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Sample records for biphasic thin coatings

  1. Intrinsically Stretchable Biphasic (Solid-Liquid) Thin Metal Films.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Arthur; Michaud, Hadrien O; Gerratt, Aaron P; de Mulatier, Séverine; Lacour, Stéphanie P

    2016-06-01

    Stretchable biphasic conductors are formed by physical vapor deposition of gallium onto an alloying metal film. The properties of the photolithography-compatible thin metal films are highlighted by low sheet resistance (0.5 Ω sq(-1) ) and large stretchability (400%). This novel approach to deposit and pattern liquid metals enables extremely robust, multilayer and soft circuits, sensors, and actuators. PMID:26923313

  2. Super Thin Ceramic Coatings

    NASA Video Gallery

    New technology being developed at NASA's Glenn Research Center creates super thin ceramic coatings on engine components. The Plasma Spray – Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) rig uses a powerful ...

  3. Osteoblastic cell response on biphasic fluorhydroxyapatite/strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Feng, Fang Fang; Lei, Ting; Zhong, Xiao Huan; Jian, Xin Chun

    2014-03-01

    Fluorhydroxyapatite/strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (FHA/SrHA) biphasic coatings with F and Sr elements incorporated simultaneously into one coating layer were prepared on titanium substrate via colloidal sol-gel method. The bioactivity of the as-prepared FHA/SrHA biphasic coatings was evaluated in vitro by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). All the biphasic coatings exhibited great ability to induce apatite precipitation on their surfaces. In vitro cell responses were evaluated using osteoblast-like MG63 cells in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin level). The biphasic coatings show significantly positive effects on the viability and functional activity of osteoblastic cells with clear evidence that an optimum SrHA amount dose exists, indicating that the coexistence of FHA and SrHA had a synergistic stimulatory effect. This finding suggests the potential use of this colloidal sol-gel derived FHA/SrHA biphasic coatings for hard tissue applications. PMID:23533202

  4. Nanocrystalline biphasic resorbable calcium phosphate (HAp/β-TCP) thin film prepared by electron beam evaporation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elayaraja, K.; Chandra, V. Sarath; Joshy, M. I. Ahymah; Suganthi, R. V.; Asokan, K.; Kalkura, S. Narayana

    2013-06-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) thin film having resorbable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and non-resorbable hydroxyapatite (HAp) phases having enhanced bioactivity was synthesized by electron beam evaporation technique. Nanosized BCP was deposited as a layer (500 nm) on (0 0 1) silicon substrate by electron beam evaporation and crystalline phase of samples were found to improve on annealing at 700 °C. Uniform deposition of calcium phosphate on silicon substrate was verified from elemental mapping using scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX). Annealing of the samples led to a decrease in surface roughness, hydrophobicity and dissolution of the coating layer. Amoxicillin loaded thin films exhibited significant bacterial resistance. In addition, BCP thin films did not exhibit any cytotoxicity. Antibiotics incorporated BCP coated implants might prevent the post-surgical infections and could promote bone-bonding of orthopedic devices.

  5. Bi-phase transition diagrams of metallic thin multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.C.; Liu, W.; Jiang, Q. . E-mail: jiangq@jlu.edu.cn

    2005-02-01

    Phase transitions of metallic multilayers induced by differences in interface energy are considered thermodynamically, based on a thermodynamic model for interface energy and the Goldschmidt premise for lattice contraction. Bi-phase transition diagrams of Co/Cr, Zr/Nb, Ti/Nb and Ti/Al multilayers are constructed, which are in agreement with experimental results.

  6. Effect of biphase on dielectric properties of Bi-doped lead strontium titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. T.; Du, P. Y.; Zhao, Y. L.; Tu, Y.; Dai, J. L.; Weng, W. J.; Han, G. R.; Song, C. L.

    2010-11-01

    Pb 0.4Sr 0.6TiO 3 (PST) thin films doped with various concentration of Bi were prepared by a sol-gel method. The phase status, surface morphology and dielectric properties of these thin films were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and impedance analyzer, respectively. Results showed that the thin films with the maximum dielectric constant and minimum dielectric loss were obtained for x=0.15. For x<0.15, only pure PST perovskite phase were in the thin films. For 0.2< x<0.4, the PST/Bi 2Ti 2O 7 biphase were obtained. The thin films with pure Bi 2Ti 2O 7 pyrochlore phase were obtained for x=0.67. The biphase thin films had high tunability and high figure of merit (FOM). The FOM of PST/Bi 2Ti 2O 7 biphase thin film was about 6 times higher than that thin films formed with pure perovskite phase or pure pyrochlore phase.

  7. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Haas, Terry; Wong, Kwok-Keung; Seward, George

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  8. Laser engineered multilayer coating of biphasic calcium phosphate/titanium nanocomposite on metal substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Martin Yi; Ye, Chang; Erasquin, Uriel Joseph; Huynh, Toan; Cai, Chengzhi; Cheng, Gary J

    2011-02-01

    In this work, laser coating of biphasic calcium phosphate/titanium (BCP/Ti) nanocomposite on Ti-6Al-4 V substrates was developed. A continuous wave neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser was used to form a robust multilayer of BCP/Ti nanocomposite starting from hydroxyapatite and titanium nanoparticles. In this process, low power coating is realized because of the strong laser-nanoparticle interaction and good sinterability of nanosized titanium. To guide the optimization of laser processing conditions for the coating process, a multiphysics model coupling electromagnetic module with heat transfer module was developed. This model was validated by laser coating experiments. Important features of the coated samples, including microstructures, chemical compositions, and interfacial bonding strength, were characterized. We found that a multilayer of BCP, consisting of 72% hydroxyapatite (HA) and 28% beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), and titanium nanocomposite was formed on Ti-6Al-4 V substrates. Significantly, the coating/substrate interfacial bonding strength was found to be two times higher than that of the commercial plasma sprayed coatings. Preliminary cell culture studies showed that the resultant BCP/Ti nanocomposite coating supported the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells. PMID:21207950

  9. Thin CVD Coating Protects Titanium Aluminide Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ronald; Wallace, Terryl; Cunnington, George; Robinson, John

    1994-01-01

    Feasibility of using very thin CVD coatings to provide both protection against oxidation and surfaces of low catalytic activity for thin metallic heat-shield materials demonstrated. Use of aluminum in compositions increases emittances of coatings and reduces transport of oxygen through coatings to substrates. Coatings light in weight and applied to foil-gauge materials with minimum weight penalties.

  10. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite coating on the osteoinductivity of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics exhibit good biocompatibility and bone conduction but are not inherently osteoinductive. To overcome this disadvantage, we coated conventional porous BCP ceramics with nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). nHA was chosen as a coating material due to its high osteoinductive potential. Methods We used a hydrothermal deposition method to coat conventional porous BCP ceramics with nHA and assessed the effects of the coating on the physical and mechanical properties of the underlying BCP. Next, its effects on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment, proliferation, viability, and osteogenic differentiation were investigated. Results nHA formed a deposited layer on the BCP surface, and synthesized nHA had a rod-like shape with lengths ranging from ~50–200 nm and diameters from ~15–30 mm. The nHA coating did not significantly affect the density, porosity, flexural strength, or compressive strength of the underlying BCP (P > 0.1). Scanning electron microscopy showed MSC attachment to the scaffolds, with a healthy morphology and anchorage to nHA crystals via cytoplasmic processes. The densities of MSCs attached on BCP and nHA-coated BCP scaffolds were 62 ± 26 cells/mm2 and 63 ± 27 cells/mm2 (P > 0.1), respectively, after 1 day and 415 ± 62 cells/mm2 and 541 ± 35 cells/mm2 (P < 0.05) respectively, after 14 days. According to an MTT assay, MSC viability was higher on nHA-coated BCP scaffolds than on BCP scaffolds (P < 0.05). In addition, MSCs on nHA-coated BCP scaffolds produced more alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I, and osteocalcin than MSCs on BCP scaffolds (P < 0.05). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that BCP scaffolds coated with nHA were more conducive for MSC adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation than conventional, uncoated BCP scaffolds, indicating that nHA coating can enhance the osteoinductive potential of BCP ceramics, making this material more

  11. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOEpatents

    Wenz, Robert P.; Weber, Michael F.; Arudi, Ravindra L.

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  12. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  13. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film on stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  14. Paper-Thin Coating Offers Maximum Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Wessex Incorporated has recently taken a technology that was originally developed for NASA as a protective coating for ceramic materials used in heatshields for space vehicles, and modified it for use in applications such as building materials, machinery, and transportation. The technology, developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a protective coating for flexible ceramic composites (PCC), is environmentally safe, water-based, and contains no solvents. Many other flame-retardant materials contain petroleum-based components, which can produce toxic smoke under flame. Wessex versions of PCC can be used to shield ceramics, wood, plasterboard, steel, plastics, fiberglass, and other materials from catastrophic fires. They are extraordinarily tough and exhibit excellent resistance to thermal shock, vibration, abrasion, and mechanical damage. One thin layer of coating provides necessary protection and allows for flexibility while avoiding excessive weight disadvantages. The coating essentially reduces the likelihood of the underlying material becoming so hot that it combusts and thus inhibits the "flashover" phenomenon from occurring.

  15. Multiple silk coatings on biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds: Effect on physical and mechanical properties, and in vitro osteogenic response of human mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao Jiao; Gil, Eun Seok; Hayden, Rebecca S.; Li, Chunmei; Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Kaplan, David L.; Zreiqat, Hala

    2013-01-01

    Ceramic scaffolds such as biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) have been widely studied and used for bone regeneration, but their brittleness and low mechanical strength are major drawbacks. We report the first systematic study on the effect of silk coating in improving the mechanical and biological properties of BCP scaffolds, including 1) optimisation of the silk coating process by investigating multiple coatings, and 2) in vitro evaluation of the osteogenic response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on the coated scaffolds. Our results show that multiple silk coatings on BCP ceramic scaffolds can achieve a significant coating effect to approach the mechanical properties of native bone tissue and positively influence osteogenesis by hMSCs over an extended period. The silk coating method developed in this study represents a simple yet effective means of reinforcement that can be applied to other types of ceramic scaffolds with similar microstructure to improve osteogenic outcomes. PMID:23745709

  16. Preparation, Characterization and in vivo Evaluation of Simple Monolithic Ethylcellulose-coated Pellets Containing Topiramate with Biphasic Release Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei; Wang, Yuli; Shao, Shuai; Xie, Si; Shan, Li; Yang, Meiyan; Gao, Chunsheng; Zhong, Wu

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used both as a binder and a pore-former to prepare ethylcellulose (EC)-coated pellets to deliver topiramate (TPM) for a controlled release profile. The objective of this work was to further optimize the formulation and evaluate the in vivo profiles of TPM sustained-release pellets. Similar to the previous formulation with no binder, the in vitro drug release of TPM sustained-release pellets with 50% PVP binder in drug layer was sensitive to pore-former PVP level ranged from 27.0% to 29.0%. The higher the level of PVP was, the quicker release rate in vitro was. Moreover, when the proportion of poreformer PVP decreased, the Cmax decreased, and the tmax and mean residence time of TPM coated pellets were both prolonged. The in vitro release profile of optimal formulation showed biphasic release characteristics similar to reference formulation Trokendi XR(®), i.e., involving immediate release of TPM in initial release stage followed by a sustained release up to 24 h. Moreover, the impact of the pH of release medium on the drug release rate of TPM sustained-release pellets was not significant. The release mechanism of TPM from the sustained-release pellets might be the interaction of diffusion (coating-film) and corrosion (drug layer). The in vivo pharmacokinetics results showed the TPM sustained-release pellets had the similar in vivo pattern compared with Trokendi XR(®). These studies provide valuable basis for further development of TPM sustained-release pellets. PMID:26563941

  17. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's thermal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (Alpha(s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of Alpha(s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  18. Porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics coated with nano-hydroxyapatite and seeded with mesenchymal stem cells for reconstruction of radius segmental defects in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianzhong; Yang, Zhiming; Zhou, Yongchun; Liu, Yong; Li, Kaiyang; Lu, Hongbin

    2015-11-01

    The osteoconduction of porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics has been widely reported. In a previous study, we demonstrated that applying a nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) coating enhances the osteoinductive potential of BCP ceramics, making these scaffolds more suitable for bone tissue engineering applications. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of reconstructing radius defects in rabbits using nHA-coated BCP ceramics seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to compare the bone regeneration induced by different scaffolds. Radius defects were created in 20 New Zealand rabbits, which were divided into four groups by treatment: porous BCP ceramics (Group A), nHA-coated porous BCP ceramics (Group B), porous BCP ceramics seeded with rabbit MSCs (Group C), and nHA-coated porous BCP ceramics seeded with rabbit MSCs (Group D). After in vitro incubation, the cell/scaffold complexes were implanted into the defects. Twelve weeks after implantation, the specimens were examined macroscopically and histologically. Both the nHA coating and seeding with MSCs enhanced the formation of new bone tissue in the BCP ceramics, though the osteoinductive potential of the scaffolds with MSCs was greater than that of the nHA-coated scaffolds. Notably, the combination of nHA coating and MSCs significantly improved the bone regeneration capability of the BCP ceramics. Thus, MSCs seeded into porous BCP ceramics coated with nHA may be an effective bone substitute to reconstruct bone defects in the clinic. PMID:26449447

  19. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.

  20. The influence hydroxyapatite nanoparticle shape and size on the properties of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds coated with hydroxyapatite-PCL composites.

    PubMed

    Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Nouri-Khorasani, Saied; Lu, Zufu; Appleyard, Richard; Zreiqat, Hala

    2010-07-01

    We developed a composite biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffold by coating a nanocomposite layer, consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles and polycaprolactone (PCL), over the surface of BCP. The effects of HA particle size and shape in the coating layer on the mechanical and biological properties of the BCP scaffold were examined. Micro-computerized tomography studies showed that the prepared scaffolds were highly porous (approximately 91%) with large pore size (400-700 microm) and an interconnected porous network of approximately 100%. The HA nanoparticle (needle shape)-composite coated scaffolds displayed the highest compressive strength (2.1 +/- 0.17 MPa), compared to pure HA/beta-TCP (0.1 +/- 0.05 MPa) and to the micron HA - composite coated scaffolds (0.29 +/- 0.07 MPa). These needle shaped scaffolds also showed enhanced elasticity and similar stress-strain profile to natural bone. Needle shaped coated HA/PCL particles induced the differentiation of primary human bone derived cells, with significant upregulation of osteogenic gene expression (Runx2, collagen type I, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein) and alkaline phosphatase activity compared to other groups. These properties are essential for enhancing bone ingrowth in load-bearing applications. The developed composite scaffolds possessed superior physical, mechanical, elastic and biological properties rendering them potentially useful for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:20398935

  1. Thin Film Metal Coated Fiber Optic Hydrophone Probe

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, R.; Arora, P.; Gandhi, G.; Daryoush, A.S.; El-Sherif, M.; Lewin, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to improve on sensitivity performance of fiber sensor employed as Fiber Optic Hydrophone Probe (FOHP) by nano-scale thin film gold coating. The fiber is designed to provide a uniform and spatial averaging free response up to 100 MHz by etching down to an active diameter of about 9 μm. The sensitivity performance of straight cleaved (i.e. full size core and cladding) uncoated, tapered uncoated and tapered thin film gold coated fiber sensors were compared in the frequency range of 1.5 MHz to 20 MHz in the presence of acoustic pressure amplitude levels of up to 6 MPa. An unprecedented voltage sensitivity of −245 dB re 1V/uPa (560 mV/ MPa) was measured for thin film gold coated FOHP by optimizing the gold coating thickness. PMID:19881652

  2. Solid-state dewetting of continuous thin platinum coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanief, N.; Topić, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal stability of coatings is of crucial importance for reliability of electronic devices operating at high temperature. Thus, we investigated the Cr-Pt system where a thin platinum coating of 0.1 μm was deposited on chromium substrate and annealed at 1000 °C for 8 h. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that a continuous and uniformly deposited Pt coating experienced the formation of "islands" after annealing. The grain-boundary grooving, dewetting and agglomeration were the main mechanisms of degradation of thermally annealed coatings. Results by μ-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed the presence of Cr3Pt phase in "islands" and the coating thickness was approximately 0.5 μm. The surrounding regions were left uncovered due to coating agglomeration at the expense of initially deposited coating.

  3. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid)/biphasic calcium phosphate composite coating on a porous scaffold to deliver simvastatin for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sadiasa, Alexander; Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Byong Taek

    2013-09-01

    In this study, simvastatin (SIM) drug incorporated poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) composite material (SPB) was coated on the BCP/ZrO2 (SPB-BCP/ZrO2) scaffold to enhance the mechanical and bioactive properties of the BCP/ZrO2 scaffold for bone engineering applications. The composite coating was prepared by combining different ratios of PLGA and BCP (1:2, 1:1, 2:1). After completion of the coating process, the compressive strength of the scaffolds was shown to increase with an increase in PLGA concentration from 8.5 ± 0.52 MPa for the SPB1-BCP/ZrO2 (1:2) to 11 ± 0.65 MPa for SPB3-BCP/ZrO2 (2:1) scaffolds when PLGA concentration was increased. Furthermore, the increase of PLGA in the coating composition corresponds to a decrease in porosity, degradation rate and weight loss of the scaffolds after 4 weeks. SIM release study demonstrated sustained release of the drug for the three kinds of scaffolds with improved biocompatibility. The increase of PLGA concentration also resulted in a lower release rate of SIM. Thus, the lower release rate of SIM brought upon by the increase of PLGA concentration further enhanced the performance of the scaffold in vitro making it a promising approach in the field of bone tissue regeneration. PMID:23815378

  4. Thin film coating process using an inductively coupled plasma

    DOEpatents

    Kniseley, Richard N.; Schmidt, Frederick A.; Merkle, Brian D.

    1990-01-30

    Thin coatings of normally solid materials are applied to target substrates using an inductively coupled plasma. Particles of the coating material are vaporized by plasma heating, and pass through an orifice to a first vacuum zone in which the particles are accelerated to a velocity greater than Mach 1. The shock wave generated in the first vacuum zone is intercepted by the tip of a skimmer cone that provides a second orifice. The particles pass through the second orifice into a second zone maintained at a higher vacuum and impinge on the target to form the coating. Ultrapure coatings can be formed.

  5. Ultra-Thin Coatings Beautify Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    The craftsmen in the Roman Empire who constructed the Lycurgus Cup 17 centuries ago probably didn't think their artifact would survive for nearly 2,000 years as a prized possession. And they certainly couldn't have known that the technology they used to make it would eventually become an important part of space exploration. Carved from one solid mass, the cup is one of the few complete glass objects from that period, and the only one made from dichroic glass. Meaning "two-colored" in Greek, dichroic glass was originally created by adding trace amounts of gold and silver to a large volume of glass melt. The resulting medium partially reflects the light passing through it, causing an observer to see different colors depending on the direction of the light source. The Lycurgus Cup, for example, is famous for appearing green in daylight and red when lit at night, symbolic of the ripening grapes used to fill it with wine. NASA revitalized the production of dichroic glass in the 1950s and 1960s as a means of protecting its astronauts. Ordinary clear substances cannot protect human vision from the harsh rays of unfiltered sunlight, and everything from the human body to spacecraft sensors and computers are at risk if left unprotected from the radiation that permeates space. The microscopic amounts of metal present in dichroic glass make it an effective barrier against such harmful radiation. While the ancient manufacturing technique called for adding metals to glass melt, NASA developed a process in which metals are vaporized by electron beams in a vacuum chamber and then applied directly to surfaces in an ultra-thin film. The vapor condenses in the form of crystal structures, and the process is repeated for up to several dozen coatings. The resulting material, still only about 30 millionths of an inch thick, is sufficient to reflect radiation even while the glass, or polycarbonate, as in the case of space suit helmets, remains transparent to the human eye.

  6. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's then-nal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (alpha(sub s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of alpha(sub s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  7. Nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings: global patent scenario.

    PubMed

    Sivudu, Kurva S; Mahajan, Yashwant R; Joshi, Shrikant V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current status and future prospects of nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings based on worldwide patent landscape analysis. The study also presents an overview of technological trends by carrying out state-of-the-art literature analysis, including survey of corporate websites. Nanostructured tribological coatings encompass a wide spectrum of nanoscale microstructures, including nanocrystalline, nanolayered, nano-multilayered, nanocomposite, nanogradient structures or their unique combinations, which are composed of single or multi-component phases. The distinct microstructural features of the coatings impart outstanding tribological properties combined with multifunctional attributes to the coated components. Their unique combination of remarkable properties make them ideal candidates for a wide range of applications in diverse fields such as cutting and metalworking tools, biomedical devices, automotive engine components, wear parts, hard disc drives etc. The patent landscape analysis has revealed that nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings have significant potential for commercial applications in view of the lion's share of corporate industry in patenting activity. The largest patent portfolio is held by Japan followed by USA, Germany, Sweden and China. The prominent players involved in this field are Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Sandvik Aktiebolag, Hitachi Ltd., Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., OC Oerlikon Corp., and so on. The outstanding potential of nanostructured thin film tribological coatings is yet to be fully unravelled and, therefore, immense opportunities are available in future for microstructurally engineered novel coatings to enhance their performance and functionality by many folds. PMID:24962377

  8. Radiative cooling: lattice quantization and surface emissivity in thin coatings.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Chetan N; Lin, Chhiu-Tsu

    2009-06-01

    Nanodiamond powder (NDP), multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and carbon black (CB) were dispersed in an acrylate (AC) emulsion to form composite materials. These materials were coated on aluminum panels (alloy 3003) to give thin coatings. The active phonons of the nanomaterials were designed to act as a cooling fan, termed "molecular fan (MF)". The order of lattice quantization, as investigated by Raman spectroscopy, is MWCNT > CB > NDP. The enhanced surface emissivity of the MF coating (as observed by IR imaging) is well-correlated to lattice quantization, resulting in a better cooling performance by the MWCNT-AC composite. MF coatings with different concentrations (0%, 0.4%, 0.7%, and 1%) of MWCNT were prepared. The equilibrium temperature lowering of the coated panel was observed with an increase in the loading of CNTs and was measured as 17 degrees C for 1% loading of MWCNT. This was attributed to an increased density of active phonons in the MF coating. PMID:20355930

  9. Coating Thin Mirror Segments for Lightweight X-ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Sharpe, Marton V.; Zhang, William; Kolosc, Linette; Hong, Melinda; McClelland, Ryan; Hohl, Bruce R.; Saha, Timo; Mazzarellam, James

    2013-01-01

    Next generations lightweight, high resolution, high throughput optics for x-ray astronomy requires integration of very thin mirror segments into a lightweight telescope housing without distortion. Thin glass substrates with linear dimension of 200 mm and thickness as small as 0.4 mm can now be fabricated to a precision of a few arc-seconds for grazing incidence optics. Subsequent implementation requires a distortion-free deposition of metals such as iridium or platinum. These depositions, however, generally have high coating stresses that cause mirror distortion. In this paper, we discuss the coating stress on these thin glass mirrors and the effort to eliminate their induced distortion. It is shown that balancing the coating distortion either by coating films with tensile and compressive stresses, or on both sides of the mirrors is not sufficient. Heating the mirror in a moderately high temperature turns out to relax the coated films reasonably well to a precision of about a second of arc and therefore provide a practical solution to the coating problem.

  10. Laser powder coating by multi-thin-layer technics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepold, Gerd; Becker, Reinhard

    1990-10-01

    The laser beam is an interesting tool for production of thin surface layers. The energy input is locally limited thus leading to a snall heat loading of the substrate. The geometric dinensions of the coatings are small as compared to conventional thermal technics like surface melting and coating. In the following the multithin-layer technique is introduced. By this process coatings of small dimensions could be produced. Due to high processing speeds high cooling rates up to lO K/s are achieved by heat conduction into the substrate. This process results in fine microcrystalline structures of the deposit. Using NiCrBSi as coating material it will be shown how and to which extent different parameters influence structure and geometry of the coating. 2. MULTI-THIN-LAYER TECHNIQUE The multi-pass thin layer technique is in principle a powder feed process. Under an oblique angle a powder is blown by an inert gas stream into the laser beam. On their way to the surface the powder particles are partially heated. The surface itself is melted by the laser beam. So a good adherence is ensured between the molten surface and the impinging melting particles. This process can be repeated several times thus forming a coating by a multithinlayer technique see fig. 2. In principle the powder feed process is a well known " thick coating " process for conventional coatings like turbine blades dyes etc. /1/. In this however very small dimensions are desired which may be used for reasons of wear or corrosion resistance or for conductive or insolating layers in micro technics. In this work we investigated the influence of some processing parameters in order to achieve layers or traces of small geometries. 3. MULTIPLE THIN LAYER COATING OF NiCrBSi NiCrBSi had been used as a coating material to produce thin layers or traces. These alloys are hard and wear resistant materials which are usually applied by conventional powder spraying methods followed by arc- or flame-fusing of the sprayed layer

  11. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  12. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  13. Characteristics of erythritol and formulation of a novel coating with erythritol termed thin-layer sugarless coating.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Shinji; Ohno, Yasuo; Makino, Tadashi; Kashihara, Toshio

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of erythritol and to develop the optimum basic formulation of a novel coating with erythritol termed thin-layer sugarless coating. Characteristics of erythritol were investigated compared with maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, and sucrose. Furthermore, the optimum basic formulation of thin-layer sugarless coating with erythritol was determined by coating glass beads. We selected a continuous spray mist method for thin-layer sugarless coating due to the formation of a thin sugarless coating layer by a simple method. We demonstrated that erythritol is a suitable coating material for thin-layer sugarless coating compared with maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, and sucrose because of its high water solubility, low hygroscopicity, instant crystallization, and low tackiness. We also demonstrated that thin-layer sugarless coating with erythritol can reduce coating time compared with the coating with maltitol or sucrose due to its characteristics. We developed the optimum basic formulation of thin-layer sugarless coating consists of erythritol, powdered acacia, and talc. We confirmed that a smooth coating layer and high coating efficiency were achieved using the formulation. PMID:15196648

  14. Applications of thin carbon coatings and films in injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Eusebio Duarte

    In this research, the technical feasibility of two novel applications of thin carbon coatings is demonstrated. The first application consists of using thin carbon coatings on molds for molding ultra-thin plastic parts (<0.5 mm thickness) with lower pressures by promoting wall slip. The second application consists of a new approach to provide electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding for plastic parts using in mold coated nanoparticle thin films or nanopapers to create a conductive top layer. During this research, the technical feasibility of a new approach was proven which provides injection molding of ultra-thin parts at lower pressures, without the need of fast heating/fast cooling or other expensive mold modification. An in-house developed procedure by other members of our group, was employed for coating the mold surface using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) resulting in a graphene coating with carbide bonding to the mold surface. The coating resulted in a significant decrease of surface friction and consequently easiness of flow when compared to their uncoated counterparts. Thermoplastic polymers and their composites are a very attractive alternative but are hindered by the non-conductive nature of polymers. There are two general approaches used to date to achieve EMI shielding for plastic products. One is to spray a conductive metal coating onto the plastic surface forming a layer that must maintain its shielding effectiveness (SE), and its adhesion to the plastic throughout the expected life of the product. However, metal coatings add undesirable weight and tend to corrode over time. Furthermore, scratching the coating may create shielding failure; therefore, a protective topcoat may be required. The other approach is to use polymer composites filled with conductive fillers such as carbon black (CB), carbon nanofiber (CNF), and carbon nanotube (CNT). While conductive fillers may increase the electrical conductivity of polymer composites, the loading of

  15. Genetic patterns of Zn 2GeO 4 coated ZnO nanowires from phase texture distribution of biphase brass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiqing; Liu, Lizhu; Zhang, Xinhua; Guo, Taibo; Jia, Chong; Su, Yong; Li, Qiang; Wei, Meiqin

    2010-08-01

    Based on the natural patterns of phase texture distribution of (α+β) biphase brass substrate, we synthesize the patterned quasi-aligned Zn 2GeO 4 coated ZnO nanowires by one-step thermal evaporation of the mixture powders of GeO 2 and C, and characterize the products by means of X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. It is observed that following the self-catalyzed effect of the Zn clusters, quasi-aligned Zn 2GeO 4 coated ZnO nanowires grow site-selectively on the surface of island-shaped α phase and form novel patterns which inherit the distribution of α phase on the substrate. According to the pattern and feature of phase texture distribution of the alloy substrate, we can synthesize the patterned nanowires arrays with controlled location and distribution in a more effective way.

  16. Controlling the scattering properties of thin, particle-doped coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, William; Corbett, Madeleine; Manoharan, Vinothan

    2013-03-01

    Coatings and thin films of small particles suspended in a matrix possess optical properties that are important in several industries from cosmetics and paints to polymer composites. Many of the most interesting applications require coatings that produce several bulk effects simultaneously, but it is often difficult to rationally formulate materials with these desired optical properties. Here, we focus on the specific challenge of designing a thin colloidal film that maximizes both diffuse and total hemispherical transmission. We demonstrate that these bulk optical properties follow a simple scaling with two microscopic length scales: the scattering and transport mean free paths. Using these length scales and Mie scattering calculations, we generate basic design rules that relate scattering at the single particle level to the film's bulk optical properties. These ideas will be useful in the rational design of future optically active coatings.

  17. Magnetoelastic sensor for characterizing properties of thin-film/coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachas, Leonidas G. (Inventor); Barrett, Gary (Inventor); Grimes, Craig A. (Inventor); Kouzoudis, Dimitris (Inventor); Schmidt, Stefan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for determining elasticity characteristics of a thin-film layer. The apparatus comprises a sensor element having a base magnetostrictive element at least one surface of which is at least partially coated with the thin-film layer. The thin-film layer may be of a variety of materials (having a synthetic and/or bio-component) in a state or form capable of being deposited, manually or otherwise, on the base element surface, such as by way of eye-dropper, melting, dripping, brushing, sputtering, spraying, etching, evaporation, dip-coating, laminating, etc. Among suitable thin-film layers for the sensor element of the invention are fluent bio-substances, thin-film deposits used in manufacturing processes, polymeric coatings, paint, an adhesive, and so on. A receiver, preferably remotely located, is used to measure a plurality of values for magneto-elastic emission intensity of the sensor element in either characterization: (a) the measure of the plurality of values is used to identify a magneto-elastic resonant frequency value for the sensor element; and (b) the measure of the plurality of successive values is done at a preselected magneto-elastic frequency.

  18. Wear resistance of TiAlSiN thin coatings.

    PubMed

    Silva, F J G; Martinho, R P; Alexandre, R J D; Baptista, A P M

    2012-12-01

    In the last decades TiAIN coatings deposited by PVD techniques have been extensively investigated but, nowadays, their potential development for tribological applications is relatively low. However, new coatings are emerging based on them, trying to improve wear behavior. TiAlSiN thin coatings are now investigated, analyzing if Si introduction increases the wear resistance of PVD films. Attending to the application, several wear test configurations has been recently used by some researchers. In this work, TiAISiN thin coatings were produced by PVD Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering technique and they were conveniently characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) provided with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Electron Probe Micro-Analyzer (EPMA), Micro Hardness (MH) and Scratch Test Analysis. Properties as morphology, thickness, roughness, chemical composition and structure, hardness and film adhesion to the substrate were investigated. Concerning to wear characterization, two very different ways were chosen: micro-abrasion with ball-on-flat configuration and industrial non-standardized tests based on samples inserted in a feed channel of a selected plastic injection mould working with 30% (wt.) glass fiber reinforced polypropylene. TiAISiN coatings with a small amount of about 5% (wt.) Si showed a similar wear behavior when compared with TiAIN reported performances, denoting that Si addition does not improve the wear performance of the TiAIN coatings in these wear test conditions. PMID:23447962

  19. Development and evaluation of the tablets coated with the novel formulation termed thin-layer sugarless coated tablets.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Shinji; Ohno, Yasuo; Makino, Tadashi; Kashihara, Toshio

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the thin-layer sugarless coated tablets containing Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin B2, calcium pantothenate, and L-cysteine. As a result of the formulation study, three coating layers, 2% under coating (UC), 38% build-up coating (BC), and 5% syrup coating (SC) were necessary for sufficient impact toughness, elegant appearance, and improvement of appearance stability after storage at 25 degrees C/75% RH for 6 months under open conditions. We demonstrated that the thin-layer sugarless coated tablets are superior to the sugar-coated tablets in terms of small tablet size and stability of calcium pantothenate. It was due to the coating method, the continuous spray mist method, which can minimize the thicknesses of coating layers and the moisture content in the tablets. We also demonstrated that the thin-layer sugarless coated tablets are superior to the film-coated tablets in terms of masking ability of the unpleasant odor and the appearance, stability of the appearance, and low hygroscopicity. It was due to the dense, opaque, and stable coating layers mainly consist of erythritol. We revealed that thin-layer sugarless coated tablets have both advantages of film-coated tablets and sugar-coated tablets. PMID:15196649

  20. Durable silver thin film coating for diffraction gratings

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Britten, Jerald A.; Komashko, Aleksey M.

    2006-05-30

    A durable silver film thin film coated non-planar optical element has been developed to replace Gold as a material for fabricating such devices. Such a coating and resultant optical element has an increased efficiency and is resistant to tarnishing, can be easily stripped and re-deposited without modifying underlying grating structure, improves the throughput and power loading of short pulse compressor designs for ultra-fast laser systems, and can be utilized in variety of optical and spectrophotometric systems, particularly high-end spectrometers that require maximized efficiency.

  1. Design and evaluation of a specific, bi-phase extended release system based on differently coated mini-tablets.

    PubMed

    Aleksovski, Aleksandar; Luštrik, Matevž; Šibanc, Rok; Dreu, Rok

    2015-07-30

    Mini-tablets are gaining great attention as systems capable of being formulated into multiple unit systems providing a specific drug release pattern. Within the presented research a combined, multiple-unit system, based on different coated matrix mini-tablets, has been developed in order to achieve 24-h specific sigmoid extended release of the model drug paliperidone. The mini-tablets were based on different amounts of polyvinyl acetate/polyvinyl pyrolidone mixture as the matrix former, providing extended release, and two different types of pH-dependent, acrylic polymer coatings, providing delay in release onset, and thus achieving the required specific sigmoid release pattern imposed by the original drug on the market. The selected formulation proved to be consistent with pharmacopoeial requirements. It was also in vitro similar (f2) to the original drug and the theoretical linear release profile, as well as robust and reproducible regarding in vitro release in different fasted gastro-intestinal conditions. This is proof of concept that 24-h, specific, and almost linear release profile of drugs with high solubility can be achieved by employing technology of coated matrix mini-tablets. PMID:25845632

  2. Tantalum-based thin film coatings for wear resistant arthroprostheses.

    PubMed

    Balagna, C; Faga, M G; Spriano, S

    2011-10-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys with high carbon content (HC-CoCrMo) are widely used as materials for arthroprosthesis, in particular in metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joints. In spite of their good wear and corrosion resistance, production of metallic wear particles and metal ion release will occur on a large time-scale. An enhancement of the metal ion level in the patient's blood and urine is often reported in clinical data. Hypersensitivity, inflammatory response and cell necrosis can occur as consequence. So implants on young patients and women on childbearing age are not so widespread. The aim of this research is the realization of a thin film coating in order to improve the biocompatibility of Co-based alloys and to reduce debris production, ion release and citotoxicity. The innovative process consists of a thermal treatment in molten salts, in order to obtain a tantalum enriched thin film coating. Tantalum is chosen because it is considered a biocompatible metal with high corrosion resistance and low ion release. Three HC-CoCrMo alloys, produced by different manufacturing processes, are tested as substrates. The coating is a thin film of TaC or it can be composed by a multilayer of two tantalum carbides and metallic tantalum, depending on the temperature of the treatment and on the carbon content of the substrate. The thin films as well the substrates are characterized from the structural, chemical and morphological point of view. Moreover mechanical behaviour of treated and untreated materials is analyzed by means of nanohardness, scratch and ball-on-disc wear tests. The coating increases the mechanical and tribological properties of HC-CoCrMo. PMID:22400292

  3. Antimicrobial nanospheres thin coatings prepared by advanced pulsed laser technique

    PubMed Central

    Holban, Alina Maria; Grumezescu, Valentina; Vasile, Bogdan Ştefan; Truşcă, Roxana; Cristescu, Rodica; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin

    2014-01-01

    Summary We report on the fabrication of thin coatings based on polylactic acid-chitosan-magnetite-eugenol (PLA-CS-Fe3O4@EUG) nanospheres by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation proved that the homogenous Fe3O4@EUG nanoparticles have an average diameter of about 7 nm, while the PLA-CS-Fe3O4@EUG nanospheres diameter sizes range between 20 and 80 nm. These MAPLE-deposited coatings acted as bioactive nanosystems and exhibited a great antimicrobial effect by impairing the adherence and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria strains. Moreover, the obtained nano-coatings showed a good biocompatibility and facilitated the normal development of human endothelial cells. These nanosystems may be used as efficient alternatives in treating and preventing bacterial infections. PMID:24991524

  4. Examination of the influence of coatings on thin superalloy sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, M.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of two coatings, Codep B-1 and CoCrAlY, with and without simulated engine exposures at 982 C (1800 F) and 1093 C (2000 F), were evaluated on cast sections of Rene 80. Section thicknesses were from 0.075 cm (0.030 inch) to 0.15 cm (0.060 inch). Tensile and stress rupture properties, mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, ballistic impact and hot corrosion at R. T. and elevated temperatures were investigated. Thin sections generally had poorer tensile strengths and lower stress rupture lives than standard 1/4 inch round gage bars. The coatings, as-applied, had little effect on tensile strengths, rupture lives and mechanical fatigue and they increased thermal fatigue, ballistic impact and hot corrosion resistance. By providing considerable exposure protection to the Rene 80, the coatings improved all properties compared to exposed bare specimens.

  5. Smart Thin Hydrogel Coatings Harnessing Hydrophobicity and Topography to Capture and Release Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Luying; Liu, Hongliang; Zhang, Feilong; Li, Guannan; Wang, Shutao

    2016-09-01

    Smart thin hydrogel coatings are fabricated to capture and release targeted cancer cells by simultaneously tuning surface hydrophobicity and topography. At physiological temperature, the targeted cancer cells are captured on the hydrophobic and wrinkled coating surface. At room temperature, the captured cells are released from the hydrophilic and smooth coating surface. PMID:27295294

  6. Thin Wall Pipe Ultrasonic Inspection through Paint Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi, Mihai Valentin; Petre, Cristian Cătălin

    Classical ultrasonic inspection of welds is currently done for plates thicker than 8 mm. The inspection of but welds in thin walled pipes has considerable implementation difficulties, due to guided waves dominating ultrasonic pulses propagation. Generation of purely symmetric modes, either torsional or longitudinal, requires a circumferential uniform distribution of transducers and dedicated inspection equipment, which are increasing the inspection costs. Moreover, if the surface is paint coated, the received signals are close to the detection level. The present work implies a single transducer, coupled to the painted surface. The proper choice of the guided mode and frequency range, allows the detection of a standard, small diameter through thickness hole. In this way, the inspection of pipe welds can use the same equipment as for thick materials, with only wedge adaptation.

  7. Novel microstructure in spin coated polyaniline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Deepak; Dutta, V.

    2007-05-01

    Polyaniline (Pani) thin films doped with camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) have been deposited on glass substrates using the spin coating technique. Pani is chemically synthesized by an oxidation method at ~0 °C. Pani-CSA films show a hexagonal structure in scanning electron micrographs, which occurs due to the crystalline growth of CSA. A dense hexagonal structure is visible for film deposited at 800 rpm, but it becomes sparser as the revolutions per minute are increased (1200, 1500 and 2000 rpm). Electronic transition of quinoid units cause an absorption shoulder at ~900 nm for films deposited at 1200, 1500 and 2000 rpm, which is not observed for film deposited at 800 rpm.

  8. Novel microstructure in spin coated polyaniline thin films.

    PubMed

    Verma, Deepak; Dutta, V

    2007-05-01

    Polyaniline (Pani) thin films doped with camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) have been deposited on glass substrates using the spin coating technique. Pani is chemically synthesized by an oxidation method at ∼0 °C. Pani-CSA films show a hexagonal structure in scanning electron micrographs, which occurs due to the crystalline growth of CSA. A dense hexagonal structure is visible for film deposited at 800 rpm, but it becomes sparser as the revolutions per minute are increased (1200, 1500 and 2000 rpm). Electronic transition of quinoid units cause an absorption shoulder at ∼900 nm for films deposited at 1200, 1500 and 2000 rpm, which is not observed for film deposited at 800 rpm. PMID:21690993

  9. Inorganic-organic thin implant coatings deposited by lasers.

    PubMed

    Sima, Felix; Davidson, Patricia M; Dentzer, Joseph; Gadiou, Roger; Pauthe, Emmanuel; Gallet, Olivier; Mihailescu, Ion N; Anselme, Karine

    2015-01-14

    The lifetime of bone implants inside the human body is directly related to their osseointegration. Ideally, future materials should be inspired by human tissues and provide the material structure-function relationship from which synthetic advanced biomimetic materials capable of replacing, repairing, or regenerating human tissues can be produced. This work describes the development of biomimetic thin coatings on titanium implants to improve implant osseointegration. The assembly of an inorganic-organic biomimetic structure by UV laser pulses is reported. The structure consists of a hydroxyapatite (HA) film grown onto a titanium substrate by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) and activated by a top fibronectin (FN) coating deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) was employed at fluences of 7 and 0.7J/cm(2) for HA and FN transfer, respectively. Films approximately 1500 and 450 nm thick were obtained for HA and FN, respectively. A new cryogenic temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometry analysis method was employed to accurately measure the quantity of immobilized protein. We determined that less than 7 μg FN per cm(2) HA surface is adequate to improve adhesion, spreading, and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. We believe that the proposed fabrication method opens the door to combining and immobilizing two or more inorganic and organic materials on a solid substrate in a well-defined manner. The flexibility of this method enables the synthesis of new hybrid materials by simply tailoring the irradiation conditions according to the thermo-physical properties of the starting materials. PMID:25485841

  10. Incorporation of chitosan nanospheres into thin mineralized collagen coatings for improving the antibacterial effect.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ziqiang; Yu, Mengfei; Cheng, Kui; Weng, Wenjian; Wang, Huiming; Lin, Jun; Du, Piyi; Han, Gaorong

    2013-11-01

    It is desired that the coatings on metallic implants have both excellent biological responses and good loading-release capacities of biological factors or drugs. So far, the challenge still remains, because the morphology and composition of the bioactive coatings are usually not favorable for accommodating drug molecules. In this study, we adopted an approach of incorporating chitosan nanospheres into a thin mineralized collagen coating; this approach is based on the good loading-release behavior of the nanospheres and the good cytocompatibility of the thin coating. The incorporation of chitosan nanospheres into the mineralized collagen coatings was realized by electrolytic co-deposition. The morphologies and microstructures of the resulting coatings were characterized by SEM, and the phase and chemical compositions of the coatings were measured by XRD and FTIR. The loading-release capacity for vancomycin hydrochloride (VH) was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. MTS assay was used to evaluate cytocompatibility, and in vitro bacterial adhesion was tested for assessing the antibacterial effects of the VH-loaded coatings. The chitosan nanospheres adhered tightly to collagen fibrils. The incorporated coatings facilitated the sustained release of VH, and had a clear antibacterial effect. The incorporation of chitosan nanospheres into mineralized collagen coatings demonstrates an effective way to improve the drug loading-release capacity for the thin coatings. This formulation had a highly effective biological response. PMID:23893027

  11. New synthesis method for optical thin-film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, W. E.

    1983-12-01

    The mathematical algorithm and description of a method for synthesis of optical thin-film coatings are presented along with examples generated on an 8-bit computer. The basic approach parallels Dobrowolski's method (1965), and a multilayer system is interactively built by successive construction of special four-layer modules. A numerical search procedure is first used to examine thickness options for only two layers in a basic module rather than all four; thicknesses of the remaining two layers are determned from analytical formulas applied at a single wavelength. Optical performance over the full wavelength band is then computed and compared with the desired performance. For the antireflection problem for glass over the entire visible spectrum, the synthesis method achieved average reflectance of 0.28 percent for the 400-680 nm band. A reflectance of 0.81 was indicated for the synthesis example of an 8-12 micrometer wideband high reflector. An optical description of an induced transmission filter with five modules and 19 layers is given.

  12. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2005-01-25

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  13. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2002-01-01

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  14. Ultra-thin flexible polyimide neural probe embedded in a dissolvable maltose-coated microneedle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Zhuolin; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Xue, Ning; Sun, Tao; Mong Tsang, Wei; Zhang, Songsong; Liao, Lun-De; Thakor, Nitish V.; Lee, Chengkuo

    2014-06-01

    The ultra-thin flexible polyimide neural probe can reduce the glial sheath growth on the probe body while its flexibility can minimize the micromotion between the probe and brain tissue. To provide sufficient stiffness for penetration purposes, we developed a drawing lithography technology for uniform maltose coating to make the maltose-coated polyimide neural probe become a stiff microneedle. The coating thicknesses under different temperature and the corresponding stiffness are studied. It has been proven that the coated maltose is dissolved by body fluids after implantation for a few seconds. Moreover, carbon nanotubes are coated on the neural probe recording electrodes to improve the charge delivery ability and reduce the impedance. Last but not least, the feasibility and recording characteristic of this ultra-thin polyimide neural probe embedded in a maltose-coated microneedle are further demonstrated by in vivo tests.

  15. Orientated anatase TiO2 nanocrystal array thin films for self-cleaning coating.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhao; Tan, Huaqiao; Zhao, Haifeng; Li, Di; Zheng, Min; Du, Peng; Zhang, Guoqiang; Qu, Dan; Sun, Zaicheng; Fan, Hongyou

    2013-10-11

    We developed a simple method to synthesize TiO2 nanowire arrays with nearly 100% exposed {001} facets. The coating exhibits good transparency. The thin films of TiO2 nanowire arrays display a very good photocatalytic degradation of dye molecules and good durability. Based on the above features, the TiO2 nanowire array coating is advantageous for self-cleaning coating. PMID:23963053

  16. Technologies for Nondestructive Evaluation of Surfaces and Thin Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The effort included in this project included several related activities encompassing basic understanding, technological development, customer identification and commercial transfer of several methodologies for nondestructive evaluation of surfaces and thin surface coatings. Consistent with the academic environment, students were involved in the effort working with established investigators to further their training, provide a nucleus of experienced practitioners in the new technologies during their industrial introduction, and utilize their talents for project goals. As will be seen in various portions of the report, some of the effort has led to commercialization. This process has spawned other efforts related to this project which are supported from outside sources. These activities are occupying the efforts of some of the people who were previously supported within this grant and its predecessors. The most advanced of the supported technologies is thermography, for which the previous joint efforts of the investigators and NASA researchers have developed several techniques for extending the utility of straight thermographic inspection by producing methods of interpretation and analysis accessible to automatic image processing with computer data analysis. The effort reported for this technology has been to introduce the techniques to new user communities, who are then be able to add to the effective uses of existing products with only slight development work. In a related development, analysis of a thermal measurement situation in past efforts led to a new insight into the behavior of simple temperature probes. This insight, previously reported to the narrow community in which the particular measurement was made, was reported to the community of generic temperature measurement experts this year. In addition to the propagation of mature thermographic techniques, the development of a thermoelastic imaging system has been an important related development. Part of the

  17. The gravity effect on spin coating glucose thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, P.; Wang, H.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate the gravity effect on spin-coated glucose film by comparing properties of films fabricated by two different methods: erected spin coating (ESC) and inverted spin coating (ISC). A “Bi-Layer” model, i.e. substrate effect layer and free layer, for spin coating is proposed to analyze the gravity effect on spin coating process which offers a more accurate prediction on film thickness. The thickness and deposition pattern are different in samples fabricated by ESC and ISC methods in titrating-repeated spin coating experiment. Finally, in a glucose coating/ferromagnetic composite structure, an enhanced Kerr rotation with the enhancement factor of 2.11 is achieved by ISC method.

  18. Undercutting of defects in thin film protective coatings on polymer surfaces exposed to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Mihelcic, Judith A.

    1989-01-01

    Protection for polymeric surfaces is needed to make them durable in the low Earth orbital environment, where oxidation by atomic oxygen is the predominant failure mechanism. Thin film coatings of oxides such as silicon dioxide are viable candidates to provide this protection, but concern has been voiced over the ability of these coatings to protect when defects are present in the coating due to surface anomalies occurring during the deposition process, handling, or micrometeoroid and debris bombardment in low Earth orbit. When a defected coating protecting a polymer substrate is exposed to atomic oxygen, the defect provides a pathway to the underlying polymer allowing oxidation and subsequent undercutting to occur. Defect undercutting was studied for sputter deposited coatings of silicon dioxide on polyimide Kapton. Preliminary results indicate that undercutting may be limited as long as the coating remains intact with the substrate. Therefore, coatings may not need to be defect free to give protection to the underlying surface.

  19. Efficient coating of transparent and conductive carbon nanotube thin films on plastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Andrew Ng, M H; Hartadi, Lysia T; Tan, Huiwen; Patrick Poa, C H

    2008-05-21

    Optically transparent and electrically conductive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin films were fabricated at room temperature using a dip-coating technique. The film transparency and sheet resistance can be easily tailored by controlling the number of coatings. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was used as an adhesion promoter and, together with surfactant Triton X-100, greatly improved the SWNTs coating. Only five coats were required to obtain a sheet resistance of 2.05 [Formula: see text] and film transparency of 84 %T. The dip-coated film after post-deposition treatment with nitric acid has a sheet resistance as low as 130 [Formula: see text] at 69 %T. This technique is suitable for large-scale SWNT coating at room temperature and can be used on different types of substrates such as glass and plastics. This paper will discuss the role of the adhesion promoter and surfactant in the coating process. PMID:21825746

  20. Non-stick syringe needles: Beneficial effects of thin film metallic glass coating

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jinn P.; Yu, Chia-Chi; Tanatsugu, Yusuke; Yasuzawa, Mikito; Shen, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of Zr-based (Zr53Cu33Al9Ta5) thin film metallic glass (TFMG) for the coating of syringe needles and compares the results with those obtained using titanium nitride and pure titanium coatings. TFMG coatings were shown to reduce insertion forces by ∼66% and retraction forces by ∼72%, when tested using polyurethane rubber block. The benefits of TFMG-coated needles were also observed when tested using muscle tissue from pigs. In nano-scratch tests, the TFMG coatings achieved a coefficient of friction (COF) of just ∼0.05, which is about one order of magnitude lower than those of other coatings. Finite-element modeling also indicates a significant reduction in injection and retraction forces. The COF can be attributed to the absence of grain boundaries in the TFMG coating as well as a smooth surface morphology and low surface free energy. PMID:27573062

  1. Undercutting of defects in thin film protective coatings on polymer surfaces exposed to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Mihelcic, Judith A.

