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Sample records for biosynthesis enzyme leads

  1. Effect of occupational lead exposure on lymphocyte enzymes involved in heme biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, E.; Costin, K.A.; Garcia-Webb, P. )

    1990-11-01

    Lead exposure is a well-known cause of increases in urinary coproporphyrin and erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin, so these compounds are often used to monitor occupational lead exposure. The increased concentrations are usually assumed to result from lead inhibition of two of the mitochondrial enzymes of heme biosynthesis, coproporphyrinogen oxidase and ferrochelatase. We studied 88 subjects in whom the degree of occupational lead exposure was established by measuring erythrocyte lead and protoporphyrin. Assay of lymphocyte coproporphyrinogen oxidase and ferrochelatase activities showed that these enzymes were unaffected by lead exposure, as was a related enzyme, lymphocyte NADH-ferricyanide reductase. We propose alternative explanations for the increased concentrations of coproporphyrin and zinc-protoporphyrin seen in lead exposure.

  2. Conditional depletion of KasA, a key enzyme of mycolic acid biosynthesis, leads to mycobacterial cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Apoorva; Kremer, Laurent; Dai, Annie Z; Sacchettini, James C; Jacobs, William R

    2005-11-01

    Inhibition or inactivation of InhA, a fatty acid synthase II (FASII) enzyme, leads to mycobacterial cell lysis. To determine whether inactivation of other enzymes of the mycolic acid-synthesizing FASII complex also leads to lysis, we characterized the essentiality of two beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthases, KasA and KasB, in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Using specialized transduction for allelic exchange, null kasB mutants, but not kasA mutants, could be generated in Mycobacterium smegmatis, suggesting that unlike kasB, kasA is essential. To confirm the essentiality of kasA, and to detail the molecular events that occur following depletion of KasA, we developed CESTET (conditional expression specialized transduction essentiality test), a genetic tool that combines conditional gene expression and specialized transduction. Using CESTET, we were able to generate conditional null inhA and kasA mutants. We studied the effects of depletion of KasA in M. smegmatis using the former strain as a reference. Depletion of either InhA or KasA led to cell lysis, but with different biochemical and morphological events prior to lysis. While InhA depletion led to the induction of an 80-kDa complex containing both KasA and AcpM, the mycobacterial acyl carrier protein, KasA depletion did not induce the same complex. Depletion of either InhA or KasA led to inhibition of alpha and epoxy mycolate biosynthesis and to accumulation of alpha'-mycolates. Furthermore, scanning electron micrographs revealed that KasA depletion resulted in the cell surface having a "crumpled" appearance, in contrast to the blebs observed on InhA depletion. Thus, our studies support the further exploration of KasA as a target for mycobacterial-drug development. PMID:16267284

  3. Inhibition of Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), an Enzyme Essential for NAD+ Biosynthesis, Leads to Altered Carbohydrate Metabolism in Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bo; Dong, Sucai; Shepard, Robert L.; Kays, Lisa; Roth, Kenneth D.; Geeganage, Sandaruwan; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Zhao, Genshi

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) has been extensively studied due to its essential role in NAD+ biosynthesis in cancer cells and the prospect of developing novel therapeutics. To understand how NAMPT regulates cellular metabolism, we have shown that the treatment with FK866, a specific NAMPT inhibitor, leads to attenuation of glycolysis by blocking the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase step (Tan, B., Young, D. A., Lu, Z. H., Wang, T., Meier, T. I., Shepard, R. L., Roth, K., Zhai, Y., Huss, K., Kuo, M. S., Gillig, J., Parthasarathy, S., Burkholder, T. P., Smith, M. C., Geeganage, S., and Zhao, G. (2013) Pharmacological inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), an enzyme essential for NAD+ biosynthesis, in human cancer cells: metabolic basis and potential clinical implications. J. Biol. Chem. 288, 3500–3511). Due to technical limitations, we failed to separate isotopomers of phosphorylated sugars. In this study, we developed an enabling LC-MS methodology. Using this, we confirmed the previous findings and also showed that NAMPT inhibition led to accumulation of fructose 1-phosphate and sedoheptulose 1-phosphate but not glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, and sedoheptulose 7-phosphate as previously thought. To investigate the metabolic basis of the metabolite formation, we carried out biochemical and cellular studies and established the following. First, glucose-labeling studies indicated that fructose 1-phosphate was derived from dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde, and sedoheptulose 1-phosphate was derived from dihydroxyacetone phosphate and erythrose via an aldolase reaction. Second, biochemical studies showed that aldolase indeed catalyzed these reactions. Third, glyceraldehyde- and erythrose-labeling studies showed increased incorporation of corresponding labels into fructose 1-phosphate and sedoheptulose 1-phosphate in FK866-treated cells. Fourth, NAMPT inhibition led to increased glyceraldehyde and

  4. Inhibition of Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), an Enzyme Essential for NAD+ Biosynthesis, Leads to Altered Carbohydrate Metabolism in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bo; Dong, Sucai; Shepard, Robert L; Kays, Lisa; Roth, Kenneth D; Geeganage, Sandaruwan; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Zhao, Genshi

    2015-06-19

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) has been extensively studied due to its essential role in NAD(+) biosynthesis in cancer cells and the prospect of developing novel therapeutics. To understand how NAMPT regulates cellular metabolism, we have shown that the treatment with FK866, a specific NAMPT inhibitor, leads to attenuation of glycolysis by blocking the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase step (Tan, B., Young, D. A., Lu, Z. H., Wang, T., Meier, T. I., Shepard, R. L., Roth, K., Zhai, Y., Huss, K., Kuo, M. S., Gillig, J., Parthasarathy, S., Burkholder, T. P., Smith, M. C., Geeganage, S., and Zhao, G. (2013) Pharmacological inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), an enzyme essential for NAD(+) biosynthesis, in human cancer cells: metabolic basis and potential clinical implications. J. Biol. Chem. 288, 3500-3511). Due to technical limitations, we failed to separate isotopomers of phosphorylated sugars. In this study, we developed an enabling LC-MS methodology. Using this, we confirmed the previous findings and also showed that NAMPT inhibition led to accumulation of fructose 1-phosphate and sedoheptulose 1-phosphate but not glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, and sedoheptulose 7-phosphate as previously thought. To investigate the metabolic basis of the metabolite formation, we carried out biochemical and cellular studies and established the following. First, glucose-labeling studies indicated that fructose 1-phosphate was derived from dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde, and sedoheptulose 1-phosphate was derived from dihydroxyacetone phosphate and erythrose via an aldolase reaction. Second, biochemical studies showed that aldolase indeed catalyzed these reactions. Third, glyceraldehyde- and erythrose-labeling studies showed increased incorporation of corresponding labels into fructose 1-phosphate and sedoheptulose 1-phosphate in FK866-treated cells. Fourth, NAMPT inhibition led to increased glyceraldehyde and

  5. Reduction of Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase by Antisense RNA Expression Affects Activities of Other Enzymes Involved in Tetrapyrrole Biosynthesis and Leads to Light-Dependent Necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mock, H. P.; Grimm, B.

    1997-01-01

    We introduced a full-length cDNA sequence encoding tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase (UROD; EC 4.1.1.37) in reverse orientation under the control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter derivative into the tobacco genome to study the effects of deregulated UROD expression on tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Transformants with reduced UROD activity were characterized by stunted plant growth and necrotic leaf lesions. Antisense RNA expression caused reduced UROD protein levels and reduced activity to 45% of wild type, which was correlated with the accumulation of uroporphyrin(ogen) and with the intensity of necrotic damage. Chlorophyll levels were only slightly reduced (up to 15%), indicating that the plants sustained cellular damage from accumulating photosensitive porphyrins rather than from chlorophyll deficiency. A 16-h light/8-h dark regime at high-light intensity stimulates the formation of leaf necrosis compared with a low-light or a 6-h high-light treatment. Transgenic plants grown at high light also showed inactivation of 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase and porphobilinogen deaminase, whereas the activity of coproporphyrinogen oxidase and the 5-aminolevulinate synthesizing capacity were not altered. We conclude that photooxidation of accumulating uroporphyrin(ogen) leads to the generation of oxygen species, which destabilizes other enzymes in the porphyrin metabolic pathway. This porphyrin-induced necrosis resembles the induction of cell death observed during pathogenesis and air pollution. PMID:12223662

  6. Complexity Generation during Natural Product Biosynthesis using Redox Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Gao, Xue; Tang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Redox enzymes such as FAD-dependent and cytochrome P450 oxygenases play indispensible roles in generating structural complexity during natural product biosynthesis. In the pre-assembly steps, redox enzymes can convert garden variety primary metabolites into unique starter and extender building blocks. In the post-assembly tailoring steps, redox cascades can transform nascent scaffolds into structurally complex final products. In this review, we will discuss several recently characterized redox enzymes in the biosynthesis of polyketides and nonribosomal peptides. PMID:22564679

  7. Structure and function of enzymes in heme biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Layer, Gunhild; Reichelt, Joachim; Jahn, Dieter; Heinz, Dirk W

    2010-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles like hemes, chlorophylls, and cobalamin are complex macrocycles which play essential roles in almost all living organisms. Heme serves as prosthetic group of many proteins involved in fundamental biological processes like respiration, photosynthesis, and the metabolism and transport of oxygen. Further, enzymes such as catalases, peroxidases, or cytochromes P450 rely on heme as essential cofactors. Heme is synthesized in most organisms via a highly conserved biosynthetic route. In humans, defects in heme biosynthesis lead to severe metabolic disorders called porphyrias. The elucidation of the 3D structures for all heme biosynthetic enzymes over the last decade provided new insights into their function and elucidated the structural basis of many known diseases. In terms of structure and function several rather unique proteins were revealed such as the V-shaped glutamyl-tRNA reductase, the dipyrromethane cofactor containing porphobilinogen deaminase, or the “Radical SAM enzyme” coproporphyrinogen III dehydrogenase. This review summarizes the current understanding of the structure–function relationship for all heme biosynthetic enzymes and their potential interactions in the cell. PMID:20506125

  8. Changes in individual rates of pancreatic enzyme and isoenzyme biosynthesis in the obese Zucker rat.

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, E R; Rausch, U; Kern, H F

    1987-01-01

    Both alterations of enzyme content and a markedly decreased secretory response to selected physiological stimuli have been demonstrated previously in the pancreas of the obese Zucker rat. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the degree to which alterations of enzyme content could be attributed to changes in enzyme biosynthesis. Amylase content of obese rats was decreased by 50%, whereas lipase and trypsinogens were significantly increased. However, the decrease in amylase content was less than might have been predicted from the rate of amylase biosynthesis (80% decrease), and the increases in content of trypsinogen(s) and lipase were greater than would have been predicted from alterations in the absolute rates of biosynthesis. In view of the rapid turnover of pancreatic enzymes under normal conditions, it seems probable that a markedly decreased secretory response to various stimuli leads to an increased content of some enzymes in the pancreas of the obese rat. Ciglitazone treatment, which decreases insulin resistance in obese animals and leads to normalization of glucose metabolism in their pancreatic tissue, restored the enzyme-synthesis rates towards normal, showing that the abnormalities of enzyme synthesis were linked to the insulin resistance rather than to the obese genotype itself. Lipid inclusion bodies were found in acinar cells of obese rats. These bodies have previously been described in acinar cells of starved animals, which, in common with the acinar tissue of the obese Zucker rat, have decreased glucose metabolism. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3325041

  9. Synergistic Actions of Tailoring Enzymes in Pradimicin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Napan, Kandy; Zhang, Shuwei; Morgan, Whitney; Anderson, Thomas; Takemoto, Jon Y.

    2014-01-01

    Three key tailoring enzymes PdmJ, PdmW and PdmN in pradimicin biosynthesis were investigated. PdmW was characterized as the C-6 hydroxylase by structural characterization of the corresponding product 6-hydroxy-G-2A. The efficiencies of the C-5 and C-6 hydroxylations catalyzed respectively by PdmJ and PdmW were low when they were expressed individually with the early biosynthetic enzymes that form G-2A. When these two cytochrome P450 enzymes were co-expressed, a dihydroxylated product 5,6-dihydroxy-G-2A was efficiently produced, indicating that these two enzymes work synergistically in pradimicin biosynthesis. Heterologously expressed PdmN in Streptomyces coelicolor CH999 converted G-2A to JX137a by ligating a unit of D-alanine to the carboxyl group. PdmN has relaxed substrate specificity toward both amino acid donors and acceptors. Through combinatorial biosynthesis, a series of new pradimicin analogues were produced. PMID:25155298

  10. Radical AdoMet enzymes in complex metal cluster biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Duffus, Benjamin R; Hamilton, Trinity L; Shepard, Eric M; Boyd, Eric S; Peters, John W; Broderick, Joan B

    2012-11-01

    Radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) enzymes comprise a large superfamily of proteins that engage in a diverse series of biochemical transformations through generation of the highly reactive 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical intermediate. Recent advances into the biosynthesis of unique iron-sulfur (FeS)-containing cofactors such as the H-cluster in [FeFe]-hydrogenase, the FeMo-co in nitrogenase, as well as the iron-guanylylpyridinol (FeGP) cofactor in [Fe]-hydrogenase have implicated new roles for radical AdoMet enzymes in the biosynthesis of complex inorganic cofactors. Radical AdoMet enzymes in conjunction with scaffold proteins engage in modifying ubiquitous FeS precursors into unique clusters, through novel amino acid decomposition and sulfur insertion reactions. The ability of radical AdoMet enzymes to modify common metal centers to unusual metal cofactors may provide important clues into the stepwise evolution of these and other complex bioinorganic catalysts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Radical SAM enzymes and Radical Enzymology. PMID:22269887

  11. Localization of the Enzymes of Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Leaf Chloroplasts of Lupinus polyphyllus1

    PubMed Central

    Wink, Michael; Hartmann, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    Studies with purified chloroplasts of Lupinus polyphyllus LINDL. leaflets indicate that the first two enzymes of quinolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, lysine decarboxylase and 17-oxosparteine synthase, are localized in the chloroplast stroma. Thus, both enzymes share the same subcellular compartment as the biosynthetic pathway of lysine, the precursor of quinolizidine alkaloids. The activity of diaminopimelate decarboxylase, the final enzyme in lysine biosynthesis, is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of the enzymes of alkaloid formation. PMID:16662483

  12. Localization of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Rao, Aditya; Yeleswarapu, Sri Jyothsna; Srinivasan, Rajgopal; Bulusu, Gopalakrishnan

    2008-12-01

    Protein trafficking in the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum is dictated by a complex life-cycle that involves a variety of intra-cellular and host cell destinations, such as the mitochondrion, apicoplast, rhoptries and micronemes. Of these, the apicoplast and mitochondrion are believed to account for more than 10% of this traffic. Studies have shown that mechanisms for mitochondrion and apicoplast targeting are distinct, despite their close physical proximity. The heme biosynthesis pathway spans both these organelles, making trafficking studies crucial for the spatial demarcation of the constituent interactions. This minireview highlights the challenges in identifying the possible sub-cellular destinations of the heme pathway enzymes using gleanings from literature survey as well as focussed bioinformatic analysis. PMID:19239121

  13. Mechanisms and Structures of Vitamin B6-Dependent Enzymes Involved in Deoxy Sugar Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Romo, Anthony J.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2011-01-01

    PLP is well-regarded for its role as a coenzyme in a number of diverse enzymatic reactions. Transamination, deoxygenation, and aldol reactions mediated by PLP-dependent enzymes enliven and enrich deoxy sugar biosynthesis, endowing these compounds with unique structures and contributing to their roles as determinants of biological activity in many natural products. The importance of deoxy amino sugars in natural product biosynthesis has spurred several recent structural investigations of sugar aminotransferases. The structure of a PMP-dependent enzyme catalyzing the C-3 deoxygenation reaction in the biosynthesis of ascarylose was also determined. These studies, and the crystal structures they have provided, offer a wealth of new insights regarding the enzymology of PLP/PMP-dependent enzymes in deoxy sugar biosynthesis. In this review, we consider these recent achievements in the structural biology of deoxy sugar biosynthetic enzymes and the important implications they hold for understanding enzyme catalysis and natural product biosynthesis in general. PMID:21315852

  14. Lead inhibition of enzyme synthesis in soil.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, M A

    1977-01-01

    Addition of 2 mg of Pb2+/g of soil concident with or after amendment with starch or maltose resulted in 75 and 50% decreases in net synthesis of amylase and alpha-glucosidase, respectively. Invertase synthesis in sucrose-amended soil was transiently reduced after Pb2+ addition. Amylase activity was several times less sensitive to Pb2+ inhibition than was enzyme synthesis. In most cases, the rate of enzyme synthesis returned to control (Pb2+) values 24 to 48 h after the addition of Pb. The decrease in amylase synthesis was paralleled by a decrease in the number of Pb-sensitive, amylase-producing bacteria, whereas recovery of synthesis was associated with an increase in the number of amylase-producing bacteria. The degree of inhibition of enzyme synthesis was related to the quantity of Pb added and to the specific form of lead. PbSO4 decreased amylase synthesis at concentrations of 10.2 mg of Pb2+/g of soil or more, whereas PbO did not inhibit amylase synthesis at 13 mg of Pb2+/g of soil. Lead acetate, PbCl2, and PbS reduced amylase synthesis at total Pb2+ concentrations of 0.45 mg of Pb2+/g of soil or higher. The results indicated that lead is a potent but somewhat selective inhibitor of enzyme synthesis in soil, and that highly insoluble lead compounds, such as PbS, may be potent modifiers of soil biological activity. PMID:848950

  15. Radical SAM enzymes in the biosynthesis of sugar-containing natural products.

    PubMed

    Ruszczycky, Mark W; Ogasawara, Yasushi; Liu, Hung-Wen

    2012-11-01

    Carbohydrates play a key role in the biological activity of numerous natural products. In many instances their biosynthesis requires radical mediated rearrangements, some of which are catalyzed by radical SAM enzymes. BtrN is one such enzyme responsible for the dehydrogenation of a secondary alcohol in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine. DesII is another example that catalyzes a deamination reaction necessary for the net C4 deoxygenation of a glucose derivative en route to desosamine formation. BtrN and DesII represent the two most extensively characterized radical SAM enzymes involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the biosynthetic roles of these two enzymes, their mechanisms of catalysis, the questions that have arisen during these investigations and the insight they can offer for furthering our understanding of radical SAM enzymology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Radical SAM enzymes and Radical Enzymology. PMID:22172915

  16. Radical SAM enzymes in the biosynthesis of sugar-containing natural products☆

    PubMed Central

    Ruszczycky, Mark W.; Ogasawara, Yasushi; Liu, Hung-wen

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates play a key role in the biological activity of numerous natural products. In many instances their biosynthesis requires radical mediated rearrangements, some of which are catalyzed by radical SAM enzymes. BtrN is one such enzyme responsible for the dehydrogenation of a secondary alcohol in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine. DesII is another example that catalyzes a deamination reaction necessary for the net C4 deoxygenation of a glucose derivative en route to desosamine formation. BtrN and DesII represent the two most extensively characterized radical SAM enzymes involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the biosynthetic roles of these two enzymes, their mechanisms of catalysis, the questions that have arisen during these investigations and the insight they can offer for furthering our understanding of radical SAM enzymology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Radical SAM enzymes and Radical Enzymology. PMID:22172915

  17. Biogenesis of ER subdomains containing DGAT2, an enzyme involved in industrial oil biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are enzymes that catalyze the committed step in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis by transferring a fatty acyl group from the acyl-CoA pool to the sn-3 position of diacylglycerol. The substrate specificity and overall activity of these enzymes play a key role...

  18. Characterization and modification of enzymes in the 2-ketoisovalerate biosynthesis pathway of Ralstonia eutropha H16

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, JN; Brigham, CJ; Plassmeier, JK; Sinskey, AJ

    2014-08-01

    2-Ketoisovalerate is an important cellular intermediate for the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids as well as other important molecules, such as pantothenate, coenzyme A, and glucosinolate. This ketoacid can also serve as a precursor molecule for the production of biofuels, pharmaceutical agents, and flavor agents in engineered organisms, such as the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha. The biosynthesis of 2-ketoisovalerate from pyruvate is carried out by three enzymes: acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, encoded by ilvBH), acetohydroxyacid isomeroreductase (AHAIR, encoded by ilvC), and dihydroxyacid dehydratase (DHAD, encoded by ilvD). In this study, enzymatic activities and kinetic parameters were determined for each of the three R. eutropha enzymes as heterologously purified proteins. AHAS, which serves as a gatekeeper for the biosynthesis of all three branched-chain amino acids, demonstrated the tightest regulation through feedback inhibition by l-valine (IC50 = 1.2 mM), l-isoleucine (IC50 = 2.3 mM), and l-leucine (IC50 = 5.4 mM). Intermediates in the valine biosynthesis pathway also exhibit feedback inhibitory control of the AHAS enzyme. In addition, AHAS has a very weak affinity for pyruvate (K-M = 10.5 mu M) and is highly selective towards 2-ketobutyrate (R = 140) as a second substrate. AHAIR and DHAD are also inhibited by the branched-chain amino acids, although to a lesser extent when compared to AHAS. Experimental evolution and rational site-directed mutagenesis revealed mutants of the regulatory subunit of AHAS (IlvH) (N11S, T34I, A36V, T104S, N11F, G14E, and N29H), which, when reconstituted with wild-type IlvB, lead to AHAS having reduced valine, leucine, and isoleucine sensitivity. The study of the kinetics and inhibition mechanisms of R. eutropha AHAS, AHAIR, and DHAD has shed light on interactions between these enzymes and the products they produce; it, therefore, can be used to engineer R. eutropha strains with optimal production of 2

  19. Subcellular Localization of Enzymes Involved in Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus1

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Vincenzo; Cutler, Adrian J.

    1987-01-01

    The subcellular localization of enzymes involved in indole alkaloid biosynthesis in leaves of Catharanthus roseus has been investigated. Tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase which together produce strictosidine, the first indole alkaloid of this pathway, are both cytoplasmic enzymes. S-Adenosyl-l-methionine: 16-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxytabersonine-N-methyltransferase which catalyses the third to last step in vindoline biosynthesis could be localized in the chloroplasts of Catharanthus leaves and is specifically associated with thylakoids. Acetyl-coenzyme-A-deacetylvindoline-O-acetyltransferase which catalyses the last step in vindoline biosynthesis could also be localized in the cytoplasm. The participation of the chloroplast in this pathway suggests that indole alkaloid intermediates enter and exit this compartment during the biosynthesis of vindoline. PMID:16665811

  20. Isolation of a Microsomal Enzyme System Involved in Glucosinolate Biosynthesis from Seedlings of Tropaeolum majus L.

    PubMed Central

    Du, L.; Halkier, B. A.

    1996-01-01

    An in vitro system that converts phenylalanine to phenylacetaldoxime in the biosynthesis of the glucosinolate glucotropaeolin has been established in seedlings of Tropaeolum majus L. exposed to the combined treatment of jasmonic acid, ethanol, and light. The treatment resulted in a 9-fold induction, compared with untreated, dark-grown seedlings, of de novo biosynthesis measured as incorporation of radioactively labeled phenylalanine into glucotropaeolin. Formation of the inhibitory degradation product benzylisothiocyanate during tissue homogenization was prevented by inactivation of the thioglucosidase myrosinase by addition of 100 mM ascorbic acid to the isolation buffer. This allowed the isolation of a biosynthetically active microsomal preparation from the induced T. majus plant material. The enzyme, which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to the corresponding oxime, was sensitive to cytochrome P450 inhibitors, indicating the involvement of a cytochrome P450 in the biosynthetic pathway. It has previously been shown that the oxime-producing enzyme in the biosynthesis of p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate in Sinapis alba L. is dependent on cytochrome P450, whereas the oxime-producing enzymes in Brassica species have been suggested to be flavin monooxygenases or peroxidase-type enzymes. The result with T. majus provides additional experimental documentation for a similarity between the enzymes converting amino acids into the corresponding oximes in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates and cyanogenic glucosides. PMID:12226332

  1. Influence of some growth regulators and cations on inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis by lead in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, S.K. ); Srivastava, H.S. ); Tripathi, R.D. )

    1993-08-01

    Phytotoxic effects of Pb pollution are well established. In order to analyse the physiological basis of toxic symptoms and of reduced plant productivity, its effect on chlorophyll content has been examined in some plants. Thus, a decrease in total chlorophyll content during Pb supply has been observed in oats, mung beam, pea, etc. The activity of delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, an important enzyme in the biosynthesis of heme pigments, is inhibited by Pb in mung bean and several other species. This observation may perhaps indicate that a reduction in chlorophyll content in the presence of lead is due to an inhibition of pigment synthesis. The effect of Pb on greening maize leaf segments in the presence of various precursors of chlorophyll has been studied in the present investigation to evaluate this hypothesis. The effect of some growth regulators and cations, which could otherwise modify chlorophyll biosynthesis, has been examined to see whether the toxic effects of Pb on photosynthetic pigments could also be modified by these effectors. 16 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. Enzyme mechanisms: Flexibility leads to function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Rubinstein, John L.

    2014-03-01

    ATP synthase is an important enzyme for the storage and release of energy in cells. Ion-mobility mass spectrometry has now been used to study its structure, revealing important mechanistic details about its operation and regulation.

  3. Regulation of Squalene Synthase, a Key Enzyme of Sterol Biosynthesis, in Tobacco1

    PubMed Central

    Devarenne, Timothy P.; Ghosh, Anirban; Chappell, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Squalene synthase (SS) represents a putative branch point in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway capable of diverting carbon flow specifically to the biosynthesis of sterols and, hence, is considered a potential regulatory point for sterol metabolism. For example, when plant cells grown in suspension culture are challenged with fungal elicitors, suppression of sterol biosynthesis has been correlated with a reduction in SS enzyme activity. The current study sought to correlate changes in SS enzyme activity with changes in the level of the corresponding protein and mRNA. Using an SS-specific antibody, the initial suppression of SS enzyme activity in elicitor-challenged cells was not reflected by changes in the absolute level of the corresponding polypeptide, implicating a post-translational control mechanism for this enzyme activity. In comparison, the absolute level of the SS mRNA did decrease approximately 5-fold in the elicitor-treated cells, which is suggestive of decreased transcription of the SS gene. Study of SS in intact plants was also initiated by measuring the level of SS enzyme activity, the level of the corresponding protein, and the expression of SS gene promoter-reporter gene constructs in transgenic plants. SS enzyme activity, polypeptide level, and gene expression were all localized predominately to the shoot apical meristem, with much lower levels observed in leaves and roots. These later results suggest that sterol biosynthesis is localized to the apical meristems and that apical meristems may be a source of sterols for other plant tissues. PMID:12114564

  4. Biosynthesis of Carotenoids in Plants: Enzymes and Color.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Saavedra, Carolina; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most important biocolor isoprenoids responsible for yellow, orange and red colors found in nature. In plants, they are synthesized in plastids of photosynthetic and sink organs and are essential molecules for photosynthesis, photo-oxidative damage protection and phytohormone synthesis. Carotenoids also play important roles in human health and nutrition acting as vitamin A precursors and antioxidants. Biochemical and biophysical approaches in different plants models have provided significant advances in understanding the structural and functional roles of carotenoids in plants as well as the key points of regulation in their biosynthesis. To date, different plant models have been used to characterize the key genes and their regulation, which has increased the knowledge of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in plants. In this chapter a description of each step in the carotenoid synthesis pathway is presented and discussed. PMID:27485218

  5. Biosynthesis of rare hexoses using microorganisms and related enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zijie; Gao, Yahui; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rare sugars, referred to as monosaccharides and their derivatives that rarely exist in nature, can be applied in many areas ranging from foodstuffs to pharmaceutical and nutrition industry, or as starting materials for various natural products and drug candidates. Unfortunately, an important factor restricting the utilization of rare sugars is their limited availability, resulting from limited synthetic methods. Nowadays, microbial and enzymatic transformations have become a very powerful tool in this field. This article reviews the biosynthesis and enzymatic production of rare ketohexoses, aldohexoses and sugar alcohols (hexitols), including D-tagatose, D-psicose, D-sorbose, L-tagatose, L-fructose, 1-deoxy-L-fructose, D-allose, L-glucose, L-talose, D-gulose, L-galactose, L-fucose, allitol, D-talitol, and L-sorbitol. New systems and robust catalysts resulting from advancements in genomics and bioengineering are also discussed. PMID:24367410

  6. Identification of the Key Enzyme of Roseoflavin Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Julia; Konjik, Valentino; Jankowitsch, Frank; Sandhoff, Roger; Mack, Matthias

    2016-05-10

    The bacteria Streptomyces davawensis and Streptomyces cinnabarinus produce roseoflavin, the only known natural riboflavin (vitamin B2 ) analogue with antibiotic activity. Roseoflavin can be considered a natural antimetabolite and has been postulated to be biosynthesized from riboflavin via the key intermediate 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin (AF). The required site-specific substitution of one of the methyl groups on the dimethylbenzene ring of riboflavin by an amino group (to give AF) is challenging. The pathway from riboflavin to AF has remained elusive, and the corresponding enzyme/s was/were unknown. Herein, we show by systematic gene deletion, heterologous gene expression, and biochemical studies that the enzyme specified by the gene BN159_7989 from S. davawensis is able to carry out a whole set of chemical reactions starting from riboflavin-5'-phosphate to give the final product 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin-5'-phosphate (AFP). PMID:27062037

  7. THE REGULATION OF UREA-BIOSYNTHESIS ENZYMES IN VERTEBRATES.

    PubMed

    MORA, J; MARTUSCELLI, J; ORTIZ PINEDA, J; SOBERON, G

    1965-07-01

    1. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, the arginine-synthetase system and arginase were measured in the livers of ammoniotelic, ureotelic and uricotelic animals. The chelonian reptiles, whose nitrogen excretory patterns vary according to the habitat, and the Mexican axolotl, a neotenic species, were also studied. 2. The levels of the activities of the first three enzymes mentioned correlate with the amount of nitrogen excreted as urea. 3. The terrestrial turtle, which excretes mainly uric acid, maintains a high arginase activity but has very low levels of the activities of the other three enzymes. 4. The first three enzymes of the urea cycle vary in the phylogenic scale in a co-ordinated manner, which suggests that they are under the same regulatory mechanism. 5. Urea formation from endogenous arginine in vitro has a low efficiency in the Mexican axolotl. 6. The induction of metamorphosis in the Mexican axolotl by the administration of l-tri-iodothyronine, which causes a shift from ammonio-ureotelism to complete ureotelism, is accompanied by an increase mainly in carbamoyl phosphate synthetase and also by an improvement in the efficiency of hydrolysis of endogenous arginine in vitro to give urea. 7. The results obtained by differential centrifugation of the urea-cycle enzymes in rat and Mexican-axolotl livers are presented. The location requirements for the integration of a metabolic cycle are discussed. PMID:14343146

  8. The regulation of urea-biosynthesis enzymes in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Mora, J.; Martuscelli, J.; Ortiz-Pineda, Juana; Soberón, G.

    1965-01-01

    1. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, the arginine-synthetase system and arginase were measured in the livers of ammoniotelic, ureotelic and uricotelic animals. The chelonian reptiles, whose nitrogen excretory patterns vary according to the habitat, and the Mexican axolotl, a neotenic species, were also studied. 2. The levels of the activities of the first three enzymes mentioned correlate with the amount of nitrogen excreted as urea. 3. The terrestrial turtle, which excretes mainly uric acid, maintains a high arginase activity but has very low levels of the activities of the other three enzymes. 4. The first three enzymes of the urea cycle vary in the phylogenic scale in a co-ordinated manner, which suggests that they are under the same regulatory mechanism. 5. Urea formation from endogenous arginine in vitro has a low efficiency in the Mexican axolotl. 6. The induction of metamorphosis in the Mexican axolotl by the administration of l-tri-iodothyronine, which causes a shift from ammonio-ureotelism to complete ureotelism, is accompanied by an increase mainly in carbamoyl phosphate synthetase and also by an improvement in the efficiency of hydrolysis of endogenous arginine in vitro to give urea. 7. The results obtained by differential centrifugation of the urea-cycle enzymes in rat and Mexican-axolotl livers are presented. The location requirements for the integration of a metabolic cycle are discussed. PMID:14343146

  9. Pharmacological Inhibition of Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), an Enzyme Essential for NAD+ Biosynthesis, in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bo; Young, Debra A.; Lu, Zhao-Hai; Wang, Tao; Meier, Timothy I.; Shepard, Robert L.; Roth, Kenneth; Zhai, Yan; Huss, Karen; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Gillig, James; Parthasarathy, Saravanan; Burkholder, Timothy P.; Smith, Michele C.; Geeganage, Sandaruwan; Zhao, Genshi

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) catalyzes the first rate-limiting step in converting nicotinamide to NAD+, essential for cellular metabolism, energy production, and DNA repair. NAMPT has been extensively studied because of its critical role in these cellular processes and the prospect of developing therapeutics against the target, yet how it regulates cellular metabolism is not fully understood. In this study we utilized liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to examine the effects of FK866, a small molecule inhibitor of NAMPT currently in clinical trials, on glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and serine biosynthesis in cancer cells and tumor xenografts. We show for the first time that NAMPT inhibition leads to the attenuation of glycolysis at the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase step due to the reduced availability of NAD+ for the enzyme. The attenuation of glycolysis results in the accumulation of glycolytic intermediates before and at the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase step, promoting carbon overflow into the pentose phosphate pathway as evidenced by the increased intermediate levels. The attenuation of glycolysis also causes decreased glycolytic intermediates after the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase step, thereby reducing carbon flow into serine biosynthesis and the TCA cycle. Labeling studies establish that the carbon overflow into the pentose phosphate pathway is mainly through its non-oxidative branch. Together, these studies establish the blockade of glycolysis at the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase step as the central metabolic basis of NAMPT inhibition responsible for ATP depletion, metabolic perturbation, and subsequent tumor growth inhibition. These studies also suggest that altered metabolite levels in tumors can be used as robust pharmacodynamic markers for evaluating NAMPT inhibitors in the clinic. PMID:23239881

  10. Genes, enzymes and regulation of arginine biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Slocum, Robert D

    2005-08-01

    Arabidopsis genes encoding enzymes for each of the eight steps in L-arginine (Arg) synthesis were identified, based upon sequence homologies with orthologs from other organisms. Except for N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS; EC 2.3.1.1), which is encoded by two genes, all remaining enzymes are encoded by single genes. Targeting predictions for these enzymes, based upon their deduced sequences, and subcellular fractionation studies, suggest that most enzymes of Arg synthesis reside within the plastid. Synthesis of the L-ornthine (Orn) intermediate in this pathway from L-glutamate occurs as a series of acetylated intermediates, as in most other organisms. An N-acetylornithine:glutamate acetyltransferase (NAOGAcT; EC 2.3.1.35) facilitates recycling of the acetyl moiety during Orn formation (cyclic pathway). A putative N-acetylornithine deacetylase (NAOD; EC 3.5.1.16), which participates in the "linear" pathway for Orn synthesis in some organisms, was also identified. Previous biochemical studies have indicated that allosteric regulation of the first and, especially, the second steps in Orn synthesis (NAGS; N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK), EC 2.7.2.8) by the Arg end-product are the major sites of metabolic control of the pathway in organisms using the cyclic pathway. Gene expression profiling for pathway enzymes further suggests that NAGS, NAGK, NAOGAcT and NAOD are coordinately regulated in response to changes in Arg demand during plant growth and development. Synthesis of Arg from Orn is further coordinated with pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis, at the level of allocation of the common carbamoyl-P intermediate. PMID:16122935

  11. Direct Ionic Regulation of the Activity of Myo-Inositol Biosynthesis Enzymes in Mozambique Tilapia

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Fernando D.; Kültz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Myo-inositol (Ins) is a major compatible osmolyte in many cells, including those of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Ins biosynthesis is highly up-regulated in tilapia and other euryhaline fish exposed to hyperosmotic stress. In this study, enzymatic regulation of two enzymes of Ins biosynthesis, Ins phosphate synthase (MIPS) and inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), by direct ionic effects is analyzed. Specific MIPS and IMPase isoforms from Mozambique tilapia (MIPS-160 and IMPase 1) were selected based on experimental, phylogenetic, and structural evidence supporting their role for Ins biosynthesis during hyperosmotic stress. Recombinant tilapia IMPase 1 and MIPS-160 activity was assayed in vitro at ionic conditions that mimic changes in the intracellular milieu during hyperosmotic stress. The in vitro activities of MIPS-160 and IMPase 1 are highest at alkaline pH of 8.8. IMPase 1 catalytic efficiency is strongly increased during hyperosmolality (particularly for the substrate D-Ins-3-phosphate, Ins-3P), mainly as a result of [Na+] elevation. Furthermore, the substrate-specificity of IMPase 1 towards D-Ins-1-phosphate (Ins-1P) is lower than towards Ins-3P. Because MIPS catalysis results in Ins-3P this results represents additional evidence for IMPase 1 being the isoform that mediates Ins biosynthesis in tilapia. Our data collectively demonstrate that the Ins biosynthesis enzymes are activated under ionic conditions that cells are exposed to during hypertonicity, resulting in Ins accumulation, which, in turn, results in restoration of intracellular ion homeostasis. We propose that the unique and direct ionic regulation of the activities of Ins biosynthesis enzymes represents an efficient biochemical feedback loop for regulation of intracellular physiological ion homeostasis during hyperosmotic stress. PMID:26066044

  12. Enzyme overexpression - an exercise toward understanding regulation of heparan sulfate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jianping; Song, Tianyi; Lindahl, Ulf; Li, Jin-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS) involves conversion of D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) to L-iduronic acid (IdoA) units catalyzed by glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Hsepi). IdoA units are the favored substrate for 2-O-sulfotransferase (2OST). We used HEK293 cells as a model to investigate the effects of overexpression of these enzymes on HS structure. Overexpression of Hsepi alone resulted in an unexpected increase in HS chain length. A Hsepi point-mutant (Y168A), devoid of catalytic activity, failed to affect chain length. Moreover, the effect of Hsepi overexpression on HS chain length was abolished by simultaneous overexpression of 2OST. These findings raise novel aspects on regulation of HS biosynthesis. We propose a hypothetical enzyme-binding protein (EBP) with distinct, specific and partly overlapping binding sites, the interactions of which will determine levels of enzymes available to the biosynthetic process. PMID:27511124

  13. Enzyme overexpression – an exercise toward understanding regulation of heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jianping; Song, Tianyi; Lindahl, Ulf; Li, Jin-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS) involves conversion of D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) to L-iduronic acid (IdoA) units catalyzed by glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Hsepi). IdoA units are the favored substrate for 2-O-sulfotransferase (2OST). We used HEK293 cells as a model to investigate the effects of overexpression of these enzymes on HS structure. Overexpression of Hsepi alone resulted in an unexpected increase in HS chain length. A Hsepi point-mutant (Y168A), devoid of catalytic activity, failed to affect chain length. Moreover, the effect of Hsepi overexpression on HS chain length was abolished by simultaneous overexpression of 2OST. These findings raise novel aspects on regulation of HS biosynthesis. We propose a hypothetical enzyme-binding protein (EBP) with distinct, specific and partly overlapping binding sites, the interactions of which will determine levels of enzymes available to the biosynthetic process. PMID:27511124

  14. Identification of Multiple Phosphorylation Sites on Maize Endosperm Starch Branching Enzyme IIb, a Key Enzyme in Amylopectin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Makhmoudova, Amina; Williams, Declan; Brewer, Dyanne; Massey, Sarah; Patterson, Jenelle; Silva, Anjali; Vassall, Kenrick A.; Liu, Fushan; Subedi, Sanjeena; Harauz, George; Siu, K. W. Michael; Tetlow, Ian J.; Emes, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Starch branching enzyme IIb (SBEIIb) plays a crucial role in amylopectin biosynthesis in maize endosperm by defining the structural and functional properties of storage starch and is regulated by protein phosphorylation. Native and recombinant maize SBEIIb were used as substrates for amyloplast protein kinases to identify phosphorylation sites on the protein. A multidisciplinary approach involving bioinformatics, site-directed mutagenesis, and mass spectrometry identified three phosphorylation sites at Ser residues: Ser649, Ser286, and Ser297. Two Ca2+-dependent protein kinase activities were partially purified from amyloplasts, termed K1, responsible for Ser649 and Ser286 phosphorylation, and K2, responsible for Ser649 and Ser297 phosphorylation. The Ser286 and Ser297 phosphorylation sites are conserved in all plant branching enzymes and are located at opposite openings of the 8-stranded parallel β-barrel of the active site, which is involved with substrate binding and catalysis. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis indicates that phospho-Ser297 forms a stable salt bridge with Arg665, part of a conserved Cys-containing domain in plant branching enzymes. Ser649 conservation appears confined to the enzyme in cereals and is not universal, and is presumably associated with functions specific to seed storage. The implications of SBEIIb phosphorylation are considered in terms of the role of the enzyme and the importance of starch biosynthesis for yield and biotechnological application. PMID:24550386

  15. Tailoring enzymes acting on carrier protein-tethered substrates in natural product biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuangjun; Huang, Tingting; Shen, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Carrier proteins (CPs) are integral components of fatty acid synthases, polyketide synthases, and nonribosomal peptide synthetases and play critical roles in the biosynthesis of fatty acids, polyketides, and nonribosomal peptides. An emerging role CPs play in natural product biosynthesis involves tailoring enzymes that act on CP-tethered substrates. These enzymes provide a new opportunity to engineer natural product diversity by exploiting CPs to increase substrate promiscuity for the tailoring steps. This chapter describes protocols for in vitro biochemical characterization of SgcC3 and SgcC that catalyze chlorination and hydroxylation of SgcC2-tethered (S)-β-tyrosine and analogues in the biosynthesis of the enediyne chromophore of the chromoprotein C-1027. These protocols are applicable to mechanistic characterization and engineered exploitation of other tailoring enzymes that act on CP-tethered substrates in natural product biosynthesis and structural diversification. The ultimate goal is to use the in vitro findings to guide in vivo engineering of designer natural products. PMID:23034236

  16. Cell Type–Specific Localization of Transcripts Encoding Nine Consecutive Enzymes Involved in Protoberberine Alkaloid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Samanani, Nailish; Park, Sang-Un; Facchini, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular clones encoding nine consecutive biosynthetic enzymes that catalyze the conversion of l-dopa to the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-canadine were isolated from meadow rue (Thalictrum flavum ssp glaucum). The predicted proteins showed extensive sequence identity with corresponding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of related benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in other species, such as opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). RNA gel blot hybridization analysis showed that gene transcripts for each enzyme were most abundant in rhizomes but were also detected at lower levels in roots and other organs. In situ RNA hybridization analysis revealed the cell type–specific expression of protoberberine alkaloid biosynthetic genes in roots and rhizomes. In roots, gene transcripts for all nine enzymes were localized to immature endodermis, pericycle, and, in some cases, adjacent cortical cells. In rhizomes, gene transcripts encoding all nine enzymes were restricted to the protoderm of leaf primordia. The localization of biosynthetic gene transcripts was in contrast with the tissue-specific accumulation of protoberberine alkaloids. In roots, protoberberine alkaloids were restricted to mature endodermal cells upon the initiation of secondary growth and were distributed throughout the pith and cortex in rhizomes. Thus, the cell type–specific localization of protoberberine alkaloid biosynthesis and accumulation are temporally and spatially separated in T. flavum roots and rhizomes, respectively. Despite the close phylogeny between corresponding biosynthetic enzymes, distinct and different cell types are involved in the biosynthesis and accumulation of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in T. flavum and P. somniferum. Our results suggest that the evolution of alkaloid metabolism involves not only the recruitment of new biosynthetic enzymes, but also the migration of established pathways between cell types. PMID:15722473

  17. Tirandamycin biosynthesis is mediated by co-dependent oxidative enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Jacob C.; Li, Shengying; Gunatilleke, Shamila S.; Anzai, Yojiro; Burr, Douglas A.; Podust, Larissa M.; Sherman, David H.

