temperature and vapor pressure of air within the foliage are practically insensitive to variation of soil surface water availability and even solar radiation within a wide range. An attempt is also made to simulate the gradual deterioration of environment accompanying gradual degradation of a tropical forest to grasslands. Comparison with field data shows that this model can realistically simulate the land surface processes involving biospheric variations.

  3. Sensitivity properties of a biosphere model based on BATS and a statistical-dynamical climate model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T. )

    1994-06-01

    A biosphere model based on the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the Saltzman-Vernekar (SV) statistical-dynamical climate model is developed. Some equations of BATS are adopted either intact or with modifications, some are conceptually modified, and still others are replaced with equations of the SV model. The model is designed so that it can be run independently as long as the parameters related to the physiology and physiognomy of the vegetation, the atmospheric conditions, solar radiation, and soil conditions are given. With this stand-alone biosphere model, a series of sensitivity investigations, particularly the model sensitivity to fractional area of vegetation cover, soil surface water availability, and solar radiation for different types of vegetation, were conducted as a first step. These numerical experiments indicate that the presence of a vegetation cover greatly enhances the exchanges of momentum, water vapor, and energy between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth. An interesting result is that a dense and thick vegetation cover tends to serve as an environment conditioner or, more specifically, a thermostat and a humidistat, since the soil surface temperature, foliage temperature, and temperature and vapor pressure of air within the foliage are practically insensitive to variation of soil surface water availability and even solar radiation within a wide range. An attempt is also made to simulate the gradual deterioration of environment accompanying gradual degradation of a tropical forest to grasslands. Comparison with field data shows that this model can realistically simulate the land surface processes involving biospheric variations. 46 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Is there a shadow biosphere of silicon utilizing organisms on earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, P.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    The idea of shadow biosphere was first visualized by Carol Cleland and Shelley Copley of the University of Colorado in 2005. Since that time many scientists were interested in this subject and the basis of this paper is also correlated with this novel idea. A shadow biosphere essentially consists of self replicating bodies utilizing one or more chemicals which are not exploited to such extent by organisms of the real biosphere. Silicon-utilizing organisms mainly belong to the diatoms, some other algae, sponges, monocotyledon plants in this category are classified by us. They can survive in extremes of temperature, pressure, radiation, pH, salinity and nutrient conditions and this unusual tolerance to stress depends on their silicon biomineralization occurring either as a biologically controlled process or as a biologically induced process. In the control process silicate is sequestered and transferred to the intracellular silica deposition vesicle by energy driven pump mechanism in presence of specific transporter protein. In induced silicon mineralization, initial amorphous nucleation of silicon is gradually transformed to a crystalline phase. Besides these two methods, there are also other processes in which formation of silanol and siloxane can occur from oligomers of silica originating from monomers by Hydrogen bonding, cation bridging and direct electrostatic interactions. The structure of the silica biomineralised cell wall in silicon utilizing organisms is very complex, but this may explain their ability to stress tolerance and their possible coordinating role with other essential bioactive elements in nature. When electropositive elements are less, then polymerization of silicon-oxygen excess may occur easily, particularly in carbon and nitrogen paucity in the environment. Thus all these features indicate possibility of a shadow biosphere of these organisms on earth.

  5. Turnover of microbial lipids in the deep biosphere and growth of benthic archaeal populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Sitan; Lipp, Julius S.; Wegener, Gunter; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Deep subseafloor sediments host a microbial biosphere with unknown impact on global biogeochemical cycles. This study tests previous evidence based on microbial intact polar lipids (IPLs) as proxies of live biomass, suggesting that Archaea dominate the marine sedimentary biosphere. We devised a sensitive radiotracer assay to measure the decay rate of ([14C]glucosyl)-diphytanylglyceroldiether (GlcDGD) as an analog of archaeal IPLs in continental margin sediments. The degradation kinetics were incorporated in model simulations that constrained the fossil fraction of subseafloor IPLs and rates of archaeal turnover. Simulating the top 1 km in a generic continental margin sediment column, we estimated degradation rate constants of GlcDGD being one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of bacterial IPLs, with half-lives of GlcDGD increasing with depth to 310 ky. Given estimated microbial community turnover times of 1.6-73 ky in sediments deeper than 1 m, 50-96% of archaeal IPLs represent fossil signals. Consequently, previous lipid-based estimates of global subseafloor biomass probably are too high, and the widely observed dominance of archaeal IPLs does not rule out a deep biosphere dominated by Bacteria. Reverse modeling of existing concentration profiles suggest that archaeal IPL synthesis rates decline from around 1,000 pgṡmL-1 sedimentṡy-1 at the surface to 0.2 pgṡmL-1ṡy-1 at 1 km depth, equivalent to production of 7 × 105 to 140 archaeal cellsṡmL-1 sedimentṡy-1, respectively. These constraints on microbial growth are an important step toward understanding the relationship between the deep biosphere and the carbon cycle.