    1989-01-01

    Protection for polymeric surfaces is needed to make them durable in the low earth orbital environment. Thin film coatings of oxides such as SiO2 are viable candidates to provide this protection, but concern has been voiced over the ability of these coatings to protect when defects are present in the coating due to surface anomalies. When a defected coating protecting a polymer substrate is exposed to atomic oxygen, the defect provides a pathway to the underlying polymer allowing oxidation and subsequent undercutting to occur. Defect undercutting was studied for sputter deposited coatings of SiO2 on polyimide Kapton. Preliminary results indicate that undercutting may be limited as long as the coating remains intact with the substrate. Therefore, coatings may not need to be defect free to give protection to the underlying surface.

  2. Non-stick syringe needles: Beneficial effects of thin film metallic glass coating.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jinn P; Yu, Chia-Chi; Tanatsugu, Yusuke; Yasuzawa, Mikito; Shen, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of Zr-based (Zr53Cu33Al9Ta5) thin film metallic glass (TFMG) for the coating of syringe needles and compares the results with those obtained using titanium nitride and pure titanium coatings. TFMG coatings were shown to reduce insertion forces by ∼66% and retraction forces by ∼72%, when tested using polyurethane rubber block. The benefits of TFMG-coated needles were also observed when tested using muscle tissue from pigs. In nano-scratch tests, the TFMG coatings achieved a coefficient of friction (COF) of just ∼0.05, which is about one order of magnitude lower than those of other coatings. Finite-element modeling also indicates a significant reduction in injection and retraction forces. The COF can be attributed to the absence of grain boundaries in the TFMG coating as well as a smooth surface morphology and low surface free energy. PMID:27573062

  3. Influence of Particle Size Distribution on Micromechanical Properties of thin Nanoparticulate Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Nina; Schilde, Carsten; Kwade, Arno

    In this study the production of thin nanoparticulate coatings on solid stainless-steel substrates using dip-coating was investigated. Defined particle sizes and particle size distributions of Al2O3-nanoparticles were adjusted by stirred media milling using various operating parameters. Using nanoindentation the influence of particle size and width of the particle size distribution on the mechanical properties was investigated. In particular the establishment of nanoindentation routines for particulate thin films in contrast to hard coatings is discussed. Nanoindentation appears to be an efficient method for analysing mechanical properties of said thin coatings. It will be shown, that the influence of the substrate can be neglected for small indent depth while the coating's surface roughness influences the employed routine of the nanoindentation. The effect of the median particle size and the width of the particle size distribution on the coating structure and the micromechanical coating properties will be discussed. As a result, the maximum indentation force decreases with decreasing particle size but rises again once the nanoparticles reach very small sizes. A change in the width of the particle size distribution influences the micromechanical properties and coating structure as well.

  4. Normal and interfacial stresses in thin-film coated optics: the case of diamond-coated zinc sulfide windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Claude A.

    2001-06-01

    Optical components such as mirrors or windows consisting of a substrate and a coating made up of thin films created at elevated temperatures exhibit substantial residual stresses induced by growth strains and/or thermoelastic strains that develop during the cool-down phase. A comprehensive description of these stresses must include not only the normal stresses in the film layers and the substrate but also the interfacial shearing stresses, which may cause delamination to occur. We take advantage of recent progress in describing elastic interactions in multilayered laminates for obtaining conceptually correct formulas for the residual stresses and the substrate's curvature of thin-film coated optics. Available analytical solutions for the normal stresses of elastically isotropic structures make no assumptions regarding layer thicknesses, but disregard the potential impact of edge effects. For circular structures such as coated optics, we show that recent work by Suhir now allows us to describe the distribution of both normal and interfacial stresses as long as the thin-film conditions are satisfied. The task of evaluating the deflection turns out to be fairly straightforward, leading to the conclusion that edge effects do not alter the bow of large compliant structures. The case of diamond-coated ZnS windows illustrates how thermal expansion mismatches can give rise to compressive film stresses of gigapascal intensity, which cause substrate deformations that are unacceptable in terms of the optical performance. Since the deflection of a multilayer-coated substrate reflects the sum of the contributions (positive or negative) induced by each film, the deflection can be minimized by properly designing the film stack. For a diamond-coated ZnS window, this means that a suitable buffer must be in tension; in principle, a buffer made of calcium lanthanum sulfide, about 350 micrometers thick, can mitigate the bending force exerted by a 50 micrometers thick diamond film and

  5. Electrochromic TiO2 Thin Film Prepared by Dip-Coating Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriani, S.; Kamisah, M. M.

    2002-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were prepared by using sol-gel dip coating technique. The coating solutions were prepared by reacting titanium isopropoxide as precursors and ethanol as solvent. The films were formed on transparent ITO-coated glass by a dip coating technique and final dried at various temperatures up to 600 °C for 30 minutes. The films were characterized with the UV-Vis-NIR Spectrometer, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). XRD results show that the films dried at 600 °C form anatase structure. From the spectroscopic studies, the sample shows electrochromic property.

  6. Thin film thermoelectric devices as thermal control coatings: A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Krupnick, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    Peltier effect, Thomson effect, and Seeback effect are utilized in design of thermal control coating that serves as versatile means for controlling heat absorbed and radiated by surface. Coatings may be useful in extreme temperature environment enclosures or as heat shields.

  7. Thin-film silica sol-gel coatings for neural microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Andrew L; Sommakia, Salah; Rickus, Jenna L; Otto, Kevin J

    2009-05-30

    The reactive tissue response of the brain to chronically implanted materials remains a formidable obstacle to stable recording from implanted microelectrodes. One approach to mitigate this response is to apply a bioactive coating in the form of an ultra-porous silica sol-gel, which can be engineered to improve biocompatibility and to enable local drug delivery. The first step in establishing the feasibility of such a coating is to investigate the effects of the coating on electrode properties. In this paper, we describe a method to apply a thin-film silica sol-gel coating to silicon-based microelectrodes, and discuss the resultant changes in the electrode properties. Fluorescently labeled coatings were used to confirm coating adherence to the electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy were used to evaluate electrical property changes. The silica sol-gel was found to successfully adhere to the electrodes as a thin coating. The voltammograms revealed a slight increase in charge carrying capacity of the electrodes following coating. Impedance spectrograms showed a mild increase in impedance at high frequencies but a more pronounced decrease in impedance at mid to low frequencies. These results demonstrate the feasibility of applying silica sol-gel coatings to silicon-based microelectrodes and are encouraging for the continued investigation of their use in mitigating the reactive tissue response. PMID:19427536

  8. SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 °C. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I–V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

  9. Microstructural developments in TLP bonds using thin interlayers based on Ni-B coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, R.K.; Khan, T.I.

    2009-09-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened alloy MA 758 was transient liquid phase (TLP) bonded using thin interlayers based on Ni-B electrodeposited coatings and the microstructural developments across the joint region were studied. The bonding surfaces were electrodeposited with a coat thickness of 2-9 {mu}m and microstructural features were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The homogeneity of the joint was assessed performing micro-hardness test. The results showed that the coating thickness as well as the amount of melting point depressants (boron) in the coatings had a significant effect on the microstructural developments within the joint region. TLP bonds made using a 2 {mu}m thick coating interlayer produced a joint with no visible precipitate formation and parent metal dissolution, and the absence of precipitates was attributed to the lower volume concentration of boron in the 2 {mu}m thick coating interlayer.

  10. Metallurgical coatings and thin films; Proceedings of the International Conference, 18th, San Diego, CA, Apr. 22-26, 1991. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Gary E. (Editor); Mcintyre, Dale C. (Editor); Hofmann, Siegfried (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    A conference on metallurgical coatings and thin films produced papers in the areas of coatings for use at high temperatures; hard coatings and deposition technologies; diamonds and related materials; tribological coatings/surface modifications; thin films for microelectronics and high temperature superconductors; optical coatings, film characterization, magneto-optics, and guided waves; and methods for characterizing films and modified surfaces.

  11. Functionalized antibiofilm thin coatings based on PLA-PVA microspheres loaded with usnic acid natural compounds fabricated by MAPLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumezescu, Valentina; Socol, Gabriel; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Ficai, Anton; Truşcǎ, Roxana; Bleotu, Coralia; Balaure, Paul Cǎtǎlin; Cristescu, Rodica; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2014-05-01

    We report the fabrication of thin coatings of PLA-PVA microspheres loaded with usnic acid by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) onto Ti substrate. The obtained coatings have been physico-chemically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared microscopy (IRM). In vitro biological assays have been performed in order to evaluate the influence of fabricated microsphere thin coatings on the Staphylococcus aureus biofilm development as well as their biocompatibility. SEM micrographs have revealed a uniform morphology of thin coatings, while IRM investigations have proved both the homogeneity and functional groups integrity of prepared thin coatings. The obtained microsphere-based thin coatings have proved to be efficient vehicles for usnic acid natural compound with antibiofilm activity, as demonstrated by the inhibitory activity on S. aureus mature biofilm development, opening new perspectives for the prevention and therapy associated to biofilm related infections.

  12. Growth of textured thin Au coatings on iron oxide nanoparticles with near infrared absorbance

    PubMed Central

    Ma, L L; Borwankar, A U; Willsey, B W; Yoon, K Y; Tam, J O; Sokolov, K V; Feldman, M D; Milner, T E; Johnston, K P

    2013-01-01

    A homologous series of Au-coated iron oxide nanoparticles, with hydrodynamic diameters smaller than 60 nm was synthesized with very low Auto-iron mass ratios as low as 0.15. The hydrodynamic diameter was determined by dynamic light scattering and the composition by atomic absorption spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Unusually low Au precursor supersaturation levels were utilized to nucleate and grow Au coatings on iron oxide relative to formation of pure Au nanoparticles. This approach produced unusually thin coatings, by lowering autocatalytic growth of Au on Au, as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nearly all of the nanoparticles were attracted by a magnet indicating a minimal amount of pure Au particles The coatings were sufficiently thin to shift the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to the near infrared (NIR), with large extinction coefficients., despite the small particle hydrodynamic diameters, observed from dynamic light scattering to be less than 60 nm. PMID:23238021

  13. Enhanced electrochemical properties of fluoride-coated LiCoO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Seuk Buom; Park, Yong Joon

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of fluoride-coated lithium cobalt oxide [LiCoO2] thin films were characterized. Aluminum fluoride [AlF3] and lanthanum fluoride [LaF3] coating layers were fabricated on a pristine LiCoO2 thin film by using a spin-coating process. The AlF3- and LaF3-coated films exhibited a higher rate capability, cyclic performance, and stability at high temperature than the pristine film. This indicates that the AlF3 and LaF3 layers effectively protected the surface of the pristine LiCoO2 film from the reactive electrolyte. PMID:22221488

  14. Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Yao, Youwei; Liu, Tianchen; Liu, Chian; Ulmer, M. P.; Cao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    As magnetic smart materials (MSMs), magnetostrictive materials have great potential to be selected as coating materials for lightweight x-ray telescope mirrors due to their capability to tune the mirror profile to the desired shape under a magnetic field. To realize this potential, it is necessary to study the deformation of the mirror substrate with the MSM coating subjected to a localized magnetic field. In this paper, an analytical model is developed to calculate the deformation of rectangular coated samples locally affected by magnetostrictive strains driven by an external magnetic field. As a specific case to validate the model, a square glass sample coated with MSMs is prepared, and its deformation is measured in a designed experimental setup by applying a magnetic field. The measured deformation of the sample is compared with the results calculated from the analytical model. The comparison results demonstrate that the analytical model is effective in calculating the deformation of a coated sample with the localized mismatch strains between the film and the substrate. In the experiments, different shape patterns of surface profile changes are achieved by varying the direction of the magnetic field. The analytical model and the experimental method proposed in this paper can be utilized to further guide the application of magnetostrictive coating to deformable lightweight x-ray mirrors in the future.

  15. Thin boron phosphide coating as a corrosion-resistant layer

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-08-25

    A surface prone to corrosion in corrosive environments is rendered anticorrosive by CVD growing a thin continuous film, e.g., having no detectable pinholes, thereon, of boron phosphide. In one embodiment, the film is semiconductive. In another aspect, the invention is an improved photoanode, and/or photoelectrochemical cell with a photoanode having a thin film of boron phosphide thereon rendering it anticorrosive, and providing it with unexpectedly improved photoresponsive properties.

  16. Strongly enhanced mode selection in a thin dielectric-coated layered microcavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hee-Jong; Kang, Dong-Yun

    2007-06-01

    Strong mode selection through an enhanced interferential coupling effect was observed in a thin dielectric-coated layered cylindrical microcavity laser. The strong coupling effect was induced owing to an enhanced reflectivity of around 50% at the dielectric-coated inner boundary of a fused silica capillary filled with a dye-doped liquid. At an optimized coating thickness of about 0.4 μm, the lasing peaks appeared only at the wavelengths corresponding to the constructive interference condition, whereas those from a bare capillary were weakly modulated.

  17. An investigation of thin-film coating/substrate systems by nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Thostenson, E.T.; Chou, T.W.; Riester, L.

    1998-04-01

    The indentation load-displacement behavior of three material systems tested with a Berkovich indenter has been examined. The materials studied were the substrate materials--silicon and polycarbonate, and the coating/substrate systems--diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on silicon, and DLC coating on polycarbonate. They represent three material systems, namely, bulk, soft-coating/hard-substrate, and hard-coating on soft-substrate. Delaminations in the soft-coating/hard-substrate (DLC/Si) system and cracking in the hard-coating/soft-substrate system (DLC/Polycarbonate) were observed. Parallel to the experimental work, an elastic analytical effort has been made to examine the influence of the film thickness and the properties of the coating/substrate systems. Comparisons between the experimental data and analytical solutions of the load-displacement curves during unloading show good agreement. The analytical solution also suggests that the Young`s modulus and hardness of the thin film can not be measured accurately using Sneddon`s solution for bulk materials when the thickness of the film is comparable to the loading contact radius of the indenter. The elastic stress field analysis provides a basis for understanding the experimentally observed delaminations and cracking of the coating/substrate systems.

  18. Fabricating thin-film photovoltaic devices using ultra-sonic spray-coating (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidzey, David G.

    2015-10-01

    The scale-up of thin-film electronic devices requires a manufacture tool set that is capable of fabricating thin films at high speed over large areas. One such technique capable of such a task is ultra-sonic spray coating. Here, a target solution is fed onto a vibrating tip that breaks the solution up into very fine droplets, with such droplets being carried to a surface by a gas stream. Such ultra-sonic coating processes are already widely used in Electronics, Medical and Displays industries to create films having excellent smoothness and homogeneity. In this talk, I describe the use of ultra-sonic spray-coating to deposit a range of materials for thin-film optoelectronics. As our spray-coating system operates in air, it was first necessary to explore the relative sensitivity of various conjugated polymer / fullerene blends to an air-based process route. It is found that carbazole based co-polymers are particularly stable, and can be processed in air (by spin-coating) into organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) without any apparent loss in device efficiency. I then show that spray-coating can be used to deposit a range of semiconductor materials into smooth, thin-films, including PEDOT:PSS, MoOx (from a precursor) and a series of polymer:fullerene blends. Using such a technique, we are able to scale up an array of devices having an area of 7 cm2, and using a PBDTTT-EFT:PC70BM blend, obtain OPVs having a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.7%. I then discuss spray-coating as a method to fabricate photovoltaic devices based on CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Clx perovskite films. Here, by optimization of deposition parameters, devices are created having a PCE of 11.1%.

  19. Solubility control of thin calcium-phosphate coating with rapid heating.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, M; Watanabe, Y; Ohtsuka, Y; Dérand, T

    1997-08-01

    The thin calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) coatings produced by the ion-beam-mixing method instead of the plasma-spraying method have been found to be amorphous, resulting in films that easily dissolved in simulated body fluid. These coatings crystalized with conventional heat treatment in an electric furnace but tended to crack easily. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to find a suitable heat treatment that controls the solubility of Ca-P coatings without weakening their adhesion to titanium (Ti) substrate. Thin coatings (approximately 1 microm) were coated onto Ti substrates, followed by heat treatment in a conventional furnace and rapid heating by infrared radiation and laser radiation. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed untreated films to be amorphous but to become crystalline after being heated in a furnace at 500 degrees C, heated rapidly with infrared radiation higher than 600 degrees C and with laser radiation at output power of 10W. We evaluated solubility by estimating the film thickness after immersion in simulated body fluid for 5 weeks: Untreated films dissolved within 1 day. Coatings treated with infrared radiation at 600 degrees C dissolved minimally. Cracks were observed in coatings subjected to infrared radiation at 800 degrees C and furnace-heated at 500 degrees C. Coatings treated with laser radiation tended to dissolve easily, with non-uniform surface degradation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis at the interface between the coating and the Ti substrate showed that cracks were the result of decreased Ca-implanted layers and too much growth of Ti-P compounds. No difference was recognized in the Ti-oxidation state among specimens. These data indicate that rapid, homogeneous, and comparatively low-temperature heating, such as defocused infrared radiation, controls Ca-P solubility and ensures the adherence of the coatings to the substrate. PMID:9240385

  20. Experimental observation of rainbow scattering by a coated cylinder: twin primary rainbows and thin-film interference.

    PubMed

    Adler, C L; Lock, J A; Nash, J K; Saunders, K W

    2001-03-20

    We experimentally examine the primary rainbow created by the illumination of a coated cylinder. We present a simple technique for varying the coating thickness over a wide range of values, and we see evidence for two different scattering regimes. In one, where the coating thickness is large, twin rainbows are produced. In the second, where the coating is thin enough to act as a thin film, a single rainbow is produced whose intensity varies periodically as the coating thickness varies. We find good agreement with previous theoretical predictions. PMID:18357147

  1. Preparation and antimicrobial assay of ceramic brackets coated with TiO2 thin films

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shuai; Wang, Ye; Cao, Lin; Wang, Yu; Lin, Bingpeng; Lan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Different methods have been utilized to prevent enamel demineralization and other complications during orthodontic treatment. However, none of these methods can offer long-lasting and effective prevention of orthodontic complications or interventions after complications occur. Considering the photocatalytic effect of TiO2 on organic compounds, we hoped to synthesize a novel bracket with a TiO2 thin film to develop a photocatalytic antimicrobial effect. Methods The sol-gel dip coating method was used to prepare TiO2 thin films on ceramic bracket surfaces. Twenty groups of samples were composed according to the experimental parameters. Crystalline structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively; film thickness was examined with a surface ellipsometer. The photocatalytic properties under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation were analyzed by evaluating the degradation ratio of methylene blue (MB) at a certain time. Antibacterial activities of selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. Results Films with 5 coating layers annealed at 700℃ showed the greatest photocatalytic activity in terms of MB decomposition under UV light irradiation. TiO2 thin films with 5 coating layers annealed at 700℃ exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity under UV-A light irradiation. Conclusions These results provide promising guidance in prevention of demineralization by increasing antimicrobial activities of film coated brackets. PMID:27226960

  2. Study of two different thin film coating methods in transmission laser micro-joining of thin Ti-film coated glass and polyimide for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sultana, T; Georgiev, G L; Baird, R J; Auner, G W; Newaz, G; Patwa, R; Herfurth, H J

    2009-07-01

    Biomedical devices and implants require precision joining for hermetic sealing which can be achieved with low power lasers. The effect of two different thin metal film coating methods was studied in transmission laser micro-joints of titanium-coated glass and polyimide. The coating methods were cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD) and electron beam evaporation (EB-PVD). Titanium-coated glass joined to polyimide film can have neural electrode application. The improvement of the joint quality will be essential for robust performance of the device. Low power fiber laser (wave length = 1100 nm) was used for transmission laser micro-joining of thin titanium (Ti) film (approximately 200 nm) coated Pyrex borosilicate 7740 glass wafer (0.5 mm thick) and polyimide (Imidex) film (0.2 mm thick). Ti film acts as the coupling agent in the joining process. The Ti film deposition rate in the CA-PVD was 5-10 A/s and in the EB-PVD 1.5 A/s. The laser joint strength was measured by a lap shear test, the Ti film surfaces were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the lap shear tested joints were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The film properties and the failure modes of the joints were correlated to joint strength. The CA-PVD produced around 4 times stronger laser joints than EB-PVD. The adhesion of the Ti film on glass by CA-PVD is better than that of the EB-PVD method. This is likely to be due to a higher film deposition rate and consequently higher adhesion or sticking coefficient for the CA-PVD particles arriving on the substrate compared to that of the EB-PVD film. EB-PVD shows poor laser bonding properties due to the development of thermal hotspots which occurs from film decohesion. PMID:19627828

  3. Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS on Spin-Coated and Drop Cast Nanofibrillar Cellulose Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtakari, Dimitar; Liu, Jun; Kumar, Vinay; Xu, Chunlin; Toivakka, Martti; Saarinen, Jarkko J.

    2015-10-01

    Aqueous dispersion of conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was deposited on spin-coated and drop cast nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC)-glycerol (G) matrix on a glass substrate. A thin glycerol film was utilized on plasma-treated glass substrate to provide adequate adhesion for the NFC-glycerol (NFC-G) film. The effects of annealing temperature, the coating method of NFC-G, and the coating time intervals on the electrical performance of the PEDOT:PSS were characterized. PEDOT:PSS on drop cast NFC-G resulted in 3 orders of magnitude increase in the electrical conductivity compared to reference PEDOT:PSS film on a reference glass substrate, whereas the optical transmission was only slightly decreased. The results point out the importance of the interaction between the PEDOT:PSS and the NFC-G for the electrical and barrier properties for thin film electronics applications.

  4. Application of Pcvd Process to Uniform Coating of TiO2 Thin Films on Polypropylene Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Pham, Hung Cuong; Kim, Kyo-Seon

    The growth of the TiO2 thin films coated on the polypropylene beads was analyzed experimentally in a rotating cylindrical plasma chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) reactor. The precursors for the thin films were generated by plasma reactions, and they deposited on the polypropylene beads to become the uniform thin films. The TiO2 thin films grow more quickly on the polypropylene beads by increasing the mass flow rate of TTIP, or the rotation speed of the reactor. The smaller number of polypropylene beads in the reactor increases the growth rate of the thin films. The high-quality TiO2 thin films can be coated on particles uniformly by using the rotating cylindrical PCVD process. The particles coated with high-quality TiO2 thin films can be applied to the removal of air and water pollutants by a photodegradation reaction of TiO2.

  5. Producing ultra-thin silica coatings on iron-oxide nanoparticles to improve their surface reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralj, Slavko; Makovec, Darko; Čampelj, Stanislav; Drofenik, Miha

    2010-07-01

    The reactivity of the relatively inert surfaces of iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles can be significantly improved by coating the surfaces with silica. Unfortunately, however, this nonmagnetic silica layer tends to dilute the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. Therefore, the silica layer should be as continuous, homogeneous, and as thin as possible. In this investigation we coated superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles by hydrolysis and the polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), with the ethanol solution of TEOS being added to a stable suspension of citric acid-coated nanoparticles. The influences of the various parameters of the procedure on the quality of the coatings were systematically evaluated. The quality of the silica layer was characterized using electron microscopy and by performing leaching of the nanoparticles in HCl, while the surface reactivity was tested by grafting (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APS) onto the nanoparticles. We observed that the surface concentration of the grafted APS strongly increased when the nanoparticles were coated with a silica layer. The choice of experimental conditions for the coating procedure that favors the heterogeneous nucleation of silica on the surfaces of the nanoparticles enabled the preparation of very thin silica layers, less than 2 nm thick. By decreasing the amount of added TEOS to correspond to a monolayer of -Si-OH at the nanoparticles' surfaces, their surface reactivity could be very much improved, and with a reduction in their magnetization of only ˜10%.

  6. Perfectly absorbing ultra thin interference coatings for hydrogen sensing.

    PubMed

    Serhatlioglu, Murat; Ayas, Sencer; Biyikli, Necmi; Dana, Aykutlu; Solmaz, Mehmet E

    2016-04-15

    Here we numerically demonstrate a straightforward method for optical detection of hydrogen gas by means of absorption reduction and colorimetric indication. A perfectly absorbing metal-insulator-metal (MIM) thin film interference structure is constructed using a silver metal back reflector, silicon dioxide insulator, and palladium as the upper metal layer and hydrogen catalyst. The thickness of silicon dioxide allows the maximizing of the electric field intensity at the Air/SiO2 interface at the quarter wavelengths and enabling perfect absorption with the help of highly absorptive palladium thin film (∼7  nm). While the exposure of the MIM structure to H2 moderately increases reflection, the relative intensity contrast due to formation of metal hydride is extensive. By modifying the insulator film thickness and hence the spectral absorption, the color is tuned and eye-visible results are obtained. PMID:27082329

  7. Emissivity of freestanding membranes with thin metal coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Zwol, P. J. van Vles, D. F.; Voorthuijzen, W. P.; Péter, M.; Vermeulen, H.; Zande, W. J. van der; Sturm, J. M.; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Bijkerk, F.

    2015-12-07

    Freestanding silicon nitride membranes with thicknesses down to a few tens of nanometers find use as TEM windows or soft X-ray spectral purity filters. As the thickness of a membrane decreases, emissivity vanishes, which limits radiative heat emission and resistance to heat loads. We show that thin metal layers with thicknesses in the order of 1 nm enhance the emissivity of thin membranes by two to three orders of magnitude close to the theoretical limit of 0.5. This considerably increases thermal load capacity of membranes in vacuum environments. Our experimental results are in line with classical theory in which we adapt thickness dependent scattering terms in the Drude and Lorentz oscillators.

  8. Investigation of hexagonal boron nitride as an atomically thin corrosion passivation coating in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yingchao; Lou, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) atomic layers were utilized as a passivation coating in this study. A large-area continuous h-BN thin film was grown on nickel foil using a chemical vapor deposition method and then transferred onto sputtered copper as a corrosion passivation coating. The corrosion passivation performance in a Na2SO4 solution of bare and coated copper was investigated by electrochemical methods including cyclic voltammetry (CV), Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). CV and Tafel analysis indicate that the h-BN coating could effectively suppress the anodic dissolution of copper. The EIS fitting result suggests that defects are the dominant leakage source on h-BN films, and improved anti-corrosion performances could be achieved by further passivating these defects.

  9. Multilayer thin film coatings for reduced infrared loss in hollow glass waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bledt, Carlos M.; Kopp, Daniel V.; Harrington, James A.; Kriesel, Jason M.

    2011-09-01

    Hollow glass waveguides (HGWs) are an attractive alternative to traditional solid-core and 2D photonic crystal, infrared transmissive fibers. Applications for HGWs at wavelengths longer than 2 microns include use of the guides for the delivery of laser power and for use as chemical and thermal sensors. To date, the most common HGW is one with an inner coating of Ag followed by a single-dielectric layer of AgI. These single-layer dielectric coated HGWs have losses for a 700-micron bore guide as low as 0.2 dB/m at 10.6 microns. However, if a multilayer stack of alternating high/low index thin films is deposited instead of a single dielectric layer then the loss can be reduced substantially. In the present study, multilayer dielectric thin films have been deposited inside silica tubing using a liquid-phase deposition method. High index coating materials used include metal sulfides such as PbS while the low index materials include polystyrene (PS) and some sulfides. To date it has been possible to deposit two-layer coatings using, for example, CdS and PS but a lower loss is possible if the coating stack is composed of three dielectric layers. In past work CdS/PbS/CdS coatings were deposited and found to have a measured a loss at λ = 10.6 microns that is approximately two times lower than that for a single dielectric layer. In this paper the theory of multilayer coatings will be presented along with the optical loss measurements from λ = 2 to 12 microns for the multilayer dielectric coatings.

  10. Understanding Solidification of Polythiophene Thin Films during Spin-Coating: Effects of Spin-Coating Time and Processing Additives

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jin Yeong; Kang, Boseok; Sin, Dong Hun; Cho, Kilwon; Park, Yeong Don

    2015-01-01

    Spin-coating has been used extensively in the fabrication of electronic devices; however, the effects of the processing parameters have not been fully explored. Here, we systematically characterize the effects of the spin-coating time on the microstructure evolution during semiconducting polymer solidification in an effort to establish the relationship between this parameter and the performances of the resulting polymer field-effect transistors (FETs). We found that a short spin-coating time of a few seconds dramatically improve the morphology and molecular order in a conjugated polymer thin film because the π-π stacking structures formed by the polymer molecules grow slowly and with a greater degree of order due to the residual solvent present in the wet film. The improved ordering is correlated with improved charge carrier transport in the FETs prepared from these films. We also demonstrated the effects of various processing additives on the resulting FET characteristics as well as on the film drying behavior during spin-coating. The physical properties of the additives are found to affect the film drying process and the resulting device performance. PMID:26299676

  11. Thin film type 248-nm bottom antireflective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Tomoyuki; Nakayama, Keisuke; Mizusawa, Kenichi; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Yoon, Sangwoong; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Young-Ho; Chung, Hoesik; Chon, Sang Mun

    2003-06-01

    A frequent problem encountered by photoresists during the manufacturing of semiconductor device is that activating radiation is reflected back into the photoresist by the substrate. So, it is necessary that the light reflection is reduced from the substrate. One approach to reduce the light reflection is the use of bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) applied to the substrate beneath the photoresist layer. The BARC technology has been utilized for a few years to minimize the reflectivity. As the chip size is reduced to sub 0.13-micron, the photoresist thickness has to decrease with the aspect ratio being less than 3.0. Therefore, new Organic BARC is strongly required which has the minimum reflectivity with thinner BARC thickness and higher etch selectivity towards resist. SAMSUNG Electronics has developed the advanced Organic BARC with Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd. and Brewer Science, Inc. for achieving the above purpose. As a result, the suitable high performance SNAC2002 series KrF Organic BARCs were developed. Using CF4 gas as etchant, the plasma etch rate of SNAC2002 series is about 1.4 times higher than that of conventional KrF resists and 1.25 times higher than the existing product. The SNAC2002 series can minimize the substrate reflectivity at below 40nm BARC thickness, shows excellent litho performance and coating properties.

  12. Reactive Evaporation And Plasma Processes For Thin Film Optical Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Johannes

    1989-02-01

    Bombardment of growing films with reactive particles has developed into a powerful technology over the last 3o years. Compared to normal evaporation methods, important improvements are: better adhesion between film and substrate, high film density, fast coating rate and stoichiometric layers with low optical losses. Although the techniques used to achieve the desired properties vary quite dramatically from high pressure plasma processing to bombardment with monoenergetic ion beams in ultra high vacuum environment, from particles with nearly thermal to some keV energy and from discharge currents of some μA to more than 1oo A in industrial applications, the ion-surface interaction, which causes the modification of the films, is the basic of all reactive deposition processes. The purpose of this paper is to review plasma processes for the production of optical coatings including ion assisted deposition, ion plating and ion cluster beam deposition, comparing the structural and optical properties of the films. Some applications of reactive evaporation presented in the following papers demonstrate the potential use of reactive evaporation and plasma processes for solving optical problems.

  13. Bimodal Latex Effect on Spin-Coated Thin Conductive Polymer-Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Layers.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mohammad-Amin; Larrakoetxea Angoitia, Katalin; van Berkel, Stefan; Gnanasekaran, Karthikeyan; Friedrich, Heiner; Heuts, Johan P A; van der Schoot, Paul; van Herk, Alex M

    2015-11-10

    We synthesize two differently sized poly(methyl methacrylate-co-tert-butyl acrylate) latexes by emulsion polymerization and mix these with a sonicated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) dispersion, in order to prepare 3% SWCNT composite mixtures. We spin-coat these mixtures at various spin-speed rates and spin times over a glass substrate, producing a thin, transparent, solid, conductive layer. Keeping the amount of SWCNTs constant, we vary the weight fraction of our smaller 30-nm latex particles relative to the larger 70-nm-sized ones. We find a maximum in the electrical conductivity up to 370 S/m as a function of the weight fraction of smaller particles, depending on the overall solid content, the spin speed, and the spin time. This maximum occurs at 3-5% of the smaller latex particles. We also find a more than 2-fold increase in conductivity parallel to the radius of spin-coating than perpendicular to it. Atomic force microscopy points at the existence of lanes of latex particles in the spin-coated thin layer, while large-area transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the SWCNTs are aligned over a grid fixed on the glass substrate during the spin-coating process. We extract the conductivity distribution on the surface of the thin film and translate this into the direction of the SWCNTs in it. PMID:26491888

  14. Deposition parameters to improve the fouling-release properties of thin siloxane coatings prepared by PACVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akesso, Laurent; Navabpour, Parnia; Teer, Dennis; Pettitt, Michala E.; Callow, Maureen E.; Liu, Chen; Su, Xueju; Wang, Su; Zhao, Qi; Donik, Crtomir; Kocijan, Aleksandra; Jenko, Monika; Callow, James A.

    2009-04-01

    A range of SiO x-like coatings was deposited on glass slides from a hexamethylsiloxane precursor by plasma-assisted CVD. The effect of varying deposition parameters, specifically ion cleaning time and HMDSO/O 2 ratios, on the coating properties and antifouling performance was investigated. At low HMDSO/O 2 ratios, the resulting coatings were close to SiO 2. Carbon content in the bulk of the coatings increased with increasing HMDSO/O 2 ratio. Coatings deposited at high HMDSO/O 2 ratios and with the longest cleaning time (30 min), elevated the relative carbon content to 25 atomic %. Surface energies (22-43 mJ/m) were correlated with the degree of surface oxidation and hydrocarbon content. With the exception of the most polar coatings the apolar component of the surface energy ( γLW) was the dominant component. In the most hydrophilic coatings, the Lewis base component of the surface energy ( γ-) was dominant. Significantly improved antifouling performance was detected with the most reduced coatings deposited using the extended ion cleaning times. For both, the removal of sporelings of the marine green alga, Ulvalinza and the initial adhesion of the freshwater bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, there was a strong, positive correlation between strength of attachment and ion cleaning time. Increased ion cleaning time will elevate the deposition temperature, increasing decomposition rates and thus the crosslinking of the polymer. Increased cross-linking may render these coatings less permeable to penetration and mechanical interlocking by the adhesive polymers used by these organisms, thus reducing their adhesion. Films with improved biological performance have potential for use as coatings in the control of biofouling in applications such as heat exchangers, where thin films are important for effective thermal transfer, or optical windows where transparency is important.

  15. Long-term corrosion protection by a thin nano-composite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejenstam, Lina; Tuominen, Mikko; Haapanen, Janne; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Pan, Jinshan; Swerin, Agne; Claesson, Per M.

    2015-12-01

    We report and discuss the corrosion protective properties of a thin nano-composite coating system consisting of an 11 μm thick polyester acrylate (PEA) basecoat, covered by an approximately 1-2 μm thick layer of TiO2 nanoparticles carrying a 0.05 μm thick hexamethyl disiloxane (HMDSO) top coat. The corrosion protective properties were evaluated on carbon steel substrates immersed in 3 wt% NaCl solution by open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The protective properties of each layer, and of each pair of layers, were also evaluated to gain further understanding of the long-term protective properties offered by the nano-composite coating. The full coating system showed excellent corrosion protective properties in the corrosive environment of 3 wt% NaCl-solution for an extended period of 100 days, during which the coating impedance, at the lower frequency limit (0.01 Hz), remained above 108 Ω cm2. We suggest that the excellent corrosion protective properties of the complete coating system is due to a combination of (i) good adhesion and stability of the PEA basecoat, (ii) the surface roughness and the elongated diffusion path provided by the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles, and (iii) the low surface energy provided by the HMDSO top coat.

  16. Asymmetry In Biphase Data Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents analysis of some effects of asymmetry in Manchester (biphase) binary data signal transmitted by phase modulation of sinusoidal carrier signal. Report extends analysis described in article, "Effects of Asymmetry of NRZ Data Signals on Performance" (NPO-18261), to include case where data biphase-modulated directly on residual carrier.

  17. High-rate reel-to-reel continuous coating of biaxially textured magnesium oxide thin films for coated conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chudzik, M. P.; Erck, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Luo, Z. P.; Miller, D. J.; Kannewurf, C. R.

    2000-01-12

    Biaxially textured thin films of magnesium oxide (MgO) were deposited by electron beam evaporation at deposition rates of 0.6 {mu}m/min on moving Ni-based alloy tapes as oriented buffer layers for coated conductors. Moving substrates were inclined with respect to the atomic vapor and translated through collimated dual vapor sources. Growth anisotropy in the MgO and self-shadowing effects due to the inclined angle combine to create biaxial texture in the deposited thin films. MgO films grown to a thickness of 2.0 {mu}m with this inclined-substrate deposition technique have yielded in-plane textures of 10--12{degree} fill-width half-maximum (FWHM). Results of a parametric study on the in-plane texture in short-length static-mode samples are presented, along with preliminary results of long-length samples deposited under translating conditions.

  18. Transparent conductive reduced graphene oxide thin films produced by spray coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, HongFei; Wang, Can; Sun, ZhiPei; Zhou, YueLiang; Jin, KuiJuan; Yang, GuoZhen

    2015-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide thin films were fabricated on quartz by spray coating method using a stable dispersion of reduced graphene oxide in N,N-Dimethylformamide. The dispersion was produced by chemical reduction of graphene oxide, and the film thickness was controlled with the amount of spray volume. AFM measurements revealed that the thin films have near-atomically flat surface. The chemical and structural parameters of the samples were analyzed by Raman and XPS studies. It was found that the thin films show electrical conductivity with good optical transparency in the visible to near infrared region. The sheet resistance of the films can be significantly reduced by annealing in vacuum and reach 58 kΩ with a light transmittance of 68.69% at 550 nm. The conductive transparent properties of the reduced graphene oxide thin films would be useful to develop flexible electronics.

  19. Low emissivity high-temperature tantalum thin film coatings for silicon devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rinnerbauer, Veronika; Senkevich, Jay J.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin; Celanovic, Ivan; Harl, Robert R.; Rogers, Bridget R.

    2013-01-01

    The authors study the use of thin ( ~230 nm ) tantalum (Ta) layers on silicon (Si) as a low emissivity (high reflectivity) coating for high-temperature Si devices. Such coatings are critical to reduce parasitic radiation loss, which is one of the dominant loss mechanisms at high temperatures (above 700 °C ). The key factors to achieve such a coating are low emissivity in the near infrared and superior thermal stability at high operating temperatures. The authors investigated the emissivity of Ta coatings deposited on Si with respect to deposition parameters, and annealing conditions, and temperature. The authors found that after annealing at temperatures ≥900 °C the emissivity in the near infrared ( 1–3 μm ) was reduced by a factor of 2 as compared to bare Si. In addition, the authors measured thermal emission at temperatures from 700 to 1000 °C , which is stable up to a heater temperature equal to the annealing temperature. Furthermore, Auger electron spectroscopy profiles of the coatings before and after annealing were taken to evaluate thermal stability. A thin (about 70 nm) Ta₂O₅ layer was found to act as an efficient diffusion barrier between the Si substrate and the Ta layer to prevent Si diffusion.

  20. Simple push coating of polymer thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Toshikazu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Minemawari, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Horii, Yoshinori; Chikamatsu, Masayuki; Azumi, Reiko; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Solution processibility is a unique advantage of organic semiconductors, permitting the low-cost production of flexible electronics under ambient conditions. However, the solution affinity to substrate surfaces remains a serious dilemma; liquid manipulation is more difficult on highly hydrophobic surfaces, but the use of such surfaces is indispensable for improving device characteristics. Here we demonstrate a simple technique, which we call 'push coating', to produce uniform large-area semiconducting polymer films over a hydrophobic surface with eliminating material loss. We utilize a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based trilayer stamp whose conformal contact with the substrate enables capillarity-induced wetting of the surface. Films are formed through solvent sorption and retention in the stamp, allowing the stamp to be peeled perfectly from the film. The planar film formation on hydrophobic surfaces also enables subsequent fine film patterning. The technique improves the crystallinity and field-effect mobility of stamped semiconductor films, constituting a major step towards flexible electronics production. PMID:23132026

  1. Low earth orbit environmental effects on osmium and related optical thin-film coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, T. R.; Herzig, H.; Osantowski, J. F.; Toft, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A number of samples of optical thin film materials were flown on Shuttle flight STS-8 as part of an experiment to evaluate their interaction with residual atomic oxygen in low earth orbit. Osmium was selected because of its usefulness as a reflective optical coating for far-UV instruments and for confirmation of results from previous Shuttle flights in which such coatings disappeared. Reflectance data and photographic evidence are presented to support the hypothesis that the osmium disappearance is due to reaction with oxygen to form a volatile oxide. Platinum and iridium, which were included for comparison, fared much better.

  2. A relative humidity sensing probe based on etched thin-core fiber coated with polyvinyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Yang, Zaihang; Zhou, Libin; Liu, Nan; Gang, Tingting; Qiao, Xueguang; Hu, Manli

    2015-12-01

    A relative humidity (RH) sensing probe based on etched thin-core fiber (TCF) coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated.This sensor is constructed by splicing a section of TCF with a single mode fiber (SMF), then part of the TCF's cladding is etched by hydrofluoric acid solution and finally the tip of TCF is coated with PVA. Experimental results demonstrate that this sensor can measure the ambient RH by demodulating the power variation of reflection spectrum. The power demodulation method make this sensor can ignore the temperature cross-sensitivity and have an extensive application prospect.

  3. Unstable Spreading of Surfactant Coated Thin Liquid Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Omar K.; Troian, Sandra M.

    1997-11-01

    The spreading of surfactants along a thin liquid support of higher tension provides a rapid and efficient transport process in many biological and industrial processes. Experiments by several groups have revealed an instability during the advance of the surfactant film but the mechanism responsible for the unstable flow is not yet understood. Based on the rapid spreading rate, Marangoni stresses are believed to play a significant role in the spreading dynamics. A linear stability analysis of a self-similar solution describing Marangoni driven spreading predicts stable flow, from which the mechanism controlling film stability is inferred (O.K. Matar and S. M. Troian, submitted to Phys. of Fluids (1997).). A more recent transient growth analysis suggests enormous amplification of initially small perturbations in the film thickness which decay to the linearly stable solution at long times. This initial growth may give rise to non-linear effects responsible for the spreading instability which we probe via 3D simulations.

  4. Solar Selective Coatings Prepared From Thin-Film Molecular Mixtures and Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Don A.

    2003-01-01

    Thin films composed of molecular mixtures of metal and dielectric are being considered for use as solar selective coatings for a variety of space power applications. By controlling molecular mixing during ion-beam sputter deposition, researchers can tailor the solar selective coatings to have the combined properties of high solar absorptance and low infrared emittance. On orbit, these combined properties simultaneously maximize the amount of solar energy captured by the coating and minimize the amount of thermal energy radiated. The solar selective coatings are envisioned for use on minisatellites, for applications where solar energy is used to power heat engines or to heat remote regions in the interior of the spacecraft. Such systems may be useful for various missions, particularly those to middle Earth orbit. Sunlight must be concentrated by a factor of 100 or more to achieve the desired heat inlet operating temperature. At lower concentration factors, the temperature of the heat inlet surface of the heat engine is too low for efficient operation, and at high concentration factors, cavity type heat receivers become attractive. The an artist's concept of a heat engine, with the annular heat absorbing surface near the focus of the concentrator coated with a solar selective coating is shown. In this artist's concept, the heat absorbing surface powers a small Stirling convertor. The astronaut's gloved hand is provided for scale. Several thin-film molecular mixtures have been prepared and evaluated to date, including mixtures of aluminum and aluminum oxide, nickel and aluminum oxide, titanium and aluminum oxide, and platinum and aluminum oxide. For example, a 2400- Angstrom thick mixture of titanium and aluminum oxide was found to have a solar absorptance of 0.93 and an infrared emittance of 0.06. On the basis of tests performed under flowing nitrogen at temperatures as high as 680 C, the coating appeared to be durable at elevated temperatures. Additional durability

  5. Zeolite thin film-coated long period fiber grating sensor for measuring trace chemical.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Tang, Xiling; Dong, Junhang; Wei, Tao; Xiao, Hai

    2008-05-26

    This paper reports the development of a new zeolite thin film-coated long period fiber grating (LPFG) sensor for direct measurement of trace organic vapors. The sensor was fabricated by growing pure silica MFI-type zeolite thin film on the optical fiber grating by in situ hydrothermal crystallization. The sensor measures chemical vapor concentration by monitoring the molecular adsorption-induced shift of LPFG resonant wavelength (lambda(R)) in near infrared (IR) region. Upon loading analyte molecules, the zeolite's refractive index changes in the close vicinity of the fiber index where the LPFG has a large response to achieve high sensitivity. PMID:18545545

  6. Luminescence of SnO 2 thin films prepared by spin-coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Feng; Wang, Shu Fen; Lü, Meng Kai; Cheng, Xiu Feng; Liu, Su Wen; Zhou, Guang Jun; Xu, Dong; Yuan, Duo Rong

    2004-02-01

    SnO 2 thin films have been grown on soda-lime glass substrate using a simple spin-coating method. The films grown under different calcining temperatures have been characterized using microstructural and luminescent measurements. Room-temperature photoluminescence measurements under excitation at 280 nm show two broad emission peaks, the one peaking at 430 nm can be related to tin interstitials or dangling, and the other at 400 nm can be related to oxygen vacancies in the SnO 2 thin films.

  7. Rayleigh instability in polymer thin films coated in the nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide templates.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Chan; Chen, Jiun-Tai

    2014-01-14

    We study the Rayleigh instability of polystyrene (PS) thin films coated in the nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. After thermal annealing, the surface of the PS thin films undulates and the nanostructures transform from nanotubes to Rayleigh-instability-induced nanostructures (short nanorods with encapsulated air bubbles). With longer annealing times, the nanostructures further transform to nanorods with longer lengths. PS samples with two different molecular weights (24 and 100 kg/mol) are used, and their instability transformation processes are compared. The morphology diagrams of the nanostructures at different stages are also constructed to elucidate the mechanism of the morphology transformation. PMID:24380368

  8. Enhanced osteoblast and osteoclast responses to a thin film sputtered hydroxyapatite coating.

    PubMed

    Hao, J; Kuroda, S; Ohya, K; Bartakova, S; Aoki, H; Kasugai, S

    2011-06-01

    A sputtering technique followed by a low temperature hydrothermal treatment has been demonstrated to produce a dense-and-bioactive hydroxyapatite thin film coating. The purpose of the present study was to investigate osteoblast and osteoclast responses to the hydroxyapatite coated plates and titanium plates with similar roughness. Rat bone marrow stromal cells were cultured on these plates to induce osteoblasts. The cells showed a significantly enhanced proliferation on the hydroxyapatite surface, accompanied by increase of osteoblastic phenotypes. The co-cultured osteoclasts exhibited the significantly different cell number and morphology between the hydroxyapatite and the titanium surfaces. A series of osteoclast marker genes were more stimulated on the hydroxyapatite and thirty two percent of the hydroxyapatite surface area could be resorbed by osteoclasts. The thin film sputtered hydroxyapatite could provide a favorable surface for both osteoblast and osteoclast formation and their function, indicating its good osteoconductivity and biodegradability. PMID:21567286

  9. Near-field radiative heat transfer between metamaterials coated with silicon carbide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Soumyadipta Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2015-01-19

    In this letter, we study the near-field radiative heat transfer between two metamaterial substrates coated with silicon carbide (SiC) thin films. It is known that metamaterials can enhance the near-field heat transfer over ordinary materials due to excitation of magnetic plasmons associated with s polarization, while strong surface phonon polariton exists for SiC. By careful tuning of the optical properties of metamaterial, it is possible to excite electrical and magnetic resonances for the metamaterial and surface phonon polaritons for SiC at different spectral regions, resulting in the enhanced heat transfer. The effect of the SiC film thickness at different vacuum gaps is investigated. Results obtained from this study will be beneficial for application of thin film coatings for energy harvesting.

  10. Spin-coated kesterite CZTS thin films for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majula, L.; Mlyuka, N. R.; Samiji, M. E.; Bryce, R. S.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Choi, H. J.

    2015-09-01

    Copper zinc tin-sulfide (CZTS) films have been widely studied over recent years due to the inherent advantages of low cost, high absorption coefficient (≥ 104 cm-1), suitable band gap (˜1.5 eV) and nontoxicity. In this work, spin coating was used to obtain CZTS films of various compositions and degrees of crystallization on glass substrates, which were then annealed at 500 °C in a N2 atmosphere by using a rapid thermal processing (RTP) furnace in order to optimize their structure. Non-stoichiometric precursors and low spinning speeds resulted in a lower sheet resistance, which is considered to be a result of lower degree of crystallization. Furthermore, the non-stoichiometric films had a high optical band gap (> 1.66 eV) whereas the band gap of the stoichiometric films (1.4 to 1.6 eV) was close to the optimal value (1.5 eV) for solar-cell applications.

  11. Durable thin film coatings for reflectors used in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the properties of thin film coatings used to provide a durable reflective surface for solar concentrators used in the solar dynamic system designed for the Space Station. The material system to be used consists of an adhesion promotion layer, a silver reflective layer, and a protective layer of aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide. The performance characteristics of this system are described and compared to those of several alternative systems which use aluminum as the reflective layer.

  12. Development of Mathematical Models for Detecting Micron Scale Volumetric Defects in Thin Film Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaigals, G.; Donerblics, M.; Dreifogels, G.

    2016-04-01

    The focus of the present research is to investigate possibilities of volumetric defect detection in thin film coatings on glass substrates by means of high definition imaging with no complex optical systems, such as lenses, and to determine development and construction feasibility of a defectoscope employing the investigated methods. Numerical simulations were used to test the proposed methods. Three theoretical models providing various degrees of accuracy and feasibility were studied.