    2011-08-01

    Elucidation of natural product biosynthetic pathways provides important insights into the assembly of potent bioactive molecules, and expands access to unique enzymes able to selectively modify complex substrates. Here, we show full reconstitution, in vitro, of an unusual multi-step oxidative cascade for post-assembly-line tailoring of tirandamycin antibiotics. This pathway involves a remarkably versatile and iterative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (TamI) and a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidase (TamL), which act co-dependently through the repeated exchange of substrates. TamI hydroxylates tirandamycin C (TirC) to generate tirandamycin E (TirE), a previously unidentified tirandamycin intermediate. TirE is subsequently oxidized by TamL, giving rise to the ketone of tirandamycin D (TirD), after which a unique exchange back to TamI enables successive epoxidation and hydroxylation to afford, respectively, the final products tirandamycin A (TirA) and tirandamycin B (TirB). Ligand-free, substrate- and product-bound crystal structures of bicovalently flavinylated TamL oxidase reveal a likely mechanism for the C10 oxidation of TirE.

  18. Diphthamide biosynthesis requires an organic radical generated by an iron-sulphur enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Xuling; Torelli, Andrew T; Lee, Michael; Dzikovski, Boris; Koralewski, Rachel M; Wang, Eileen; Freed, Jack; Krebs, Carsten; Ealick, Steve E; Lin, Hening

    2010-08-30

    Archaeal and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 contain a unique post-translationally modified histidine residue called diphthamide, which is the target of diphtheria toxin. The biosynthesis of diphthamide was proposed to involve three steps, with the first being the formation of a C-C bond between the histidine residue and the 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl group of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). However, further details of the biosynthesis remain unknown. Here we present structural and biochemical evidence showing that the first step of diphthamide biosynthesis in the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii uses a novel iron-sulphur-cluster enzyme, Dph2. Dph2 is a homodimer and each of its monomers can bind a [4Fe-4S] cluster. Biochemical data suggest that unlike the enzymes in the radical SAM superfamily, Dph2 does not form the canonical 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical. Instead, it breaks the Cγ,Met-S bond of SAM and generates a 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl radical. Our results suggest that P. horikoshii Dph2 represents a previously unknown, SAM-dependent, [4Fe-4S]-containing enzyme that catalyses unprecedented chemistry.

  19. Peroxidase Enzymes Regulate Collagen Biosynthesis and Matrix Mineralization by Cultured Human Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    DeNichilo, Mark O; Shoubridge, Alexandra J; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Liapis, Vasilios; Zysk, Aneta; Zinonos, Irene; Hay, Shelley; Atkins, Gerald J; Findlay, David M; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The early recruitment of inflammatory cells to sites of bone fracture and trauma is a critical determinant in successful fracture healing. Released by infiltrating inflammatory cells, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) are heme-containing enzymes, whose functional involvement in bone repair has mainly been studied in the context of providing a mechanism for oxidative defense against invading microorganisms. We report here novel findings that show peroxidase enzymes have the capacity to stimulate osteoblastic cells to secrete collagen I protein and generate a mineralized extracellular matrix in vitro. Mechanistic studies conducted using cultured osteoblasts show that peroxidase enzymes stimulate collagen biosynthesis at a post-translational level in a prolyl hydroxylase-dependent manner, which does not require ascorbic acid. Our studies demonstrate that osteoblasts rapidly bind and internalize both MPO and EPO, and the catalytic activity of these peroxidase enzymes is essential to support collagen I biosynthesis and subsequent release of collagen by osteoblasts. We show that EPO is capable of regulating osteogenic gene expression and matrix mineralization in culture, suggesting that peroxidase enzymes may play an important role not only in normal bone repair, but also in the progression of pathological states where infiltrating inflammatory cells are known to deposit peroxidases. PMID:26643175

  20. Reconstruction of Cysteine Biosynthesis Using Engineered Cysteine-Free and Methionine-Free Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Kendrick; Fujishima, Kosuke; Abe, Nozomi; Nakahigashi, Kenji; Endy, Drew; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Ten of the proteinogenic amino acids can be generated abiotically while the remaining thirteen require biology for their synthesis. Paradoxically, the biosynthesis pathways observed in nature require enzymes that are made with the amino acids they produce. For example, Escherichia coli produces cysteine from serine via two enzymes that contain cysteine. Here, we substituted alternate amino acids for cysteine and also methionine, which is biosynthesized from cysteine, in serine acetyl transferase (CysE) and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (CysM). CysE function was rescued by cysteine-and-methionine-free enzymes and CysM function was rescued by cysteine-free enzymes. Structural modeling suggests that methionine stabilizes CysM and is present in the active site of CysM. Cysteine is not conserved among CysE and CysM protein orthologs, suggesting that cysteine is not functionally important for its own synthesis. Engineering biosynthetic enzymes that lack the amino acids being synthesized provides insights into the evolution of amino acid biosynthesis and pathways for bioengineering.

  1. The Catalytic Machinery of a Key Enzyme in Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Ronald E.; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Blanco, Julio; Moore, Roger A.; Liu, Xuying; Arachea, Buenafe T.; Pavlovsky, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    The aspartate pathway of amino acid biosynthesis is essential for all microbial life but is absent in mammals. Characterizing the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in this pathway can identify new protein targets for the development of antibiotics with unique modes of action. The enzyme aspartate β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes an early branch point reaction in the aspartate pathway. Kinetic, mutagenic, and structural studies of ASADH from various microbial species have been used to elucidate mechanistic details and to identify essential amino acids involved in substrate binding, catalysis, and enzyme regulation. Important structural and functional differences have been found between ASADHs isolated from these bacterial and fungal organisms, opening the possibility for developing species-specific antimicrobial agents that target this family of enzymes. PMID:22332000

  2. The catalytic machinery of a key enzyme in amino Acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Viola, Ronald E; Faehnle, Christopher R; Blanco, Julio; Moore, Roger A; Liu, Xuying; Arachea, Buenafe T; Pavlovsky, Alexander G

    2011-01-01

    The aspartate pathway of amino acid biosynthesis is essential for all microbial life but is absent in mammals. Characterizing the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in this pathway can identify new protein targets for the development of antibiotics with unique modes of action. The enzyme aspartate β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes an early branch point reaction in the aspartate pathway. Kinetic, mutagenic, and structural studies of ASADH from various microbial species have been used to elucidate mechanistic details and to identify essential amino acids involved in substrate binding, catalysis, and enzyme regulation. Important structural and functional differences have been found between ASADHs isolated from these bacterial and fungal organisms, opening the possibility for developing species-specific antimicrobial agents that target this family of enzymes. PMID:22332000

  3. The Catalytic Machinery of a Key Enzyme in Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, Ronald E.; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Blanco, Julio; Moore, Roger A.; Liu, Xuying; Arachea, Buenafe T.; Pavlovsky, Alexander G.

    2013-02-28

    The aspartate pathway of amino acid biosynthesis is essential for all microbial life but is absent in mammals. Characterizing the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in this pathway can identify new protein targets for the development of antibiotics with unique modes of action. The enzyme aspartate {beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes an early branch point reaction in the aspartate pathway. Kinetic, mutagenic, and structural studies of ASADH from various microbial species have been used to elucidate mechanistic details and to identify essential amino acids involved in substrate binding, catalysis, and enzyme regulation. Important structural and functional differences have been found between ASADHs isolated from these bacterial and fungal organisms, opening the possibility for developing species-specific antimicrobial agents that target this family of enzymes.

  4. Structure and Mechanism of Enzymes Involved in Biosynthesis and Breakdown of the Phosphonates Fosfomycin, Dehydrophos, and Phosphinothricin

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Satish K.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the mechanistic and structural information on enzymes that are involved in the biosynthesis and breakdown of naturally occurring phosphonates. This review focuses on these recent developments with an emphasis on those enzymes that have been characterized crystallographically in the past five years, including proteins involved in the biosynthesis of phosphinothricin, fosfomycin, and dehydrophos and proteins involved in resistance mechanisms. PMID:20854789

  5. Radical S-adenosylmethionine enzyme catalyzed thioether bond formation in sactipeptide biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Flühe, Leif; Marahiel, Mohamed A

    2013-08-01

    Sactipeptides represent a new emerging class of ribosomally assembled and posttranslationally modified peptides that show diverse bioactivities. Their common hallmark is an intramolecular thioether bond that crosslink the sulfur atom of a cysteine residue with the α-carbon of an acceptor amino acid. This review summarizes recent achievements concerning the biosynthesis of sactipeptides in general and with special focus on the common enzymatic radical SAM mechanism leading to the thioether linkage formation. In addition this mechanism is compared to the mechanism of thioether bond formation during lanthipeptide biosynthesis and to other radical based thioether bond forming reactions. PMID:23891473

  6. Enzymes involved in L-carnitine biosynthesis are expressed by small intestinal enterocytes in mice: Implications for gut health

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, Prem S; Sonne, Srinivas; Carter, A Lee; Matern, Dietrich; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2013-01-01

    Background Carnitine is essential for mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. Deficiency of carnitine leads to severe gut atrophy, ulceration and inflammation in animal models of carnitine deficiency. Genetic studies in large populations have linked mutations in the carnitine transporters OCTN1 and OCTN2 with Crohn’s disease (CD), while other studies at the same time have failed to show a similar association and report normal serum carnitine levels in CD patients. Methods In this report, we have studied the expression of carnitine-synthesizing enzymes in intestinal epithelial cells to determine the capability of these cells to synthesize carnitine de novo. We studied expression of five enzymes involved in carnitine biosynthesis, namely 6-N-trimethyllysine dioxygenase (TMLD), 4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (TMABADH), serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 & 2 (SHMT1 & 2) and γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase (BBH) by real-time PCR in mice (C3H strain). We also measured activity of γ-BBH in the intestine using an ex vivo assay and localized its expression by in situ hybridization. Results Our investigations show that mouse intestinal epithelium expresses all five enzymes required for de novo carnitine biosynthesis; the expression is localized mainly in villous surface epithelial cells throughout the intestine. The final rate-limiting enzyme γ-BBH is highly active in the small intestine; its activity was 9.7 ± 3.5 pmol/mg/min, compared to 22.7 ± 7.3 pmol/mg/min in the liver. Conclusions We conclude that mouse gut epithelium is able to synthesize carnitine de novo. This capacity to synthesize carnitine in the intestine may play an important role in gut health and can help explain lack of clinical carnitine deficiency signs in subjects with mutations with OCTN transporters. PMID:22999781

  7. Correlation Index-Based Responsible-Enzyme Gene Screening (CIRES), a Novel DNA Microarray-Based Method for Enzyme Gene Involved in Glycan Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Harumi; Takematsu, Hiromu; Fujinawa, Reiko; Naito, Yuko; Okuno, Yasushi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Suzuki, Akemi; Kozutsumi, Yasunori

    2007-01-01

    Background Glycan biosynthesis occurs though a multi-step process that requires a variety of enzymes ranging from glycosyltransferases to those involved in cytosolic sugar metabolism. In many cases, glycan biosynthesis follows a glycan-specific, linear pathway. As glycosyltransferases are generally regulated at the level of transcription, assessing the overall transcriptional profile for glycan biosynthesis genes seems warranted. However, a systematic approach for assessing the correlation between glycan expression and glycan-related gene expression has not been reported previously. Methodology To facilitate genetic analysis of glycan biosynthesis, we sought to correlate the expression of genes involved in cell-surface glycan formation with the expression of the glycans, as detected by glycan-recognizing probes. We performed cross-sample comparisons of gene expression profiles using a newly developed, glycan-focused cDNA microarray. Cell-surface glycan expression profiles were obtained using flow cytometry of cells stained with plant lectins. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated for these profiles and were used to identify enzyme genes correlated with glycan biosynthesis. Conclusions This method, designated correlation index-based responsible-enzyme gene screening (CIRES), successfully identified genes already known to be involved in the biosynthesis of certain glycans. Our evaluation of CIRES indicates that it is useful for identifying genes involved in the biosynthesis of glycan chains that can be probed with lectins using flow cytometry. PMID:18043739

  8. Construction of a tunable multi-enzyme-coordinate expression system for biosynthesis of chiral drug intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Fang, Baishan

    2016-01-01

    Systems that can regulate and coordinate the expression of multiple enzymes for metabolic regulation and synthesis of important drug intermediates are poorly explored. In this work, a strategy for constructing a tunable multi-enzyme-coordinate expression system for biosynthesis of chiral drug intermediates was developed and evaluated by connecting protein-protein expressions, regulating the strength of ribosome binding sites (RBS) and detecting the system capacity for producing chiral amino acid. Results demonstrated that the dual-enzyme system had good enantioselectivity, low cost, high stability, high conversion rate and approximately 100% substrate conversion. This study has paved a new way of exploring metabolic mechanism of functional genes and engineering whole cell-catalysts for synthesis of chiral α-hydroxy acids or chiral amino acids. PMID:27456301

  9. Yucasin is a potent inhibitor of YUCCA, a key enzyme in auxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Suzuki, Hiromi; Gyohda, Atsuko; Takaoka, Chihiro; Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Tatsuya; Kato, Jun-Ichi; Kamiya, Yuji; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2014-02-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), an auxin plant hormone, is biosynthesized from tryptophan. The indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway, involving the tryptophan aminotransferase TAA1 and YUCCA (YUC) enzymes, was recently found to be a major IAA biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis. TAA1 catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to IPyA, and YUC produces IAA from IPyA. Using a chemical biology approach with maize coleoptiles, we identified 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (yucasin) as a potent inhibitor of IAA biosynthesis in YUC-expressing coleoptile tips. Enzymatic analysis of recombinant AtYUC1-His suggested that yucasin strongly inhibited YUC1-His activity against the substrate IPyA in a competitive manner. Phenotypic analysis of Arabidopsis YUC1 over-expression lines (35S::YUC1) demonstrated that yucasin acts in IAA biosynthesis catalyzed by YUC. In addition, 35S::YUC1 seedlings showed resistance to yucasin in terms of root growth. A loss-of-function mutant of TAA1, sav3-2, was hypersensitive to yucasin in terms of root growth and hypocotyl elongation of etiolated seedlings. Yucasin combined with the TAA1 inhibitor l-kynurenine acted additively in Arabidopsis seedlings, producing a phenotype similar to yucasin-treated sav3-2 seedlings, indicating the importance of IAA biosynthesis via the IPyA pathway in root growth and leaf vascular development. The present study showed that yucasin is a potent inhibitor of YUC enzymes that offers an effective tool for analyzing the contribution of IAA biosynthesis via the IPyA pathway to plant development and physiological processes. PMID:24299123

  10. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis FAS-II condensing enzymes: their role in mycolic acid biosynthesis, acid-fastness, pathogenesis and in future drug development.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Apoorva; Molle, Virginie; Besra, Gurdyal S; Jacobs, William R; Kremer, Laurent

    2007-06-01

    Mycolic acids are very long-chain fatty acids representing essential components of the mycobacterial cell wall. Considering their importance, characterization of key enzymes participating in mycolic acid biosynthesis not only allows an understanding of their role in the physiology of mycobacteria, but also might lead to the identification of new drug targets. Mycolates are synthesized by at least two discrete elongation systems, the type I and type II fatty acid synthases (FAS-I and FAS-II respectively). Among the FAS-II components, the condensing enzymes that catalyse the formation of carbon-carbon bonds have received considerable interest. Four condensases participate in initiation (mtFabH), elongation (KasA and KasB) and termination (Pks13) steps, leading to full-length mycolates. We present the recent biochemical and structural data for these important enzymes. Special emphasis is given to their role in growth, intracellular survival, biofilm formation, as well as in the physiopathology of tuberculosis. Recent studies demonstrated that phosphorylation of these enzymes by mycobacterial kinases affects their activities. We propose here a model in which kinases that sense environmental changes can phosphorylate the condensing enzymes, thus representing a novel mechanism of regulating mycolic acid biosynthesis. Finally, we discuss the attractiveness of these enzymes as valid targets for future antituberculosis drug development. PMID:17555433

  11. Combinatorial Generation of Chemical Diversity by Redox Enzymes in Chaetoviridin Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Michio; Winter, Jaclyn M; Kishimoto, Shinji; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Tang, Yi; Watanabe, Kenji

    2016-03-18

    Chaetoviridins constitute a large family of structurally related secondary metabolites isolated from Chaetomium fungi. To elucidate the biosynthesis pathway and understand how the chemical diversity of chaetoviridins is generated, gene deletion and in vitro characterization of the four post-PKS modifications enzymes were undertaken. CazL and CazP were identified to have substrate promiscuity that facilitates the formation of nonchlorinated analogues. In addition, enzymatic oxidation and reduction combined with spontaneous dehydration and lactonization of the intermediates further expand the chemical diversity. PMID:26959241

  12. Biosynthesis of Squalene from Farnesyl Diphosphate in Bacteria: Three Steps Catalyzed by Three Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Squalene (SQ) is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of sterols in eukaryotes and a few bacteria and of hopanoids in bacteria where they promote membrane stability and the formation of lipid rafts in their hosts. The genes for hopanoid biosynthesis are typically located on clusters that consist of four highly conserved genes—hpnC, hpnD, hpnE, and hpnF—for conversion of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to hopene or related pentacyclic metabolites. While hpnF is known to encode a squalene cyclase, the functions for hpnC, hpnD, and hpnE are not rigorously established. The hpnC, hpnD, and hpnE genes from Zymomonas mobilis and Rhodopseudomonas palustris were cloned into Escherichia coli, a bacterium that does not contain genes homologous to hpnC, hpnD, and hpnE, and their functions were established in vitro and in vivo. HpnD catalyzes formation of presqualene diphosphate (PSPP) from two molecules of FPP; HpnC converts PSPP to hydroxysqualene (HSQ); and HpnE, a member of the amine oxidoreductase family, reduces HSQ to SQ. Collectively the reactions catalyzed by these three enzymes constitute a new pathway for biosynthesis of SQ in bacteria. PMID:26258173

  13. Multifaceted regulations of gateway enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Xuebin; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2014-12-11

    Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in plants engenders a vast variety of aromatic metabolites critically important for their growth, development, and environmental adaptation. Some of these aromatic compounds have high economic value. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first committed enzyme in the pathway; it diverts the central flux of carbon from primary metabolism to the synthesis of myriad phenolics. Over the decades, many studies have shown that exquisite regulatory mechanisms at multiple levels control the transcription and the enzymatic activity of PALs. In this review, we present a current overview on our understanding of the complicated regulatory mechanisms governing PAL's activity; we particularlymore » highlight recent progresses in unraveling its post-translational modifications, its metabolite feedback regulation, and its enzyme organization.« less

  14. Multifaceted regulations of gateway enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuebin; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2014-12-11

    Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in plants engenders a vast variety of aromatic metabolites critically important for their growth, development, and environmental adaptation. Some of these aromatic compounds have high economic value. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first committed enzyme in the pathway; it diverts the central flux of carbon from primary metabolism to the synthesis of myriad phenolics. Over the decades, many studies have shown that exquisite regulatory mechanisms at multiple levels control the transcription and the enzymatic activity of PALs. In this review, we present a current overview on our understanding of the complicated regulatory mechanisms governing PAL's activity; we particularly highlight recent progresses in unraveling its post-translational modifications, its metabolite feedback regulation, and its enzyme organization.

  15. Radical SAM enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of purine-based natural products

    PubMed Central

    Bandarian, Vahe

    2013-01-01

    The radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) superfamily is a widely distributed group of iron-sulfur containing proteins that exploit the reactivity of the high energy intermediate, 5’-deoxyadenosyl radical, which is produced by reductive cleavage of SAM, to carry-out complex radical-mediated transformations. The reactions catalyzed by radical SAM enzymes range from simple group migrations to complex reactions in protein and RNA modification. This review will highlight three radical SAM enzymes that catalyze reactions involving modified guanosines in the biosynthesis pathways of the hypermodified tRNA base wybutosine; secondary metabolites of 7-deazapurine structure, including the hypermodified tRNA base queuosine; and the redox cofactor F420. PMID:22902275

  16. Identification and physiological characterization of phosphatidic acid phosphatase enzymes involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP, EC 3.1.3.4) catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate yielding diacylglycerol (DAG), the lipid precursor for triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Despite the importance of PAP activity in TAG producing bacteria, studies to establish its role in lipid metabolism have been so far restricted only to eukaryotes. Considering the increasing interest of bacterial TAG as a potential source of raw material for biofuel production, we have focused our studies on the identification and physiological characterization of the putative PAP present in the TAG producing bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. Results We have identified two S. coelicolor genes, named lppα (SCO1102) and lppβ (SCO1753), encoding for functional PAP proteins. Both enzymes mediate, at least in part, the formation of DAG for neutral lipid biosynthesis. Heterologous expression of lppα and lppβ genes in E. coli resulted in enhanced PAP activity in the membrane fractions of the recombinant strains and concomitantly in higher levels of DAG. In addition, the expression of these genes in yeast complemented the temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of the PAP deficient strain GHY58 (dpp1lpp1pah1). In S. coelicolor, disruption of either lppα or lppβ had no effect on TAG accumulation; however, the simultaneous mutation of both genes provoked a drastic reduction in de novo TAG biosynthesis as well as in total TAG content. Consistently, overexpression of Lppα and Lppβ in the wild type strain of S. coelicolor led to a significant increase in TAG production. Conclusions The present study describes the identification of PAP enzymes in bacteria and provides further insights on the genetic basis for prokaryotic oiliness. Furthermore, this finding completes the whole set of enzymes required for de novo TAG biosynthesis pathway in S. coelicolor. Remarkably, the overexpression of these PAPs in Streptomyces bacteria contributes to a higher productivity of this single

  17. Enterococcus faecalis 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, an enzyme of isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sutherlin, Autumn; Hedl, Matija; Sanchez-Neri, Barbara; Burgner, John W; Stauffacher, Cynthia V; Rodwell, Victor W

    2002-08-01

    Biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) proceeds via two distinct pathways. Sequence comparisons and microbiological data suggest that multidrug-resistant strains of gram-positive cocci employ exclusively the mevalonate pathway for IPP biosynthesis. Bacterial mevalonate pathway enzymes therefore offer potential targets for development of active site-directed inhibitors for use as antibiotics. We used the PCR and Enterococcus faecalis genomic DNA to isolate the mvaS gene that encodes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase, the second enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. mvaS was expressed in Escherichia coli from a pET28 vector with an attached N-terminal histidine tag. The expressed enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography on Ni(2+)-agarose to apparent homogeneity and a specific activity of 10 micromol/min/mg. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that the enzyme is a dimer (mass, 83.9 kDa; s(20,w), 5.3). Optimal activity occurred in 2.0 mM MgCl(2) at 37(o)C. The DeltaH(a) was 6,000 cal. The pH activity profile, optimum activity at pH 9.8, yielded a pK(a) of 8.8 for a dissociating group, presumably Glu78. The stoichiometry per monomer of acetyl-CoA binding was 1.2 +/- 0.2 and that of covalent acetylation was 0.60 +/- 0.02. The K(m) for the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA was 10 microM. Coupled conversion of acetyl-CoA to mevalonate was demonstrated by using HMG-CoA synthase and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase/HMG-CoA reductase from E. faecalis. PMID:12107122

  18. Kdo hydroxylase is an inner core assembly enzyme in the Ko-containing lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hak Suk; Yang, Eun Gyeong; Hwang, Dohyeon; Lee, Ji Eun; Guan, Ziqiang; Raetz, Christian R H

    2014-09-26

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from certain important Gram-negative pathogens including a human pathogen Yersinia pestis and opportunistic pathogens Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei contains d-glycero-d-talo-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Ko), an isosteric analog of 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo). Kdo 3-hydroxylase (KdoO), a Fe(2+)/α-KG/O2 dependent dioxygenase from Burkholderia ambifaria and Yersinia pestis is responsible for Ko formation with Kdo2-lipid A as a substrate, but in which stage KdoO functions during the LPS biosynthesis has not been established. Here we purify KdoO from B. ambifaria (BaKdoO) to homogeneity for the first time and characterize its substrates. BaKdoO utilizes Kdo2-lipid IVA or Kdo2-lipid A as a substrate, but not Kdo-lipid IVAin vivo as well as in vitro and Kdo-(Hep)kdo-lipid A in vitro. These data suggest that KdoO is an inner core assembly enzyme that functions after the Kdo-transferase KdtA but before the heptosyl-transferase WaaC enzyme during the Ko-containing LPS biosynthesis. PMID:25204504

  19. Cardiolipin biosynthesis and remodeling enzymes are altered during development of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Saini-Chohan, Harjot K; Holmes, Michael G; Chicco, Adam J; Taylor, William A; Moore, Russell L; McCune, Sylvia A; Hickson-Bick, Diane L; Hatch, Grant M; Sparagna, Genevieve C

    2009-08-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is responsible for modulation of activities of various enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Although energy production decreases in heart failure (HF), regulation of cardiolipin during HF development is unknown. Enzymes involved in cardiac cardiolipin synthesis and remodeling were studied in spontaneously hypertensive HF (SHHF) rats, explanted hearts from human HF patients, and nonfailing Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The biosynthetic enzymes cytidinediphosphatediacylglycerol synthetase (CDS), phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (PGPS) and cardiolipin synthase (CLS) were investigated. Mitochondrial CDS activity and CDS-1 mRNA increased in HF whereas CDS-2 mRNA in SHHF and humans, not in SD rats, decreased. PGPS activity, but not mRNA, increased in SHHF. CLS activity and mRNA decreased in SHHF, but mRNA was not significantly altered in humans. Cardiolipin remodeling enzymes, monolysocardiolipin acyltransferase (MLCL AT) and tafazzin, showed variable changes during HF. MLCL AT activity increased in SHHF. Tafazzin mRNA decreased in SHHF and human HF, but not in SD rats. The gene expression of acyl-CoA: lysocardiolipin acyltransferase-1, an endoplasmic reticulum MLCL AT, remained unaltered in SHHF rats. The results provide mechanisms whereby both cardiolipin biosynthesis and remodeling are altered during HF. Increases in CDS-1, PGPS, and MLCL AT suggest compensatory mechanisms during the development of HF. Human and SD data imply that similar trends may occur in human HF, but not during nonpathological aging, consistent with previous cardiolipin studies. PMID:19001357

  20. Structural Basis of Regiospecificity of a Mononuclear Iron Enzyme in Antibiotic Fosfomycin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxypropylphosphonic acid epoxidase (HppE) is an unusual mononuclear iron enzyme that uses dioxygen to catalyze the oxidative epoxidation of (S)-2-hydroxypropylphosphonic acid (S-HPP) in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic fosfomycin. Additionally, the enzyme converts the R-enantiomer of the substrate (R-HPP) to 2-oxo-propylphosphonic acid. To probe the mechanism of HppE regiospecificity, we determined three X-ray structures: R-HPP with inert cobalt-containing enzyme (Co(II)–HppE) at 2.1 Å resolution; R-HPP with active iron-containing enzyme (Fe(II)–HppE) at 3.0 Å resolution; and S-HPP–Fe(II)–HppE in complex with dioxygen mimic NO at 2.9 Å resolution. These structures, along with previously determined structures of S-HPP–HppE, identify the dioxygen binding site on iron and elegantly illustrate how HppE is able to recognize both substrate enantiomers to catalyze two completely distinct reactions. PMID:21682308

  1. Structural Basis of Regiospecificity of a Mononuclear Iron Enzyme in Antibiotic Fosfomycin Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Danny; Dey, Mishtu; Higgins, Luke J.; Yan, Feng; Liu, Hung-wen; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2011-08-29

    Hydroxypropylphosphonic acid epoxidase (HppE) is an unusual mononuclear iron enzyme that uses dioxygen to catalyze the oxidative epoxidation of (S)-2-hydroxypropylphosphonic acid (S-HPP) in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic fosfomycin. Additionally, the enzyme converts the R-enantiomer of the substrate (R-HPP) to 2-oxo-propylphosphonic acid. To probe the mechanism of HppE regiospecificity, we determined three X-ray structures: R-HPP with inert cobalt-containing enzyme (Co(II)-HppE) at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution; R-HPP with active iron-containing enzyme (Fe(II)-HppE) at 3.0 {angstrom} resolution; and S-HPP-Fe(II)-HppE in complex with dioxygen mimic NO at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. These structures, along with previously determined structures of S-HPP-HppE, identify the dioxygen binding site on iron and elegantly illustrate how HppE is able to recognize both substrate enantiomers to catalyze two completely distinct reactions.

  2. Characterization of two key enzymes for aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in symbiotic archaea.

    PubMed

    Shlaifer, Irina; Turnbull, Joanne L

    2016-07-01

    Biosynthesis of L-tyrosine (L-Tyr) and L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) is directed by the interplay of three enzymes. Chorismate mutase (CM) catalyzes the rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate, which can be either converted to hydroxyphenylpyruvate by prephenate dehydrogenase (PD) or to phenylpyruvate by prephenate dehydratase (PDT). This work reports the first characterization of a trifunctional PD-CM-PDT from the smallest hyperthermophilic archaeon Nanoarchaeum equitans and a bifunctional CM-PD from its host, the crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. Hexa-histidine tagged proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Specific activities determined for the trifunctional enzyme were 21, 80, and 30 U/mg for CM, PD, and PDT, respectively, and 47 and 21 U/mg for bifunctional CM and PD, respectively. Unlike most PDs, these two archaeal enzymes were insensitive to regulation by L-Tyr and preferred NADP(+) to NAD(+) as a cofactor. Both the enzymes were highly thermally stable and exhibited maximal activity at 90 °C. N. equitans PDT was feedback inhibited by L-Phe (Ki = 0.8 µM) in a non-competitive fashion consistent with L-Phe's combination at a site separate from that of prephenate. Our results suggest that PD from the unique symbiotic archaeal pair encompass a distinct subfamily of prephenate dehydrogenases with regard to their regulation and co-substrate specificity. PMID:27290727

  3. Phycobiliprotein biosynthesis in cyanobacteria: structure and function of enzymes involved in post-translational modification.

    PubMed

    Schluchter, Wendy M; Shen, Gaozhong; Alvey, Richard M; Biswas, Avijit; Saunée, Nicolle A; Williams, Shervonda R; Mille, Crystal A; Bryant, Donald A

    2010-01-01

    Cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins are brilliantly colored due to the presence of covalently attached chromophores called bilins, linear tetrapyrroles derived from heme. For most phycobiliproteins, these post-translational modifications are catalyzed by enzymes called bilin lyases; these enzymes ensure that the appropriate bilins are attached to the correct cysteine residues with the proper stereochemistry on each phycobiliprotein subunit. Phycobiliproteins also contain a unique, post-translational modification, the methylation of a conserved asparagine (Asn) present at beta-72, which occurs on the beta-subunits of all phycobiliproteins. We have identified and characterized several new families of bilin lyases, which are responsible for attaching PCB to phycobiliproteins as well as the Asn methyl transferase for beta-subunits in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. All of the enzymes responsible for synthesis of holo-phycobiliproteins are now known for this cyanobacterium, and a brief discussion of each enzyme family and its role in the biosynthesis of phycobiliproteins is presented here. In addition, the first structure of a bilin lyase has recently been solved (PDB ID: 3BDR). This structure shows that the bilin lyases are most similar to the lipocalin protein structural family, which also includes the bilin-binding protein found in some butterflies. PMID:20532743

  4. Reactions catalyzed by purified L-glutamine: keto-scyllo-inositol aminotransferase, an enzyme required for biosynthesis of aminocyclitol antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Lucher, L A; Chen, Y M; Walker, J B

    1989-01-01

    Dialyzed extracts of the gentamicin producer Micromonospora purpurea catalyze reactions which represent transaminations proposed for 2-deoxystreptamine biosynthesis. To determine whether these transaminations were catalyzed by a single aminotransferase or by multiple enzymes, we purified and characterized an L-glutamine:keto-scyllo-inositol aminotransferase from M. purpurea. This enzyme was purified 130- to 150-fold from late-log-phase mycelia of both wild-type M. purpurea and a 2-deoxystreptamine-less idiotroph. The cofactor pyridoxal phosphate was found to be tightly bound to the enzyme, and spectral analysis demonstrated its participation in the transamination reactions of this enzyme. The major physiological amino donor for the enzyme appears to be L-glutamine; the keto acid product derived from glutamine was characterized as 2-ketoglutaramate, indicating that the alpha amino group of glutamine participates in the transamination. We found that crude extracts contained omega-amidase activity, which may render transaminations with glutamine irreversible in vivo. The substrate specificity of the aminotransferase was shown to be restricted to deoxycyclitols, monoaminocyclitols, and diaminocyclitols, glutamine, and 2-ketoglutaramate, which contrasts with the broader substrate specificity of mammalian glutamine aminotransferase. The appearance of the enzyme in late-log phase, coupled with its narrow substrate specificity, indicates that it participates predominantly in 2-deoxystreptamine biosynthesis rather than in general metabolism. The enzyme catalyzes reactions which represent both transamination steps of 2-deoxystreptamine biosynthesis. Although copurification of two aminotransferases cannot be ruled out, our data are consistent with the participation of a single aminotransferase in the formation of both amino groups of 2-deoxystreptamine during biosynthesis by M. purpurea. We propose that this aminotransferase participates in a key initial step in the

  5. Genomic Analysis of the Human Gut Microbiome Suggests Novel Enzymes Involved in Quinone Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Thiele, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquinone and menaquinone are membrane lipid-soluble carriers of electrons that are essential for cellular respiration. Eukaryotic cells can synthesize ubiquinone but not menaquinone, whereas prokaryotes can synthesize both quinones. So far, most of the human gut microbiome (HGM) studies have been based on metagenomic analysis. Here, we applied an analysis of individual HGM genomes to the identification of ubiquinone and menaquinone biosynthetic pathways. In our opinion, the shift from metagenomics to analysis of individual genomes is a pivotal milestone in investigation of bacterial communities, including the HGM. The key results of this study are as follows. (i) The distribution of the canonical pathways in the HGM genomes was consistent with previous reports and with the distribution of the quinone-dependent reductases for electron acceptors. (ii) The comparative genomics analysis identified four alternative forms of the previously known enzymes for quinone biosynthesis. (iii) Genes for the previously unknown part of the futalosine pathway were identified, and the corresponding biochemical reactions were proposed. We discuss the remaining gaps in the menaquinone and ubiquinone pathways in some of the microbes, which indicate the existence of further alternate genes or routes. Together, these findings provide further insight into the biosynthesis of quinones in bacteria and the physiology of the HGM. PMID:26904004

  6. Genomic Analysis of the Human Gut Microbiome Suggests Novel Enzymes Involved in Quinone Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ravcheev, Dmitry A; Thiele, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquinone and menaquinone are membrane lipid-soluble carriers of electrons that are essential for cellular respiration. Eukaryotic cells can synthesize ubiquinone but not menaquinone, whereas prokaryotes can synthesize both quinones. So far, most of the human gut microbiome (HGM) studies have been based on metagenomic analysis. Here, we applied an analysis of individual HGM genomes to the identification of ubiquinone and menaquinone biosynthetic pathways. In our opinion, the shift from metagenomics to analysis of individual genomes is a pivotal milestone in investigation of bacterial communities, including the HGM. The key results of this study are as follows. (i) The distribution of the canonical pathways in the HGM genomes was consistent with previous reports and with the distribution of the quinone-dependent reductases for electron acceptors. (ii) The comparative genomics analysis identified four alternative forms of the previously known enzymes for quinone biosynthesis. (iii) Genes for the previously unknown part of the futalosine pathway were identified, and the corresponding biochemical reactions were proposed. We discuss the remaining gaps in the menaquinone and ubiquinone pathways in some of the microbes, which indicate the existence of further alternate genes or routes. Together, these findings provide further insight into the biosynthesis of quinones in bacteria and the physiology of the HGM. PMID:26904004

  7. Functional Expression of Enterobacterial O-Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Enzymes in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Schäffer, Christina; Wugeditsch, Thomas; Messner, Paul; Whitfield, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The expression of heterologous bacterial glycosyltransferases is of interest for potential application in the emerging field of carbohydrate engineering in gram-positive organisms. To assess the feasibility of using enzymes from gram-negative bacteria, the functional expression of the genes wbaP (formerly rfbP), wecA (formerly rfe), and wbbO (formerly rfbF) from enterobacterial lipopolysaccharide O-polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways was examined in Bacillus subtilis. WbaP and WecA are initiation enzymes for O-polysaccharide formation, catalyzing the transfer of galactosyl 1-phosphate from UDP-galactose and N-acetylglucosaminyl 1-phosphate from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, respectively, to undecaprenylphosphate. The WecA product (undecaprenylpyrophosphoryl GlcNAc) is used as an acceptor to which the bifunctional wbbO gene product sequentially adds a galactopyranose and a galactofuranose residue from the corresponding UDP sugars to form a lipid-linked trisaccharide. Genes were cloned into the shuttle vectors pRB374 and pAW10. In B. subtilis hosts, the genes were effectively transcribed under the vegII promoter control of pRB374, but the plasmids were susceptible to rearrangements and deletion. In contrast, pAW10-based constructs, in which genes were cloned downstream of the tet resistance cassette, were stable but yielded lower levels of enzyme activity. In vitro glycosyltransferase assays were performed in Escherichia coli and B. subtilis, using membrane preparations as sources of enzymes and endogenous undecaprenylphosphate as an acceptor. Incorporation of radioactivity from UDP-α-d-14C-sugar into reaction products verified the functionality of WbaP, WecA, and WbbO in either host. Enzyme activities in B. subtilis varied between 20 and 75% of those measured in E. coli. PMID:12324313

  8. Crystal structure of FadD32, an enzyme essential for mycolic acid biosynthesis in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjuan; Gu, Shoujin; Fleming, Joy; Bi, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid degradation protein D32 (FadD32), an enzyme required for mycolic acid biosynthesis and essential for mycobacterial growth, has recently been identified as a valid and promising target for anti-tuberculosis drug development. Here we report the crystal structures of Mycobacterium smegmatis FadD32 in the apo and ATP-bound states at 2.4 Å and 2.25 Å resolution, respectively. FadD32 consists of two globular domains connected by a flexible linker. ATP binds in a cleft at the interface between the N- and C-terminal domains and its binding induces significant local conformational changes in FadD32. The binding sites of meromycolic acid and phosphopantetheine are identified by structural comparison with other members of the adenylating enzyme superfamily. These results will improve our understanding of the catalytic mechanism of FadD32 and help in the design of inhibitors of this essential enzyme. PMID:26628098

  9. Hfq regulates antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic-enzyme production in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gaoge; Zhao, Yuxin; Du, Liangcheng; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2015-01-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is an important biocontrol agent with the ability to produce a variety of lytic enzymes and novel antibiotics. Little is known about their regulatory mechanisms. Understanding these will be helpful for improving biocontrol of crop diseases and potential medical application. In the present study, we generated an hfq (encoding a putative ribonucleic acid chaperone) deletion mutant, and then utilized a new genomic marker-free method to construct an hfq-complemented strain. We showed for the first time that Hfq played a pleiotropic role in regulating the antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic enzyme activity in L. enzymogenes. Mutation of hfq significantly increased the yield of WAP-8294A2 (an antibacterial antibiotic) as well as the transcription of its key biosynthetic gene, waps1. However, inactivation of hfq almost abolished the extracellular chitinase activity and remarkably decreased the activity of both extracellular protease and cellulase in L. enzymogenes. We further showed that the regulation of hfq in extracellular chitinase production was in part through the impairment of the secretion of chitinase A. Collectively, our results reveal the regulatory roles of hfq in antibiotic metabolite and extracellular lytic enzymes in the underexplored genus of Lysobacter. PMID:25683974

  10. Hfq regulates antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic-enzyme production in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gaoge; Zhao, Yuxin; Du, Liangcheng; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2015-05-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is an important biocontrol agent with the ability to produce a variety of lytic enzymes and novel antibiotics. Little is known about their regulatory mechanisms. Understanding these will be helpful for improving biocontrol of crop diseases and potential medical application. In the present study, we generated an hfq (encoding a putative ribonucleic acid chaperone) deletion mutant, and then utilized a new genomic marker-free method to construct an hfq-complemented strain. We showed for the first time that Hfq played a pleiotropic role in regulating the antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic enzyme activity in L. enzymogenes. Mutation of hfq significantly increased the yield of WAP-8294A2 (an antibacterial antibiotic) as well as the transcription of its key biosynthetic gene, waps1. However, inactivation of hfq almost abolished the extracellular chitinase activity and remarkably decreased the activity of both extracellular protease and cellulase in L. enzymogenes. We further showed that the regulation of hfq in extracellular chitinase production was in part through the impairment of the secretion of chitinase A. Collectively, our results reveal the regulatory roles of hfq in antibiotic metabolite and extracellular lytic enzymes in the underexplored genus of Lysobacter. PMID:25683974

  11. Functional characterization of enzymes catalyzing ceramide phosphoethanolamine biosynthesis in mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Bickert, Andreas; Ginkel, Christina; Kol, Matthijs; vom Dorp, Katharina; Jastrow, Holger; Degen, Joachim; Jacobs, René L.; Vance, Dennis E.; Winterhager, Elke; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Dörmann, Peter; Somerharju, Pentti; Holthuis, Joost C. M.; Willecke, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Besides bulk amounts of SM, mammalian cells produce small quantities of the SM analog ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE). Little is known about the biological role of CPE or enzymes responsible for CPE production. Heterologous expression studies revealed that SM synthase (SMS)2 is a bifunctional enzyme producing both SM and CPE, whereas SMS-related protein (SMSr) serves as monofunctional CPE synthase. Acute disruption of SMSr catalytic activity in cultured cells causes a rise in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ceramides, fragmentation of ER exit sites, and induction of mitochondrial apoptosis. To address the relevance of CPE biosynthesis in vivo, we analyzed the tissue-specific distribution of CPE in mice and generated mouse lines lacking SMSr and SMS2 catalytic activity. We found that CPE levels were >300-fold lower than SM in all tissues examined. Unexpectedly, combined inactivation of SMSr and SMS2 significantly reduced, but did not eliminate, tissue-specific CPE pools and had no obvious impact on mouse development or fertility. While SMSr is widely expressed and serves as the principal CPE synthase in the brain, blocking its catalytic activity did not affect ceramide levels or secretory pathway integrity in the brain or any other tissue. Our data provide a first inventory of CPE species and CPE-biosynthetic enzymes in mammals. PMID:25667419

  12. Crystal structure of FadD32, an enzyme essential for mycolic acid biosynthesis in mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjuan; Gu, Shoujin; Fleming, Joy; Bi, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid degradation protein D32 (FadD32), an enzyme required for mycolic acid biosynthesis and essential for mycobacterial growth, has recently been identified as a valid and promising target for anti-tuberculosis drug development. Here we report the crystal structures of Mycobacterium smegmatis FadD32 in the apo and ATP-bound states at 2.4 Å and 2.25 Å resolution, respectively. FadD32 consists of two globular domains connected by a flexible linker. ATP binds in a cleft at the interface between the N- and C-terminal domains and its binding induces significant local conformational changes in FadD32. The binding sites of meromycolic acid and phosphopantetheine are identified by structural comparison with other members of the adenylating enzyme superfamily. These results will improve our understanding of the catalytic mechanism of FadD32 and help in the design of inhibitors of this essential enzyme. PMID:26628098

  13. A continuous fluorescent enzyme assay for early steps of lipid A biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Ronald J.; Dotson, Garry D.