  6. Novelty and uniqueness patterns of rare members of the soil biosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Youseff , Noha H.; Spain, A. M.; Sheik, Cody; Najar , Fares Z.; Sukharnikov, Leonid O.; Roe, Bruce A.; Davis , James P.; schloss, Patrick D.; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2008-09-30

    Soil bacterial communities typically exhibit a distribution pattern in which most bacterial species are present in low abundance. Due to the relatively small size of most culture independent sequencing surveys, a detailed phylogenetic analysis of rare members of the community is lacking. To gain access to the rarely sampled soil biosphere, we analyzed a dataset of 13,001 near full-length 16S rRNA gene clones derived from an undisturbed tall grass prairie soil in central Oklahoma. Rare members of the soil bacterial community (empirically defined at two different abundance cutoffs) represented 18.1%-37.1% of the total number of clones in the dataset and were, on average, less similar to their closest relatives in public databases when compared to more abundant members of the community. Detailed phylogenetic analyses indicated that members of the soil rare biosphere either belonged to novel bacterial lineages (members of five novel bacterial phyla identified in the dataset, as well as members of multiple novel lineages within previously described phyla or candidate phyla), lineages that are prevalent in other environments but rarely encountered in soil, or were close relatives to more abundant taxa in the dataset. While a fraction of the rare community was closely related to more abundant taxonomic groups in the dataset, a significant portion of the rare biosphere represented evolutionarily distinct lineages at various taxonomic cutoffs. We reason that recognizing these novelty and uniqueness patterns is key to understanding the origins, dynamics, and potential ecological roles of members of the soil’s rare biosphere.

  7. Turnover of microbial lipids in the deep biosphere and growth of benthic archaeal populations

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Sitan; Lipp, Julius S.; Wegener, Gunter; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Deep subseafloor sediments host a microbial biosphere with unknown impact on global biogeochemical cycles. This study tests previous evidence based on microbial intact polar lipids (IPLs) as proxies of live biomass, suggesting that Archaea dominate the marine sedimentary biosphere. We devised a sensitive radiotracer assay to measure the decay rate of ([14C]glucosyl)-diphytanylglyceroldiether (GlcDGD) as an analog of archaeal IPLs in continental margin sediments. The degradation kinetics were incorporated in model simulations that constrained the fossil fraction of subseafloor IPLs and rates of archaeal turnover. Simulating the top 1 km in a generic continental margin sediment column, we estimated degradation rate constants of GlcDGD being one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of bacterial IPLs, with half-lives of GlcDGD increasing with depth to 310 ky. Given estimated microbial community turnover times of 1.6–73 ky in sediments deeper than 1 m, 50–96% of archaeal IPLs represent fossil signals. Consequently, previous lipid-based estimates of global subseafloor biomass probably are too high, and the widely observed dominance of archaeal IPLs does not rule out a deep biosphere dominated by Bacteria. Reverse modeling of existing concentration profiles suggest that archaeal IPL synthesis rates decline from around 1,000 pg⋅mL−1 sediment⋅y−1 at the surface to 0.2 pg⋅mL−1⋅y−1 at 1 km depth, equivalent to production of 7 × 105 to 140 archaeal cells⋅mL−1 sediment⋅y−1, respectively. These constraints on microbial growth are an important step toward understanding the relationship between the deep biosphere and the carbon cycle. PMID:23530229