  13. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickbold, Paul

    2006-09-26

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  14. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickboldt, Paul

    2003-11-04

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  15. Analysis of lossy mode resonances on thin-film coated cladding removed plastic fiber.

    PubMed

    Corres, Jesús M; Del Villar, Ignacio; Arregui, Francisco J; Matias, Ignacio R

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the modal transition induced by lossy mode resonances has been analyzed as a function of wavelength for thin-film coated cladding removed fibers. The wavelength dependence of the modal structure allows us to explain the resonance phenomenon. The numerical data obtained were calculated with a method based on the exact calculation of core modes. Theoretical simulations have been compared with experimental results showing good agreement. PMID:26512470

  16. Channel cracks in atomic-layer and molecular-layer deposited multilayer thin film coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Rong; Dunn, Martin L.

    2014-06-21

    Metal oxide thin film coatings produced by atomic layer deposition have been shown to be an effective permeation barrier. The primary failure mode of such coatings under tensile loads is the propagation of channel cracks that penetrate vertically into the coating films. Recently, multi-layer structures that combine the metal oxide material with relatively soft polymeric layers produced by molecular layer deposition have been proposed to create composite thin films with desired properties, including potentially enhanced resistance to fracture. In this paper, we study the effects of layer geometry and material properties on the critical strain for channel crack propagation in the multi-layer composite films. Using finite element simulations and a thin-film fracture mechanics formalism, we show that if the fracture energy of the polymeric layer is lower than that of the metal oxide layer, the channel crack tends to penetrate through the entire composite film, and dividing the metal oxide and polymeric materials into thinner layers leads to a smaller critical strain. However, if the fracture energy of the polymeric material is high so that cracks only run through the metal oxide layers, more layers can result in a larger critical strain. For intermediate fracture energy of the polymer material, we developed a design map that identifies the optimal structure for given fracture energies and thicknesses of the metal oxide and polymeric layers. These results can facilitate the design of mechanically robust permeation barriers, an important component for the development of flexible electronics.

  17. Space Plasma Testing of High-Voltage Thin-Film Solar Arrays with Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tlomak, Pawel; Hausgen, Paul E.; Merrill, John; Senft, Donna; Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the space plasma test program for thin-film photovoltaics (TFPV) technologies developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The main objective of this program is to simulate the effects of space plasma characteristic of LEO and MEO environments on TFPV. Two types of TFPV, amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS), coated with two types of thin-film, multifunctional coatings were used for these studies. This paper reports the results of the first phase of this program, namely the results of preliminary electrostatic charging, arcing, dielectric breakdown, and collection current measurements carried out with a series of TFPV exposed to simulated space plasma at the NASA Glenn Plasma Interaction Facility. The experimental data demonstrate that multifunctional coatings developed for this program provide effective protection against the plasma environment while minimizing impact on power generation performance. This effort is part of an ongoing program led by the Space Vehicles Directorate at the AFRL devoted to the development and space qualification of TFPV and their protective coatings.

  18. Optical coatings and thin films for display technologies using closed-field magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Desmond R.; Brinkley, Ian; Walls, J. M.

    2004-11-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers high throughput, flexible deposition process for optical coatings and thin films required in display technologies. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, depositing films over a large surface area at a high rate with excellent and reproducible properties. Machines based on CFM are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Thin film thickness control to <+/-1% is accomplished using time, although quartz crystal or optical monitoring are used for more demanding applications. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a special rotating shutter mechanism. This paper presents data on optical properties for CFM deposited coatings relevant to displays, including anti-reflection, IR blocker and color and thermal control filters, graded coatings, barrier coatings as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide. Benefits of the CFM process for a range of display technologies; OLED, EL and projection are described.

  19. Depth-resolved residual stress analysis of thin coatings by a new FIB-DIC method

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastiani, Marco; Eberl, Christoph; Bemporad, Edoardo; Pharr, George Mathews

    2011-01-01

    A new methodology for the measurement of depth sensitive residual stress profiles of thin coatings with sub-micrometer resolution is presented. The two step method consists of incremental focused ion beam (FIB) ring-core milling, combined with high-resolution in situ SEM-FEG imaging of the relaxing surface and a full field strain analysis by digital image correlation (DIC). The through-thickness profile of the residual stress can be obtained by comparison of the experimentally measured surface strain with finite element modeling using Schajer's integral method. In this work, a chromium nitride (CrN) CAE-PVD 3.0 {mu}m coating on steel substrate, and a gold MS-PVD 1.5 {mu}m on silicon were selected for the experimental implementation. Incremental FIB milling was conducted using an optimized milling strategy that produces minimum re-deposition over the sample surface. Results showed an average residual stress of {sigma} = -5.15 GPa in the CrN coating and {sigma} = +194 MPa in the Au coating. These values are in reasonable agreement with estimates obtained by other conventional techniques. The depth profiles revealed an increasing residual stress from surface to the coating/surface interface for both coatings. This observation is likely related to stress relaxation during grain growth, which was observed in microstructural cross sections, as predicted by existing models for structure-stress evolution in PVD coatings. A correlation between the observed stress gradients and the in-service mechanical behavior of the coatings is proposed. Finally, critical aspects of the technique and the influence of microstructure and elastic anisotropy on stress analysis are analyzed and discussed.

  20. Reduction of bacterial adhesion on dental composite resins by silicon-oxygen thin film coatings.

    PubMed

    Mandracci, Pietro; Mussano, Federico; Ceruti, Paola; Pirri, Candido F; Carossa, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    Adhesion of bacteria on dental materials can be reduced by modifying the physical and chemical characteristics of their surfaces, either through the application of specific surface treatments or by the deposition of thin film coatings. Since this approach does not rely on the use of drugs or antimicrobial agents embedded in the materials, its duration is not limited by their possible depletion. Moreover it avoids the risks related to possible cytotoxic effects elicited by antibacterial substances released from the surface and diffused in the surrounding tissues. In this work, the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis was studied on four composite resins, commonly used for manufacturing dental prostheses. The surfaces of dental materials were modified through the deposition of a-SiO(x) thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The chemical bonding structure of the coatings was analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphology of the dental materials before and after the coating deposition was assessed by means of optical microscopy and high-resolution mechanical profilometry, while their wettability was investigated by contact angle measurements. The sample roughness was not altered after coating deposition, while a noticeable increase of wettability was detected for all the samples. Also, the adhesion of S. mitis decreased in a statistically significant way on the coated samples, when compared to the uncoated ones, which did not occur for S. mutans. Within the limitations of this study, a-SiO(x) coatings may affect the adhesion of bacteria such as S. mitis, possibly by changing the wettability of the composite resins investigated. PMID:25634298

  1. Biocompatibility evaluation of sputtered zirconium-based thin film metallic glass-coated steels

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Balasubramanian; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Rajan, Senthilperumal Thanka

    2015-01-01

    Thin film metallic glasses comprised of Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 (at.%) of approximately 1.5 μm and 3 μm in thickness were prepared using magnetron sputtering onto medical grade 316L stainless steel. Their structural and mechanical properties, in vitro corrosion, and antimicrobial activity were analyzed. The amorphous thin film metallic glasses consisted of a single glassy phase, with an absence of any detectable peaks corresponding to crystalline phases. Elemental composition close to the target alloy was noted from EDAX analysis of the thin film. The surface morphology of the film showed a smooth surface on scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In vitro electrochemical corrosion studies indicated that the zirconium-based metallic glass could withstand body fluid, showing superior resistance to corrosion and electrochemical stability. Interactions between the coated surface and bacteria were investigated by agar diffusion, solution suspension, and wet interfacial contact methods. The results indicated a clear zone of inhibition against the growth of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, confirming the antimicrobial activity of the thin film metallic glasses. Cytotoxicity studies using L929 fibroblast cells showed these coatings to be noncytotoxic in nature. PMID:26491304

  2. Dip coated TiO2 nanostructured thin film: synthesis and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanaraja, Manoj; Muthukrishnan, Karthika; Boomadevi, Shanmugam; Karn, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Vijay; Singh, Pramod K.; Pandiyan, Krishnamoorthy

    2016-02-01

    TiO2 thin film was fabricated by dip coating method using titanium IV chloride as precursor and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as thickening as well as capping agent. Structural and morphological features of TiO2 thin film were characterized by X-ray diffractometer and field emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. Crystallinity of the film was confirmed with high-intensity peak at (101) plane, and its average crystallite size was found to be 28 nm. The ethanol-sensing properties of TiO2 thin film was studied by the chemiresistive method. Furthermore, various gases were tested in order to verify the selectivity of the sensor. Among the several gases, the fabricated TiO2 sensor showed very high selectivity towards ethanol at room temperature.

  3. Structural and adhesional properties of thin MoO3 films prepared by laser coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalev, Mihail; Hardalov, Chavdar; Christov, Christo; Michailov, Michail; Ranguelov, Bogdan; Leiste, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Laser marking plays an important role in numerous technological applications because of its flexibility, fastness and versatility. The present study deals with the structural and adhesional properties of thin MO3 layers on stainless steel substrates prepared by a specific modification of the laser coating technology known as "laser bonding". This approach consists in the local laser sintering of an initially deposited proper powder material, which forms under laser irradiation a layer with a definite graphical and topological design. The coatings, prepared of only MoO3 powder irradiated by a CO2 laser beam, are well bonded to the substrate and exhibit diffusive light reflection. Through applying a variety of methods for surface structural analysis, as micro-indentation, XRD, micro-Raman and SEM, this study also provides detailed information about the coatings' chemical bonding and composition. Our results reveal a good adhesion to the steel due to the formation of an amorphous interface between the MoO3 and the substrate. This amorphous interface arises from a "quenching" process of the molten MoO3 acting both as an oxidant and flux. Depending on the laser beam's intensity, energy and scanning velocity, we also observed recrystallization in specific areas of the coatings. The present study contributes to the better understanding of the adhesion, wear-resistance and hardness of MoO3 coatings obtained by laser bonding.

  4. Pulsed Plasma Polymerization of Perfluorooctyl Ethylene for Transparent Hydrophobic Thin Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Lei; Hao, Jie; Chu, Liqiang

    2015-12-01

    Herein we report on the deposition of transparent hydrophobic thin coatings by radio frequency plasma polymerization (PP) of perfluorooctyl ethylene (PFOE) in both pulsed and continuous wave (CW) modes. The chemical compositions of the resulting PP-PFOE coatings were confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The thicknesses and surface morphologies of the coatings were examined using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The surface wetting properties and optical transmittance were measured using a water contact angle goniometer and UV-vis spectroscopy. The FT-IR and XPS data showed that the PP-PFOE coatings deposited in the pulsed mode had a higher retention of CF2 groups compared to those from the CW mode. While the water contact angle of the freshly deposited PP-PFOE from the pulsed mode showed a decrease from 120 degrees to 111 degrees in the first two days, it then remained almost unchanged up to 45 days. The UV-vis data indicated that a PP-PFOE coating 30.6 nm thick had a light transmittance above 90% in the UV and visible ranges. The deposition rates under various plasma conditions are also discussed. supported by the Tianjin Research Program of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology, China (No. 12JCYBJC31700) and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (No. NCET-12-1064)

  5. Solution deposition of thin carbon coatings on LiFePO₄.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianxin; Yoo, Kevin; El-Halees, Ibrahim; Kisailus, David

    2014-12-10

    We report the synthesis of ultrathin carbon coatings on polycrystalline LiFePO4 via solution deposition and subsequent annealing. The annealing temperature was systematically investigated with polymer systems on LiFePO4 nanostructures. The crystal structures, sizes, and morphologies were monitored and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Micro-Raman and TEM were used to interrogate the carbon coatings after heat-treatments. Electrochemical performance of coated materials was investigated by cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and galvanostatic charge-discharge analysis. The olivine structured LiFePO4 remained stable up to 600 °C but underwent a rapid reduction reaction from LiFePO4 to Fe2P above 700 °C. The good compatibility between polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the surface of LiFePO4 enabled the formation of core-shell structure, which was transformed into a thin carbon coating on LiFePO4 after annealing. Both PEG and sucrose carbon-based sources yielded high-quality carbon coatings after annealing, as determined by the graphitic/disordered (G/D) ratios of 1.30 and 1.20, respectively. By producing more uniform and coherent coatings on LiFePO4 particles, batteries with significantly less carbon (i.e., 0.41 wt %) were fabricated and demonstrated comparable performance to traditionally synthesized carbon-coated LiFePO4 with higher carbon loadings (ca. 2.64 wt %). This will enable development of batteries with higher active material loading and therefore significantly larger energy densities. PMID:25387242

  6. Ceramic thin films on plastics: a versatile transfer process for large area as well as patterned coating.

    PubMed

    Kozuka, Hiromitsu; Fukui, Takafumi; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Uchiyama, Hiroaki; Tsuboi, Shohei

    2012-12-01

    A versatile technique for fabricating ceramic thin films on plastics has been proposed. The technique comprises (i) the deposition of a gel film by spin- or dip-coating on a silicon substrate coated beforehand with a release layer, (ii) the firing of the gel film into a ceramic film, and (iii) its transfer onto plastics by melting or softening the plastics surface. Reflective anatase and electrically conductive indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared on acrylic resin and polycarbonate substrates. Patterned ITO thin films could also be fabricated on plastics by using a mother silicon substrate with periodic grooves. PMID:23211312

  7. The chocolate-egg problem: Fabrication of thin elastic shells through coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Anna; Marthelot, Joel; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Reis, Pedro M.

    2015-03-01

    We study the fabrication of thin polymeric shells based on the coating of a curved surface by a viscous fluid. Upon polymerization of the resulting thin film, a slender solid structure is delivered after demolding. This technique is extensively used, empirically, in manufacturing, where it is known as rotational molding, as well as in the food industry, e.g. for chocolate-eggs. This problem is analogous to the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin coating of plates and fibers and Bretherton's problem of film deposition in cylindrical channels, albeit now on a double-curved geometry. Here, the balance between gravity, viscosity, surface tension and polymerization rate can yield a constant thickness film. We seek to identify the physical ingredients that govern the final film thickness and its profile. In our experiments using organosilicon, we systematically vary the properties of the fluid, as well as the curvature of the substrate onto which the film is coated, and characterize the final thickness profile of the shells. A reduced model is developed to rationalize the process.

  8. Maskless deposition technique for the physical vapor deposition of thin film and multilayer coatings with subnanometer precision and accuracy

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Stephen P.; Ceglio, Natale M.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is a method for the production of axially symmetric, graded and ungraded thickness thin film and multilayer coatings that avoids the use of apertures or masks to tailor the deposition profile. A motional averaging scheme permits the deposition of uniform thickness coatings independent of the substrate radius. Coating uniformity results from an exact cancellation of substrate radius dependent terms, which occurs when the substrate moves at constant velocity. If the substrate is allowed to accelerate over the source, arbitrary coating profiles can be generated through appropriate selection and control of the substrate center of mass equation of motion. The radial symmetry of the coating profile is an artifact produced by orbiting the substrate about its center of mass; other distributions are obtained by selecting another rotation axis. Consequently there is a direct mapping between the coating thickness and substrate equation of motion which can be used to tailor the coating profile without the use of masks and apertures.

  9. Microstructural modeling and design optimization of adaptive thin-film nanocomposite coatings for durability and wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, James Deon

    Adaptive thin-film nanocomposite coatings comprised of crystalline ductile phases of gold and molybdenum disulfide, and brittle phases of diamond like carbon (DLC) and ytrria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) have been investigated by specialized microstructurally-based finite-element techniques. A new microstructural computational technique for efficiently creating models of nanocomposite coatings with control over composition, grain size, spacing and morphologies has been developed to account for length scales that range from nanometers to millimeters for efficient computations. The continuum mechanics model at the nanometer scale was verified with molecular dynamic models for nanocrystalline diamond. Using this new method, the interrelated effects of microstructural characteristics such as grain shapes and sizes, matrix thicknesses, local material behavior due to interfacial stresses and strains, varying amorphous and crystalline compositions, and transfer film adhesion and thickness on coating behavior have been investigated. A mechanistic model to account for experimentally observed transfer film adhesion modes and changes in thickness was also developed. One of the major objectives of this work is to determine optimal crystalline and amorphous compositions and behavior related to wear and durability over a wide range of thermo-mechanical conditions. The computational predictions, consistent with experimental observations, indicate specific interfacial regions between DLC and ductile metal inclusions are critical regions of stress and strain accumulation that can be precursors to material failure and wear. The predicted results underscore a competition between the effects of superior tribological properties associated with MoS 2 and maintaining manageable stress levels that would not exceed the coating strength. Varying the composition results in tradeoffs between lubrication, toughness, and strength, and the effects of critical stresses and strains can be controlled

  10. Spin coated unsubstituted copper phthalocyanine thin films for nitrogen dioxide sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakane, Sanjay; Datir, Ashok; Koinkar, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is synthesized chemically and used for making CuPc thin films using spin coating technique. Films were prepared from trifluroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorobenzene mixed solution on the glass substrate. Spin coated films of unsubstituted CuPc films were heat annealed at 150°C for 2 h duration and were used to study NO2 gas sensing characteristics. α-phase of CuPc is noted by UV-visible absorption spectra. IR spectra of undoped CuPc films and doped CuPc films with NO2 revealed that, doping of nitrogen dioxide modifies and deletes some of the bands. The effect of NO2 at various concentrations from 50 ppm to 500 ppm in atmospheric air at room temperature on the electrical conductivity of CuPc films was studied. Sensitivity, response time and repeatability of the CuPc sensor were discussed in this paper.

  11. Enhancement of the photoprotection and nanomechanical properties of polycarbonate by deposition of thin ceramic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Mailhot, B.; Rivaton, A.; Gardette, J.-L.; Moustaghfir, A.; Tomasella, E.; Jacquet, M.; Ma, X.-G.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2006-05-15

    The chemical reactions resulting from ultraviolet radiation produce discoloration and significant changes in the surface properties of polycarbonate (PC). To prevent photon absorption from irradiation and oxygen diffusion and to enhance the surface nanomechanical properties of PC, thin ceramic coatings of ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (both single- and multi-layer) were deposited on bulk PC by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The samples were irradiated at wavelengths greater than 300 nm, representative of outdoor conditions. Despite the effectiveness of ZnO to protect PC from irradiation damage, photocatalytic oxidation at the PC/ZnO interface was the limiting factor. To overcome this deficiency, a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating was used both as intermediate and top layer because of its higher hardness and wear resistance than ZnO. Therefore, PC/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO, PC/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and PC/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layered media were fabricated and their photodegradation properties were examined by infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. It was found that the photocatalytic activity at the PC/ZnO interface was reduced in the presence of the intermediate Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer that limited the oxygen permeability. Nanomechanical experiments performed with a surface force apparatus revealed that the previous coating systems enhanced both the surface nanohardness and the elastic modulus and reduced the coefficient of friction in the order of ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Although irradiation increased the nanohardness and the elastic modulus of PC, the irradiation effect on the surface mechanical properties of ceramic-coated PC was secondary.

  12. Durability of cutting inserts coated with ion-plated AlTiN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bădănac, A.; Bosoancă, G.; Manole, V.; Bălan, A. C.; Popa, M.; Huşanu, V.

    2015-11-01

    It is known that during the cutting processes, due to the high contact pressures, to the high temperatures, to the relative velocities and shocks between the contact surfaces tool-part can lead to a wear more or less pronounced of the metal carbide cutting inserts. Are known numerous coating processes regarding the increasing the durability of the used cutting inserts, namely by deposition of different materials, having protection role for the cutting inserts locating and clearance surfaces, methods as: vapor chemical deposition at low pressure, pulverization, cathodic arc ion plating, vacuum thermal evaporation and condensation from the vapor phase. Researches carried out by authors in this paper, have followed the deposition of aluminum and titanium materials (AlTiN) in thin layers, on surface of some metal carbide cutting inserts profiled. The depositions of AlTiN materials are new coatings which consists in deposition of the compound solid of AlTiN in the form of vapor in thin layers on different tools or/and the cutting inserts. In the purpose of increasing the cutting inserts durability, they used deposition method by cathodic arc ion plating in vacuum. The authors chose this method due to its advantages, which can be enumerate: the relatively low costs of the equipment, the simplicity in operation, the possibility to be used also to realize researches and industrial installations. As a result of using this method was found a considerable increase of the durability for the metal carbide cutting inserts coated with AlTiN materials, used in the cutting process compared to cutting inserts which were not coated.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles thinly coated with silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumb, A.; Brechbiel, M. W.; Choyke, P. L.; Fugger, L.; Eggeman, A.; Prabhakaran, D.; Hutchinson, J.; Dobson, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of iron chloride salts with ammonia and then encapsulated with thin (~2 nm) layers of silica. The particles have been characterized for size, diffraction pattern, surface charge, and magnetic properties. This rapid and economical synthesis has a number of industrial applications; however, the silica-coated particles have been optimized for use in medical applications such as magnetic resonance contrast agents and biosensors, and in DNA capturing, bioseparation and enzyme immobilization.

  14. Suppression of laser nonuniformity imprinting using a thin high-z coating.

    PubMed

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J L; Aglitskiy, Y; Oh, J; Obenschain, S P

    2015-02-27

    Imprinting of laser nonuniformity is a limiting factor in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments, particularly when available laser smoothing is limited. A thin (∼400  Å) high-Z metal coating is found to substantially suppress laser imprint for planar targets driven by pulse shapes and intensities relevant to implosions on the National Ignition Facility while retaining low adiabat target acceleration. A hybrid of indirect and direct drive, this configuration results in initial ablation by x rays from the heated high-Z layer, creating a large standoff for perturbation smoothing. PMID:25768766

  15. Fast detection of hydrogen with nano fiber tapers coated with ultra thin palladium layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villatoro, Joel; Monzón-Hernández, David

    2005-06-01

    We report a miniature hydrogen sensor that consists of a subwavelength diameter tapered optical fiber coated with an ultra thin palladium film. The optical properties of the palladium layer changes when the device is exposed to hydrogen. Consequently, the absorption of the evanescent waves also changes. The sensor was tested in a simple light transmission measurement setup that consisted of a 1550 nm laser diode and a photodetector. Our sensor is much smaller and faster than other optical hydrogen sensors reported so far. The sensor proposed here is suitable for detecting low concentrations of hydrogen at normal conditions.

  16. Time domain scattering and radar cross section calculations for a thin, coated perfectly conducting plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Beggs, John H.

    1991-01-01

    Radar cross section (RCS) calculations for flat, perfectly conducting plates are readily available through the use of conventional frequency domain techniques such as the Method of Moments (MOM). However, if the plate is covered with a dielectric material that is relatively thick in comparison with the wavelength in the material, these frequency domain techniques become increasingly difficult to apply. We present the application of the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Technique to the problem of electromagnetic scattering and RCS calculations from a thin, perfectly conducting plate that is coated with a thick layer of lossless dielectric material. Both time domain and RCS calculations are presented and disclosed.

  17. Time domain scattering and radar cross section calculations for a thin, coated perfectly conducting plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Beggs, John H.

    1991-01-01

    Radar cross section (RCS) calculations for flat, perfectly conducting plates are readily available through the use of conventional frequency domain techniques such as the Method of Moments (MOM). However, if the plate is covered with a dielectric material that is relatively thick in comparison with the wavelength in the material, these frequency domain techniques become increasingly difficult to apply. The application is presented of the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique to the problem of electromagnetic scattering and RCS calculations from a thin, perfectly conducting plate that is coated with a thick layer of lossless dielectric material. Both time domain and RCS calculations are presented and discussed.

  18. Characterization and simulation on antireflective coating of amorphous silicon oxide thin films with gradient refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lu; Jin, Qi; Qu, Xingling; Jin, Jing; Jiang, Chaochao; Yang, Weiguang; Wang, Linjun; Shi, Weimin

    2016-08-01

    The optical reflective properties of silicon oxide (SixOy) thin films with gradient refractive index are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The thin films are widely used in photovoltaic as antireflective coatings (ARCs). An effective finite difference time domain (FDTD) model is built to find the optimized reflection spectra corresponding to structure of SixOy ARCs with gradient refractive index. Based on the simulation analysis, it shows the variation of reflection spectra with gradient refractive index distribution. The gradient refractive index of SixOy ARCs can be obtained in adjustment of SiH4 to N2O ratio by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The optimized reflection spectra measured by UV-visible spectroscopy confirms to agree well with that simulated by FDTD method.

  19. Growth of ZnO thin films doped with (Mn & Co) by spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhruvashi, Rawat, Kusum; Shishodia, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    ZnO thin films co-doped with Mn and Co have been deposited on glass substrates by spin coating technique. Structural, optical and magnetic properties have been investigated as a function of dopant concentration. X-ray diffraction has confirmed the growth of c-axis oriented polycrystalline thin films. No impurity phases have been detected corresponding to metal oxides within the limitation of x-ray diffraction. The optical bandgap has been evaluated from tauc's plots derived from the transmittance spectra in the wavelength range 350-900 nm. Surface morphology of the films has been observed by field emission scanning electron microscope. The field dependence of magnetization (M-H curve) measured by vibrating sample magnetometer shows the ferromagnetic behavior of the films at room temperature. The magnetization versus temperature (M-T) curve has also been measured under zero field cooled and field cooled conditions.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite polymer blend electrolyte thin films by spin-coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapi, Sharanappa; Niranjana, M.; Devendrappa, H.

    2016-05-01

    Solid Polymer blend electrolytes based on Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) complexed with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; Synthesized by Co-precipitation method) thin films have prepared at a different weight percent using the spin-coating method. The complexation of the NPs with the polymer blend was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The variation in film morphology was examined by polarized optical micrographs (POMs). The thermal behavior of blends was investigated under non-isothermal conditions by differential thermal analyses (DTA). A single glass transition temperature for each blend was observed, which supports the existence of compatibility of such system. The obtained results represent that the ternary based thin films are prominent materials for battery and optoelectronic device applications.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Nanostructured CuO Thin Films using Sol-gel Dip Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariffudin, S. S.; Khalid, S. S.; Sahat, N. M.; Sarah, M. S. P.; Hashim, H.

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructured CuO thin films were deposited onto quartz substrates by sol-gel dip coating technique. The precursor solution was prepared by dissolving copper acetate powder into isopropanol with molarity of 0.25M. Preheating and annealing temperature were fixed at 250°C and 600°C respectively. This study focused on various film thicknesses by varying the frequent number of deposited layers. The effect of thickness on electrical, surface morphology and optical properties of CuO thin film were studied. The surface morphology was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), surface profiler for thickness measurement, optical properties of CuO thin film were characterized by using ultraviolet- visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) for transmittance and absorbance, and the electrical property was examined by using two point probes method. The films were found to be denser at higher film thickness due to lesser porous observed on the surface. The thickness of these CuO thin films varied from 87.14 - 253.58 nm and the direct band gap energy was observed in between 1.9 to 2.35 eV. Lowest resistivity was found for sample with a thickness of 253.58 nm.

  2. Effect of Doping on beta-Tricalcium Phosphate Bioresorbable Bulk Material and Thin Film Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Suhaila

    Magnesium has emerged as a revolutionary biodegradable metal for use as an orthopedic material, it has several advantages over the current metallic materials in use, including eliminating the effects of stress shielding, improving biocompatibility and inhibiting degradation rates, thus removing the requirement of a second surgery for implant removal. Due to the rapid degradation of magnesium, it is necessary to control the corrosion rates of the materials to match the rates of bone healing. This dissertation reports on the effect of doping on the properties of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP). It also reports on its application as a thin film coating on magnesium alloys for implant applications. Adding various dopants to beta-TCP significantly influences critical properties. In this study, discs were fabricated in two compositions: (i) undoped beta-TCP, (ii) beta-TCP doped with 1.0 wt % MgO, 0.5 wt % ZnO, and 1.0 wt % TiO2. Films were fabricated from these compositions using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. These coatings were then characterized for corrosive, hardness, and cytocompatibility. The XRD patterns of the coating confirm the amorphous nature of the films. The presence of the metal oxides in beta-TCP improved ceramic densification. The application of these doped coatings was also found to increase the hardness by 88 %, the modulus of elasticity by 66 %, and improve corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy substrate; with a 2.4 % improvement in Ecorr and 95 % decrease in icorr. Cell viability was studied using an osteoblast precursor cell line MC3T3-E1 to assure that the biocompatibility of these ceramics was not altered due to the dopants. Long-term biodegradation studies were conducted by measuring weight change and surface microstructure as a function of time in simulated body fluid. The results suggest that these coatings could be used for bioresorbable implants with improved corrosion resistance and increased hardness.

  3. Enhanced Field Emission from Vertically Oriented Graphene by Thin Solid Film Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagge-Hansen, Michael

    Recent progress and a coordinated national research program have brought considerable effort to bear on the synthesis and application of carbon nanostructures for field emission. At the College of William and Mary, we have developed field emission arrays of vertically oriented graphene (carbon nanosheets, CNS) that have demonstrated promising cathode performance, delivering emission current densities up to 2 mA/mm2 and cathode lifetime >800 hours. The work function (φ) of CNS and other carbonaceous cathode materials has been reported to be φ˜4.5-5.1 eV. The application of low work function thin films can achieve several orders of magnitude enhancement of field emission. Initially, the intrinsic CNS field emission was studied. The mean height of the CNS was observed to decrease as a function of operating time at a rate of ˜0.05 nm/h (I 1˜40 muA/mm2). The erosion mechanism was studied using a unique UHV diode design which allowed line-of-site assessment from the field emission region in the diode to the ion source of a mass spectrometer. The erosion of CNS was found to occur by impingement of hyperthermal H and O neutrals and ions generated at the surface oxide complex of the Cu anode by electron stimulated desorption. Techniques for minimizing this erosion are presented. The Mo2C (φ˜3.7 eV) beading on CNS at previously reported carbide formation temperatures of ˜800°C was circumvented by physical vapor deposition of Mo and vacuum annealing at ˜300°C which resulted in a conformal Mo2C coating and stable field emission of 1˜50 muA/mm2. For a given applied field, the emission current was >102 greater than uncoated CNS. ThO2 thin film coatings were presumed to be even more promising because of a reported work function of φ ˜2.6 eV. The fundamental behavior of the initial oxidation of polycrystalline Th was studied in UHV (p<1x10-11 Torr), followed by studies of thin film coatings on Ir and thermionic emission characteristics. Although a work function of 3

  4. Plasmonic enhancement of thin-film solar cells using gold-black coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Fredricksen, Christopher J.; Panjwani, D. R.; Arnold, J. P.; Figueiredo, P. N.; Rezaie, F. K.; Colwell, J. E.; Baillie, K.; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.; Peale, Robert E.

    2011-08-11

    Coatings of conducting gold-black nano-structures on commercial thin-film amorphous-silicon solar cells enhance the short-circuit current by 20% over a broad spectrum from 400 to 800 nm wavelength. The efficiency, i.e. the ratio of the maximum electrical output power to the incident solar power, is found to increase 7% for initial un-optimized coatings. Metal blacks are produced cheaply and quickly in a low-vacuum process requiring no lithographic patterning. The inherently broad particle-size distribution is responsible for the broad spectrum enhancement in comparison to what has been reported for mono-disperse lithographically deposited or self-assembled metal nano-particles. Photoemission electron microscopy reveals the spatial-spectral distribution of hot-spots for plasmon resonances, where scattering of normally-incident solar flux into the plane increases the effective optical path in the thin film to enhance light harvesting. Efficiency enhancement is correlated with percent coverage and particle size distribution, which are determined from histogram and wavelet analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. Electrodynamic simulations reveal how the gold-black particles scatter the radiation and locally enhance the field strength.

  5. Note: Automatic layer-by-layer spraying system for functional thin film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Seongmin; Lee, Sangmin; Park, Yong Tae

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have constructed an automatic spray machine for producing polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing various functional materials on wide substrates via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The proposed machine exhibits advantages in terms of automation, process speed, and versatility. Furthermore, it has several features that allow a fully automated spraying operation, such as various two-dimensional spraying paths, control of the flow rate and operating speed, air-assist fan-shaped twin-fluid nozzles, and an optical display. The robot uniformly sprays aqueous mixtures containing complementary (e.g., oppositely charged, capable of hydrogen bonding, or capable of covalent bonding) species onto a large-area substrate. Between each deposition of opposite species, samples are spray-rinsed with deionized water and blow-dried with air. The spraying, rinsing, and drying areas and times are adjustable by a computer program. Twenty-bilayer flame-retardant thin films were prepared in order to compare the performance of the spray-assisted LbL assembly with a sample produced by conventional dipping. The spray-coated film exhibited a reduction of afterglow time in vertical flame tests, indicating that the spray-LbL technique is a simple method to produce functional thin film coatings.

  6. Characteristics of Ceramic Coatings Made by Thin Film Low Pressure Plasma Spraying (LPPS-TF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospach, Andreas; Mauer, Georg; Vaßen, Robert; Stöver, Detlev

    2012-06-01

    The thin film low pressure plasma spray process (LPPS-TF) has been developed with the aim of efficient depositing uniform and thin coatings with large area coverage by plasma spraying. At high power input (~150 kW) and very low pressure (~100 Pa) the plasma jet properties change considerably and it is even possible to evaporate the powder feedstock material providing advanced microstructures of the deposits. This relatively new technique bridges the gap between conventional plasma spraying and physical vapor deposition. In addition, the resulting microstructures are unique and can hardly be obtained by other processes. In this paper, microstructures made by LPPS-TF are shown and the columnar layer growth by vapor deposition is demonstrated. In addition to the ceramic materials TiO2, Al2O3 or MgAl2O4, the focus of the research was placed on partially yttria-stabilized zirconia. Variations of the microstructures are shown and discussed concerning potential coating applications.

  7. Surface chemistry of coated lithium manganese nickel oxide thin film cathodes studied by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Baggetto, Loic; Dudney, Nancy J; Veith, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of coating high voltage LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 spinel cathode thin films with three metal oxide thin layers is discussed. The changes in surface chemistry of the electrodes are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. ZnO is found to decompose during the first charge whereas Al2O3 and ZrO2 are stable for more than 100 cycles. ZrO2, however, importantly limits the available Li storage capacity of the electrochemical reaction due to poorer kinetics. Al2O3 offers the best results in term of capacity retention. Upon cycling, the evidence of a signal at 75.4 eV in the Al2p binding energy spectrum indicates the partial conversion of Al2O3 into Al2O2F2. Moreover, the continuous formation of PEO , esters and LixPOyFz compounds on the surface of the electrodes is found for all coating materials.

  8. Note: Automatic layer-by-layer spraying system for functional thin film coatings.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seongmin; Lee, Sangmin; Park, Yong Tae

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have constructed an automatic spray machine for producing polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing various functional materials on wide substrates via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The proposed machine exhibits advantages in terms of automation, process speed, and versatility. Furthermore, it has several features that allow a fully automated spraying operation, such as various two-dimensional spraying paths, control of the flow rate and operating speed, air-assist fan-shaped twin-fluid nozzles, and an optical display. The robot uniformly sprays aqueous mixtures containing complementary (e.g., oppositely charged, capable of hydrogen bonding, or capable of covalent bonding) species onto a large-area substrate. Between each deposition of opposite species, samples are spray-rinsed with deionized water and blow-dried with air. The spraying, rinsing, and drying areas and times are adjustable by a computer program. Twenty-bilayer flame-retardant thin films were prepared in order to compare the performance of the spray-assisted LbL assembly with a sample produced by conventional dipping. The spray-coated film exhibited a reduction of afterglow time in vertical flame tests, indicating that the spray-LbL technique is a simple method to produce functional thin film coatings. PMID:27036843

  9. The effect of polymer coatings on switching behavior and cycling durability of Pd/Mg Ni thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, S.; Yamada, Y.; Okada, M.; Yoshimura, K.

    2007-05-01

    Although Pd-capped Mg-Ni alloy switchable mirror thin films have potential applications in smart windows and optical switches, they degrade quickly and cannot be switched after about 150 cycles. This must be improved for practical use. In this study, we tested several polymer coatings on the surface of Pd/Mg 4Ni switchable mirror thin films as a protective membrane and evaluated the optical switching property and durability. The polymer membrane is able to suppress the oxidization of Mg because it has an excellent gas separation characteristic. Polymer coating extended the switching durability of samples to about 1000 cycles. In addition, the transmittance of the thin film in the transparent state is improved by the coating.

  10. Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, R; Baker, S L; Robinson, J C; Gullikson, E M; McCarville, T J; Pivovaroff, M J; Stefan, P; Hau-Riege, S P; Bionta, R

    2009-04-23

    The development and properties of reflective coatings for the x-ray offset mirror systems of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron laser (FEL) are discussed in this manuscript. The uniquely high instantaneous dose of the LCLS FEL beam translates to strict limits in terms of materials choice, thus leading to an x-ray mirror design consisting of a reflective coating deposited on a silicon substrate. Coherent wavefront preservation requirements for these mirrors result in stringent surface figure and finish specifications. DC-magnetron sputtered B{sub 4}C and SiC thin film coatings with optimized stress, roughness and figure properties for the LCLS x-ray mirrors are presented. The evolution of microstructure, morphology, and stress of these thin films versus deposition conditions is discussed. Experimental results on the performance of these coatings with respect to FEL damage are also presented.

  11. Carbonaceous thin film coating with Fe-N4 site for enhancement of dioxovanadium ion reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Jun; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Fukuhara, Tomoko; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-08-01

    It has been found that carbonaceous materials containing a transition metal coordinated by 4 nitrogens in the square-planar configuration (metal-N4 site) on the surface possessed a catalytic activity for various electrochemical reactions related to energy conversion and storage; i.e., oxygen reduction, hydrogen evolution, and quite recently, the electrode reactions in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB). The catalyst for the VRFB positive electrode discharge reaction, i.e., the dioxovanadium ion reduction, was formed by coating the surface of cup-stack carbon nanotubes with a carbonaceous thin film with the Fe-N4 site generated by the sublimation, deposition, and pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine. In this study, the influence of the physical properties of the catalyst on the electrochemical reactions was investigated to optimize the coating. With an increase in the coating, the specific surface area increased, whereas the pore size decreased. The surface Fe concentration was increased in spite of the Fe aggregation inside the carbon matrix. The catalytic activity enhancement was achieved due to the increase in the specific surface area and the surface Fe concentration, but was lowered due to the decrease in the pore size, which was disadvantageous for the penetration of the electrolyte and the mass transfer.

  12. Research on the secondary electron yield of TiZrV-Pd thin film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Yong; Xu, Yanhui; Zhang, Bo; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    In particle accelerators, the build-up of electron cloud may have important influence on beam quality. Especially for the positron and proton accelerators, massive electrons lead to electron cloud, which affects the stability, energy, emittance and beam life adversely. A secondary electron emission (SEE) measurement system has been designed and used to study the SEE of palladium (Pd), TiZrV and TiZrV-Pd with an independently adjustable energy from 50 eV to 5 keV. Here, we obtained the characteristics of the SEE from Pd, TiZrV and TiZrV-Pd film coatings with different thickness under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions. Moreover, the maximum secondary electron yield (SEY), {\\delta}max, of the Pd, TiZrV and TiZrV-Pd film coatings under different primary electron doses were obtained, respectively. Finally, the variation of the secondary electron yield with the incident electron energy will be discussed for Pd, TiZrV and TiZrV-Pd thin film coatings. Low SEY is a new advantage of TiZrV-Pd films, besides high H2 absorption ability and prolonging the lifetime of TiZrV film, which will be of great value in the design of beam screen for Super Proton-Proton Collider (SPPC).

  13. Silicon nitride coated silicon thin film on three dimensions current collector for lithium ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Yu; Chang, Chun-Chi; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2016-09-01

    Silicon nitride coated silicon (N-Si) has been synthesized by two-step DC sputtering on Cu Micro-cone arrays (CMAs) at ambient temperature. The electrochemical properties of N-Si anodes with various thickness of nitride layer are investigated. From the potential window of 1.2 V-0.05 V, high rate charge-discharge and long cycle test have been executed to investigate the electrochemical performances of various N-Si coated Si-based lithium ion batteries anode materials. Higher specific capacity can be obtained after 200 cycles. The cycling stability is enhanced via thinner nitride layer coating as silicon nitride films are converted to Li3N with covered Si thin films. These N-Si anodes can be cycled under high rates up to 10 C due to low charge transfer resistance resulted from silicon nitride films. This indicates that the combination of silicon nitride and silicon can effectively endure high current and thus enhance the cycling stability. It is expected that N-Si is a potential candidate for batteries that can work effectively under high power.

  14. Modeling ion induced effects in thin films and coatings for lunar and space environment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Edward W.; Pirich, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    Protective thin film coatings are important for many near-Earth and interplanetary space systems applications using photonic components, optical elements, solar cells and detector-sensor front surfaces to name but a few environmentally at-risk technologies. The near-Earth and natural space environment consists of known degradation processes induced within these technologies brought about by atomic oxygen, micrometeorite impacts, space debris and dust, solar generated charged particles, Van Allen belt trapped particles, and galactic cosmic radiation. This paper will focus on presenting the results of an investigation based on simulated ion-induced defect-modeling and nuclear irradiation testing of several innovative hybrid-polymeric self-cleaning hydrophobic coatings investigated for application to space photonic components, lunar surface, avionic and terrestrial applications. Data is reported regarding the radiation resistance of several hybrid polymer coatings containing various loadings of nanometer-sized TiO2 fillers for protecting sensors, structures, human and space vehicles from dust contamination found in space and on the Lunar and other planetary surfaces.

  15. [Thin calcium-phosphate coatings produced by high frequency magnetron sputtering and prospects for their use in biomedical engineering].

    PubMed

    Aronov, A M; Pichugin, V F; Eshenko, E V; Riabtseva, M A; Surmenev, R A; Tverdokhlebov, S I; Shesterikov, E V

    2008-01-01

    Thin calcium-phosphate coatings with thickness less than 2.7 m were prepared by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique on the surfaces of pure titanium, titanium alloy Ti6A14V and stainless ASTM 316. Results of scanning electron microscopy showed that all coatings were dense and poreless and did not have any visible defects or microcracks. Rutherford backscattering (RBS) revealed a prepared coating consisting only of calcium 33.6 (1.6 at%, phosphorous 16.5 (1.5 at%, and oxygen 48.6 (1.2 at%. The concentration of each above-mentioned element through the coating was almost constant. The physicomechanical properties of the prepared coatings were investigated using a nanoindentation technique. The values of nano-hardness and Young's modulus calculated on the basis of the obtained data were 10 GPa and 113 GPa, respectively. These values were higher than that of non-coated substrates, except titanium alloy due to the sputtering mechanism. It was found that the coating with a thickness less than 1.6 ?m possessed more adhesion strength than coatings with greater value of thickness. However, we suggest that all coatings have great cohesive resistance that does not depend on the coating thickness. PMID:18683576

  16. Surface characterization of an energetic material, pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), having a thin coating achieved through a starved addition microencapsulation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, C.M.

    1986-05-07

    The objective of this research was to: (1) determine the nature of a thin coating on an explosive material which was applied using a starved addition microencapsulation technique, (2) understand the coating/crystal bond, and (3) investigate the wettability/adhesion of plastic/solvent combinations using the coating process. The coating used in this work was a Firestone Plastic Company copolymer (FPC-461) of vinylchloride/trifluorochloroethylene in a 1.5/1.0 weight ratio. The energetic explosive examined was pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN). The coating process used was starved addition followed by a solvent evaporation technique. Surface analytical studies, completed for characterization of the coating process, show (1) evidence that the polymer coating is present, but not continuous, over the surface of PETN; (2) the average thickness of the polymer coating is between 16-32 A and greater than 44 A, respectively, for 0.5 and 20 wt % coated PETN; (3) no changes in surface chemistry of the polymer or the explosive material following microencapsulation; and (4) the presence of explosive material on the surface of 0.5 wt % FPC-461 coated explosives. 5 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Theory and practical considerations of multilayer dielectric thin-film stacks in Ag-coated hollow waveguides.

    PubMed

    Bledt, Carlos M; Melzer, Jeffrey E; Harrington, James A

    2014-02-01

    This analysis explores the theory and design of dielectric multilayer reflection-enhancing thin film stacks based on high and low refractive index alternating layers of cadmium sulfide (CdS) and lead sulfide (PbS) on silver (Ag)-coated hollow glass waveguides (HGWs) for low loss transmission at midinfrared wavelengths. The fundamentals for determining propagation losses in such multilayer thin-film-coated Ag hollow waveguides is thoroughly discussed, and forms the basis for further theoretical analysis presented in this study. The effects on propagation loss resulting from several key parameters of these multilayer thin film stacks is further explored in order to bridge the gap between results predicted through calculation under ideal conditions and deviations from such ideal models that often arise in practice. In particular, the effects on loss due to the number of dielectric thin film layers deposited, deviation from ideal individual layer thicknesses, and surface roughness related scattering losses are presented and thoroughly investigated. Through such extensive theoretical analysis the level of understanding of the underlying loss mechanisms of multilayer thin-film Ag-coated HGWs is greatly advanced, considerably increasing the potential practical development of next-generation ultralow-loss mid-IR Ag/multilayer dielectric-coated HGWs. PMID:24514252

  18. Boosting the Transparency of Thin Layers by Coatings of Opposing Susceptibility: How Metals Help See Through Dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Al Shakhs, Mohammed; Augusto, Lucian; Markley, Loïc; Chau, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hypothesis that a very thin layer can be made more transparent by adding a thin coating with susceptibility of opposing sign. Two experimental tests backed by a theoretical model support this hypothesis. First, we show that the visible and near-infrared transmission through a semi-transparent silver film can be enhanced by up to ~70% and spectrally tailored depending on the type and thickness of the dielectric coating. Material types explored as dielectric coating layers include conventional metal oxides (titanium dioxide) and lesser-explored elemental semiconductors (undoped silicon, p-type silicon, and germanium). Second, and more surprisingly, we show that coating a 50-nm-thick silicon nitride membrane with a 10-nm-thick silver layer can modestly enhance the transmission by up to 6 ± 1% in the blue part of the spectrum. Transmission enhancements are observed for three silver-coated membranes in different configurations. Thinner silver coatings are theoretically capable of enhancement factors greater than 10%, but implementation is restricted by challenges in making smooth and continuous silver films below 10 nm in thickness. This study is important because it is the first demonstration of reciprocity with respect to the transmission enhancements achieved by combining thin metallic and dielectric layers. PMID:26860979

  19. Boosting the Transparency of Thin Layers by Coatings of Opposing Susceptibility: How Metals Help See Through Dielectrics

    PubMed Central

    Shakhs, Mohammed Al; Augusto, Lucian; Markley, Loïc; Chau, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hypothesis that a very thin layer can be made more transparent by adding a thin coating with susceptibility of opposing sign. Two experimental tests backed by a theoretical model support this hypothesis. First, we show that the visible and near-infrared transmission through a semi-transparent silver film can be enhanced by up to ~70% and spectrally tailored depending on the type and thickness of the dielectric coating. Material types explored as dielectric coating layers include conventional metal oxides (titanium dioxide) and lesser-explored elemental semiconductors (undoped silicon, p-type silicon, and germanium). Second, and more surprisingly, we show that coating a 50-nm-thick silicon nitride membrane with a 10-nm-thick silver layer can modestly enhance the transmission by up to 6 ± 1% in the blue part of the spectrum. Transmission enhancements are observed for three silver-coated membranes in different configurations. Thinner silver coatings are theoretically capable of enhancement factors greater than 10%, but implementation is restricted by challenges in making smooth and continuous silver films below 10 nm in thickness. This study is important because it is the first demonstration of reciprocity with respect to the transmission enhancements achieved by combining thin metallic and dielectric layers. PMID:26860979

  20. Boosting the Transparency of Thin Layers by Coatings of Opposing Susceptibility: How Metals Help See Through Dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhs, Mohammed Al; Augusto, Lucian; Markley, Loïc; Chau, Kenneth J.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a hypothesis that a very thin layer can be made more transparent by adding a thin coating with susceptibility of opposing sign. Two experimental tests backed by a theoretical model support this hypothesis. First, we show that the visible and near-infrared transmission through a semi-transparent silver film can be enhanced by up to ~70% and spectrally tailored depending on the type and thickness of the dielectric coating. Material types explored as dielectric coating layers include conventional metal oxides (titanium dioxide) and lesser-explored elemental semiconductors (undoped silicon, p-type silicon, and germanium). Second, and more surprisingly, we show that coating a 50-nm-thick silicon nitride membrane with a 10-nm-thick silver layer can modestly enhance the transmission by up to 6 ± 1% in the blue part of the spectrum. Transmission enhancements are observed for three silver-coated membranes in different configurations. Thinner silver coatings are theoretically capable of enhancement factors greater than 10%, but implementation is restricted by challenges in making smooth and continuous silver films below 10 nm in thickness. This study is important because it is the first demonstration of reciprocity with respect to the transmission enhancements achieved by combining thin metallic and dielectric layers.

  1. Optimization of the antireflection coating of thin epitaxial crystalline silicon solar cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Selj, Josefine K.; Young, David; Grover, Sachit

    2015-08-28

    In this study we use an effective weighting function to include the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and the effective thickness, Te, of the active cell layer in the optical modeling of the antireflection coating (ARC) of very thin crystalline silicon solar cells. The spectrum transmitted through the ARC is hence optimized for efficient use in the given cell structure and the solar cell performance can be improved. For a 2-μm thick crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell the optimal thickness of the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) ARC is reduced by ~8 nm when IQE data and effective thickness are taken intomore » account compared to the standard ARC optimization, using the AM1.5 spectrum only. The reduced ARC thickness will shift the reflectance minima towards shorter wavelengths and hence better match the absorption of very thin cells, where the short wavelength range of the spectrum is relatively more important than the long, weakly absorbed wavelengths. For this cell, we find that the optimal thickness of the ITO starts at 63 nm for very thin (1 μm) active Si layer and then increase with increasing Te until it saturates at 71 nm for Te > 30 μm.« less

  2. Optimization of the antireflection coating of thin epitaxial crystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Selj, Josefine K.; Young, David; Grover, Sachit

    2015-08-28

    In this study we use an effective weighting function to include the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and the effective thickness, Te, of the active cell layer in the optical modeling of the antireflection coating (ARC) of very thin crystalline silicon solar cells. The spectrum transmitted through the ARC is hence optimized for efficient use in the given cell structure and the solar cell performance can be improved. For a 2-μm thick crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell the optimal thickness of the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) ARC is reduced by ~8 nm when IQE data and effective thickness are taken into account compared to the standard ARC optimization, using the AM1.5 spectrum only. The reduced ARC thickness will shift the reflectance minima towards shorter wavelengths and hence better match the absorption of very thin cells, where the short wavelength range of the spectrum is relatively more important than the long, weakly absorbed wavelengths. For this cell, we find that the optimal thickness of the ITO starts at 63 nm for very thin (1 μm) active Si layer and then increase with increasing Te until it saturates at 71 nm for Te > 30 μm.