    2012-01-01

    UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase (LpxA) and UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxyacyl)-glucosamine acyltransferase (LpxD) catalyze the first and third steps of Lipid A biosynthesis, respectively. Both enzymes have been found to be essential for survival among Gram-negative bacteria which synthesize lipopolysaccharide, and are viable targets for antimicrobial development. Catalytically, both acyltransferases catalyze an acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) dependent transfer of a fatty acyl moiety to a UDP-glucosamine core ring. Herein, we exploit the single free-thiol unveiled on holo-ACP after transfer of the fatty acyl group to the glucosamine ring using the thiol specific labeling reagent, ThioGlo. The assay is continuously monitored as a change in fluorescence at λex = 379 nm and λem = 513 nm using a microtiter plate reader. This assay marks the first continuous and non-radioactive assay for either acyltransferase. PMID:22381368

  14. Identification and expression of isoflavone synthase, the key enzyme for biosynthesis of isoflavones in legumes.

    PubMed

    Jung, W; Yu, O; Lau, S M; O'Keefe, D P; Odell, J; Fader, G; McGonigle, B

    2000-02-01

    Isoflavones have drawn much attention because of their benefits to human health. These compounds, which are produced almost exclusively in legumes, have natural roles in plant defense and root nodulation. Isoflavone synthase catalyzes the first committed step of isoflavone biosynthesis, a branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To identify the gene encoding this enzyme, we used a yeast expression assay to screen soybean ESTs encoding cytochrome P450 proteins. We identified two soybean genes encoding isoflavone synthase, and used them to isolate homologous genes from other leguminous species including red clover, white clover, hairy vetch, mung bean, alfalfa, lentil, snow pea, and lupine, as well as from the nonleguminous sugarbeet. We expressed soybean isoflavone synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana, which led to production of the isoflavone genistein in this nonlegume plant. Identification of the isoflavone synthase gene should allow manipulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway for agronomic and nutritional purposes. PMID:10657130

  15. Neu-Laxova syndrome is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder caused by defects in enzymes of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Acuna-Hidalgo, Rocio; Schanze, Denny; Kariminejad, Ariana; Nordgren, Ann; Kariminejad, Mohamad Hasan; Conner, Peter; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Nilsson, Daniel; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Wedell, Anna; Freyer, Christoph; Wredenberg, Anna; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Kayserili, Hülya; Elcioglu, Nursel; Ghaderi-Sohi, Siavash; Goodarzi, Payman; Setayesh, Hamidreza; van de Vorst, Maartje; Steehouwer, Marloes; Pfundt, Rolph; Krabichler, Birgit; Curry, Cynthia; MacKenzie, Malcolm G; Boycott, Kym M; Gilissen, Christian; Janecke, Andreas R; Hoischen, Alexander; Zenker, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Neu-Laxova syndrome (NLS) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of severe malformations leading to prenatal or early postnatal lethality. Homozygous mutations in PHGDH, a gene involved in the first and limiting step in L-serine biosynthesis, were recently identified as the cause of the disease in three families. By studying a cohort of 12 unrelated families affected by NLS, we provide evidence that NLS is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by mutations in all three genes encoding enzymes of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway. Consistent with recently reported findings, we could identify PHGDH missense mutations in three unrelated families of our cohort. Furthermore, we mapped an overlapping homozygous chromosome 9 region containing PSAT1 in four consanguineous families. This gene encodes phosphoserine aminotransferase, the enzyme for the second step in L-serine biosynthesis. We identified six families with three different missense and frameshift PSAT1 mutations fully segregating with the disease. In another family, we discovered a homozygous frameshift mutation in PSPH, the gene encoding phosphoserine phosphatase, which catalyzes the last step of L-serine biosynthesis. Interestingly, all three identified genes have been previously implicated in serine-deficiency disorders, characterized by variable neurological manifestations. Our findings expand our understanding of NLS as a disorder of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway and suggest that NLS represents the severe end of serine-deficiency disorders, demonstrating that certain complex syndromes characterized by early lethality could indeed be the extreme end of the phenotypic spectrum of already known disorders. PMID:25152457

  16. NGS Transcriptomes and Enzyme Inhibitors Unravel Complexity of Picrosides Biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth.

    PubMed

    Shitiz, Kirti; Sharma, Neha; Pal, Tarun; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2015-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I) and Picroside-II (P-II), which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP) route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively. The role of the MEP pathway was ascertained through enzyme inhibitors fosmidomycin and mevinolin along with importance of other integrating pathways using glyphosate, aminooxy acetic acid (AOA) and actinomycin D, which overall resulted in 17%-92% inhibition of P-I accumulation. Retrieval of gene sequences for enzymatic steps from NGS transcriptomes and their expression analysis vis-à-vis picrosides content in different tissues/organs showed elevated transcripts for twenty genes, which were further shortlisted to seven key genes, ISPD, DXPS, ISPE, PMK, 2HFD, EPSPS and SK, on the basis of expression analysis between high versus low picrosides content strains of P. kurroa so as to eliminate tissue type/ developmental variations in picrosides contents. The higher expression of the majority of the MEP pathway genes (ISPD, DXPS and ISPE), coupled with higher inhibition of DXPR enzyme by fosmidomycin, suggested that the MEP route contributed to the biosynthesis of P-I in P. kurroa. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of picrosides. Possible key genes contributing to picroside biosynthesis have been identified with potential implications in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of P. kurroa. PMID:26658062

  17. NGS Transcriptomes and Enzyme Inhibitors Unravel Complexity of Picrosides Biosynthesis in Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth

    PubMed Central

    Shitiz, Kirti; Sharma, Neha; Pal, Tarun; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important medicinal herb valued for iridoid glycosides, Picroside-I (P-I) and Picroside-II (P-II), which have several pharmacological activities. Genetic interventions for developing a picroside production platform would require knowledge on biosynthetic pathway and key control points, which does not exist as of today. The current study reports that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) moiety is mainly contributed by the non-mevalonate (MEP) route, which is further modified to P-I and P-II through phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways, in total consisting of 41 and 35 enzymatic steps, respectively. The role of the MEP pathway was ascertained through enzyme inhibitors fosmidomycin and mevinolin along with importance of other integrating pathways using glyphosate, aminooxy acetic acid (AOA) and actinomycin D, which overall resulted in 17%-92% inhibition of P-I accumulation. Retrieval of gene sequences for enzymatic steps from NGS transcriptomes and their expression analysis vis-à-vis picrosides content in different tissues/organs showed elevated transcripts for twenty genes, which were further shortlisted to seven key genes, ISPD, DXPS, ISPE, PMK, 2HFD, EPSPS and SK, on the basis of expression analysis between high versus low picrosides content strains of P. kurroa so as to eliminate tissue type/ developmental variations in picrosides contents. The higher expression of the majority of the MEP pathway genes (ISPD, DXPS and ISPE), coupled with higher inhibition of DXPR enzyme by fosmidomycin, suggested that the MEP route contributed to the biosynthesis of P-I in P. kurroa. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful in designing a suitable genetic intervention strategy towards enhanced production of picrosides. Possible key genes contributing to picroside biosynthesis have been identified with potential implications in molecular breeding and metabolic engineering of P. kurroa. PMID:26658062

  18. Radical S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) Enzymes in Cofactor Biosynthesis: A Treasure Trove of Complex Organic Radical Rearrangement Reactions*

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Angad P.; Abdelwahed, Sameh H.; Mahanta, Nilkamal; Fedoseyenko, Dmytro; Philmus, Benjamin; Cooper, Lisa E.; Liu, Yiquan; Jhulki, Isita; Ealick, Steven E.; Begley, Tadhg P.

    2015-01-01

    In this minireview, we describe the radical S-adenosylmethionine enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin, menaquinone, molybdopterin, coenzyme F420, and heme. Our focus is on the remarkably complex organic rearrangements involved, many of which have no precedent in organic or biological chemistry. PMID:25477515

  19. Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes in cofactor biosynthesis: a treasure trove of complex organic radical rearrangement reactions.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Angad P; Abdelwahed, Sameh H; Mahanta, Nilkamal; Fedoseyenko, Dmytro; Philmus, Benjamin; Cooper, Lisa E; Liu, Yiquan; Jhulki, Isita; Ealick, Steven E; Begley, Tadhg P

    2015-02-13

    In this minireview, we describe the radical S-adenosylmethionine enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin, menaquinone, molybdopterin, coenzyme F420, and heme. Our focus is on the remarkably complex organic rearrangements involved, many of which have no precedent in organic or biological chemistry. PMID:25477515

  20. Correlation of Activities of the Enzymes α-Phosphoglucomutase, UDP-Galactose 4-Epimerase, and UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase with Exopolysaccharide Biosynthesis by Streptococcus thermophilus LY03

    PubMed Central

    Degeest, Bart; De Vuyst, Luc

    2000-01-01

    The effects of different carbohydrates or mixtures of carbohydrates as substrates on bacterial growth and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production were studied for the yoghurt starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus LY03. This strain produces two heteropolysaccharides with the same monomeric composition (galactose and glucose in the ratio 4:1) but with different molecular masses. Lactose and glucose were fermented by S. thermophilus LY03 only when they were used as sole energy and carbohydrate sources. Fructose was also fermented when it was applied in combination with lactose or glucose. Both the amount of EPS produced and the carbohydrate source consumption rates were clearly influenced by the type of energy and carbohydrate source used, while the EPS monomeric composition remained constant (galactose-glucose, 4:1) under all circumstances. A combination of lactose and glucose resulted in the largest amounts of EPS. Measurements of the activities of enzymes involved in EPS biosynthesis, and of those involved in sugar nucleotide biosynthesis and the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, demonstrated that the levels of activity of α-phosphoglucomutase, UDP-galactose 4-epimerase, and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase are highly correlated with the amount of EPS produced. Furthermore, a weaker relationship or no relationship between the amounts of EPS and the enzymes involved in either the rhamnose nucleotide synthetic branch of the EPS biosynthesis or the pathway leading to glycolysis was observed for S. thermophilus LY03. PMID:10919816

  1. NAD(P) biosynthesis enzymes as potential targets for selective drug design.

    PubMed

    Magni, G; Di Stefano, M; Orsomando, G; Raffaelli, N; Ruggieri, S

    2009-01-01

    NAD(P) biosynthetic pathways can be considered a generous source of enzymatic targets for drug development. Key reactions for NAD(P) biosynthesis in all organisms, common to both de novo and salvage routes, are catalyzed by NMN/NaMN adenylyltransferase (NMNAT), NAD synthetase (NADS), and NAD kinase (NADK). These reactions represent a three-step pathway, present in the vast majority of living organisms, which is responsible for the generation of both NAD and NADP cellular pools. The validation of these enzymes as drug targets is based on their essentiality and conservation among a large variety of pathogenic microorganisms, as well as on their differential structural features or their differential metabolic contribution to NAD(P) homeostasis between microbial and human cell types. This review describes the structural and functional properties of eubacterial and human enzymes endowed with NMNAT, NADS, and NADK activities, as well as with nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NamPRT) and nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) activities, highlighting the species-related differences, with emphasis on their relevance for drug design. In addition, since the overall NMNAT activity in humans is accounted by multiple isozymes differentially involved in the metabolic activation of antineoplastic compounds, their individual diagnostic value for early therapy optimization is outlined. The involvement of human NMNAT in neurodegenerative disorders and its role in neuroprotection is also discussed. PMID:19355893

  2. Lincomycin Biosynthesis Involves a Tyrosine Hydroxylating Heme Protein of an Unusual Enzyme Family

    PubMed Central

    Novotna, Jitka; Olsovska, Jana; Novak, Petr; Mojzes, Peter; Chaloupkova, Radka; Kamenik, Zdenek; Spizek, Jaroslav; Kutejova, Eva; Mareckova, Marketa; Tichy, Pavel; Damborsky, Jiri; Janata, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The gene lmbB2 of the lincomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces lincolnensis ATCC 25466 was shown to code for an unusual tyrosine hydroxylating enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of this clinically important antibiotic. LmbB2 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified near to homogeneity and shown to convert tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). In contrast to the well-known tyrosine hydroxylases (EC 1.14.16.2) and tyrosinases (EC 1.14.18.1), LmbB2 was identified as a heme protein. Mass spectrometry and Soret band-excited Raman spectroscopy of LmbB2 showed that LmbB2 contains heme b as prosthetic group. The CO-reduced differential absorption spectra of LmbB2 showed that the coordination of Fe was different from that of cytochrome P450 enzymes. LmbB2 exhibits sequence similarity to Orf13 of the anthramycin biosynthetic gene cluster, which has recently been classified as a heme peroxidase. Tyrosine hydroxylating activity of LmbB2 yielding DOPA in the presence of (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH4) was also observed. Reaction mechanism of this unique heme peroxidases family is discussed. Also, tyrosine hydroxylation was confirmed as the first step of the amino acid branch of the lincomycin biosynthesis. PMID:24324587

  3. MRE: a web tool to suggest foreign enzymes for the biosynthesis pathway design with competing endogenous reactions in mind

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Alazmi, Meshari; Cui, Xuefeng; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    To rationally design a productive heterologous biosynthesis system, it is essential to consider the suitability of foreign reactions for the specific endogenous metabolic infrastructure of a host. We developed a novel web server, called MRE, which, for a given pair of starting and desired compounds in a given chassis organism, ranks biosynthesis routes from the perspective of the integration of new reactions into the endogenous metabolic system. For each promising heterologous biosynthesis pathway, MRE suggests actual enzymes for foreign metabolic reactions and generates information on competing endogenous reactions for the consumption of metabolites. These unique, chassis-centered features distinguish MRE from existing pathway design tools and allow synthetic biologists to evaluate the design of their biosynthesis systems from a different angle. By using biosynthesis of a range of high-value natural products as a case study, we show that MRE is an effective tool to guide the design and optimization of heterologous biosynthesis pathways. The URL of MRE is http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/mre/. PMID:27131375

  4. MRE: a web tool to suggest foreign enzymes for the biosynthesis pathway design with competing endogenous reactions in mind.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Alazmi, Meshari; Cui, Xuefeng; Gao, Xin

    2016-07-01

    To rationally design a productive heterologous biosynthesis system, it is essential to consider the suitability of foreign reactions for the specific endogenous metabolic infrastructure of a host. We developed a novel web server, called MRE, which, for a given pair of starting and desired compounds in a given chassis organism, ranks biosynthesis routes from the perspective of the integration of new reactions into the endogenous metabolic system. For each promising heterologous biosynthesis pathway, MRE suggests actual enzymes for foreign metabolic reactions and generates information on competing endogenous reactions for the consumption of metabolites. These unique, chassis-centered features distinguish MRE from existing pathway design tools and allow synthetic biologists to evaluate the design of their biosynthesis systems from a different angle. By using biosynthesis of a range of high-value natural products as a case study, we show that MRE is an effective tool to guide the design and optimization of heterologous biosynthesis pathways. The URL of MRE is http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/mre/. PMID:27131375

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi response to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors: morphophysiological alterations leading to cell death.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Rafael Luis; Soares, Maurilio José; Probst, Christian Macagnan; Krieger, Marco Aurélio

    2013-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi displays similarities to fungi in terms of its sterol lipid biosynthesis, as ergosterol and other 24-alkylated sterols are its principal endogenous sterols. The sterol pathway is thus a potential drug target for the treatment of Chagas disease. We describe here a comparative study of the growth inhibition, ultrastructural and physiological changes leading to the death of T. cruzi cells following treatment with the sterol biosynthesis inhibitors (SBIs) ketoconazole and lovastatin. We first calculated the drug concentration inhibiting epimastigote growth by 50% (EC(50)/72 h) or killing all cells within 24 hours (EC(100)/24 h). Incubation with inhibitors at the EC(50)/72 h resulted in interesting morphological changes: intense proliferation of the inner mitochondrial membrane, which was corroborated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy of the parasites stained with rhodamine 123, and strong swelling of the reservosomes, which was confirmed by acridine orange staining. These changes to the mitochondria and reservosomes may reflect the involvement of these organelles in ergosterol biosynthesis or the progressive autophagic process culminating in cell lysis after 6 to 7 days of treatment with SBIs at the EC(50)/72 h. By contrast, treatment with SBIs at the EC(100)/24 h resulted in rapid cell death with a necrotic phenotype: time-dependent cytosolic calcium overload, mitochondrial depolarization and reservosome membrane permeabilization (RMP), culminating in cell lysis after a few hours of drug exposure. We provide the first demonstration that RMP constitutes the "point of no return" in the cell death cascade, and propose a model for the necrotic cell death of T. cruzi. Thus, SBIs trigger cell death by different mechanisms, depending on the dose used, in T. cruzi. These findings shed new light on ergosterol biosynthesis and the mechanisms of programmed cell death in this ancient protozoan parasite. PMID:23383204

  6. Effect of Enzyme Inhibitors on Terpene Trilactones Biosynthesis and Gene Expression Profiling in Ginkgo biloba Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lijia; Tong, Hui; Wang, Mingxuan; Zhu, Jianhua; Zi, Jiachen; Song, Liyan; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-12-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of terpene trilactones of Ginkgo biloba is unclear. In this present study, suspension cultured cells of G. biloba were used to explore the regulation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways in response to specific enzyme inhibitors (lovastatin and clomazone). The results showed that the biosynthesis of bilobalide was more highly correlated with the MVA pathway, and the biosynthesis of ginkgolides was more highly correlated with the MEP pathway. Meanwhile, according to the results, it could be speculated that bilobalide might be a product of ginkgolide metabolism. PMID:26882658

  7. Biosynthesis of lead nanoparticles by the aquatic water fern, Salvinia minima Baker, when exposed to high lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Castro-Longoria, E; Trejo-Guillén, K; Vilchis-Nestor, A R; Avalos-Borja, M; Andrade-Canto, S B; Leal-Alvarado, D A; Santamaría, J M

    2014-02-01

    Salvinia minima Baker is a small floating aquatic fern that is efficient for the removal and storage of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. In this study, we report that lead removal by S. minima causes large accumulation of lead inside the cells in the form of nanoparticles (PbNPs). The accumulation pattern of lead was analyzed in both, submerged root-like modified fronds (here named "roots"), and in its aerial leaf-like fronds ("leaves"). Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the biosynthesis of PbNPs by the plant. In both, roots and leaves, PbNPs were found to accumulate almost exclusively at the cell wall and closely associated to the cell membrane. Two types of PbNPs shapes were found in cells of both tissues, those associated to the cell wall were quasi-spherical with 17.2±4.2 nm of diameter, while those associated to the cell membrane/cytoplasm were elongated. Elongated particles were 53.7±29.6 nm in length and 11.1±2.4 nm wide. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) results indicate that cellulose, lignin and pectin are the major components that may be acting as the reducing agents for lead ions; these findings strongly suggest the potential use of this fern to further explore the bio-assisted synthesis of heavy metal nanostructures. PMID:24211828

  8. Biosynthesis of coral settlement cue tetrabromopyrrole in marine bacteria by a uniquely adapted brominase-thioesterase enzyme pair.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Abrahim; Agarwal, Vinayak; Diethelm, Stefan; Rahman, Imran; Schorn, Michelle A; Sneed, Jennifer M; Louie, Gordon V; Whalen, Kristen E; Mincer, Tracy J; Noel, Joseph P; Paul, Valerie J; Moore, Bradley S

    2016-04-01

    Halogenated pyrroles (halopyrroles) are common chemical moieties found in bioactive bacterial natural products. The halopyrrole moieties of mono- and dihalopyrrole-containing compounds arise from a conserved mechanism in which a proline-derived pyrrolyl group bound to a carrier protein is first halogenated and then elaborated by peptidic or polyketide extensions. This paradigm is broken during the marine pseudoalteromonad bacterial biosynthesis of the coral larval settlement cue tetrabromopyrrole (1), which arises from the substitution of the proline-derived carboxylate by a bromine atom. To understand the molecular basis for decarboxylative bromination in the biosynthesis of 1, we sequenced two Pseudoalteromonas genomes and identified a conserved four-gene locus encoding the enzymes involved in its complete biosynthesis. Through total in vitro reconstitution of the biosynthesis of 1 using purified enzymes and biochemical interrogation of individual biochemical steps, we show that all four bromine atoms in 1 are installed by the action of a single flavin-dependent halogenase: Bmp2. Tetrabromination of the pyrrole induces a thioesterase-mediated offloading reaction from the carrier protein and activates the biosynthetic intermediate for decarboxylation. Insights into the tetrabrominating activity of Bmp2 were obtained from the high-resolution crystal structure of the halogenase contrasted against structurally homologous halogenase Mpy16 that forms only a dihalogenated pyrrole in marinopyrrole biosynthesis. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the proposed substrate-binding pocket of Bmp2 led to a reduction in the degree of halogenation catalyzed. Our study provides a biogenetic basis for the biosynthesis of 1 and sets a firm foundation for querying the biosynthetic potential for the production of 1 in marine (meta)genomes. PMID:27001835

  9. Target-specific identification and characterization of the putative gene cluster for brasilinolide biosynthesis revealing the mechanistic insights and combinatorial synthetic utility of 2-deoxy-l-fucose biosynthetic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsien-Tai; Weng, Chien-Pao; Lin, Yu-Chin; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2016-02-14

    Brasilinolides exhibiting potent immunosuppressive and antifungal activities with remarkably low toxicity are structurally characterized by an unusual modified 2-deoxy-l-fucose (2dF) attached to a type I polyketide (PK-I) macrolactone. From the pathogenic producer Nocardia terpenica (Nocardia brasiliensis IFM-0406), a 210 kb genomic fragment was identified by target-specific degenerate primers and subsequently sequenced, revealing a giant nbr gene cluster harboring genes (nbrCDEF) required for TDP-2dF biosynthesis and those for PK-I biosynthesis, modification and regulation. The results showed that the genetic and domain arrangements of nbr PK-I synthases agreed colinearly with the PK-I structures of brasilinolides. Subsequent heterologous expression of nbrCDEF in Escherichia coli accomplished in vitro reconstitution of TDP-2dF biosynthesis. The catalytic functions and mechanisms of NbrCDEF enzymes were further characterized by systematic mix-and-match experiments. The enzymes were revealed to display remarkable substrate and partner promiscuity, leading to the establishment of in vitro hybrid deoxysugar biosynthetic pathways throughout an in situ one-pot (iSOP) method. This study represents the first demonstration of TDP-2dF biosynthesis at the enzyme and molecular levels, and provides new hope for expanding the structural diversity of brasilinolides by combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:26754528

  10. Tyrosine Hydroxylation in Betalain Pigment Biosynthesis Is Performed by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Beets (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Sunnadeniya, Rasika; Bean, Alexander; Brown, Matthew; Akhavan, Neda; Hatlestad, Gregory; Gonzalez, Antonio; Symonds, V Vaughan; Lloyd, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Yellow and red-violet betalain plant pigments are restricted to several families in the order Caryophyllales, where betacyanins play analogous biological roles to anthocyanins. The initial step in betalain biosynthesis is the hydroxylation of tyrosine to form L-DOPA. Using gene expression experiments in beets, yeast, and Arabidopsis, along with HPLC/MS analysis, the present study shows that two novel cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5, and the previously described CYP76AD1 can perform this initial step. Co-expressing these CYP450s with DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase in yeast, and overexpression of these CYP450s in yellow beets show that CYP76AD1 efficiently uses L-DOPA leading to red betacyanins while CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5 lack this activity. Furthermore, CYP76AD1 can complement yellow beetroots to red while CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5 cannot. Therefore CYP76AD1 uniquely performs the beet R locus function and beets appear to be genetically redundant for tyrosine hydroxylation. These new functional data and ancestral character state reconstructions indicate that tyrosine hydroxylation alone was the most likely ancestral function of the CYP76AD alpha and beta groups and the ability to convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA evolved later in the alpha group. PMID:26890886

  11. Tyrosine Hydroxylation in Betalain Pigment Biosynthesis Is Performed by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Beets (Beta vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Sunnadeniya, Rasika; Bean, Alexander; Brown, Matthew; Akhavan, Neda; Hatlestad, Gregory; Gonzalez, Antonio; Symonds, V. Vaughan; Lloyd, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Yellow and red-violet betalain plant pigments are restricted to several families in the order Caryophyllales, where betacyanins play analogous biological roles to anthocyanins. The initial step in betalain biosynthesis is the hydroxylation of tyrosine to form L-DOPA. Using gene expression experiments in beets, yeast, and Arabidopsis, along with HPLC/MS analysis, the present study shows that two novel cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5, and the previously described CYP76AD1 can perform this initial step. Co-expressing these CYP450s with DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase in yeast, and overexpression of these CYP450s in yellow beets show that CYP76AD1 efficiently uses L-DOPA leading to red betacyanins while CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5 lack this activity. Furthermore, CYP76AD1 can complement yellow beetroots to red while CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5 cannot. Therefore CYP76AD1 uniquely performs the beet R locus function and beets appear to be genetically redundant for tyrosine hydroxylation. These new functional data and ancestral character state reconstructions indicate that tyrosine hydroxylation alone was the most likely ancestral function of the CYP76AD alpha and beta groups and the ability to convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA evolved later in the alpha group. PMID:26890886

  12. Two separate key enzymes and two pathway-specific transcription factors are involved in fusaric acid biosynthesis in Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Studt, Lena; Janevska, Slavica; Niehaus, Eva-Maria; Burkhardt, Immo; Arndt, Birgit; Sieber, Christian M K; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2016-03-01

    Fusaric acid (FSA) is a mycotoxin produced by several fusaria, including the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi. Genes involved in FSA biosynthesis were previously identified as a cluster containing a polyketide synthase (PKS)-encoding (FUB1) and four additional genes (FUB2-FUB5). However, the biosynthetic steps leading to FSA as well as the origin of the nitrogen atom, which is incorporated into the polyketide backbone, remained unknown. In this study, seven additional cluster genes (FUB6-FUB12) were identified via manipulation of the global regulator FfSge1. The extended FUB gene cluster encodes two Zn(II)2 Cys6 transcription factors: Fub10 positively regulates expression of all FUB genes, whereas Fub12 is involved in the formation of the two FSA derivatives, i.e. dehydrofusaric acid and fusarinolic acid, serving as a detoxification mechanism. The major facilitator superfamily transporter Fub11 functions in the export of FSA out of the cell and is essential when FSA levels become critical. Next to Fub1, a second key enzyme was identified, the non-canonical non-ribosomal peptide synthetase Fub8. Chemical analyses of generated mutant strains allowed for the identification of a triketide as PKS product and the proposition of an FSA biosynthetic pathway, thereby unravelling the unique formation of a hybrid metabolite consisting of this triketide and an amino acid moiety. PMID:26662839

  13. A free-standing condensation enzyme catalyzing ester bond formation in C-1027 biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuangjun; Van Lanen, Steven G; Shen, Ben

    2009-03-17

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) catalyze the biosynthesis of many biologically active peptides and typically are modular, with each extension module minimally consisting of a condensation, an adenylation, and a peptidyl carrier protein domain responsible for incorporation of an amino acid into the growing peptide chain. C-1027 is a chromoprotein antitumor antibiotic whose enediyne chromophore consists of an enediyne core, a deoxy aminosugar, a benzoxazolinate, and a beta-amino acid moiety. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the activation and incorporation of the beta-amino acid moiety into C-1027 follows an NRPS mechanism whereby biosynthetic intermediates are tethered to the peptidyl carrier protein SgcC2. Here, we report the biochemical characterization of SgcC5, an NRPS condensation enzyme that catalyzes ester bond formation between the SgcC2-tethered (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-beta-tyrosine and (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol, a mimic of the enediyne core. SgcC5 uses (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-beta-tyrosyl-SgcC2 as the donor substrate and exhibits regiospecificity for the C-2 hydroxyl group of the enediyne core mimic as the acceptor substrate. Remarkably, SgcC5 is also capable of catalyzing amide bond formation, albeit with significantly reduced efficiency, between (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-beta-tyrosyl-(S)-SgcC2 and (R)-2-amino-1-phenyl-1-ethanol, an alternative enediyne core mimic bearing an amine at its C-2 position. Thus, SgcC5 is capable of catalyzing both ester and amide bond formation, providing an evolutionary link between amide- and ester-forming condensation enzymes. PMID:19246381

  14. Crystal Structure and Functional Analysis of Homocitrate Synthase, an Essential Enzyme in Lysine Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Scott, Erin M.; Couture, Jean-François; Pillus, Lorraine; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-01-12

    Homocitrate synthase (HCS) catalyzes the first and committed step in lysine biosynthesis in many fungi and certain Archaea and is a potential target for antifungal drugs. Here we report the crystal structure of the HCS apoenzyme from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and two distinct structures of the enzyme in complex with the substrate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG). The structures reveal that HCS forms an intertwined homodimer stabilized by domain-swapping between the N- and C-terminal domains of each monomer. The N-terminal catalytic domain is composed of a TIM barrel fold in which 2-OG binds via hydrogen bonds and coordination to the active site divalent metal ion, whereas the C-terminal domain is composed of mixed {alpha}/{beta} topology. In the structures of the HCS apoenzyme and one of the 2-OG binary complexes, a lid motif from the C-terminal domain occludes the entrance to the active site of the neighboring monomer, whereas in the second 2-OG complex the lid is disordered, suggesting that it regulates substrate access to the active site through its apparent flexibility. Mutations of the active site residues involved in 2-OG binding or implicated in acid-base catalysis impair or abolish activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results yield new insights into the structure and catalytic mechanism of HCSs and furnish a platform for developing HCS-selective inhibitors.

  15. Metals control activity and expression of the heme biosynthesis enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, S; Titus, D E; O'Brian, M R

    1997-01-01

    The heme biosynthesis enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) requires magnesium or zinc for activity, depending on the organism, and the heme moiety contains iron. Thus, metals are important for heme formation in at least two different ways. Bradyrhizobium japonicum ALAD* is an engineered derivative of wild-type ALAD that requires Zn2+ for activity rather than Mg2+ (S. Chauhan and M. R. O'Brian, J. Biol. Chem. 270:19823-19827, 1995). The pH optimum for ALAD* activity was over 3.5 units lower than for that of the wild-type enzyme, and ALAD* activity was inhibited by lead and cadmium, as reported for the zinc-containing dehydratases of animals. In addition, ALAD* was significantly more thermostable than ALAD; the temperature optima are 50 and 37 degrees C, respectively. These observations strongly suggest that the metal contributes to both catalysis and structure, and this conclusion may be extrapolated to ALADs in general. Although iron did not affect the activity of the preformed protein, enzyme assays and immunoblot analysis demonstrated that the iron concentration in which the cells were grown had a strong positive effect on ALAD activity and the protein level. RNase protection analysis showed that the transcript quantity of hemB, the gene encoding ALAD, was iron dependent; thus, iron regulates hemB at the mRNA level. Induction of hemB mRNA in response to iron was rapid, suggesting that the factor(s) needed to mediate iron control was present in iron-limited cells and did not need to be synthesized de novo. ALAD protein levels and enzyme activities were similar in cells of the wild type and a heme-defective strain, indicating that control by iron is not an indirect effect of the cellular heme status. We conclude that the heme biosynthetic pathway is coordinated with cellular iron levels and that this control may prevent the accumulation of toxic porphyrin intermediates. PMID:9287008

  16. Biosynthesis of pteridines in Neurospora crassa, Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Euglena gracilis: detection and characterization of biosynthetic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Maier, J; Ninnemann, H

    1995-01-01

    Occurrence, biosynthesis and some functions of tetrahydrobiopterin (H4biopterin) in animals are well known. The biochemistry of H4biopterin in other organisms than animals was hitherto not widely investigated. Recently H4biopterin was found in the phytoflagellate Euglena gracilis, in the zygomycete Phycomyces blakesleeanus and in the ascomycete Neurospora crassa. In Euglena, Neurospora and Phycomyces the enzymatic activities of GTP cyclohydrolase I, 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase and sepiapterin reductase are detectable and the biosynthesis follows the same steps as were shown for animals. The biosynthetic enzymes, however, show a much lower sensitivity to those inhibitors that act on vertebrate enzymes. 2,4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine as inhibitor of GTP cyclohydrolase I and N-acetylserotonin or N-methoxyacetylserotonin as inhibitors of sepiapterin reductase can decrease pteridine biosynthesis significantly, in vitro and in vivo. The apparent Km values are in general higher when compared with the respective animal enzymes. In Neurospora, the conversion of GTP to dihydroneopterin triphosphate was closely associated with subsequent production of 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin due to the high activity of dihydroneopterin aldolase, different from all other tested organisms. Investigations involving inhibition of pteridine synthesis might be a useful tool for evaluating the hypothesis that pteridines in fungi and plants are co-chromophores of various blue light-dependent, flavin-containing photoreceptors. PMID:7899493

  17. Role of the phosphopantetheinyltransferase enzyme, PswP, in the biosynthesis of antimicrobial secondary metabolites by Serratia marcescens Db10

    PubMed Central

    Gerc, Amy J.; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphopantetheinyltransferase (PPTase) enzymes fulfil essential roles in primary and secondary metabolism in prokaryotes, archaea and eukaryotes. PPTase enzymes catalyse the essential modification of the carrier protein domain of fatty acid synthases, polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). In bacteria and fungi, NRPS and PKS enzymes are often responsible for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites with clinically relevant properties; these secondary metabolites include a variety of antimicrobial peptides. We have previously shown that in the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens Db10, the PPTase enzyme PswP is essential for the biosynthesis of an NRPS-PKS dependent antibiotic called althiomycin. In this work we utilize bioinformatic analyses to classify PswP as belonging to the F/KES subfamily of Sfp type PPTases and to putatively identify additional NRPS substrates of PswP, in addition to the althiomycin NRPS-PKS, in Ser. marcescens Db10. We show that PswP is required for the production of three diffusible metabolites by this organism, each possessing antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Genetic analyses identify the three metabolites as althiomycin, serrawettin W2 and an as-yet-uncharacterized siderophore, which may be related to enterobactin. Our results highlight the use of an individual PPTase enzyme in multiple biosynthetic pathways, each contributing to the ability of Ser. marcescens to inhibit competitor bacteria by the production of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. PMID:24847000

  18. Structural characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis biotin biosynthesis enzymes 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid synthase and dethiobiotin synthetase .