  8. Initial experimental results from the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Dempster, W.; Nelson, M.; Silverstone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Results from the closure and initial closed ecological system research in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) will be presented. The facility was initially sealed in April 2002; and the first crop experiments with soybeans commenced in May 2002. The Laboratory Biosphere was created by the team which invented, built and operated Biosphere 2 during its years of closed ecological system functioning (1991-94) and is a testbed to build upon the lessons learned. It is an opportunity to continue experiments with a sustainable soil based agriculture system unlike most bioregenerative systems which use hydroponic systems dependent on a supply of nutrient solution. Because of the small volume of the system (34-45 m3), developing mechanisms to keep parameters like carbon dioxide within acceptable limits will be critical. Recycle of nutrients within the system to maintain soil fertility; and the ability of the inherent complex ecology of soils and a soil bed reactor to handle trace gas buildups are primary research goals. Other research goals are determination of short and long-term exchanges between soil, plants and atmosphere, especially for carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, NOX, and methane, impact of cultivation (tillage) on soil/atmospheric exchanges., investigation and development of strategies to return nutrients to the soil to maintain fertility, e.g. shredding biomass vs. composting, impact on soil chemistry of returning leachate water to the soil as irrigation water. The microbiological status of soils prior to experiments and over time will allow measurement of changes in microbial diversity and the determination of the role of soil microbes in biogeochemical cycles. Integration of automated sensor and control in the system with real-time modeling has importance for operation, research and educational outreach programs. The Laboratory Biosphere is intended to test and develop a "cybersphere" (network of shared intelligence) that may be

  9. Dark Matter of the Biosphere: the Amazing World of Bacteriophage Diversity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages are the most abundant biological entities in the biosphere, and this dynamic and old population is, not surprisingly, highly diverse genetically. Relative to bacterial genomics, phage genomics has advanced slowly, and a higher-resolution picture of the phagosphere is only just emerging. This view reveals substantial diversity even among phages known to infect a common host strain, but the relationships are complex, with mosaic genomic architectures generated by illegitimate recombination over a long period of evolutionary history. PMID:26018169

  10. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  11. US gas reserves show gain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-16

    This paper reports that the Energy Information Administration reports 1990 U.S. natural gas reserves increased for the first time since 1981. Reserves inched up 1.3% to 169.346 tcf, largely because of coalbed methane development. Gas reserves in Alaska and the Lower 48 not only increased, but the latter are higher than they were in 1985. Gas discoveries increased 23.3% and totaled 12.368 tcf in 1990. Major finds were drilled in New Mexico, in Alabama state water, and off Louisiana. Crude oil reserves dropped less than 1% to 26.254 billion bbl, close to the average decline of 1.2%/year for the past decade. Crude oil discoveries were 20% less than the annual average for the past decade.

  12. Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Janne; Angelstam, Per; Elmqvist, Thomas; Emanuelsson, Urban; Folke, Carl; Ihse, Margareta; Moberg, Fredrik; Nyström, Magnus

    2003-09-01

    In a world increasingly modified by human activities, the conservation of biodiversity is essential as insurance to maintain resilient ecosystems and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services to society. However, existing reserves and national parks are unlikely to incorporate the long-term and large-scale dynamics of ecosystems. Hence, conservation strategies have to actively incorporate the large areas of land that are managed for human use. For ecosystems to reorganize after large-scale natural and human-induced disturbances, spatial resilience in the form of ecological memory is a prerequisite. The ecological memory is composed of the species, interactions and structures that make ecosystem reorganization possible, and its components may be found within disturbed patches as well in the surrounding landscape. Present static reserves should be complemented with dynamic reserves, such as ecological fallows and dynamic successional reserves, that are part of ecosystem management mimicking natural disturbance regimes at the landscape level. PMID:14627367

  13. Open systems living in a closed biosphere: a new paradox for the Gaia debate.

    PubMed

    Barlow, C; Volk, T

    1990-01-01

    While energetically open, the biosphere is appreciably closed from the standpoint of matter exchange. Matter cycling and recycling is hence a necessary and emergent property of the global-scale system known as Gaia. But how can an aggregate of open-system life forms have evolved and persisted for billions of years within a planetary system that is largely closed to matter influx and outflow? The puzzling nature of a closed yet persistent biosphere draws our attention to the course of evolution of fundamental metabolic strategies and matter-capture techniques. It suggests a facet of the Gaia hypothesis, framed in terms of persistence. The oceans, atmosphere, soils and biota constitute a complex system which maintains and adjusts matter cycling and recycling within the constraints of planetary closure such that open-system forms of life can persist. This weaker version of the Gaia hypothesis may be useful because it readily lends itself to at least one form of test. What is the solution to the closed biosphere puzzle, and does it indicate that Gaia merits status as a discrete entity? We suggest several disciplines within the field of biology that might provide tools and perspectives toward reaching a solution. These disciplines include artificial closed ecosystems, prokaryote evolution, the nexus of thermodynamics and evolutionary biology, and hierarchy theory in ecosystem modeling and evolution theory. PMID:2322647