  3. Ion-exchange funneling in thin-film coating modification of heterogeneous electrodialysis membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Isaak; Zaltzman, Boris; Pundik, Tamara

    2002-04-01

    Inexpensive highly permselective heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes are prohibitively highly polarizable by a dc current for being used in electrodialysis. According to recent experiments, polarizability of these membranes may be considerably reduced by casting on their surface a thin layer of crosslinked polyelectrolyte, slightly charged with the same sign as the membrane's charge. The present paper is concerned with this effect. Concentration polarization of a permselective heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane by a dc current is determined by geometric factors, such as, the typical size of the ion-permeable ``gates'' at the membrane surface relative to the separation distance between them and the diffusion layer thickness. The main quantitative characteristic of polarizability of a heterogeneous membrane is its voltage/currrent curve with its typical saturation at the limiting current, which is lower than that for a homogeneous membrane. In the present study we modify the previously developed two-dimensional model of ionic transport in a diffusion layer at a heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane by including into consideration a homogeneous ion-exchange layer adjacent to the membrane surface. A numerical solution of the respective boundary value problem shows that, indeed, adding even a very thin and weakly charged layer of this kind increases the value of the limiting current, to that of a homogeneous membrane. What differs, for different values of coating parameters, is the form of the voltage/current curves but not the value of the limiting current, namely: the thinner is the coating and the lower the fixed charge density in it, the ``slower'' is the approach of the limiting current. In order to explain this feature, a simple limiting model of modified membrane is derived from the original two-layer model. In this limiting model, asymptotically valid for a thin coating, solution of the ionic transport equations in it is replaced, via a suitable averaging

  4. Strong thin membrane structure for use as solar sail comprising substrate with reflective coating on one surface and an infra red emissivity increasing coating on the other surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Production of strong lightweight membrane structure by applying a thin reflective coating such as aluminum to a rotating cylinder, applying a mesh material such as nylon over the aluminum coating, coating the mesh overlying the aluminum with a polymerizing material such as a para-xylylene monomer gas to polymerize as a film bound to the mesh and the aluminum, and applying an emissivity increasing material such as chromium and silicon monoxide to the polymer film to disperse such material colloidally into the growing polymer film, or applying such material to the final polymer film, and removing the resulting membrane structure from the cylinder. Alternatively, such membrane structure can be formed by etching a substrate in the form of an organic film such as a polyimide, or a metal foil, to remove material from the substrate and reduce its thickness, applying a thin reflective coating such as aluminum on one side of the substrate and applying an emissivity increasing coating such as chromium and silicon monoxide on the reverse side of the substrate.

  5. Ellipsometry study on gold-nanoparticle-coated gold thin film for biosensing application

    PubMed Central

    Moirangthem, Rakesh Singh; Chang, Yia-Chung; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2011-01-01

    The amplified plasmonic response from various distributions of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated on top of gold thin film was studied via ellipsometry under total internal reflection mode. The surface plasmon resonance dip can be tuned from the visible to near infrared by simply varying the AuNP concentration. Theoretical modeling based on effective medium theory with a multi-slice model has been employed to fit the experimental results. Additionally, this experimental tool has been further extended to study bio-molecular interactions with metal surfaces as well as in studying protein-protein interaction without any labeling. Hence, this technique could provide a non-destructive way of designing tunable label-free optical biosensors with very high sensitivity. PMID:21991549

  6. Indium doped zinc oxide nanowire thin films for antireflection and solar absorber coating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam

    2014-04-24

    Indium doped ZnO nanowire thin films were prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn-In metal bilayer films at 500°C. The ZnO:In nanowires are 20-100 nm in diameter and several tens of microns long. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of oxide and indicate that the films are polycrystalline, both in the as deposited and annealed states. The transmission which is <2% for the as deposited Zn-In films increases to >90% for the ZnO:In nanowire films. Significantly, the reflectance for the as deposited films is < 10% in the region between 200 to 1500 nm and < 2% for the nanowire films. Thus, the as deposited films can be used solar absorber coatings while the nanowire films are useful for antireflection applications. The growth of nanowires by this technique is attractive since it does not involve very high temperatures and the use of catalysts.

  7. Thin film NiTi coatings on optical fiber Bragg sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanchandra, K. P.; Karnani, S.; Emmons, M. C.; Carman, G. P.; Richards, W. L.

    2008-07-21

    This paper describes the sputter deposition and characterization of nickel titanium (NiTi) thin film shape memory alloy onto the surface of an optical fiber Bragg grating. The NiTi coating uniformity, crystallinity, and transformation temperatures are measured using scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimeter, respectively. The strain in the optical fiber is measured using centroid calculation of wavelength shifts. Results show distinct and abrupt changes in the optical fiber signal with the four related transformation temperatures represented by the austenite-martensite forward and reverse phase transformations. These tests demonstrate a coupling present between optical energy and thermal energy, i.e., a modified multiferroic material.

  8. Dip coated nanocrystalline CdZnS thin films for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongre, J. K.; Chaturvedi, Mahim; Patil, Yuvraj; Sharma, Sandhya; Jain, U. K.

    2015-07-01

    Nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) and zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnCdS) thin films have been grown via simple and low cost dip coating technique. The prepared films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopic (AFM) and UV-VIS spectrophotometer techniques to reveal their structural, morphological and optical properties. XRD shows that both samples grown have zinc blende structure. The grain size is calculated as 6.2 and 8 nm using Scherrer's formula. The band gap value of CdS and CdZnS film is estimated to be 2.58 and 2.69 eV respectively by UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) investigations are carried out using cell configuration as n-CdZnS/(1M NaOH + 1M Na2S + 1M S)/C. The photovoltaic output characteristic is used to calculate fill-factor (FF) and solar conversion efficiency (η).

  9. Studies on VOx thin films deposited over Si3N4 coated Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, P. Deepak; Gupta, Sudha; Sridharan, M.

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium oxide (VOx) thin films were deposited on to the silicon nitride (Si3N4) coated silicon (Si) substrate using reactive direct current magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperatures (Ts). The deposited films were characterized for their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. The average grain size of the deposited films was in the range of 95 to 178 nm and the strain varied from 0.071 to 0.054 %. The optical bandgap values of the films were evaluated using UV-Vis spectroscopy and lies in the range of 2.46 to 3.88 eV. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) for the film deposited at 125 °C was -1.23%/°C with the sheet resistivity of 2.7 Ω.cm.

  10. Plasma polymerized thin coating as a protective layer of carbon nanotubes grafted on carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einig, A.; Rumeau, P.; Desrousseaux, S.; Magga, Y.; Bai, J. B.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoparticles addition is widely studied to improve properties of carbon fiber reinforced composites. Here, hybrid carbon fiber results from grafting of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on the carbon fiber for mechanical reinforcement and conductive properties. Both tows and woven fabrics made of the hybrid fibers are added to the matrix for composite processing. However handling hybrid fibers may induce unwilling health risk due to eventual CNT release and a protective layer is required. A thin coating layer is deposited homogeneously by low pressure plasma polymerization of an organic monomer without modifying the morphology and the organization of grafted CNTs. The polymeric layer effect on the electrical behavior of hybrid fiber is assessed by conductivity measurements. Its influence on the mechanical properties is also studied regarding the interface adhesion between fiber and matrix. The protective role of layer is demonstrated by means of friction constraints applied to the hybrid fiber.

  11. Thermal stability of piezoelectric properties and infrared sensor performance of spin-coated polyurea thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Koshiba, Yasuko; Misaki, Masahiro; Ishida, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the piezoelectric coefficients and infrared sensor performance of spin-coated thin films of polyundecylurea (PUA11). The piezoelectric coefficients of the PUA11 films remained constant at temperatures above 180 °C and these films demonstrated thermal resistance superior to those of poly(vinylidene fluoride/trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF/TrFE)] films. The infrared sensor performance of the PUA11 films was measured after annealing at 125 °C for 500 h and was found to have retained 84% of its preannealing level. The thermal stability of the PUA11 films was higher than that of the P(VDF/TrFE) films; moreover, PUA11 is also expected to have superior electrothermal stability.

  12. Signal stability of Nafion-coated thin mercury film electrodes for stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, B; Jensen, N

    1994-03-01

    The signal stability of the Nafion-coated thin mercury film electrode (NCTMFE) was studied by using cadmium and lead as test analytes and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry as detection method. In particular, the effect of the casting solvent and the curing procedure employed in the preparation of the polymer film was examined. Best results were obtained with N,N-dimethylacetamide as casting solvent and a two-step curing procedure in which the polymer was evaporated to dryness at 55 degrees and cured at 105 degrees with a hot-air gun. Mercury plating was performed ex situ. An NCTMFE prepared in this manner has a better signal stability than ex situ-plated as well as in situ-plated conventional mercury film electrodes. PMID:18965949

  13. Secondary electron yield measurements from thin surface coatings for NLC electron cloud reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Le Pimpec, F

    2004-05-17

    In the beam pipe of the positron damping ring of the Next Linear Collider, electrons will be created by beam interaction with the surrounding vacuum chamber wall and give rise to an electron cloud. Several solutions are possible for avoiding the electron cloud, without changing the beam bunch structure or the diameter of the vacuum chamber. Some of the currently available solutions for preventing this spurious electron load include reducing residual gas ionization by the beam, minimizing beam photon-induced electron production, and lowering the secondary electron yield (SEY) of the chamber wall. We will report on recent SEY measurements performed at SLAC on TiN coatings and TiZrV non-evaporable getter thin films.

  14. Structural and electrical properties of sol-gel spin coated indium doped cadmium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Rajammal, R.; Savarimuthu, E. Arumugam, S.

    2014-04-24

    The indium doped CdO thin films have been prepared by the sol-gel spin coating technique and the influence of indium doping concentration on the structural and electrical properties of the deposited films has been investigated. The indium doping concentration in the solution has been varied from 0-10 wt% insteps of 2wt%. A indium doping concentration of 6wt% has been found to be optimum for preparing the films and at this stage a minimum resistivity of 5.92×10{sup −4}Ω cm and a maximum carrier concentration of 1.20×10{sup 20}cm{sup −3} have been realized.

  15. Preparation of a Functionally Graded Fluoropolymer Thin Film and Its Application to Antireflective Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senda, Kazuo; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kawanishi, Takumi; Tanaka, Kuniaki; Usui, Hiroaki

    2013-05-01

    Fluoropolymer thin films were prepared by the ion-assisted vapor deposition polymerization (IAD) of 2-(perfluorohexyl) ethylacrylate (Rf-6) under Ar ion irradiation. The ion acceleration voltage Va largely affected the film characteristics. With increasing Va, the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate improved, while the surface energy and the refractive index increased. To attain a high adhesion strength, a low surface energy, and a low optical reflectivity simultaneously, a functionally graded film was prepared by varying Va from 300 to 0 V continually in the course of film growth. As a consequence, an antireflective coating with good adhesion and low surface energy was obtained. The optical reflectivity of a glass substrate was reduced from 4.9 to 0.55% at a wavelength of 400 nm by depositing a 100-nm-thick single-layer functionally graded fluoropolymer film. The surface energy of this film was 8.5 mJ/m2.

  16. Ion beam sputter-deposited thin film coatings for protection of spacecraft polymers in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Mirtich, M. J.; Rutledge, S. K.; Swec, D. M.; Nahra, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-deposited thin films of Al2O3, SiO2, and a codeposited mixture of predominantly SiO2 with small amounts of a fluoropolymer were evaluated both in laboratory plasma ashing tests and in space on board shuttle flight STS-8 for effectiveness in preventing oxidation of polyimide Kapton. Measurements of mass loss and optical performance of coated and uncoated polyimide samples exposed to the low Earth orbital environment are presented. Optical techniques were used to measure loss rates of protective films exposed to atomic oxygen. Results of the analysis of the space flight exposed samples indicate that thin film metal oxide coatings are very effective in protecting the polyimide. Metal oxide coatings with a small amount of fluoropolymer codeposited have the additional benefit of great flexibility.

  17. Ion beam sputter-deposited thin film coatings for protection of spacecraft polymers in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Mirtich, M. J.; Rutledge, S. K.; Swec, D. M.; Nahra, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-deposited thin films at Al2O3, SiO2, and a codeposited mixture of predominantly SiO2 with small amounts of fluoropolymer were evaluated both in laboratory plasma ashing tests and in space on board Shuttle flight STS-8 for effectiveness in preventing oxidation of polyimide Kapton. Measurements of mass loss and optical performance of coated and uncoated polyimide samples exposed to the low earth orbital environment are presented. Optical techniques were used to measure loss rates of protective films exposed to atomic oxygen. Results of the analysis of the space flight exposed samples indicate that thin film metal oxide coatings are very effective in protecting the polyimide. Metal oxide coatings with a small amount of fluoropolymer codeposited have the additional benefit of great flexibility.

  18. Aging effects of plasma polymerized ethylenediamine (PPEDA) thin films on cell-adhesive implant coatings.

    PubMed

    Testrich, H; Rebl, H; Finke, B; Hempel, F; Nebe, B; Meichsner, J

    2013-10-01

    Thin plasma polymer films from ethylenediamine were deposited on planar substrates placed on the powered electrode of a low pressure capacitively coupled 13.56 MHz discharge. The chemical composition of the plasma polymer films was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (FT-IRRAS) as well as by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after derivatization of the primary amino groups. The PPEDA films undergo an alteration during the storage in ambient air, particularly, due to reactions with oxygen. The molecular changes in PPEDA films were studied over a long-time period of 360 days. Simultaneously, the adhesion of human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 (ATCC) was investigated on PPEDA coated corundum blasted titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), which is applied as implant material in orthopedic surgery. The cell adhesion was determined by flow cytometry and the cell shape was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Compared to uncoated reference samples a significantly enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation were measured for PPEDA coated samples, which have been maintained after long-time storage in ambient air and additional sterilization by γ-irradiation. PMID:23910290

  19. Effect of thin-film coating on wear in EGR-contaminated oil.

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. O.; Aldajah, S. H.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    2001-12-06

    Increased use of higher-efficiency compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) diesel engines instead of today's gasoline engines will result in reduced fuel consumption and greenhouse gases emissions. However, NO{sub x} and particulate exhaust emissions from diesel engines must be significantly reduced due to their possible adverse health effects. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an effective way to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from diesel engines, but the particulates and acidic exhaust products in the recirculated gas will contaminate engine lubricant oil by increasing the soot content and total acid number (TAN). These factors will increase the wear rate in many critical engine components and seriously compromise engine durability. We have investigated the use of commercially available thin and hard coatings (TiN, TiCN, TiAlN, and CrN) to mitigate the negative effects of EGR on wear. In tests with the four-ball machine according to ASTM D4172, we found that all the four coatings deposited on M-50 steel significantly reduced wear in EGR-contaminated oils when compared with uncoated M50 steel balls.

  20. Direct-Coated Photoconducting Nanocrystalline PbS Thin Films with Tunable Band Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankhade, Dhaval; Kothari, Anjana; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.

    2016-06-01

    Nanocrystalline PbS thin films are deposited on glass by direct coating from a precursor solution of lead acetate and thiourea in methanol. A single coating has a thickness of 50 nm and greater thicknesses are obtained from layer by layer deposition. The films are smooth and shiny with roughness (rms) of about 1.5 nm. X-ray diffraction studies show that films are cubic PbS with crystallite size about 10 nm. The films are p-type with dark electrical conductivities in the range of 0.4-0.5 S/cm. These films are basically photoconducting. Photoconductivity monotonically increases with increase in thickness. The band gap of the films strongly depends on the thickness of the films. The band gap decreases from 2.4 eV to 1.6 eV as the thickness is increased from 50 nm to 450 nm. The tunability of the band gap is useful for technical applications, such as solar cells and photodetectors.

  1. Substrate temperature influence on the trombogenicity in amorphous carbon nitride thin coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeano-Osorio, D. S.; Vargas, S.; López-Córdoba, L. M.; Ospina, R.; Restrepo-Parra, E.; Arango, P. J.

    2010-10-01

    Carbon nitride thin films were obtained through plasma assisted physical vapor deposition technique by pulsed arc, varying the substrate temperature and investigating the influence of this parameter on the films hemocompatibility. For obtaining approaches of blood compatibility, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used in order to study the platelets adherence and their morphology. Moreover, the elemental chemical composition was determined by using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), finding C, N and O. The coatings hemocompatibility was evaluated by in vitro thrombogenicity test, whose results were correlated with the microstructure and roughness of the films obtained. During the films growth process, the substrate temperature was varied, obtaining coatings under different temperatures, room temperature ( Troom), 100 °C, 150 °C and 200 °C. Parameters as interelectrodic distance, voltage, work pressure and number of discharges, were remained constant. By EDS, carbon and nitrogen were found in the films. Visible Raman spectroscopy was used, and it revealed an amorphous lattice, with graphitic process as the substrate temperature was increased. However, at a critical temperature of 150 °C, this tendency was broken, and the film became more amorphous. This film showed the lowest roughness, 2 ± 1 nm. This last characteristic favored the films hemocompatibility. Also, it was demonstrated that the blood compatibility of carbon nitride films obtained were affected by the ID/ IG or sp 3/sp 2 ratio and not by the absolute sp 3 or sp 2 concentration.

  2. Electrostatic bonding of thin (approximately 3 mil) 7070 cover glass to Ta2O5 AR-coated thin (approximately 2 mil) silicon wafers and solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egelkrout, D. W.; Horne, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic bonding (ESB) of thin (3 mil) Corning 7070 cover glasses to Ta2O5 AR-coated thin (2 mil) silicon wafers and solar cells is investigated. An experimental program was conducted to establish the effects of variations in pressure, voltage, temperature, time, Ta2O5 thickness, and various prebond glass treatments. Flat wafers without contact grids were used to study the basic effects for bonding to semiconductor surfaces typical of solar cells. Solar cells with three different grid patterns were used to determine additional requirements caused by the raised metallic contacts.

  3. Thin film deposition at atmospheric pressure using dielectric barrier discharges: Advances on three-dimensional porous substrates and functional coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Fiorenza; Bosso, Piera; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Fracassi, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Surface processing of materials by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) has experienced significant growth in recent years. Considerable research efforts have been directed for instance to develop a large variety of processes which exploit different DBD electrode geometries for the direct and remote deposition of thin films from precursors in gas, vapor and aerosol form. This article briefly reviews our recent progress in thin film deposition by DBDs with particular focus on process optimization. The following examples are provided: (i) the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of thin films on an open-cell foam accomplished by igniting the DBD throughout the entire three-dimensional (3D) porous structure of the substrate, (ii) the preparation of hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposite coatings using an aerosol-assisted process, (iii) the DBD jet deposition of coatings containing carboxylic acid groups and the improvement of their chemical and morphological stability upon immersion in water.

  4. The Characteristics of an Antibacterial TiAgN Thin Film Coated by Physical Vapor Deposition Technique.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byeong-Mo; Jeong, Woon-Jo; Park, Gye-Choon; Yoon, Dong-Joo; Ahn, Ho-Geun; Lim, Yeong-Seog

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we found the characteristics of an antibacterial TiAgN thin film coated on the pure titanium specimen via the physical vapor deposition process (PVD). TiAgN thin films were coated using TiAg alloy targets by arc ion plating method. Changing the process parameters, the surface analysis of TiAgN thin film was observed by FE-SEM and the force of adhesion was measured with Scratch Tester. The proliferation of human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells was examined by XTT test assay and the antibacterial properties were investigated by culturing Streptococus Mutans (KCTC 3065) using paper disk techniques. At the result of experiment, cytotoxic effects were not found and the antibacterial effects against Streptococus Mutans were appeared over 5 wt% TiAgN specimens. PMID:26369190

  5. Co-precipitation of tobramycin into biomimetically coated orthopedic fixation pins employing submicron-thin seed layers of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Jan H; Lilja, Mirjam; Åstrand, Maria; Sörensen, Torben C; Procter, Philip; Strømme, Maria; Steckel, Hartwig

    2014-01-01

    The migration, loosening and cut-out of implants and nosocomial infections are current problems associated with implant surgery. New innovative strategies to overcome these issues are emphasized in today's research. The current work presents a novel strategy involving co-precipitation of tobramycin with biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) formation to produce implant coatings that control local drug delivery to prevent early bacterial colonization of the implant. A submicron- thin HA layer served as seed layer for the co-precipitation process and allowed for incorporation of tobramycin in the coating from a stock solution of antibiotic concentrations as high as 20 mg/ml. Concentrations from 0.5 to 20 mg/ml tobramycin and process temperatures of 37 °C and 60 °C were tested to assess the optimal parameters for a thin tobramycin- delivering HA coating on discs and orthopedic fixation pins. The morphology and thickness of the coating and the drug-release profile were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The coatings delivered pharmaceutically relevant amounts of tobramycin over a period of 12 days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest release period ever observed for a fast-loaded biomimetic implant coating. The presented approach could form the foundation for development of combination device/antibiotic delivery vehicles tailored to meet well-defined clinical needs while combating infections and ensuring fast implant in-growth. PMID:24611653

  6. Structural and optical characterisation of tin dioxide thin films by sol-gel dip coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekshmy, S. Sujatha; Berlin, I. John; Maneeshya, L. V.; Anitha; Joy, K.

    2015-02-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) thin films were deposited on quartz substrates using sol-gel dip coating technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern indicated that the film annealed in air at 350°C was amorphous in nature, whereas, the films annealed in oxygen atmosphere at 350°C showed crystalline phase. The films were further annealed in oxygen atmosphere at 450°C and 550°C. All the diffraction peaks can be indexed to the tetragonal phase of SnO2 The surface morphology (SEM) showed that surface of all films were continuous and without micro cracks. The Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) spectra indicated an increase in the concentration of oxygen content with increase in annealing temperature. The energy band gap value for the film annealed in air was 3.88 eV. The optical band gap increased to 4.05 eV when annealed in O2 atmosphere. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed the presence of emission peaks in UV region and visible region of the electromagnetic spectra. Transparent oxide semiconductor SnO2 film finds potential application as an active channel layer for transparent thin film transistor.

  7. Brush-Coated Nanoparticle Polymer Thin Films: structure-mechanical-optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Peter F.

    2015-01-13

    understanding of physical phenomena associated with the structure of PNC systems and the glass transition and dynamics [7-11], including surface dynamics [12, 13]; designed PNCs to understand the connection between structure and specific optical responses of the material [14, 15]; electrorheological phenomena [16-18]; coarsening/aggregation phenomena [19, 20]; directed assembly [21] and elastic mechanical properties of thin supported films [22]. We established procedures to design and control the spatial distribution of gold nanoparticles (Au-NP), onto which polystyrene (PS) chains were end-grafted, within thin film PS hosts.[1-3] We explained how enthalpic and entropic interactions between the grafted layers and the polymer host chains, the nanoparticle (NP) sizes and shapes determine the spatial distribution of NPs within the host (i.e.: the morphology). In brief, the chemistries of the grafted chains and the polymer hosts, the degrees of polymerization of grafted and host chains (N and P, respectively), and the surface grafting densities Σ influence the thermodynamic interactions. Thin films are unique: the external interfaces (substrate and free surface) profoundly influence the spatial distribution of NPs within the PNC. For example, thin films are thermodynamically less stable than their bulk analogs due to the preferential attraction between the brush-coated nanoparticles and the external interfaces (i.e.: the free surface/polymer interface and the polymer/substrate interface). We investigated the organization of the brush-coated nanoparticles within a host composed on block copolymer micelles in a homopolymer [4, 5]. Block copolymers, composed of a polymer of type A that is bonded covalently to another polymer of type B (A-b-B) are known to form micelles within homopolymers A or B. A micelle is composed of an inner core of the A component of the copolymer and an outer corona of the B-component, that resides within homopolymer B, which serves as the host. If the host is

  8. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the growth kinetics of biomimetically grown hydroxyapatite thin-film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, K.; Kumar, S.; Dutta, N. K.; Smart, R. St. C.; Voelcker, N. H.; Anderson, G. I.

    2010-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin-film coatings grown biomimetically using simulated body fluid (SBF) are desirable for a range of applications such as improved fixation of fine- and complex-shaped orthopedic and dental implants, tissue engineering scaffolds and localized and sustained drug delivery. There is a dearth of knowledge on two key aspects of SBF-grown HA coatings: (i) the growth kinetics over short deposition periods, hours rather than weeks; and (ii) possible difference between the coatings deposited with and without periodic SBF replenishment. A study centred on these aspects is reported. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the growth kinetics of SBF-grown HA coatings for deposition periods ranging from 0.5 h to 21 days. The coatings were deposited with and without periodic replenishment of SBF. The XPS studies revealed that: (i) a continuous, stable HA coating fully covered the titanium substrate after a growth period of 13 h without SBF replenishment; (ii) thicker HA coatings about 1 μm in thickness resulted after a growth period of 21 days, both with and without SBF replenishment; and (iii) the Ca/P ratio at the surface of the HA coating was significantly lower than that in its bulk. No significant difference between HA grown with and without periodic replenishment of SBF was found. The coatings were determined to be carbonated, a characteristic desirable for improved implant fixation. The atomic force and scanning electron microscopies results suggested that heterogeneous nucleation and growth are the primary deposition mode for these coatings. Primary osteoblast cell studies demonstrated the biocompatibility of these coatings, i.e., osteoblast colony coverage of approximately 80%, similar to the control substrate (tissue culture polystyrene).

  9. Si-based thin film coating on Y-TZP: Influence of deposition parameters on adhesion of resin cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti; Nogueira Junior, Lafayette; Massi, Marcos; Silva, Alecssandro de Moura; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares da Silva; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of deposition parameters for Si-based thin films using magnetron sputtering for coating zirconia and subsequent adhesion of resin cement. Zirconia ceramic blocks were randomly divided into 8 groups and specimens were either ground finished and polished or conditioned using air-abrasion with alumina particles coated with silica. In the remaining groups, the polished specimens were coated with Si-based film coating with argon/oxygen magnetron discharge at 8:1 or 20:1 flux. In one group, Si-based film coating was performed on air-abraded surfaces. After application of bonding agent, resin cement was bonded. Profilometry, goniometry, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy analysis were performed on the conditioned zirconia surfaces. Adhesion of resin cement to zirconia was tested using shear bond test and debonded surfaces were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Si-based film coating applied on air-abraded rough zirconia surfaces increased the adhesion of the resin cement (22.78 ± 5.2 MPa) compared to those of other methods (0-14.62 MPa) (p = 0.05). Mixed type of failures were more frequent in Si film coated groups on either polished or air-abraded groups. Si-based thin films increased wettability compared to the control group but did not change the roughness, considering the parameters evaluated. Deposition parameters of Si-based thin film and after application of air-abrasion influenced the initial adhesion of resin cement to zirconia.

  10. Corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC/Al bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yiqin; Li, Heqin; Zuo, Min; Tao, Lei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong; Bai, Peiwen

    2016-07-01

    The poor corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB imposes a great challenge in industrial applications. In this work, the SiC/Al bilayer thin films with the thickness of 510 nm were deposited on sintered NdFeB by magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. A 100 nm Al buffer film was used to reduce the internal stress between SiC and NdFeB and improve the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. The morphologies and structures of SiC/Al bilayer thin films and SiC monolayer film were investigated with FESEM, AFM and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behaviors of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC monolayer film and SiC/Al bilayer thin films were analyzed by polarization curves. The magnetic properties were measured with an ultra-high coercivity permanent magnet pulse tester. The results show that the surface of SiC/Al bilayer thin films is more compact and uniform than that of SiC monolayer film. The corrosion current densities of SiC/Al bilayer films coated on NdFeB in acid, alkali and salt solutions are much lower than that of SiC monolayer film. The SiC/Al bilayer thin films have little influence to the magnetic properties of NdFeB.

  11. Advanced Fabrication Method for the Preparation of MOF Thin Films: Liquid-Phase Epitaxy Approach Meets Spin Coating Method.

    PubMed

    Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-08-10

    Here, we report a new and advanced method for the fabrication of highly oriented/polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films. Building on the attractive features of the liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) approach, a facile spin coating method was implemented to generate MOF thin films in a high-throughput fashion. Advantageously, this approach offers a great prospective to cost-effectively construct thin-films with a significantly shortened preparation time and a lessened chemicals and solvents consumption, as compared to the conventional LPE-process. Certainly, this new spin-coating approach has been implemented successfully to construct various MOF thin films, ranging in thickness from a few micrometers down to the nanometer scale, spanning 2-D and 3-D benchmark MOF materials including Cu2(bdc)2·xH2O, Zn2(bdc)2·xH2O, HKUST-1, and ZIF-8. This method was appraised and proved effective on a variety of substrates comprising functionalized gold, silicon, glass, porous stainless steel, and aluminum oxide. The facile, high-throughput and cost-effective nature of this approach, coupled with the successful thin film growth and substrate versatility, represents the next generation of methods for MOF thin film fabrication. Therefore, paving the way for these unique MOF materials to address a wide range of challenges in the areas of sensing devices and membrane technology. PMID:27415640

  12. Measurement of Thin-film Coating Hardness in the Presence of Contamination and Roughness: Implications for Tribology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demas, Nicholaos G.; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta; Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Erck, Robert A.; Shareef, Iqbal

    2016-04-01

    Standard nanoindentation measurements on commercially available TiAlN, CrN, metal-containing diamond-like carbon, and TiN coatings, deposited on steel substrates were performed to determine coating hardness and elastic modulus. It was found that the coating surface roughness/morphology present after deposition can significantly affect the measurements of nanomechanical properties so that measurements of these properties on the as-deposited coating surface may be significantly different from the bulk. In addition, a surface measurement may produce a lower nanohardness due to the existence of a soft surface contamination layer. A simple method was developed to enable accurate measurement of the nanomechanical properties of coatings, while avoiding errors introduced by surface topography and the presence of superficial contamination layers on thin films. Friction and wear behavior, as well as the wear mechanisms in dry reciprocating sliding contact of the various coatings with a steel ball can be correlated to the surface attributes of each coating in terms of roughness and the presence of contamination layers, both of which are shown to also affect the nanohardness measurements.

  13. Thickness-dependent photocatalytic performance of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Yuan-Ling; Lo, Yu-Shiu; Lin, Chen-Jui; Wu, Chien-Hou

    2013-09-01

    TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films on soda lime glass have been prepared by sol-gel spin coating. The thin films were characterized for surface morphology, crystal structure, chemical composition, thickness, and transparency by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ellipsometry, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The films prepared by titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor under pH of 3.5 ± 0.5 and with calcination temperature of 450 ̊C for 3 h exhibited superior homogeneous aggregation, good optical transparency, superhydrophilicity, and reliable thickness. The effect of film thickness on the photocatalytic degradation of acid yellow 17 was investigated under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic activity was strongly correlated with the number of coatings and followed Langmuir-type kinetics. Under the same film thickness, TiO2 thin films prepared by 0.1 M TTIP exhibited more efficient photocatalytic activity than those prepared by 0.3 M TTIP. For thin films prepared by 0.1 M TTIP, the maximum specific photocatalytic activity occurred at 5 coatings with thickness of 93 ± 1 nm. A model was proposed to rationalize the dependence of the film thickness on the photocatalytic activity, which predicts the existence of an optimum film thickness.

  14. Method and apparatus for enhanced evanescent fluorescence and color filtering using a high refractive index thin film coating

    DOEpatents

    Kao, Hung Pin; Schoeniger, Joseph; Yang, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    A technique for increasing the excitation and collection of evanescent fluorescence radiation emanating from a fiber optic sensor having a high refractive index (n.sub.r), dielectric thin film coating has been disclosed and described. The invention comprises a clad optical fiber core whose cladding is removed on a distal end, the distal end coated with a thin, non-porous, titanium dioxide sol-gel coating. It has been shown that such a fiber will exhibit increased fluorescence coupling due in part by 1) increasing the intensity of the evanescent field at the fiber core surface by a constructive interference effect on the propagating light, and 2) increasing the depth of penetration of the field in the sample. The interference effect created by the thin film imposes a wavelength dependence on the collection of the fluorescence and also suggests a novel application of thin films for color filtering as well as increasing collected fluorescence in fiber sensors. Collected fluorescence radiation increased by up to 6-fold over that of a bare fused silica fiber having a numerical aperture (N.A.) of O.6.

  15. Protection effect of ZrO2 coating layer on LiCoO2 thin film fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jung-Pil; Jung, Ki-Taek; Jang, Min-Sun; Kwon, Tae-Hoon; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Kim, Ki-Won; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Bare and ZrO2-coated LiCoO2 thin films were fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering method on STS304 substrates. Deposited both films have a well-crystallized structure with (003) preferred orientation after annealing at 600 degrees C. The ZrO2-coated LiCoO2 thin film provide significantly improved cycling stability compared to bare LiCoO2 thin film at high cut-off potential (3.0-4.5 V). The improvement in electrochemical stability is attributed to the structural stability by ZrO2 coating layer. PMID:24245215

  16. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) thin films as biocompatible coatings for microfluidic devices : cell culture and flow studies with glial cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Sophie Louise; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Gourley, Paul Lee; McDonald, Anthony Eugene

    2004-06-01

    Oxygen plasma treatment of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) thin films produced a hydrophilic surface that was biocompatible and resistant to biofouling in microfluidic studies. Thin film coatings of PDMS were previously developed to provide protection for semiconductor-based microoptical devices from rapid degradation by biofluids. However, the hydrophobic surface of native PDMS induced rapid clogging of microfluidic channels with glial cells. To evaluate the various issues of surface hydrophobicity and chemistry on material biocompatibility, we tested both native and oxidized PDMS (ox-PDMS) coatings as well as bare silicon and hydrophobic alkane and hydrophilic oligoethylene glycol silane monolayer coated under both cell culture and microfluidic studies. For the culture studies, the observed trend was that the hydrophilic surfaces supported cell adhesion and growth, whereas the hydrophobic ones were inhibitive. However, for the fluidic studies, a glass-silicon microfluidic device coated with the hydrophilic ox-PDMS had an unperturbed flow rate over 14 min of operation, whereas the uncoated device suffered a loss in rate of 12%, and the native PDMS coating showed a loss of nearly 40%. Possible protein modification of the surfaces from the culture medium also were examined with adsorbed films of albumin, collagen, and fibrinogen to evaluate their effect on cell adhesion.

  17. Kinetically-controlled synthesis of ultra-small silica nanoparticles and ultra-thin coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Tao; Yao, Lin; Liu, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    The understanding of silica as a polymer-like globule allows us to synthesize ultra-small silica nanoparticles (NPs) via a kinetic controlled process. The synthetic system is quite simple with Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TESO) as the precursor and H2O as the solvent and reactant. The reaction conditions are gentle with a temperature of around 35 to 60 °C with an incubation time of 7-12 hours. The final product of the silica NPs is very uniform and could be as small as 10 nm. The silica NPs can further grow up to 18 nm under the controlled addition of the precursors. Also, these silica NPs can be used as seeds to generate larger silica NPs with sizes ranging from 20 to 100 nm, which can be a useful supplement to the size range made by the traditional Stöber method. Moreover, these ultra-small Au NPs can be used as a depletion reagent or as building blocks for an ultrathin silica coating, which has significant applications in fine-tuning the plasmons of AuNPs and thin spacers for surface enhanced spectroscopies.The understanding of silica as a polymer-like globule allows us to synthesize ultra-small silica nanoparticles (NPs) via a kinetic controlled process. The synthetic system is quite simple with Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TESO) as the precursor and H2O as the solvent and reactant. The reaction conditions are gentle with a temperature of around 35 to 60 °C with an incubation time of 7-12 hours. The final product of the silica NPs is very uniform and could be as small as 10 nm. The silica NPs can further grow up to 18 nm under the controlled addition of the precursors. Also, these silica NPs can be used as seeds to generate larger silica NPs with sizes ranging from 20 to 100 nm, which can be a useful supplement to the size range made by the traditional Stöber method. Moreover, these ultra-small Au NPs can be used as a depletion reagent or as building blocks for an ultrathin silica coating, which has significant applications in fine-tuning the plasmons of Au

  18. Engineering Multifunctional Living Paints: Thin, Convectively-Assembled Biocomposite Coatings of Live Cells and Colloidal Latex Particles Deposited by Continuous Convective-Sedimentation Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jessica Shawn

    Advanced composite materials could be revolutionized by the development of methods to incorporate living cells into functional materials and devices. This could be accomplished by continuously and rapidly depositing thin ordered arrays of adhesive colloidal latex particles and live cells that maintain stability and preserve microbial reactivity. Convective assembly is one method of rapidly assembling colloidal particles into thin (<10 microm thick), ordered films with engineered compositions, thicknesses, and particle packing that offer several advantages over thicker randomly ordered composites, including enhanced cell stability and increased reactivity through minimized diffusion resistance to nutrients and reduced light scattering. This method can be used to precisely deposit live bacteria, cyanobacteria, yeast, and algae into biocomposite coatings, forming reactive biosensors, photoabsorbers, or advanced biocatalysts. This dissertation developed new continuous deposition and coating characterization methods for fabricating and characterizing <10 microm thick colloid coatings---monodispersed latex particle or cell suspensions, bimodal blends of latex particles or live cells and microspheres, and trimodal formulations of biomodal latex and live cells on substrates such as aluminum foil, glass, porous Kraft paper, polyester, and polypropylene. Continuous convective-sedimentation assembly (CSA) is introduced to enable fabrication of larger surface area and long coatings by constantly feeding coating suspension to the meniscus, thus expanding the utility of convective assembly to deposit monolayer or very thin films or multi-layer coatings composed of thin layers on a large scale. Results show thin, tunable coatings can be fabricated from diverse coating suspensions and critical coating parameters that control thickness and structure. Particle size ratio and charge influence deposition, convective mixing or demixing and relative particle locations. Substrate

  19. Functionalized Antimicrobial Composite Thin Films Printing for Stainless Steel Implant Coatings.

    PubMed

    Floroian, Laura; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Natalia; Negut, Irina; Badea, Mihaela; Ursutiu, Doru; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Urzica, Iuliana; Dyia, Hussien Mohammed; Bleotu, Coralia; Mihailescu, Ion N

    2016-01-01

    In this work we try to address the large interest existing nowadays in the better understanding of the interaction between microbial biofilms and metallic implants. Our aimed was to identify a new preventive strategy to control drug release, biofilm formation and contamination of medical devices with microbes. The transfer and printing of novel bioactive glass-polymer-antibiotic composites by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation into uniform thin films onto 316 L stainless steel substrates of the type used in implants are reported. The targets were prepared by freezing in liquid nitrogen mixtures containing polymer and antibiotic reinforced with bioglass powder. The cryogenic targets were submitted to multipulse evaporation by irradiation with an UV KrF* (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM ≤ 25 ns) excimer laser source. The prepared structures were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and profilometry, before and after immersion in physiological fluids. The bioactivity and the release of the antibiotic have been evaluated. We showed that the incorporated antibiotic underwent a gradually dissolution in physiological fluids thus supporting a high local treatment efficiency. Electrochemical measurements including linear sweep voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy studies were carried out to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coatings in physiological environments. The in vitro biocompatibility assay using the MG63 mammalian cell line revealed that the obtained nanostructured composite films are non-cytotoxic. The antimicrobial effect of the coatings was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains, usually present in implant-associated infections. An anti-biofilm activity was evidenced, stronger against E. coli than the S. aureus strain. The results proved that the applied method allows for the fabrication of implantable biomaterials which shield metal ion release and possess

  20. Silver activation on thin films of Ag-ZrCN coatings for antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, I; Calderon V, S; Escobar Galindo, R; Palacio, C; Henriques, M; Piedade, A P; Carvalho, S

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, with the increase of elderly population and related health problems, knee and hip joint prosthesis are being widely used worldwide. However, failure of these invasive devices occurs in a high percentage thus demanding the revision of the chirurgical procedure. Within the reasons of failure, microbial infections, either hospital or subsequently-acquired, contribute in high number to the statistics. Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) has emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens associated with these infections. Silver has a historic performance in medicine due to its potent antimicrobial activity, with a broad-spectrum on the activity of different types of microorganisms. Consequently, the main goal of this work was to produce Ag-ZrCN coatings with antimicrobial activity, for the surface modification of hip prostheses. Thin films of ZrCN with several silver concentrations were deposited onto stainless steel 316 L, by DC reactive magnetron sputtering, using two targets, Zr and Zr with silver pellets (Zr+Ag target), in an atmosphere containing Ar, C2H2 and N2. The antimicrobial activity of the modified surfaces was tested against S. epidermidis and the influence of an activation step of silver was assessed by testing samples after immersion in a 5% (w/v) NaClO solution for 5 min. The activation procedure revealed to be essential for the antimicrobial activity, as observed by the presence of an inhibition halo on the surface with 11 at.% of Ag. The morphology analysis of the surface before and after the activation procedure revealed differences in silver distribution indicating segregation/diffusion of the metallic element to the film's surface. Thus, the results indicate that the silver activation step is responsible for an antimicrobial effect of the coatings, due to silver oxidation and silver ion release. PMID:26117788

  1. Preparation and characterization of thin film surface coatings for biological environments.

    PubMed

    Ruckenstein, E; Gourisankar, S V

    1986-11-01

    An approach to the problem of selecting synthetic materials for use in biological media is presented. Firstly, a surface energetic criterion of biocompatibility of foreign surfaces is suggested. This criterion, which is based on an analysis of the surface interactions between a typical biological fluid (i.e. blood) and synthetic surfaces, is founded on the premise that a sufficiently low (but not very low) solid-biological fluid interfacial free energy of the order of 1-3 dyne/cm, is necessary in order to fulfil the dual requirements of maintaining a low thermodynamic driving force for the adsorption of fluid components on the solid surface as well as a mechanically stable solid-fluid interface. In the second part of this investigation, an experimental approach involving the radio frequency (rf) sputter deposition of thin solid films of tightly adhering polymeric compounds on materials with the desired bulk characteristics, is shown to be a promising method of tailoring the surface properties of many types of synthetic materials for use in biological environments. The preparation and surface characterization of thin, solid films of oxidized fluorocarbon coatings (from a Teflon FEP target) by rf sputtering is illustrated. The deposited polymer films were characterized for their surface morphology, thickness, elemental surface chemical composition and their wetting properties in a biological environment, by the techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ellipsometry, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and contact angle measurements, respectively. Based on the ESCA and contact angle results, it emerges that the surfaces of such polymeric coatings possess sufficient mobility to considerably alter their structures between different environments (such as air and water) and thereby present different wetting characters to these environments. The contact angle procedure developed in this investigation permitted the estimation of the relevant wetting

  2. A novel pillar indentation splitting test for measuring fracture toughness of thin ceramic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastiani, Marco; Johanns, K. E.; Herbert, Erik G.; Carassiti, Fabio; Pharr, George Mathews

    2014-05-16

    Fracture toughness is an important material property that plays a role in determining the in-service mechanical performance and adhesion of thin ceramic films. Unfortunately, measuring thin film fracture toughness is affected by influences from the substrate and the large residual stresses that can exist in the films. In this paper, we explore a promising new technique that potentially overcomes these problems based on nanoindentation testing of micro-pillars produced by focused ion beam milling of the films. By making the pillar diameter approximately equal to its length, the residual stress in the pillar’s upper portion is almost fully relaxed, and when indented with a sharp Berkovich indenter, the pillars fracture by splitting at reproducible loads that are readily quantified by a sudden displacement excursion in the load displacement behavior. Cohesive finite element simulations are used to analyze and develop, for a given material, a simple relation between the critical load at failure, pillar radius, and fracture toughness. The main novel aspect of this work is that neither crack geometries nor crack sizes need to be measured post test. Furthermore, the residual stress can be measured at the same time with toughness, by comparing the indentation results from the stress-free pillars and the as-deposited film. The method is tested on three different hard coatings formed by physical vapor deposition: titanium nitride, chromium nitride, and a CrAlN/Si3N4 nanocomposite. Results compare well to independently measured values of fracture toughness for the three brittle films. The technique offers several benefits over existing methods.

  3. A novel pillar indentation splitting test for measuring fracture toughness of thin ceramic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastiani, M.; Johanns, K. E.; Herbert, E. G.; Carassiti, F.; Pharr, G. M.

    2015-06-01

    The fracture toughness of thin ceramic films is an important material property that plays a role in determining the in-service mechanical performance and adhesion of this important class of engineering materials. Unfortunately, measurement of thin film fracture toughness is affected by influences from the substrate and the large residual stresses that can exist in the films. In this paper, we explore a promising new technique that potentially overcomes these issues based on nanoindentation testing of micro-pillars produced by focused ion beam milling of the films. By making the pillar diameter approximately equal to its length, the residual stress in the upper portion of the pillar is almost fully relaxed, and when indented with a sharp Berkovich indenter, the pillars fracture by splitting at reproducible loads that are readily quantified by a sudden displacement excursion in the load displacement behaviour. Cohesive finite element simulations are used for analysis and development of a simple relationship between the critical load at failure, pillar radius and fracture toughness for a given material. The main novel aspect of this work is that neither crack geometries nor crack sizes need to be measured post test. In addition, the residual stress can be measured at the same time with toughness, by comparison of the indentation results obtained on the stress-free pillars and the as-deposited film. The method is tested on three different hard coatings created by physical vapour deposition, namely titanium nitride, chromium nitride and a CrAlN/Si3N4 nanocomposite. Results compare well to independently measured values of fracture toughness for the three brittle films. The technique offers several benefits over existing methods.

  4. A novel pillar indentation splitting test for measuring fracture toughness of thin ceramic coatings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sebastiani, Marco; Johanns, K. E.; Herbert, Erik G.; Carassiti, Fabio; Pharr, George Mathews

    2014-05-16

    Fracture toughness is an important material property that plays a role in determining the in-service mechanical performance and adhesion of thin ceramic films. Unfortunately, measuring thin film fracture toughness is affected by influences from the substrate and the large residual stresses that can exist in the films. In this paper, we explore a promising new technique that potentially overcomes these problems based on nanoindentation testing of micro-pillars produced by focused ion beam milling of the films. By making the pillar diameter approximately equal to its length, the residual stress in the pillar’s upper portion is almost fully relaxed, and whenmore » indented with a sharp Berkovich indenter, the pillars fracture by splitting at reproducible loads that are readily quantified by a sudden displacement excursion in the load displacement behavior. Cohesive finite element simulations are used to analyze and develop, for a given material, a simple relation between the critical load at failure, pillar radius, and fracture toughness. The main novel aspect of this work is that neither crack geometries nor crack sizes need to be measured post test. Furthermore, the residual stress can be measured at the same time with toughness, by comparing the indentation results from the stress-free pillars and the as-deposited film. The method is tested on three different hard coatings formed by physical vapor deposition: titanium nitride, chromium nitride, and a CrAlN/Si3N4 nanocomposite. Results compare well to independently measured values of fracture toughness for the three brittle films. The technique offers several benefits over existing methods.« less

  5. Polycrystalline BiFeO3 thin film synthesized via sol-gel assisted spin coating technique for photosensitive application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogle, K. A.; Narwade, R. D.; Phatangare, A. B.; Dahiwale, S. S.; Mahabole, M. P.; Khairnar, R. S.

    2016-05-01

    We are reporting photosensitivity property of BiFeO3 thin film under optical illumination. The thin film used for photosensitivity work was fabricated via sol-gel assisted spin coating technique. I-V measurements on the Cu/BiFeO3/Al structure under dark condition show a good rectifying property and show dramatic blue shit in threshold voltage under optical illumination. The microstructure, morphology and elemental analysis of the films were characterized by using XRD, UV-Vis, FTIR, SEM and EDS.

  6. Boron carbide coatings for neutron detection probed by x-rays, ions, and neutrons to determine thin film quality

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, G. Störmer, M.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Höche, D.; Lorenz, U.; Müller, M.; Schreyer, A.; Becker, H.-W.; Haese-Seiller, M.; Moulin, J.-F.; Pomm, M.; Randau, C.; Hall-Wilton, R.

    2015-01-21

    Due to the present shortage of {sup 3}He and the associated tremendous increase of its price, the supply of large neutron detection systems with {sup 3}He becomes unaffordable. Alternative neutron detection concepts, therefore, have been invented based on solid {sup 10}B converters. These concepts require development in thin film deposition technique regarding high adhesion, thickness uniformity and chemical purity of the converter coating on large area substrates. We report on the sputter deposition of highly uniform large-area {sup 10}B{sub 4}C coatings of up to 2 μm thickness with a thickness deviation below 4% using the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht large area sputtering system. The {sup 10}B{sub 4}C coatings are x-ray amorphous and highly adhesive to the substrate. Material analysis by means of X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, and Rutherford-Back-Scattering (RBS) revealed low impurities concentration in the coatings. The isotope composition determined by Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, RBS, and inelastic nuclear reaction analysis of the converter coatings evidences almost identical {sup 10}B isotope contents in the sputter target and in the deposited coating. Neutron conversion and detection test measurements with variable irradiation geometry of the converter coating demonstrate an average relative quantum efficiency ranging from 65% to 90% for cold neutrons as compared to a black {sup 3}He-monitor. Thus, these converter coatings contribute to the development of {sup 3}He-free prototype detectors based on neutron grazing incidence. Transferring the developed coating process to an industrial scale sputtering system can make alternative {sup 3}He-free converter elements available for large area neutron detection systems.