    PubMed

    Dey, Sanghamitra; Lane, James M; Lee, Richard E; Rubin, Eric J; Sacchettini, James C

    2010-08-10

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) depends on biotin synthesis for survival during infection. In the absence of biotin, disruption of the biotin biosynthesis pathway results in cell death rather than growth arrest, an unusual phenotype for an Mtb auxotroph. Humans lack the enzymes for biotin production, making the proteins of this essential Mtb pathway promising drug targets. To this end, we have determined the crystal structures of the second and third enzymes of the Mtb biotin biosynthetic pathway, 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid synthase (DAPAS) and dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS), at respective resolutions of 2.2 and 1.85 A. Superimposition of the DAPAS structures bound either to the SAM analogue sinefungin or to 7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acid (KAPA) allowed us to map the putative binding site for the substrates and to propose a mechanism by which the enzyme accommodates their disparate structures. Comparison of the DTBS structures bound to the substrate 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid (DAPA) or to ADP and the product dethiobiotin (DTB) permitted derivation of an enzyme mechanism. There are significant differences between the Mtb enzymes and those of other organisms; the Bacillus subtilis DAPAS, presented here at a high resolution of 2.2 A, has active site variations and the Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori DTBS have alterations in their overall folds. We have begun to exploit the unique characteristics of the Mtb structures to design specific inhibitors against the biotin biosynthesis pathway in Mtb. PMID:20565114

  19. Targeting Cellular Squalene Synthase, an Enzyme Essential for Cholesterol Biosynthesis, Is a Potential Antiviral Strategy against Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kyoko; Shirasago, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Aizaki, Hideki; Hanada, Kentaro; Wakita, Takaji; Nishijima, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) exploits host membrane cholesterol and its metabolism for progeny virus production. Here, we examined the impact of targeting cellular squalene synthase (SQS), the first committed enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis, on HCV production. By using the HCV JFH-1 strain and human hepatoma Huh-7.5.1-derived cells, we found that the SQS inhibitors YM-53601 and zaragozic acid A decreased viral RNA, protein, and progeny production in HCV-infected cells without affecting cell viability. Similarly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of SQS led to significantly reduced HCV production, confirming the enzyme as an antiviral target. A metabolic labeling study demonstrated that YM-53601 suppressed the biosynthesis of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters at antiviral concentrations. Unlike YM-53601, the cholesterol esterification inhibitor Sandoz 58-035 did not exhibit an antiviral effect, suggesting that biosynthesis of cholesterol is more important than that of cholesteryl esters for HCV production. YM-53601 inhibited transient replication of a JFH-1 subgenomic replicon and entry of JFH-1 pseudoparticles, suggesting that at least suppression of viral RNA replication and entry contributes to the antiviral effect of the drug. Collectively, our findings highlight the importance of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in HCV production and implicate SQS as a potential target for antiviral strategies against HCV. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to be closely associated with host cholesterol and its metabolism throughout the viral life cycle. However, the impact of targeting cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes on HCV production is not fully understood. We found that squalene synthase, the first committed enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis, is important for HCV production, and we propose this enzyme as a potential anti-HCV target. We provide evidence that synthesis of free cholesterol is more important than that of esterified

  20. Oxygen Availability for Porphyrin Biosynthesis Enzymes Determines the Production of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) during Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shimpei; Matsumoto, Kentaro; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Ogura, Shun-Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of porphyrin, is specifically converted to the fluorescent substance protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumors to be used as a prodrug for photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. Hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors, decreases the efficacy of ALA-based photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. This decrease results from the excretion of porphyrin precursor coproporphyrinogen III (CPgenIII), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of PpIX. However, the mechanism of CPgenIII excretion during hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we revealed the importance of mitochondrial respiration for the production of PpIX during hypoxia. Porphyrin concentrations were estimated in human gastric cancer cell lines by HPLC. Expression levels of porphyrin biosynthesis genes were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Blockage of porphyrin biosynthesis was an oxygen-dependent phenomenon resulting from decreased PpIX production in mitochondria under hypoxic conditions. PpIX production was increased by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration complexes, which indicates that the enzymes of porphyrin biosynthesis compete with respiration complexes for molecular oxygen. Our results indicate that targeting the respiration complexes is a rationale for enhancing the effect of ALA-mediated treatment and diagnosis. PMID:26717566

  1. Oxygen Availability for Porphyrin Biosynthesis Enzymes Determines the Production of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) during Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Shimpei; Matsumoto, Kentaro; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Ogura, Shun-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of porphyrin, is specifically converted to the fluorescent substance protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumors to be used as a prodrug for photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. Hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors, decreases the efficacy of ALA-based photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. This decrease results from the excretion of porphyrin precursor coproporphyrinogen III (CPgenIII), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of PpIX. However, the mechanism of CPgenIII excretion during hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we revealed the importance of mitochondrial respiration for the production of PpIX during hypoxia. Porphyrin concentrations were estimated in human gastric cancer cell lines by HPLC. Expression levels of porphyrin biosynthesis genes were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Blockage of porphyrin biosynthesis was an oxygen-dependent phenomenon resulting from decreased PpIX production in mitochondria under hypoxic conditions. PpIX production was increased by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration complexes, which indicates that the enzymes of porphyrin biosynthesis compete with respiration complexes for molecular oxygen. Our results indicate that targeting the respiration complexes is a rationale for enhancing the effect of ALA-mediated treatment and diagnosis. PMID:26717566

  2. Catalytic role of traditional enzymes for biosynthesis of biogenic metallic nanoparticles: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Durán, Marcela; Silveira, Camila P; Durán, Nelson

    2015-10-01

    Although the formation mechanism of biogenically metallic nanoparticles is broadly associated to enzyme mediation, major attention has been given to the role of proteins and peptides in oxido-reduction of metallic ions leading to these nanostructures. Among the wide range of biomolecules that can act not only as capping agents but also as non-enzymatic agents to form nanoparticles, disulphide bridge-containing peptides and amino acids particularly stand out. The literature proposes that they actively participate in the process of nanoparticles' synthesis, with thiols groups and disulphide bridge moieties as the reaction catalytic sites. Similarly, denaturated enzymes containing exposed S-S or S-H moieties are also able to reduce metallic ions to form nanoparticles. This mini-review is focused on the biogenic synthesis of metallic nanoparticles such as gold, silver, copper, platinum, palladium, lead and selenium, in which proteins, peptides, reductases and even oxido-reductases act as non-enzymatic catalysts of the reduction reaction, opening economically and ecologically favourable perspectives in the nanoparticles synthesis field. PMID:26435286

  3. Enhancing Biosynthesis of a Ginsenoside Precursor by Self-Assembly of Two Key Enzymes in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengcheng; Gao, Xin; Liu, Xinbin; Wang, Yong; Yang, Shengli; Wang, Fengqing; Ren, Yuhong

    2016-05-01

    Ginsenosides from the edible and medicinal plant ginseng have demonstrated various pharmacological activities. However, producing ginsenoside efficiently remains a challenge. Engineering metabolic pathways through protein assembly in yeast is a promising way for ginsenoside production. In the biosynthetic pathway of ginsenosides, dammarenediol-II synthase and squalene epoxidase are two key enzymes that determine the production rate of the dammarane-type ginsenoside precursor dammarenediol-II. In this work, a strategy to enhance the biosynthesis of dammarenediol-II in Pichia pastoris was developed by the self-assembly of the two key enzymes via protein-protein interaction. After being modified by interacting proteins, the two enzymes were successfully co-localized, resulting in a 2.1-fold enhancement in dammarenediol-II yields. PMID:27074597

  4. Mycolic acid biosynthesis and enzymic characterization of the beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase A-condensing enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Laurent; Dover, Lynn G; Carrère, Séverine; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Lesjean, Sarah; Brown, Alistair K; Brennan, Patrick J; Minnikin, David E; Locht, Camille; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2002-06-01

    Mycolic acids consist of long-chain alpha-alkyl-beta-hydroxy fatty acids that are produced by successive rounds of elongation catalysed by a type II fatty acid synthase (FAS-II). A key feature in the elongation process is the condensation of a two-carbon unit from malonyl-acyl-carrier protein (ACP) to a growing acyl-ACP chain catalysed by a beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (Kas). In the present study, we provide evidence that kasA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes an enzyme that elongates in vivo the meromycolate chain, in both Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium chelonae. We demonstrate that KasA belongs to the FAS-II system, which utilizes primarily palmitoyl-ACP rather than short-chain acyl-ACP primers. Furthermore, in an in vitro condensing assay using purified recombinant KasA, palmitoyl-AcpM and malonyl-AcpM, KasA was found to express Kas activity. Also, mutated KasA proteins, with mutation of Cys(171), His(311), Lys(340) and His(345) to Ala abrogated the condensation activity of KasA in vitro completely. Finally, purified KasA was highly sensitive to cerulenin, a well-known inhibitor of Kas, which may lead to the development of novel anti-mycobacterial drugs targeting KasA. PMID:12023885

  5. Identification and developmental expression of the enzymes responsible for dopamine, histamine, octopamine and serotonin biosynthesis in the copepod crustacean Calanus finmarchicus

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Andrew E.; Fontanilla, Tiana M.; Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2013-01-01

    Neurochemicals are likely to play key roles in physiological/behavioral control in the copepod crustacean Calanus finmarchicus, the biomass dominant zooplankton for much of the North Atlantic Ocean. Previously, a de novo assembled transcriptome consisting of 206,041 unique sequences was used to characterize the peptidergic signaling systems of Calanus. Here, this assembly was mined for transcripts encoding enzymes involved in amine biosynthesis. Using known Drosophila melanogaster proteins as templates, transcripts encoding putative Calanus homologs of tryptophan-phenylalanine hydroxylase (dopamine, octopamine and serotonin biosynthesis), tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine biosynthesis), DOPA decarboxylase (dopamine and serotonin biosynthesis), histidine decarboxylase (histamine biosynthesis), tyrosine decarboxylase (octopamine biosynthesis), tyramine β-hydroxylase (octopamine biosynthesis) and tryptophan hydroxylase (serotonin biosynthesis) were identified. Reverse BLAST and domain analyses show that the proteins deduced from these transcripts possess sequence homology to and the structural hallmarks of their respective enzyme families. Developmental profiling revealed a remarkably consistent pattern of expression for all transcripts, with the highest levels of expression typically seen in the early nauplius and early copepodite. These expression patterns suggest roles for amines during development, particularly in the metamorphic transitions from embryo to nauplius and from nauplius to copepodite. Taken collectively, the data presented here lay a strong foundation for future gene-based studies of aminergic signaling in this and other copepod species, in particular assessment of the roles they may play in developmental control. PMID:24148657

  6. Acetylglutamate synthase in Neurospora crassa: characterization, localization, and genetic behavior of a regulatory enzyme of arginine biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study describes the characterization and localization of the first enzyme of arginine biosynthesis in Neurospora crassa. A radioactive assay was developed to detect this enzyme whereby radioactive substrate and product molecules could be separated by ion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme was found to have a pH optimum of 9.0 and K/sub m/ values for glutamate and acetyl-CoA of approximately 4.7 and 0.45 mM, respectively. The enzyme was shown to be feedback inhibited by arginine. Half-maximal inhibition was observed at 0.13 mM arginine, a concentration which is similar to be in vivo cytosolic concentration of 0.2 mM. Arginine was found to act as a competitive inhibitor with respect to acetyl-CoA. Acetylglutamate synthase was localized to the mitochondrion. However, in contrast to the mitochondrial matrix location of the other ornithine biosynthetic enzymes, this enzyme was found to reside on the mitochondrial inner membrane.

  7. Cysteine Oxidation Reactions Catalyzed by a Mononuclear Non-heme Iron Enzyme (OvoA) in Ovothiol Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    OvoA in ovothiol biosynthesis is a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme catalyzing the oxidative coupling between histidine and cysteine. It can also catalyze the oxidative coupling between hercynine and cysteine, yet with a different regio-selectivity. Due to the potential application of this reaction for industrial ergothioneine production, in this study, we systematically characterized OvoA by a combination of three different assays. Our studies revealed that OvoA can also catalyze the oxidation of cysteine to either cysteine sulfinic acid or cystine. Remarkably, these OvoA-catalyzed reactions can be systematically modulated by a slight modification of one of its substrates, histidine. PMID:24684381

  8. Steroidomimetic aminomethyl spiroacetals as novel inhibitors of the enzyme Δ8,7-sterol isomerase in cholesterol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Krojer, Melanie; Müller, Christoph; Bracher, Franz

    2014-02-01

    Grundmann's ketone is converted to a spiroacetal containing a 5-hydroxymethyl-5-nitro-1,3-dioxane moiety whose hydroxymethyl group can be esterified or directly substituted with primary and secondary amines. Among the resulting aminomethyl spiroacetals, several ones bearing diamino residues were found to be inhibitors of the enzyme Δ8,7-isomerase in cholesterol biosynthesis. The complex bicyclic building block derived from Grundmann's ketone could be replaced by a properly substituted tetraline scaffold, without noteworthy loss in activity. This opens the opportunity to perform further structural modifications for the design of new steroidomimetic inhibitors of human Δ8,7-isomerase. PMID:24493593

  9. Enzyme-catalysed [4+2] cycloaddition is a key step in the biosynthesis of spinosyn A.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Joong; Ruszczycky, Mark W; Choi, Sei-hyun; Liu, Yung-nan; Liu, Hung-wen

    2011-05-01

    The Diels-Alder reaction is a [4+2] cycloaddition reaction in which a cyclohexene ring is formed between a 1,3-diene and an electron-deficient alkene via a single pericyclic transition state. This reaction has been proposed as a key transformation in the biosynthesis of many cyclohexene-containing secondary metabolites. However, only four purified enzymes have thus far been implicated in biotransformations that are consistent with a Diels-Alder reaction, namely solanapyrone synthase, LovB, macrophomate synthase, and riboflavin synthase. Although the stereochemical outcomes of these reactions indicate that the product formation could be enzyme-guided in each case, these enzymes typically demonstrate more than one catalytic activity, leaving their specific influence on the cycloaddition step uncertain. In our studies of the biosynthesis of spinosyn A, a tetracyclic polyketide-derived insecticide from Saccharopolyspora spinosa, we identified a cyclase, SpnF, that catalyses a transannular [4+2] cycloaddition to form the cyclohexene ring in spinosyn A. Kinetic analysis demonstrates that SpnF specifically accelerates the ring formation reaction with an estimated 500-fold rate enhancement. A second enzyme, SpnL, was also identified as responsible for the final cross-bridging step that completes the tetracyclic core of spinosyn A in a manner consistent with a Rauhut-Currier reaction. This work is significant because SpnF represents the first example characterized in vitro of a stand-alone enzyme solely committed to the catalysis of a [4+2] cycloaddition reaction. In addition, the mode of formation of the complex perhydro-as-indacene moiety in spinosyn A is now fully established. PMID:21544146

  10. Protein and nucleotide biosynthesis are coupled by a single rate-limiting enzyme, PRPS2, to drive cancer.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John T; Moreno, Melissa V; Lodi, Alessia; Ronen, Sabrina M; Ruggero, Davide

    2014-05-22

    Cancer cells must integrate multiple biosynthetic demands to drive indefinite proliferation. How these key cellular processes, such as metabolism and protein synthesis, crosstalk to fuel cancer cell growth is unknown. Here, we uncover the mechanism by which the Myc oncogene coordinates the production of the two most abundant classes of cellular macromolecules, proteins, and nucleic acids in cancer cells. We find that a single rate-limiting enzyme, phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate synthetase 2 (PRPS2), promotes increased nucleotide biosynthesis in Myc-transformed cells. Remarkably, Prps2 couples protein and nucleotide biosynthesis through a specialized cis-regulatory element within the Prps2 5' UTR, which is controlled by the oncogene and translation initiation factor eIF4E downstream Myc activation. We demonstrate with a Prps2 knockout mouse that the nexus between protein and nucleotide biosynthesis controlled by PRPS2 is crucial for Myc-driven tumorigenesis. Together, these studies identify a translationally anchored anabolic circuit critical for cancer cell survival and an unexpected vulnerability for "undruggable" oncogenes, such as Myc. PAPERFLICK: PMID:24855946

  11. Acyclic monoterpene primary alcohol:NADP+ oxidoreductase of Rauwolfia serpentina cells: the key enzyme in biosynthesis of monoterpene alcohols.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, H; Esaki, N; Nakai, S; Hashimoto, K; Uesato, S; Soda, K; Fujita, T

    1991-02-01

    Acyclic monoterpene primary alcohol:NADP+ oxidoreductase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of monoterpene alcohols in plants, is unstable and has been only poorly characterized. However we have established conditions which stabilize the enzyme from Rauwolfia serpentina cells, and then purified it to homogeneity. It is a monomer with a molecular weight of about 44,000 and contains zinc ions. Various branched-chain allylic primary alcohols such as nerol, geraniol, and 10-hydroxygeraniol were substrates, but ethanol was inert. The enzyme exclusively requires NADP+ or NADPH as the cofactor. Steady-state kinetic studies showed that the nerol dehydrogenation proceeds by an ordered Bi-Bi mechanism. NADP+ binds the enzyme first and then NADPH is the second product released from it. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the reaction products showed that 10-hydroxygeraniol undergoes a reversible dehydrogenation to produce 10-oxogeraniol or 10-hydroxygeranial, which are oxidized further to give 10-oxogeranial, the direct precursor of iridodial. The enzyme has been found to exclusively transfer the pro-R hydrogen of NADPH to neral. The N-terminal sequence of the first 21 amino acids revealed no significant homology with those of various other proteins including the NAD(P)(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases registered in a protein data bank. PMID:1864846

  12. Mechanism and inhibition of human UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase, the key enzyme in sialic acid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng-Chia; Huang, Chi-Hung; Lai, Shu-Jung; Yang, Chia Shin; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Lin, Ching-Heng; Fu, Pin-Kuei; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Yeh

    2016-01-01

    The bifunctional enzyme UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase (GNE) plays a key role in sialic acid production. It is different from the non-hydrolyzing enzymes for bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, and it is feed-back inhibited by the downstream product CMP-Neu5Ac. Here the complex crystal structure of the N-terminal epimerase part of human GNE shows a tetramer in which UDP binds to the active site and CMP-Neu5Ac binds to the dimer-dimer interface. The enzyme is locked in a tightly closed conformation. By comparing the UDP-binding modes of the non-hydrolyzing and hydrolyzing UDP-GlcNAc epimerases, we propose a possible explanation for the mechanistic difference. While the epimerization reactions of both enzymes are similar, Arg113 and Ser302 of GNE are likely involved in product hydrolysis. On the other hand, the CMP-Neu5Ac binding mode clearly elucidates why mutations in Arg263 and Arg266 can cause sialuria. Moreover, full-length modelling suggests a channel for ManNAc trafficking within the bifunctional enzyme. PMID:26980148

  13. Structural Insights into Maize Viviparous14, a Key Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Phytohormone Abscisic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Messing, Simon A.J.; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Echeverria, Ignacia; Vogel, Jonathan T.; Guan, Jiahn Chou; Tan, Bao Cai; Klee, Harry J.; McCarty, Donald R.; Amzel, L. Mario

    2011-09-06

    The key regulatory step in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), a hormone central to the regulation of several important processes in plants, is the oxidative cleavage of the 11,12 double bond of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid. The enzyme viviparous14 (VP14) performs this cleavage in maize (Zea mays), making it a target for the rational design of novel chemical agents and genetic modifications that improve plant behavior through the modulation of ABA levels. The structure of VP14, determined to 3.2-{angstrom} resolution, provides both insight into the determinants of regio- and stereospecificity of this enzyme and suggests a possible mechanism for oxidative cleavage. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the distantly related CCD1 of maize shows how the VP14 structure represents a template for all plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). In addition, the structure suggests how VP14 associates with the membrane as a way of gaining access to its membrane soluble substrate.

  14. Structural Insights into Maize Viviparous14, a Key Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Phytohormone Abscisic Acid W

    SciTech Connect

    Messing, S.; Gabelli, S; Echeverria, I; Vogel, J; Guan, J; Tan, B; Klee, H; McCarty, D; Amzela, M

    2010-01-01

    The key regulatory step in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), a hormone central to the regulation of several important processes in plants, is the oxidative cleavage of the 11,12 double bond of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid. The enzyme viviparous14 (VP14) performs this cleavage in maize (Zea mays), making it a target for the rational design of novel chemical agents and genetic modifications that improve plant behavior through the modulation of ABA levels. The structure of VP14, determined to 3.2-{angstrom} resolution, provides both insight into the determinants of regio- and stereospecificity of this enzyme and suggests a possible mechanism for oxidative cleavage. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the distantly related CCD1 of maize shows how the VP14 structure represents a template for all plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). In addition, the structure suggests how VP14 associates with the membrane as a way of gaining access to its membrane soluble substrate.

  15. Characterization of Streptomyces nogalater genes encoding enzymes involved in glycosylation steps in nogalamycin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Torkkell, S; Ylihonko, K; Hakala, J; Skurnik, M; Mäntsälä, P

    1997-09-01

    The sno gene cluster in Streptomyces nogalater ATCC 27451 contains the nogalamycin biosynthesis genes. A set of plasmid constructions carrying fragments of the sno cluster that lie downstream of snoD were used to complement the S. galilaeus mutant H039, which is blocked in rhodosamine and 2-deoxyfucose biosynthesis in the aclacinomycin pathway. Sequence analysis of this cluster revealed three contiguous open reading frames (ORFs) that were designated snoF, snoG, and snoH. Only those plasmid constructs that expressed SnoG were able to complement H039. SnoG shows similarity to GalE, a UDP-glucose-4-epimerase catalyzing the epimerization of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose. The putative SnoF protein is similar to 3,5-epimerases involved in rhamnose biosynthesis. The deduced product of snoH is a 489-amino acid polypeptide. It is similar to the product of dau ORF3 found in the daunomycin cluster. However its function is still unclear. Based on the complementation experiments and sequence analysis, this part of the sno cluster is suggested to be involved in the biosynthesis of the sugar portion of nogalamycin. Interestingly, SnoA, a transcriptional activator for the sno minimal polyketide synthase, is also needed to express this cluster. PMID:9349712

  16. Thioether bond formation by SPASM domain radical SAM enzymes: Cα H-atom abstraction in subtilosin A biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Benjdia, Alhosna; Guillot, Alain; Lefranc, Benjamin; Vaudry, Hubert; Leprince, Jérôme; Berteau, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    AlbA is a radical SAM enzyme catalyzing the formation of three unusual thioether bonds in the antibiotic subtilosin A. We demonstrate here that AlbA catalyzes direct Cα H-atom abstraction and likely contains three essential [4Fe-4S] centers. This leads us to propose novel mechanistic perspectives for thioether bond catalysis by radical SAM enzymes. PMID:27087315

  17. A null mutation in the first enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis does not affect male fertility in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Burbulis, I E; Iacobucci, M; Shirley, B W

    1996-01-01

    Flavonoids are a major class of secondary metabolites that serves a multitude of functions in higher plants, including a recently discovered role in male fertility. Surprisingly, Arabidopsis plants deficient in flavonoid biosynthesis appear to be fully fertile. Using RNA gel blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction-based assays, we have shown that a mutation at the 3' splice acceptor site in the Arabidopsis chalcone synthase gene completely disrupts synthesis of the active form of the enzyme. We also confirmed that this enzyme, which catalyzes the first step of flavonoid biosynthesis, is encoded by a single-copy gene. HPLC analysis of whole flowers and stamens was used to show that plants homozygous for the splice site mutation are completely devoid of flavonoids. This work provides compelling evidence that despite the high levels of these compounds in the pollen of most plant species, flavonoids are not universally required for fertility. The role of flavonoids in plant reproduction may therefore offer an example of convergent functional evolution in secondary metabolism. PMID:8672888

  18. Cyclic modulation of enzymes of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis precedes sialoglycoconjugate changes during 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Elliott, W L; Sawick, D P; DeFrees, S A; Heinstein, P F; Cassady, J M; Morré, D J

    1984-07-30

    Three enzymatic activities associated with pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis were monitored at weekly or bi-weekly intervals during 2-acetylaminofluorene- (0.025% in a Farber Basal Carcinogenic diet) induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, the fourth of six enzymes in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, declined in activity while UDP kinase and CTP synthetase showed sequential increases in activity. The alterations in activity appeared to be cyclic, followed by a full or partial return to control values. Three full cycles were monitored. The first cycle preceded nodule formation. The second cycle accompanied nodule formation and preceded sialoglycoconjugate changes reported previously. The third cycle accompanied the early glycoconjugate changes. The cyclic pattern was reproducible in three separate experiments. In each cycle, the order of events was as follows: decrease in dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, sequential increases in UDP kinase, CTP synthetase and CMPsialic acid synthase, and finally increases in the enzyme lactosylceramide: CMPsialic acid sialyltransferase, lipid-soluble sialic acid and total sialic acid. In livers of animals fed 1.87% of the hepatotoxin, 4-acetamidophenol, no biochemical alterations resembling those induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene were obtained, despite acute centrilobular necrosis of the livers. The findings point to a biochemical cascade beginning with administration of carcinogen and continuing through the development of hyperplastic nodules and of frank carcinomas resulting not from hepatotoxicity but as events associated with the hepatocarcinogenic progression. PMID:6331524

  19. Canceling effect leads temperature insensitivity of hydrolytic enzymes in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular enzymes are important for decomposition of many macromolecules abundant in soil such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and proteins (Allison et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2012). The temperature sensitivity of enzymes responsible for organic matter decomposition is the most crucial parameter for prediction of the effects of global warming on carbon cycle. Temperature responses of biological systems are often expressed as a Q10 functions; The Q10 describes how the rate of a chemical reaction changes with a temperature increase for 10 °C The aim of this study was to test how the canceling effect will change with variation in temperature interval, during short-term incubation. We additionally investigated, whether canceling effect occurs in a broad range of concentrations (low to high) and whether it is similar for the set of hydrolytic enzymes within broad range of temperatures. To this end, we performed soil incubation over a temperature range of 0-40°C (with 5°C steps). We determined the activities of three enzymes involved in plant residue decomposition: β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase, which are commonly measured as enzymes responsible for degrading cellulose (Chen et al., 2012), and xylanase, which degrades xylooligosaccharides (short xylene chain) in to xylose, thus being responsible for breaking down hemicelluloses (German et al., 2011). Michaelis-Menten kinetics measured at each temperature allowed to calculate Q10 values not only for the whole reaction rates, but specifically for maximal reaction rate (Vmax) and substrate affinity (Km). Subsequently, the canceling effect - simultaneous increase of Vmax and Km with temperature was analyzed within 10 and 5 degree of temperature increase. Three temperature ranges (below 10, between 15 and 25, and above 30 °C) clearly showed non-linear but stepwise increase of temperature sensitivity of all three enzymes and allowed to conclude for predominance of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic

  20. Molecular annotation of ketol-acid reductoisomerases from Streptomyces reveals a novel amino acid biosynthesis interlock mediated by enzyme promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Verdel-Aranda, Karina; López-Cortina, Susana T; Hodgson, David A; Barona-Gómez, Francisco

    2015-03-01

    The 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase superfamily oxidize and reduce a wide range of substrates, making their functional annotation challenging. Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI), encoded by the ilvC gene in branched-chain amino acids biosynthesis, is a promiscuous reductase enzyme within this superfamily. Here, we obtain steady-state enzyme kinetic parameters for 10 IlvC homologues from the genera Streptomyces and Corynebacterium, upon eight selected chemically diverse substrates, including some not normally recognized by enzymes of this superfamily. This biochemical data suggested a Streptomyces biosynthetic interlock between proline and the branched-chain amino acids, mediated by enzyme substrate promiscuity, which was confirmed via mutagenesis and complementation analyses of the proC, ilvC1 and ilvC2 genes in Streptomyces coelicolor. Moreover, both ilvC orthologues and paralogues were analysed, such that the relationship between gene duplication and functional diversification could be explored. The KARI paralogues present in S. coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans, despite their conserved high sequence identity (97%), were shown to be more promiscuous, suggesting a recent functional diversification. In contrast, the KARI paralogue from Streptomyces viridifaciens showed selectivity towards the synthesis of valine precursors, explaining its recruitment within the biosynthetic gene cluster of valanimycin. These results allowed us to assess substrate promiscuity indices as a tool to annotate new molecular functions with metabolic implications. PMID:25296650

  1. Molecular annotation of ketol-acid reductoisomerases from Streptomyces reveals a novel amino acid biosynthesis interlock mediated by enzyme promiscuity

    PubMed Central

    Verdel-Aranda, Karina; López-Cortina, Susana T; Hodgson, David A; Barona-Gómez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase superfamily oxidize and reduce a wide range of substrates, making their functional annotation challenging. Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI), encoded by the ilvC gene in branched-chain amino acids biosynthesis, is a promiscuous reductase enzyme within this superfamily. Here, we obtain steady-state enzyme kinetic parameters for 10 IlvC homologues from the genera Streptomyces and Corynebacterium, upon eight selected chemically diverse substrates, including some not normally recognized by enzymes of this superfamily. This biochemical data suggested a Streptomyces biosynthetic interlock between proline and the branched-chain amino acids, mediated by enzyme substrate promiscuity, which was confirmed via mutagenesis and complementation analyses of the proC, ilvC1 and ilvC2 genes in Streptomyces coelicolor. Moreover, both ilvC orthologues and paralogues were analysed, such that the relationship between gene duplication and functional diversification could be explored. The KARI paralogues present in S. coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans, despite their conserved high sequence identity (97%), were shown to be more promiscuous, suggesting a recent functional diversification. In contrast, the KARI paralogue from Streptomyces viridifaciens showed selectivity towards the synthesis of valine precursors, explaining its recruitment within the biosynthetic gene cluster of valanimycin. These results allowed us to assess substrate promiscuity indices as a tool to annotate new molecular functions with metabolic implications. PMID:25296650

  2. Crystallographic Study of Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis Enzyme MurD: Domain Movement Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Zega, Anamarija; Barreteau, Hélène; Gobec, Stanislav; Blanot, Didier; Dessen, Andréa; Contreras-Martel, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of peptidoglycan, an essential component of bacterial cell wall, is a well-recognized target for antibiotic development. Peptidoglycan precursors are synthesized in the bacterial cytosol by various enzymes including the ATP-hydrolyzing Mur ligases, which catalyze the stepwise addition of amino acids to a UDP-MurNAc precursor to yield UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide. MurD catalyzes the addition of D-glutamic acid to UDP-MurNAc-L-Ala in the presence of ATP; structural and biochemical studies have suggested the binding of the substrates with an ordered kinetic mechanism in which ligand binding inevitably closes the active site. In this work, we challenge this assumption by reporting the crystal structures of intermediate forms of MurD either in the absence of ligands or in the presence of small molecules. A detailed analysis provides insight into the events that lead to the closure of MurD and reveals that minor structural modifications contribute to major overall conformation alterations. These novel insights will be instrumental in the development of new potential antibiotics designed to target the peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway. PMID:27031227

  3. Crystallographic Study of Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis Enzyme MurD: Domain Movement Revisited.

    PubMed

    Šink, Roman; Kotnik, Miha; Zega, Anamarija; Barreteau, Hélène; Gobec, Stanislav; Blanot, Didier; Dessen, Andréa; Contreras-Martel, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of peptidoglycan, an essential component of bacterial cell wall, is a well-recognized target for antibiotic development. Peptidoglycan precursors are synthesized in the bacterial cytosol by various enzymes including the ATP-hydrolyzing Mur ligases, which catalyze the stepwise addition of amino acids to a UDP-MurNAc precursor to yield UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide. MurD catalyzes the addition of D-glutamic acid to UDP-MurNAc-L-Ala in the presence of ATP; structural and biochemical studies have suggested the binding of the substrates with an ordered kinetic mechanism in which ligand binding inevitably closes the active site. In this work, we challenge this assumption by reporting the crystal structures of intermediate forms of MurD either in the absence of ligands or in the presence of small molecules. A detailed analysis provides insight into the events that lead to the closure of MurD and reveals that minor structural modifications contribute to major overall conformation alterations. These novel insights will be instrumental in the development of new potential antibiotics designed to target the peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway. PMID:27031227

  4. The P450–1 gene of Gibberella fujikuroi encodes a multifunctional enzyme in gibberellin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, María Cecilia; Hedden, Peter; Gaskin, Paul; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the genes of the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway in the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi are organized in a cluster of at least seven genes. P450–1 is one of four cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes in this cluster. Disruption of the P450–1 gene in the GA-producing wild-type strain IMI 58289 led to total loss of GA production. Analysis of the P450–1-disrupted mutants indicated that GA biosynthesis was blocked immediately after ent-kaurenoic acid. The function of the P450–1 gene product was investigated further by inserting the gene into mutants of G. fujikuroi that lack the entire GA gene cluster; the gene was highly expressed under GA production conditions in the absence of the other GA-biosynthesis genes. Cultures of transformants containing P450–1 converted ent-[14C]kaurenoic acid efficiently into [14C]GA14, indicating that P450–1 catalyzes four sequential steps in the GA-biosynthetic pathway: 7β-hydroxylation, contraction of ring B by oxidation at C-6, 3β-hydroxylation, and oxidation at C-7. The GA precursors ent-7α-hydroxy[14C]kaurenoic acid, [14C]GA12-aldehyde, and [14C]GA12 were also converted to [14C]GA14. In addition, there is an indication that P450–1 may also be involved in the formation of the kaurenolides and fujenoic acids, which are by-products of GA biosynthesis in G. fujikuroi. Thus, P450–1 displays remarkable multifunctionality and may be responsible for the formation of 12 products. PMID:11320210

  5. Nicotinamide mononucleotide synthetase is the key enzyme for an alternative route of NAD biosynthesis in Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Sorci, Leonardo; Martynowski, Dariusz; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Eyobo, Yvonne; Zogaj, Xhavit; Klose, Karl E.; Nikolaev, Evgeni V.; Magni, Giulio; Zhang, Hong; Osterman, Andrei L.

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes involved in the last 2 steps of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) cofactor biosynthesis, which catalyze the adenylylation of the nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) precursor to nicotinic acid dinucleotide (NaAD) followed by its amidation to NAD, constitute promising drug targets for the development of new antibiotics. These enzymes, NaMN adenylyltransferase (gene nadD) and NAD synthetase (gene nadE), respectively, are indispensable and conserved in nearly all bacterial pathogens. However, a comparative genome analysis of Francisella tularensis allowed us to predict the existence of an alternative route of NAD synthesis in this category A priority pathogen, the causative agent of tularaemia. In this route, the amidation of NaMN to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) occurs before the adenylylation reaction, which converts this alternative intermediate to the NAD cofactor. The first step is catalyzed by NMN synthetase, which was identified and characterized in this study. A crystal structure of this enzyme, a divergent member of the NadE family, was solved at 1.9-Å resolution in complex with reaction products, providing a rationale for its unusual substrate preference for NaMN over NaAD. The second step is performed by NMN adenylyltransferase of the NadM family. Here, we report validation of the predicted route (NaMN → NMN → NAD) in F. tularensis including mathematical modeling, in vitro reconstitution, and in vivo metabolite analysis in comparison with a canonical route (NaMN → NaAD → NAD) of NAD biosynthesis as represented by another deadly bacterial pathogen, Bacillus anthracis. PMID:19204287

  6. Nicotinamide mononucleotide synthetase is the key enzyme for an alternative route of NAD biosynthesis in Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Sorci, Leonardo; Martynowski, Dariusz; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Eyobo, Yvonne; Zogaj, Xhavit; Klose, Karl E; Nikolaev, Evgeni V; Magni, Giulio; Zhang, Hong; Osterman, Andrei L

    2009-03-01

    Enzymes involved in the last 2 steps of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) cofactor biosynthesis, which catalyze the adenylylation of the nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) precursor to nicotinic acid dinucleotide (NaAD) followed by its amidation to NAD, constitute promising drug targets for the development of new antibiotics. These enzymes, NaMN adenylyltransferase (gene nadD) and NAD synthetase (gene nadE), respectively, are indispensable and conserved in nearly all bacterial pathogens. However, a comparative genome analysis of Francisella tularensis allowed us to predict the existence of an alternative route of NAD synthesis in this category A priority pathogen, the causative agent of tularaemia. In this route, the amidation of NaMN to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) occurs before the adenylylation reaction, which converts this alternative intermediate to the NAD cofactor. The first step is catalyzed by NMN synthetase, which was identified and characterized in this study. A crystal structure of this enzyme, a divergent member of the NadE family, was solved at 1.9-A resolution in complex with reaction products, providing a rationale for its unusual substrate preference for NaMN over NaAD. The second step is performed by NMN adenylyltransferase of the NadM family. Here, we report validation of the predicted route (NaMN --> NMN --> NAD) in F. tularensis including mathematical modeling, in vitro reconstitution, and in vivo metabolite analysis in comparison with a canonical route (NaMN --> NaAD --> NAD) of NAD biosynthesis as represented by another deadly bacterial pathogen, Bacillus anthracis. PMID:19204287

  7. 25. Steenbock symposium -- Biosynthesis and function of metal clusters for enzymes: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This symposium was held June 10--14, 1997 in Madison, Wisconsin. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on biochemistry of enzymes that have an affinity for metal clusters. Attention is focused on the following: metal clusters involved in energy conservation and remediation; tungsten, molybdenum, and cobalt-containing enzymes; Fe proteins, and Mo-binding proteins; nickel enzymes; and nitrogenase.

  8. Loss of FERULATE 5-HYDROXYLASE Leads to Mediator-Dependent Inhibition of Soluble Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nickolas A.; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Nyffeler, Kayleigh; Chapple, Clint

    2015-01-01

    Phenylpropanoids are phenylalanine-derived specialized metabolites and include important structural components of plant cell walls, such as lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids, as well as ultraviolet and visible light-absorbing pigments, such as hydroxycinnamate esters (HCEs) and anthocyanins. Previous work has revealed a remarkable degree of plasticity in HCE biosynthesis, such that most Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with blockages in the pathway simply redirect carbon flux to atypical HCEs. In contrast, the ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) mutant accumulates greatly reduced levels of HCEs, suggesting that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis may be repressed in response to the loss of FERULATE 5-HYDROXYLASE (F5H) activity. Here, we show that in fah1 mutant plants, the activity of HCE biosynthetic enzymes is not limiting for HCE accumulation, nor is phenylpropanoid flux diverted to the synthesis of cell wall components or flavonol glycosides. We further show that anthocyanin accumulation is also repressed in fah1 mutants and that this repression is specific to tissues in which F5H is normally expressed. Finally, we show that repression of both HCE and anthocyanin biosynthesis in fah1 mutants is dependent on the MED5a/5b subunits of the transcriptional coregulatory complex Mediator, which are similarly required for the repression of lignin biosynthesis and the stunted growth of the phenylpropanoid pathway mutant reduced epidermal fluorescence8. Taken together, these observations show that the synthesis of HCEs and anthocyanins is actively repressed in a MEDIATOR-dependent manner in Arabidopsis fah1 mutants and support an emerging model in which MED5a/5b act as central players in the homeostatic repression of phenylpropanoid metabolism. PMID:26048881

  9. Elucidation of Xylem-Specific Transcription Factors and Absolute Quantification of Enzymes Regulating Cellulose Biosynthesis in Populus trichocarpa.

    PubMed

    Loziuk, Philip L; Parker, Jennifer; Li, Wei; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Wang, Jack P; Li, Quanzi; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L; Muddiman, David C

    2015-10-01

    Cellulose, the main chemical polymer of wood, is the most abundant polysaccharide in nature.1 The ability to perturb the abundance and structure of cellulose microfibrils is of critical importance to the pulp and paper industry as well as for the textile, wood products, and liquid biofuels industries. Although much has been learned at the transcript level about the biosynthesis of cellulose, a quantitative understanding at the proteome level has yet to be established. The study described herein sought to identify the proteins directly involved in cellulose biosynthesis during wood formation in Populus trichocarpa along with known xylem-specific transcription factors involved in regulating these key proteins. Development of an effective discovery proteomic strategy through a combination of subcellular fractionation of stem differentiating xylem tissue (SDX) with recently optimized FASP digestion protocols, StageTip fractionation, as well as optimized instrument parameters for global proteomic analysis using the quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer resulted in the deepest proteomic coverage of SDX protein from P. trichocarpa with 9,146 protein groups being identified (1% FDR). Of these, 20 cellulosic/hemicellulosic enzymes and 43 xylem-specific transcription factor groups were identified. Finally, selection of surrogate peptides led to an assay for absolute quantification of 14 cellulosic proteins in SDX of P. trichocarpa. PMID:26325666

  10. Diversity of ABBA Prenyltransferases in Marine Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509: Promiscuous Enzymes for the Biosynthesis of Mixed Terpenoid Compounds.