  14. Biosphere Modeling and Analyses in Support of Total System Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Tappen; M.A. Wasiolek; D.W. Wu; J.F. Schmitt

    2001-12-06

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established the obligations of and the relationship between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the management and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In 1985, the EPA promulgated regulations that included a definition of performance assessment that did not consider potential dose to a member of the general public. This definition would influence the scope of activities conducted by DOE in support of the total system performance assessment program until 1995. The release of a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on the technical basis for a Yucca Mountain-specific standard provided the impetus for the DOE to initiate activities that would consider the attributes of the biosphere, i.e. that portion of the earth where living things, including man, exist and interact with the environment around them. The evolution of NRC and EPA Yucca Mountain-specific regulations, originally proposed in 1999, was critical to the development and integration of biosphere modeling and analyses into the total system performance assessment program. These proposed regulations initially differed in the conceptual representation of the receptor of interest to be considered in assessing performance. The publication in 2001 of final regulations in which the NRC adopted standard will permit the continued improvement and refinement of biosphere modeling and analyses activities in support of assessment activities.

  15. Evaluation of seasonal atmosphere-biosphere exchange estimations with TCCON measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerschmidt, J.; Parazoo, N.; Wunch, D.; Deutscher, N. M.; Roehl, C.; Warneke, T.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2013-05-01

    We evaluate three estimates of the atmosphere-biosphere exchange against total column CO2 observations from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Using the GEOS-Chem transport model, we produce forward simulations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations for the 2006-2010 time period using the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA), the Simple Biosphere (SiB) and the GBiome-BGC models. Large differences in the CO2 simulations result from the choice of the atmosphere-biosphere model. We evaluate the seasonal cycle phase, amplitude and shape of the simulations. The version of CASA currently used as the a priori model by the GEOS-Chem carbon cycle community poorly represents the season cycle in total column CO2. Consistent with earlier studies, enhancing the CO2 uptake in the boreal forest and shifting the onset of the growing season earlier significantly improve the simulated seasonal CO2 cycle using CASA estimates. The SiB model gives a better representation of the seasonal cycle dynamics. The difference in the seasonality of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) between these models is not the absolute gross primary productivity (GPP), but rather the differential phasing of ecosystem respiration (RE) with respect to GPP between these models.

  16. Biosphere Modeling and Analyses in Support of Total System Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tappen, J. J.; Wasiolek, M. A.; Wu, D. W.; Schmitt, J. F.; Smith, A. J.

    2002-02-26

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established the obligations of and the relationship between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the management and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In 1985, the EPA promulgated regulations that included a definition of performance assessment that did not consider potential dose to a member of the general public. This definition would influence the scope of activities conducted by DOE in support of the total system performance assessment program until 1995. The release of a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on the technical basis for a Yucca Mountain-specific standard provided the impetus for the DOE to initiate activities that would consider the attributes of the biosphere, i.e. that portion of the earth where living things, including man, exist and interact with the environment around them. The evolution of NRC and EPA Yucca Mountain-specific regulations, originally proposed in 1999, was critical to the development and integration of biosphere modeling and analyses into the total system performance assessment program. These proposed regulations initially differed in the conceptual representation of the receptor of interest to be considered in assessing performance. The publication in 2001 of final regulations in which the NRC adopted standard will permit the continued improvement and refinement of biosphere modeling and analyses activities in support of assessment activities.