  7. Boron carbide coatings for neutron detection probed by x-rays, ions, and neutrons to determine thin film quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, G.; Störmer, M.; Becker, H.-W.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Höche, D.; Haese-Seiller, M.; Moulin, J.-F.; Pomm, M.; Randau, C.; Lorenz, U.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Müller, M.; Schreyer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the present shortage of 3He and the associated tremendous increase of its price, the supply of large neutron detection systems with 3He becomes unaffordable. Alternative neutron detection concepts, therefore, have been invented based on solid 10B converters. These concepts require development in thin film deposition technique regarding high adhesion, thickness uniformity and chemical purity of the converter coating on large area substrates. We report on the sputter deposition of highly uniform large-area 10B4C coatings of up to 2 μm thickness with a thickness deviation below 4% using the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht large area sputtering system. The 10B4C coatings are x-ray amorphous and highly adhesive to the substrate. Material analysis by means of X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, and Rutherford-Back-Scattering (RBS) revealed low impurities concentration in the coatings. The isotope composition determined by Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, RBS, and inelastic nuclear reaction analysis of the converter coatings evidences almost identical 10B isotope contents in the sputter target and in the deposited coating. Neutron conversion and detection test measurements with variable irradiation geometry of the converter coating demonstrate an average relative quantum efficiency ranging from 65% to 90% for cold neutrons as compared to a black 3He-monitor. Thus, these converter coatings contribute to the development of 3He-free prototype detectors based on neutron grazing incidence. Transferring the developed coating process to an industrial scale sputtering system can make alternative 3He-free converter elements available for large area neutron detection systems.

  8. Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  9. Atomic oxygen effects on thin film space coatings studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and laser light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synowicki, R. A.; Hale, Jeffrey S.; Woollam, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The University of Nebraska is currently evaluating Low Earth Orbit (LEO) simulation techniques as well as a variety of thin film protective coatings to withstand atomic oxygen (AO) degradation. Both oxygen plasma ashers and an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source are being used for LEO simulation. Thin film coatings are characterized by optical techniques including Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Optical spectrophotometry, and laser light scatterometry. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is also used to characterize surface morphology. Results on diamondlike carbon (DLC) films show that DLC degrades with simulated AO exposure at a rate comparable to Kapton polyimide. Since DLC is not as susceptible to environmental factors such as moisture absorption, it could potentially provide more accurate measurements of AO fluence on short space flights.

  10. Effects of BaBi2Ta2O9 thin buffer layer on crystallization and electrical properties of CaBi2Ta2O9 thin films on Pt-coated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kazumi; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Nishizawa, Kaori; Miki, Takeshi

    2001-05-01

    Non-c-axis oriented CaBi2Ta2O9 (CBT) thin films have been successfully deposited via the triple alkoxide solution method on Pt-coated Si substrates by inserting BaBi2Ta2O9 (BBT) thin buffer layers. The BBT thin buffer layer, which was prepared on Pt-coated Si, was a key material for suppression of the nonpolar c-axis orientation and promoting the ferroelectric structure perpendicular to the in-plane direction of CBT thin film. The annealing temperature and thickness of the BBT thin buffer layers affected the dielectric, ferroelectric, and fatigue properties of the stacked CBT/BBT thin films. The resultant 650 °C annealed CBT/BBT(30 nm) thin film exhibited good P-E hysteresis properties and fatigue behaviors.

  11. Distinct surface hydration behaviors of boron-rich boride thin film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xinhong; Liu, Wei; Ouyang, Jun; Tian, Yun

    2014-08-01

    In this work, the surface boron chemical states and surface hydration behaviors of the as-deposited and annealed boron-rich boride thin film coatings, including AlMgB14, TiB2 and AlMgB14-TiB2, were systematically studied by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The XPS results indicate that boron at annealed AlMgB14 film surface can be oxidized; surprisingly, such oxidation does not lead to the formation of boric acid in ambient air. Instead, boric acid can be produced at the surface of annealed TiB2 film and AlMgB14-TiB2 film. It is shown, via the water contact angle measurements, that these boride films exhibit distinct surface wettability characteristics, which are believed to result in the observed surface hydration processes. Furthermore, we found anatase TiO2 formation plays a major role in the surface wetting behaviors for these boride films.

  12. Dip coated nanocrystalline CdZnS thin films for solar cell application

    SciTech Connect

    Dongre, J. K. Chaturvedi, Mahim; Patil, Yuvraj; Sharma, Sandhya; Jain, U. K.

    2015-07-31

    Nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) and zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnCdS) thin films have been grown via simple and low cost dip coating technique. The prepared films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopic (AFM) and UV-VIS spectrophotometer techniques to reveal their structural, morphological and optical properties. XRD shows that both samples grown have zinc blende structure. The grain size is calculated as 6.2 and 8 nm using Scherrer’s formula. The band gap value of CdS and CdZnS film is estimated to be 2.58 and 2.69 eV respectively by UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) investigations are carried out using cell configuration as n-CdZnS/(1M NaOH + 1M Na2S + 1M S)/C. The photovoltaic output characteristic is used to calculate fill-factor (FF) and solar conversion efficiency (η)

  13. Easy and Fast Western Blotting by Thin-Film Direct Coating with Suction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao-Yuan; Lu, De-Chao; Jiang, Yi-Wei; Yen, Yi-Kuang; Chang, Shih-Chung; Wang, An-Bang

    2016-06-21

    Thin-film direct coating (TDC) has been successfully used in Western blotting (WB). In this study, the advanced technique of TDC with suction (TDCS) was developed to reduce the consumption amount of antibody by a factor of up to 10(4) in comparison with the amount consumed by the conventional WB using the capillary tube without any need of special micromachining processes. The operation time for completely finishing a high-quality WB can be reduced from 3 h in conventional WB to about 5 min or even less by TDCS. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio of the immunoblotting by TDCS can be markedly increased. TDCS WB showed a high linearity within a 6-log2 dynamic range for detecting 90-6000 ng of purified recombinant glutathione-S-transferase (GST) proteins and could particularly detect extrinsic GST proteins added in crude Escherichia coli or 293T cell lysates. Moreover, a protein mixture containing bovine serum albumin, GST, and ubiquitin could be specifically probed in parallel with their corresponding antibodies through multichannel TDCS WB. This simple and innovative TDCS WB offers various potential applications in simultaneously finishing multiple antibody-antigen screenings in a fast and single experiment. PMID:27254752

  14. Thickness Measurement, Rate Control And Automation In Thin Film Coating Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulker, H. K.

    1983-11-01

    There are many processes known for fabricating thin films/1, 2.Among them the group of physical vapor deposition processes comprising evaporation, sputtering and ion plating has received special attention.Especially evaporation but also the other PVD techniques are widely used to deposit various single and multilayer coatings for optical and electrical thin film applications/3,4/.A large number of parameters is important in obtaining the required film properties in a reproducible manner when depositing thin films by such processes.Amongst the many are the film thickness, the condensation rate,the substrate temperature,as well as the qualitative and the quantitative composition of the residual gas of primary importance.First of all the film thickness is a dimension which enters in practically all equations used to characterize a thin film. However,when discussing film thickness,definitions are required since there one has to distinguish between various types of thicknesses e.g.geometrical thickness,mass thickness and optical thickness.The geometrical thickness,often also called physical thickness,is defined as the step height between the substrate surface and the film surface.This step height multiplied by the refractive index of the film is termed the optical thickness and is expressed generally in integer multiples of fractional parts of a desired wavelength.The mass thickness finally is defined as the film mass per unit area obtained by weighing.Knowing the density and the optical data of a thin film its mass thickness can be converted into the corresponding geometrical as well as optical thickness.However,with ultrathin films ranging between a few and several atomic or molecular "layers"the concept of a film thickness may become senseless since often no closed film exists of such minor deposits.Although film thickness is a length,the measurement of it can,obviously,not be accomplished with conventional methods for length determinations but requires special

  15. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of Cu0.87Se thin films coated by electron beam evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuvaneswari, P. V.; Ramamurthi, K.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Moorthy Babu, S.

    2015-09-01

    Copper selenide powder was synthesized adopting a two-step chemical route. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the synthesized material consists of mixed phases of Cu3Se2, Cu7Se4 and Cu0.87Se. Synthesized material was used to deposit thin films at the substrate temperature of 200, 300, 400 and 500 °C by electron beam evaporation method. The substrate temperature of 200 °C yielded amorphous film, whereas the substrate temperature of 300, 400 and 500 °C produced Cu0.87Se single-phase thin film. Atomic force microscopic studies showed that the film coated at 400 °C possesses relatively lower average roughness. The direct band gap of Cu0.87Se varies from 1.67 to 1.81 eV. Thin film coated at 400 °C shows the minimum resistivity of 5.2 × 10-4 Ω cm, whereas the film coated at 300 °C possesses the maximum mobility of 8.2 cm2/Vs.

  16. Structural characterization and comparison of iridium, platinum and gold/palladium ultra-thin film coatings for STM of biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Sebring, R.; Arendt, P.; Imai, B.; Bradbury, E.M.; Gatewood, J.; Panitz, J.; Yau, P.

    1997-10-30

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is capable of atomic resolution and is ideally suited for imaging surfaces with uniform work function. A biological sample on a conducting substrate in air does not meet this criteria and requires a conductive coating for stable and reproducible STM imaging. In this paper, the authors describe the STM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization of ultra-thin ion-beam sputtered films of iridium and cathode sputtered gold/palladium and platinum films on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) which were developed for use as biomolecule coatings. The goals were the development of metal coatings sufficiently thin and fine grained that 15--20 {angstrom} features of biological molecules could be resolved using STM, and the development of a substrate/coating system which would allow complementary TEM information to be obtained for films and biological molecules. The authors demonstrate in this paper that ion-beam sputtered iridium on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) has met both these goals. The ion-beam sputtered iridium produced a very fine grained (< 10 {angstrom}) continuous film at 5--6 {angstrom} thickness suitable for stable air STM imaging. In comparison, cathode sputtered platinum produced 16 {angstrom} grains with the thinnest continuous film at 15 {angstrom} thickness, and the sputtered gold/palladium produced 25 {angstrom} grains with the thinnest continuous film at 18 {angstrom} thickness.

  17. Tribo-mechanical properties of thin boron coatings deposited on polished cobalt alloy surfaces for orthopedic applications

    PubMed Central

    Klepper, C. C.; Williams, J. M.; Truhan, J.J.; Qu, J.; Riester, L.; Hazelton, R. C.; Moschella, J.J.; Blau, P.J.; Anderson, J.P.; Popoola, O.O.; Keitz, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents experimental evidence that thin (<∼200 nm) boron coatings, deposited with a (vacuum) cathodic arc technique on pre-polished Co-Cr-Mo surfaces, could potentially extend the life of metal-on-polymer orthopedic devices using cast Co-Cr-Mo alloy for the metal component. The primary tribological test used a linear, reciprocating pin-on-disc arrangement, with pins made of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. The disks were cast Co-Cr-Mo samples that were metallographically polished and then coated with boron at a substrate bias of 500 V and at about 100 °C. The wear tests were carried out in a saline solution to simulate the biological environment. The improvements were manifested by the absence of a detectable wear track scar on the coated metal component, while significant polymer transfer film was detected on the uncoated (control) samples tested under the same conditions. The polymer transfer track was characterized with both profilometry and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. Mechanical characterization of the thin films included nano-indentation, as well as additional pin-on-disk tests with a steel ball to demonstrate adhesion, using ultra-high frequency acoustic microscopy to probe for any void occurrence at the coating-substrate interface. PMID:19340285

  18. Examination of the influence of coatings on thin superalloy sections. Volume 2: Detailed procedures and data. [corrosion resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, M.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of an aluminide coating, Codep B-1, and of section thickness were investigated on two cast nickel base superalloys, Rene 80 and Rene 120. Cast section thicknesses ranged from 0.038 cm to 0.15 cm. Simulated engine exposures for 1000 hours at 899C or 982C in a jet fuel burner rig with cyclic air cooling were studied, as were the effects of surface machining before coating and re-machining and re-coating after exposures. The properties evaluated included tensile at room temperature., 871C and 982C, stress rupture at 760C, 871C, 982C and 1093C, high cycle mechanical fatigue at room temperature., and thermal fatigue with a 1093C peak temperature. Thin sections had tensile strengths similar to standard size bars up to 871C and lower strengths at 982C and above, with equivalent elongation, and stress rupture life was lower for thin sections at all test conditions. The aluminide coating lowered tensile and rupture strengths up to 871C, with greater effects on thinner specimens. Elevated temperature exposure lowered tensile and rupture strengths of thinner specimens at the lower test temperatures. Surface machining had little effect on properties, but re-machining after exposure reduced thickness and increased metallurgical changes enough to lower properties at most test conditions.

  19. Tribo-mechanical properties of thin boron coatings deposited on polished cobalt alloy surfaces for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Klepper, C C; Williams, J M; Truhan, J J; Qu, J; Riester, L; Hazelton, R C; Moschella, J J; Blau, P J; Anderson, J P; Popoola, O O; Keitz, M D

    2008-03-31

    This paper presents experimental evidence that thin (< approximately 200 nm) boron coatings, deposited with a (vacuum) cathodic arc technique on pre-polished Co-Cr-Mo surfaces, could potentially extend the life of metal-on-polymer orthopedic devices using cast Co-Cr-Mo alloy for the metal component. The primary tribological test used a linear, reciprocating pin-on-disc arrangement, with pins made of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. The disks were cast Co-Cr-Mo samples that were metallographically polished and then coated with boron at a substrate bias of 500 V and at about 100 degrees C. The wear tests were carried out in a saline solution to simulate the biological environment. The improvements were manifested by the absence of a detectable wear track scar on the coated metal component, while significant polymer transfer film was detected on the uncoated (control) samples tested under the same conditions. The polymer transfer track was characterized with both profilometry and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. Mechanical characterization of the thin films included nano-indentation, as well as additional pin-on-disk tests with a steel ball to demonstrate adhesion, using ultra-high frequency acoustic microscopy to probe for any void occurrence at the coating-substrate interface. PMID:19340285

  20. Scanning electron microscopy at macromolecular resolution in low energy mode on biological specimens coated with ultra thin metal films.

    PubMed

    Peters, K R

    1979-01-01

    In this report, conditions for attaining high resolution in scanning electron microscopy with soft biological specimens are described using the currently available high resolution scanning electron microscopes in emission mode of low energy electrons (secondary and charging electrons). Retinal rod outer segments, red blood cells, intestinal mucosa, and ferritin molecules were all used as biological test specimens. From uncoated specimens a new source of signal, referred to as a discharge signal, can provide a high yield of low energy electrons from an excitation area approximately the size of the beam's cross section. Additionally, under these conditions sufficient topographic contrast can be achieved by applying ultra thin metal coatins. A 0.5 nm thick gold film is found sufficient for generating the total signal, whereas increased coating thickness causes additional topographic background signal. However, a 2.0 nm film is needed for imaging surface details with the present instrument. Ultra thin, even, and grainless tantalum films have been found effective in eliminating the charging artifacts caused by external fields, and the decoration artifacts caused by crystal growth as seen in gold films. To improve, in high magnification work on ultra thin coated specimen, signal-to-noise ratio, methods for obtaining saturation of the signal with discharge electrons are shown. The necessity of confirming the information obtained in SEM by independent techniques (TEM of stereo-replicas or ultra thin sections) is discussed. PMID:392703

  1. Long-Wavelength Infrared Sensing by Cytochrome C Protein Thin Film Deposited by the Spin Coating Method

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Bo-Yu; Chu, Chung-Hao; Su, Guo-Dung John

    2013-01-01

    High infrared absorption, large temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and small 1/f noise are preferred characteristics for sensing materials used in bolometers. In this paper, we discuss a cytochrome c protein as a potential sensing material for long-wavelength bolometers. We simulated and experimentally proved high infrared absorption of cytochrome c in the wavelength between 8 μm and 14 μm. Cytochrome c thin films were deposited on a hydrophilic surface using the spin coating method. The resistance variation with temperature is measured and we show that the TCR of cytochrome c thin films is consistently higher than 20%. The measured values of 1/f noise were as low as 2.33 × 10−13 V2/Hz at 60 Hz. Finally, we test the reliability of cytochrome c by measuring the resistance changes over time under varying conditions. We found that cytochrome c thin films deteriorated significantly without appropriate packaging. PMID:24264331

  2. Absorption spectra of rhodamine B dimers in dip-coated thin films prepared by the sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Tsuneo; Nishikiori, Hiromasa; Tamura, Takuma

    1995-02-01

    Thin films including rhodamine B (RB) which were dip-coated using the sol-gel reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) have been prepared as a function of time and their absorption spectra observed 72 h after preparation of the thin films. One monomer and two dimers (H- and J-types) are clearly and simultaneously resolved both for RB in the thin films and the water-ethanol mixed solvent. Just after mixing the reaction system, the proportion of the dimers for RB was significant, and the H and J dimer amounts were nearly equal. As the sol-gel reaction proceeded, the relative contribution from the monomer species increased. The relative contribution of the monomer to that of the dimers reached a constant value long before the gelation time. This behavior indicates that the dye molecules are encapsulated in a certain structural region (pores) long before the gelation point of the sol-gel reaction of TEOS.

  3. Enhancement at low temperatures of the critical current density for Au-coated MgB2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Heon-Jung; Lee, Sung-Ik; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Kang, W. N.

    2004-01-01

    We measured the superconducting critical current densities (Jc) from the magnetization hysteresis (M-H) loop for Au-coated MgB2 thin films. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether the vortex avalanche phenomenon which suppresses the Jc for low temperature (T<15 K) and low field (H⩽1000 Oe) could be cured by gold deposition. This avalanche, called flux noise, has been a headache in applications of MgB2 thin films. Fortunately, the flux noise in the M-H loop is suppressed with increasing Au-film thickness and finally disappears when the thickness of the gold becomes 2.55 μm. We found a way to remove one obstacle for applications of MgB2 thin films as an superconducting device.

  4. Linking Precursor Alterations to Nanoscale Structure and Optical Transparency in Polymer Assisted Fast-Rate Dip-Coating of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; Armstrong, Eileen; Collins, Timothy; Morris, Michael A.; Dwyer, Colm O’

    2015-01-01

    Solution processed metal oxide thin films are important for modern optoelectronic devices ranging from thin film transistors to photovoltaics and for functional optical coatings. Solution processed techniques such as dip-coating, allow thin films to be rapidly deposited over a large range of surfaces including curved, flexible or plastic substrates without extensive processing of comparative vapour or physical deposition methods. To increase the effectiveness and versatility of dip-coated thin films, alterations to commonly used precursors can be made that facilitate controlled thin film deposition. The effects of polymer assisted deposition and changes in solvent-alkoxide dilution on the morphology, structure, optoelectronic properties and crystallinity of vanadium pentoxide thin films was studied using a dip-coating method using a substrate withdrawal speed within the fast-rate draining regime. The formation of sub-100 nm thin films could be achieved rapidly from dilute alkoxide based precursor solutions with high optical transmission in the visible, linked to the phase and film structure. The effects of the polymer addition was shown to change the crystallized vanadium pentoxide thin films from a granular surface structure to a polycrystalline structure composed of a high density of smaller in-plane grains, resulting in a uniform surface morphology with lower thickness and roughness. PMID:26123117

  5. Morphology, conductivity, and wetting characteristics of PEDOT:PSS thin films deposited by spin and spray coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabihi, F.; Xie, Y.; Gao, S.; Eslamian, M.

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the characteristics of PEDOT:PSS thin films and the effects of varying the processing parameters on the structure, functionality, and surface wetting of spun-on and spray-on PEDOT:PSS thin films. PEDOT:PSS is a polymer mixture, which is electrically conductive and transparent and, therefore, is an attractive material for some optoelectronic applications, such as organic and perovskite solar cells. In this work, the films are fabricated using spin coating (a lab-scale method) and spray coating (an up-scalable method). The effects of spinning speed, drying time, and post-annealing temperature on spun-on samples and the effects of the substrate temperature and number of spray passes (deposition layers) on spray-on samples, as well as the effect of precursor solution concentration on both cases are investigated. Various characterization tools, such as AFM, SEM, XRD, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and electrical conductivity measurements are used to determine the film roughness, thickness, structure, and morphology. The solution precursor physical data, such as contact angle on glass substrates, viscosity, and interfacial tension, are also obtained within a practical range of temperatures and concentrations. It is found that in both spin and spray coating routes, only well-controlled operating conditions result in the formation of conductive and defect-free PEDOT:PSS films. The formation of PEDOT:PSS thin films with small grains composed of PEDOT forming the core of the grains and PSS forming a shell or coating, which are evenly distributed in a PSS-rich matrix, is favored. Conditions leading to the above-mentioned electrically conductive scenario are identified. Other topics, such as the formation of defects and dewetting, are also elucidated.

  6. Potential of photon and particle beams for surface treatment of thin ceramic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celis, J. P.; Franck, M.; Roos, J. R.; Kreutz, E. W.; Gasser, A.; Wehner, M.; Wissenbach, K.; Pattyn, N.

    1992-01-01

    Laser irradiation and ion implantation have been investigated in order to modify in a two-step process the characteristics of TiN ceramic coatings obtained by physical vapour deposition (PVD) on steel surfaces. Depending on the beam properties and processing variables used, material modifications can be induced either in the coating itself, at the coating/substrate interface, or in the underlying substrate material. Laser irradiation and ion implantation offer possibilities of tailoring the functional surface properties of coated steels with respect to friction and wear resistance by the modification of surface roughness, by the alloying of ceramic coatings with either metallic or metalloid elements, and by inducing substrate hardening.

  7. Electrochromic properties of spin-coated thin films from peroxo-polymolybdovanadate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Kudo, Tetsuichi

    1995-04-01

    A now mixed metal peroxo-polyacid based on Mo and V is formed by the direct reaction of a mixture of metallic Mo and V with hydrogen peroxide solution. A homogeneous amorphous thin film about 0.4 {mu}m is fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by a spin-coating technique using this peroxo-polymolybdovanadate solution. After heat-treatment from 80 to 120 C in air for 1 h, it shows reversible electrochromism in an organic LiClO{sub 4} electrolyte solution, and changes color from greenish yellow to grayish violet and violet, depending on the intercalation level of Li. Cyclic-voltammograms of the mixed Mo/V oxide film and those of the end members (MoO{sub 3} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) are quite different from one another, both in shape and peak-current potential, indicating that each film has distinctly different intercalation electrochemistry. The potential (E) vs. composition (x, Li content per mol Mo{sub 0.5}V{sub 0.5}O{sub 2.75}) diagram of the present film recorded in the intercalation process agrees with that of the deintercalation process in the range 0 < x < 1.5. The E-x relationship is approximated by two straight lines with different slopes, with a kink at x = 0.5. This suggests that in this film there are two kinds of sites with different site energies. The changes in electrochromic properties with heat-treatment are also discussed in relation to the microstructure of the film.

  8. In vitro degradation and release characteristics of spin coated thin films of PLGA with a “breath figure” morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, Thiruselvam; Lawson, Louise B.; Freytag, Lucy C.; Blake, Diane A.; Ayyala, Ramesh S.; John, Vijay T.

    2012-01-01

    Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coatings on implant materials are widely used in controlled drug delivery applications. Typically, such coatings are made with non-porous films. Here, we have synthesized a thin PLGA film coating with a highly ordered microporous structure using a simple and inexpensive water templating “breath figure” technique. A single stage process combining spin coating and breath figure process was used to obtain drug incorporated porous thin films. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to observe the surface and bulk features of porosity and also, degradation pattern of the films. Moreover, the effect of addition of small amount of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) into PLGA was characterized. SEM analysis revealed an ordered array of ~2 µm sized pores on the surface with the average film thickness measured to be 20 µm. The incorporation of hydrophilic poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) enhances pore structure uniformity and facilitates ingress of water into the structure. A five week in vitro degradation study showed a gradual deterioration of the breath figure pores. During the course of degradation, the surface pore structure deteriorates to initially flatten the surface. This is followed by the formation of new pinprick pores that eventually grow into a macroporous film prior to film breakup. Salicylic acid (highly water soluble) and Ibuprofen (sparingly water soluble) were chosen as model drug compounds to characterize release rates, which are higher in films of the breath figure morphology rather than in non-porous films. The results are of significance in the design of biodegradable films used as coatings to modulate delivery. PMID:23507805

  9. Multilayered nanocrystalline CrN/TiAlN/MoS2 tribological thin film coatings: preparation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, S.; Kelemen, A.; Jakab-Farkas, L.; Vida-Simiti, I.; Biró, D.

    2013-12-01

    Nanocrystalline multilayer thin film coatings, composed of nanometer-scale thick CrN, TiAlN and MoS2 tri-layer systems, were prepared by reactive co-sputtering processes. The self-lubricated multilayer coating structures were deposited by one-fold oscillating movement of substrates in front of the sputter sources. Three independently operated direct current (dc) excited unbalanced magnetrons (UM) with rectangular cathodes of TiAl alloy (50/50%), pure chromium and MoS2 were used as sputter sources. The reactive sputtering process was performed in a mixture of Ar-N2 atmosphere. Hardened high-speed-steel (HSS) and thin oxide covered Si (100) wafers were used as substrates for tribological- and microstructure investigations, respectively. According to results of the chemical composition evaluated by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and microstructure investigation by cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM), the CrN, TiAlN and the MoS2 phases form practically continuous layers with large gradient transition of composition. The as-deposited CrN/ (Al,Ti)N/MoS2 coatings have shown good friction behaviour, tested at room temperature in dry sliding condition with a ball-on-disk tribometer.

  10. Thin-film metal coated insulation barrier in a Josephson tunnel junction. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Hawkins, G.A.; Clarke, J.

    1975-10-31

    A highly stable, durable, and reproducible Josephson tunnel junction consists of a thin-film electrode of a hard superconductor, a thin oxide insulation layer over the electrode constituting a Josephson tunnel junction barrier, a thin-film layer of stabilizing metal over the barrier, and a second thin-film hard superconductive electrode over the stabilizing film. The thin stabilizing metal film is made only thick enough to limit penetration of the electrode material through the insulation layer so as to prevent a superconductive short.

  11. Low frictional property of copper oxide thin films optimised using a combinatorial sputter coating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Masahiro; Kasahara, Akira; Tosa, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    A combinatorial sputter coating system has been developed that can optimize the crystal preferred orientation of coating films. With this system, it is possible to synthesize various kinds of coatings whilst precisely controlling conditions such as the sputter gas, the gas pressure, the gas partial pressure, the r.f. power, the substrate temperature, the distance between the substrate and target, etc. In this way, we successfully synthesized copper oxide coatings with different crystal preferred orientations, and low frictional property was obtained by optimizing the crystal preferred orientation.

  12. Examination of the influence of coatings on thin superalloy sections. Volume 1: Description and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, M.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of an aluminide coating and of section thickness were investigated on two cast nickel-base superalloys. Cast section thickness ranged from 0.038 cm to 0.15 cm. Simulated engine exposures in a jet fuel burner rig with cyclic air cooling were studied. The effects of surface machining before coating and re-machining and re-coating after exposures were examined. The properties evaluated included tensile strength, stress rupture, high-cycle mechanical fatigue, and thermal fatigue. A metallurgical analysis was made of the microstructures of the coated and uncoated alloy.

  13. Biphasic nature of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J A; Urbain, J L; Adler, L P; Charkes, N D; Maurer, A H; Krevsky, B; Knight, L C; Fisher, R S; Malmud, L S

    1988-01-01

    The existence of a lag phase during the gastric emptying of solid foods is controversial. It has been hypothesised that among other early events, the stomach requires a period of time to process solid food to particles small enough to be handled as a liquid. At present no standardised curve fitting techniques exist for the characterisation and quantification of the lag phase or the emptying rate of solids and liquids. We have evaluated the ability of a modified power exponential function to define the emptying parameters of two different solid meals. Dual labelled meals were administered to 24 normal volunteers. The subjects received meals consisting of either Tc-99m in vivo labelled chicken liver or Tc-99m-egg, which have different densities, and In-111-DTPA in water. The emptying curves were biphasic in nature. For solids, this represented an initial delay in emptying or lag phase followed by an equilibrium emptying phase characterised by a constant rate of emptying. The curves were analysed using a modified power exponential function of the form y(t) = 1-(1-e-kt)beta, where y(t) is the fractional meal retention at time t, k is the gastric emptying rate in min-1, and beta is the extrapolated y-intercept from the terminal portion of the curve. The length of the lag phase and half-emptying time increased with solid food density (31 +/- 8 min and 77.6 +/- 11.2 min for egg and 62 +/- 16 min and 94.1 +/- 14.2 min for chicken liver, respectively). After the lag phase, both solids had similar emptying rates, and these rates were identical to those of the liquids. In vitro experiments indicated that the egg meal disintegrated much more rapidly than the chicken liver under mechanical agitation in gastric juice, lending further support to the hypothesis that the initial lag in emptying of solid food is due to the processing of food into particles small enough to pass the pylorus. We conclude that the modified power exponential model permits characterisation of the biphasic

  14. Novel Sol–Gel Precursors for Thin Mesoporous Eu3+-Doped Silica Coatings as Efficient Luminescent Materials.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Europium(III) ions containing mesoporous silica coatings have been prepared via a solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) approach of different single-source precursors (SSPs) in the presence of Pluronic P123 as a structure-directing agent, using the spin-coating process. A deliberate tailoring of the chemical composition of the porous coatings with various Si:Eu ratios was achieved by processing mixtures of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and Eu3+-coordinated SSPs. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses demonstrate that the thin metal oxide-doped silica coatings consist of a porous network with a short-range order of the pore structure, even at high europium(III) loadings. Furthermore, luminescence properties were investigated at different temperatures and different degrees of Eu3+ contents. The photoluminescence spectra clearly show characteristic emission peaks corresponding to the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 0–5) transitions resulting in a red luminescence visible by the eyes, although the films have a very low thickness (150–200 nm). PMID:23503160

  15. Nanocrystalline spin coated sol-gel hydroxyapatite thin films on Ti substrate: Towards potential applications for implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carradò, Adele; Viart, Nathalie

    2010-07-01

    Sol-gel spin coating is a promising process to obtain hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films. It is an alternative route to the hydroxyapatite deposition techniques usually employed to cover orthopaedic or dental titanium implant surfaces. The sol-gel (SG) parameters leading to a pure and crystalline HA coatings on Ti substrate were determined. They allow to reach a stoichiometric hydroxyapatite composition (ideal Ca/P atomic ratio 1.67) and a control of the growth of the crystalline phases. The samples, when observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), exhibit grains of ca. 200 nm, well adapted for cell proliferation. The crystallisation of the HA films was thoroughly studied by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The aim of this paper is to validate the sol-gel method as a processing method allowing the control of the mechanical state of the films and, in particular, of the residual stresses (RS) at metal-ceramic interfaces. These stresses were determined on titanium substrates. While the uncoated Ti substrates were in a compressive residual state, the coated ones were in a low tensile state. These results suggest that the sol-gel process is indeed a processing route to obtain HA coated Ti implants.

  16. Superhydrophobic ceramic coatings enabled by phase-separated nanostructured composite TiO2-Cu2O thin films.

    PubMed

    Aytug, Tolga; Bogorin, Daniela F; Paranthaman, Parans M; Mathis, John E; Simpson, John T; Christen, David K

    2014-06-20

    By exploiting phase-separation in oxide materials, we present a simple and potentially low-cost approach to create exceptional superhydrophobicity in thin-film based coatings. By selecting the TiO2-Cu2O system and depositing through magnetron sputtering onto single crystal and metal templates, we demonstrate growth of nanostructured, chemically phase-segregated composite films. These coatings, after appropriate chemical surface modification, demonstrate a robust, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and yield an exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles reaching to ~172° and sliding angles <1°. As an added benefit, despite the photo-active nature of TiO2, the chemically coated composite film surfaces display UV stability and retain superhydrophobic attributes even after exposure to UV (275 nm) radiation for an extended period of time. The present approach could benefit a variety of outdoor applications of superhydrophobic coatings, especially for those where exposure to extreme atmospheric conditions is required. PMID:24857856

  17. Printed microwells with highly stable thin-film enzyme coatings for point-of-care multiplex bioassay of blood samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liting; Cao, Xiaodan; Wang, Lu; Zhao, Xueyan; Zhang, Songping; Wang, Ping

    2015-06-21

    A paper-based colorimetric biosensor suitable for point-of-care bioassay of blood samples is developed using highly stable enzyme thin-film coatings confined within inkjet printed polymeric microwells. The microwells are developed through a simple one-step inkjet printing of hydrophobic polystyrene on paper, with walls formed by the polymer that fills the gaps inside the paper body. The microwells can also be patterned to be interlinked with printed microchannels for multiplex bioassays. Thin film enzyme coatings confined within the microwells are then constructed, thereby constituting biosensors that work like traditional microwell plates, yet allow easy colorimetric readouts with naked eyes or portable devices, such as smart phones. The efficiency of the paper-based sensor was demonstrated for colorimetric assays of glucose and lactate, both as individual analytes or mixed, as well as samples with red blood cells. Such sensors showed good sensitivities within the concentration ranges of the analytes in human blood (0.5-10 mM), with a visible sensitivity of <0.5 mM detectable by naked eyes for a sample size as small as 1 μL. More accurate digital readouts were shown to be feasible with computerized scanners or smartphones. The thin-film coating format affords the paper biosensors an extended lifetime, and they could retain 100% performance over 6 months of storage at room temperature, or up to one month heated at 50 °C, which promises refrigeration-free storage of the sensor. The simple preparation, high enzyme stability and ease-of-use of the paper-based sensor promise low-cost and reliable point-of-care multiplex bioassay for biomedical diagnostics. PMID:25893863

  18. Biphasic calcium phosphate in periapical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Suneelkumar, Chinni; Datta, Krithika; Srinivasan, Manali R; Kumar, Sampath T

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) possess mineral composition that closely resembles that of the bone. They can be good bone substitutes due to their excellent biocompatibility. Biphasic calcium phosphate is a bone substitute which is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios. Studies have demonstrated the osteoconductive potential of this composition. This paper highlights the clinical use of biphasic calcium phosphate as a bone substitute in periapical surgery. PMID:20142892

  19. Optical Gratings Coated with Thin Si3N4 Layer for Efficient Immunosensing by Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Diéguez, Lorena; Caballero, David; Calderer, Josep; Moreno, Mauricio; Martínez, Elena; Samitier, Josep

    2012-01-01

    New silicon nitride coated optical gratings were tested by means of Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS). A thin layer of 10 nm of transparent silicon nitride was deposited on commercial optical gratings by means of sputtering. The quality of the layer was tested by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. As a proof of concept, the sensors were successfully tested with OWLS by monitoring the concentration dependence on the detection of an antibody-protein pair. The potential of the Si3N4 as functional layer in a real-time biosensor opens new ways for the integration of optical waveguides with microelectronics. PMID:25585707

  20. Zeolite thin film-coated spherical end-face fiber sensors for detection of trace organic vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xiangping; Zhao, Chun Liu; Yang, Jingyi; Chan, Chi Chiu

    2016-04-01

    A novel zeolite thin film-coated spherical end face fiber sensor for detection of trace organic vapors was experimentally demonstrated. The spherical end-face was fabricated by electrical arc discharge on the end face of a standard single-mode fiber. The proposed sensor comprise of the fiber's spherical end-face covered with a layer of zeolite thin film. The zeolite film and spherical end face constituted an arc-shaped inline Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity, which improves the interference performance. The trace chemical vapor concentration was measured by monitoring the shift of F-P interference wavelength which induced by the organic vapor molecular adsorption of the zeolite film. The proposed trace organic vapors sensor performed with the enhanced sensitivity 0.91 nm/ppm with the range from 0 to 70 ppm.

  1. Insights on Capacitive Interdigitated Electrodes Coated with MOF Thin Films: Humidity and VOCs Sensing as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Sapsanis, Christos; Omran, Hesham; Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Buttner, Ulrich; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A prototypical metal-organic framework (MOF), a 2D periodic porous structure based on the assembly of copper ions and benzene dicarboxylate (bdc) ligands (Cu(bdc)·xH2O), was grown successfully as a thin film on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). IDEs have been used for achieving planar CMOS-compatible low-cost capacitive sensing structures for the detection of humidity and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Accordingly, the resultant IDEs coated with the Cu(bdc)·xH2O thin film was evaluated, for the first time, as a capacitive sensor for gas sensing applications. A fully automated setup, using LabVIEW interfaces to experiment conduction and data acquisition, was developed in order to measure the associated gas sensing performance. PMID:26213943

  2. Study on fabrication of TiO2 thin films by spin - coating and their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharvan, Vicran; Daniyati, Risqa; Nur Ichzan A., S.; Yudoyono, Gatut; Darminto

    2016-03-01

    Study on fabrication of TiO2 thin films and their optical properties in UV-VIS spectrum has been conducted. TiO2 nanopowders were prepared by co-precipitation method with varying mixing duration for 5, 10 and 25 hours using TiCl3 as precursor. The as-synthesized TiO2 phase is anatase having crystalline size of 14.25 nm, 13.75 nm and 12.62, respectively for the corresponding mixing duration. Thin films of TiO2 were fabricated by spin coating method and then checked by XRD diffractometer and UV-Vis Spectrophotometer to examine their structure and band gap energy. The prepared films also contain anatase phase of TiO2 with respective band gap of 3.70 eV, 3.74 eV and 3.76 eV, depending on the powders and their treatment.

  3. Insights on Capacitive Interdigitated Electrodes Coated with MOF Thin Films: Humidity and VOCs Sensing as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Sapsanis, Christos; Omran, Hesham; Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Buttner, Ulrich; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Salama, Khaled N

    2015-01-01

    A prototypical metal-organic framework (MOF), a 2D periodic porous structure based on the assembly of copper ions and benzene dicarboxylate (bdc) ligands (Cu(bdc)·xH2O), was grown successfully as a thin film on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). IDEs have been used for achieving planar CMOS-compatible low-cost capacitive sensing structures for the detection of humidity and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Accordingly, the resultant IDEs coated with the Cu(bdc)·xH2O thin film was evaluated, for the first time, as a capacitive sensor for gas sensing applications. A fully automated setup, using LabVIEW interfaces to experiment conduction and data acquisition, was developed in order to measure the associated gas sensing performance. PMID:26213943

  4. Nondestructive testing for braze voids in thin panels by use of special coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Application of commercial coating to exterior of sandwich panel structures for determining presence of voids in brazed plates is discussed. Procedure for applying coating material and method of conducting nondestructive tests are explained. Illustrations are included to show appearance of voids.

  5. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca

    PubMed Central

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A.; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8–13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30–50 and 50–100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca’s chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  6. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  7. Method for repair of thin glass coatings. [on space shuttle orbiter tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, J. W.; Helman, D. D.; Smiser, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    A method of repairing cracks or damaged areas in glass, in particular, glass coatings provided on tile. The method includes removing the damaged area using a high speed diamond burr drilling out a cavity that extends slightly into the base material of the tile. All loose material is then cleaned from the drilled out cavity and the cavity is filled adjacent the upper surface of the coating with a filler material including chopped silica fibers mixed with a binder. The filler material is packed into the cavity and a repair coating is applied by means of a brush or sprayed thereover. The repair includes borosilicate suspended in solution. Heat is applied at approximately 2100 F. for approximately five minutes for curing the coating, causing boron silicide particles of the coating to oxidize forming a very fluid boron-oxide rich glass which reacts with the other frits to form an impervious, highly refractory layer.

  8. Marine corrosion protective coatings of hexagonal boron nitride thin films on stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Husain, Esam; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Taha-Tijerina, Jose Jaime; Vinod, Soumya; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2013-05-22

    Recently, two-dimensional, layered materials such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) have been identified as interesting materials for a range of applications. Here, we demonstrate the corrosion prevention applications of h-BN in marine coatings. The performance of h-BN/polymer hybrid coatings, applied on stainless steel, were evaluated using electrochemical techniques in simulated seawater media [marine media]. h-BN/polymer coating shows an efficient corrosion protection with a low corrosion current density of 5.14 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) and corrosion rate of 1.19 × 10(-3) mm/year and it is attributed to the hydrofobic, inert and dielectric nature of boron nitride. The results indicated that the stainless steel with coatings exhibited improved corrosion resistance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic analysis were used to propose a mechanism for the increased corrosion resistance of h-BN coatings. PMID:23618222

  9. Wormlike micelle assisted rod coating: a general method for facile fabrication of large-area conductive nanomaterial thin layer onto flexible plastics.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingyi; Wang, Huan; Bai, Huadong; Yang, Peng; Shi, Mengxue; Guo, Peng; Wang, Chen; Yang, Wantai; Song, Huaihe

    2012-06-27

    Through combined application of wormlike-micelle and rod-coating technique, a general method was demonstrated for the facile reparation of thin transparent conductive films (TCF) of various nanomaterials and their hybrids on flexible plastics. The cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (CTAOH)/p-toluenesulfonic acid (CTAT) wormlike micelle system was selected for both the dispersion of different nanomaterials and the enhancement of viscosities of the coating fluids. With the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)/wormlike micelle aqueous dispersions as coating fluid, TCFs of SWNTs on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates made by rod-coating method were demonstrated. After doping by immersion into thionyl chloride solution, the sheet resistance of SWNTs thin films, which had a transmittance of about 78%, was as low as 480Ω/sq. This coating method was extended to the preparation of thin films or networks of other materials such as reduced graphene oxide and Ag nanowires. The obtained TCF from Ag nanowire networks has a low sheet resistance of 17Ω/sq, which is comparable to the value of best indium tin oxide (ITO) coating on plastic substrates. Finally, hybrid thin films of different nanomaterials were demonstrated by this method. PMID:22551382

  10. Electrical and optical properties of p-type codoped ZnO thin films prepared by spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Trilok Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Swart, H. C.; Purohit, L. P.

    2016-03-01

    Undoped, doped and codoped ZnO thin films were synthesized on glass substrates using a spin coating technique. Zinc acetate dihydrate, ammonium acetate and aluminum nitrate were used as precursor for zinc, nitrogen and aluminum, respectively. X-ray diffraction shows that the thin films have a hexagonal wurtzite structure for the undoped, doped and co-doped ZnO. The transmittance of the films was above 80% and the band gap of the film varied from 3.20 eV to 3.24 eV for undoped and doped ZnO. An energy band diagram to describe the photoluminescence from the thin films was also constructed. This diagram includes the various defect levels and possible quasi-Fermi levels. A minimum resistivity of 0.0834 Ω-cm was obtained for the N and Al codoped ZnO thin films with p-type carrier conductivity. These ZnO films can be used as a window layer in solar cells and in UV lasers.

  11. Hydrophobic coating of solid materials by plasma-polymerized thin film using tetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozumi, K.; Kitamura, K.; Kitade, T.

    1980-01-01

    Glass slides were coated with plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene films of different thickness using the glow discharge technique in a tube-shaped chamber, and the plasma conditions, film growth rates, light permeability of the polymer films, and particle bond strength in the polymer films were studied. Ashed sections of mouse organs and ashed bacillus spores were also coated to give them hydrophobic treatment without damaging their shapes or appearance. The hydrophobic coating of the specimens was successful, and the fine ash patterns were strongly fixed onto the glass slides, making permanent preparations.

  12. Azobenzene photoswitching as a tool for controlling block copolymer self-assembly in dip-coated thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vapaavuori, Jaana; Grosrenaud, Josué; Borozenko, Kateryna; Pellerin, Christian; Bazuin, Geraldine; Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal Team

    Understanding how to control the characteristics of microphase-separated block copolymer thin films is of crucial importance for developing nanotechnological applications, such as producing nanoscale lithography templates for the electronics industry. The supramolecular complexation of small molecules selectively to one of the blocks in suitable block copolymers enables modulating the block volume fractions and thereby controlling the type of surface morphology obtained in thin films. In this contribution, we show that the morphology of dip-coated polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) polymer films containing a hydrogen-bonding azobenzene guest can be further controlled using light as an external in situ stimulus during the dip-coating procedure. A change from spherical to cylindrical morphology was demonstrated when the geometry of the azobenzene units was switched by illumination at 365 nm. Film thickness measurements revealed that the thickness of the films can also be tailored by light, since films prepared under irradiation are significantly thicker than non-irradiated ones. The photochemical requirements to guide the choice of azobenzene molecule and the nature of the solvent used will be discussed in view of an optimal material combination for easily directable systems.

  13. Columnar-Structured Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) by Thin Film Low-Pressure Plasma Spraying (LPPS-TF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospach, Andreas; Mauer, Georg; Vaßen, Robert; Stöver, Detlev

    2011-01-01

    The very low-pressure plasma Spray (VLPPS) process has been developed with the aim of depositing uniform and thin coatings with coverage of a large area by plasma spraying. At typical pressures of 100-200 Pa, the characteristics of the plasma jet change compared to conventional low-pressure plasma-spraying processes (LPPS) operating at 5-20 kPa. The combination of plasma spraying at low pressures with enhanced electrical input power has led to the development of the LPPS-TF process (TF = thin film). At appropriate parameters, it is possible to evaporate the powder feedstock material providing advanced microstructures of the deposits. This technique offers new possibilities for the manufacturing of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Besides the material composition, the microstructure is an important key to reduce thermal conductivity and to increase strain tolerance. In this regard, columnar microstructures deposited from the vapor phase show considerable advantages. Therefore, physical vapor deposition by electron beam evaporation (EB-PVD) is applied to achieve such columnar-structured TBCs. However, the deposition rate is low, and the line-of-sight nature of the process involves specific restrictions. In this article, the deposition of TBCs by the LPPS-TF process is shown. How the evaporation of the feedstock powder could be improved and to what extent the deposition rates could be increased were investigated.

  14. Effect of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of spin coated copper phthalocyanine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afify, H. A.; Gadallah, A.-S.; El-Nahass, M. M.; Atta Khedr, M.

    2015-10-01

    Low cost sol-gel spin coating was used to deposit copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin films on both fused quartz and glass substrate. The prepared films were studied before and after thermal annealing at 350 °C for 1 h in air. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) were used to study the structural properties. From the structural characterization results, the films transformed from the metastable α-phase to the stable β-phase. Refractive index, absorption coefficient, and lattice dielectric constant were evaluated before and after annealing for the first time for spin coated CuPc thin films using spectrophotometric measurements in the spectral range 200-2500 nm. The values of the direct optical band gap of the as deposited film at 1.52 eV and 2.85 eV were redshifted to 1.4 eV and 2.42 eV for the annealed film. This shift is significant for near infrared photonics. The third order non-linear susceptibility was presented at lower photon energy for the CuPc films showing higher value for the annealed film.

  15. Hydroxyapatite coatings on nanotubular titanium dioxide thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jinho; Lee, Kwangmin; Koh, Jeongtae; Son, Hyeju; Kim, Hyunseung; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwidug; Oh, Gyejeong; Lee, Seokwoo; Oh, Heekyun; Lee, Kyungku; Hwang, Gabwoon; Park, Sang-Won

    2013-08-01

    In this study, hydroxyapatite (HA) was coated on anodized titanium (Ti) surfaces through radio frequency magnetron sputtering in order to improve biological response of the titanium surface. All the samples were blasted with resorbable blasting media (RBM). RBM-blasted Ti surface, anodized Ti surface, as-sputtered HA coating on the anodized Ti surface, and heat-treated HA coating on the anodized Ti surface were prepared. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and biologic responses were evaluated. The top of the TiO2 nanotubes was not closed by HA particles when the coating time is less than 15 minutes. It was demonstrated that the heat-treated HA was well-crystallized and this enhanced the cell attachment of the anodized Ti surface. PMID:23882839

  16. Fly ash based geopolymer thin coatings on metal substrates and its thermal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Temuujin, Jadambaa; Minjigmaa, Amgalan; Rickard, William; Lee, Melissa; Williams, Iestyn; van Riessen, Arie

    2010-08-15

    Class F fly ash based Na-geopolymer formulations have been applied as fire resistant coatings on steel. The main variables for the coating formulations were Si: Al molar and water: cement weight ratios. We have determined that the adhesive strength of the coatings strongly depend on geopolymer composition. The ease with which geopolymer can be applied onto metal surfaces and the resultant thickness depend on the water content of the formulation. Adhesive strengths of greater than 3.5 MPa have been achieved on mild steel surfaces for compositions with Si:Al of 3.5. Microstructure evolution and thermal properties of the optimised coating formulations show that they have very promising fire resistant characteristics. PMID:20488615

  17. Thin film application device and method for coating small aperture vacuum vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Dean R; Este, Grantley O

    2015-01-27

    A device and method for coating an inside surface of a vessel is provided. In one embodiment, a coating device comprises a power supply and a diode in electrical communication with the power supply, wherein electrodes comprising the diode reside completely within the vessel. The method comprises reversibly sealing electrodes in a vessel, sputtering elemental metal or metal compound on the surface while maintaining the surface in a controlled atmosphere.