    PubMed

    Leipoldt, Franziska; Zeyhle, Philipp; Kulik, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Heide, Lutz; Kaysser, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids are arguably the largest and most diverse family of natural products, featuring prominently in e.g. signalling, self-defence, UV-protection and electron transfer. Prenyltransferases are essential players in terpenoid and hybrid isoprenoid biosynthesis that install isoprene units on target molecules and thereby often modulate their bioactivity. In our search for new prenyltransferase biocatalysts we focused on the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509, a particularly rich source of meroterpenoid chemistry. Sequencing and analysis of the genome of Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509 revealed seven putative phenol/phenazine-specific ABBA prenyltransferases, and one putative indole-specific ABBA prenyltransferase. To elucidate the substrate specificity of the ABBA prenyltransferases and to learn about their role in secondary metabolism, CnqP1 -CnqP8 were produced in Escherichia coli and incubated with various aromatic and isoprenoid substrates. Five of the eight prenyltransferases displayed enzymatic activity. The efficient conversion of dihydroxynaphthalene derivatives by CnqP3 (encoded by AA958_24325) and the co-location of AA958_24325 with genes characteristic for the biosynthesis of THN (tetrahydroxynaphthalene)-derived natural products indicates that the enzyme is involved in the formation of debromomarinone or other naphthoquinone-derived meroterpenoids. Moreover, CnqP3 showed high flexibility towards a range of aromatic and isoprenoid substrates and thus represents an interesting new tool for biocatalytic applications. PMID:26659564

  11. Diversity of ABBA Prenyltransferases in Marine Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509: Promiscuous Enzymes for the Biosynthesis of Mixed Terpenoid Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Leipoldt, Franziska; Zeyhle, Philipp; Kulik, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Heide, Lutz; Kaysser, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids are arguably the largest and most diverse family of natural products, featuring prominently in e.g. signalling, self-defence, UV-protection and electron transfer. Prenyltransferases are essential players in terpenoid and hybrid isoprenoid biosynthesis that install isoprene units on target molecules and thereby often modulate their bioactivity. In our search for new prenyltransferase biocatalysts we focused on the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509, a particularly rich source of meroterpenoid chemistry. Sequencing and analysis of the genome of Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509 revealed seven putative phenol/phenazine-specific ABBA prenyltransferases, and one putative indole-specific ABBA prenyltransferase. To elucidate the substrate specificity of the ABBA prenyltransferases and to learn about their role in secondary metabolism, CnqP1 –CnqP8 were produced in Escherichia coli and incubated with various aromatic and isoprenoid substrates. Five of the eight prenyltransferases displayed enzymatic activity. The efficient conversion of dihydroxynaphthalene derivatives by CnqP3 (encoded by AA958_24325) and the co-location of AA958_24325 with genes characteristic for the biosynthesis of THN (tetrahydroxynaphthalene)-derived natural products indicates that the enzyme is involved in the formation of debromomarinone or other naphthoquinone-derived meroterpenoids. Moreover, CnqP3 showed high flexibility towards a range of aromatic and isoprenoid substrates and thus represents an interesting new tool for biocatalytic applications. PMID:26659564

  12. mTORC2 Responds to Glutamine Catabolite Levels to Modulate the Hexosamine Biosynthesis Enzyme GFAT1.

    PubMed

    Moloughney, Joseph G; Kim, Peter K; Vega-Cotto, Nicole M; Wu, Chang-Chih; Zhang, Sisi; Adlam, Matthew; Lynch, Thomas; Chou, Po-Chien; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Werlen, Guy; Jacinto, Estela

    2016-09-01

    Highly proliferating cells are particularly dependent on glucose and glutamine for bioenergetics and macromolecule biosynthesis. The signals that respond to nutrient fluctuations to maintain metabolic homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here, we found that mTORC2 is activated by nutrient deprivation due to decreasing glutamine catabolites. We elucidate how mTORC2 modulates a glutamine-requiring biosynthetic pathway, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) via regulation of expression of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 (GFAT1), the rate-limiting enzyme of the HBP. GFAT1 expression is dependent on sufficient amounts of glutaminolysis catabolites particularly α-ketoglutarate, which are generated in an mTORC2-dependent manner. Additionally, mTORC2 is essential for proper expression and nuclear accumulation of the GFAT1 transcriptional regulator, Xbp1s. Thus, while mTORC1 senses amino acid abundance to promote anabolism, mTORC2 responds to declining glutamine catabolites in order to restore metabolic homeostasis. Our findings uncover the role of mTORC2 in metabolic reprogramming and have implications for understanding insulin resistance and tumorigenesis. PMID:27570073

  13. Deletions in the Gibberellin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster of Gibberella fujikuroi by Restriction Enzyme-Mediated Integration and Conventional Transformation-Mediated Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Linnemannstöns, Pia; Voß, Thorsten; Hedden, Peter; Gaskin, Paul; Tudzynski, Bettina

    1999-01-01

    We induced mutants of Gibberella fujikuroi deficient in gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis by transformation-mediated mutagenesis with the vector pAN7-1. We recovered 24 GA-defective mutants in one of nine transformation experiments performed without the addition of a restriction enzyme. Each mutant had a similar Southern blot pattern, suggesting the integration of the vector into the same site. The addition of a restriction enzyme by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) significantly increased the transformation rate and the rate of single-copy integration events. Of 1,600 REMI transformants, two produced no GAs. Both mutants had multiple copies of the vector pAN7-1 and one had a Southern blot pattern similar to those of the 24 conventionally transformed GA-deficient mutants. Biochemical analysis of the two REMI mutants confirmed that they cannot produce ent-kaurene, the first specific intermediate of the GA pathway. Feeding the radioactively labelled precursors ent-kaurene and GA12-aldehyde followed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that neither of these intermediates was converted to GAs in the mutants. Southern blot analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the transformants using the bifunctional ent-copalyl diphosphate/ent-kaurene synthase gene (cps/ks) and the flanking regions as probes revealed a large deletion in the GA-deficient REMI transformants and in the GA-deficient transformants obtained by conventional insertional transformation. We conclude that transformation procedures with and without the addition of restriction enzymes can lead to insertion-mediated mutations and to deletions and chromosome translocations. PMID:10347043

  14. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system. PMID:26694086

  15. Mitochondrial ClpX activates a key enzyme for heme biosynthesis and erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Kardon, Julia R.; Yien, Yvette Y.; Huston, Nicholas C.; Branco, Diana S.; Hildick-Smith, Gordon J.; Rhee, Kyu Y.; Paw, Barry H.; Baker, Tania A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The mitochondrion maintains and regulates its proteome with chaperones primarily inherited from its bacterial endosymbiont ancestor. Among these chaperones is the AAA+ unfoldase ClpX, an important regulator of prokaryotic physiology with poorly defined function in the eukaryotic mitochondrion. We observed phenotypic similarity in S. cerevisiae genetic interaction data between mitochondrial ClpX (mtClpX) and genes contributing to heme biosynthesis, an essential mitochondrial function. Metabolomic analysis revealed that 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the first heme precursor, is five-fold reduced in yeast lacking mtClpX activity, and total heme is reduced by half. mtClpX directly stimulates ALA synthase in vitro by catalyzing incorporation of its cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. This activity is conserved in mammalian homologs; additionally, mtClpX depletion impairs vertebrate erythropoiesis, which requires massive upregulation of heme biosynthesis to supply hemoglobin. mtClpX therefore is a widely conserved stimulator of an essential biosynthetic pathway, and employs a previously unrecognized mechanism for AAA+ unfoldases. PMID:25957689

  16. Developmental Regulation of Enzymes of Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus1

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Vincenzo; Fernandez, Jesus Alvarez; Campbell, Douglas; Kurz, Wolfgang G. W.

    1988-01-01

    Developing seedlings of Catharanthus roseus were analyzed for appearance of tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), strictosidine synthase (SS), N-methyltransferase (NMT) and O-acetyltransferase (DAT) enzyme activities. SS enzyme activity appeared early after germination and was present throughout most of the developmental study. TDC activity was highly regulated and peaked over a 48 hour period achieving a maximum by day of 5 of seedling development. Both TDC and SS were present in all tissues of the seedling. NMT and DAT enzyme activities were induced after TDC and SS had peaked and these activities could only be found in hypocotyls and cotyledons. TDC, SS, and NMT did not require light for induction whereas DAT enzyme activity was increased approximately 10-fold after light treatment of dark grown seedlings. PMID:16665928

  17. The biosynthesis of crustacean chitin by a microsomal enzyme from larval brine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Horst, M N

    1981-02-10

    A microsomal preparation from larval stages of the brine shrimp Artemia salina was found to catalyze the transfer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to an endogenous acceptor. The product was identified as chitin by its resistance to extraction with alkali and high concentrations of urea and the liberation of chito-oligosaccharides by treatment with purified chitinases. The enzyme requires Mg2+ for activity and is inhibited by UDP and diflubenzuron, but not by Polyoxin D. The pH optimum is 7.0. The enzyme is not significantly activated by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine nor by trypsin treatment. Incorporation of radioactivity into endogenous acceptor is inhibited by chitodextrins which appear to serve as alternate acceptors. The crustacean enzyme can also utilize exogenous, macromolecular chitin as acceptor. The enzyme, which was partially purified by sucrose step-gradient ultracentrifugation, appears maximally active after 72 h of larval growth. PMID:6450211

  18. Biosynthesis of LL-Z1272β: Discovery of a New Member of NRPS-like Enzymes for Aryl-Aldehyde Formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang; Matsuda, Yudai; Gao, Hao; Hu, Dan; Yao, Xin Sheng; Abe, Ikuro

    2016-05-17

    LL-Z1272β (1) is a prenylated aryl-aldehyde produced by several fungi; it also serves as a key pathway intermediate for many fungal meroterpenoids. Despite its importance in the biosynthesis of natural products, the molecular basis for the biosynthesis of 1 has yet to be elucidated. Here we identified the biosynthetic gene cluster for 1 from Stachybotrys bisbyi PYH05-7, and elucidated the biosynthetic route to 1. The biosynthesis involves a polyketide synthase, a prenyltransferase, and a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-like enzyme, which is responsible for the generation of the aldehyde functionality. Interestingly, the NRPS-like enzyme only accepts the farnesylated substrate to catalyze the carboxylate reduction; this represents a new example of a substrate for adenylation domains. PMID:26972702

  19. Rhodobacter capsulatus OlsA is a bifunctional enzyme active in both ornithine lipid and phosphatidic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Aygun-Sunar, Semra; Bilaloglu, Rahmi; Goldfine, Howard; Daldal, Fevzi

    2007-12-01

    The Rhodobacter capsulatus genome contains three genes (olsA [plsC138], plsC316, and plsC3498) that are annotated as lysophosphatidic acid (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate) acyltransferase (AGPAT). Of these genes, olsA was previously shown to be an O-acyltransferase in the second step of ornithine lipid biosynthesis, which is important for optimal steady-state levels of c-type cytochromes (S. Aygun-Sunar, S. Mandaci, H.-G. Koch, I. V. J. Murray, H. Goldfine, and F. Daldal. Mol. Microbiol. 61:418-435, 2006). The roles of the remaining plsC316 and plsC3498 genes remained unknown. In this work, these genes were cloned, and chromosomal insertion-deletion mutations inactivating them were obtained to define their function. Characterization of these mutants indicated that, unlike the Escherichia coli plsC, neither plsC316 nor plsC3498 was essential in R. capsulatus. In contrast, no plsC316 olsA double mutant could be isolated, indicating that an intact copy of either olsA or plsC316 was required for R. capsulatus growth under the conditions tested. Compared to OlsA null mutants, PlsC316 null mutants contained ornithine lipid and had no c-type cytochrome-related phenotype. However, they exhibited slight growth impairment and highly altered total fatty acid and phospholipid profiles. Heterologous expression in an E. coli plsC(Ts) mutant of either R. capsulatus plsC316 or olsA gene products supported growth at a nonpermissive temperature, exhibited AGPAT activity in vitro, and restored phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. The more vigorous AGPAT activity displayed by PlsC316 suggested that plsC316 encodes the main AGPAT required for glycerophospholipid synthesis in R. capsulatus, while olsA acts as an alternative AGPAT that is specific for ornithine lipid synthesis. This study therefore revealed for the first time that some OlsA enzymes, like the enzyme of R. capsulatus, are bifunctional and involved in both membrane ornithine lipid and glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. PMID

  20. Escherichia coli d-Malate Dehydrogenase, a Generalist Enzyme Active in the Leucine Biosynthesis Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Vorobieva, Anastassia A.; Khan, Mohammad Shahneawz; Soumillion, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    The enzymes of the β-decarboxylating dehydrogenase superfamily catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of d-malate-based substrates with various specificities. Here, we show that, in addition to its natural function affording bacterial growth on d-malate as a carbon source, the d-malate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli (EcDmlA) naturally expressed from its chromosomal gene is capable of complementing leucine auxotrophy in a leuB− strain lacking the paralogous isopropylmalate dehydrogenase enzyme. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an enzyme that contributes with a physiologically relevant level of activity to two distinct pathways of the core metabolism while expressed from its chromosomal locus. EcDmlA features relatively high catalytic activity on at least three different substrates (l(+)-tartrate, d-malate, and 3-isopropylmalate). Because of these properties both in vivo and in vitro, EcDmlA may be defined as a generalist enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis highlights an ancient origin of DmlA, indicating that the enzyme has maintained its generalist character throughout evolution. We discuss the implication of these findings for protein evolution. PMID:25160617

  1. The biosynthesis of GDP-L-colitose: C-3 deoxygenation is catalyzed by a unique coenzyme B6-dependent enzyme.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Noelle; Alam, Jenefer; Hallis, Tina M; Guo, Zhihong; Liu, Hung-wen

    2003-05-14

    l-Colitose (1) is a 3,6-dideoxyhexose found in the O-antigen of gram-negative lipopoly-saccharides. While the biosynthesis of many deoxysugars have previously been investigated, l-colitose is distinct in that it originates from GDP-d-mannose. In contrast, other 3,6-dideoxyhexoses arise from CDP-d-glucose. Therefore, the enzymes involved in the l-colitose biosynthetic pathway must be specifically tailored to utilize such a modified substrate. The mode for deoxygenation at C-3 of colitose is of particular interest because this conversion in other naturally occurring 3,6-dideoxyhexoses requires a pair of enzymes, E1 and E3, acting in concert. Interestingly, no E3 equivalent was identified in the five open reading frames of the col biosynthetic gene cluster from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IVA. However, the gene product of colD showed moderate similarity with the E1 gene (ddhC/ascC) of the ascarylose pathway (27% identity and 42% similarity). Because E1 is a pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP)-dependent enzyme, it was thought that ColD might also utilize PMP. Indeed, turnover was observed during incubation of ColD with substrate in the presence of excess PMP, but not with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). However, the rate of product formation increased by more than 40-fold when l-glutamate was included in the PLP incubation. The formation of alpha-ketoglutarate as a byproduct under these conditions clearly indicated that ColD functions as a transaminase, recognizing both PMP and PLP. In this paper, we propose a novel biosynthetic route for colitose, including the unprecedented C-3 deoxygenation performed solely by ColD. The utilization of PMP in a dehydration reaction is rare, but the combined deoxygenation-transamination activity makes ColD a unique enzyme. PMID:12733868

  2. Oligomeric structure of proclavaminic acid amidino hydrolase: evolution of a hydrolytic enzyme in clavulanic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Jonathan M; Clifton, Ian J; Hernández, Helena; Doan, Linh X; Robinson, Carol V; Schofield, Christopher J; Hewitson, Kirsty S

    2002-01-01

    During biosynthesis of the clinically used beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid, one of the three steps catalysed by clavaminic acid synthase is separated from the other two by a step catalysed by proclavaminic acid amidino hydrolase (PAH), in which the guanidino group of an intermediate is hydrolysed to give proclavaminic acid and urea. PAH shows considerable sequence homology with the primary metabolic arginases, which hydrolyse arginine to ornithine and urea, but does not accept arginine as a substrate. Like other members of the bacterial sub-family of arginases, PAH is hexameric in solution and requires Mn2+ ions for activity. Other metal ions, including Co2+, can substitute for Mn2+. Two new substrates for PAH were identified, N-acetyl-(L)-arginine and (3R)-hydroxy-N-acetyl-(L)-arginine. Crystal structures of PAH from Streptomyces clavuligerus (at 1.75 A and 2.45 A resolution, where 1 A=0.1 nm) imply how it binds beta-lactams rather than the amino acid substrate of the arginases from which it evolved. The structures also suggest how PAH selects for a particular alcohol intermediate in the clavam biosynthesis pathway. As observed for the arginases, each PAH monomer consists of a core of beta-strands surrounded by alpha-helices, and its active site contains a di-Mn2+ centre with a bridging water molecule responsible for hydrolytic attack on to the guanidino group of the substrate. Comparison of structures obtained under different conditions reveals different conformations of a flexible loop, which must move to allow substrate binding. PMID:12020346

  3. Streptothricin biosynthesis is catalyzed by enzymes related to nonribosomal peptide bond formation.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moreno, M A; Vallín, C; Malpartida, F

    1997-01-01

    In a search for strains producing biocides with a wide spectrum of activity, a new strain was isolated. This strain was taxonomically characterized as Streptomyces rochei F20, and the chemical structure of the bioactive product extracted from its fermentation broth was determined to be a mixture of streptothricins. From a genomic library of the producer strain prepared in the heterologous host Streptomyces lividans, a 7.2-kb DNA fragment which conferred resistance to the antibiotic was isolated. DNA sequencing of 5.2 kb from the cloned fragment revealed five open reading frames (ORFs) such that ORF1, -2, -3, and -4 were transcribed in the same direction while ORF5 was convergently arranged. The deduced product of ORF1 strongly resembled those of genes involved in peptide formation by a nonribosomal mechanism; the ORF2 product strongly resembled that of mphA and mphB isolated from Escherichia coli, which determines resistance to several macrolides by a macrolide 2'-phosphotransferase activity; the ORF3 product had similarities with several hydrolases; and the ORF5 product strongly resembled streptothricin acetyltransferases from different gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. ORF5 was shown to be responsible for acetyl coenzyme A-dependent streptothricin acetylation. No similarities in the databases for the ORF4 product were found. Unlike other peptide synthases, that for streptothricin biosynthesis was arranged as a multienzymatic system rather than a multifunctional protein. Insertional inactivation of ORF1 and ORF2 (and to a lesser degree, of ORF3) abolishes antibiotic biosynthesis, suggesting their involvement in the streptothricin biosynthetic pathway. PMID:9371436

  4. Structure and function of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, J.-L.; Austin, M.B.; Stewart, C.; Noel, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    As a major component of plant specialized metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathways provide anthocyanins for pigmentation, flavonoids such as flavones for protection against UV photodamage, various flavonoid and isoflavonoid inducers of Rhizobium nodulation genes, polymeric lignin for structural support and assorted antimicrobial phytoalexins. As constituents of plant-rich diets and an assortment of herbal medicinal agents, the phenylpropanoids exhibit measurable cancer chemopreventive, antimitotic, estrogenic, antimalarial, antioxidant and antiasthmatic activities. The health benefits of consuming red wine, which contains significant amounts of 3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene (resveratrol) and other phenylpropanoids, highlight the increasing awareness in the medical community and the public at large as to the potential dietary importance of these plant derived compounds. As recently as a decade ago, little was known about the three-dimensional structure of the enzymes involved in these highly branched biosynthetic pathways. Ten years ago, we initiated X-ray crystallographic analyses of key enzymes of this pathway, complemented by biochemical and enzyme engineering studies. We first investigated chalcone synthase (CHS), the entry point of the flavonoid pathway, and its close relative stilbene synthase (STS). Work soon followed on the O-methyl transferases (OMTs) involved in modifications of chalcone, isoflavonoids and metabolic precursors of lignin. More recently, our groups and others have extended the range of phenylpropanoid pathway structural investigations to include the upstream enzymes responsible for the initial recruitment of phenylalanine and tyrosine, as well as a number of reductases, acyltransferases and ancillary tailoring enzymes of phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites. These structure–function studies collectively provide a comprehensive view of an important aspect of phenylpropanoid metabolism. More specifically, these atomic resolution

  5. Are there errors in glycogen biosynthesis and is laforin a repair enzyme?

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen, a branched polymer of glucose, is well known as a cellular reserve of metabolic energy and/or biosynthetic precursors. Besides glucose, however, glycogen contains small amounts of covalent phosphate, present as C2 and C3 phosphomonoesters. Current evidence suggests that the phosphate is introduced by the biosynthetic enzyme glycogen synthase as a rare alternative to its normal catalytic addition of glucose units. The phosphate can be removed by the laforin phosphatase, whose mutation causes a fatal myoclonus epilepsy called Lafora disease. The hypothesis is that glycogen phosphorylation can be considered a catalytic error and laforin a repair enzyme. PMID:21930129

  6. Biosynthesis of NAAG by an enzyme-mediated process in rat central nervous system neurons and glia.

    PubMed

    Gehl, Laura M; Saab, Omar H; Bzdega, Tomasz; Wroblewska, Barbara; Neale, Joseph H

    2004-08-01

    The peptide transmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) is present in millimolar concentrations in mammalian spinal cord. Data from the rat peripheral nervous system suggest that this peptide is synthesized enzymatically, a process that would be unique for mammalian neuropeptides. To test this hypothesis in the mammalian CNS, rat spinal cords were acutely isolated and used to study the incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids into NAAG. Consistent with the action of a NAAG synthetase, inhibition of protein synthesis did not affect radiolabel incorporation into NAAG. Depolarization of spinal cords stimulated incorporation of radiolabel. Biosynthesis of NAAG by cortical astrocytes in cell culture was demonstrated by tracing incorporation of [3H]-glutamate by astrocytes. In the first test of the hypothesis that NAA is an immediate precursor in NAAG biosynthesis, [3H]-NAA was incorporated into NAAG by isolated spinal cords and by cell cultures of cortical astrocytes. Data from cerebellar neurons and glia in primary culture confirmed the predominance of neuronal synthesis and glial uptake of NAA, leading to the hypothesis that while neurons synthesize NAA for NAAG biosynthesis, glia may take it up from the extracellular space. However, cortical astrocytes in serum-free low-density cell culture incorporated [3H]-aspartate into NAAG, a result indicating that under some conditions these cells may also synthesize NAA. Pre-incubation of isolated spinal cords and cultures of rat cortical astrocytes with unlabeled NAA increased [3H]-glutamate incorporation into NAAG. In contrast, [3H]-glutamine incorporation in spinal cord was not stimulated by unlabeled NAA. These results are consistent with the glutamate-glutamine cycle greatly favoring uptake of glutamine into neurons and glutamate by glia and suggest that NAA availability may be rate-limiting in the synthesis of NAAG by glia under some conditions. PMID:15287905

  7. Structure and Function of the E. coli Dihydroneopterin Triphosphate Pyrophosphatase: A nudix enzyme involved in Folate Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gabelli,S.; Bianchet, M.; Lu, W.; Dunn, C.; Niu, Z.; Amzel, L.

    2007-01-01

    Nudix hydrolases are a superfamily of pyrophosphatases, most of which are involved in clearing the cell of potentially deleterious metabolites and in preventing the accumulation of metabolic intermediates. We determined that the product of the orf17 gene of Escherichia coli, a Nudix NTP hydrolase, catalyzes the hydrolytic release of pyrophosphate from dihydroneopterin triphosphate, the committed step of folate synthesis in bacteria. That this dihydroneopterin hydrolase (DHNTPase) is indeed a key enzyme in the folate pathway was confirmed in vivo: knockout of this gene in E. coli leads to a marked reduction in folate synthesis that is completely restored by a plasmid carrying the gene. We also determined the crystal structure of this enzyme using data to 1.8 {angstrom} resolution and studied the kinetics of the reaction. These results provide insight into the structural bases for catalysis and substrate specificity in this enzyme and allow the definition of the dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphatase family of Nudix enzymes.

  8. Investigation of the Enzymes Involved in Lantibiotic Biosynthesis: Lacticin 481 and Haloduracin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihnken, Leigh Anne Furgerson

    2009-01-01

    Lantibiotics are cyclic peptides that exhibit a range of biological properties, including antimicrobial activity. They are ribosomally-synthesized as linear precursor peptides that consist of two regions, an N-terminal leader peptide and a C-terminal propeptide (or structural) region. The structural region undergoes extensive enzyme-catalyzed…

  9. Carotenoid biosynthesis: Isolation and characterization of a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of phytoene

    PubMed Central

    Dogbo, Odette; Laferriére, André; D'Harlingue, Alain; Camara, Bilal

    1988-01-01

    Phytoene is the first C40 intermediate in the biogenesis of carotenoids. It is formed by two enzyme activities, catalyzing (i) the coupling of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to yield prephytoene diphosphate and (ii) the conversion of prephytoene diphosphate into phytoene. We show now, with Capsicum chromoplast stroma, that the overall activity resides in a single protein, which has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. The monomeric structure and the molecular size (Mr 47,500) were demonstrated by NaDodSO4/PAGE and glycerol gradient centrifugation. Further characterization was achieved by using specific antibodies which allowed immunofractionation and immunoprecipitation of the enzymatic activity from chromoplast stroma. The two reactions followed conventional Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with Km values of 0.30 μM and 0.27 μM, respectively, for geranylgeranyl diphosphate and prephytoene diphosphate. The activity of the enzyme depends strictly upon the presence of Mn2+. This selectivity may be one of the factors regulating the competition with potentially rival enzymes converting geranylgeranyl diphosphate into other plastid terpenoids. The two enzymatic reactions were inhibited by inorganic pyrophosphate and by the arginine-specific reagent hydroxyphenylglyoxal. In no instance were the two reactions kinetically uncoupled. These properties strongly suggest that the same enzyme catalyzes the two consecutive reactions, and we propose to name it phytoene synthase. Images PMID:16578835

  10. In vitro Characterization of Phenylacetate Decarboxylase, a Novel Enzyme Catalyzing Toluene Biosynthesis in an Anaerobic Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    Zargar, K; Saville, R; Phelan, R M; Tringe, S G; Petzold, C J; Keasling, J D; Beller, H R

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacterial biosynthesis of toluene from phenylacetate was reported more than two decades ago, but the biochemistry underlying this novel metabolism has never been elucidated. Here we report results of in vitro characterization studies of a novel phenylacetate decarboxylase from an anaerobic, sewage-derived enrichment culture that quantitatively produces toluene from phenylacetate; complementary metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses are also presented. Among the noteworthy findings is that this enzyme is not the well-characterized clostridial p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase (CsdBC). However, the toluene synthase under study appears to be able to catalyze both phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylation. Observations suggesting that phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylation in complex cell-free extracts were catalyzed by the same enzyme include the following: (i) the specific activity for both substrates was comparable in cell-free extracts, (ii) the two activities displayed identical behavior during chromatographic separation of cell-free extracts, (iii) both activities were irreversibly inactivated upon exposure to O2, and (iv) both activities were similarly inhibited by an amide analog of p-hydroxyphenylacetate. Based upon these and other data, we hypothesize that the toluene synthase reaction involves a glycyl radical decarboxylase. This first-time study of the phenylacetate decarboxylase reaction constitutes an important step in understanding and ultimately harnessing it for making bio-based toluene. PMID:27506494

  11. The starch-debranching enzymes isoamylase and pullulanase are both involved in amylopectin biosynthesis in rice endosperm

    PubMed

    Kubo; Fujita; Harada; Matsuda; Satoh; Nakamura

    1999-10-01

    The activities of the two types of starch debranching enzymes, isoamylase and pullulanase, were greatly reduced in endosperms of allelic sugary-1 mutants of rice (Oryza sativa), with the decrease more pronounced for isoamylase than for pullulanase. However, the decrease in isoamylase activity was not related to the magnitude of the sugary phenotype (the proportion of the phytoglycogen region of the endosperm), as observed with pullulanase. In the moderately mutated line EM-5, the pullulanase activity was markedly lower in the phytoglycogen region than in the starch region, and isoamylase activity was extremely low or completely lost in the whole endosperm tissue. These results suggest that both debranching enzymes are involved in amylopectin biosynthesis in rice endosperm. We presume that isoamylase plays a predominant role in amylopectin synthesis, but pullulanase is also essential or can compensate for the role of isoamylase in the construction of the amylopectin multiple-cluster structure. It is highly possible that isoamylase was modified in some sugary-1 mutants such as EM-273 and EM-5, since it was present in significant and trace amounts, respectively, in these mutants but was apparently inactive. The results show that the Sugary-1 gene encodes the isoamylase gene of the rice genome. PMID:10517831

  12. A Structural, Functional, and Computational Analysis of BshA, the First Enzyme in the Bacillithiol Biosynthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Winchell, Kelsey R; Egeler, Paul W; VanDuinen, Andrew J; Jackson, Luke B; Karpen, Mary E; Cook, Paul D

    2016-08-23

    Bacillithiol is a compound produced by several Gram-positive bacterial species, including the human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. It is involved in maintaining cellular redox balance as well as the destruction of reactive oxygen species and harmful xenobiotic agents, including the antibiotic fosfomycin. BshA, BshB, and BshC are the enzymes involved in bacillithiol biosynthesis. BshA is a retaining glycosyltransferase responsible for the first committed step in bacillithiol production, namely the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to l-malate. Retaining glycosyltransferases like BshA are proposed to utilize an SNi-like reaction mechanism in which leaving group departure and nucleophilic attack occur on the same face of the hexose. However, significant questions regarding the details of how BshA and similar enzymes accommodate their substrates and facilitate catalysis persist. Here we report X-ray crystallographic structures of BshA from Bacillus subtilis 168 bound with UMP and/or GlcNAc-mal at resolutions of 2.15 and 2.02 Å, respectively. These ligand-bound structures, along with our functional and computational studies, provide clearer insight into how BshA and other retaining GT-B glycosyltransferases operate, corroborating the substrate-assisted, SNi-like reaction mechanism. The analyses presented herein can serve as the basis for the design of inhibitors capable of preventing bacillithiol production and, subsequently, help combat resistance to fosfomycin in various pathogenic Gram-positive microorganisms. PMID:27454321

  13. In vitro Characterization of Phenylacetate Decarboxylase, a Novel Enzyme Catalyzing Toluene Biosynthesis in an Anaerobic Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, K.; Saville, R.; Phelan, R. M.; Tringe, S. G.; Petzold, C. J.; Keasling, J. D.; Beller, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacterial biosynthesis of toluene from phenylacetate was reported more than two decades ago, but the biochemistry underlying this novel metabolism has never been elucidated. Here we report results of in vitro characterization studies of a novel phenylacetate decarboxylase from an anaerobic, sewage-derived enrichment culture that quantitatively produces toluene from phenylacetate; complementary metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses are also presented. Among the noteworthy findings is that this enzyme is not the well-characterized clostridial p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase (CsdBC). However, the toluene synthase under study appears to be able to catalyze both phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylation. Observations suggesting that phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylation in complex cell-free extracts were catalyzed by the same enzyme include the following: (i) the specific activity for both substrates was comparable in cell-free extracts, (ii) the two activities displayed identical behavior during chromatographic separation of cell-free extracts, (iii) both activities were irreversibly inactivated upon exposure to O2, and (iv) both activities were similarly inhibited by an amide analog of p-hydroxyphenylacetate. Based upon these and other data, we hypothesize that the toluene synthase reaction involves a glycyl radical decarboxylase. This first-time study of the phenylacetate decarboxylase reaction constitutes an important step in understanding and ultimately harnessing it for making bio-based toluene. PMID:27506494

  14. Improved mortality of the Formosan subterranean termite by fungi, when amended with cuticle-degrading enzymes or eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Maureen S; Lax, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Formosan subterranean termites (FST) were exposed to strains of Beauveria pseudobassiana (Bpb) and Isaria fumosorosea (Ifr) to determine virulence of the fungi. Once lethality was determined, sublethal doses of Bpb were combined with enzymes capable of degrading the insect cuticle to measure the potential to enhance fungal infection. Bpb applied to FST in combination with proteinases and a chitinase caused increased mortality over the fungus alone. Mortality was enhanced when Ifr was applied to FST in combination with a chitinase isolated from Serratia marcesans. A lipase isolated from Pseudomonas cepacia, when combined with Ifr, also resulted in greater mortality than all control treatments. FST were also exposed to the eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) dexamethasone (DEX), ibuprofen (IBU), and ibuprofen sodium salt (IBUNA), in combination with Ifr. Combining Ifr with IBUNA caused significantly increased mortality on days 6, 7, and 9. Cuticle-degrading enzymes and EBIs may have potential to enhance the pathogenic effect of a fungal control agent against the Formosan subterranean termite. PMID:26122366

  15. Structural Insights into the Quaternary Catalytic Mechanism of Hexameric Human Quinolinate Phosphoribosyltransferase, a Key Enzyme in de novo NAD Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyung-Seop; Gyun Kim, Tae; Kim, Mun-Kyoung; Bu Kang, Gil; Youn Kang, Jung; Lee, Jung-Gyu; Yop An, Jun; Ryoung Park, Kyoung; Lee, Youngjin; Jun Im, Young; Hyuck Lee, Jun; Hyun Eom, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) catalyses the production of nicotinic acid mononucleotide, a precursor of de novo biosynthesis of the ubiquitous coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. QPRT is also essential for maintaining the homeostasis of quinolinic acid in the brain, a possible neurotoxin causing various neurodegenerative diseases. Although QPRT has been extensively analysed, the molecular basis of the reaction catalysed by human QPRT remains unclear. Here, we present the crystal structures of hexameric human QPRT in the apo form and its complexes with reactant or product. We found that the interaction between dimeric subunits was dramatically altered during the reaction process by conformational changes of two flexible loops in the active site at the dimer-dimer interface. In addition, the N-terminal short helix α1 was identified as a critical hexamer stabilizer. The structural features, size distribution, heat aggregation and ITC studies of the full-length enzyme and the enzyme lacking helix α1 strongly suggest that human QPRT acts as a hexamer for cooperative reactant binding via three dimeric subunits and maintaining stability. Based on our comparison of human QPRT structures in the apo and complex forms, we propose a drug design strategy targeting malignant glioma. PMID:26805589

  16. Structural Insights into the Quaternary Catalytic Mechanism of Hexameric Human Quinolinate Phosphoribosyltransferase, a Key Enzyme in de novo NAD Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Tae Gyun; Kim, Mun-Kyoung; Kang, Gil Bu; Kang, Jung Youn; Lee, Jung-Gyu; An, Jun Yop; Park, Kyoung Ryoung; Lee, Youngjin; Im, Young Jun; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Eom, Soo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) catalyses the production of nicotinic acid mononucleotide, a precursor of de novo biosynthesis of the ubiquitous coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. QPRT is also essential for maintaining the homeostasis of quinolinic acid in the brain, a possible neurotoxin causing various neurodegenerative diseases. Although QPRT has been extensively analysed, the molecular basis of the reaction catalysed by human QPRT remains unclear. Here, we present the crystal structures of hexameric human QPRT in the apo form and its complexes with reactant or product. We found that the interaction between dimeric subunits was dramatically altered during the reaction process by conformational changes of two flexible loops in the active site at the dimer-dimer interface. In addition, the N-terminal short helix α1 was identified as a critical hexamer stabilizer. The structural features, size distribution, heat aggregation and ITC studies of the full-length enzyme and the enzyme lacking helix α1 strongly suggest that human QPRT acts as a hexamer for cooperative reactant binding via three dimeric subunits and maintaining stability. Based on our comparison of human QPRT structures in the apo and complex forms, we propose a drug design strategy targeting malignant glioma. PMID:26805589

  17. Accumulation of cynaropicrin in globe artichoke and localization of enzymes involved in its biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Eljounaidi, K; Comino, C; Moglia, A; Cankar, K; Genre, A; Hehn, A; Bourgaud, F; Beekwilder, J; Lanteri, S

    2015-10-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) belongs to the Asteraceae family, in which one of the most biologically significant class of secondary metabolites are sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). In globe artichoke the principal STL is the cynaropicrin, which contributes to approximately 80% of its characteristic bitter taste. Cynaropicrin content was assessed in globe artichoke tissues and was observed to accumulate in leaves of different developmental stages. In the receptacle, a progressive decrease was observed during inflorescence development, while the STL could not be detected in the inflorescence bracts. Almost undetectable amounts were found in the roots and inflorescence stems at the commercial stage. Cynaropicrin content was found to correlate with expression of genes encoding CcGAS, CcGAO and CcCOS, which are involved in the STL biosynthesis. A more detailed study of leaf material revealed that cynaropicrin predominantly accumulates in the trichomes, and not in the apoplastic cavity fluids. Analysis of the promoter regions of CcGAO and CcCOS revealed the presence of L1-box motifs, which confers trichome-specific expression in Arabidopsis, suggesting that cynaropicrin is not only stored but also synthesized in trichomes. A transient expression of GFP fusion proteins was performed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants: the CcGAS fluorescence signal was located in the cytoplasm while the CcGAO and CcCOS localized to the endoplasmatic reticulum. PMID:26398797

  18. A metabolic gene cluster in Lotus japonicus discloses novel enzyme functions and products in triterpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Krokida, Afrodite; Delis, Costas; Geisler, Katrin; Garagounis, Constantine; Tsikou, Daniela; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M; Katsarou, Dimitra; Field, Ben; Osbourn, Anne E; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2013-11-01

    Genes for triterpene biosynthetic pathways exist as metabolic gene clusters in oat and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. We characterized the presence of an analogous gene cluster in the model legume Lotus japonicus. In the genomic regions flanking the oxidosqualene cyclase AMY2 gene, genes for two different classes of cytochrome P450 and a gene predicted to encode a reductase were identified. Functional characterization of the cluster genes was pursued by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The gene expression pattern was studied under different developmental and environmental conditions. The physiological role of the gene cluster in nodulation and plant development was studied in knockdown experiments. A novel triterpene structure, dihydrolupeol, was produced by AMY2. A new plant cytochrome P450, CYP71D353, which catalyses the formation of 20-hydroxybetulinic acid in a sequential three-step oxidation of 20-hydroxylupeol was characterized. The genes within the cluster are highly co-expressed during root and nodule development, in hormone-treated plants and under various environmental stresses. A transcriptional gene silencing mechanism that appears to be involved in the regulation of the cluster genes was also revealed. A tightly co-regulated cluster of functionally related genes is involved in legume triterpene biosynthesis, with a possible role in plant development. PMID:23909862

  19. Mechanistic Investigation of a Non-Heme Iron Enzyme Catalyzed Epoxidation in (-)-4'-Methoxycyclopenin Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Chen; Li, Jikun; Lee, Justin L; Cronican, Andrea A; Guo, Yisong

    2016-08-24

    Mechanisms have been proposed for α-KG-dependent non-heme iron enzyme catalyzed oxygen atom insertion into an olefinic moiety in various natural products, but they have not been examined in detail. Using a combination of methods including transient kinetics, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that AsqJ-catalyzed (-)-4'-methoxycyclopenin formation uses a high-spin Fe(IV)-oxo intermediate to carry out epoxidation. Furthermore, product analysis on (16)O/(18)O isotope incorporation from the reactions using the native substrate, 4'-methoxydehydrocyclopeptin, and a mechanistic probe, dehydrocyclopeptin, reveals evidence supporting oxo↔hydroxo tautomerism of the Fe(IV)-oxo species in the non-heme iron enzyme catalysis. PMID:27442345

  20. Phantom encodes the 25-hydroxylase of Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori: a P450 enzyme critical in ecdysone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Warren, James T; Petryk, Anna; Marqués, Guillermo; Parvy, Jean-Philippe; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Itoyama, Kyo; Kobayashi, Jun; Jarcho, Michael; Li, Yutai; O'Connor, Michael B; Dauphin-Villemant, Chantal; Gilbert, Lawrence I

    2004-09-01

    We have reported recently the identification and characterization of the last three mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) controlling the biosynthesis of 20-hydroxyecdysone, the molting hormone of insects. These are encoded by the following genes: disembodied (dib, Cyp302a1, the 22-hydroxylase); shadow (sad, Cyp315a1, the 2-hydroxylase); and shade (shd, Cyp314a1, the 20-hydroxylase). Employing similar gene identification and transfection techniques and subsequent biochemical analysis of the expressed enzymatic activity, we report the identity of the Drosophila gene phantom (phm), located at 17D1 of the X chromosome, as encoding the microsomal 25-hydroxylase (Cyp306a1). Similar analysis following differential display-based gene identification has also resulted in the characterization of the corresponding 25-hydroxylase gene in Bombyx mori. Confirmation of 2,22,25-trideoxyecdysone (3beta,5beta-ketodiol) conversion to 2,22-dideoxyecdysone (3beta,5beta-ketotriol) mediated by either Phm enzyme employed LC, MS and definitive NMR analysis. In situ developmental gene analysis, in addition to northern, western and RT-PCR techniques during Drosophila embryonic, larval and adult development, are consistent with this identification. That is, strong expression of phm is restricted to the prothoracic gland cells of the Drosophila larval ring gland, where it undergoes dramatic changes in expression, and in the adult ovary, but also in the embryonic epidermis. During the last larval-larval transition in Bombyx, a similar expression pattern in the prothoracic gland is observed, but as in Drosophila, slight expression is also present in other tissues, suggesting a possible additional role for the phantom enzyme. PMID:15350618

  1. Structure and Mechanism of ORF36, an Amino Sugar Oxidizing Enzyme in Everninomicin Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vey, Jessica L.; Al-Mestarihi, Ahmad; Hu, Yunfeng; Funk, Michael A.; Bachmann, Brian O.; Iverson, T.M.