  17. Connections between the microbial community and a mysterious ammonium flux in the deep biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. B.; Spivack, A. J.; Smith, D. C.; D'Hondt, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    The deep biosphere, represented in the marine realm by marine sediment and ocean crust, is difficult to sample but plays host to an enormous reservoir of microorganisms. There is tremendous potential for many novel catabolic metabolisms about which little or nothing is known. These pathways, as understood based on Gibbs energy calculations, may not be favorable under standard conditions— but the deep biosphere is anything but standard. Here, we highlight one such example of deep-biosphere potential in regards to novel metabolisms and organisms. In our work, we have focused on ammonium oxidation with sulfate, a reaction suggested by recent geochemical and water treatment research.Using continental margin sediment, we applied high-throughput techniques (454 tag sequencing of 16S RNA and DNA) to try and identify the organisms involved, and evaluate the potential of several suggested phylotypes for this metabolism. Here we discuss the potential phylogenetic identity of organisms involved in this reaction, as well as thermodynamic considerations of potential syntrophic pathways as compared to a "complete" reaction catalyzed by a single organism. Finally, we also discuss geochemical data and modeling of N species and isotopes in an effort to better understand N flow through the system and the significance of nonstandard reactions. While our main sample set includes cores from the Bay of Bengal, similar features have also been noted off the east coast of the U.S.; potentially, processes such as this reaction of ammonium and sulfate may be of global biogeochemical importance.

  18. Searching for a shadow biosphere on Earth as a test of the 'cosmic imperative'.

    PubMed

    Davies, P C W

    2011-02-13

    Estimates for the number of communicating civilizations in the galaxy, based on the so-called Drake equation, are meaningless without a plausible estimate for the probability that life will emerge on an Earth-like planet. In the absence of a theory of the origin of life, that number can be anywhere from 0 to 1. Distinguished scientists have been known to argue that life on Earth is a freak accident, unique in the observable universe and, conversely, that life is almost bound to arise in the course of time, given Earth-like conditions. De Duve, adopting the latter position, coined the phrase that 'life is a cosmic imperative'. De Duve's position would be immediately verified if we were to discover a second sample of life that we could be sure arose from scratch independently of known life. Given the current absence of evidence for life beyond Earth, the best way to test the hypothesis of the cosmic imperative is to see whether terrestrial life began more than once. If it did, it is possible that descendants of a second genesis might be extant, forming a sort of 'shadow biosphere' existing alongside, or perhaps interpenetrating, the known biosphere. I outline a strategy to detect the existence of such a shadow biosphere. PMID:21220286

  19. Methane Production and Transport within the Marsh Biome of Biosphere 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Jennifer; Goodridge, Kelven

    1997-01-01

    In recent decades, the concentration of methane in the earth's atmosphere increased 1-2% annually. It's rate of increases, combined with methane's effectiveness as a greenhouse gas, has led to an intensive research effort to determine the sources and sinks of the gas in the environment. Biosphere 2 offers a unique opportunity to contribute to the effort because it lacks a major photochemical sink present in the Earth's atmosphere. Researchers can therefore concentrate on biological processes involved in methane cycles. Wetlands are a large source of atmospheric methane, due to anoxic conditions in the sediments and the abundance of organic materials. In order to determine if these conditions in Biosphere 2 also promote methane production, this study looked for the fluxes of methane and methods of transport of the gas from from the water and sediments to the atmosphere in the Marsh Biome. Fluxes of methane from the sediments and waters were measured using static chambers, peepers, and leaf bags. Fluxes and vertical profiles of methane in the sediments show that substantial amounts of methane are being produced in the marsh and are being transported into the Biosphere 2 environment.

  20. Radiological risk assessment and biosphere modelling for radioactive waste disposal in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Brennwald, M S; van Dorp, F

    2009-12-01

    Long-term safety assessments for geological disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland involve the demonstration that the annual radiation dose to humans due to the potential release of radionuclides from the waste repository into the biosphere will not exceed the regulatory limit of 0.1 mSv. Here, we describe the simple but robust approach used by Nagra (Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) to quantify the dose to humans as a result to time-dependent release of radionuclides from the geosphere into the biosphere. The model calculates the concentrations of radionuclides in different terrestrial and aquatic compartments of the surface environment. The fluxes of water and solids within the environment are the drivers for the exchange of radionuclides between these compartments. The calculated radionuclide concentrations in the biosphere are then used to estimate the radiation doses to humans due to various exposure paths (e.g. ingestion of radionuclides via drinking water and food, inhalation of radionuclides, external irradiation from radionuclides in soils). In this paper we also discuss recent new achievements and planned future work. PMID:19560845