  18. Evaluation of an Innovative Use of Removable Thin Film Coating Technology for the Abatement of Hazardous Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Lumia, Margaret E.; Gentile, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael; Efthimion, Philip; Robson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates a new decontamination technique for the mitigation and abatement of hazardous particulates. The traditional decontamination methods used to clean facilities and equipment are time-consuming, prolonging workers' exposure time, may generate airborne hazards, and can be expensive. The use of removable thin film coating as a decontamination technique for surface contamination proved to be a more efficient method of decontamination. This method was tested at three different sites on different hazardous metals. One application of the coating reduced the levels of these metals 90% and had an average reduction of one magnitude. The paired t-tests that were performed for each metal demonstrated that there was a statistically significant reduction of the metal after the use of the coating: lead (p = 0.03), beryllium (p = 0.05), aluminum (p = 0.006), iron (p = 0.0001), and copper (p = 0.004). The Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient demonstrates that there was a positive correlation between the initial levels of contamination and the removal efficiency for all the samples taken from different locations on the floor for each of the three sites. This new decontamination technique worked efficiently, requiring only one application, which decreased exposure time and did not generate any airborne dust. PMID:19437305

  19. Bone responses to zirconia implants with a thin carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite coating using a molecular precursor method.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Tohru; Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Sato, Mitsunobu; Hara, Hiroki; Toyama, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    2014-08-01

    Thin carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite (CA) films coating partially stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) were prepared (CA-Y-TZP) to establish a metal-free implant system. CA was coated using a molecular precursor method. The CA film was deposited on the surface of Y-TZP using a precursor solution, which was a mixture of a calcium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) complex and phosphate compounds. The deposited CA film was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. A focus ion beam system technique revealed that the thickness of the CA film was less than 1.0 µm. Biological evaluations of CA-Y-TZP were performed by immersion experiments in simulated body fluid (SBF) and implantation experiments in the tibiae and femoral condyles of rabbits. In the SBF immersion experiment, apatite deposition progressed more on CA-Y-TZP at the early stage of immersion than on Y-TZP without the CA coating. Animal experiments revealed that bone formation on CA-Y-TZP was similar with than on Y-TZP. Histomorphometrical evaluations showed a significantly higher bone-to-implant contact ratio and bone mass on CA-Y-TZP after implantation into the femoral trabecular bone of rabbits. Therefore, CA-Y-TZP appears to be applicable as a metal-free implant. PMID:24449291

  20. Synthesis of iron oxide rods coated with polymer brushes and control of their assembly in thin films.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun; Ishige, Ryohei; Tsujii, Yoshinobu; Ohno, Kohji

    2015-01-27

    We investigated the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using monodisperse rod-type particles of iron oxide, β-FeOOH. The slow hydrolysis of iron(III) chloride yielded monodisperse β-FeOOH rods with an average length-to-width ratio, L/W, of 6 (L = 210 nm and W = 35 nm on average). The surfaces of the β-FeOOH rods were modified with a triethoxysilane derivative as an ATRP-initiating site, namely, (2-bromo-2-methyl)propionyloxypropyl triethoxysilane. The SI-ATRP of MMA, mediated by a copper complex, was performed using the initiator-coated β-FeOOH rods in the presence of a "sacrificial" free initiator. Well-defined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes with molecular weights of up to 700,000 could be grafted on the β-FeOOH rods with a surface density as high as 0.3 chains/nm(2). The resultant polymer-brush-afforded hybrid rods exhibited high dispersibility in various solvents for PMMA without forming aggregates. Thin films were prepared by dip-coating from a suspension of the hybrid rods, and the rods were oriented in a specific direction in the films. The arrangement of the rods could be controlled by varying the chain length of the polymer brush and the withdrawal speed during the dip-coating process. PMID:25552325

  1. Employing Synergetic Effect of Doping and Thin Film Coating to Boost the Performance of Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rajankumar L.; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Choudhury, Amitava; Liang, Xinhua

    2016-05-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has evolved as an important technique to coat conformal protective thin films on cathode and anode particles of lithium ion batteries to enhance their electrochemical performance. Coating a conformal, conductive and optimal ultrathin film on cathode particles has significantly increased the capacity retention and cycle life as demonstrated in our previous work. In this work, we have unearthed the synergetic effect of electrochemically active iron oxide films coating and partial doping of iron on LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (LMNO) particles. The ionic Fe penetrates into the lattice structure of LMNO during the ALD process. After the structural defects were saturated, the iron started participating in formation of ultrathin oxide films on LMNO particle surface. Owing to the conductive nature of iron oxide films, with an optimal film thickness of ~0.6 nm, the initial capacity improved by ~25% at room temperature and by ~26% at an elevated temperature of 55 °C at a 1C cycling rate. The synergy of doping of LMNO with iron combined with the conductive and protective nature of the optimal iron oxide film led to a high capacity retention (~93% at room temperature and ~91% at 55 °C) even after 1,000 cycles at a 1C cycling rate.

  2. Employing Synergetic Effect of Doping and Thin Film Coating to Boost the Performance of Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Particles.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajankumar L; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Choudhury, Amitava; Liang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has evolved as an important technique to coat conformal protective thin films on cathode and anode particles of lithium ion batteries to enhance their electrochemical performance. Coating a conformal, conductive and optimal ultrathin film on cathode particles has significantly increased the capacity retention and cycle life as demonstrated in our previous work. In this work, we have unearthed the synergetic effect of electrochemically active iron oxide films coating and partial doping of iron on LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (LMNO) particles. The ionic Fe penetrates into the lattice structure of LMNO during the ALD process. After the structural defects were saturated, the iron started participating in formation of ultrathin oxide films on LMNO particle surface. Owing to the conductive nature of iron oxide films, with an optimal film thickness of ~0.6 nm, the initial capacity improved by ~25% at room temperature and by ~26% at an elevated temperature of 55 °C at a 1C cycling rate. The synergy of doping of LMNO with iron combined with the conductive and protective nature of the optimal iron oxide film led to a high capacity retention (~93% at room temperature and ~91% at 55 °C) even after 1,000 cycles at a 1C cycling rate. PMID:27142704

  3. Effect of Magnesium and Osteoblast Cell Presence on Hydroxyapatite Formation on (Ti,Mg)N Thin Film Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onder, Sakip; Calikoglu-Koyuncu, Ayse Ceren; Torun Kose, Gamze; Kazmanli, Kursat; Kok, Fatma Nese; Urgen, Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    TiN and (Ti,Mg)N thin film coatings were deposited on Ti substrates by an arc-physical vapor deposition technique. The effect of cell presence on hydroxyapatite (HA) formation was investigated using surfaces with four different Mg contents (0, 8.1, 11.31, and 28.49 at.%). Accelerated corrosion above 10 at.% Mg had a negative effect on the performance in terms of both cell proliferation and mineralization. In the absence of cells, Mg-free TiN coatings and low-Mg (8.1 at.%)-doped (Ti,Mg)N surfaces led to an early HA deposition (after 7 days and 14 days, respectively) in cell culture medium (DMEM), but the crystallinity was low. More crystalline HA structures were obtained in the presence of the cells. HA deposits with an ideal Ca/P ratio were obtained at least a week earlier, at day 14, in TiN and low-Mg (8.1 at.%)-doped (Ti,Mg)N compared with that of high-Mg-containing surfaces (>10 at.%). A thicker mineralized matrix was formed on low-Mg (8.1 at.%)-doped (Ti,Mg)N relative to that of the TiN sample. Low-Mg doping (<10 at.%) into TiN coatings resulted in better cell proliferation and thicker mineralized matrix formation, so it could be a promising alternative for hard tissue applications.

  4. Employing Synergetic Effect of Doping and Thin Film Coating to Boost the Performance of Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Particles

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rajankumar L.; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Choudhury, Amitava; Liang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has evolved as an important technique to coat conformal protective thin films on cathode and anode particles of lithium ion batteries to enhance their electrochemical performance. Coating a conformal, conductive and optimal ultrathin film on cathode particles has significantly increased the capacity retention and cycle life as demonstrated in our previous work. In this work, we have unearthed the synergetic effect of electrochemically active iron oxide films coating and partial doping of iron on LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (LMNO) particles. The ionic Fe penetrates into the lattice structure of LMNO during the ALD process. After the structural defects were saturated, the iron started participating in formation of ultrathin oxide films on LMNO particle surface. Owing to the conductive nature of iron oxide films, with an optimal film thickness of ~0.6 nm, the initial capacity improved by ~25% at room temperature and by ~26% at an elevated temperature of 55 °C at a 1C cycling rate. The synergy of doping of LMNO with iron combined with the conductive and protective nature of the optimal iron oxide film led to a high capacity retention (~93% at room temperature and ~91% at 55 °C) even after 1,000 cycles at a 1C cycling rate. PMID:27142704

  5. Thermal Contact Conductance Analysis of Nitride and Carbonitride Thin Film Coatings for Thermal Interface Material Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramani, Shanmugan; Thing, Lee Yuan; Devarajan, Mutharasu

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce and maintain the bond line thickness between substrate and LED package, solid thin film with good thermal conductivity is suggested as thermal interface material and the proposed film thickness is about less than 1 µ. The surface parameter such as roughness and hardness is a key factor which alters the contact conductance between the two matt surfaces. Consequently, filtered vacuum cathodic arc deposited nitride thin films (CrN, TiN, AlTiN, and TiCN) on copper substrate were tested for thermal interface material applications in electronic packaging. The thermal contact conductance of the prepared thin films was evaluated using surface properties such as microhardness and surface roughness. The results were verified with the theoretical model. The measured microhardness and surface roughness of CrN thin film are 17 GPa (low) and 0.768 µm (high), respectively. The measured thermal contact conductance of all thin films showed linear properties for applied pressure and very close to the values of theoretical model. High value in thermal contact conductance of about 256 W/m2 K was noticed with CrN thin film at 1100 kPa. The percentage of deviation for our measured contact conductance value from the theoretical model value was decreasing for the increased contact pressure and observed low value (7 pct) for CrN thin film at 1100 kPa. The thermal conductivity of all thin films was also calculated from the conductance model and observed high value (19.34 W/mK) with CrN thin film.

  6. Fracture toughness improvements of dental ceramic through use of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin-film coatings

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ryan N.; Stoner, Brian R.; Thompson, Jeffrey Y.; Scattergood, Ronald O.; Piascik, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate strengthening mechanisms of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin film coatings as a viable method for improving fracture toughness of all-ceramic dental restorations. Methods Bars (2×2×15mm, n=12) were cut from porcelain (ProCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) blocks and wet-polished through 1200-grit using SiC abrasive. A Vickers indenter was used to induce flaws with controlled size and geometry. Depositions were performed via radio frequency magnetron sputtering (5mT, 25ºC, 30:1 Ar/O2 gas ratio) with varying powers of substrate bias. Film and flaw properties were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Flexural strength was determined by three-point bending. Fracture toughness values were calculated from flaw size and fracture strength. Results Data show improvements in fracture strength of up to 57% over unmodified specimens. XRD analysis shows that films deposited with higher substrate bias displayed a high %monoclinic volume fraction (19%) compared to non-biased deposited films (87%), and resulted in increased film stresses and modified YSZ microstructures. SEM analysis shows critical flaw sizes of 67±1μm leading to fracture toughness improvements of 55% over unmodified specimens. Significance Data supports surface modification of dental ceramics with YSZ thin film coatings to improve fracture toughness. Increase in construct strength was attributed to increase in compressive film stresses and modified YSZ thin film microstructures. It is believed that this surface modification may lead to significant improvements and overall reliability of all-ceramic dental restorations. PMID:23764025

  7. Effect of annealing temperature on the surface morphology and electrical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by sol-gel spin-coating method

    SciTech Connect

    Mamat, M. H.; Hashim, H.; Rusop, M.

    2008-05-20

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films were prepared through sol gel and spin coating technique from zinc acetate dihydrate and aluminum nitrate nanohydrate in alcoholic solution. The electrical properties and surface morphology study are investigated for the thin films annealed at 350{approx}500 deg. C. Zinc oxide thin films deposited on glass and silicon substrates were characterized using electron microscopy (SEM) and current-voltage (I-V) measurement scanning for surface morphology and electrical properties study respectively. The SEM investigation shows that zinc oxide thin films are denser at higher annealing temperature. The result indicates electrical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films are improved with annealing temperatures. The resistivity of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films are decreased with annealing temperature up to 500 deg. C.

  8. Study of the adhesion of thin plasma fluorocarbon coatings resisting plastic deformation for stent applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, F.; Horny, P.; Hale, P.; Turgeon, S.; Tatoulian, M.; Mantovani, D.

    2008-02-01

    Metallic intravascular stents are medical devices (316L stainless steel) used to support the narrowed lumen of atherosclerotic stenosed arteries. Despite the success of bare metal stents, restenosis remains the main complication after 3-6 months of implantation. To reduce the restenosis rate of bare metal stents, stent coating is an interesting alternative. Firstly, it allows the modification of the surface properties, which is in contact with the biological environment. Secondly, the coating could eventually act as a carrier for drug immobilization and release. Moreover, the in vivo stent implantation requires in situ stent expansion. This mandatory step generates local plastic deformation of up to 25% and may cause coating failures such as cracking and delamination. Fluorocarbon films were selected in this study as a potential stent coating, mainly due to their chemical inertness, high hydrophobicity, protein retention capabilities and thromboresistance properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the adhesion properties of fluorocarbon films of three different thicknesses deposited by plasma polymerization in C2F6/H2 on 316L stainless steel substrates. A previously developed small punch test was used to deform the coated samples. According to atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations, among the coatings with different thicknesses studied, only those with a thickness of 36 nm exhibited the required cohesion and interfacial adhesion to resist the stent expansion without cracking or delaminating. Otherwise, cracks were detected in the coatings having thicknesses equal or superior to 100 nm, indicating a lack of cohesion.

  9. Photoelectrochemical cell having photoanode with thin boron phosphide coating as a corrosion resistant layer

    DOEpatents

    Baughman, Richard J.; Ginley, David S.

    1984-01-01

    A surface prone to corrosion in corrosive environments is rendered anticorrosive by CVD growing a thin continuous film, e.g., having no detectable pinholes, thereon, of boron phosphide. In one embodiment, the film is semiconductive. In another aspect, the invention is an improved photoanode, and/or photoelectrochemical cell with a photoanode having a thin film of boron phosphide thereon rendering it anitcorrosive, and providing it with unexpectedly improved photoresponsive properties.

  10. Magnetization studies of embedded and coated thin films using Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Srinath

    The advancements made in electronic storage demand characterization of new materials and magnetic structures. The Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect (MOKE) is an interesting tool to characterize materials for usage in modern electronic storage devices such as magneto-optical drive, magnetic random access memory and spin valve devices. In this work, an attempt was made to characterize embedded and coated films using Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect technique. An experimental system was built for the measurement of Kerr rotation. Magnetization studies of PMMA (Poly(methyl methacrylate)) films embedded with iron nanoparticles and quartz films coated with hematite nanoparticles were carried out using MOKE. The embedded films exhibited weak magnetic response. For the coated films, the hysteresis loops were shifted from the origin indicating the presence of exchange bias in the system. Symmetric and asymmetric magnetization reversals were observed due to the presence of antiferromagnetic regions non-collinear with the external magnetic field. The samples with higher concentrations of nanoparticles showed dipolar interactions at relatively low fields. The coated films showed better magneto-optic response as compared to the embedded films. The exchange bias effects in the coated films makes it a candidate for various applications such as permanent magnets, magnetic recording media and stabilizers in recording heads.

  11. Uniform coating of TiO2 thin films on particles by rotating cylindrical PCVD reactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Baeg, Jin-Ook; Moon, Sang-Jin; Kim, Kyo-Seon

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed TiO2 thin film growth on glass particles in a rotating cylindrical plasma chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) reactor and numerically investigated the effects of several process variables on the film growth. An increase in titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) or O2 partial pressure can enhance the film growth rate on the particles because the concentration of TiO(x), which is the main precursor for thin film growth, becomes higher in the reactor. As the particle diameter decreases, the TiO(x) concentration increases and the thin film on the particles grows more quickly. The neutral-radical reaction between TTIP and O radicals for TiO(x) generation in TTIP + O2 plasmas can be important to enhance the thin film growth rate on the particles. The growth rate of TiO2 film predicted in this study was 1 approximately 20 nm/min, which is in good agreement with the published experimental results. This study suggests that a uniform TiO2 thin film on particles can be obtained by using a rotating cylindrical PCVD reactor. PMID:19916444

  12. Highly efficient decomposition of Remazol Brilliant Blue R using tubular reactor coated with thin layer of PdO.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Rahat; Qazi, Umair Yaqub; Kawasaki, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-09-15

    In this work, we propose a novel approach to dye decomposition under subcritical water conditions using a continuous-flow tubular reactor coated with thin layer of PdO as a catalyst. Remazole Brilliant Blue R was used as an example of synthetic dyes. Hydrogen peroxide was used as an environmental-friendly oxidant as it leaves no residues after treatment. The effect of temperature, pressure and dye concentration on total organic carbon (TOC) removal were studied. 99.9% of TOC removal was achieved at 300 °C and 10 MPa pressure within a short residence time of 3.2 s. This method provided an efficient and rapid process that has a potential for treating a wide range of textile wastewaters. PMID:27322817

  13. Morphological and voltammetric characterization of different concentrations of spin coated Nafion-Ru(bpy)2+3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuason, B. S. B.; Tiong-Palisoc, S.; Tiamzon-Natividad, M.

    2015-06-01

    Different concentrations of Ru(bpy)2+3 were successfully deposited on ITO coated glass substrates employing a simple method using a spin coater. The surface morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The transport mechanism and the diffusion coefficient of the redox mediators within the films were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The concentrations were varied by dissolving different amounts of the redox mediator in methanol and 5% Nafion. SEM micrographs showed that the roughness of the surface increased with concentration of redox mediator. CV showed successful incorporation of Ru(bpy)2+3. The order of the magnitude of the diffusion coefficients confirmed that the redox mediators were immobilized within the Nafion thin film. The resulting amount of redox mediator immobilized can be manipulated by simply varying the concentration of the casting solution.

  14. Comparison of the spectral response of a thinned, backside illuminated CCD with a CsI coated MCP system and Kodak 101 film

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yuelin; Crespo Lopex-Urrutia, J. R.; Tsakiris, G. D.; Sigel, R.; Volk, R.; Pina, L.

    1995-05-01

    A thinned backside illuminated CCD chip was calibrated by self consistently determining the thickness of its dead layer. Its spectral response and sensitivity were then compared with those of the calibrated Kodak 101 photographic plates and of a CsI coated microchannel plate detection system.

  15. Method and apparatus for coating a patterned thin film on a substrate from a fluid source with continuous feed capability

    DOEpatents

    Burrows, Paul E.; Sapochak, Linda S.

    2009-09-22

    A method and apparatus for forming patterned coatings of thin film, non-polymerizable compounds on a substrate. A mixture of the non-polymerizable compound and a liquid carrier is pumped into the interior of a heated evaporation box having an internal temperature sufficient to convert substantially all of the non-polymerizable compound and liquid carrier to a gaseous form. The non-polymerizable compound and liquid carrier are then removed from the evaporation box via exit slit in the evaporation box. Adjacent to the exit slit, and maintained in a vacuum, is a first substrate upon which the non-polymerizable compound condenses. The first substrate is in motion, for example on a web roller, thereby allowing a continuous coating of the non-polymerizable compound to be applied to the first substrate. Once the non-polymerizable compound is applied to one side of the first substrate, an energy source is then directed toward the opposite side of the first substrate. In this manner, a portion of the non-polymerizable compound is removed from the first substrate. A second substrate is then provided adjacent to the first substrate, and the non-polymerizable compound is thereby transferred from the first substrate onto the second substrate. By repeatedly transferring portions of the non-polymerizable material from the first substrate to the second substrate in this manner, the thin film, non-polymerizable materials can be formed onto the second substrate in a predetermined pattern, and in a continuous and highly efficient process.

  16. Nondestructive measurement of the residual stress TiN thin film coated on AISI 304 substrate by x-ray stress analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. K.; Feng, A. X.; Lu, J. Z.; Kong, D. J.; Tang, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Titanium nitride films are deposited on AISI 304 steel with a hollow-cathode-discharge (HCD) ion-plating technique. The status of residual stresses in TiN thin film coated on AISI304 substrate by HCD is studied by x-ray diffraction stress analyzer. By analyzing morphology of the residual stress of TiN thin film at interface between TiN film and AISI 304 substrate, the adhering mechanism of TiN thin film is understood as follows: the mechanical interlocking had important contribution to the adhesion strength, the thermal stress is the major factor which resulting TiN thin film peeling off spontaneously. The results show that the value of thin film is -210MPa~-650Mpa, and the thermal stress is compressive, the intrinsic stress is tensile, origins of the residual stress are primarily discussed.

  17. The influence of substrate temperature on the structural and luminescent properties of as-deposited SrGa2S4:Ce3+ thin films coated with a TaSi2 thin layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moleme, P. A.; Swart, H. C.; Kumar, Vinod; Terblans, J. J.

    2016-03-01

    SrGa2S4:Ce3+ thin films coated with a very thin layer of TaSi2 were deposited on Si(100) substrates utilizing the pulsed laser deposition system. During the ablation of the targets for thin films preparation, the Si(100) substrate temperature varied in the range of 400-600 °C. The as-deposited SrGa2S4:Ce3+ films showed an orthorhombic crystal structure, and the TaSi2 coating layer showed a hexagonal structure. The films maintained the crystal structures within the temperature ranges of 400-600 °C. The distribution of particles with irregular sizes contributing to a difference in surface roughness of the as-prepared thin films was observed by atomic force microscopy. The films showed a broad photoluminescence (PL) peak at 416 nm, and the maximum PL intensity, as compared to other films, was observed for a film deposited at a substrate temperature of 450 °C. Two broad cathodoluminescence peaks (440 and 490 nm) due to Ce3+ emission were observed for a film deposited at a substrate temperature of 450 °C. The presence of the TaSi2 coating layer on the SrGa2S4:Ce3+ thin films was confirmed with Auger electron spectroscopy surface elemental analysis, and Auger depth profiles showed uniform concentrations of the main elements in the deposited films.

  18. Thin film fabrication of PMMA/MEH-PPV immiscible blends by corona discharge coating and its application to polymer light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee Joon; Park, Youn Jung; Choi, Sang Hun; Hong, Jae-Min; Huh, June; Cho, Jun Han; Kim, Jung Hyun; Park, Cheolmin

    2007-02-13

    We introduce a new and facile process, corona discharge coating (CDC), to fabricate thin polymer films of the immiscible poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends. The method is based on utilizing directional electric flow, known as electric wind, of the charged unipolar particles generated by corona discharge between a metallic needle and a bottom plate under high electric field (5-10 kV/cm). The electric flow rapidly spreads out the polymer solution on the bottom plate and subsequently forms a smooth and flat thin film over a large area within a few seconds. The method is found to be effective for fabricating uniform thin polymer films with areas larger than approximately 30 mm2. The thin films obtained by CDC exhibit unique microstructures where well-defined spherical and cylindrical domains of approximately 50 nm in diameter coexist. These nanosized domains are found to be much smaller than those in films made by conventional spin coating, which suggests that CDC is beneficial for fabricating phase-separated thin film structures with significantly increased interfacial areas. The effects of the applied voltage, tip-to-plate distance, and substrates on the film formation as well as the resulting microstructure are investigated. Furthermore, the light emitting performance of a device prepared by CDC is compared with one made by spin coating. PMID:17279712

  19. Fabrication and characterization of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene active semiconductor thin films prepared by flow-coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Rusnan, Fara Naila; Seria, Dzulfahmi Mohd Husin; Saad, Ismail; Alias, Afishah; Katsuhiro, Uesugi; Hisashi, Fukuda

    2015-08-01

    Investigation on the physical characterization and comparison of organic thin film based on a soluble 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene is reported. Oriented thin-films of pentacene have been successfully deposited by flow-coating method, in which the chloroform solution is sandwiched between a transparent substrate and a slide glass, followed by slow-drawing of the substrate with respect to the slide glass. Molecular orientation of flow-coated TIPS-pentacene is comparable to that of the thermal-evaporated pentacene thin film by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. XRD results showed that the morphology of flow-coated soluble pentacene is similar to that of the thermal-evaporated pentacene thin films in series of (00l) diffraction peaks where the (001) diffraction peaks are strongest in the nominally out-of-plane intensity and interplanar spacing located at approximately 2θ = 5.33° (d-spacing, d001 = 16 Å). Following that, ITO/p-TIPS-pentacene/n-ZnO/Au vertical diode was fabricated. The diode exhibited almost linear characteristics at low voltage with nonlinear characteristics at higher voltage which similar to a pn junction behavior. The results indicated that the TIPS-pentacene semiconductor active thin films can be used as a hole injection layer for fabrication of a vertical organic transistor.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene active semiconductor thin films prepared by flow-coating method

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Rusnan, Fara Naila; Seria, Dzulfahmi Mohd Husin; Saad, Ismail; Alias, Afishah; Katsuhiro, Uesugi; Hisashi, Fukuda

    2015-08-28

    Investigation on the physical characterization and comparison of organic thin film based on a soluble 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene is reported. Oriented thin-films of pentacene have been successfully deposited by flow-coating method, in which the chloroform solution is sandwiched between a transparent substrate and a slide glass, followed by slow-drawing of the substrate with respect to the slide glass. Molecular orientation of flow-coated TIPS-pentacene is comparable to that of the thermal-evaporated pentacene thin film by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. XRD results showed that the morphology of flow-coated soluble pentacene is similar to that of the thermal-evaporated pentacene thin films in series of (00l) diffraction peaks where the (001) diffraction peaks are strongest in the nominally out-of-plane intensity and interplanar spacing located at approximately 2θ = 5.33° (d-spacing, d{sub 001} = 16 Å). Following that, ITO/p-TIPS-pentacene/n-ZnO/Au vertical diode was fabricated. The diode exhibited almost linear characteristics at low voltage with nonlinear characteristics at higher voltage which similar to a pn junction behavior. The results indicated that the TIPS-pentacene semiconductor active thin films can be used as a hole injection layer for fabrication of a vertical organic transistor.

  1. Prospects for Adapting Current ASTM Wear and Erosion Tests for Bulk Materials to Thin Films, Coatings, and Surface Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2007-01-01

    Most of ASTM Committee G2's erosion, wear, and friction test standards were developed for use with bulk materials, yet there is a growing need to evaluate the tribological behavior of films, coatings, and surface treatments (FCSTs), some that affect layers only tens of nanometers to a few micrometers thick. Tribotesting standards for bulk materials can sometimes be modified for use on FCSTs, but the conditions and methods developed for bulk materials may sometimes be too severe or inapplicable. An internet search and literature review indicated that a number of G2 Committee standards are currently being used for FCSTs. Of these, ASTM G99 and G65 seem to be the most popular. When attempting to apply an existing wear standard for bulk materials to FCSTs, two key issues must be addressed: (1) whether changes are needed in the magnitudes of the applied conditions, and (2) whether more precise methods are needed to measure the magnitude of surface damage. Straightforward calculations underscore the limitations for wear measurement of thin layers when evaluated using block-on-ring and pin-on-disk tests. Finally, suggestions are given for modifying selected ASTM G2 standards to enable their use on films, coatings, and surface treatments.

  2. The scratch test - Different critical load determination techniques. [adhesive strength of thin hard coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekler, J.; Hintermann, H. E.; Steinmann, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Different critical load determination techniques such as microscopy, acoustic emission, normal, tangential, and lateral forces used for scratch test evaluation of complex or multilayer coatings are investigated. The applicability of the scratch test to newly developed coating techniques, systems, and applications is discussed. Among the methods based on the use of a physical measurement, acoustic emission detection is the most effective. The dynamics ratio between the signals below and above the critical load for the acoustic emission (much greater than 100) is well above that obtained with the normal, tangential, and lateral forces. The present commercial instruments are limited in load application performance. A scratch tester able to apply accurate loads as low as 0.01 N would probably overcome most of the actual limitations and would be expected to extend the scratch testing technique to different application fields such as optics and microelectronics.

  3. Performance improvement of an ionic polymer metal composite actuator by parylene thin film coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Jun; Lee, In Taek; Lee, Ho-Young; Hyup Kim, Yong

    2006-12-01

    IPMC (ionic polymer-metal composite) is a kind of ionic EAP (electroactive polymer) which is actuated by the movement of cations combined with water molecules in the polymer. The cations and water molecules move due to the applied voltage on the metal electrodes which are located on both sides of the polymer. However, water contained in the polymer gradually evaporates during the actuation and this reduces the performance of the IPMC actuator. To suppress the water evaporation from the IPMC, waterproof material such as parylene, silicone rubber and other polymers were coated on the surface of the IPMC. The displacement, the force and the lifetime of the actuator were observed by using a laser displacement measurement system and a load cell. The water impermeability of the polymer coating with respect to time was measured on a hot plate. Results showed that the parylene coating effectively suppressed the water loss from the IPMC and enlarged the lifetime of the actuator dramatically. However, it was found that parylene has poor adhesion properties to the metal electrode. To improve the adhesion, plasma treatments of argon (Ar), oxygen (O2) and trifluoromethane (CHF3) were performed on the electrode surface before parylene coating. We evaluated the surface morphology change of the electrode after plasma treatment by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy). In addition, a tape adhesion test and a peel test were performed for quantitative analysis of adhesion strength between the metal electrode and parylene. It was found that the argon plasma treatment was the most effective to improve the adhesion strength between the metal electrode and parylene.

  4. Application of self-assembled ultra-thin film coatings to stabilize macromolecule encapsulation in alginate microspheres.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R; McShane, M J

    2005-06-01

    Alginate-based hydrogels have several unique properties that have enabled them to be used as a matrix for the entrapment of a variety of enzymes, proteins and cells for applications in bioprocessing, drug delivery and chemical sensing. However, control over release rates or, in some cases, stable encapsulation remains a difficult goal, especially for small particles with high surface-area-to-volume ratios. In this work, the potential to limit diffusion of macromolecules embedded in alginate spheres with nanofilm coatings was assessed. Alginate microspheres were fabricated using an emulsification process with high surfactant concentration to form beads in the size range of 2-10 microm. Using calcium chloride for ionotropic gelation, dextran was encapsulated in the gel phase by mixing with the alginate in solution. The exterior surface was then modified with polyelectrolyte coatings using the layer-by-layer self assembly technique. Leaching studies to assess retention of dextran with varying molecular weights confirmed that the application of multi-layer thin films to the alginate microspheres was effective in reducing leaching rate and total loss of the encapsulated material from the microspheres. For the best case, the rate of release for dextran of 2,000,000 Dalton molecular weight decreased from 1% h(-1) in bare microspheres to 0.1% h(-1) in polyelectrolyte-coated microspheres. The effectiveness of nanofilms reducing loss of the encapsulated macromolecules was found to vary between different polycation materials used. These studies support the feasibility of using these microsystems for development of long-term stable encapsulated systems, such as implantable biosensors. PMID:16214787

  5. Bi-nanoparticle (CdTe and CdSe) mixed polyaniline hybrid thin films prepared using spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Deepak; Dutta, V.

    2009-02-01

    Polyaniline (Pani) films containing CdTe, CdSe, and both nanoparticles were deposited using spin coating technique. Pani was chemically synthesized by oxidation method, whereas surfactant free CdTe and CdSe nanoparticles were prepared using solvothermal method. Binanoparticle films showed an increase in the absorption from 350 nm to the near IR region. Absorption spectra also showed charge transfer complex formation for the binanoparticle hybrid thin films prepared with weight ratio of [Pani (camphor sulfonic acid, CSA):CdTe:CdSe] 200:100:75. Photoluminescence measurement for the bi-nanoparticle hybrid thin films confirmed that the required dissociation of excitons was taking place at the interface. Scanning electron microscopy images showed homogeneity and an interconnected network on the surface of the films prepared with Pani (CSA):CdTe:CdSe weight ratios of 200:100:50 and 200:100:75, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry confirmed better stability for the bi-nanoparticle hybrid films in comparison to Pani film. It also established the process of electrochemical charge transfer between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix.

  6. Aging effects of the precursor solutions on the properties of spin coated Ga-doped ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Serrao, Felcy Jyothi Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2015-06-24

    In this study, gallium doped zinc oxide thin films (GZO) were grown on a glass substrate by a simple sol-gel process and spin coating technique using zinc acetate and gallium nitrate (3at%) as precursors for Zn and Ga ions respectively. The effects of aging time of the precursor solution on the structural and optical properties of the GZO films were investigated. The surface morphology, grain size, film thickness and optical properties of the GZO films were found to depend directly on the sol aging time. XRD studies reveal that the films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and show the c-axis grain orientation. Optical transmittance spectra of all the films exhibited transmittance higher than about 82% within the visible wavelength region. A sharp fundamental absorption edge with a slight blue shifting was observed with an increase in sol aging time which can be explained by Burstein-Moss effect. The result indicates that an appropriate aging time of the sol is important for the improvement of the structural and optical properties of GZO thin films derived from sol-gel method.

  7. Measuring thermal conductivity of thin films and coatings with the ultra-fast transient hot-strip technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkerk, B. E.; Soussou, M. A.; Carette, M.; Djouadi, M. A.; Scudeller, Y.

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports the ultra-fast transient hot-strip (THS) technique for determining the thermal conductivity of thin films and coatings of materials on substrates. The film thicknesses can vary between 10 nm and more than 10 µm. Precise measurement of thermal conductivity was performed with an experimental device generating ultra-short electrical pulses, and subsequent temperature increases were electrically measured on nanosecond and microsecond time scales. The electrical pulses were applied within metallized micro-strips patterned on the sample films and the temperature increases were analysed within time periods selected in the window [100 ns-10 µs]. The thermal conductivity of the films was extracted from the time-dependent thermal impedance of the samples derived from a three-dimensional heat diffusion model. The technique is described and its performance demonstrated on different materials covering a large thermal conductivity range. Experiments were carried out on bulk Si and thin films of amorphous SiO2 and crystallized aluminum nitride (AlN). The present approach can assess film thermal resistances as low as 10-8 K m2 W-1 with a precision of about 10%. This has never been attained before with the THS technique.

  8. Characterization of Ni-doped TiO2 thin films deposited by dip-coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharoubi, Abdelmalek; Bouaza, A.; Benrabah, B.; Ammari, A.; Khiali, A.

    2015-12-01

    Undoped and Ni-doped TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip-coating method on glass and silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction studies show that both TiO2 and Ni-doped TiO2 thin films are of anatase phase with (1 0 1) as preferential orientation. From the UV-visible spectroscopy analysis, all films exhibits a high transparency ~ 80% and shows that the optical band gap decreases from 3.66 to 3.59 eV, which may be related with the phase composition and impurities. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirms the presence of Ti-O, Ti=O and O-H bands. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetriy (DSC) shows endothermic reactions between 30 °C and 280 °C and exothermic reactions between 370 °C and 540 °C corresponding to the crystallization of TiO2 in the anatase phase. The Nyquist plots suggests that the equivalent circuit of the films is an RpCp parallel circuit and shows an increase in resistance Rp with increasing the Ni concentration and a decrease in capacity Cp.

  9. Luminescence of (Mg,Zn)Al2O4:Tb mixed spinel thin films prepared by spin-coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, R. E.; Tabaza, W. A. I.; Swart, H. C.

    2015-03-01

    MgAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 both have the spinel structure and similar lattice constants, but the bandgap of MgAl2O4 is about double that of ZnAl2O4, making it interesting to consider the mixed spinel (MgxZn1-x)Al2O4 as a possible host for luminescent ions. Prior to preparing thin films, the Mg:Zn ratio and Tb concentration were optimized for green luminescence from the 5D4 - 7F5 transition of Tb3+ ions using nanocrystalline samples prepared by combustion synthesis. Thin films with x = 0.75 and 0.5 mol% Tb were spin-coated on Si(100) substrates using a solution of the nitrates of Mg, Zn, Al and Tb in ethanol, with ethylene glycol as complexing agent. Samples about 200 nm thick were obtained by sequentially depositing 10 layers at 3000 rpm for 30 s. Samples were annealed for 1 h in air before measuring their luminescence properties. For the sample annealed at 600 °C, x-ray diffraction showed the thin film had a strong (111) preferential orientation. Atomic force microscopy revealed a root means square roughness of 1 nm and Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles showed a uniform layer with a sharp interface at the Si substrate. With an increase in annealing temperature up to 1000 °C, the luminescence increased while the surface became slightly rougher and the layer-substrate interface more interdiffused. Annealing the samples at 1200 °C resulted in diffusion of Si through the layer and the formation of an additional phase. While the green Tb emission was slightly reduced, blue emission from the 5D3 level of Tb3+ was greatly enhanced in these samples.

  10. Novel intercore-cladding lithium niobate thin film coated MOEMS fiber sensor/modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamlson, Tracee L.; Konreich, Phillip; Yu, Chung

    2005-01-01

    A MOEMS fiber modulator/sensor is fabricated by depositing a lithium niobate sol-gel thin film between the core and cladding of a fiber preform. The preform is then drawn into 125-micron fibers. Such a MOEMS modulator design is expected to enhance existing lithium niobate undersea acousto-optic sound wave detectors. In our proposed version, the lithium niobate thin film alters the ordinary silica core/cladding boundary conditions such that, when a stress or strain is applied to the fiber, the core light confinement factor changes, leading to modulation of fiber light transmission. Test results of the lithium niobate embedded fiber with a 1550-nm, 4-mW laser source revealed a reduction in light transmission with applied tension. As a comparison, using the same laser source, an ordinary silica core/cladding fiber did not exhibit any reduction in transmitted light when the same strain was applied. Further experimental work and theoretical analysis is ongoing.

  11. Thermally Sprayed Coatings as Interlayers for DLC-Based Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolelli, G.; Gualtieri, E.; Lusvarghi, L.; Pighetti Mantini, F.; Pitacco, F.; Valeri, S.; Volz, H.

    2009-06-01

    This article examines the usefulness of a thick thermally sprayed interlayer (plasma-sprayed Ni-50%Cr, plasma-sprayed Al2O3-13%TiO2, or high-velocity oxygen-fuel-sprayed WC-17%Co) for enhancing the wear resistance and the corrosion protectiveness of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-based thin film deposited onto a carbon steel substrate. Scratch tests indicate that the Al2O3-13%TiO2 and WC-17%Co interlayers definitely increase the critical spallation load of the thin film, but the Al2O3-13%TiO2 interlayer itself undergoes brittle fracture under high-contact loads. Accordingly, during ball-on-disk tests at room temperature, no cracking and spallation occur in the DLC-based film deposited onto the WC-17%Co interlayer, whereas the one onto the Al2O3-13%TiO2 interlayer is rapidly removed because the interlayer itself is fractured. At 300 °C, by contrast, the DLC-based film on the Al2O3-13%TiO2 interlayer offers the best tribological performance, possibly thanks to the increased toughness of the ceramic interlayer at this temperature. Electrochemical polarization tests indicate that the thin film/WC-Co systems possess the lowest corrosion current density.

  12. Optimized 2D array of thin silicon pillars for efficient antireflective coatings in the visible spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Proust, Julien; Fehrembach, Anne-Laure; Bedu, Frédéric; Ozerov, Igor; Bonod, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Light reflection occuring at the surface of silicon wafers is drastically diminished by etching square pillars of height 110 nm and width 140 nm separated by a 100 nm gap distance in a square lattice. The design of the nanostructure is optimized to widen the spectral tolerance of the antireflective coatings over the visible spectrum for both fundamental polarizations. Angle and polarized resolved optical measurements report a light reflection remaining under 5% when averaged in the visible spectrum for both polarizations in a wide angular range. Light reflection remains almost insensitive to the light polarization even in oblique incidence. PMID:27109643

  13. Optimized 2D array of thin silicon pillars for efficient antireflective coatings in the visible spectrum.

    PubMed

    Proust, Julien; Fehrembach, Anne-Laure; Bedu, Frédéric; Ozerov, Igor; Bonod, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Light reflection occuring at the surface of silicon wafers is drastically diminished by etching square pillars of height 110 nm and width 140 nm separated by a 100 nm gap distance in a square lattice. The design of the nanostructure is optimized to widen the spectral tolerance of the antireflective coatings over the visible spectrum for both fundamental polarizations. Angle and polarized resolved optical measurements report a light reflection remaining under 5% when averaged in the visible spectrum for both polarizations in a wide angular range. Light reflection remains almost insensitive to the light polarization even in oblique incidence. PMID:27109643

  14. Hollow glass waveguides with multilayer polystyrene and metal sulfide thin film coatings for improved infrared transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Valencia S.

    2007-12-01

    The overall goal of this project was to improve transmission of infrared radiation in hollow waveguides. First, polystyrene was studied as a new dielectric material for silver-coated hollow glass waveguides. The deposition and performance of polystyrene, as a single dielectric layer, were investigated. The potential of polystyrene as the low index of refraction material in a multilayer coating was also demonstrated. Cadmium sulfide and lead sulfide were each considered as the high index material in the multilayer stack. Multilayer silver coated hollow glass waveguides can be formed using polystyrene and either cadmium sulfide or lead sulfide. These material pairs are interesting because they form a multilayer structure with high index contrast, which can significantly lower the loss of a waveguide. The deposition of lead sulfide was also optimized in this project. Lead sulfide, as a single layer dielectric coating, is an attractive material for transmission of longer wavelength radiation, especially 10.6 mum. It is also of interest for emerging applications such as metals processing by lasers because hollow waveguides with silver and lead sulfide can make a low loss waveguide. Losses as low as 0.1dB/m were achieved. The deposition of zinc sulfide and zinc selenide was also investigated in this project. They are of interest because of their small extinction coefficients at longer wavelengths and potential for use in waveguides used for materials processing. The numerous simultaneous chemical reactions occurring during deposition of these materials makes obtaining pure films difficult. Gold was evaluated as a replacement for silver as the highly reflecting metallic layer. It was considered an attractive alternative because it has greater resistance to degradation in high temperature and corrosive environments. All samples were made using an electroless process. Characterization of the samples was performed using the optical techniques of FTIR and UV

  15. Boundary condition thermometry using a thermographic-phosphor-coated thin filament.

    PubMed

    Kempema, Nathan J; Long, Marshall B

    2016-06-10

    Thermographic phosphors (TPs) exhibit a temperature sensitive emission spectrum when excited with ultraviolet radiation. In this study, 14 μm diameter SiC fibers are coated with ZnO or Dy:YAG using a ceramic binder to a total diameter of 70±9 μm. ZnO and Dy:YAG fibers were used to measure fiber temperatures in the range of 294-450 K and 450-1245 K, respectively. The coated fiber provides higher signal levels compared to TP particle seeding and is no more invasive than the commonly used thermocouple. A calibration is performed to relate fiber temperature to the ratio of luminescent signal collected within two different bands of the fiber emission spectrum. Temperature was measured along the inlet of a series of nitrogen diluted ethylene diffusion flames stabilized on the Yale coflow burner to determine suitable thermal boundary conditions for computational modeling. The boundary condition temperatures were derived from a spline fitting of data acquired from the two fiber types in order to obtain fiber temperature sensitivity from 294 to 1245 K. The peak near-burner temperature was found to be higher than ambient conditions and to increase and shift its location radially outward with increased fuel percentage. PMID:27409027

  16. Effect of different sol concentrations on the properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on FTO substrates by sol-gel spin-coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ikhyun; Kim, Younggyu; Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Dongwan; Park, Minju; Kim, Haeun; Lee, Wookbin; Leem, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong Su; Kim, Jin Soo

    2014-08-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on fluorine-doped tinoxide (FTO) substrates were fabricated using the spin-coating method. The structural and the optical properties of the ZnO thin films prepared using different sol concentrations were investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) measurements, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry. The surface morphology of the ZnO thin films, as observed in the SEM images, exhibited a mountain-chain structure. XRD results indicated that the thin films were preferentially orientated along the direction of the c-axis and that the grain size of the ZnO thin films increased with increasing sol concentration. The PL spectra showed a strong ultraviolet emission peak at 3.22 eV and a broad orange emission peak at 2.0 eV. The intensities of deep-level emission (DLE) gradually increased with increasing sol concentration from 0.4 to 1.0 M. The transmittance spectra of the ZnO thin films showed that the ZnO thin films were transparent (~85%) in the visible region and exhibited sharp absorption edges at 375 nm. Thus, The Urbach energy of ZnO thin films decreased with increasing sol concentration.

  17. Thickness-dependent autophobic dewetting of thin polymer films on coated substrates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Shull, Kenneth R; Walko, Donald A; Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the wetting behavior of a thin liquid film, poly(4-bromostyrene) (PBrS), on top of a solid substrate may be effectively controlled with the insertion of a secondary liquid film, poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP), underneath the primary film. This secondary film remains stable under all conditions, and can be viewed as an extension of the substrate itself. On the basis of results from X-ray standing waves generated via total external reflection from an X-ray mirror, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, we construct the full Helmholtz free energy versus PBrS thickness curve using existing theories that account for both long- and short-range interactions. The form of the free energy curve, which contains an inflection point and an absolute minimum at a nonzero PBrS thickness, accurately reflects our observation that thick PBrS films undergo autophobic dewetting on top of the stable P4VP, while sufficiently thin PBrS films remain stable. The thickness of the autophobic wetting layer is controlled by the range of the repulsive interaction between the film and the substrate, and is found to be ∼4 nm for the PBrS/P4VP interface. PMID:21117671

  18. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W.

    1996-05-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation.

  19. Biomimetic biphasic scaffolds for osteochondral defect repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuezhou; Ding, Jianxun; Wang, Jincheng; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-01-01

    The osteochondral defects caused by vigorous trauma or physical disease are difficult to be managed. Tissue engineering provides a possible option to regenerate the damaged osteochondral tissues. For osteochondral reconstruction, one intact scaffold should be considered to support the regeneration of both cartilage and subchondral bone. Therefore, the biphasic scaffolds with the mimic structures of osteochondral tissues have been developed to close this chasm. A variety of biomimetic bilayer scaffolds fabricated from natural or synthetic polymers, or the ones loading with growth factors, cells, or both of them make great progresses in osteochondral defect repair. In this review, the preparation and in vitro and/or in vivo verification of bioinspired biphasic scaffolds are summarized and discussed, as well as the prospect is predicted. PMID:26816644

  20. Structure and dynamics of biphasic colloidal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Mohraz, Ali; Weeks, Eric R; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the structure and dynamics of biphasic colloidal mixtures composed of coexisting attractive and repulsive microspheres by confocal microscopy. Attractive gels formed in the presence of repulsive microspheres are more spatially homogeneous and, on average, are both more locally tenuous and have fewer large voids than their unary counterparts. The repulsive microspheres within these mixtures display heterogeneous dynamics, with some species exhibiting freely diffusive Brownian motion while others are trapped within the gel network during aggregation. PMID:18643205

  1. A study of the applicability of ZnO thin-films as anti-reflection coating on Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin-films solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Abhijit; Patel, Malkeshkumar; Tripathi, Brijesh; Kumar, Manoj

    2012-06-25

    Transparent ZnO thin-films are prepared using the RF magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis techniques on the glass substrates. Reflectance spectra and thin films heights are measured using spectrophotometer and stylus surface profiler, respectively. Measured optical data is used for investigating the effect of the ZnO prepared by above two processes on the performance of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films solar cell (TFSC). One dimensional simulation approach is considered using the simulation program, SCAPS. External quantum efficiency and J-V characteristics of CZTS TFSC is simulated on the basis of optical reflectance data of ZnO films with and without ZnO thin-films as antireflection coating (ARC). Study shows that ARC coated CZTS TFSC provides a better fill factor (FF) as compared to other ARC material such as MgF{sub 2}. Sprayed ZnO thin-films as ARC show comparable performance with the sputtered samples.

  2. Comparison of Y2O3:Bi3+ phosphor thin films fabricated by the spin coating and radio frequency magnetron techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafer, R. M.; Yousif, A.; Kumar, Vinod; Pathak, Trilok Kumar; Purohit, L. P.; Swart, H. C.; Coetsee, E.

    2016-09-01

    The reactive radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and spin coating fabrication techniques were used to fabricate Y2-xO3:Bix=0.5% phosphor thin films. The two techniques were analysed and compared as part of investigations being done on the application of down-conversion materials for a Si solar cell. The morphology, structural and optical properties of these thin films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction results of the thin films fabricated by both techniques showed cubic structures with different space groups. The optical properties showed different results because the Bi3+ ion is very sensitive towards its environment. The luminescence results for the thin film fabricated by the spin coating technique is very similar to the luminescence observed in the powder form. It showed three obvious emission bands in the blue and green regions centered at about 360, 410 and 495 nm. These emissions were related to the 3P1-1S0 transition of the Bi3+ ion situated in the two different sites of the Y2O3 matrix with I a-3(206) space group. Whereas the thin film fabricated by the radio frequency magnetron technique showed a broad single emission band in the blue region centered at about 416 nm. This was assigned to the 3P1-1S0 transition of the Bi3+ ion situated in one of the Y2O3 matrix's sites with a Fm-3 (225) space group. The spin coating fabrication technique is suggested to be the best technique to fabricate the Y2O3:Bi3+ phosphor thin films.

  3. Application of in situ ellipsometry in the fabrication of thin-film optical coatings on semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, M G; Wallace, S G; Balcaitis, G; Murugkar, S; Haugen, H K; Mascher, P

    2000-02-20

    Thin-film interference filters, suitable for use on GaAs- and InP-based lasers, have been fabricated by use of the electron-cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Multilayer film structures composed of silicon oxynitride material have been deposited at low temperatures with an in situ rotating compensator ellipsometer for monitoring the index of refraction and thickness of the deposited layers. Individual layers with an index of refraction from 3.3 to 1.46 at 633 nm have been produced with a run-to-run reproducibility of 0.005 and a thickness control of 10 A. Several filter designs have been implemented, including high-reflection filters, one- and two-layer anitreflection filters, and narrow-band high-reflection filters. It is shown that an accurate measurement of the filter optical properties during deposition is possible and that controlled reflectance spectra can be obtained. PMID:18337985

  4. Niobium thin film coating on a 500-MHz copper cavity by plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Haipeng Wang; Genfa Wu; H. Phillips; Robert Rimmer; Anne-Marie Valente; Andy Wu

    2005-05-16

    A system using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma source for the deposition of a thin niobium film inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as both substrate and vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is DC biased to control the deposition energy. This paper describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between an operating sample deposition system and this system. Engineering work progress toward the first plasma creation will be reported here.

  5. A Novel Inter Core-Cladding Lithium Niobate Thin Film Coated Fiber Modulator/Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, Tracee L.; Komriech, Phillip; Yu, Chung

    2004-01-01

    A fiber modulator/sensor has been fabricated by depositing a lithium niobate sol-gel thin film between the core and cladding of a fiber preform. The preform is then drawn into 125 micron fiber. The proposed design of lithium niobate cylinder fibers can enhance the existing methodology for detecting sound waves under water utilizing the acoustooptic properties of lithium niobate. Upon application of a stress or strain, light propagating inside the core, according to the principle of total internal reflection, escapes, into the cladding because of the photoelastic boundary layer of lithium niobate. Test results of the lithium niobate fiber reveal a reduction in the 1550 nm, 4mW source with applied tension. The source power from an ordinary quartz fiber under the same stress condition remained invariant to applied tension.