    2010-12-07

    Everninomicin is a highly modified octasaccharide that belongs to the orthosomycin family of antibiotics and possesses potent Gram-positive antibiotic activity, including broad-spectrum efficacy against multidrug resistant enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus. Among its distinctive structural features is a nitro sugar, L-evernitrose, analogues of which decorate a variety of natural products. Recently, we identified a nitrososynthase enzyme encoded by orf36 from Micromonospora carbonacea var. africana that mediates the flavin-dependent double oxidation of synthetically generated thymidine diphosphate (TDP)-L-epi-vancosamine to the corresponding nitroso sugar. Herein, we utilize a five-enzyme in vitro pathway both to verify that ORF36 catalyzes oxidation of biogenic TDP-L-epi-vancosamine and to determine whether ORF36 exhibits catalytic competence for any of its biosynthetic progenitors, which are candidate substrates for nitrososynthases in vivo. Progenitors solely undergo single-oxidation reactions and terminate in the hydroxylamine oxidation state. Performing the in vitro reactions in the presence of {sup 18}O{sub 2} establishes that molecular oxygen, rather than oxygen from water, is incorporated into ORF36-generated intermediates and products and identifies an off-pathway product that correlates with the oxidation product of a progenitor substrate. The 3.15 {angstrom} resolution X-ray crystal structure of ORF36 reveals a tetrameric enzyme that shares a fold with acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and class D flavin-containing monooxygenases, including the nitrososynthase KijD3. However, ORF36 and KijD3 have unusually open active sites in comparison to these related enzymes. Taken together, these studies map substrate determinants and allow the proposal of a minimal monooxygenase mechanism for amino sugar oxidation by ORF36.

  2. PqsBC, a Condensing Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Steffen Lorenz; Li, Chan; Prasetya, Fajar; Saleem, Muhammad; Dreveny, Ingrid; Williams, Paul; Hennecke, Ulrich; Emsley, Jonas; Fetzner, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a number of alkylquinolone-type secondary metabolites best known for their antimicrobial effects and involvement in cell-cell communication. In the alkylquinolone biosynthetic pathway, the β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthase III (FabH)-like enzyme PqsBC catalyzes the condensation of octanoyl-coenzyme A and 2-aminobenzoylacetate (2-ABA) to form the signal molecule 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone. PqsBC, a potential drug target, is unique for its heterodimeric arrangement and an active site different from that of canonical FabH-like enzymes. Considering the sequence dissimilarity between the subunits, a key question was how the two subunits are organized with respect to the active site. In this study, the PqsBC structure was determined to a 2 Å resolution, revealing that PqsB and PqsC have a pseudo-2-fold symmetry that unexpectedly mimics the FabH homodimer. PqsC has an active site composed of Cys-129 and His-269, and the surrounding active site cleft is hydrophobic in character and approximately twice the volume of related FabH enzymes that may be a requirement to accommodate the aromatic substrate 2-ABA. From physiological and kinetic studies, we identified 2-aminoacetophenone as a pathway-inherent competitive inhibitor of PqsBC, whose fluorescence properties could be used for in vitro binding studies. In a time-resolved setup, we demonstrated that the catalytic histidine is not involved in acyl-enzyme formation, but contributes to an acylation-dependent increase in affinity for the second substrate 2-ABA. Introduction of Asn into the PqsC active site led to significant activity toward the desamino substrate analog benzoylacetate, suggesting that the substrate 2-ABA itself supplies the asparagine-equivalent amino function that assists in catalysis. PMID:26811339

  3. Biosynthesis of the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid by a fungal NRPS-PKS hybrid enzyme.

    PubMed

    Yun, Choong-Soo; Motoyama, Takayuki; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Tenuazonic acid (TeA) is a well-known mycotoxin produced by various plant pathogenic fungi. However, its biosynthetic gene has been unknown to date. Here we identify the TeA biosynthetic gene from Magnaporthe oryzae by finding two TeA-inducing conditions of a low-producing strain. We demonstrate that TeA is synthesized from isoleucine and acetoacetyl-coenzyme A by TeA synthetase 1 (TAS1). TAS1 is a unique non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and polyketide synthase (NRPS-PKS) hybrid enzyme that begins with an NRPS module. In contrast to other NRPS/PKS hybrid enzymes, the PKS portion of TAS1 has only a ketosynthase (KS) domain and this domain is indispensable for TAS1 activity. Phylogenetic analysis classifies this KS domain as an independent clade close to type I PKS KS domain. We demonstrate that the TAS1 KS domain conducts the final cyclization step for TeA release. These results indicate that TAS1 is a unique type of NRPS-PKS hybrid enzyme. PMID:26503170

  4. Differential Subplastidial Localization and Turnover of Enzymes Involved in Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Perello, Catalina; Llamas, Ernesto; Burlat, Vincent; Ortiz-Alcaide, Miriam; Phillips, Michael A.; Pulido, Pablo; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Plastidial isoprenoids are a diverse group of metabolites with roles in photosynthesis, growth regulation, and interaction with the environment. The methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway produces the metabolic precursors of all types of plastidial isoprenoids. Proteomics studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that all the enzymes of the MEP pathway are localized in the plastid stroma. However, immunoblot analysis of chloroplast subfractions showed that the first two enzymes of the pathway, deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and reductoisomerase (DXR), can also be found in non-stromal fractions. Both transient and stable expression of GFP-tagged DXS and DXR proteins confirmed the presence of the fusion proteins in distinct subplastidial compartments. In particular, DXR-GFP was found to accumulate in relatively large vesicles that could eventually be released from chloroplasts, presumably to be degraded by an autophagy-independent process. Together, we propose that protein-specific mechanisms control the localization and turnover of the first two enzymes of the MEP pathway in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. PMID:26919668

  5. Biosynthesis of the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid by a fungal NRPS–PKS hybrid enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Choong-Soo; Motoyama, Takayuki; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Tenuazonic acid (TeA) is a well-known mycotoxin produced by various plant pathogenic fungi. However, its biosynthetic gene has been unknown to date. Here we identify the TeA biosynthetic gene from Magnaporthe oryzae by finding two TeA-inducing conditions of a low-producing strain. We demonstrate that TeA is synthesized from isoleucine and acetoacetyl-coenzyme A by TeA synthetase 1 (TAS1). TAS1 is a unique non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and polyketide synthase (NRPS–PKS) hybrid enzyme that begins with an NRPS module. In contrast to other NRPS/PKS hybrid enzymes, the PKS portion of TAS1 has only a ketosynthase (KS) domain and this domain is indispensable for TAS1 activity. Phylogenetic analysis classifies this KS domain as an independent clade close to type I PKS KS domain. We demonstrate that the TAS1 KS domain conducts the final cyclization step for TeA release. These results indicate that TAS1 is a unique type of NRPS–PKS hybrid enzyme. PMID:26503170

  6. Differential Subplastidial Localization and Turnover of Enzymes Involved in Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Perello, Catalina; Llamas, Ernesto; Burlat, Vincent; Ortiz-Alcaide, Miriam; Phillips, Michael A; Pulido, Pablo; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Plastidial isoprenoids are a diverse group of metabolites with roles in photosynthesis, growth regulation, and interaction with the environment. The methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway produces the metabolic precursors of all types of plastidial isoprenoids. Proteomics studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that all the enzymes of the MEP pathway are localized in the plastid stroma. However, immunoblot analysis of chloroplast subfractions showed that the first two enzymes of the pathway, deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and reductoisomerase (DXR), can also be found in non-stromal fractions. Both transient and stable expression of GFP-tagged DXS and DXR proteins confirmed the presence of the fusion proteins in distinct subplastidial compartments. In particular, DXR-GFP was found to accumulate in relatively large vesicles that could eventually be released from chloroplasts, presumably to be degraded by an autophagy-independent process. Together, we propose that protein-specific mechanisms control the localization and turnover of the first two enzymes of the MEP pathway in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. PMID:26919668

  7. Propiconazole enhanced hepatic cell proliferation is associated with dysregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway leading to activation of Erk1/2 through Ras famesylation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Propiconazole is a mouse hepatotumorigenic fungicide designed to inhibit CYP51, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ergosterol in fungi and is widely used in agriculture to prevent fungal growth. Metabolomic studies in mice revealed that propiconazole increased levels of hepatic ...

  8. Deamination of 6-Aminodeoxyfutalosine in Menaquinone Biosynthesis by Distantly Related Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Goble, Alissa M.; Toro, Rafael; Li, Xu; Ornelas, Argentina; Fan, Hao; Eswaramoorthy, Subramaniam; Patskovsky, Yury; Hillerich, Brandan; Seidel, Ron; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K.; Almo, Steven C.; Swaminathan, Subramanyam; Tanner, Martin E.; Raushel, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Proteins of unknown function belonging to cog1816 and cog0402 were characterized. Sav2595 from Steptomyces avermitilis MA-4680, Acel0264 from Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B, Nis0429 from Nitratiruptor sp. SB155-2 and Dr0824 from Deinococcus radiodurans R1 were cloned, purified, and their substrate profiles determined. These enzymes were previously incorrectly annotated as adenosine deaminases or chlorohydrolases. It was shown here that these enzymes actually deaminate 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine. The deamination of 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine is part of an alternative menaquinone biosynthetic pathway that involves the formation of futalosine. 6-Aminodeoxyfutalosine is deaminated by these enzymes with catalytic efficiencies greater than 105 M−1 s−1, Km values of 0.9 to 6.0 μM and kcat values of 1.2 to 8.6 s−1. Adenosine, 2′-deoxyadenosine, thiomethyladenosine, and S-adenosylhomocysteine are deaminated at least an order of magnitude slower than 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine. The crystal structure of Nis0429 was determined and the substrate, 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine, was positioned in the active site, based on the presence of adventitiously bound benzoic acid. In this model Ser-145 interacts with the carboxylate moiety of the substrate. The structure of Dr0824 was also determined, but a collapsed active site pocket prevented docking of substrates. A computational model of Sav2595 was built based on the crystal structure of adenosine deaminase and substrates were docked. The model predicted a conserved arginine after β-strand 1 to be partially responsible for the substrate specificity of Sav2595. PMID:23972005

  9. Domain Organization in Candida glabrata THI6, a Bifunctional Enzyme Required for Thiamin Biosynthesis in Eukaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Debamita; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-11-15

    THI6 is a bifunctional enzyme found in the thiamin biosynthetic pathway in eukaryotes. The N-terminal domain of THI6 catalyzes the ligation of the thiamin thiazole and pyrimidine moieties to form thiamin phosphate, and the C-terminal domain catalyzes the phosphorylation of 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole in a salvage pathway. In prokaryotes, thiamin phosphate synthase and 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase are separate gene products. Here we report the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic THI6 along with several complexes that characterize the active sites responsible for the two chemical reactions. THI6 from Candida glabrata is a homohexamer in which the six protomers form a cage-like structure. Each protomer is composed of two domains, which are structurally homologous to their monofunctional bacterial counterparts. Two loop regions not found in the bacterial enzymes provide interactions between the two domains. The structures of different protein-ligand complexes define the thiazole and ATP binding sites of the 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase domain and the thiazole phosphate and 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine pyrophosphate binding sites of the thiamin phosphate synthase domain. Our structural studies reveal that the active sites of the two domains are 40 {angstrom} apart and are not connected by an obvious channel. Biochemical studies show 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole phosphate is a substrate for THI6; however, adenosine diphospho-5{beta}-ethyl-4-methylthiazole-2-carboxylic acid, the product of THI4, is not a substrate for THI6. This suggests that an unidentified enzyme is necessary to produce the substrate for THI6 from the THI4 product.

  10. Mildly compromised tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor biosynthesis due to Pts variants leads to unusual body fat distribution and abdominal obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Korner, Germaine; Scherer, Tanja; Adamsen, Dea; Rebuffat, Alexander; Crabtree, Mark; Rassi, Anahita; Scavelli, Rossana; Homma, Daigo; Ledermann, Birgit; Konrad, Daniel; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Wolfrum, Christian; Horsch, Marion; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klingenspor, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Wolf, Eckhard; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Blau, Nenad; Rozman, Jan; Thöny, Beat

    2016-03-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Inborn errors of BH4 metabolism lead to severe insufficiency of brain monoamine neurotransmitters while augmentation of BH4 by supplementation or stimulation of its biosynthesis is thought to ameliorate endothelial NOS (eNOS) dysfunction, to protect from (cardio-) vascular disease and/or prevent obesity and development of the metabolic syndrome. We have previously reported that homozygous knock-out mice for the 6-pyruvolytetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS; Pts-ko/ko) mice with no BH4 biosynthesis die after birth. Here we generated a Pts-knock-in (Pts-ki) allele expressing the murine PTPS-p.Arg15Cys with low residual activity (15% of wild-type in vitro) and investigated homozygous (Pts-ki/ki) and compound heterozygous (Pts-ki/ko) mutants. All mice showed normal viability and depending on the severity of the Pts alleles exhibited up to 90% reduction of PTPS activity concomitant with neopterin elevation and mild reduction of total biopterin while blood L-phenylalanine and brain monoamine neurotransmitters were unaffected. Yet, adult mutant mice with compromised PTPS activity (i.e., Pts-ki/ko, Pts-ki/ki or Pts-ko/wt) had increased body weight and elevated intra-abdominal fat. Comprehensive phenotyping of Pts-ki/ki mice revealed alterations in energy metabolism with proportionally higher fat content but lower lean mass, and increased blood glucose and cholesterol. Transcriptome analysis indicated changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, differentially expressed genes associated with obesity, weight loss, hepatic steatosis, and insulin sensitivity were consistent with the observed phenotypic alterations. We conclude that reduced PTPS activity concomitant with mildly compromised BH4-biosynthesis leads to abnormal body fat distribution and abdominal obesity at least in mice. This study associates a novel

  11. Functional balance between enzymes in malonyl-CoA pathway for 3-hydroxypropionate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changshui; Ding, Yamei; Zhang, Rubing; Liu, Huizhou; Xian, Mo; Zhao, Guang

    2016-03-01

    3-Hydroxypropionate (3HP) is an important platform chemical, and four 3HP biosynthetic routes were reported, in which the malonyl-CoA pathway has some expected advantages but presented the lowest 3HP yield. Here, we demonstrated that this low yield was caused by a serious functional imbalance between MCR-C and MCR-N proteins, responsible for the two-step reduction of malonyl-CoA to 3HP. Then we minimized the enzyme activity imbalance by directed evolution of rate-limiting enzyme MCR-C and fine tuning of MCR-N expression level. Combined with culture conditions optimization, our engineering approaches increased the 3HP titer 270-fold, from 0.15 g/L to 40.6 g/L, representing the highest 3HP production via malonyl-CoA pathway so far. This study not only significantly improved the 3HP productivity of recombinant Escherichia coli strain, but also proved the importance of metabolic balance in a multistep biosynthetic pathway, which should be always considered in any metabolic engineering study. PMID:26791242

  12. Immuno cross-reactivity suggests that catecholamine biosynthesis enzymes and beta adrenergic receptors may be related

    SciTech Connect

    Shorr, R.G.L.; Minnich, M.D.; Varrichio, A.; Strohsacker, M.W.; Gotlib, L.; Kruse, L.I.; DeWolf, W.E. Jr.; Crooke, S.T.

    1987-05-01

    Turkey red blood cell (RBC), Beta/sub 1/-adrenergic receptors (Bar) were prepared to electrophoretic homogeneity and denatured protein used to prepare rabbit anti-Bar antibodies. Anti-Bar activity was confirmed by immuno-adsorption of (/sup 125/I) cyanopindolol (CYP) labeled Bar. The catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) was purified from bovine adrenal medullae chromaffin vesicles by ion exchange, size exclusion and concanavalin-A-Sepharose chromatography. Final DBH specific activities were 42 +/- 4 U/mg protein. Homogeneity was confirmed by non-denaturing PAGE. Bar was compared to DBH by anti-Bar antibody cross-reactivity. DBH and Bar were recognized by anti-Bar antibodies on immunoblotting. No interactions were observed with preimmune controls. Similar results were obtained with glycosylated and deglycosylated DBH suggesting that the antibodies recognize DBH amino acid sequence and not associated carbohydrate. Cross-reactive antibodies were purified by affinity chromatography using immobilized DBH and shown to immuno-adsorb (/sup 125/I)CYP labeled Bar. These results suggest that the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme DBH and Bar may be related in structure.

  13. Lead and PCB's in canvasback ducks: Relationship between enzyme levels and residues in blood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.; Perry, M.C.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were taken for two successive years from canvasback ducks trapped in the Chesapeake Bay. The first winter (1972?1973) five plasma enzymes known to respond to organochlorine poisoning were examined. Abnormal enzyme elevations suggested that 20% of the population sampled (23/115 ducks) might contain organochlorine contaminants, but no residue analyses were performed. The second winter (1974) two of the same enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a third enzyme known to be specifically inhibited by lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, were assayed in 95 blood samples. Blood residues of organochlorine compounds and of lead were determined in representative samples, and the correlations between residue levels and enzyme changes were examined. The enzyme bioassays in 1974 indicated that lead was a more prevalent environmental contaminant than organochlorine compounds in canvasback ducks; 17% of the blood samples had less than one-half of the normal delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, but only 11% exhibited abnormal aspartate aminotransferase or lactate dehydrogenase activities. These findings were confirmed by residue analyses that demonstrated lead concentrations four times higher than background levels, but only relatively low organochlorine concentrations. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and blood lead concentrations (P<0.01), and a weaker but significant correlation between plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity and blood PCB concentrations (P<0.05). It was apparent that delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in the blood provided a sensitive and precise estimate of lead contamination in waterfowl. In canvasback ducks 200 ppb of lead in the blood caused a 75% decrease in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, a magnitude of enzyme inhibition that disturbs heme synthesis and is regarded as detrimental in humans.

  14. Lysosomal Acid Phosphatase Biosynthesis and Dysfunction: A Mini Review Focused on Lysosomal Enzyme Dysfunction in Brain.

    PubMed

    Ashtari, N; Jiao, X; Rahimi-Balaei, M; Amiri, S; Mehr, S E; Yeganeh, B; Marzban, H

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles that are responsible for degrading and recycling macromolecules. Lysosomal dysfunction occurs in enzymatic and non-enzymatic deficiencies, which result in abnormal accumulation of materials. Although lysosomal storage disorders affect different organs, the central nervous system is the most vulnerable. Evidence shows the role of lysosomal dysfunction in different neurodegenerative diseases, such as Niemann-Pick Type C disease, juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Lysosomal enzymes such as lysosomal acid phosphatase 2 (Acp2) play a critical role in mannose-6-phosphate removal and Acp2 controls molecular and cellular functions in the brain during development and adulthood. Acp2 is essential in cerebellar development, and mutations in this gene cause severe cerebellar neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. In this mini-review, we highlight lysosomal dysfunctions in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental and/or neurodegenerative diseases with special attention to Acp2 dysfunction. PMID:27132795

  15. Three-dimensional structure of 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase, an enzyme involved in tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nar, H; Huber, R; Heizmann, C W; Thöny, B; Bürgisser, D

    1994-03-15

    The crystal structure of rat liver 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase has been solved by multiple isomorphous replacement and refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 20.4% at 2.3 A resolution. 6-Pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase catalyses the conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin, the second of three enzymatic steps in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from GTP. The functional enzyme is a hexamer of identical subunits. The 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase monomer folds into a sequential, four-stranded, antiparallel beta-sheet with a 25 residue, helix-containing insertion between strands 1 and 2 at the bottom of the molecule, and a segment between strands 2 and 3 forming a pair of antiparallel helices, layered on one side of the beta-sheet. Three 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase monomers form an unusual 12-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel by tight association between the N- and C-terminal beta-strands of two adjacent subunits. The barrel encloses a highly basic pore of 6-12 A diameter. Two trimers associate in a head-to-head fashion to form the active enzyme complex. The substrate-binding site is located close to the trimer-trimer interface and comprises residues from three monomers: A, A' and B. A metal-binding site in the substrate-binding pocket is formed by the three histidine residues 23, 48 and 50 from one 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase subunit. Close to the metal, but apparently not liganding it, are residues Cys42, Glu133 (both from A) and His89 (from B), which might serve as proton donors and acceptors during catalysis. PMID:8137809

  16. Identification, functional characterization, and regulation of the enzyme responsible for floral (E)-nerolidol biosynthesis in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Bunn, Barry J.; Yauk, Yar-Khing; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2012-01-01

    Flowers of the kiwifruit species Actinidia chinensis produce a mixture of sesquiterpenes derived from farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) and monoterpenes derived from geranyl diphosphate (GDP). The tertiary sesquiterpene alcohol (E)-nerolidol was the major emitted volatile detected by headspace analysis. Contrastingly, in solvent extracts of the flowers, unusually high amounts of (E,E)-farnesol were observed, as well as lesser amounts of (E)-nerolidol, various farnesol and farnesal isomers, and linalool. Using a genomics-based approach, a single gene (AcNES1) was identified in an A. chinensis expressed sequence tag library that had significant homology to known floral terpene synthase enzymes. In vitro characterization of recombinant AcNES1 revealed it was an enzyme that could catalyse the conversion of FDP and GDP to the respective (E)-nerolidol and linalool terpene alcohols. Enantiomeric analysis of both AcNES1 products in vitro and floral terpenes in planta showed that (S)-(E)-nerolidol was the predominant enantiomer. Real-time PCR analysis indicated peak expression of AcNES1 correlated with peak (E)-nerolidol, but not linalool accumulation in flowers. This result, together with subcellular protein localization to the cytoplasm, indicated that AcNES1 was acting as a (S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase in A. chinensis flowers. The synthesis of high (E,E)-farnesol levels appears to compete for the available pool of FDP utilized by AcNES1 for sesquiterpene biosynthesis and hence strongly influences the accumulation and emission of (E)-nerolidol in A. chinensis flowers. PMID:22162874

  17. Epigenetic Genome Mining of an Endophytic Fungus Leads to Pleiotropic Biosynthesis of Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xu-Ming; Xu, Wei; Li, Dehai; Yin, Wen-Bing; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Li, Yong-Quan

    2015-01-01

    The small molecule biosynthetic potential of most filamentous fungi remains largely unexplored and represents an attractive source for new compound discovery. Genome sequencing of Calcarisporium arbuscula, a mushroom endophytic fungus, revealed 68 core genes that are involved in natural products biosynthesis. This is in sharp contrast to predominant production of the ATPase inhibitors aurovertin B (1) and D (2). Inactivation of a histone H3 deacetylase HdaA led to pleiotropic activation and overexpression of more than 75% of the biosynthetic genes. Sampling of the overproduced compounds led to isolation of ten compounds of which four contain new structures, including the cyclic peptides arbumycin (3) and arbumelin (4); the diterpenoid arbuscullic acid A (11); and a meroterpenoid arbuscullic acid B (12). Such epigenetic modification therefore provides a rapid and global approach to mine the chemical diversity of endophytic fungi. PMID:26013262

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of queD from Bacillus subtilis, an enzyme involved in queuosine biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cicmil, Nenad Shi, Lu

    2008-02-01

    B. subtilis queD was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. A diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.6 Å. QueD (previously named ykvK) is one of several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the hypermodified nucleoside queuosine. Queuosine is incorporated into tRNA at position 34 of four tRNAs: tRNA{sup His}, tRNA{sup Asp}, tRNA{sup Asn} and tRNA{sup Tyr}. The crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of queD are described here. The recombinant protein from Bacillus subtilis was overproduced in Escherichia coli and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method from 25% PEG 600, 100 mM NaCl and sodium citrate buffer pH 5.5 at 291 K. The crystals diffract to 3.6 Å resolution and belong to the cubic space group F4{sub 1}32, with unit-cell parameter a = 240.88 Å.

  19. Crystal structure and mechanism of human L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase: a mitochondrial enzyme involved in creatine biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Humm, A; Fritsche, E; Steinbacher, S; Huber, R

    1997-01-01

    L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AT) catalyses the committed step in creatine biosynthesis by formation of guanidinoacetic acid, the immediate precursor of creatine. We have determined the crystal structure of the recombinant human enzyme by multiple isomorphous replacement at 1.9 A resolution. A telluromethionine derivative was used in sequence assignment. The structure of AT reveals a new fold with 5-fold pseudosymmetry of circularly arranged betabeta alphabeta-modules. These enclose the active site compartment, which is accessible only through a narrow channel. The overall structure resembles a basket with handles that are formed from insertions into the betabeta alphabeta-modules. Binding of L-ornithine, a product inhibitor, reveals a marked induced-fit mechanism, with a loop at the active site entrance changing its conformation accompanied by a shift of an alpha-helix by -4 A. Binding of the arginine educt to the inactive mutant C407A shows a similar mode of binding. A reaction mechanism with a catalytic triad Cys-His-Asp is proposed on the basis of substrate and product bound states. PMID:9218780

  20. Crystal structure and mechanism of human L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase: a mitochondrial enzyme involved in creatine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Humm, A; Fritsche, E; Steinbacher, S; Huber, R

    1997-06-16

    L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AT) catalyses the committed step in creatine biosynthesis by formation of guanidinoacetic acid, the immediate precursor of creatine. We have determined the crystal structure of the recombinant human enzyme by multiple isomorphous replacement at 1.9 A resolution. A telluromethionine derivative was used in sequence assignment. The structure of AT reveals a new fold with 5-fold pseudosymmetry of circularly arranged betabeta alphabeta-modules. These enclose the active site compartment, which is accessible only through a narrow channel. The overall structure resembles a basket with handles that are formed from insertions into the betabeta alphabeta-modules. Binding of L-ornithine, a product inhibitor, reveals a marked induced-fit mechanism, with a loop at the active site entrance changing its conformation accompanied by a shift of an alpha-helix by -4 A. Binding of the arginine educt to the inactive mutant C407A shows a similar mode of binding. A reaction mechanism with a catalytic triad Cys-His-Asp is proposed on the basis of substrate and product bound states. PMID:9218780

  1. Homology modeling and dynamics study of aureusidin synthase--an important enzyme in aurone biosynthesis of snapdragon flower.

    PubMed

    Elumalai, Pavadai; Liu, Hsuan-Liang

    2011-08-01

    Aurones, a class of plant flavonoids, provide bright yellow color on some important ornamental flowers, such as cosmos, coreopsis, and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus). Recently, it has been elucidated that aureusidin synthase (AUS), a homolog of plant polyphenol oxidase (PPO), plays a key role in the yellow coloration of snapdragon flowers. In addition, it has been shown that AUS is a chalcone-specific PPO specialized for aurone biosynthesis. AUS gene has been successfully demonstrated as an attractive tool to engineer yellow flowers in blue flowers. Despite these biological studies, the structural basis for the specificity of substrate interactions of AUS remains elusive. In this study, we performed homology modeling of AUS using Grenache PPO and Sweet potato catechol oxidase (CO). An AUS-inhibitor was then developed from the initial homology model based on the CO and subsequently validated. We performed a thorough study between AUS and PTU inhibitor by means of interaction energy, which indicated the most important residues in the active site that are highly conserved. Analysis of the molecular dynamics simulations of the apo enzyme and ligand-bound complex showed that complex is relatively stable than apo and the active sites of both systems are flexible. The results from this study provide very helpful information to understand the structure-function relationships of AUS. PMID:21470561

  2. Identification and characterization of the ‘missing’ terminal enzyme for siroheme biosynthesis in α-proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Shilpa; Rollauer, Sarah; Roversi, Pietro; Raux-Deery, Evelyne; Lea, Susan M; Warren, Martin J; Ferguson, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the biosynthetic route for both the d1-haem cofactor of dissimilatory cd1 nitrite reductases and haem, via the novel alternative-haem-synthesis pathway, involves siroheme as an intermediate, which was previously thought to occur only as a cofactor in assimilatory sulphite/nitrite reductases. In many denitrifiers (which require d1-haem), the pathway to make siroheme remained to be identified. Here we identify and characterize a sirohydrochlorin–ferrochelatase from Paracoccus pantotrophus that catalyses the last step of siroheme synthesis. It is encoded by a gene annotated as cbiX that was previously assumed to be encoding a cobaltochelatase, acting on sirohydrochlorin. Expressing this chelatase from a plasmid restored the wild-type phenotype of an Escherichia coli mutant-strain lacking sirohydrochlorin–ferrochelatase activity, showing that this chelatase can act in the in vivo siroheme synthesis. A ΔcbiX mutant in P. denitrificans was unable to respire anaerobically on nitrate, proving the role of siroheme as a precursor to another cofactor. We report the 1.9 Å crystal structure of this ferrochelatase. In vivo analysis of single amino acid variants of this chelatase suggests that two histidines, His127 and His187, are essential for siroheme synthesis. This CbiX can generally be identified in α-proteobacteria as the terminal enzyme of siroheme biosynthesis. PMID:24673795

  3. PpASCL, a moss ortholog of anther-specific chalcone synthase-like enzymes, is a hydroxyalkylpyrone synthase involved in an evolutionarily conserved sporopollenin biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Colpitts, Che C; Kim, Sung Soo; Posehn, Sarah E; Jepson, Christina; Kim, Sun Young; Wiedemann, Gertrud; Reski, Ralf; Wee, Andrew G H; Douglas, Carl J; Suh, Dae-Yeon

    2011-12-01

    Sporopollenin is the main constituent of the exine layer of spore and pollen walls. Recently, several Arabidopsis genes, including polyketide synthase A (PKSA), which encodes an anther-specific chalcone synthase-like enzyme (ASCL), have been shown to be involved in sporopollenin biosynthesis. The genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens contains putative orthologs of the Arabidopsis sporopollenin biosynthesis genes. We analyzed available P.patens expressed sequence tag (EST) data for putative moss orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes of sporopollenin biosynthesis and studied the enzymatic properties and reaction mechanism of recombinant PpASCL, the P.patens ortholog of Arabidopsis PKSA. We also generated structure models of PpASCL and Arabidopsis PKSA to study their substrate specificity. Physcomitrella patens orthologs of Arabidopsis genes for sporopollenin biosynthesis were found to be expressed in the sporophyte generation. Similarly to Arabidopsis PKSA, PpASCL condenses hydroxy fatty acyl-CoA esters with malonyl-CoA and produces hydroxyalkyl α-pyrones that probably serve as building blocks of sporopollenin. The ASCL-specific set of Gly-Gly-Ala residues predicted by the models to be located at the floor of the putative active site is proposed to serve as the opening of an acyl-binding tunnel in ASCL. These results suggest that ASCL functions together with other sporophyte-specific enzymes to provide polyhydroxylated precursors of sporopollenin in a pathway common to land plants. PMID:21883237

  4. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of raucaffricine glucosidase, a plant enzyme specifically involved in Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, Martin; Panjikar, Santosh; Barleben, Leif; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-03-01

    Raucaffricine glucosidase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the plant Rauvolfia serpentina, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG4000 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.3 Å resolution and belong to space group I222. Raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) is an enzyme that is specifically involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina. After heterologous expression in Escherichia coli cells, crystals of RG were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 0.3 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.6 buffer and 11% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group I222 and diffract to 2.30 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 102.8, b = 127.3, c = 215.8 Å.

  5. Modularity of Conifer Diterpene Resin Acid Biosynthesis: P450 Enzymes of Different CYP720B Clades Use Alternative Substrates and Converge on the Same Products1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes of the CYP720B subfamily play a central role in the biosynthesis of diterpene resin acids (DRAs), which are a major component of the conifer oleoresin defense system. CYP720Bs exist in families of up to a dozen different members in conifer genomes and fall into four different clades (I–IV). Only two CYP720B members, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) PtCYP720B1 and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) PsCYP720B4, have been characterized previously. Both are multisubstrate and multifunctional clade III enzymes, which catalyze consecutive three-step oxidations in the conversion of diterpene olefins to DRAs. These reactions resemble the sequential diterpene oxidations affording ent-kaurenoic acid from ent-kaurene in gibberellin biosynthesis. Here, we functionally characterized the CYP720B clade I enzymes CYP720B2 and CYP720B12 in three different conifer species, Sitka spruce, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and jack pine (Pinus banksiana), and compared their activities with those of the clade III enzymes CYP720B1 and CYP720B4 of the same species. Unlike the clade III enzymes, clade I enzymes were ultimately found not to be active with diterpene olefins but converted the recently discovered, unstable diterpene synthase product 13-hydroxy-8(14)-abietene. Through alternative routes, CYP720B enzymes of both clades produce some of the same profiles of conifer oleoresin DRAs (abietic acid, neoabietic acid, levopimaric acid, and palustric acid), while clade III enzymes also function in the formation of pimaric acid, isopimaric acid, and sandaracopimaric acid. These results highlight the modularity of the specialized (i.e. secondary) diterpene metabolism, which produces conifer defense metabolites through variable combinations of different diterpene synthase and CYP720B enzymes. PMID:26936895

  6. Modularity of Conifer Diterpene Resin Acid Biosynthesis: P450 Enzymes of Different CYP720B Clades Use Alternative Substrates and Converge on the Same Products.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Katrin; Jensen, Niels Berg; Yuen, Macaire M S; Madilao, Lina; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes of the CYP720B subfamily play a central role in the biosynthesis of diterpene resin acids (DRAs), which are a major component of the conifer oleoresin defense system. CYP720Bs exist in families of up to a dozen different members in conifer genomes and fall into four different clades (I-IV). Only two CYP720B members, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) PtCYP720B1 and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) PsCYP720B4, have been characterized previously. Both are multisubstrate and multifunctional clade III enzymes, which catalyze consecutive three-step oxidations in the conversion of diterpene olefins to DRAs. These reactions resemble the sequential diterpene oxidations affording ent-kaurenoic acid from ent-kaurene in gibberellin biosynthesis. Here, we functionally characterized the CYP720B clade I enzymes CYP720B2 and CYP720B12 in three different conifer species, Sitka spruce, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and jack pine (Pinus banksiana), and compared their activities with those of the clade III enzymes CYP720B1 and CYP720B4 of the same species. Unlike the clade III enzymes, clade I enzymes were ultimately found not to be active with diterpene olefins but converted the recently discovered, unstable diterpene synthase product 13-hydroxy-8(14)-abietene. Through alternative routes, CYP720B enzymes of both clades produce some of the same profiles of conifer oleoresin DRAs (abietic acid, neoabietic acid, levopimaric acid, and palustric acid), while clade III enzymes also function in the formation of pimaric acid, isopimaric acid, and sandaracopimaric acid. These results highlight the modularity of the specialized (i.e. secondary) diterpene metabolism, which produces conifer defense metabolites through variable combinations of different diterpene synthase and CYP720B enzymes. PMID:26936895

  7. Carotenoid biosynthesis in bacteria: In vitro studies of a crt/bch transcription factor from Rhodobacter capsulatus and carotenoid enzymes from Erwinia herbicola

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, D.A.

    1992-11-01

    A putative transcription factor in Rhodobactor capsulatus which binds upstream of the crt and bch pigment biosynthesis operons and appears to play a role in the adaptation of the organism from the aerobic to the anaerobic-photosynthetic growth mode was characterized. Chapter 2 describes the identification of this factor through an in vitro mobility shift assay, as well as the determination of its binding properties and sequence specificity. Chapter 3 focuses on the isolation of this factor. Biochemistry of later carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes derived from the non-photosynthetic bacterium, Erwinia herbicola. Chapter 4 describes the separate overexpression and in vitro analysis of two enzymes involved in the main sequence of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, lycopene cyclase and 5-carotene hydroxylase. Chapter 5 examines the overexpression and enzymology of functionally active zeaxanthin glucosyltransferase, an enzyme which carries out a more unusual transformation, converting a carotenoid into its more hydrophilic mono- and diglucoside derivatives. In addition, amino acid homology with other glucosyltransferases suggests a putative binding site for the UDP-activated glucose substrate.

  8. Effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) with reference to heme biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Arun J; Bhagwat, Vinod R; Patil, Jyotsna A; Dongre, Nilima N; Ambekar, Jeevan G; Jailkhani, Rama; Das, Kusal K

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in erythrocytes and malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma of battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) who were occupationally exposed to lead (Pb) over a long period of time (about 15 years). This study was also aimed to determine the Pb intoxication resulted in a disturbance of heme biosynthesis in BMW group. The blood Pb level of BMW group (n = 28) was found to be in the range of 25.8 - 78.0 microg/dL (mean + SD, 53.63 + 16.98) whereas in Pb unexposed control group (n = 35) the range was 2.8 - 22.0 microg/dL (mean + SD, 12.52 + 4.08). The blood level (Pb-B) and urinary lead level (Pb-U) were significantly increased in BMW group as compared to unexposed control. Though activated d- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities in BMW group did not show any significant change when compared to control group but activated / non activated erythrocyte - ALAD activities in BMW group showed a significant increase. Erythrocyte- zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), urinary daminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and porphobilinogen (PBG-U) of BMW groups elevated significantly as compared to control. A positive correlation (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) between Pb-B and ALA-U were found in BMW group but no such significant correlation (r = 0.02, p> 1.0) were observed in control group. Hematological study revealed a significant decrease of hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (%) and other blood indices and a significant increase of total leucocytes count in BMW group in comparison to control group. The serum MDA content was significantly increased (p < 0.001) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as erythrocyte- SOD (p < 0.001) and erythrocytecatalase (p < 0.001) were significantly reduced in BMW group as compared to control group. A positive correlation (r = 0.45, p < 0.02) between Pb-B and serum MDA level was observed in BMW group (Pb-B range 25.8 - 78.0 microg / d

  9. Oxytetracycline Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Pickens, Lauren B.; Tang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that acts by inhibiting protein synthesis in bacteria. It is an important member of the bacterial aromatic polyketide family, which is a structurally diverse class of natural products. OTC is synthesized by a type II polyketide synthase that generates the poly-β-ketone backbone through successive decarboxylative condensation of malonyl-CoA extender units, followed by modifications by cyclases, oxygenases, transferases, and additional tailoring enzymes. Genetic and biochemical studies have illuminated most of the steps involved in the biosynthesis of OTC, which is detailed here as a representative case study in type II polyketide biosynthesis. PMID:20522541

  10. In vitro characterization of the enzymes involved in TDP-D-forosamine biosynthesis in the spinosyn pathway of Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lin; Zhao, Zongbao; Melançon, Charles E; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Hung-wen

    2008-04-01

    Forosamine (4-dimethylamino)-2,3,4,6-tetradeoxy-beta-D-threo-hexopyranose) is a highly deoxygenated sugar component of several important natural products, including the potent yet environmentally benign insecticide spinosyns. To study D-forosamine biosynthesis, the five genes (spnO, N, Q, R, and S) from the spinosyn gene cluster thought to be involved in the conversion of TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to TDP-D-forosamine were cloned and heterologously expressed, and the corresponding proteins were purified and their activities examined in vitro. Previous work demonstrated that SpnQ functions as a pyridoxamine 5'-monophosphate (PMP)-dependent 3-dehydrase which, in the presence of the cellular reductase pairs ferredoxin/ferredoxin reductase or flavodoxin/flavodoxin reductase, catalyzes C-3 deoxygenation of TDP-4-keto-2,6-dideoxy-D-glucose. It was also established that SpnR functions as a transaminase which converts the SpnQ product, TDP-4-keto-2,3,6-trideoxy-D-glucose, to TDP-4-amino-2,3,4,6-tetradeoxy-D-glucose. The results presented here provide a full account of the characterization of SpnR and SpnQ and reveal that SpnO and SpnN functions as a 2,3-dehydrase and a 3-ketoreductase, respectively. These two enzymes act sequentially to catalyze C-2 deoxygenation of TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to form the SpnQ substrate, TDP-4-keto-2,6-dideoxy-D-glucose. Evidence has also been obtained to show that SpnS functions as the 4-dimethyltransferase that converts the SpnR product to TDP-D-forosamine. Thus, the biochemical functions of the five enzymes involved in TDP-D-forosamine formation have now been fully elucidated. The steady-state kinetic parameters for the SpnQ-catalyzed reaction have been determined, and the substrate specificities of SpnQ and SpnR have been explored. The implications of this work for natural product glycodiversification and comparative mechanistic analysis of SpnQ and related NDP-sugar 3-dehydrases E1 and ColD are discussed. PMID:18345667

  11. Vacuole-Localized Berberine Bridge Enzyme-Like Proteins Are Required for a Late Step of Nicotine Biosynthesis in Tobacco1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kajikawa, Masataka; Shoji, Tsubasa; Kato, Akira; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants synthesize nicotine and related pyridine-type alkaloids, such as anatabine, in their roots and accumulate them in their aerial parts as chemical defenses against herbivores. Herbivory-induced jasmonate signaling activates structural genes for nicotine biosynthesis and transport by way of the NICOTINE (NIC) regulatory loci. The biosynthesis of tobacco alkaloids involves the condensation of an unidentified nicotinic acid-derived metabolite with the N-methylpyrrolinium cation or with itself, but the exact enzymatic reactions and enzymes involved remain unclear. Here, we report that jasmonate-inducible tobacco genes encoding flavin-containing oxidases of the berberine bridge enzyme family (BBLs) are expressed in the roots and regulated by the NIC loci. When expression of the BBL genes was suppressed in tobacco hairy roots or in tobacco plants, nicotine production was highly reduced, with a gradual accumulation of a novel nicotine metabolite, dihydromethanicotine. In the jasmonate-elicited cultured tobacco cells, suppression of BBL expression efficiently inhibited the formation of anatabine and other pyridine alkaloids. Subcellular fractionation and localization of green fluorescent protein-tagged BBLs showed that BBLs are localized in the vacuoles. These results indicate that BBLs are involved in a late oxidation step subsequent to the pyridine ring condensation reaction in the biosynthesis of tobacco alkaloids. PMID:21343426

  12. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  13. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  14. Serine biosynthesis and transport defects.

    PubMed

    El-Hattab, Ayman W

    2016-07-01

    l-serine is a non-essential amino acid that is biosynthesized via the enzymes phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP). Besides its role in protein synthesis, l-serine is a potent neurotrophic factor and a precursor of a number of essential compounds including phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, glycine, and d-serine. Serine biosynthesis defects result from impairments of PGDH, PSAT, or PSP leading to systemic serine deficiency. Serine biosynthesis defects present in a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes, at the severe end, Neu-Laxova syndrome, a lethal multiple congenital anomaly disease, intermediately, infantile serine biosynthesis defects with severe neurological manifestations and growth deficiency, and at the mild end, the childhood disease with intellectual disability. A serine transport defect resulting from deficiency of the ASCT1, the main transporter for serine in the central nervous system, has been recently described in children with neurological manifestations that overlap with those observed in serine biosynthesis defects. l-serine therapy may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms in serine biosynthesis and transport defects, if started before neurological damage occurs. Herein, we review serine metabolism and transport, the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of serine biosynthesis and transport defects, the mechanisms of these diseases, and the potential role of serine therapy. PMID:27161889

  15. New FadB homologous enzymes and their use in enhanced biosynthesis of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates in FadB mutant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Jae; Yup Lee, Sang

    2004-06-20

    Recombinant Escherichia coli harboring the medium-chain-length (MCL) polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene has been shown to accumulate MCL-PHAs from fatty acids when FadB is inactive. However, the enzymes in fadB mutant E. coli responsible for channeling the beta-oxidation intermediates to PHA biosynthesis have not been fully elucidated. Only recently, two enzymes encoded by yfcX and maoC have been found to be partially responsible for this. In this study, we identified five new FadB homologous enzymes in E. coli: PaaG, PaaF, BhbD, SceH, and YdbU, by protein database search, and examined their roles in the biosynthesis of MCL-PHAs in an fadB mutant E. coli strain. Coexpression of each of these genes along with the Pseudomonas sp. 61-3 phaC2 gene did not allow synthesis of MCL-PHA from fatty acid in recombinant E. coli W3110, which has a fully functional beta-oxidation pathway, but allowed MCL-PHA accumulation in an fadB mutant E. coli WB101. In particular, coexpression of the paaG, paaF, and ydbU genes resulted in a MCL-PHA production up to 0.37, 0.25, and 0.33 g/L, respectively, from 2 g/L of sodium decanoate, which is more than twice higher than that obtained with E. coli WB101 expressing only the phaC2 gene (0.16 g/L). These results suggest that the newly found FadB homologous enzymes, or at least the paaG, paaF, and ydbU genes, are involved in MCL-PHA biosynthesis in an fadB mutant E. coli strain and can be employed for the enhanced production of MCL-PHA. PMID:15137080

  16. Involvement of Two Cytosolic Enzymes and a Novel Intermediate, 5′-Oxoaverantin, in the Pathway from 5′-Hydroxyaverantin to Averufin in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sakuno, Emi; Yabe, Kimiko; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2003-01-01

    During aflatoxin biosynthesis, 5′-hydroxyaverantin (HAVN) is converted to averufin (AVR). Although we had previously suggested that this occurs in one enzymatic step, we demonstrate here that this conversion is composed of two enzymatic steps by showing that the two enzyme activities in the cytosol fraction of Aspergillus parasiticus were clearly separated by Mono Q column chromatography. An enzyme, HAVN dehydrogenase, catalyzes the first reaction from HAVN to a novel intermediate, another new enzyme catalyzes the next reaction from the intermediate to AVR, and the intermediate is a novel substance, 5′-oxoaverantin (OAVN), which was determined by physicochemical methods. We also purified both of the enzymes, HAVN dehydrogenase and OAVN cyclase, from the cytosol fraction of A. parasiticus by using ammonium sulfate fractionation and successive chromatographic steps. The HAVN dehydrogenase is a homodimer composed of 28-kDa subunits, and it requires NAD, but not NADP, as a cofactor for its activity. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic peptides of the purified HAVN dehydrogenase revealed that this enzyme coincides with a protein deduced from the adhA gene in the aflatoxin gene cluster of A. parasiticus. Also, the OAVN cyclase enzyme is a homodimer composed of 79-kDa subunits which does not require any cofactor for its activity. Further characterizations of both enzymes were performed. PMID:14602595

  17. Development of a scintillation proximity assay for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis KasA and KasB enzymes involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, M L Merrill L; Carson, J D Jeffrey D; Kallender, Howard; Lonsdale, J T John T

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a global health problem, and programs dedicated to discovery of novel compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis require robust assays for high-throughput screening of chemical and natural product libraries. Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of mycolic acids, vital components of the mycobacterial cell wall, have received much attention as potential drug targets. KasA and KasB, examples of the beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I/II (KASI/II) class of condensing enzymes of the M. tuberculosis fatty acid synthase II system have been the focus of several studies designed to biochemically characterize these enzymes. Whilst robust methods have been developed for FabH-like proteins, fast and sensitive assays for high-throughput screening of KASI/II enzymes have not been available. Here we report the development of a direct scintillation proximity assay (SPA) for the KASI/II enzymes, KasA and KasB. The SPA was more sensitive than existing assays, as shown by its ability to measure activity using less enzyme than other assay formats, and the SPA was validated using the known KAS inhibitor thiolactomycin. In addition, the KasA and KasB SPA was adapted for use with Staphylococcus aureus FabF to show the versatility of this assay format to KAS enzymes from other pathogenic organisms. PMID:15525558

  18. Biosynthesis of Sesterterpenes, Head-to-Tail Triterpenes, and Sesquarterpenes in Bacillus clausii: Identification of Multifunctional Enzymes and Analysis of Isoprenoid Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Daijiro; Yamaga, Hiroaki; Murakami, Mizuki; Totsuka, Yusuke; Shinada, Tetsuro; Sato, Tsutomu

    2015-06-15

    We performed functional analysis of recombinant enzymes and analysis of isoprenoid metabolites in Bacillus clausii to gain insights into the biosynthesis of rare terpenoid groups of sesterterpenes, head-to-tail triterpenes, and sesquarterpenes. We have identified an (all-E)-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase (E-IDS) homologue as a trifunctional geranylfarnesyl diphosphate (GFPP)/hexaprenyl diphosphate (HexPP)/heptaprenyl diphosphate (HepPP) synthase. In addition, we have redefined the function of a tetraprenyl-β-curcumene synthase homologue as that of a trifunctional sesterterpene/triterpene/sesquarterpene synthase. This study has revealed that GFPP, HexPP, and HepPP, intermediates of two isoprenoid pathways (acyclic terpenes and menaquinones), are biosynthesized by one trifunctional E-IDS. In addition, GFPP/HexPP and HepPP are the primary substrates for the biosynthesis of acyclic terpenes and menaquinone-7, respectively. PMID:25882275

  19. The structural basis for catalytic function of GMD and RMD, two closely related enzymes from the GDP-d-rhamnose biosynthesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Erin M.; McNally, David J.; Brisson, Jean-Robert; Messner, Paul; Garavito, R. M.; Lam, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    The rare 6-deoxysugar d-rhamnose is a component of bacterial cell surface glycans, including the d-rhamnose homopolymer produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, called A-band O polysaccharide. GDP-d-rhamnose synthesis from GDP-d-mannose is catalyzed by two enzymes. The first is a GDP-d-mannose-4,6-dehydratase (GMD). The second enzyme, RMD, reduces the GMD product (GDP-6-deoxy-d-lyxo-hexos-4-ulose) to GDP-d-rhamnose. Genes encoding GMD and RMD are present in P. aeruginosa, and genetic evidence indicates they act in A-band O-polysaccharide biosynthesis. Details of their enzyme functions have not, however, been previously elucidated. We aimed to characterize these enzymes biochemically, and to determine the structure of RMD to better understand what determines substrate specificity and catalytic activity in these enzymes. We used capillary electrophoresis and NMR analysis of reaction products to precisely define P. aeruginosa GMD and RMD functions. P. aeruginosa GMD is bifunctional, and can catalyze both GDP-d-mannose 4,6-dehydration and the subsequent reduction reaction to produce GDP-d-rhamnose. RMD catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of GDP-6-deoxy-d-lyxo-hexos-4-ulose, as predicted. Reconstitution of GDP-d-rhamnose biosynthesis in vitro revealed that the P. aeruginosa pathway may be regulated by feedback inhibition in the cell. We determined the structure of RMD from Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus at 1.8 Å resolution. The structure of A. thermoaerophilus RMD is remarkably similar to that of P. aeruginosa GMD, which explains why P. aeruginosa GMD is also able to catalyze the RMD reaction. Comparison of the active sites and amino acid sequences suggests that a conserved amino acid side chain (Arg185 in P. aeruginosa GMD) may be crucial for orienting substrate and cofactor in GMD enzymes. PMID:19459932

  20. Strictosidine-related enzymes involved in the alkaloid biosynthesis of Uncaria tomentosa root cultures grown under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Vera-Reyes, Ileana; Huerta-Heredia, Ariana A; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Esparza-García, Fernando; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Trejo-Tapia, Gabriela; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C

    2013-01-01

    The activity and gene expression of strictosidine-related enzymes in Uncaria tomentosa root cultures exposed to oxidative stress were studied. Elicitation with 0.2 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) or a combination of 0.8 mM buthionine sulfoximine and 0.2 mM jasmonic acid (BSO-JA) increased peroxidase activities by twofold at Day 8 and glutathione reductase by 1.4-fold at Day 5 in H2 O2 elicited cultures respect to the control. Production of monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloids (MOA), 3α-dihydrocadambine, and dolichantoside was stimulated after H2 O2 elicitation, reaching levels of 886.4 ± 23.6, 847.7 ± 25.4, and 87.5 ± 7.2 µg/g DW, at Day 8 which were 1.7-, 2.1-, and 2.3-fold higher relative to control. BSO-JA elicited cultures produced about twice alkaloids than H2 O2 -treated cultures, following a biphasic pattern with maxima at 0.5 and 8 days. Alkaloid production was preceded by increase in strictosidine synthase (STR) and strictosidine glucosidase (SGD) activities. After elicitation with H2 O2 or BSO-JA, the STR activity (pKat/mg protein) increased by 1.9-fold (93.8 ± 17.8 at 24 h) or 2.5-fold (102.4 ± 2.2 at 6 h) and the SGD activity (pKat/mg protein) by 2.8-fold (245.2 ± 14.4 at 6 h) or 4.2-fold (421.2 ± 1.8 at 18 h) relative to control. STR and SGD transcripts were upregulated after elicitation. H2 O2 -treated roots showed higher levels of STR at 48-192 h and SGD at 24-48 h, while BSO-JA treatments showed STR increased at 12 h and SGD at 24 h. Also, LC/ESI-MS confirmed the biosynthesis of dolichantoside from N-ω-methyltryptamine and secologanin by U. tomentosa protein extracts. PMID:23606578

  1. Manganese-induced regulations in growth, yield formation, quality characters, rice aroma and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in fragrant rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Meijuan; Ashraf, Umair; Tian, Hua; Mo, Zhaowen; Pan, Shenggang; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Duan, Meiyang; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-06-01

    Micro-nutrient application is essential for normal plant growth while a little is known about manganese (Mn)-induced regulations in morpho-physiological attributes, aroma formation and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) biosynthesis in aromatic rice. Present study aimed to examine the influence of four levels of Mn i.e., Mn1 (100 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), Mn2 (150 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), Mn3 (200 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), and Mn4 (250 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)) on the growth, yield formation, quality characters, rice aroma and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in two fragrant rice cultivars i.e., Meixiangzhan and Nongxiang 18. Pots without Mn application were served as control (Ck). Each pot contained 15 kg of soil. Effects on agronomic characters, quality attributes, 2-AP contents and enzymes involved in 2-AP biosynthesis have been studied in early and late season rice. Results depicted that Mn improved rice growth, yield and related characters, and some quality attributes significantly. It further up-regulated proline, pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) (precursors of 2-AP), soluble proteins and activities of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH), Δ(1) pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid synthetase (P5CS) ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) that led to enhanced 2-AP production in rice grains. Moreover, higher Mn levels resulted in increased grain Mn contents in both rice cultivars. Along with growth and yield improvement, Mn application significantly improved rice aromatic contents. Overall, Nongxiang 18 accumulated more 2-AP contents than Meixiangzhan in both seasons under Mn application. This study further explored the importance of Mn in rice aroma formation and signifies that micro-nutrients can play significant roles in rice aroma synthesis; however, intensive studies at molecular levels are still needed to understand the exact mechanisms of Mn to improve rice aroma formation. PMID:26995311

  2. Biosynthesis of Versipelostatin: Identification of an Enzyme-Catalyzed [4+2]-Cycloaddition Required for Macrocyclization of Spirotetronate-Containing Polyketides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Versipelostatin (VST) is an unusual 17-membered macrocyclic polyketide product that contains a spirotetronate skeleton. In this study, the entire VST biosynthetic gene cluster (vst) spanning 108 kb from Streptomyces versipellis 4083-SVS6 was identified by heterologous expression using a bacterial artificial chromosome vector. Here, we demonstrate that an enzyme, VstJ, catalyzes the stereoselective [4+2]-cycloaddition between the conjugated diene and the exocyclic olefin of a newly identified tetronate-containing intermediate to form the spirotetronate skeleton during VST biosynthesis. PMID:25551461

  3. Interplay between the chalcone cardamonin and selenium in the biosynthesis of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes in intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    De Spirt, Silke; Eckers, Anna; Wehrend, Carina; Micoogullari, Mustafa; Sies, Helmut; Stahl, Wilhelm; Steinbrenner, Holger

    2016-02-01

    Selenoenzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated phase II enzymes comprise key components of the cellular redox and antioxidant systems, which show multiple interrelations. Deficiency of the micronutrient selenium (Se) and impaired biosynthesis of selenoproteins have been reported to result in induction of Nrf2 target genes. Conversely, transcription of the selenoenzymes glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is up-regulated upon Nrf2 activation. Here, we have studied the interplay between Se and the secondary plant metabolite cardamonin, an Nrf2-activating chalcone, in the regulation of Nrf2-controlled antioxidant enzymes. Se-deficient and Se-repleted (sodium selenite-supplemented) human intestinal Caco-2 cells were exposed to cardamonin. Uptake of cardamonin by the Caco-2 cells was independent of their Se status. Cardamonin strongly induced gene expression of GPx2 and TrxR1. However, cardamonin treatment did not result in elevated GPx or TrxR activity and protein levels, possibly relating to a concomitant down-regulation of O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase (PSTK), an enzyme involved in translation of selenoprotein mRNAs. On the other hand, induction of the Nrf2-regulated enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) by cardamonin was diminished in Se-replete compared to Se-deficient cells. Our findings suggest that cardamonin interferes with the biosynthesis of Nrf2-regulated selenoenzymes, in contrast to the Nrf2-activating isothiocyanate compound sulforaphane, which has been shown earlier to synergize with Se-mediated cytoprotection. Conversely, the cellular Se status apparently affects the cardamonin-mediated induction of non-selenoprotein antioxidant enzymes such as HO-1. PMID:26698667

  4. Enzyme

    MedlinePlus

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  5. Acetohydroxy acid synthase I, a required enzyme for isoleucine and valine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12 during growth on acetate as the sole carbon source.

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, F E; Cronan, J E

    1986-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 has two acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) isozymes (AHAS I and AHAS III). Both of these isozymes catalyze the synthesis of alpha-aceto-alpha-hydroxybutyrate and alpha-acetolactate, which are key intermediates of the isoleucine-valine biosynthetic pathway. Strains lacking either isozyme but not both activities have been previously shown to grow well in minimal media in the absence of isoleucine and valine on any of several commonly used carbon sources (e.g., glucose or succinate). We report the characterization of mutants that were unable to grow on either acetate or oleate as a sole carbon source due to a defect in isoleucine-valine biosynthesis. The defect in isoleucine-valine biosynthesis was expressed only on these carbon sources and was due to the loss of AHAS I activity, resulting from lesions in the ilvBN operon. Previously identified ilvBN mutant strains also failed to grow on acetate or oleate minimal media. Our results indicated that AHAS I is an essential enzyme for isoleucine and valine biosynthesis when E. coli K-12 is grown on acetate or oleate as the sole carbon source. AHAS III was expressed during growth on acetate or oleate but was somehow unable to produce sufficient amounts of alpha-aceto-alpha-hydroxybutyrate and alpha-acetolactate to allow growth. PMID:3511034

  6. N-(5′-Phosphoribosyl)anthranilate isomerase–indol-3-ylglycerol phosphate synthetase of tryptophan biosynthesis. Relationship between the two activities of the enzyme from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Creighton, Thomas E.

    1970-01-01

    Further evidence is presented to confirm the previous conclusion that the enzyme from Escherichia coli catalysing the two sequential reactions in tryptophan biosynthesis, N-(5′-phosphoribosyl)anthranilic acid (PRA) → 1-(o-carboxyphenyl-amino)-1-deoxyribulose 5-phosphate (CdRP) → indol-3-ylglycerol phosphate (InGP)+CO2+H2O, consists of a single polypeptide chain. The kinetic properties of the enzyme demonstrate that intermediate CdRP formed from PRA must dissociate from the enzyme before it can be converted into InGP. It is concluded that there are two distinct and non-overlapping catalytic sites on the enzyme for the two reactions. The expected complementation between a mutationally altered form of the enzyme lacking the first reaction and a mutationally altered form lacking the second reaction has been demonstrated in vitro by InGP formation from PRA. This system thus exhibits intracistronic complementation with a non-oligomeric protein gene product. PMID:4924490

  7. CYP306A1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme, is essential for ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the prothoracic glands of Bombyx and Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Ryusuke; Matsuda, Takahiro; Yoshiyama, Takuji; Namiki, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiroshi

    2004-08-20

    Ecdysteroids mediate a wide variety of developmental and physiological events in insects. In the postembryonic development of insects, ecdysone is synthesized in the prothoracic gland (PG). Although many studies have revealed the biochemical and physiological properties of the enzymes for ecdysteroid biosynthesis, most of the molecular identities of these enzymes have not been elucidated. Here we describe an uncharacterized cytochrome P450 gene, designated Cyp306a1, that is essential for ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the PGs of the silkworm Bombyx mori and fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Using the microarray technique for analyzing gene expression profiles in PG cells during Bombyx development, we identified two PG-specific P450 genes whose temporal expression patterns are correlated with changes in ecdysteroid titer during development. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that one of the Bombyx P450 genes belongs to the CYP306A1 subfamily. The temporal and spatial expression pattern of the Drosophila Cyp306a1 homolog is essentially the same as that of Bombyx Cyp306a1. We also found that Drosophila Cyp306a1 is disrupted in the phantom (phm) mutant, known also as the Halloween mutant. The morphological defects and decreased expression of ecdysone-inducible genes in phm suggest that this mutant cannot produce a high titer of ecdysone. Finally we demonstrate that S2 cells transfected with Cyp306a1 convert ketodiol to ketotriol via carbon 25 hydroxylation. These results strongly suggest that CYP306A1 functions as a carbon 25 hydroxylase and has an essential role in ecdysteroid biosynthesis during insect development. PMID:15197185

  8. Functional characterization of the initiation enzyme of S-layer glycoprotein glycan biosynthesis in Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Kerstin; Novotny, René; Patel, Kinnari; Vinogradov, Evgenij; Whitfield, Chris; Valvano, Miguel A; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2007-04-01

    The glycan chain of the S-layer glycoprotein of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a is composed of repeating units [-->2)-alpha-l-Rhap-(1-->3)-beta-l-Rhap-(1-->2)-alpha-l-Rhap-(1-->], with a 2-O-methyl modification of the terminal trisaccharide at the nonreducing end of the glycan chain, a core saccharide composed of two or three alpha-l-rhamnose residues, and a beta-d-galactose residue as a linker to the S-layer protein. In this study, we report the biochemical characterization of WsaP of the S-layer glycosylation gene cluster as a UDP-Gal:phosphoryl-polyprenol Gal-1-phosphate transferase that primes the S-layer glycoprotein glycan biosynthesis of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a. Our results demonstrate that the enzyme transfers in vitro a galactose-1-phosphate from UDP-galactose to endogenous phosphoryl-polyprenol and that the C-terminal half of WsaP carries the galactosyltransferase function, as already observed for the UDP-Gal:phosphoryl-polyprenol Gal-1-phosphate transferase WbaP from Salmonella enterica. To confirm the function of the enzyme, we show that WsaP is capable of reconstituting polysaccharide biosynthesis in WbaP-deficient strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. PMID:17237178

  9. Functional Characterization of the Initiation Enzyme of S-Layer Glycoprotein Glycan Biosynthesis in Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a▿

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Kerstin; Novotny, René; Patel, Kinnari; Vinogradov, Evgenij; Whitfield, Chris; Valvano, Miguel A.; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2007-01-01

    The glycan chain of the S-layer glycoprotein of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a is composed of repeating units [→2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→3)-β-l-Rhap-(1→2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→], with a 2-O-methyl modification of the terminal trisaccharide at the nonreducing end of the glycan chain, a core saccharide composed of two or three α-l-rhamnose residues, and a β-d-galactose residue as a linker to the S-layer protein. In this study, we report the biochemical characterization of WsaP of the S-layer glycosylation gene cluster as a UDP-Gal:phosphoryl-polyprenol Gal-1-phosphate transferase that primes the S-layer glycoprotein glycan biosynthesis of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a. Our results demonstrate that the enzyme transfers in vitro a galactose-1-phosphate from UDP-galactose to endogenous phosphoryl-polyprenol and that the C-terminal half of WsaP carries the galactosyltransferase function, as already observed for the UDP-Gal:phosphoryl-polyprenol Gal-1-phosphate transferase WbaP from Salmonella enterica. To confirm the function of the enzyme, we show that WsaP is capable of reconstituting polysaccharide biosynthesis in WbaP-deficient strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. PMID:17237178

  10. Exploring the Chemical Space around 8-Mercaptoguanine as a Route to New Inhibitors of the Folate Biosynthesis Enzyme HPPK

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Sandeep; Barlow, Nicholas; Dolezal, Olan; Hattarki, Meghan K.; Newman, Janet; Peat, Thomas S.; Graham, Bim; Swarbrick, James D.

    2013-01-01

    As the second essential enzyme of the folate biosynthetic pathway, the potential antimicrobial target, HPPK (6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase), catalyzes the Mg2+-dependant transfer of pyrophosphate from the cofactor (ATP) to the substrate, 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin. Recently, we showed that 8-mercaptoguanine (8-MG) bound at the substrate site (KD ∼13 µM), inhibited the S. aureus enzyme (SaHPPK) (IC50 ∼ 41 µM), and determined the structure of the SaHPPK/8-MG complex. Here we present the synthesis of a series of guanine derivatives, together with their HPPK binding affinities, as determined by SPR and ITC analysis. The binding mode of the most potent was investigated using 2D NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The results indicate, firstly, that the SH group of 8-MG makes a significant contribution to the free energy of binding. Secondly, direct N9 substitution, or tautomerization arising from N7 substitution in some cases, leads to a dramatic reduction in affinity due to loss of a critical N9-H···Val46 hydrogen bond, combined with the limited space available around the N9 position. The water-filled pocket under the N7 position is significantly more tolerant of substitution, with a hydroxyl ethyl 8-MG derivative attached to N7 (compound 21a) exhibiting an affinity for the apo enzyme comparable to the parent compound (KD ∼ 12 µM). In contrast to 8-MG, however, 21a displays competitive binding with the ATP cofactor, as judged by NMR and SPR analysis. The 1.85 Å X-ray structure of the SaHPPK/21a complex confirms that extension from the N7 position towards the Mg2+-binding site, which affords the only tractable route out from the pterin-binding pocket. Promising strategies for the creation of more potent binders might therefore include the introduction of groups capable of interacting with the Mg2+ centres or Mg2+ -binding residues, as well as the development of bitopic inhibitors featuring 8-MG linked to a moiety

  11. Hepatic enzyme activity after combined administration of methylmercury, lead and cadmium in the pekin duck

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.A.; Bhatnagar, M.K. )

    1990-04-01

    In order to assess adequately the environmental impact of heavy metals it is important to consider that they may occur simultaneously in the environment, where they may interact to alter their individual toxicities on living systems. Metals such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) can be found in all levels of the polluted ecosystem, and in animals inhabiting such areas. In the polluted aquatic environment waterfowl have been noted to accumulate high levels of these metals in their tissues. A major toxic manifestation of heavy metal exposure is the perturbation of a wide range of enzyme systems in virtually all subcellular compartments. With the exception of lead, little data is available on the effects of metals on avian enzyme systems. The present report describes the effects observed in vivo on acid phosphatase (AP), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome c oxidase (cyt c ox) in the liver of pekin ducks exposed to combinations of methylmercury (MeHg), lead and cadmium.

  12. Hypolactasia: a common enzyme deficiency leading to lactose malabsorption and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Lember, Margus

    2012-01-01

    Adult‑type hypolactasia (lactase nonpersistence or lactase deficiency) is the most common enzyme deficiency leading to lactose intolerance and primary lactose malabsorption. Clinical presentation of the condition includes symptoms resulting from bacterial fermentation of undigested lactose in the colon, which gives rise to gas bloat, increased motility, and loose stools. Diagnosis of the disease is based on clinical symptoms, biochemical, functional, histochemical and genetic tests. Treatment includes dietary restrictions, namely, use of low‑lactose milk, in which lactose has been prehydrolyzed, or non‑lactose milk. PMID:23222197

  13. Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 encodes two enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of GDP-L-fucose and GDP-D-rhamnose.

    PubMed

    Tonetti, Michela; Zanardi, Davide; Gurnon, James R; Fruscione, Floriana; Armirotti, Andrea; Damonte, Gianluca; Sturla, Laura; De Flora, Antonio; Van Etten, James L

    2003-06-13

    At least three structural proteins in Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus (PBCV-1) are glycosylated, including the major capsid protein Vp54. However, unlike other glycoprotein-containing viruses that use host-encoded enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi to glycosylate their proteins, PBCV-1 encodes at least many, if not all, of the glycosyltransferases used to glycosylate its structural proteins. As described here, PBCV-1 also encodes two open reading frames that resemble bacterial and mammalian enzymes involved in de novo GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis. This pathway, starting from GDP-D-mannose, consists of two sequential steps catalyzed by GDP-D-mannose 4,6 dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose epimerase/reductase, respectively. The two PBCV-1-encoded genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant proteins had the predicted enzyme activity. However, in addition to the dehydratase activity, PBCV-1 GMD also had a reductase activity, producing GDP-D-rhamnose. In vivo studies established that PBCV-1 GMD and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose epimerase/reductase are expressed after virus infection and that both GDP-L-fucose and GDP-D-rhamnose are produced in virus-infected cells. Thus, PBCV-1 is the first virus known to encode enzymes involved in nucleotide sugar metabolism. Because fucose and rhamnose are components of the glycans attached to Vp54, the pathway could circumvent a limited supply of GDP sugars by the algal host. PMID:12679342

  14. Maternal obesity upregulates fatty acid and glucose transporters and increases expression of enzymes mediating fatty acid biosynthesis in fetal adipose tissue depots.

    PubMed

    Long, N M; Rule, D C; Zhu, M J; Nathanielsz, P W; Ford, S P

    2012-07-01

    perirenal depot of OB versus CON fetuses, and specific fatty acid concentrations were altered (P < 0.05) in subcutaneous and pericardial adipose tissue because of maternal obesity. In conclusion, maternal obesity was associated with increased fetal adiposity, increased fatty acid and glucose transporters, and increased expression of enzymes mediating fatty acid biosynthesis in adipose depots. These alterations, if maintained into the postnatal period, could predispose the offspring to later obesity and metabolic disease. PMID:22266999

  15. Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis Enzyme, Ext1, Contributes to Outflow Tract Development of Mouse Heart via Modulation of FGF Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Cao, Peijuan; Yang, Zhongzhou; Wang, Zhenzhen; Wu, Jiu-Lin; Chen, Yan; Pan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans are important regulators of multiple signaling pathways. As a major constituent of the heart extracellular matrix, glycosaminoglycans are implicated in cardiac morphogenesis through interactions with different signaling morphogens. Ext1 is a glycosyltransferase responsible for heparan sulfate synthesis. Here, we evaluate the function of Ext1 in heart development by analyzing Ext1 hypomorphic mutant and conditional knockout mice. Outflow tract alignment is sensitive to the dosage of Ext1. Deletion of Ext1 in the mesoderm induces a cardiac phenotype similar to that of a mutant with conditional deletion of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, a key enzyme responsible for synthesis of all glycosaminoglycans. The outflow tract defect in conditional Ext1 knockout(Ext1f/f:Mesp1Cre) mice is attributable to the reduced contribution of second heart field and neural crest cells. Ext1 deletion leads to downregulation of FGF signaling in the pharyngeal mesoderm. Exogenous FGF8 ameliorates the defects in the outflow tract and pharyngeal explants. In addition, Ext1 expression in second heart field and neural crest cells is required for outflow tract remodeling. Our results collectively indicate that Ext1 is crucial for outflow tract formation in distinct progenitor cells, and heparan sulfate modulates FGF signaling during early heart development. PMID:26295701

  16. Cytochrome P450 3A Enzymes Catalyze the O6-Demethylation of Thebaine, a Key Step in Endogenous Mammalian Morphine Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kramlinger, Valerie M; Alvarado Rojas, Mónica; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Guengerich, F Peter

    2015-08-14

    Morphine, first characterized in opium from the poppy Papaver somniferum, is one of the strongest known analgesics. Endogenous morphine has been identified in several mammalian cells and tissues. The synthetic pathway of morphine in the opium poppy has been elucidated. The presence of common intermediates in plants and mammals suggests that biosynthesis occurs through similar pathways (beginning with the amino acid L-tyrosine), and the pathway has been completely delineated in plants. Some of the enzymes in the mammalian pathway have been identified and characterized. Two of the latter steps in the morphine biosynthesis pathway are demethylation of thebaine at the O(3)- and the O(6)-positions, the latter of which has been difficult to demonstrate. The plant enzymes responsible for both the O(3)-demethylation and the O(6)-demethylation are members of the Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family. Previous studies showed that human cytochrome P450 (P450) 2D6 can catalyze thebaine O(3)-demethylation. We report that demethylation of thebaine at the O(6)-position is selectively catalyzed by human P450s 3A4 and 3A5, with the latter being more efficient, and rat P450 3A2. Our results do not support O(6)-demethylation of thebaine by an Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase. In rat brain microsomes, O(6)-demethylation was inhibited by ketoconazole, but not sulfaphenazole, suggesting that P450 3A enzymes are responsible for this activity in the brain. An alternate pathway to morphine, oripavine O(6)-demethylation, was not detected. The major enzymatic steps in mammalian morphine synthesis have now been identified. PMID:26157146

  17. Effect of environmental exposures to lead and cadmium on human lymphocytic detoxifying enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    D'Souza, S.J.; Narurkar, L.M.; Narurkar, M.V. )

    1994-09-01

    Lead (Pb) is among the most toxic heavy elements in the atmosphere. Aerosol lead enters the human blood stream by way of the respiratory tract and indirectly, by surface disposition in the alimentary tract followed by adsorption. Lead pollution is also known to occur through its presence in petrol, pain, glazed vessels and solder. Atmospheric lead pollution may be predominantly high around factories manufacturing Pb alloys. Lead toxicity is associated with inhibition of [alpha]-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD) activity, rise in the blood porphyrin, inhibition of ATPase in erthrocytes, decreased blood haemoglobin and anemia. Elevated lead concentrations in pregnant women have been shown to cause hypertension and birth defects. Lead is also known to interact with other elements such as Fe, Zn, Ca and Cu in biological systems. Cadmium (Cd) is not essential for human body. It enters the human environment as a contaminant. Human intake of Cd is chiefly through the food chain (about 400-500 [mu]g/wk). Analysis of neuropsy material shows that smokers accumulate much more Cd than nonsmokers. Chronic Cd poisoning produces proteinuere and affects the proximal tubules of kidney, causing the formation of kidney stones. The reported hypertensive effect of Cd in man has been associated with high Cd/Zn ratio in kidney. Studies on air pollution have shown that Cd concentration in air could be positively correlated with heart disease, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. The present investigation was aimed at assessing the usefulness of human lymphocytic detoxicating enzyme activities and their ratios in an assessment of human health-risks during environmental exposures to Pb and Cd. The human subjects investigated comprised those exposed to highly contaminated lead and cadmium areas in the state of Maharashtra, India. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Characterization of the Biosynthesis, Processing and Kinetic Mechanism of Action of the Enzyme Deficient in Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIC

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaolian; Tkachyova, Ilona; Sinha, Ankit; Rigat, Brigitte; Mahuran, Don

    2011-01-01

    Heparin acetyl-CoA:alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase (N-acetyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.78) is an integral lysosomal membrane protein containing 11 transmembrane domains, encoded by the HGSNAT gene. Deficiencies of N-acetyltransferase lead to mucopolysaccharidosis IIIC. We demonstrate that contrary to a previous report, the N-acetyltransferase signal peptide is co-translationally cleaved and that this event is required for its intracellular transport to the lysosome. While we confirm that the N-acetyltransferase precursor polypeptide is processed in the lysosome into a small amino-terminal alpha- and a larger ß- chain, we further characterize this event by identifying the mature amino-terminus of each chain. We also demonstrate this processing step(s) is not, as previously reported, needed to produce a functional transferase, i.e., the precursor is active. We next optimize the biochemical assay procedure so that it remains linear as N-acetyltransferase is purified or protein-extracts containing N-acetyltransferase are diluted, by the inclusion of negatively charged lipids. We then use this assay to demonstrate that the purified single N-acetyltransferase protein is both necessary and sufficient to express transferase activity, and that N-acetyltransferase functions as a monomer. Finally, the kinetic mechanism of action of purified N-acetyltransferase was evaluated and found to be a random sequential mechanism involving the formation of a ternary complex with its two substrates; i.e., N-acetyltransferase does not operate through a ping-pong mechanism as previously reported. We confirm this conclusion by demonstrating experimentally that no acetylated enzyme intermediate is formed during the reaction. PMID:21957468

  19. Toxoplasma gondii lacks the enzymes required for de novo arginine biosynthesis and arginine starvation triggers cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Fox, Barbara A; Gigley, Jason P; Bzik, David J

    2004-03-01

    Two separate carbamoyl phosphate synthetase activities are required for the de novo synthesis of pyrimidines and arginine in most eukaryotes. Toxoplasma gondii is novel in possessing a single carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II gene that corresponds to a glutamine-dependent form required for pyrimidine biosynthesis. We therefore examined arginine acquisition in T. gondii to determine whether the single carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II activity could provide both pyrimidine and arginine biosynthesis. We found that arginine deprivation efficiently blocks the replication of intracellular T. gondii, yet has little effect on long-term parasite viability. Addition of citrulline, but not ornithine, rescues the growth defect observed in the absence of exogenous arginine. This rescue with citrulline is ablated when parasites are cultured in a human citrullinemia fibroblast cell line that is deficient in argininosuccinate synthetase activity. These results reveal the absence of genes and activities of the arginine biosynthetic pathway and demonstrate that T. gondii is an arginine auxotroph. Arginine starvation was also found to efficiently trigger differentiation of replicative tachyzoites into bradyzoites contained within stable cyst-like structures. These same parasites expressing bradyzoite antigens can be efficiently switched back to rapidly proliferating tachyzoites several weeks after arginine starvation. We hypothesise that the absence of gene activities that are essential for the biosynthesis of arginine from carbamoyl phosphate confers a selective advantage by increasing bradyzoite switching during the host response to T. gondii infection. These findings are consistent with a model of host-parasite evolution that allowed host control of bradyzoite induction by trading off virulence for increased transmission. PMID:15003493

  20. Starch granule biosynthesis in Arabidopsis is abolished by removal of all debranching enzymes but restored by the subsequent removal of an endoamylase.

    PubMed

    Streb, Sebastian; Delatte, Thierry; Umhang, Martin; Eicke, Simona; Schorderet, Martine; Reinhardt, Didier; Zeeman, Samuel C

    2008-12-01

    Several studies have suggested that debranching enzymes (DBEs) are involved in the biosynthesis of amylopectin, the major constituent of starch granules. Our systematic analysis of all DBE mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrates that when any DBE activity remains, starch granules are still synthesized, albeit with altered amylopectin structure. Quadruple mutants lacking all four DBE proteins (Isoamylase1 [ISA1], ISA2, and ISA3, and Limit-Dextrinase) are devoid of starch granules and instead accumulate highly branched glucans, distinct from amylopectin and from previously described phytoglycogen. A fraction of these glucans are present as discrete, insoluble, nanometer-scale particles, but the structure and properties of this material are radically altered compared with wild-type amylopectin. Superficially, these data support the hypothesis that debranching is required for amylopectin synthesis. However, our analyses show that soluble glucans in the quadruple DBE mutant are degraded by alpha- and beta-amylases during periods of net accumulation, giving rise to maltose and branched malto-oligosaccharides. The additional loss of the chloroplastic alpha-amylase AMY3 partially reverts the phenotype of the quadruple DBE mutant, restoring starch granule biosynthesis. We propose that DBEs function in normal amylopectin synthesis by promoting amylopectin crystallization but conclude that they are not mandatory for starch granule synthesis. PMID:19074683

  1. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of PhzA, the first enzyme of the phenazine biosynthesis pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Ekta G; Mavrodi, Dimitri V; Thomashow, Linda S; Blankenfeldt, Wulf

    2004-06-01

    Phenazines are broad-spectrum antibiotic metabolites produced by organisms such as Pseudomonas and Streptomyces. Phenazines have been shown to enhance microbial competitiveness and the pathogenic potential of the organisms that synthesize them. PhzA (163 residues, approximate molecular weight 18.7 kDa) is the product of the first of seven genes of the operon responsible for phenazine biosynthesis in P. fluorescens 2-79. This enzyme is thought to catalyse one of the final steps in the formation of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, the end product of phenazine biosynthesis in P. fluorescens 2-79. Here, the purification and crystallization of recombinant PhzA are reported. Crystals diffracting to 2.1 angstroms were obtained using 1.6 M magnesium sulfate and 2-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid monohydrate (MES) buffer pH 5.2-5.6. Crystals of both native and seleno-L-methionine-labelled protein belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 66.8, b = 75.3, c = 84.5 angstroms. The asymmetric unit contains one dimer of PhzA. PMID:15159577

  2. Reduced Biosynthesis of Digalactosyldiacylglycerol, a Major Chloroplast Membrane Lipid, Leads to Oxylipin Overproduction and Phloem Cap Lignification in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang-Tsung; Chen, Lih-Jen; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Li, Hsou-Min

    2016-01-01

    DIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL SYNTHASE1 (DGD1) is a chloroplast outer membrane protein responsible for the biosynthesis of the lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) from monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG). The Arabidopsis thaliana dgd1 mutants have a greater than 90% reduction in DGDG content, reduced photosynthesis, and altered chloroplast morphology. However, the most pronounced visible phenotype is the extremely short inflorescence stem, but how deficient DGDG biosynthesis causes this phenotype is unclear. We found that, in dgd1 mutants, phloem cap cells were lignified and jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes were highly upregulated under normal growth conditions. The coronative insensitive1 dgd1 and allene oxide synthase dgd1 double mutants no longer exhibited the short inflorescence stem and lignification phenotypes but still had the same lipid profile and reduced photosynthesis as dgd1 single mutants. Hormone and lipidomics analyses showed higher levels of JA, JA-isoleucine, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and arabidopsides in dgd1 mutants. Transcript and protein level analyses further suggest that JA biosynthesis in dgd1 is initially activated through the increased expression of genes encoding 13-lipoxygenases (LOXs) and phospholipase A-Iγ3 (At1g51440), a plastid lipase with a high substrate preference for MGDG, and is sustained by further increases in LOX and allene oxide cyclase mRNA and protein levels. Our results demonstrate a link between the biosynthesis of DGDG and JA. PMID:26721860

  3. Acclimation of Arabidopsis Leaves Developing at Low Temperatures. Increasing Cytoplasmic Volume Accompanies Increased Activities of Enzymes in the Calvin Cycle and in the Sucrose-Biosynthesis Pathway1

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Åsa; Hurry, Vaughan; Henkes, Stefan; Huner, Norman; Gustafsson, Petter; Gardeström, Per; Stitt, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Photosynthetic and metabolic acclimation to low growth temperatures were studied in Arabidopsis (Heynh.). Plants were grown at 23°C and then shifted to 5°C. We compared the leaves shifted to 5°C for 10 d and the new leaves developed at 5°C with the control leaves on plants that had been left at 23°C. Leaf development at 5°C resulted in the recovery of photosynthesis to rates comparable with those achieved by control leaves at 23°C. There was a shift in the partitioning of carbon from starch and toward sucrose (Suc) in leaves that developed at 5°C. The recovery of photosynthetic capacity and the redirection of carbon to Suc in these leaves were associated with coordinated increases in the activity of several Calvin-cycle enzymes, even larger increases in the activity of key enzymes for Suc biosynthesis, and an increase in the phosphate available for metabolism. Development of leaves at 5°C also led to an increase in cytoplasmic volume and a decrease in vacuolar volume, which may provide an important mechanism for increasing the enzymes and metabolites in cold-acclimated leaves. Understanding the mechanisms underlying such structural changes during leaf development in the cold could result in novel approaches to increasing plant yield. PMID:10198098

  4. Acclimation of Arabidopsis leaves developing at low temperatures. Increasing cytoplasmic volume accompanies increased activities of enzymes in the Calvin cycle and in the sucrose-biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Strand, A; Hurry, V; Henkes, S; Huner, N; Gustafsson, P; Gardeström, P; Stitt, M

    1999-04-01

    Photosynthetic and metabolic acclimation to low growth temperatures were studied in Arabidopsis (Heynh.). Plants were grown at 23 degrees C and then shifted to 5 degrees C. We compared the leaves shifted to 5 degrees C for 10 d and the new leaves developed at 5 degrees C with the control leaves on plants that had been left at 23 degrees C. Leaf development at 5 degrees C resulted in the recovery of photosynthesis to rates comparable with those achieved by control leaves at 23 degrees C. There was a shift in the partitioning of carbon from starch and toward sucrose (Suc) in leaves that developed at 5 degrees C. The recovery of photosynthetic capacity and the redirection of carbon to Suc in these leaves were associated with coordinated increases in the activity of several Calvin-cycle enzymes, even larger increases in the activity of key enzymes for Suc biosynthesis, and an increase in the phosphate available for metabolism. Development of leaves at 5 degrees C also led to an increase in cytoplasmic volume and a decrease in vacuolar volume, which may provide an important mechanism for increasing the enzymes and metabolites in cold-acclimated leaves. Understanding the mechanisms underlying such structural changes during leaf development in the cold could result in novel approaches to increasing plant yield. PMID:10198098

  5. (1,3;1,4)-β-Glucan Biosynthesis by the CSLF6 Enzyme: Position and Flexibility of Catalytic Residues Influence Product Fine Structure.