  6. Damage mechanisms in thin film solar cells during sputtering deposition of transparent conductive coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Qihua; Liao Xianbo; Deng, Michael; Deng Xunming

    2009-02-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) based thin film solar cell grown on flexible stainless steel substrate is one of the most promising energy conversion devices in the future. This type of solar cell uses a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film as top electrode. It has been a widely accepted opinion that the radio frequency sputtering deposition of the TCO film produces a higher yield than direct current sputtering, and the reason is not clear. Here we show that the damage to the solar cell during the sputtering process is caused by a reverse bias applied to the n-i-p junction. This reverse bias is related to the characteristics of plasma discharge. The mechanism we reveal may significantly affect the solar cell process.

  7. Conductive conformal thin film coatings for textured PV: ALD versus sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dameron, Arrelaine; Christensen, Steven; Galante, Marie; Berry, Joseph; Gillaspie, Dane; Perkins, John; Ginley, David; Gennett, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation photovoltaic structures require well-established deposition routes to conformal and conducting materials with defined chemical, physical and electronic composition. This work reports on the preliminary findings associated with conformal metal oxides on structured substrates including: 1) Discovery of sputtering process conditions that can be made semi-conformal when combined with in-situ techniques such as ion-beam milling for honing surface structures; 2) Development of relevant ALD chemistries that are materials-properties competitive with sputtered materials; 3) Evaluation of chemically-functionalized surface structures that maximize surface area but are structurally tailored for efficient gas flow and to minimize line-of-sight shadowing. The initial experiments have centered on combinations of amorphous and crystalline indium oxide, zinc oxide, aluminum zinc oxide, indium tin oxide, fluorinated tin oxide and indium zinc oxide. This presentation will describe these initial experiments and elucidate key physiochemical nature of the deposited thin films.

  8. Remote quantitative temperature and thickness measurements of plasma-deposited titanium nitride thin coatings on steel using a laser interferometric thermoreflectance optical thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yue; Mandelis, Andreas; Choy, Mervyn; Wang, Chinhua; Segal, Lee

    2005-08-15

    An optical thermometer based on the principle of laser thermoreflectance has been introduced to monitor the surface temperature of thin coatings on steel parts undergoing an industrial titanium nitride (TiN) alloy deposition process. To study the feasibility of the optical thermometer, various thermo-optical parameters of TiN affected by the deposition process have been investigated; namely, the reflectance-temperature relation, the thermoreflectance coefficient, and the coating thickness dependence of thermoreflectance and of total reflectance. A theory of interferometric thermoreflectance has been introduced to model the total reflectance variations during the coating process. An inverse reflectance-temperature relation for the TiN-D2 steel substrate system has been found and a first-order Taylor series expansion used to model thermoreflectance has been shown to yield a thermoreflectance coefficient which is independent of temperature. Both results are in quantitative agreement with the Drude-Zener theory of conductors and semi-conductors. An empirical formula has been derived to effectively model the experimental thermoreflectance coefficient dependence of the TiN-D2 steel system on TiN coating thickness, in qualitative agreement with scattering mechanisms of the Boltzmann transport theory in conductors and semiconductors. The good agreement of theoretical interferometric thermoreflectance simulations with in situ measurements during a specific industrial TiN sputter-coating growth process and the independence of the thermoreflectance and thin-coating-thickness reflectance coefficients from temperature show the potential of using this nonintrusive noncontacting technique as an optical thermometer to determine surface temperatures of physically inaccessible samples undergoing industrial coating deposition processes.

  9. Electrical Properties Analysis of Copper doped CdTe/CdS Deposited Thin Films on ITO Coated Glass Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesinski, Darren; Flaherty, James; Sahiner, M. Alper

    CdTe proves to be a viable source for renewable energy in the form of photovoltaic conversion. While CdTe/CdS naturally provide interesting results adding dopants to the cell can yield higher conversion efficiencies. Copper, famous for its electrical properties, can be used as a dopant in the CdTe layer. In conjunction with its dopant characteristics Copper also improves cell performance by acting as a low resistant and high current back contact. All thin films were synthesized using pulsed laser deposition onto ITO coated glass substrates. The CdS layer across all cells has an approximate thickness of 1500 Angstroms. The following CdTe layer has an approximate thickness of 5500 Angstroms. This created the base cell that was then doped. Cu, typically deposited using sublimation or vapor deposition, was done by PLD as well. Two of the three base cells were treated with Cu using the same deposition parameters. The third cell also received a CdCl treatment on top of the Cu layer to understand the effect when the oxygen layer is deferred. Ellipsometer measurements were used to confirm layer thickness. XRD analysis was used to confirm the presence of Cu and the crystal structure of the thin films. A Hall Effect Measurement system was used to measure active charge carrier concentration introduced by dopant. Also, a Keithley sourcemeter was utilized to determine photovoltaic properties. Notable results discussed will be the effects of Copper dopant on the electrical properties of CdS/CdTe based solar cells.

  10. Thin-film optical notch filter spectacle coatings for the treatment of migraine and photophobia.

    PubMed

    Hoggan, Ryan N; Subhash, Amith; Blair, Steve; Digre, Kathleen B; Baggaley, Susan K; Gordon, Jamison; Brennan, K C; Warner, Judith E A; Crum, Alison V; Katz, Bradley J

    2016-06-01

    Previous evidence suggests optical treatments hold promise for treating migraine and photophobia. We designed an optical notch filter, centered at 480nm to reduce direct stimulation of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. We used thin-film technology to integrate the filter into spectacle lenses. Our objective was to determine if an optical notch filter, designed to attenuate activity of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, could reduce headache impact in chronic migraine subjects. For this randomized, double-masked study, our primary endpoint was the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6; GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, Middlesex, UK). We developed two filters: the therapeutic filter blocked visible light at 480nm; a 620nm filter was designed as a sham. Participants were asked to wear lenses with one of the filters for 2weeks; after 2weeks when no lenses were worn, they wore lenses with the other filter for 2weeks. Of 48 subjects, 37 completed the study. Wearing either the 480 or 620nm lenses resulted in clinically and statistically significant HIT-6 reductions. However, there was no significant difference when comparing overall effect of the 480 and 620nm lenses. Although the 620nm filter was designed as a sham intervention, research published following the trial indicated that melanopsin, the photopigment in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, is bi-stable. This molecular property may explain the unexpected efficacy of the 620nm filter. These preliminary findings indicate that lenses outfitted with a thin-film optical notch filter may be useful in treating chronic migraine. PMID:26935748

  11. CuInSe₂ thin-film solar cells with 7.72 % efficiency prepared via direct coating of a metal salts/alcohol-based precursor solution.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sejin; Son, Tae Hwa; Cho, Ara; Gwak, Jihye; Yun, Jae Ho; Shin, Keeshik; Ahn, Seoung Kyu; Park, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Kyunghoon

    2012-09-01

    A simple direct solution coating process for forming CuInSe₂ (CIS) thin films was described, employing a low-cost and environmentally friendly precursor solution. The precursor solution was prepared by mixing metal acetates, ethanol, and ethanolamine. The facile formation of a precursor solution without the need to prefabricate nanoparticles enables a rapid and easy processing, and the high stability of the solution in air further ensures the precursor preparation and the film deposition in ambient conditions without a glove box. The thin film solar cell fabricated with the absorber film prepared by this route showed an initial conversion efficiency of as high as 7.72 %. PMID:22890958

  12. Amorphous MoSx thin-film-coated carbon fiber paper as a 3D electrode for long cycle life symmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasingam, Suresh Kannan; Thirumurugan, Arun; Lee, Jae Sung; Jun, Yongseok

    2016-06-01

    Amorphous MoSx thin-film-coated carbon fiber paper as a binder-free 3D electrode was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The maximum specific capacitance of a single electrode was 83.9 mF cm-2, while it was 41.9 mF cm-2 for the symmetric device. Up to 600% capacitance retention was observed for 4750 cycles.Amorphous MoSx thin-film-coated carbon fiber paper as a binder-free 3D electrode was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The maximum specific capacitance of a single electrode was 83.9 mF cm-2, while it was 41.9 mF cm-2 for the symmetric device. Up to 600% capacitance retention was observed for 4750 cycles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR01200K

  13. Inclined-substrate deposition of biaxially textured magnesium oxide thin films for YBCO coated conductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, B.; Li, M.; Jee, Y. A.; Koritala, R. E.; Fisher, B. L.; Balachandran, U.; Energy Technology

    2002-02-01

    Highly textured MgO films were grown by the inclined-substrate deposition (ISD) technique at a high deposition rate. A columnar grain with a roofing-tile-shaped surface was observed in these MgO films. X-ray pole figure, and {phi}- and {omega}-scan were used to characterize in-plane and out-of-plane textures. MgO films deposited when the incline angle {alpha} was 55 and 30 degrees exhibited the best in-plane and out-of-plane texture, respectively. High-quality YBCO films were epitaxially grown on ISD-MgO-buffered Hastelloy C substrates by pulsed laser deposition. {Tc}=88 K, with sharp transition, and j{sub c} values of {approx}2x10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K in zero field were observed on films 5 mm wide and 1 cm long. This work has demonstrated that biaxially textured ISD MgO buffer layers deposited on metal substrates are excellent candidates for fabrication of high-quality YBCO coated conductors.

  14. Titanium dioxide-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for improving overall photoelectric property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-jia; Huang, Li-jing; Ren, Nai-fei; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) layers were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses, followed by simultaneous oxidation and annealing treatment in a tubular furnace to prepare titanium dioxide (TiO2)/FTO bilayer films. Large and densely arranged grains were observed on all TiO2/FTO bilayer films. The presence of TiO2 tetragonal rutile phase in the TiO2/FTO bilayer films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results of parameter optimization indicated that the TiO2/FTO bilayer film, which was formed by adopting a temperature of 400 °C and an oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm, had the optimal overall photoelectric property with a figure of merit of 2.30 × 10-2 Ω-1, higher than 1.78 × 10-2 Ω-1 for the FTO single-layer film. After coating a 500 nm-thick AZO layer by DC magnetron sputtering on this TiO2/FTO bilayer film, the figure of merit of the trilayer film achieved to a higher figure of merit of 3.12 × 10-2 Ω-1, indicating further improvement of the overall photoelectric property. This work may provide a scientific basis and reference for improving overall photoelectric property of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films.

  15. Effect of tungsten on the electrochromic behaviour of sol-gel dip coated molybdenum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanasankar, M.; Purushothaman, K.K.; Muralidharan, G.

    2010-05-15

    The paper describes the results obtained on the performance of Mo oxide and mixed W/Mo oxide thin films for possible electrochromic applications. Mo and W/Mo oxide films were deposited on conductive (FTO) glass substrates using sol-gel dip coating method. The films were annealed at 250 {sup o}C for 30 min. The structure and morphology of Mo and W/Mo oxide films were examined using XRD, SEM and EDS. XRD results indicate the amorphous nature of the Mo and W/Mo oxide films annealed for 30 min. The CV measurements revealed that the films prepared with 10 wt.% of tungsten exhibit maximum anodic/cathodic diffusion coefficient of 24.99/12.71 x 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/s. The same film exhibits a maximum transmittance variation ({Delta}T%) of 83.4% at 630 nm and 81.06% at 550 nm with the optical density of 1.00 and 1.13 respectively.

  16. High-κ TiO{sub 2} thin film prepared by sol-gel spin-coating method

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara

    2015-06-24

    High-k TiO{sub 2} thin film on p-type silicon substrate was fabricated by a combined sol-gel and spin coating method. Thus deposited titania film had anatase phase with a small grain size of 16 nm and surface roughness of ≅ 0.6 nm. The oxide capacitance (C{sub ox}), flat band capacitance (C{sub FB}), flat band voltage (V{sub FB}), oxide trapped charge (Q{sub ot}), calculated from the high frequency (1 MHz) C-V curve were 0.47 nF, 0.16 nF, − 0.91 V, 4.7x10{sup −12} C, respectively. As compared to the previous reports, a high dielectric constant of 94 at 1 MHz frequency was observed in the devices investigated here and an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) was 4.1 nm. Dispersion in accumulation capacitance shows a linear relationship with AC frequencies. Leakage current density was found in acceptable limits (2.1e-5 A/cm{sup 2} for −1 V and 5.7e-7 A/cm{sup 2} for +1 V) for CMOS applications.

  17. Micro-structuring of CIGS thin-film coated on Mo back contact by ultrafast laser `rail-roading' patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeoung, Sae Chae; Lee, Heung-Soon; Yahng, Ji Sang; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Moon, Heh Young; Kim, Kyoun Joon; Lee, Dong Geun; Park, Duck Hoon; Yu, Young Sam; Ji, Suk-Jae

    2011-08-01

    We report selective patterning process, laser `rail-roading' scribing method, of which operating principle is based on transient force balance between the material properties including cohesion and adhesion forces subjected to underlying substrate and laser-induced shock compression and shear forces. By using dual fs-laser beam lines with an interval larger than laser spot size, we provide a proof of the concept by patterning the photovoltaic modules based on CIGS (Cu(In,Ga)Se2) coated on Mo electrode. With varying the interval between the two laser beam tracks, we can provide intact Mo back contact surface without any residues in a manner of more facile, high-speed and high scribing efficiency. We have interpreted the effect of the ambient gases and grooving width on the scribing performance in terms of the cohesion forces between the grains of CIGS thin films as well as adhesion force between underlying Mo layer and CIGS, which are mainly governed by local laser ablation and peening process followed by laser-induced shock compression, respectively.

  18. Ultra-high mobility transparent organic thin film transistors grown by an off-centre spin-coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Giri, Gaurav; Ayzner, Alexander L.; Zoombelt, Arjan P.; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Chen, Jihua; Nordlund, Dennis; Toney, Michael F.; Huang, Jinsong; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    Organic semiconductors with higher carrier mobility and better transparency have been actively pursued for numerous applications, such as flat-panel display backplane and sensor arrays. The carrier mobility is an important figure of merit and is sensitively influenced by the crystallinity and the molecular arrangement in a crystal lattice. Here we describe the growth of a highly aligned meta-stable structure of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) from a blended solution of C8-BTBT and polystyrene by using a novel off-centre spin-coating method. Combined with a vertical phase separation of the blend, the highly aligned, meta-stable C8-BTBT films provide a significantly increased thin film transistor hole mobility up to 43 cm2 Vs-1 (25 cm2 Vs-1 on average), which is the highest value reported to date for all organic molecules. The resulting transistors show high transparency of >90% over the visible spectrum, indicating their potential for transparent, high-performance organic electronics.

  19. Micro-structuring of CIGS thin-film coated on Mo back contact by ultrafast laser 'rail-roading' patterning.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Sae Chae; Lee, Heung-Soon; Yahng, Ji Sang; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Moon, Heh Young; Kim, Kyoun Joon; Lee, Dong Geun; Park, Duck Hoon; Yu, Young Sam; Ji, Suk-Jae

    2011-08-29

    We report selective patterning process, laser 'rail-roading' scribing method, of which operating principle is based on transient force balance between the material properties including cohesion and adhesion forces subjected to underlying substrate and laser-induced shock compression and shear forces. By using dual fs-laser beam lines with an interval larger than laser spot size, we provide a proof of the concept by patterning the photovoltaic modules based on CIGS (Cu(In,Ga)Se2) coated on Mo electrode. With varying the interval between the two laser beam tracks, we can provide intact Mo back contact surface without any residues in a manner of more facile, high-speed and high scribing efficiency. We have interpreted the effect of the ambient gases and grooving width on the scribing performance in terms of the cohesion forces between the grains of CIGS thin films as well as adhesion force between underlying Mo layer and CIGS, which are mainly governed by local laser ablation and peening process followed by laser-induced shock compression, respectively. PMID:21935035

  20. Growth of CdS thin films on indium coated glass substrates via chemical bath deposition and subsequent air annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Kumar, Kamlesh; Singh, Balwant Kr; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata

    2014-11-01

    In the present work attempts were made to synthesize indium doped CdS films by fabricating In/CdS bilayers using CBD-CdS on vacuum evaporated In thin films and subsequent air annealing. 135 nm CdS films were grown onto 20 nm and 35 nm indium coated glass substrate employing chemical bath deposition technique. The In/CdS bilayers thus formed were subjected to heat treatment at the temperatures between 200 and 400 °C for 4 min in the muffle furnace to facilitate indium to diffuse into the CdS films. XRD pattern ascertained no noticeable shift in lattice constant implying grain boundary metal segregation, while secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the diffusion profile of indium into CdS matrices. Mass spectrometry results showed that substantial diffusion of indium had been taken place within CdS at 400 °C. Dark and photocurrent with different illumination time were measured to ascertain the photosensitivity of pure and composite CdS films.

  1. High-κ TiO2 thin film prepared by sol-gel spin-coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara

    2015-06-01

    High-k TiO2 thin film on p-type silicon substrate was fabricated by a combined sol-gel and spin coating method. Thus deposited titania film had anatase phase with a small grain size of 16 nm and surface roughness of ≅ 0.6 nm. The oxide capacitance (Cox), flat band capacitance (CFB), flat band voltage (VFB), oxide trapped charge (Qot), calculated from the high frequency (1 MHz) C-V curve were 0.47 nF, 0.16 nF, - 0.91 V, 4.7x10-12 C, respectively. As compared to the previous reports, a high dielectric constant of 94 at 1 MHz frequency was observed in the devices investigated here and an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) was 4.1 nm. Dispersion in accumulation capacitance shows a linear relationship with AC frequencies. Leakage current density was found in acceptable limits (2.1e-5 A/cm2 for -1 V and 5.7e-7 A/cm2 for +1 V) for CMOS applications.

  2. Conditions for the Formation of P3 HT Organogels During Spin-Coating: Tuning Electrical Properties in Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cameron S.; Yen, Wen; Holt, Adam; Sangoro, Joshua; Sokolov, Alexei; Dadmun, Mark D.

    2015-03-01

    Poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) is widely studied as a model conjugated polymer in many electrical and photovoltaic applications, and has become the benchmark polymer when studying the physics of these devices. The assembly and growth of P3HT as organogels offers a structure that can bridge the electrodes, providing more efficient transport throughout the active layer. In this work, we identify and discuss a novel set of conditions for P3HT organogel network formation by controlling the spin-coating process from various solvents. The onset of organogel formation was monitored by in situ static light scattering, which measured both the thinning rate and off-specular scattering during film formation. Optical microscopy and thermal annealing experiments provide ex situ confirmation of organogel fabrication. The role of solution characteristics, including solvent boiling point, P3HT solubility, and initial P3HT solution concentration are examined to correlate these parameters to the rate of film formation, organogel-onset concentration, and overall network size. The properties of the film and their correlation to the fabrication parameters were also analyzed within the context of the hole mobility and density-of-states of the organogel, as measured from impedance spectroscopy.

  3. Amorphous MoSx thin-film-coated carbon fiber paper as a 3D electrode for long cycle life symmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Balasingam, Suresh Kannan; Thirumurugan, Arun; Lee, Jae Sung; Jun, Yongseok

    2016-06-01

    Amorphous MoSx thin-film-coated carbon fiber paper as a binder-free 3D electrode was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The maximum specific capacitance of a single electrode was 83.9 mF cm(-2), while it was 41.9 mF cm(-2) for the symmetric device. Up to 600% capacitance retention was observed for 4750 cycles. PMID:27240819

  4. Self-healing dynamics of surfactant coatings on thin viscous films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Stephen L.; Hin, Matthew; Sayanagi, M. Richard; Gaebler, Cameron; Daniels, Karen E.; Levy, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of an insoluble surfactant on the surface of a thin viscous fluid spreading inward to fill a surfactant-free region. During the initial stages of surfactant self-healing, Marangoni forces drive an axisymmetric ridge inward to coalesce into a growing central distension; this is unlike outward spreading, in which the ridge only decays. In later dynamics, the distension slowly decays and the surfactant concentration equilibrates. We present results from experiments in which we simultaneously measure the surfactant concentration (using fluorescently tagged lipids) and the fluid height profile (via laser profilometry). We compare the results to simulations of a mathematical model using parameters from our experiments. For surfactant concentrations close to but below the critical monolayer concentration, we observe agreement between the height profiles in the numerical simulations and the experiment, but disagreement in the surfactant distribution. In experiments at lower concentrations, the surfactant spreading and formation of a Marangoni ridge are no longer present, and a persistent lipid-free region remains. This observation, which is not captured by the simulations, has undesirable implications for applications where uniform coverage is advantageous. Finally, we probe the generality of the effect, and find that distensions of similar size are produced independent of initial fluid thickness, size of initial clean region, and surfactant type.

  5. Synthesis and Analysis of MnTiO3 Thin Films on ITO Coated Glass Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Emerick; Sahiner, Mehmet-Alper

    Perovskites like Manganese Titanium Oxide have interesting chemical properties that may be advantageous to the development of p-n junction photovoltaic cells. Due to the limited understanding behind the compound, it is essential to know the characteristics of it when it is deposited in thin film form. The cells were created using pulsed laser deposition method for two separate mediums (first layers after ITO). ZnO was deposited onto ITO glass for the first sample. For the second sample, a layer of pure Molybdenum was deposited onto the ITO glass. The MnTiO3 was then deposited onto both samples. There was a target thickness of 1000 Angstroms, but ellipsometry shows that, for the Mo based sample, that film thickness was around 1500 Angstroms. There were inconclusive results for the ZnO based sample. The concentration of active carriers was measured using a Hall Effect apparatus for the Mo based sample. The XRD analyses were used to confirm the perovskite structure of the films. Measurements for photoelectric conversion efficiency were taken using a Keathley 2602 ScourceMeter indicated low values for efficiency. The structural information that is correlated with the low electrical performance of this sample will be discussed. SHU-NJSGC Summer 2015 Fellowship.

  6. Reactive decontamination of absorbing thin film polymer coatings: model development and parameter determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varady, Mark; Mantooth, Brent; Pearl, Thomas; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    A continuum model of reactive decontamination in absorbing polymeric thin film substrates exposed to the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (known as VX) was developed to assess the performance of various decontaminants. Experiments were performed in conjunction with an inverse analysis method to obtain the necessary model parameters. The experiments involved contaminating a substrate with a fixed VX exposure, applying a decontaminant, followed by a time-resolved, liquid phase extraction of the absorbing substrate to measure the residual contaminant by chromatography. Decontamination model parameters were uniquely determined using the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least squares fitting technique to best fit the experimental time evolution of extracted mass. The model was implemented numerically in both a 2D axisymmetric finite element program and a 1D finite difference code, and it was found that the more computationally efficient 1D implementation was sufficiently accurate. The resulting decontamination model provides an accurate quantification of contaminant concentration profile in the material, which is necessary to assess exposure hazards.

  7. Engineered oxide thin films as 100% lattice match buffer layers for YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Y.; Heiba, Z. K.; Sigmund, W.; Hascicek, Y. S.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most important qualities of buffer layers for RE-BCO coated conductors' growth is close lattice match with RE-BCO. However, there is no natural material with a 100% lattice match with RE-BCO. In this study mixtures of europium oxide (Eu 2O 3) and ytterbium oxide (Yb 2O 3), (Eu 1- uYb u) 2O 3 (0.0⩽ u⩽1.0), were investigated as a candidate buffer layer that could have same lattice parameter as YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ(YBCO). Because the pseudocubic lattice parameter of Eu 2O 3 is bigger, and that of Yb 2O 3 is smaller than lattice parameter of YBCO, and the mixed oxides with appropriate ratio would have same lattice parameter of YBCO. The mixtures were prepared using metal-organic precursor by sol-gel process, and it was found that all mixed samples are single phase, complete solid solutions, and have same crystal system over the whole range of " u". Lattice parameters of mixed (Eu 1- uYb u) 2O 3 oxide powders were changed between 10.86831 and 10.42828 Å which are lattice parameter of Eu 2O 3 and Yb 2O 3, respectively by changing the ratio of Eu/Yb in the mixture. Phase and lattice parameter analysis revealed that pseudocubic lattice parameter of (Eu 0.893Yb 0.107) 2O 3 is 3.82 Å which is same as the lattice parameter of YBCO. Textured (Eu 0.893Yb 0.107) 2O 3 buffer layers were grown on biaxially textured-Ni (1 0 0) substrates. The solution was prepared from Europium and Ytterbium 2,4-pentadioanate, and was deposited on the Ni substrates using a reel-to-reel sol-gel dip coating system. The textured films were annealed at 1150 °C for 10 min under 4% H 2-Ar gas flow. Extensive texture analysis has been done to characterize the texture of (Eu 0.893Yb 0.107) 2O 3 buffer layers. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the buffer layer showed strong out-of-plane orientation on Ni tape. The (Eu 0.893Yb 0.107) 2O 3 (2 2 2) pole figure indicated a single cube-on-cube textured structure. The omega and phi scans revealed good out-of-plane and in-plane alignments. The full

  8. High-Tc Superconducting Thin- and Thick-Film-Based Coated Conductors for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cantoni, Claudia; Goyal, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Although the first epitaxial films of YBCO with high Tc were grown nearly 20 years ago, the understanding and control of the nanostructures responsible for the dissipation-free electrical current transport in high temperature superconductors (HTS) is quite recent. In the last six to seven years, major advances have occurred in the fundamental investigation of low angle grain boundaries, flux-pinning phenomena, growth mode, and atomic-level defect structures of HTS epitaxial films. As a consequence, it has been possible to map and even engineer to some extent the performance of HTS coatings in large regions of the operating H, T, J phase space. With such progress, the future of high temperature superconducting wires looks increasingly promising despite the tremendous challenges offered by these brittle and anisotropic materials. Nevertheless, further performance improvements are necessary for the superconducting technology to become cost-competitive against copper wires and ultimately succeed in revolutionizing the transmission of electricity. This can be achieved by further diminishing the gap between theoretical and experimental values of the critical current density Jc, and/or increasing the thickness of the superconductive layer as much as possible without degrading performance. In addition, further progress in controlling extrinsic and/or intrinsic nano-sized defects within the films is necessary to significantly reduce the anisotropic response of HTS and obtain a nearly constant dependence of the critical current on the magnetic field orientation, which is considered crucial for power applications. This chapter is a review of the challenges still present in the area of superconducting film processing for HTS wires and the approaches currently employed to address them.

  9. Surface energy and wettability of spin-coated thin films of lignin isolated from wood.

    PubMed

    Notley, Shannon M; Norgren, Magnus

    2010-04-20

    The surface energy of lignin films spin-coated onto oxidized silicon wafer has been determined from contact angle measurements of different test liquids with varying polar and dispersive components. Three different lignin raw materials were used, a kraft lignin from softwood, along with milled wood lignin from softwood and hardwood. Infrared and (31)P NMR spectroscopy was used to identify any major functional group differences between the lignin samples. No significant difference in the total solid-vapor surface energy for the different lignin films was observed; however, the polar component for the kraft lignin was much greater than for either of the milled wood lignin samples consistent with the presence of carboxyl groups and higher proportion of phenolic hydroxyl groups as shown by quantitative (31)P NMR on the phosphitylated samples. Furthermore, the total surface energy of lignin of 53-56 mJ m(-2) is of a similar magnitude to cellulose, also found in the wood cell wall; however, cellulose has a higher polar component leading to a lower contact angle with water and greater wettability than the milled wood lignin. Although lignin is not hydrophobic according to the strictest definition of a water contact angle greater than 90 degrees, water may only be considered a partially wetting liquid on a lignin surface. This supports the long-held belief that one of the functions of lignin in the wood cell wall is to provide water-proofing to aid in water transport. Furthermore, these results on the solid-vapor surface energy of lignin will provide invaluable insight for many natural and industrial applications including in the design and manufacture of many sustainable products such as paper, fiberboard, and polymer composite blends. PMID:20349913

  10. Slot Die Coating and Conversion of LZO on Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Ni-W Substrates With and Without a Very Thin Seed Layer in Low Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Heatherly Jr, Lee; Hsu, Huey S; Wee, Sung Hun; Li, Jing; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Goyal, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Slot die coating and conversion of La2 Zr2 O (LZO) buffer layers were performed on rolling assisted biaxially textured Ni-W with and without thin Y2 O3 seed layers. The slot die coating, drying and processing were all performed using reel to-reel systems. The slot die coated LZO precursor films were then reacted under a variety of conditions and the texture and morphology development were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The conversion conditions were optimized to produce the highest degree of texture in the LZO films. This paper will describe the equipment used for depositing the LZO films and describe the texture and morphology of LZO films optimized for supporting the growth of high Ic (>300 amps per centimeter width) YBCO superconducting films.

  11. Computational study of low-friction quasicrystalline coatings via simulations of thin film growth of hydrocarbons and rare gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyawan, Wahyu

    Quasicrystalline compounds (QC) have been shown to have lower friction compared to other structures of the same constituents. The abscence of structural interlocking when two QC surfaces slide against one another yields the low friction. To use QC as low-friction coatings in combustion engines where hydrocarbon-based oil lubricant is commonly used, knowledge of how a film of lubricant forms on the coating is required. Any adsorbed films having non-quasicrystalline structure will reduce the self-lubricity of the coatings. In this manuscript, we report the results of simulations on thin films growth of selected hydrocarbons and rare gases on a decagonal Al73Ni10Co17 quasicrystal (d-AlNiCo). Grand canonical Monte Carlo method is used to perform the simulations. We develop a set of classical interatomic many-body potentials which are based on the embedded-atom method to study the adsorption processes for hydrocarbons. Methane, propane, hexane, octane, and benzene are simulated and show complete wetting and layered films. Methane monolayer forms a pentagonal order commensurate with the d-AlNiCo. Propane forms disordered monolayer. Hexane and octane adsorb in a close-packed manner consistent with their bulk structure. The results of hexane and octane are expected to represent those of longer alkanes which constitute typical lubricants. Benzene monolayer has pentagonal order at low temperatures which transforms into triangular lattice at high temperatures. The effects of size mismatch and relative strength of the competing interactions (adsorbate-substrate and between adsorbates) on the film growth and structure are systematically studied using rare gases with Lennard-Jones pair potentials. It is found that the relative strength of the interactions determines the growth mode, while the structure of the film is affected mostly by the size mismatch between adsorbate and substrate's characteristic length. On d-AlNiCo, xenon monolayer undergoes a first-order structural

  12. Development of Mathematical Model for Prediction and Optimization of Particle Size in Nanocrystalline CdS Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Spin-Coating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thambidurai, M.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Murugan, N.; Agilan, S.; Vasantha, S.; Balasundaraprabhu, R.

    2010-12-01

    Nanocrystalline CdS thin films have been prepared by the sol-gel spin-coating method. The influence of spin-coating process parameters such as, thiourea concentration (U), annealing temperature (A), rotational speed (S), and annealing time (T), and so on, on the properties of the prepared films have been studied. The experiments have been carried out based on four factor-five-level central composite designs with the full replication technique, and mathematical models have been developed using regression technique. The central composite rotatable design has been used to minimize the number of experimental parameters. The analysis of variance technique is applied to check the validity of the developed models. The developed mathematical model can be used effectively to predict the particle size in CdS nanocrystalline thin films at 95 pct confidence level. The results have been verified by depositing the films using the same condition. An ultraviolet-visible optical spectroscopy study was carried out to determine the band gap of the CdS nanocrystalline thin films. The band gap has been observed to depend strongly on particle size, and it indicated a blue shift caused by quantum confinement effects. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis showed the grain size of the prepared CdS film to be 6 nm. The main and interaction effects of deposition parameters on the properties of CdS nanocrystalline thin films also have been studied.

  13. Regulation of the forming process and the set voltage distribution of unipolar resistance switching in spin-coated CoFe2O4 thin films.

    PubMed

    Mustaqima, Millaty; Yoo, Pilsun; Huang, Wei; Lee, Bo Wha; Liu, Chunli

    2015-01-01

    We report the preparation of (111) preferentially oriented CoFe2O4 thin films on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates using a spin-coating process. The post-annealing conditions and film thickness were varied for cobalt ferrite (CFO) thin films, and Pt/CFO/Pt structures were prepared to investigate the resistance switching behaviors. Our results showed that resistance switching without a forming process is preferred to obtain less fluctuation in the set voltage, which can be regulated directly from the preparation conditions of the CFO thin films. Therefore, instead of thicker film, CFO thin films deposited by two times spin-coating with a thickness about 100 nm gave stable resistance switching with the most stable set voltage. Since the forming process and the large variation in set voltage have been considered as serious obstacles for the practical application of resistance switching for non-volatile memory devices, our results could provide meaningful insights in improving the performance of ferrite material-based resistance switching memory devices. PMID:25897310

  14. Annealing time dependence of the physical, electrical and pH response characteristics of spin coated TiO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkefle, M. A.; Rahman, R. A.; Yusoff, K. A.; Abdullah, W. F. H.; Rusop, M.; Herman, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film was deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate and used as sensing membrane of EGFET pH sensor. The thin film was fabricated using sol- gel spin coating method. All samples were annealed at 400 °C but the annealing time was varied. This is done to study the effects of annealing time on physical and electrical properties of titanium dioxide thin film. The sensitivity of each sample towards H+ ion was measured and result shows that sample annealed for 45 minutes has the highest sensitivity (52.6 mV/pH). It is found that increasing annealing duration will increase the pH sensitivity but a limit will be reached at certain point. Longer annealing processes done beyond this point will results in lower pH sensitivity.

  15. Effect of Fe incorporation on the optical behavior of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel derived spin coating techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakkesh, R. Ajay; Malathi, R.; Balakumar, S.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, Fe doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films were fabricated on the glass substrate by sol-gel derived spin coating technique. X-ray Diffraction studies revealed that the obtained pure and Fe doped ZnO thin films were in the wurtzite and spinel phase respectively. The three well defined Raman lines at 432, 543 and 1091 cm-1 also confirmed the lattice structure of the ZnO thin film has wurtzite symmetry. While doping Fe atoms in the ZnO, there was a significant change in the phase from wurtzite to spinel structure; owing to Fe (III) ions being incorporated into the lattice through substitution of Zn (II) ions. Room temperature PL spectra showed that the role of defect mediated red emissions at 612 nm was due to radial recombination of a photogenerated hole with an electron that belongs to the Fe atoms, which were discussed in detail.

  16. An investigation of sol-gel spin coating growth of wurtzite GaN thin film on 6H-SiC substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, C. Y.; Ng, S. S.; Yam, F. K.; Hassan, H. Abu; Hassan, Z.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, wurtzite gallium nitride (GaN) thin film was directly grown on hexagonal silicon carbide (6H-SiC) substrate without buffer layer using sol-gel spin coating method followed by annealing and nitridation process. The entire growth process was investigated in-depth. The results revealed that the conversion of GaN thin film proceeds through an intermediate of amorphous gallium(I) sub-oxide (Ga2O). In this case, the amorphous Ga2O was converted into GaN thin film after being nitridated at 950 °C under ammonia ambient. The intermediate of amorphous Ga2O can only be identified through infrared reflectance measurements.

  17. Soil decontamination using aqueous biphasic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Gupta, D.

    1994-02-01

    This paper summarizes efforts to develop a biphasic extraction process for separating ultrafine particulate contaminants from soils having high amounts of silt and clay. This work has thus far dealt with the removal of refractory uranium particles from the soils at Fernald, Ohio. The separation process involves the selective partitioning of ultra-fine particles between two immiscible aqueous phases. The authors have conducted batch extraction studies and are now beginning to scaleup the process for pilot-plant testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The results of these extraction studies are discussed.

  18. Dynamin 2 regulates biphasic insulin secretion and plasma glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fan; Ji, Chen; Wu, Yumei; Ferguson, Shawn M.; Tamarina, Natalia; Philipson, Louis H.; Lou, Xuelin

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in insulin granule exocytosis and endocytosis are paramount to pancreatic β cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Here, using temporally controlled gene ablation specifically in β cells in mice, we identified an essential role of dynamin 2 GTPase in preserving normal biphasic insulin secretion and blood glucose homeostasis. Dynamin 2 deletion in β cells caused glucose intolerance and substantial reduction of the second phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, mutant β cells still maintained abundant insulin granules, with no signs of cell surface expansion. Compared with control β cells, real-time capacitance measurements demonstrated that exocytosis-endocytosis coupling was less efficient but not abolished; clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) was severely impaired at the step of membrane fission, which resulted in accumulation of clathrin-coated endocytic intermediates on the plasma membrane. Moreover, dynamin 2 ablation in β cells led to striking reorganization and enhancement of actin filaments, and insulin granule recruitment and mobilization were impaired at the later stage of GSIS. Together, our results demonstrate that dynamin 2 regulates insulin secretory capacity and dynamics in vivo through a mechanism depending on CME and F-actin remodeling. Moreover, this study indicates a potential pathophysiological link between endocytosis and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26413867

  19. Growth and physical properties of p-Zn x Cd1- x S thin films thermally evaporated on ITO-coated glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Eun Jeong; Han, Dong Hun; Lee, Jeoung Ju; Lee, Jong Duk; Kang, Kwang Yong; Lee, Seung Hwan; Shewale, Prashant Shivaji

    2015-01-01

    Zn x Cd1- x S ( x = 0.15, 0.44, 0.62, 0.80, and 0.95) thin films of about 340 nm in thickness were deposited on indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates by using thermal evaporation of high-purity ZnS and CdS mixed tablets in high vacuum. X-ray diffraction spectra showed that the Zn x Cd1- x S thin films were preferentially grown along the (111) orientation. The Zn x Cd1- x S crystal structure was a mixture structure of the ZnS and the CdS cubic zincblende structures with lattice constants a = 5.670 Å to a = 5.734 Å for CdS and a = 5.437 Å for ZnS. The ( αh ν)2 vs. h ν plots for the Zn x Cd1- x S thin films showed that all samples had direct transition band gaps. The energy band gaps of the Zn x Cd1- x S thin films increased monotonically from 2.45 eV for x = 0.15 to 3.37 eV for x = 0.95. The dynamical behavior of the charge carriers in the Zn x Cd1- x S thin films was investigated by using the photoinduced discharge characteristics (PIDC) technique.

  20. Effect of post-annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown on mica substrates using sol-gel spin-coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younggyu; Leem, Jae-Young

    2015-09-01

    ZnO thin films were grown on flexible muscovite mica substrates using sol-gel spin-coating. The structural and optical properties of the sol-gel-derived ZnO thin films annealed at temperatures between 300 - 600 °C were investigated. The surface morphology of the ZnO thin films was found to depend slightly on the annealing temperature. In the photoluminescence spectra, the position of the near-band-edge (NBE) peak was shifted towards a lower energy by the post-annealing process, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the NBE peaks for the annealed ZnO thin films were significantly lower than those for the as-grown film. Defect-related deep-level peaks exhibiting green and red emissions were observed only for the annealed ZnO thin films. The Urbach energy and optical band gap of the films decreased with an increase in annealing temperatures up to 500 °C.

  1. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  2. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning properties of mesoporous SiO2 coated Cu-Bi2O3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wenjie; Hu, Yun; Zheng, Mengmeng; Wei, Chaohai

    2015-04-28

    Mesoporous SiO2 coated Cu-Bi2O3 thin films (meso-SiO2/Cu-Bi2O3) were prepared on glass substrates using a simple sol-gel/spin-coating method. The structure and optical properties were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, a UV-vis spectrophotometer and a water contact angle meter. The photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning properties of the films were investigated through the degradation of methyl orange and stearic acid, respectively. It was found that the meso-SiO2/Cu-Bi2O3 thin films were highly transparent and showed excellent superhydrophilicity even in the dark. The thin films exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning properties compared to pure Bi2O3 films, which was attributed to the cooperation of the interfacial charge transfer between Bi2O3 and surface Cu species as well as the unique mesoporous SiO2 structure. The results showed that the films can be used as promising self-cleaning and antifogging materials. PMID:25801807

  3. Preparation of nickel oxide thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, M. A. R.; Mamat, M. H.; Ismail, A. S.; Malek, M. F.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    Preparation of NiO thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel method was conducted to synthesize the quality of the surface thin films. The effects of annealing temperature on the surface topology were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the surface roughness of the thin films was increased whenever annealing temperature was increase. NiO thin films morphology structure analysis was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  4. Preparation of bone-implants by coating hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on self-formed titanium dioxide thin-layers on titanium metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, W P S L; Mantilaka, M M M G P G; Chathuranga Senarathna, K G; Herath, H M T U; Premachandra, T N; Ranasinghe, C S K; Rajapakse, R P V J; Rajapakse, R M G; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Mahalingam, S; Bandara, I M C C D; Singh, Sanjleena

    2016-06-01

    Preparation of hydroxyapatite coated custom-made metallic bone-implants is very important for the replacement of injured bones of the body. Furthermore, these bone-implants are more stable under the corrosive environment of the body and biocompatible than bone-implants made up of pure metals and metal alloys. Herein, we describe a novel, simple and low-cost technique to prepare biocompatible hydroxyapatite coated titanium metal (TiM) implants through growth of self-formed TiO2 thin-layer (SFTL) on TiM via a heat treatment process. SFTL acts as a surface binder of HA nanoparticles in order to produce HA coated implants. Colloidal HA nanorods prepared by a novel surfactant-assisted synthesis method, have been coated on SFTL via atomized spray pyrolysis (ASP) technique. The corrosion behavior of the bare and surface-modified TiM (SMTiM) in a simulated body fluid (SBF) medium is also studied. The highest corrosion rate is found to be for the bare TiM plate, but the corrosion rate has been reduced with the heat-treatment of TiM due to the formation of SFTL. The lowest corrosion rate is recorded for the implant prepared by heat treatment of TiM at 700 °C. The HA-coating further assists in the passivation of the TiM in the SBF medium. Both SMTiM and HA coated SMTiM are noncytotoxic against osteoblast-like (HOS) cells and are in high-bioactivity. The overall production process of bone-implant described in this paper is in high economic value. PMID:27040209

  5. Thin metal organic frameworks coatings by cathodic electrodeposition for solid-phase microextraction and analysis of trace exogenous estrogens in milk.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hangzhen; Pan, Daodong; Sun, Yangying; Guo, Yuxing; Wu, Zhen

    2016-09-21

    Cathodic electrodeposition (CED) has received great attention in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) synthesis due to its distinguished properties including simplicity, controllability, mild synthesis conditions, and product continuously. Here, we report the fabrication of thin (Et3NH)2Zn3(BDC)4 (E-MOF-5) film coated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber by a one-step in situ cathodic electrodeposition strategy. Several etched stainless steel fibers were placed in parallel in order to achieve simultaneously electrochemical polymerization. The influence of different polymerization parameters Et3NHCl concentration and polymerization time were evaluated. The proposed method requires only 20 min for the preparation of E-MOF-5 coating. The optimum coating showed excellent thermal stability and mechanical durability with a long lifetime of more than 120 repetitions SPME operations, and also exhibited higher extraction selectivity and capacity to four estrogens than commonly-used commercial PDMS coating. The limits of detection for the estrogens were 0.17-0.56 ng mL(-1). Fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (n = 8) was in the respective ranges of 3.5%-6.1% relative standard deviation (RSD) for four estrogens for triplicate measurements at 200 ng mL(-1). Finally, the (E-MOF-5) coated fiber was evaluated for ethinylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol (DES), and hexestrol (HEX) extraction in the spiked milk samples. The extraction performance of this new coating was satisfied enough for repeatable use without obvious decline. PMID:27590545

  6. Electrical investigation of TiO2 thin films coated on glass and silicon substrates—effect of UV and visible light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirtharajan, Saranya; Jeyaprakash, Pandiarajan; Natarajan, Jeyakumaran; Natarajan, Prithivikumaran

    2016-04-01

    The conducting nature of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin film coated on glass and silicon (Si) substrates was studied in detail. The films were prepared through sol-gel spin-coating method with variation in coating parameters viz, the thickness of the film and the post annealing temperature. The thickness of the films was measured using Stylus profilometer. The resistivity of the film, as a function of film thickness, under the illumination of UV, visible light, and dark conditions was found using the four-probe method. The results show that the resistivity of the film decreases with increase in thickness of the film. The decrease in resistivity of the film is attributed to increase in cross-sectional area and rearrangement and removal of defects. Illumination of the samples under visible and UV light further decreases the resistivity of the film. The electrical resistivity of TiO2 film coated on Si substrate was observed to be lesser than that of the glass substrate.

  7. Orientation of a bacteriorhodopsin thin film deposited by dip coating technique and its chiral SHG as studied by SHG interference technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Haruyama, Yoshihiro; Kasai, Katsuyuki; Terui, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Shukichi; Kaji, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Otomo, Akira

    2012-03-01

    We show that by observing SHG interference bR thin films prepared by a simple dip coating technique have a polar orientation with C∞ symmetry. The SHG interference measurements were performed under various input and output polarization combinations at different incident angles or under the rotation of the quarter-wave retardation plate at specific incident angles. The interference patterns provide us with insight into the characteristics of non-vanishing nonlinear optical coefficients including chiral components. Abundant information can be obtained by observing SHG interference by using two chiral SH active films.

  8. Structural properties 3,16-bis triisopropylsilylethynyl (pentacene) (TIPS-pentacene) thin films onto organic dielectric layer using slide coating method

    SciTech Connect

    Rusnan, Fara Naila; Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Seria, Dzul Fahmi Mohd Husin; Saad, Ismail; Ghosh, Bablu K.; Alias, Afishah

    2015-08-28

    3,16-bis triisopropylsilylethynyl (Pentacene) (TIPS-Pentacene) compactable interface property is important in order to have a good arrangement of molecular structure. Comparison for TIPS-Pentacene deposited between two different surface layers conducted. 0.1wt% TIPS-Pentacene diluted in chloroform were deposited onto poly(methylmeaclyrate) (PMMA) layered transparent substrates using slide coating method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) used to determine crystallinity of thin films. Series of (00l) diffraction peaks obtained with sharp first peaks (001) for TIPS-Pentacene deposited onto PMMA layer at 5.35° and separation of 16.3 Å. Morphology and surface roughness were carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface profilemeter LS500, respectively.TIPS-Pentacene deposited onto PMMA layer formed needled-like-shape grains with 10.26 nm surface roughness. These properties were related as thin film formed and its surface roughness plays important role towards good mobility devices.

  9. Structural properties 3,16-bis triisopropylsilylethynyl (pentacene) (TIPS-pentacene) thin films onto organic dielectric layer using slide coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusnan, Fara Naila; Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Seria, Dzul Fahmi Mohd Husin; Saad, Ismail; Ghosh, Bablu K.; Alias, Afishah

    2015-08-01

    3,16-bis triisopropylsilylethynyl (Pentacene) (TIPS-Pentacene) compactable interface property is important in order to have a good arrangement of molecular structure. Comparison for TIPS-Pentacene deposited between two different surface layers conducted. 0.1wt% TIPS-Pentacene diluted in chloroform were deposited onto poly(methylmeaclyrate) (PMMA) layered transparent substrates using slide coating method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) used to determine crystallinity of thin films. Series of (00l) diffraction peaks obtained with sharp first peaks (001) for TIPS-Pentacene deposited onto PMMA layer at 5.35° and separation of 16.3 Å. Morphology and surface roughness were carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface profilemeter LS500, respectively.TIPS-Pentacene deposited onto PMMA layer formed needled-like-shape grains with 10.26 nm surface roughness. These properties were related as thin film formed and its surface roughness plays important role towards good mobility devices.

  10. Structural and optical properties of laser irradiated nano structured cadmium oxide thin film synthesized by sol-gel spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, W. A.; Al Saud, M.; Alahmed, Z. A.

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium oxide CdO nanostructured thin films are synthesized using sol-gel spin coating method. The prepared samples of CdO thin films are irradiated with 10 mJ laser from pulsed Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 and 532 nm wavelength. The samples were exposed to 45 pulses of 7 ns pulse duration. Morphology and structural analysis were carried out with scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. Optical investigations were obtained with spectrometer and fluorospectrometer from Shimadzu. SEM micrographs confirm the nanostructure of the CdO film and indicate agglomeration of nanoparticles with laser irradiation. XRD patterns show decrease in the intensity of orientation peaks after laser irradiation. Variation in band gap energy, absorption peaks, and photoluminescence spectra with laser irradiation are observed.

  11. Structural, optical, and electrical properties of ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel dip-coating process at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soaram; Nam, Giwoong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Park, Hyunggil; Choi, Hyonkwang; Kim, Jong Su; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Do Yeob; Kim, Sung-O.; Leem, Jae-Young

    2014-07-01

    Sol-gel dip-coating was used to prepare ZnO thin films with relaxed residual stress by lowering the deposition temperature from room temperature (25°C) to -25°C. The effect of deposition temperature on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and reflectance accessory, and the van der Pauw method. All the thin films were deposited successfully onto quartz substrates and exhibited fibrous root morphology. At low temperature, the deposition rate was higher than at room temperature (RT) because of enhanced viscosity of the films. Further, lowering the deposition temperature affected the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the ZnO thin films. The surface morphology, residual stress, PL properties, and optical transmittance and reflectance of the films were measured, and this information was used to determine the absorption coefficient, optical band gap, Urbach energy, refractive index, refractive index at infinite wavelength, extinction coefficient, single-oscillator energy, dispersion energy, average oscillator wavelength, moments M -1 and M -3, dielectric constant, optical conductivity, and electrical resistivity of the ZnO thin films.

  12. Far-infrared properties of sol-gel derived PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin films on Pt-coated substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafadaryan, E. A.; Hovsepyan, R. K.; Khachaturova, A. A.; Aghamalyan, N. R.; Shirinyan, G. O.; Manukyan, A. L.; Vardanyan, R. S.; Hayrapetyan, A. G.; Grigoryan, S. G.; Vardanyan, E. S.