    PubMed

    Dimitroff, George; Little, Alan; Lahnstein, Jelle; Schwerdt, Julian G; Srivastava, Vaibhav; Bulone, Vincent; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose synthase-like F6 (CslF6) genes encode polysaccharide synthases responsible for (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan biosynthesis in cereal grains. However, it is not clear how both (1,3)- and (1,4)-linkages are incorporated into a single polysaccharide chain and how the frequency and arrangement of the two linkage types that define the fine structure of the polysaccharide are controlled. Through transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, two CSLF6 orthologs from different cereal species were shown to mediate the synthesis of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans with very different fine structures. Chimeric cDNA constructs with interchanged sections of the barley and sorghum CslF6 genes were developed to identify regions of the synthase enzyme responsible for these differences. A single amino acid residue upstream of the TED motif in the catalytic region was shown to dramatically change the fine structure of the polysaccharide produced. The structural basis of this effect can be rationalized by reference to a homology model of the enzyme and appears to be related to the position and flexibility of the TED motif in the active site of the enzyme. The region and amino acid residue identified provide opportunities to manipulate the solubility of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in grains and vegetative tissues of the grasses and, in particular, to enhance the solubility of dietary fibers that are beneficial to human health. PMID:26967377

  6. Propiconazole-enhanced hepatic cell proliferation is associated with dysregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway leading to activation of Erk1/2 through Ras farnesylation

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Lynea A.; Moore, Tanya; Nesnow, Stephen

    2012-04-15

    Propiconazole is a mouse hepatotumorigenic fungicide designed to inhibit CYP51, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ergosterol in fungi and is widely used in agriculture to prevent fungal growth. Metabolomic studies in mice revealed that propiconazole increased levels of hepatic cholesterol metabolites and bile acids, and transcriptomic studies revealed that genes within the cholesterol biosynthesis, cholesterol metabolism and bile acid biosyntheses pathways were up-regulated. Hepatic cell proliferation was also increased by propiconazole. AML12 immortalized hepatocytes were used to study propiconazole's effects on cell proliferation focusing on the dysregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis and resulting effects on Ras farnesylation and Erk1/2 activation as a primary pathway. Mevalonate, a key intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, increases cell proliferation in several cancer cell lines and tumors in vivo and serves as the precursor for isoprenoids (e.g. farnesyl pyrophosphate) which are crucial in the farnesylation of the Ras protein by farnesyl transferase. Farnesylation targets Ras to the cell membrane where it is involved in signal transduction, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In our studies, mevalonic acid lactone (MVAL), a source of mevalonic acid, increased cell proliferation in AML12 cells which was reduced by farnesyl transferase inhibitors (L-744,832 or manumycin) or simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, indicating that this cell system responded to alterations in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Cell proliferation in AML12 cells was increased by propiconazole which was reversed by co-incubation with L-744,832 or simvastatin. Increasing concentrations of exogenous cholesterol muted the proliferative effects of propiconazole and the inhibitory effects of L-733,832, results ascribed to reduced stimulation of the endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Western blot analysis of subcellular

  7. Loop dynamics of thymidine diphosphate-rhamnose 3'-O-methyltransferase (CalS11), an enzyme in calicheamicin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Singh, Shanteri; Thorson, Jon S; Phillips, George N

    2016-01-01

    Structure analysis and ensemble refinement of the apo-structure of thymidine diphosphate (TDP)-rhamnose 3'-O-methyltransferase reveal a gate for substrate entry and product release. TDP-rhamnose 3'-O-methyltransferase (CalS11) catalyses a 3'-O-methylation of TDP-rhamnose, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of enediyne antitumor antibiotic calicheamicin. CalS11 operates at the sugar nucleotide stage prior to glycosylation step. Here, we present the crystal structure of the apo form of CalS11 at 1.89 Å resolution. We propose that the L2 loop functions as a gate facilitating and/or providing specificity for substrate entry or promoting product release. Ensemble refinement analysis slightly improves the crystallographic refinement statistics and furthermore provides a compelling way to visualize the dynamic model of loop L2, supporting the understanding of its proposed role in catalysis. PMID:26958582

  8. Taking control over control: use of product sensing in single cells to remove flux control at key enzymes in biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Schendzielorz, Georg; Dippong, Martin; Grünberger, Alexander; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Yoshida, Ayako; Binder, Stephan; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Nishiyama, Makoto; Bott, Michael; Eggeling, Lothar

    2014-01-17

    Enzymes initiating the biosynthesis of cellular building blocks are frequently inhibited by the end-product of the respective pathway. Here we present an approach to rapidly generate sets of enzymes overriding this control. It is based on the in vivo detection of the desired end-product in single cells using a genetically encoded sensor. The sensor transmits intracellular product concentrations into a graded optical output, thus enabling ultrahigh-throughput screens by FACS. We randomly mutagenized plasmid-encoded ArgB of Corynebacterium glutamicum and screened the library in a strain carrying the sensor pSenLys-Spc, which detects l-lysine, l-arginine and l-histidine. Six of the resulting N-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase proteins were further developed and characterized and found to be at least 20-fold less sensitive toward l-arginine inhibition than the wild-type enzyme. Overexpression of the mutein ArgB-K47H-V65A in C. glutamicumΔargR led to the accumulation of 34 mM l-arginine in the culture medium. We also screened mutant libraries of lysC-encoded aspartate kinase and hisG-encoded ATP phosphoribosyltransferase. We isolated 11 LysC muteins, enabling up to 45 mM l-lysine accumulation, and 13 HisG muteins, enabling up to 17 mM l-histidine accumulation. These results demonstrate that in vivo screening of enzyme libraries by using metabolite sensors is extremely well suited to identify high-performance muteins required for overproduction. PMID:23829416

  9. Sterol side chain reductase 2 is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, the common precursor of toxic steroidal glycoalkaloids in potato.

    PubMed

    Sawai, Satoru; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Yasumoto, Shuhei; Seki, Hikaru; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Aoki, Toshio; Muranaka, Toshiya; Saito, Kazuki; Umemoto, Naoyuki

    2014-09-01

    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) contain α-solanine and α-chaconine, two well-known toxic steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs). Sprouts and green tubers accumulate especially high levels of SGAs. Although SGAs were proposed to be biosynthesized from cholesterol, the biosynthetic pathway for plant cholesterol is poorly understood. Here, we identify sterol side chain reductase 2 (SSR2) from potato as a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and related SGAs. Using in vitro enzyme activity assays, we determined that potato SSR2 (St SSR2) reduces desmosterol and cycloartenol to cholesterol and cycloartanol, respectively. These reduction steps are branch points in the biosynthetic pathways between C-24 alkylsterols and cholesterol in potato. Similar enzymatic results were also obtained from tomato SSR2. St SSR2-silenced potatoes or St SSR2-disrupted potato generated by targeted genome editing had significantly lower levels of cholesterol and SGAs without affecting plant growth. Our results suggest that St SSR2 is a promising target gene for breeding potatoes with low SGA levels. PMID:25217510

  10. Sterol Side Chain Reductase 2 Is a Key Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of Cholesterol, the Common Precursor of Toxic Steroidal Glycoalkaloids in Potato[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sawai, Satoru; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Yasumoto, Shuhei; Seki, Hikaru; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Aoki, Toshio; Muranaka, Toshiya; Saito, Kazuki; Umemoto, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) contain α-solanine and α-chaconine, two well-known toxic steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs). Sprouts and green tubers accumulate especially high levels of SGAs. Although SGAs were proposed to be biosynthesized from cholesterol, the biosynthetic pathway for plant cholesterol is poorly understood. Here, we identify sterol side chain reductase 2 (SSR2) from potato as a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and related SGAs. Using in vitro enzyme activity assays, we determined that potato SSR2 (St SSR2) reduces desmosterol and cycloartenol to cholesterol and cycloartanol, respectively. These reduction steps are branch points in the biosynthetic pathways between C-24 alkylsterols and cholesterol in potato. Similar enzymatic results were also obtained from tomato SSR2. St SSR2-silenced potatoes or St SSR2-disrupted potato generated by targeted genome editing had significantly lower levels of cholesterol and SGAs without affecting plant growth. Our results suggest that St SSR2 is a promising target gene for breeding potatoes with low SGA levels. PMID:25217510

  11. Evolutionary view of acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), a key enzyme in neutral lipid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Triacylglycerides (TAGs) are a class of neutral lipids that represent the most important storage form of energy for eukaryotic cells. DGAT (acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.20) is a transmembrane enzyme that acts in the final and committed step of TAG synthesis, and it has been proposed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in plant storage lipid accumulation. In fact, two different enzymes identified in several eukaryotic species, DGAT1 and DGAT2, are the main enzymes responsible for TAG synthesis. These enzymes do not share high DNA or protein sequence similarities, and it has been suggested that they play non-redundant roles in different tissues and in some species in TAG synthesis. Despite a number of previous studies on the DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes, which have emphasized their importance as potential obesity treatment targets to increase triacylglycerol accumulation, little is known about their evolutionary timeline in eukaryotes. The goal of this study was to examine the evolutionary relationship of the DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes across eukaryotic organisms in order to infer their origin. Results We have conducted a broad survey of fully sequenced genomes, including representatives of Amoebozoa, yeasts, fungi, algae, musses, plants, vertebrate and invertebrate species, for the presence of DGAT1 and DGAT2 gene homologs. We found that the DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes are nearly ubiquitous in eukaryotes and are readily identifiable in all the major eukaryotic groups and genomes examined. Phylogenetic analyses of the DGAT1 and DGAT2 amino acid sequences revealed evolutionary partitioning of the DGAT protein family into two major DGAT1 and DGAT2 clades. Protein secondary structure and hydrophobic-transmembrane analysis also showed differences between these enzymes. The analysis also revealed that the MGAT2 and AWAT genes may have arisen from DGAT2 duplication events. Conclusions In this study, we identified several DGAT1 and DGAT2 homologs in eukaryote taxa

  12. Synthesis of Chromone, Quinolone, and Benzoxazinone Sulfonamide Nucleosides as Conformationally Constrained Inhibitors of Adenylating Enzymes Required for Siderophore Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, Curtis A.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2013-01-01

    MbtA catalyzes the first committed step of mycobactin biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and is responsible for the incorporation of salicylic acid into the mycobactin siderophores. 5′-O-[N-(Salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (Sal-AMS) is an extremely potent nucleoside inhibitor of MbtA that possesses excellent activity against whole-cell Mtb, but suffers from poor bioavailability. In an effort to improve the bioavailability, we have designed four conformationally constrained analogues of Sal-AMS that remove two rotatable bonds and the ionized sulfamate group based on computational and structural studies. Herein we describe the synthesis, biochemical, and microbiological evaluation of chromone-, quinolone-, and benzoxazinone-3-sulfonamide derivatives of Sal-AMS. We developed new chemistry to assemble these three heterocycles from common β-ketosulfonamide intermediates. The synthesis of the chromone- and quinolone-3-sulfonamide intermediates features formylation of a β-ketosulfonamide employing dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal to afford an enaminone that can react intramolecularly with a phenol or intermolecularly with a primary amine via addition-elimination reaction(s). The benzoxazinone-3-sulfonamide was prepared by nitrosation of a β-ketosulfonamide followed by intramolecular nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Mitsunobu coupling of these bicyclic sulfonamides with a protected adenosine derivative followed by global deprotection provides a concise synthesis of the respective inhibitors. PMID:23805993

  13. Induction of isoflavonoid pathway in the model legume Lotus japonicus: molecular characterization of enzymes involved in phytoalexin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Shimada, N; Akashi, T; Aoki, T; Ayabe, S -i.

    2000-12-01

    Treatment of the seedlings of Lotus japonicus, a model legume for molecular genetic studies, with reduced glutathione (GSH) resulted in the accumulation of an isoflavan phytoalexin, vestitol. Using PCR strategies based on the conserved amino acid sequences, full length P450 cDNAs were obtained from GSH-treated seedling roots. When the clones, LjCYP-1 (CYP93C family) and LjCYP-2 (CYP81E family), were heterologously expressed in yeast, the proteins exhibited 2-hydroxyisoflavanone synthase (IFS) and isoflavone 2'-hydroxylase (I2'H) activities, respectively. The transcription levels of LjCYP-1, LjCYP-2 and isoflavone reductase, which are all involved in vestitol biosynthesis, coordinately increased upon elicitation. Genomic Southern blot analysis indicated that the IFS gene forms a small gene family and a single copy of the I2'H gene is present in the L. japonicus genome. Molecular biological aspects of P450s involved in the isoflavonoid pathway and the genomic approach to flavonoid metabolism in this unique plant are discussed. PMID:11164575

  14. Mutation of the Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Enzyme Cytochrome P450 83A1 Monooxygenase Increases Camalexin Accumulation and Powdery Mildew Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Simu; Bartnikas, Lisa M.; Volko, Sigrid M.; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Tang, Dingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Small secondary metabolites, including glucosinolates and the major phytoalexin camalexin, play important roles in immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana. We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant with increased resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum and identified a mutation in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 83A1 monooxygenase (CYP83A1), which functions in glucosinolate biosynthesis. The cyp83a1-3 mutant exhibited enhanced defense responses to G. cichoracearum and double mutant analysis showed that this enhanced resistance requires NPR1, EDS1, and PAD4, but not SID2 or EDS5. In cyp83a1-3 mutants, the expression of genes related to camalexin synthesis increased upon G. cichoracearum infection. Significantly, the cyp83a1-3 mutant also accumulated higher levels of camalexin. Decreasing camalexin levels by mutation of the camalexin synthetase gene PAD3 or the camalexin synthesis regulator AtWRKY33 compromised the powdery mildew resistance in these mutants. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of PAD3 increased camalexin levels and enhanced resistance to G. cichoracearum. Taken together, our data indicate that accumulation of higher levels of camalexin contributes to increased resistance to powdery mildew. PMID:26973671

  15. Construction of a Gene Knockout System for Application in Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051T, Exemplified by the S-Layer Glycan Biosynthesis Initiation Enzyme WsfP▿

    PubMed Central

    Zarschler, Kristof; Janesch, Bettina; Zayni, Sonja; Schäffer, Christina; Messner, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051T is covered by an oblique surface layer (S-layer) composed of glycoprotein subunits. The S-layer O-glycan is a polymer of [→3)-β-d-Galp-(1[α-d-Glcp-(1→6)]→4)-β-d-ManpNAc-(1→] repeating units that is linked by an adaptor of -[GroA-2→OPO2→4-β-d-ManpNAc-(1→4)]→3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→3)-α-l-Rhap-(1→3)-β-d-Galp-(1→ to specific tyrosine residues of the S-layer protein. For elucidation of the mechanism governing S-layer glycan biosynthesis, a gene knockout system using bacterial mobile group II intron-mediated gene disruption was developed. The system is further based on the sgsE S-layer gene promoter of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a and on the Geobacillus-Bacillus-Escherichia coli shuttle vector pNW33N. As a target gene, wsfP, encoding a putative UDP-Gal:phosphoryl-polyprenol Gal-1-phosphate transferase, representing the predicted initiation enzyme of S-layer glycan biosynthesis, was disrupted. S-layer protein glycosylation was completely abolished in the insertional P. alvei CCM 2051T wsfP mutant, according to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis evidence and carbohydrate analysis. Glycosylation was fully restored by plasmid-based expression of wsfP in the glycan-deficient P. alvei mutant, confirming that WsfP initiates S-layer protein glycosylation. This is the first report on the successful genetic manipulation of bacterial S-layer protein glycosylation in vivo, including transformation of and heterologous gene expression and gene disruption in the model organism P. alvei CCM 2051T. PMID:19304819

  16. Construction of a gene knockout system for application in Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051T, exemplified by the S-layer glycan biosynthesis initiation enzyme WsfP.

    PubMed

    Zarschler, Kristof; Janesch, Bettina; Zayni, Sonja; Schäffer, Christina; Messner, Paul

    2009-05-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051T is covered by an oblique surface layer (S-layer) composed of glycoprotein subunits. The S-layer O-glycan is a polymer of [-->3)-beta-D-Galp-(1[alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->6)]-->4)-beta-D-ManpNAc-(1-->] repeating units that is linked by an adaptor of -[GroA-2-->OPO2-->4-beta-D-ManpNAc-(1-->4)]-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-beta-D-Galp-(1--> to specific tyrosine residues of the S-layer protein. For elucidation of the mechanism governing S-layer glycan biosynthesis, a gene knockout system using bacterial mobile group II intron-mediated gene disruption was developed. The system is further based on the sgsE S-layer gene promoter of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a and on the Geobacillus-Bacillus-Escherichia coli shuttle vector pNW33N. As a target gene, wsfP, encoding a putative UDP-Gal:phosphoryl-polyprenol Gal-1-phosphate transferase, representing the predicted initiation enzyme of S-layer glycan biosynthesis, was disrupted. S-layer protein glycosylation was completely abolished in the insertional P. alvei CCM 2051T wsfP mutant, according to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis evidence and carbohydrate analysis. Glycosylation was fully restored by plasmid-based expression of wsfP in the glycan-deficient P. alvei mutant, confirming that WsfP initiates S-layer protein glycosylation. This is the first report on the successful genetic manipulation of bacterial S-layer protein glycosylation in vivo, including transformation of and heterologous gene expression and gene disruption in the model organism P. alvei CCM 2051T. PMID:19304819

  17. In Vitro Characterization of Echinomycin Biosynthesis: Formation and Hydroxylation of L-Tryptophanyl-S-Enzyme and Oxidation of (2S,3S) β-Hydroxytryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Lei, Xuan; Zhu, Tao; Yin, Jun; Lin, Birun; Deng, Zixin; You, Delin

    2013-01-01

    Quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QXC) and 3-hydroxyquinaldic acid (HQA) feature in quinomycin family and confer anticancer activity. In light of the significant potency against cancer, the biosynthetic gene clusters have been reported from many different Streptomyces strains, and the biosynthetic pathway were proposed mainly based on the in vivo feeding experiment with isotope labeled putative intermediates. Herein we report another gene cluster from Streptomyces griseovariabilis subsp. bandungensis subsp. nov responsible for the biosynthesis of echinomycin (a member of quinomycin family, also named quinomycin A) and presented in vitro evidence to corroborate the previous hypothesis on QXC biosynthesis, showing that only with the assistance of a MbtH-like protein Qui5, did the didomain NRPS protein (Qui18) perform the loading of a L-tryptophan onto its own PCP domain. Particularly, it was found that Qui5 and Qui18 subunits form a functional tetramer through size exclusion chromatography. The subsequent hydroxylation on β-carbon of the loaded L-tryptophan proved in vitro to be completed by cytochrome P450-dependent hydroxylase Qui15. Importantly, only the Qui18 loaded L-tryptophan can be hydroxylated by Qui15 and the enzyme was inactive on free L-tryptophan. Additionally, the chemically synthesized (2S,3S) β-hydroxytryptophan was detected to be converted by the tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase Qui17 through LC-MS, which enriched our previous knowledge that tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase nearly exclusively acted on L-tryptophan and 6-fluoro-tryptophan. PMID:23437232

  18. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate) by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing leucine metabolism-related enzymes derived from Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Saika, Azusa; Watanabe, Yoriko; Sudesh, Kumar; Tsuge, Takeharu

    2014-06-01

    An obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile has a unique metabolic pathway to convert leucine to 4-methylvalerate, in which 4-methyl-2-pentenoyl-CoA (4M2PE-CoA) is an intermediate of this pathway. 4M2PE-CoA is also able to be converted to 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3H4MV), a branched side chain monomer unit, for synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymer. In this study, to synthesize 3H4MV-containing PHA copolymer from leucine, the leucine metabolism-related enzymes (LdhA and HadAIBC) derived from C. difficile and PHA biosynthesis enzymes (PhaPCJAc and PhaABRe) derived from Aeromonas caviae and Ralstonia eutropha were co-expressed in the codon usage-improved Escherichia coli. Under microaerobic culture conditions, this E. coli was able to synthesize P(3HB-co-12.2 mol% 3H4MV) from glucose with the supplementation of 1 g/L leucine. This strain also produced P(3HB-co-12.6 mol% 3H4MV) using the culture supernatant of leucine overproducer E. coli strain NS1391 as the medium for PHA production, achieving 3H4MV copolymer synthesis only from glucose. Furthermore, we tested the feasibility of the 3H4MV copolymer synthesis in E. coli strain NS1391 from glucose. The recombinant E. coli NS1391 was able to synthesize P(3HB-co-3.0 mol% 3H4MV) from glucose without any leucine supplementation. This study demonstrates the potential of the new metabolic pathway for 3H4MV synthesis using leucine metabolism-related enzymes from C. difficile. PMID:24484910

  19. Assay, purification, and characterization of cobaltochelatase, a unique complex enzyme catalyzing cobalt insertion in hydrogenobyrinic acid a,c-diamide during coenzyme B12 biosynthesis in Pseudomonas denitrificans.

    PubMed Central

    Debussche, L; Couder, M; Thibaut, D; Cameron, B; Crouzet, J; Blanche, F

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenobyrinic acid a,c-diamide was shown to be the substrate of cobaltochelatase, an enzyme that catalyzes cobalt insertion in the corrin ring during the biosynthesis of coenzyme B12 in Pseudomonas denitrificans. Cobaltochelatase was demonstrated to be a complex enzyme composed of two different components of M(r) 140,000 and 450,000, which were purified to homogeneity. The 140,000-M(r) component was shown to be coded by cobN, whereas the 450,000-M(r) component was composed of two polypeptides specified by cobS and cobT. Each component was inactive by itself, but cobaltochelatase activity was reconstituted upon mixing CobN and CobST. The reaction was ATP dependent, and the Km values for hydrogenobyrinic acid a,c-diamide, Co2+, and ATP were 0.085 +/- 0.015, 4.2 +/- 0.2, and 220 +/- 36 microM, respectively. Spectroscopic data revealed that the reaction product was cob(II)yrinic acid a,c-diamide, and experiments with a coupled-enzyme incubation system containing both cobaltochelatase and cob(II)yrinic acid a,c-diamide reductase (F. Blanche, L. Maton, L. Debussche, and D. Thibaut, J. Bacteriol. 174:7452-7454, 1992) confirmed this result. This report not only provides the first evidence that hydrogenobyrinic acid and its a,c-diamide derivative are indeed precursors of adenosylcobalamin but also demonstrates that precorrin-6x, precorrin-6y, and precorrin-8x, three established precursors of hydrogenobyrinic acid (D. Thibaut, M. Couder, A. Famechon, L. Debussche, B. Cameron, J. Crouzet, and F. Blanche, J. Bacteriol. 174:1043-1049, 1992), are also on the pathway to cobalamin. Images PMID:1429466

  20. AtROS1 overexpression provides evidence for epigenetic regulation of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid biosynthesis and antioxidant pathways during salt stress in transgenic tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Poonam; Mahajan, Monika; Vishwakarma, Ajay K.; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In plants, epigenetic changes have been identified as regulators of developmental events during normal growth as well as environmental stress exposures. Flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways play a significant role in plant defence during their exposure to environmental cues. The aim of this study was to unravel whether genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways are under epigenetic regulation, particularly DNA methylation, during salt stress. For this, a repressor of silencing from Arabidopsis, AtROS1, was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco. Generated transgenics were evaluated to examine the influence of AtROS1 on methylation status of promoters as well as on coding regions of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoids biosynthesis and antioxidant pathways. Overexpression of AtROS1 increases the demethylation levels of both promoters as well as coding regions of genes encoding chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, flavonol synthase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, and glutathione S-transferase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase of the antioxidant pathway during control conditions. The level of demethylation was further increased at promoters as well as coding regions of these genes during salt-stress conditions. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing AtROS1 showed tolerance to salt stress that could have been due to the higher expression levels of the genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways. This is the first comprehensive study documenting the epigenetic regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways during salt-stress exposure of plants. PMID:26116024

  1. AtROS1 overexpression provides evidence for epigenetic regulation of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid biosynthesis and antioxidant pathways during salt stress in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Poonam; Mahajan, Monika; Vishwakarma, Ajay K; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    In plants, epigenetic changes have been identified as regulators of developmental events during normal growth as well as environmental stress exposures. Flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways play a significant role in plant defence during their exposure to environmental cues. The aim of this study was to unravel whether genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways are under epigenetic regulation, particularly DNA methylation, during salt stress. For this, a repressor of silencing from Arabidopsis, AtROS1, was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco. Generated transgenics were evaluated to examine the influence of AtROS1 on methylation status of promoters as well as on coding regions of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoids biosynthesis and antioxidant pathways. Overexpression of AtROS1 increases the demethylation levels of both promoters as well as coding regions of genes encoding chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, flavonol synthase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, and glutathione S-transferase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase of the antioxidant pathway during control conditions. The level of demethylation was further increased at promoters as well as coding regions of these genes during salt-stress conditions. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing AtROS1 showed tolerance to salt stress that could have been due to the higher expression levels of the genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways. This is the first comprehensive study documenting the epigenetic regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways during salt-stress exposure of plants. PMID:26116024

  2. Distribution of creatine, guanidinoacetate and the enzymes for their biosynthesis in the animal kingdom. Implications for phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Van Pilsum, J F; Stephens, G C; Taylor, D

    1972-01-01

    1. The distribution of creatine and the creatine-synthesizing enzymes in the animal kingdom has been investigated. Creatine was found in tissues of all vertebrates examined, and in various invertebrates from phyla Annelida, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and Chordata, subphylum Cephalochordata. The activities of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes, arginine-glycine transamidinase and guanidinoacetate methylpherase, were not detected in the hagfish or in any of the invertebrates, including those in which creatine was found, with the exception that transamidinase activities were detected in the amphioxus and salt water clam; however, these activities are considered to be artifacts for reasons mentioned in the text. Additional evidence that the hagfish and various creatine-containing invertebrates could not synthesize creatine was the observation that these animals did not convert one or the other of the likely precursors of creatine (arginine and glycine) into creatine, in vivo. Further, the inability of these animals to synthesize creatine is correlated with the observations that all animals tested were able to abstract creatine from their aqueous environment. 2. The activities of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes were detected in the sea lamprey and in all but a few of the other vertebrates examined. Neither activity could be detected in the sharks and rays (cartilaginous fish), buffalo fish (bony fish) or the snapping turtle. Transamidinase or guanidinoacetate methylpherase activity could not be found in the salamander or garter snake, respectively. 3. The results obtained with the lamprey are in direct contrast with those obtained with the hagfish (both subphylum Agnatha, class Cyclostomata). The lamprey had the ability to synthesize creatine and did not abstract creatine from lake water. The hagfish did not have any apparent ability to synthesize creatine and did abstract creatine from sea water. The present report thus supports the theory that the myxinoid (hagfish

  3. Silencing of sterol glycosyltransferases modulates the withanolide biosynthesis and leads to compromised basal immunity of Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gaurav; Tiwari, Manish; Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Surendra; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Misra, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs) catalyse transfer of glycon moiety to sterols and their related compounds to produce diverse glyco-conjugates or steryl glycosides with different biological and pharmacological activities. Functional studies of SGTs from Withania somnifera indicated their role in abiotic stresses but details about role under biotic stress are still unknown. Here, we have elucidated the function of SGTs by silencing SGTL1, SGTL2 and SGTL4 in Withania somnifera. Down-regulation of SGTs by artificial miRNAs led to the enhanced accumulation of withanolide A, withaferin A, sitosterol, stigmasterol and decreased content of withanoside V in Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) lines. This was further correlated with increased expression of WsHMGR, WsDXR, WsFPPS, WsCYP710A1, WsSTE1 and WsDWF5 genes, involved in withanolide biosynthesis. These variations of withanolide concentrations in silenced lines resulted in pathogen susceptibility as compared to control plants. The infection of Alternaria alternata causes increased salicylic acid, callose deposition, superoxide dismutase and H2O2 in aMIR-VIGS lines. The expression of biotic stress related genes, namely, WsPR1, WsDFS, WsSPI and WsPR10 were also enhanced in aMIR-VIGS lines in time dependent manner. Taken together, our observations revealed that a positive feedback regulation of withanolide biosynthesis occurred by silencing of SGTLs which resulted in reduced biotic tolerance. PMID:27146059

  4. Silencing of sterol glycosyltransferases modulates the withanolide biosynthesis and leads to compromised basal immunity of Withania somnifera

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gaurav; Tiwari, Manish; Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Surendra; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Misra, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs) catalyse transfer of glycon moiety to sterols and their related compounds to produce diverse glyco-conjugates or steryl glycosides with different biological and pharmacological activities. Functional studies of SGTs from Withania somnifera indicated their role in abiotic stresses but details about role under biotic stress are still unknown. Here, we have elucidated the function of SGTs by silencing SGTL1, SGTL2 and SGTL4 in Withania somnifera. Down-regulation of SGTs by artificial miRNAs led to the enhanced accumulation of withanolide A, withaferin A, sitosterol, stigmasterol and decreased content of withanoside V in Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) lines. This was further correlated with increased expression of WsHMGR, WsDXR, WsFPPS, WsCYP710A1, WsSTE1 and WsDWF5 genes, involved in withanolide biosynthesis. These variations of withanolide concentrations in silenced lines resulted in pathogen susceptibility as compared to control plants. The infection of Alternaria alternata causes increased salicylic acid, callose deposition, superoxide dismutase and H2O2 in aMIR-VIGS lines. The expression of biotic stress related genes, namely, WsPR1, WsDFS, WsSPI and WsPR10 were also enhanced in aMIR-VIGS lines in time dependent manner. Taken together, our observations revealed that a positive feedback regulation of withanolide biosynthesis occurred by silencing of SGTLs which resulted in reduced biotic tolerance. PMID:27146059

  5. Gene expression of ascorbic acid biosynthesis related enzymes of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway in acerola (Malpighia glabra).

    PubMed

    Badejo, Adebanjo A; Fujikawa, Yukichi; Esaka, Muneharu

    2009-04-01

    The Smirnoff-Wheeler (SW) pathway has been proven to be the only significant source of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; vitamin C) in the seedlings of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. It is yet uncertain whether the same pathway holds for all other plants and their various organs as AsA may also be synthesized through alternative pathways. In this study, we have cloned some of the genes involved in the SW-pathway from acerola (Malpighia glabra), a plant containing enormous amount of AsA, and examined the expression patterns of these genes in the plant. The AsA contents of acerola leaves were about 8-fold more than that of Arabidopsis with 5-700-fold higher mRNA abundance in AsA-biosynthesizing genes. The unripe fruits have the highest AsA content but the accumulation was substantially repressed as the fruit transitions to maturation. The mRNAs encoding these genes showed correlation in their expression with the AsA contents of the fruits. Although very little AsA was recorded in the seeds the mRNAs encoding all the genes, with the exception of the mitochondrially located L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase, were clearly detected in the seeds of the unripe fruits. In young leaves of acerola, the expression of most genes were repressed by the dark and induced by light. However, the expression of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase similar to that encoded by A. thaliana VTC1 was induced in the dark. The expressions of all the genes surged after 24h following wounding stress on the young leaves. These findings will advance the investigation into the molecular factors regulating the biosynthesis of abundant AsA in acerola. PMID:18952318

  6. A Greenhouse Study on Lead Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) as a Function of Lead Concentration and Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Saminathan, S. K.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic non-essential metal that can cause permanent learning disabilities, retardation, mental and behavioral problems in children. Lead accumulation in soils result from weathering, chipping, scraping, sanding and sand blasting of housing structures constructed prior to 1978, bearing lead-based paint. The primary objective of this study is to develop a cost-effective, chelate-assisted phytoremediation for cleaning up lead contaminated soils. Soils are a unique environment of diverse physical and chemical characteristics that influence the extent of phytoavailable (labile) Pb forms. The success of phytoremediation strategy depends on the physiological/ biochemical tolerance of the plants to lipid peroxidation induced by Pb at sub-lethal levels. Oxidative challenge is alleviated by antioxidant compounds, but more importantly by the induction of antioxidant enzymes, which are crucial for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and terminating lipid peroxidation chain reaction. A column study was conducted in a temperature and humidity-controlled greenhouse setting to assess the extent of Pb phytoextraction and antioxidant response in a lead accumulator, vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Treatments consisted of a randomized block arrangement of 4 soil types (Immokalee, Pahokee Muck, Tobosa, and Millhopper) and 3 soil Pb concentrations [normal - 400 mg/kg lead (following federal soil standards for lead), moderate - 800 mg/kg lead, and excessive - 1200 mg/kg lead] in 4 replicates. At the end of 6 months, selected columns were amended with a biodegradable chelating agent, ethylenediamene disuccinate (10 mmol/ kg EDDS), to mobilize Pb and enhance Pb uptake by vetiver. Total and exchangeable (labile) Pb were correlated with phytoextracted Pb, and levels of antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. Results indicate that Pb uptake and antioxidant

  7. Domain Organization in Candida glabrata THI6, a Bifunctional Enzyme Required for Thiamin Biosynthesis in Eukaryotes†||‡

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Debamita; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    THI6 is a bifunctional enzyme found in the thiamin biosynthetic pathway in eukaryotes. The N-terminal domain of THI6 catalyzes the ligation of the thiamin thiazole and pyrimidine moieties to form thiamin phosphate and the C-terminal domain catalyzes the phosphorylation of 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole in a salvage pathway. In prokaryotes, thiamin phosphate synthase and 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase are separate gene products. Here we report the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic THI6 along with several complexes that characterize the active sites responsible for the two chemical reactions. THI6 from Candida glabrata is a homohexamer in which the six protomers form a cage-like structure. Each protomer is composed of two domains, which are structurally homologous to their monofunctional bacterial counterparts. Two loop regions not found in the bacterial enzymes provide interactions between the two domains. The structures of different protein-ligand complexes define the thiazole and ATP binding sites of the 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase domain, and the thiazole phosphate and 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine pyrophosphate binding sites of the thiamin phosphate synthase domain. Our structural studies reveal that the active sites of the two domains are 40 Å apart and are not connected by an obvious channel. Biochemical studies show 4-methyl-5-hydroxyethylthiazole phosphate is a substrate for THI6; however, adenosine diphospho-5-β-ethyl-4-methylthiazole-2-carboxylic acid, the product of THI4, is not a substrate for THI6. This suggests that unidentified enzyme is necessary to produce the substrate for THI6 from the THI4 product. PMID:20968298

  8. Enzymes of 2-oxo acid degradation and biosynthesis in cell-free extracts of mixed rumen micro-organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, R S; Sauer, F D

    1976-01-01

    The enzymes of 2-oxo acid decarboxylation and 2-oxo acid synthesis (EC 1.2.7.1 and EC 1.2.7.2) were isolated and partially purified from cell-free extracts of rumen micro-organisms. The lyase was active with pyruvate, 3-hydroxypyruvate and 2-oxobutyrate. The synthase was active with acetate, 2-oxoglutarate or succinate. Pyruvate synthase was separated from pyruvate lyase by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. With Sephadex filtration, approximate mol.wts. of 310000 and 210000 were determined for pyruvate lyase and pyruvate synthase respectively. Images PLATE 1 PMID:962871

  9. First step of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis cross-talks with ergosterol biosynthesis and Ras signaling in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Bhawna; Bhatnagar, Shilpi; Ahmad, Mohammad Faiz; Jain, Priyanka; Pratyusha, Vavilala A; Kumar, Pravin; Komath, Sneha Sudha

    2014-02-01

    Candida albicans is a leading cause of fungal infections worldwide. It has several glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored virulence factors. Inhibiting GPI biosynthesis attenuates its virulence. Building on our previous work, we explore the interaction of GPI biosynthesis in C. albicans with ergosterol biosynthesis and hyphal morphogenesis. This study is also the first report of transcriptional co-regulation existing between two subunits of the multisubunit enzyme complex, GPI-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GPI-GnT), involved in the first step of GPI anchor biosynthesis in eukaryotes. Using mutational analysis, we show that the accessory subunits, GPI2 and GPI19, of GPI-GnT exhibit opposite effects on ergosterol biosynthesis and Ras signaling (which determines hyphal morphogenesis). This is because the two subunits negatively regulate one another; GPI19 mutants show up-regulation of GPI2, whereas GPI2 mutants show up-regulation of GPI19. Two different models were examined as follows. First, the two GPI-GnT subunits independently interact with ergosterol biosynthesis and Ras signaling. Second, the two subunits mutually regulate one another and thereby regulate sterol levels and Ras signaling. Analysis of double mutants of these subunits indicates that GPI19 controls ergosterol biosynthesis through ERG11 levels, whereas GPI2 determines the filamentation by cross-talk with Ras1 signaling. Taken together, this suggests that the first step of GPI biosynthesis talks to and regulates two very important pathways in C. albicans. This could have implications for designing new antifungal strategies. PMID:24356967

  10. The Biosynthesis of Thiol- and Thioether-containing Cofactors and Secondary Metabolites Catalyzed by Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur atoms are present as thiol and thioether functional groups in amino acids, coenzymes, cofactors, and various products of secondary metabolic pathways. The biosynthetic pathways for several sulfur-containing biomolecules require the substitution of sulfur for hydrogen at unreactive aliphatic or electron-rich aromatic carbon atoms. Examples discussed in this review include biotin, lipoic acid, methylthioether modifications found in some nucleic acids and proteins, and thioether cross-links found in peptide natural products. Radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes use an iron-sulfur cluster to catalyze the reduction of SAM to methionine and a highly reactive 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical; this radical can abstract hydrogen atoms at unreactive positions, facilitating the introduction of a variety of functional groups. Radical SAM enzymes that catalyze sulfur insertion reactions contain a second iron-sulfur cluster that facilitates the chemistry, either by donating the cluster's endogenous sulfide or by binding and activating exogenous sulfide or sulfur-containing substrates. The use of radical chemistry involving iron-sulfur clusters is an efficient anaerobic route to the generation of carbon-sulfur bonds in cofactors, secondary metabolites, and other natural products. PMID:25477512