    2003-02-01

    Polycrystalline tetragonal PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) thin films have been deposited on the nickel and (111) platinum coated (110) sapphire substrates by the sol-gel method. Optical properties of the PZT thin films were studied using far-infrared reflectivity spectroscopy in the 200-10 000 cm-1 frequency range at 300 K. The frequency dependence of the optical characteristics (sigma, varepsilon, -Im varepsilon-1) of the films were calculated by the Kramers-Kronig transformation of the reflectivity spectra and analysed by the Drude-Lorentz model. The frequency dependence of the optical conductivity, sigma(omega), of the PZT films deposited on platinum coated sapphire is well described by the free-carrier term and an overdamped mid-infrared component. Sapphire/Pt/PZT structures reveal semiconductor properties (effective carrier concentration N/mast is up to 1020 cm-3, plasma minimum is located near 3000 cm-1). This effect can be related to the favourable influence of the platinum electrode on the charge carrier density at Pt/PZT contact and formation of the interfacial conductive layer.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO:TiO2 nano composites thin films deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spray coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanto, Heri; Nurhasanah, Iis; Hidayanto, Eko; Wibowo, Singgih; Hadiyanto

    2015-12-01

    In this work, (ZnO)x:(TiO2)1-x nano composites thin films, with x = 1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25, and 0, have been prepared by sol-gel spray coating technique onto glass substrate. Pure TiO2 and ZnO thin films were synthesized from titanium isopropoxide-based and zinc acetate-based precursor solutions, respectively, whereas the composite films were obtained from the mixture of these solutions at the specific % vol ratios. The properties and performance of nano composite ZnO, TiO2 and ZnO:TiO2 thin films at different composition have been investigated. Ultraviolet - Visible (UV-Vis) Spectrophotometer and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were employed in order to get morphology and transmittance of thin films. Testing the ability of photocatalytic activity of obtained films was conducted on photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye and organic pollutants of wastewater under a 30 watt UV light irradiation, then testing BOD, COD and TPC were conducted. Using the Tauc model, the band-gap energy decreased from 3.12 eV to 3.02 eV for the sample with x = 1 and 0, respectively. This decrease occured along with the replacement of percentage of ZnO by TiO2 on the films. This decrease also reduced the minimum energy that required for electron excitation. Obtained thin films had nanoscale roughness level with range 3.64 to 17.30 nm. The film with x= 0 has the biggest removal percentage on BOD, COD and TPC mesurements with percentage 54.82%, 62.73% and 99.88%, respectively.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO:TiO{sub 2} nano composites thin films deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spray coating technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sutanto, Heri Nurhasanah, Iis; Hidayanto, Eko; Wibowo, Singgih; Hadiyanto

    2015-12-29

    In this work, (ZnO){sub x}:(TiO{sub 2}){sub 1-x} nano composites thin films, with x = 1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25, and 0, have been prepared by sol–gel spray coating technique onto glass substrate. Pure TiO{sub 2} and ZnO thin films were synthesized from titanium isopropoxide-based and zinc acetate-based precursor solutions, respectively, whereas the composite films were obtained from the mixture of these solutions at the specific % vol ratios. The properties and performance of nano composite ZnO, TiO{sub 2} and ZnO:TiO{sub 2} thin films at different composition have been investigated. Ultraviolet – Visible (UV-Vis) Spectrophotometer and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were employed in order to get morphology and transmittance of thin films. Testing the ability of photocatalytic activity of obtained films was conducted on photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye and organic pollutants of wastewater under a 30 watt UV light irradiation, then testing BOD, COD and TPC were conducted. Using the Tauc model, the band-gap energy decreased from 3.12 eV to 3.02 eV for the sample with x = 1 and 0, respectively. This decrease occured along with the replacement of percentage of ZnO by TiO{sub 2} on the films. This decrease also reduced the minimum energy that required for electron excitation. Obtained thin films had nanoscale roughness level with range 3.64 to 17.30 nm. The film with x= 0 has the biggest removal percentage on BOD, COD and TPC mesurements with percentage 54.82%, 62.73% and 99.88%, respectively.

  15. The role of lithium thin-film coatings on W surface morphology evolution under high-fluence and high temperature He irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, A. L.; Allain, J. P.; Bystrov, K.; Morgan, T. W.

    2015-11-01

    Tungsten is the candidate plasma-facing component material for the ITER divertor due to its high sputter threshold, high melting temperature, and excellent thermal conductivity. However, when exposed to He ions with E = 0.01-1.0 keV and high fluences >1026 m-2, as those expected in a burning plasma fusion tokamak divertor, the damage to the surface can include the creation of bubbles, holes and tendril-like fuzz morphology. Recent studies show that adding low-Z impurities (C and Be) to a He plasma can inhibit the growth of fuzz. In other applications, lithium (Li) as a PFC coating in multiple tokamaks has improved plasma performance, yet its interaction with high-Z materials (i.e. W) and its role inhibiting fuzz formation is not well understood. We investigated the effect of a thin ~1000 nm Li coating on formation of W surface defect morphology under high fluence and temperature conditions. Samples were exposed with fluxes of ~1024 m-2s-1 and Tsurf ~ 1100 °C. After irradiation, the surfaces of the samples were characterized with SEM. These results are presented along with XPS and SIMS results elucidating the persistence of Li coatings under these conditions. Work supported by US DOE Contract Nos. DC-SC0010717 and DC-SC0010719.

  16. Bio-inspired citrate-functionalized apatite thin films crystallized on Ti-6Al-4V implants pre-coated with corrosion resistant layers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, José Manuel; Iafisco, Michele; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Gómez-Morales, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the crystallization of a bioinspired citrate-functionalized apatite (cit-Ap) thin film (thickness about 2μm) on Ti-6Al-4V supports pre-coated with bioactive and corrosion resistant buffer layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4), silicon carbide (SiC) or titanium nitride (TiN) is reported. The apatitic coatings were produced by a new coating technique based on the induction heating of the implants immersed in a flowing calcium-citrate-phosphate solution at pH11. The influence of the buffer layers and the surface roughness of the substrate on the chemical-physical features and adhesion of the cit-Ap films were investigated. The best plasticity, compactness and adherence properties have been found in the Ap layer grown on Si3N4, followed by the Ap grown on SiC and TiN, respectively. The adhesion property was likely related to the roughness of the buffered substrates, whereas the compactness and plasticity were closely related to the operating conditions during the Ap crystallization (flow rate of the solution and increase of temperature) rather than to the nature of the buffer layer. PMID:23648093

  17. Biphasic Janus particles with nanoscale anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Kyung-Ho; Martin, David C.; Lahann, Joerg

    2005-10-01

    Advances in the field of nanotechnology have fuelled the vision of future devices spawned from tiny functional components that are able to assemble according to a master blueprint. In this concept, the controlled distribution of matter or `patchiness' is important for creating anisotropic building blocks and introduces an extra design parameter - beyond size and shape. Although the reliable and efficient fabrication of building blocks with controllable material distributions will be of interest for many applications in research and technology, their synthesis has been addressed only in a few specialized cases. Here we show the design and synthesis of polymer-based particles with two distinct phases. The biphasic geometry of these Janus particles is induced by the simultaneous electrohydrodynamic jetting of parallel polymer solutions under the influence of an electrical field. The individual phases can be independently loaded with biomolecules or selectively modified with model ligands, as confirmed by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The fact that the spatial distribution of matter can be controlled at such small length scales will provide access to unknown anisotropic materials. This type of nanocolloid may enable the design of multicomponent carriers for drug delivery, molecular imaging or guided self-assembly.

  18. Novel Measurements of Aerosol Particle Interfaces Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, A. R.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remains large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. These aerosol interfaces can profoundly affect the fate of condensable organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere by altering the way in which organic vapors interact with the ambient aerosol. Aerosol interfaces affect particle internal structure, species uptake, equilibrium partitioning, activation to cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and optical properties. For example, organic thin films can shield the core of the aerosol from the ambient environment, which may disrupt equilibrium partitioning and mass transfer. To improve our ability to accurately predict the fate of SOA in the atmosphere, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Few technologies exist to accurately probe aerosol interfaces at atmospherically-relevant conditions. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred. Chemical compositions of the liquid phases studied here span a range of viscosities and include electrolyte and water soluble organic acid species often observed in the atmosphere, such as mixtures

  19. Degradation and Characterization of Resorbable Phosphate-Based Glass Thin-Film Coatings Applied by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Bryan W; Gimeno-Fabra, Miquel; Segal, Joel; Ahmed, Ifty; Grant, David M

    2015-12-16

    Quinternary phosphate-based glasses of up to 2.67 μm, deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, were degraded in distilled water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to investigate their degradation characteristics. Magnetron-sputtered coatings have been structurally compared to their compositionally equivalent melt-quenched bulk glass counterparts. The coatings were found to have structurally variable surfaces to melt-quenched glass such that the respective bridging oxygen to nonbridging oxygen bonds were 34.2% to 65.8% versus 20.5% to 79.5%, forming metaphosphate (PO3)(-) (Q(2)) versus less soluble (P2O7)(4-) (Q(1)) and (PO4)(3-) (Q(0)), respectively. This factor led to highly soluble coatings, exhibiting a t(1/2) degradation dependence in the first 2 h in distilled water, followed by a more characteristic linear profile because the subsequent layers were less soluble. Degradation was observed to preferentially occur, forming voids characteristic of pitting corrosion, which was confirmed by the use of a focused ion beam. Coating degradation in PBS precipitated a (PO3)(-) metaphosphate, an X-ray amorphous layer, which remained adherent to the substrate and seemingly formed a protective diffusion barrier, which inhibited further coating degradation. The implications are that while compositionally similar, sputter-deposited coatings and melt-quenched glasses are structurally dissimilar, most notably, with regard to the surface layer. This factor has been attributed to surface etching of the as-deposited coating layer during deposition and variation in the thermal history between the processes of magnetron sputtering and melt quenching. PMID:26523618

  20. Proof of damage-free selective removal of thin dielectric coatings on silicon wafers by irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rublack, Tino; Muchow, Markus; Schade, Martin; Leipner, Hartmut S.; Seifert, Gerhard

    2012-07-15

    The microstructural impact of selective femtosecond laser ablation of thin dielectric layers from monocrystalline silicon wafers was investigated. Various spots opened by 280 fs laser pulses at {lambda} = 1.03 {mu}m wavelength and 50 fs pulses at 800 nm, respectively, were analyzed in detail using Raman and transmission electron microscopy. The results show clearly that the thin dielectric films can be removed without any detectable modification of the Si crystal structure in the opened area. In contrast, in adjacent regions corresponding to laser fluence slightly below the breaking threshold, a thin layer of amorphous silicon with a maximum thickness of about 50 nm is found at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface after laser irradiation. More than one pulse on the same position, however, causes structural modification of the silicon after thin film ablation in any case.

  1. Stoichiometric implications of a biphasic life cycle.

    PubMed

    Tiegs, Scott D; Berven, Keith A; Carmack, Douglas J; Capps, Krista A

    2016-03-01

    Animals mediate flows of elements and energy in ecosystems through processes such as nutrient sequestration in body tissues, and mineralization through excretion. For taxa with biphasic life cycles, the dramatic shifts in anatomy and physiology that occur during ontogeny are expected to be accompanied by changes in body and excreta stoichiometry, but remain little-explored, especially in vertebrates. Here we tested stoichiometric hypotheses related to the bodies and excreta of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) across life stages and during larval development. Per-capita rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion varied widely during larval ontogeny, followed unimodal patterns, and peaked midway through development (Taylor-Kollros stages XV and XII, respectively). Larval mass did not increase steadily during development but peaked at stage XVII and declined until the termination of the experiment at stage XXII. Mass-specific N and P excretion rates of the larvae decreased exponentially during development. When coupled with population-biomass estimates, population-level excretion rates were greatest at stages VIII-X. Percent carbon (C), N, and C:N of body tissue showed weak trends across major life stages; body P and C:P, however, increased sixfold during development from egg to adult. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific ontogenic changes in nutrient contents of excretion and body tissues can be significant, and that N and P are not always excreted proportionally throughout life cycles. These results highlight the dynamic roles that species play in ecosystems, and how the morphological and physiological changes that accompany ontogeny can influence ecosystem-level processes. PMID:26589522

  2. Mechanisms of LiCoO2 Cathode Degradation by Reaction with HF and Protection by Thin Oxide Coatings.

    PubMed

    Tebbe, Jonathon L; Holder, Aaron M; Musgrave, Charles B

    2015-11-01

    Reactions of HF with uncoated and Al and Zn oxide-coated surfaces of LiCoO2 cathodes were studied using density functional theory. Cathode degradation caused by reaction of HF with the hydroxylated (101̅4) LiCoO2 surface is dominated by formation of H2O and a LiF precipitate via a barrierless reaction that is exothermic by 1.53 eV. We present a detailed mechanism where HF reacts at the alumina coating to create a partially fluorinated alumina surface rather than forming AlF3 and H2O and thus alumina films reduce cathode degradation by scavenging HF and avoiding H2O formation. In contrast, we find that HF etches monolayer zinc oxide coatings, which thus fail to prevent capacity fading. However, thicker zinc oxide films mitigate capacity loss by reacting with HF to form a partially fluorinated zinc oxide surface. Metal oxide coatings that react with HF to form hydroxyl groups over H2O, like the alumina monolayer, will significantly reduce cathode degradation. PMID:26455367

  3. Enhancement of low temperature Critical current density of MgB2 thin films by Au coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Heon-Jung; Lee, Sung-Ik; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Kang, W. N.

    2004-03-01

    We measured the superconducting critical current densities (J_c) from the magnetization hysteresis (M-H) loop while depositing the gold on top of the MgB2 thin film. The purpose of this experiment is whether the vortex avalanche phenomena which suppress the Jc for low temperature ( T < 15 K ) and low field (H ≤ 1000 Oe) can be cured by gold deposition. This avalanche called flux noise has been headache for the application of the MgB2 thin films. As increasing the thickness of Au film, fortunately, the flux noise in the M-H loop is suppressed and finally disappears when thickness of the gold becomes 2.55 ¥im. From this experiment, the obstacles of the application of MgB2 thin film are completely overcome

  4. Deposition of thin SiO{sub 2} films on polymers as a hard-coating using a microwave-ECR plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, K.; Tamamaki, H.; Nomura, M.; Wickramanayaka, S.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hatanaka, Y.

    1996-12-31

    SiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on automobile plastics at low temperatures using a microwave activated ECR plasma. Oxygen was used as the plasma gas while tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was used as the source gas which was introduced into the downstream. In the present investigation high quality SiO{sub 2} films were deposited on polycarbonate (PC) and polypropylene (PP) substrates with and without a mesh and the characteristics of hard coating films were studied. The film growth rate increases with the decrease of substrate temperature when a mesh is inserted into the plasma. The irregularities of polymer surfaces could be planarized by the deposition of 1.0 {micro}m thick SiO{sub 2} film. The dynamic hardness of PC and PP are increased by the deposition of SiO{sub 2} film, however, films deposited on PP is seen to be cracked while that of on PC is crack-free.

  5. Photocatalytic Antibacterial Performance of Glass Fibers Thin Film Coated with N-Doped SnO2/TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Sikong, Lek; Niyomwas, Sutham; Rachpech, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Both N-doped and undoped thin films of 3SnO2/TiO2 composite were prepared, by sol-gel and dip-coating methods, and then calcined at 600°C for 2 hours. The films were characterized by FTIR, XRD, UV-Vis, SEM, and XPS, and their photocatalytic activities to degrade methylene blue in solution were determined, expecting these activities to correlate with the inactivation of bacteria, which was confirmed. The doped and undoped films were tested for activities against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella typhi (S. typhi), and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The effects of doping on these composite films included reduced energy band gap, high crystallinity of anatase phase, and small crystallite size as well as increased photocatalytic activity and water disinfection efficiency. PMID:24693250

  6. Photovoltage and stability of an n-type silicon semiconductor coated with metal or metal-free phthalocyanine thin films in aqueous redox solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nakato, Y.; Shioji, M.; Tsubomura, H.

    1981-06-11

    An n-type silicon (n-Si) semiconductor coated with an evaporated thin film of metal phthalocyanine (MPc) or metal-free phthalocyanine (H/sub 2/Pc) worked as a fairly stable photoanode in aqueous redox solutions. The photovoltage observed for a photocell, (n-Si/CuPc/Fe/sup 3 +//Fe/sup 2 +/ aqueous solution (pH 4.2) /Pt), was 0.50 V, only slightly less than that for a p-n junction Si photocell (approx. 0.6 V). The action spectrum was similar to that of a bare n-Si electrode, except for a depression caused by photoabsorption by the CuPc film in the red region. The above wet photocell has current-voltage characteristics better than those for a solid photocell, (n-Si/CuPc/Pd).

  7. Studies on VO{sub x} thin films deposited over Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coated Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, P. Deepak; Sridharan, M.; Gupta, Sudha

    2015-06-24

    Vanadium oxide (VO{sub x}) thin films were deposited on to the silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) coated silicon (Si) substrate using reactive direct current magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperatures (T{sub s}). The deposited films were characterized for their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. The average grain size of the deposited films was in the range of 95 to 178 nm and the strain varied from 0.071 to 0.054 %. The optical bandgap values of the films were evaluated using UV-Vis spectroscopy and lies in the range of 2.46 to 3.88 eV. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) for the film deposited at 125 °C was -1.23%/°C with the sheet resistivity of 2.7 Ω.cm.

  8. Method and system using power modulation for maskless vapor deposition of spatially graded thin film and multilayer coatings with atomic-level precision and accuracy

    DOEpatents

    Montcalm, Claude; Folta, James Allen; Tan, Swie-In; Reiss, Ira

    2002-07-30

    A method and system for producing a film (preferably a thin film with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) on a flat or graded substrate (such as concave or convex optics), by sweeping the substrate across a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution. In preferred embodiments, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. A user selects a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a predetermined desired thickness profile of the deposited film. The method relies on precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed to provide a desired coating thickness distribution.

  9. Photocatalytic antibacterial performance of glass fibers thin film coated with N-doped SnO2/TiO2.

    PubMed

    Kongsong, Peerawas; Sikong, Lek; Niyomwas, Sutham; Rachpech, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Both N-doped and undoped thin films of 3SnO2/TiO2 composite were prepared, by sol-gel and dip-coating methods, and then calcined at 600 °C for 2 hours. The films were characterized by FTIR, XRD, UV-Vis, SEM, and XPS, and their photocatalytic activities to degrade methylene blue in solution were determined, expecting these activities to correlate with the inactivation of bacteria, which was confirmed. The doped and undoped films were tested for activities against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella typhi (S. typhi), and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The effects of doping on these composite films included reduced energy band gap, high crystallinity of anatase phase, and small crystallite size as well as increased photocatalytic activity and water disinfection efficiency. PMID:24693250

  10. Biphasic catalysis in water/carbon dioxide micellar systems

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Gunilla B.; Tumas, William; Johnston, Keith P.

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for catalyzing an organic reaction to form a reaction product by placing reactants and a catalyst for the organic reaction, the catalyst of a metal complex and at least one ligand soluble within one of the phases of said aqueous biphasic system, within an aqueous biphasic system including a water phase, a dense phase fluid, and a surfactant adapted for forming an emulsion or microemulsion within the aqueous biphasic system, the reactants soluble within one of the phases of the aqueous biphasic system and convertible in the presence of the catalyst to a product having low solubility in the phase in which the catalyst is soluble; and, maintaining the aqueous biphasic system under pressures, at temperatures, and for a period of time sufficient for the organic reaction to occur and form the reaction product and to maintain sufficient density on the dense phase fluid, the reaction product characterized as having low solubility in the phase in which the catalyst is soluble.

  11. Photocatalytic Treatment of Desalination Concentrate Using Optical Fibers Coated With Nanostructured Thin Films: Impact of Water Chemistry and Seasonal Climate Variations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lu; Wang, Huiyao; Luo, Hongmei; Xu, Pei

    2016-05-01

    Treatment of desalination concentrate can reduce concentrate volume for disposal, increase water recovery and convert waste to resource. However, concentrate treatment is costly and energy intensive due to high concentrations of salt and recalcitrant organic matter in concentrate. Photocatalytic oxidation provides a novel energy neutral technology for concentrate treatment by degrading organic contaminants. Polymer-assisted hydrothermal deposition method was used to synthesize innovative pure and Fe-doped TiO2 mixed-phase nanocomposite thin films on side-glowing optical fibers (SOFs). The properties of the photocatalysts-coated SOF were characterized by surface morphology, nanostructure, crystallite size and phase and zeta potential. Photodegradation efficiency and durability of the photocatalysts treating different types of desalination concentrate was studied under natural sunlight. Synthetic solutions and reverse osmosis (RO) concentrates from brackish water and municipal wastewater desalination facilities were tested to elucidate the impact of water chemistry, operating conditions and seasonal climate variations (solar irradiation intensity and temperature) on photocatalytic efficiency. High ionic strength and divalent electrolyte ions in RO concentrate accelerated photocatalytic process, whereas the presence of carbonate species and organic matter hindered photodegradation. Outdoor testing of immobilized continuous-flow photoreactors suggested that the catalyst-coated SOFs can utilize a wide spectrum of natural sunlight and achieved durable photocatalytic performance. PMID:27038235

  12. Thin Fluoropolymer Films and Nanoparticle Coatings from the Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Solutions with Electrostatic Collection.

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, John L.; Deverman, George S.; Yonker, Clement R.; Grate, Jay W.; Deyoung, James; Mcclain, James B.

    2003-03-12

    Application of nanometer thick fluoropolymer films to substrates ranging from microelectronic components to cardiovascular implants is described. In the first step, nanometer-sized polymer particles are generated during the rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. These particles are then charged as they are being formed by application of a high voltage to the expansion nozzle. The charged particles are forced to a solid surface forming uniform coatings with thicknesses from 10?s of nanometers to several micrometers thick. Supercritical carbon dioxide solutions of three different fluoropolymers were used to generate different types of coatings. The method can also be used to generate a solid matrix with nanometer size domains of two chemically diverse solid materials. The size of the particles are so small that they can be deposited to electrically conducting microscopic regions with a spatial resolution better than 50 nm.

  13. Biphasic nanoparticles made by electrified jetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahann, Joerg

    2005-03-01

    Nano-colloids have recently attracted intense attention due to unique properties that are distinctly different from bulk solid-state materials; including unique magnetic, electronic, optical, chemical, and biological characteristics. The vision that these nano-objects could essentially act as functional components in novel device generations, which ``magically'' assemble following a master blueprint void any human manipulation, has resulted in a new ``gold rush'' in materials science. These concepts have results in the synthesis of a multitude of nano-objects, such as nano-wires, nano-rods, nano-disks, or nano-prisms.^ Recently, nano-particles with anisotropic materials distributions (biphasic nano-particles) moved in the focus of research. Our approach differs fundamentally from the above-mentioned methods in that it takes advantage of electrified polymer jets to create anisotropic materials distributions in nano-objects. jetting is a process to generate liquid jets by use of electrostatic forces. It is well-known that high electrical potentials (typically several thousand volts) applied between the jetting liquids that are fed through a capillary and a collecting substrate will induce jetting of a charged liquid. The differences in the final morphologies from similar processes are mainly determined by the properties of the jetting liquids and the process parameters. transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning laser confocal microscopy, we demonstrate the applicability of the process to control size, shape, and materials distribution at the nanoscale. The resulting anisotropic nanoparticles may have potential applications for targeted drug delivery or as electro-rehological fluids. a) F. M. Van der Kooij, K. Kassapidou and H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, Liquid crystal phase transitions in suspensions of polydisperse plate-like particles, Nature 406, 868 (2000); b) C. A. Mirkin, R. L. Letsinger, R. C. Mucic and J. J. Storhoff, A DNA

  14. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W.

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  15. Li-N doped and codoped TiO2 thin films deposited by dip-coating: Characterization and photocatalytic activity under halogen lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamden, Z.; Boufi, S.; Conceição, D. S.; Ferraria, A. M.; do Rego, A. M. Botelho; Ferreira, D. P.; Ferreira, L. F. Vieira; Bouattour, S.

    2014-09-01

    Li-, N-doped and codoped TiO2 powders and thin films, deposited on glass substrate using dip-coating method and Ti(OBu)4 as precursor, were prepared and their structural properties were investigated using grazing angle X-ray diffraction (GXRD), Raman spectroscopy, time resolved luminescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ground state diffuse reflectance absorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Unlike the powder samples, thin films with the same composition and calcination temperature exhibited lower crystallinity degree along with the prevalence of the anatase phase. Ground state diffuse reflectance absorption studies carried on the nanopowders have shown that both the Li and N dopants led to an increase of the band gap. XPS studies revealed differences in the binding energy of N in the presence and in the absence of Li, which was explained in terms of a modification in the chemical environment of N when Li is introduced. The photocatalytic activity of the ensuing film toward the degradation of aromatic amine pollutant revealed a huge enhancement upon doping with N or codoping with N and Li. This behavior is probably provide by a charge-transfer-complex mechanism in which neither the photocatalyst nor the organic compounds absorbs visible light by itself. The improvement in the photocatalytic properties occurred simultaneously with the increase of the lifetime of the charge carriers whenever N and Li were introduced at a level 2%.

  16. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistor with nickel-titanium oxide by sol-gel spin-coating and nitrogen implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shih-Chieh; Hou, Tuo-Hung; Chuang, Shiow-Huey; Chou, Hsin-Chih; Chao, Tien-Sheng; Lei, Tan-Fu

    2012-12-01

    This study demonstrates polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (poly-Si TFTs) integrated with a high-κ nickel-titanium oxide (NiTiO3) gate dielectric using sol-gel spin-coating and nitrogen channel implantation. This novel fabrication method of the high-κ NiTiO3 gate dielectric offers thin equivalent-oxide thickness and high gate capacitance density, favorable for increasing the current driving capability. Introducing nitrogen ions into the poly-Si using implantation effectively passivates the trap states not only in the poly-Si channel but also at the gate dielectric/poly-Si interface. The poly-Si NiTiO3 TFTs with nitrogen implantation exhibit significantly improved electrical characteristics, including lower threshold voltage, a steeper subthreshold swing, higher field-effect mobility, a larger on/off current ratio, and less threshold-voltage roll-off. Furthermore, the nitrogen implantation improves the reliability of poly-Si NiTiO3 TFTs against hot-carrier stress and positive bias temperature instability.

  17. Tunable biphasic drug release from ethyl cellulose nanofibers fabricated using a modified coaxial electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Wang, Zhuan-Hua; Yu, Deng-Guang; Williams, Gareth R.

    2014-05-01

    This manuscript reports a new type of drug-loaded core-shell nanofibers that provide tunable biphasic release of quercetin. The nanofibers were fabricated using a modified coaxial electrospinning process, in which a polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-coated concentric spinneret was employed. Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and ethyl cellulose (EC) were used as the polymer matrices to form the shell and core parts of the nanofibers, respectively. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the nanofibers had linear morphologies and core-shell structures. The quercetin was found to be present in the nanofibers in the amorphous physical status, on the basis of X-ray diffraction results. In vitro release profiles showed that the PVP shell very rapidly freed its drug cargo into the solution, while the EC core provided the succedent sustained release. Variation of the drug loading permitted the release profiles to be tuned.

  18. Tunable biphasic drug release from ethyl cellulose nanofibers fabricated using a modified coaxial electrospinning process.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Wang, Zhuan-Hua; Yu, Deng-Guang; Williams, Gareth R

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript reports a new type of drug-loaded core-shell nanofibers that provide tunable biphasic release of quercetin. The nanofibers were fabricated using a modified coaxial electrospinning process, in which a polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-coated concentric spinneret was employed. Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and ethyl cellulose (EC) were used as the polymer matrices to form the shell and core parts of the nanofibers, respectively. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the nanofibers had linear morphologies and core-shell structures. The quercetin was found to be present in the nanofibers in the amorphous physical status, on the basis of X-ray diffraction results. In vitro release profiles showed that the PVP shell very rapidly freed its drug cargo into the solution, while the EC core provided the succedent sustained release. Variation of the drug loading permitted the release profiles to be tuned. PMID:24940180

  19. Tunable biphasic drug release from ethyl cellulose nanofibers fabricated using a modified coaxial electrospinning process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript reports a new type of drug-loaded core-shell nanofibers that provide tunable biphasic release of quercetin. The nanofibers were fabricated using a modified coaxial electrospinning process, in which a polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-coated concentric spinneret was employed. Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and ethyl cellulose (EC) were used as the polymer matrices to form the shell and core parts of the nanofibers, respectively. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the nanofibers had linear morphologies and core-shell structures. The quercetin was found to be present in the nanofibers in the amorphous physical status, on the basis of X-ray diffraction results. In vitro release profiles showed that the PVP shell very rapidly freed its drug cargo into the solution, while the EC core provided the succedent sustained release. Variation of the drug loading permitted the release profiles to be tuned. PMID:24940180

  20. The effect of different annealing temperatures on the structure and luminescence properties of Y2O3:Bi3+ thin films fabricated by spin coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, A.; Jafer, R. M.; Som, S.; Duvenhage, M. M.; Coetsee, E.; Swart, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports on the structural, morphology and optical properties of Y2-xO3:Bix=0.005 micro-and nanophosphors synthesized via the spin coating method. The influence of different annealing temperatures (900-1200 °C) on the morphology, crystal structure and the photoluminescence (PL) properties of the synthesized films were studied in detail. The crystal structure of the films was investigated with X-ray diffraction. The presence of the three major diffraction peaks with Miller indexes (2 1 1), (2 2 2) and (4 0 0) indicated that the Y2-xO3:Bix=0.005 thin films were well-crystallized at 900 °C, 1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C. Additionally, extra diffraction peaks were observed for the sample that was annealed at 1200 °C. Those extra peaks were due to the formation of the Y2Si2O7 phase owing to the annealing induced changes in the crystal structure and chemical composition of the Y2-xO3:Bix=0.005 thin film. This may also be attributed to inter diffusion of atomic species between the Si substrate and the Y2-xO3:Bix=0.005 thin film at the high annealing temperature. Due to structure-sensitive properties of the Bi3+ ions, a blue shift of the centre PL emission band from 495 nm to 410 nm was clearly observed and explained in detail. The time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy results show the Si diffusion from the Si substrate, whereas, the scanning electron microscopy and the atomic force microscopy were used for the morphology analysis.

  1. The porous nature of ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel Spin-Coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyaoui, M.; Ben Jaballah, A.; Mechiak, R.; Chtourou, R.

    2012-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on silicon and quartz substrates, by sol-gel method, using zinc acetate dehydrate [Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O] dissolved in isopropanol and glycerol. The structural, morphologic and optical properties of ZnO thin films subsequently annealed at 700°C in air for 30 min have leads to a porous nature of these films. To calculate, the refraction index and the extinction coefficient values, Cauchy formalism is used to evaluate the Spectroscopic Ellipsometry results. Two distinct configurations were proposed for each sample: in the first, the film is considered as mixture of randomly distributed voids and ZnO crystallites while in the second, the effect of porosity gradient is highlighted. This optical analysis gives a better agreement between experiment and theory for a wide range of wavelengths regarding the second configuration.

  2. Growth of thin films of dicyanovinylanisole on quartz and teflon-coated quartz by physical vapor transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Earl F.

    1994-01-01

    Organic compounds offer the possibility of molecular engineering in order to optimize the nonlinearity and minimize damage due to the high-power lasers used in nonlinear optical devices. Recently dicyanovinylanisole (DIVA), ((2-methoxyphenyl) methylenepropanedinitrile) has been shown to have a second order nonlinearity 40 times that of alpha-quartz. Debe et. al. have shown that a high degree of orientational order exists for thin films of phthalocyanine grown by physical vapor transport in microgravity. The microgravity environment eliminates convective flow and was critical to the formation of highly ordered dense continuous films in these samples. This work seeks to discover the parameters necessary for the production of thin continuous films of high optical quality in Earth gravity. These parameters must be known before the experiment can be planned for growing DIVA in a microgravity environment. The microgravity grown films are expected to be denser and of better optical quality than the unit gravity films as was observed in the phthalocyanine films.

  3. Case Report: Multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    A multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma in a 68-year-old man is reported. Four different peripheral tumor nodules were identified on gross examination. A fifth central tumor corresponded to a conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that has been very recently characterized as a distinct histotype within the spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Immunostaining with cyclin D1 seems to be specific of this tumor subtype. This is the first reported case with multifocal presentation. PMID:27158455

  4. Bio-mimetic scaling of mechanical behavior of thin films, coatings, and surfaces by Laser Interference Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus; Balk, Thomas John; Wobben, Thomas; M�cklich, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Biological solutions to enhance strength and stability often use hierarchical composite structures. The effect is not based on large chemical variations, but instead is realized by structural composites with long-range order. Laser Interference Metallurgy is a newly developed technique that utilizes this biological approach to optimize the mechanical properties of surfaces and thin films. The possibility of scaling mechanical properties is quantitatively analyzed and compared with the biological approach.

  5. ERD measurement of depth profiles of H and Li in Pt-coated LiCoO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, B.; Morita, K.; Iriyama, Y.; Majima, T.; Tsuchida, H.

    2013-11-01

    By combining elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) using 9.0-MeV oxygen-ion (O4+) probe beams from a tandem accelerator, we simultaneously investigated the distributions of lithium (Li), hydrogen (H), cobalt (Co), and platinum (Pt) in 20 nm Pt/260 nm LiCoO2 multi-layer thin films acting as the positive electrode in a solid-state Li+ ion battery and, deposited on Li1.4Ti2Si0.4P2.6O12-AlPO4 (LATP) substrates by using pulsed laser deposition. Measurement of the ERD and RBS spectra revealed the effects of Pt deposition on the hydrogen absorption characteristics of the LiCoO2 thin films, with segregation of Co to the surface as a catalyst. We speculate from the results that the presence of H in the LiCoO2 thin films has a marked influence on Li+ ion conduction in Li-battery systems.

  6. Thin film gallium arsenide solar cell research. Third quarterly project report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1980. [Antireflection coating

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S. S.

    1980-12-01

    The major objective of this contract is to produce gallium arsenide solar cells of 10% conversion efficiency in films of less than 10 micrometers thick which have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition on graphite or tungsten coated graphite substrates. Major efforts during this quarter were directed to: (1) the optimization of the deposition of gallium arsenide films of 10 ..mu..m thickness or less on tungsten/graphic substrates, (2) the investigation of the effectiveness of various grain boundary passivation techniques, (3) the deposition of tantalum pentoxide by ion beam sputtering as an antireflection coating, (4) the deposition of gallium aluminium arsenide by the organometallic process, and (5) the fabrication and characterization of large area Schottky barrier type solar cells from gallium arsenide films of about 10 ..mu..m thickness. Various grain boundary passivation techniques, such as the anodic oxidation, thermal oxidation, and ruthenium treatment, have been investigated. The combination of thermal oxidation and ruthenium treatment has been used to fabricate Schottky barrier type solar cells. Large area MOS solar cells of 9 cm/sup 2/ area with AMl efficiency of 8.5% have been fabricated from ruthenium treated gallium arsenide films of 10 ..mu..m thickness. The construction of the apparatus for the deposition of gallium aluminum arsenide by the organometallic process has been completed. The deposition of good quality tantalum pentoxide film as an antireflection coating has been carried out by the ion beam sputtering technique. The short-circuit current density and AMl efficiency of the solar cells are increased by approximately 60%, with a slight increase in the open-circuit voltage. Details are presented. (WHK)

  7. Biphasic Metal Films: Intrinsically Stretchable Biphasic (Solid-Liquid) Thin Metal Films (Adv. Mater. 22/2016).

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Arthur; Michaud, Hadrien O; Gerratt, Aaron P; de Mulatier, Séverine; Lacour, Stéphanie P

    2016-06-01

    On page 4507, S. P. Lacour and co-workers present highly conductive and stretchable solid-liquid films that are formed by physical vapor deposition of gallium onto an alloying gold layer. The image shows patterns defined by lift-off on an elastomer membrane. The magnified view is a false-color scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image (×5000) of the surface of the films under 50% applied strain, showing the liquid Ga (blue-gray) flowing between the AuGa2 /Ga clusters (gold). PMID:27273441

  8. Organic-Modified SiO2 Thin Film Coatings Obtained by the Sol-Gel Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zareba-Grodź, I.; Szeluga, U.; Bukowska, E.; Hermanowicz, K.; Miśta, W.; Maruszewski, K.

    2006-02-01

    Transparent thin films of silica-containing organic copolymers have been obtained by combining organic photopolymerisation and the sol-gel method. The samples have been characterized via IR spectroscopy, N2-adsorption (77 K), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The viscoelastic nature of the materials have been investigated via the DMTA technique by applying stress to the samples and monitoring their responses. Textural properties such as: specific surface areas (SBET), pore volume (Vp), average pore sizes (Rp) and micropore volumes (VDR) have been obtained. The complete adsorption-desorption isotherms and pore size distributions have been analyzed following the Dollimore-Heal method.

  9. The structure and composition of chromate conversion coatings formed on aluminum-copper alloy AA2024-T3 and thin film analogs of constituent intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, Marvin Jaime

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive suite of spectroscopy have been used to study the composition and structure of Chromate Conversion Coatings (CCC) formed on Aluminum Copper (Al-Cu) alloy AA2024-T3 and constituent Intermetallic Compounds (IMCs). Based on previous work the CCC formed over the IMCs is expected to be thinner and therefore different in structure and composition than the CCC formed on the matrix. The formation of the CCC over the different IMCs is expected to be dependent on the chemistry and the interaction of the IMCs with accelerators such as ferricyanide. Surface chemical and structural data determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy, X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Secondary Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (SEM/EDAX) have been developed to refine an existing model for the CCC formed on the AA2024-T3 surface, an Al-Cu aircraft alloy, by considering the composition and structure of the CCC formed on constituent intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The limited corrosion behavior of AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy is generally attributed to the presence of a variety of constituent IMC. These IMC particles are of the order of 1--20 mum which makes their direct analysis exceedingly difficult and has lead to a limited understanding of their surface chemical properties relative to CCC formation. To overcome this limitation, it was necessary to develop for the first time large area samples composed of compositionally homogenous thin films of the various IMCs found on the AA2024-T3 surface, which were galvanically attached to thin films of Al-4.2wt%Cu (representative of the AA2024-T3 matrix). This was performed in a two-step process: Disks of IMC compositions were formed by Reactive Arc Melting (RAM), followed by ultra-fast laser ablation of the RAM IMCs resulting in the formation of homogenous thin films

  10. Photocatalytic Functional Coating of TiO2 Thin Film Deposited by Cyclic Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jung-Dae; Rha, Jong-Joo; Nam, Kee-Seok; Park, Jin-Seong

    2011-08-01

    Photocatalytic TiO2 thin films were prepared with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) using cyclic plasma chemical vapor deposition (CPCVD) at atmospheric pressure. The CPCVD TiO2 films contain carbon-free impurities up to 100 °C and polycrystalline anatase phases up to 200 °C, due to the radicals and ion-bombardments. The CPCVD TiO2 films have high transparency in the visible wavelength region and absorb wavelengths below 400 nm (>3.2 eV). The photocatalytic effects of the CPCVD TiO2 and commercial sprayed TiO2 films were measured by decomposing methylene blue (MB) solution under UV irradiation. The smooth CPCVD TiO2 films showed a relatively lower photocatalytic efficiency, but superior catalyst-recycling efficiency, due to their high adhesion strength on the substrates. This CPCVD technique may provide the means to produce photocatalytic thin films with low cost and high efficiency, which would be a reasonable candidate for practical photocatalytic applications, because of the reliability and stability of their photocatalytic efficiency in a practical environment.

  11. Synthesis of ZnxCd1-xS thin film by dip-coating method and its photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, M.; Sato, Y.; Shinoda, K.; Jeyadevan, B.; Tohji, K.; Arai, T.

    2006-05-15

    ZnS shows high photocatalytic activity, nevertheless the operating wavelength is limited to less than 330 nm. On the other hand, CdS can be used at wavelength up to 512 nm. However, CdS requires Pt as supporting catalyst. We have synthesized Pt-free ZnxCd1-xS particles with x varying between 0 and 1 by co-precipitation method and evaluated their photocatalytic activities. The highest photocatalytic activity was recorded for Zn0.67Cd0.33S particles. Then, ZnxCd1-xS solid solution films were prepared using the above particles by dip-coating method and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated.

  12. Biphasic survival analysis of trypanotolerance QTL in mice.

    PubMed

    Koudandé, O D; Thomson, P C; Bovenhuis, H; Iraqi, F; Gibson, J P; van Arendonk, J A M

    2008-04-01

    A marker-assisted introgression (MAI) experiment was conducted to transfer trypanotolerance quantitative trait loci (QTL) from a donor mouse strain, C57BL/6, into a recipient mouse strain, A/J. The objective was to assess the effect of three previously identified chromosomal regions on mouse chromosomes 1 (MMU1), 5 (MMU5) and 17 (MMU17) in different genetic backgrounds on the survival pattern following infection with Trypanosoma congolense. An exploratory data analysis revealed a biphasic pattern of time to death, with highly distinct early and late mortality phases. In this paper, we present survival analysis methods that account for the biphasic mortality pattern and results of reanalyzing the data from the MAI experiment. The analysis with a Weibull mixture model confirmed the biphasic pattern of time to death. Mortality phase, an unobserved variable, appears to be an important factor influencing survival time and is modeled as a binary outcome variable using logistic regression analysis. Accounting for this biphasic pattern in the analysis reveals that a previously observed sex effect on average survival is rather an effect on proportion of mice in the two mortality phases. The C57BL/6 (donor) QTL alleles on MMU1 and MMU17 act dominantly in the late mortality phase while the A/J (recipient) QTL allele on MMU17 acts dominantly in the early mortality phase. From this study, we found clear evidence for a biphasic survival pattern and provided models for its analysis. These models can also be used when studying defense mechanisms against other pathogens. Finally, these approaches provide further information on the nature of gene actions. PMID:18253157

  13. COATING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, R.G.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for protectively coating beryllium metal by etching the metal in an acid bath, immersing the etched beryllium in a solution of sodium zincate for a brief period of time, immersing the beryllium in concentrated nitric acid, immersing the beryhlium in a second solution of sodium zincate, electroplating a thin layer of copper over the beryllium, and finally electroplating a layer of chromium over the copper layer.

  14. Morphological and physicochemical properties of dip-coated poly {(2,5-diyl pyrrole) [4-nitrobenzylidène]} (PPNB) thin films: towards photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchaal, Younes; Gherrass, Hamou; Bendoukha Reguig, Abdelkarim; Hachemaoui, Aïcha; Yahiaoui, Ahmed; Makha, Mohamed; Khelil, Abdelbacet; Bernede, Jean-Christian

    2015-02-01

    A new material: conjugated poly {(2,5-diyl pyrrole) [4-nitrobenzylidène]}, that we called (PPNB), has been synthesized and characterized. The cyclic voltammetry has been used in order to estimate first oxidation (Ep) and reduction (En) potentials of our polymer. These values have been assigned, respectively, to the position of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and determination of the energy band gap which have been estimated to be 6.16, 3.89 and 2.27 eV respectively. Energy levels values of the HOMO and LUMO of the PPNB polymeric donor material were evaluated and the results are compatible with an electron transfer to C60 within an eventual junction, such values show that PPNB could be probed for applications in organic solar cells as donor material. PPNB Thin films have been deposited by dip-coating technique from Dichloromethane solvent with different polymer concentrations, and a dipping speed of 3.0 cm/min. For morphological characterization of the films scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out. The samples, when observed by SEM, reveals that the films deposited are less dense, uniform. Cross-sectional SEM micrographs PPNB films show that thickness of the layers is homogeneous and has value of 35-40 nm. Optical characteristics of the polymer thin films were studied using UV-vis spectroscopy; absorption of wide range of wavelengths from 350 to 700 nm was observed. The optical band gap energy ranges between 1.9 eV and 1.94 eV. Based on these analyzes we realized heterojunction organic solar cells with the structure: ITO/Au/PPNB/C60/BCP/Al, the cells had a photovoltaique effect after J-V measuring, however the efficiency of photo generation under AM1.5 illumination was weak (about 0.02%) and needs to be improved.

  15. Spectroscopic ellipsometry of Zn(1-x)Cu(x)O thin films based on a modified sol-gel dip-coating technique.

    PubMed

    Al-Khanbashi, Hibah A; Shirbeeny, W; Al-Ghamdi, A A; Bronstein, Lyudmila M; Mahmoud, Waleed E

    2014-01-24

    Nanocrystalline Zn(1-x)Cu(x)O thin films (x=0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05) were synthesized by sol-gel dip-coating technique on a quartz substrate. These films were annealed at 350°C for 2 h. The X-ray diffraction showed a hexagonal crystal structure with high intensity peak for the (002) reflection plane indicating preferential growth along the c-axis of the crystal lattice. The peak position related to the (002) peak was shifted as a result of the copper ion incorporation, confirming the interstitial substitution of the zinc ions by the copper ions. This interstitial substitution leads to a decrease of an average crystallite size and lattice constants and an increase of the micro-strain up to 2 at.% of the copper amount. The surface morphology was explored by scanning electron microscopy which confirmed the homogenous distribution of nanoparticles in the deposited films along the quartz substrates. The energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy revealed absence of impurities in the as-deposited films. The high resolution electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction depicted that the films have polycrystalline nature. The film thickness and optical constants of the Zn(1-x)Cu(x)O thin films were estimated by fitting the spectroscopic ellipsometric data (ψ and Δ) using three different models. The refractive index was fitted using harmonic oscillator model from which the oscillator and the dispersive energies were found. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss, energy loss functions were also determined. PMID:24157332

  16. A Solid-State Thin-Film Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode Coated with Graphene Oxide and Its Use in a pH Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Yong; Hong, Sung A; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe a novel solid-state thin-film Ag/AgCl reference electrode (SSRE) that was coated with a protective layer of graphene oxide (GO). This layer was prepared by drop casting a solution of GO on the Ag/AgCl thin film. The potential differences exhibited by the SSRE were less than 2 mV for 26 days. The cyclic voltammograms of the SSRE were almost similar to those of a commercial reference electrode, while the diffusion coefficient of Fe(CN)63− as calculated from the cathodic peaks of the SSRE was 6.48 × 10−6 cm2/s. The SSRE was used in conjunction with a laboratory-made working electrode to determine its suitability for practical use. The average pH sensitivity of this combined sensor was 58.5 mV/pH in the acid-to-base direction; the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99. In addition, an integrated pH sensor that included the SSRE was packaged in a secure digital (SD) card and tested. The average sensitivity of the chip was 56.8 mV/pH, with the correlation coefficient being greater than 0.99. In addition, a pH sensing test was also performed by using a laboratory-made potentiometer, which showed a sensitivity of 55.4 mV/pH, with the correlation coefficient being greater than 0.99. PMID:25789490

  17. Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce heat transfer between a hot gas heat source and a metallic engine component, a thermal insulating layer of material is placed between them. This thermal barrier coating is applied by plasma spray processing the thin films. The coating has been successfully employed in aerospace applications for many years. Lewis Research Center, a leader in the development engine components coating technology, has assisted Caterpillar, Inc. in applying ceramic thermal barrier coatings on engines. Because these large engines use heavy fuels containing vanadium, engine valve life is sharply decreased. The barrier coating controls temperatures, extends valve life and reduces operating cost. Additional applications are currently under development.

  18. Influence of annealing temperatures on corrosion resistance of magnesium thin film-coated electro-galvanized steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Kim, Yeon-Won; Lee, Seul-Gee; Kang, Jae-Wook; Park, Jun-Mu; Moon, Kyung-Man; Kim, Yun-Hae

    2015-03-01

    To improve the corrosion resistance of an electro-galvanized steel sheet, we deposited magnesium film on it using a vacuum evaporation method and annealed the films at 250-330°C. The zinc-magnesium alloy is consequently formed by diffusion of magnesium into the zinc coating. From the anodic polarization test in 3% NaCl solution, the films annealed at 270-290°C showed better corrosion resistance than others. In X-ray diffraction analysis, ZnMg2 was detected throughout the temperature range, whereas Mg2Zn11 and FeZn13 were detected only in the film annealed at 310°C. The depth composition profile showed that the compositions of Mg at 270-290°C are evenly and deeply distributed in the film surface layer. These results demonstrate that 270-290°C is a proper temperature range to produce a layer of MgZn2 intermetallic compound to act as a homogenous passive layer.

  19. Effects of acid catalyst type on structural, morphological, and optoelectrical properties of spin-coated TiO2 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza; Abdizadeh, Hossein

    2013-03-01

    The effects of different acid catalysts of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, boric acid, acetic acid, and citric acid on structural, morphological, and optoelectrical properties of nanocrystalline spin-coated TiO2 thin films synthesized via alkoxide sol-gel route were investigated. It was found that only the sols with HNO3 and HCl are suitable for film preparation. The X-ray diffractometry and Raman analysis showed that crystalline phases could be controlled by the type of acid catalyst. Although the H2SO4 sol shows good stability, it causes extremely different morphology to form due to its different sol nature and high contact angle. Fourier transformed infrared spectra confirmed the presence of acid anion species in all samples even after calcination. Furthermore, it was inferred from UV-visable absorption spectra that although the band gap and thickness of the films are independent of acid catalyst type, the refractive index and porosity of the films are strongly affected by the type of acids.

  20. Annealing effects on structural, electrical and optical properties of antimony-tinoxide thin films deposited by sol gel dip coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekshmy, S. Sujatha; Anitha, V. S.; Berlin, I. John; Joy, K.

    2014-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin dioxide possess interesting physical and chemical properties. These properties have a wide range of applications such as catalysis and optoelectronic devices. In the present study, antimony-doped tin oxide (SnO2:Sb) thin films were deposited on the quartz substrates by sol-gel dip coating technique. The films were annealed at temperatures 350°C, 550°C and 850°C in air for 2 hours. The structure and surface morphologies were observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD patterns shows tetragonal structure for the SnO2:Sb films annealed at different temperatures. Crystallite size increased from 6 to 14 nm as annealing temperature increased from 350°C to 850°C. SEM studies reveals crack free and smooth surface for all the films. The grains are found to be homogenously distributed for films annealed at higher temperature. The electrical conductivity of the films annealed at 350°C and 550°C decreased and increased for the films annealed at 850°C. The optical properties of the films were investigated in the UV-visible-NIR region (200-900 nm) using UV spectra. The transmittance of the films decreased for films annealed at higher temperature. The optical energy band gap values (4.13 eV-4.83 eV) increased with the increase in annealing temperature.

  1. Silicon nitride anti-reflection coating on the glass and transparent conductive oxide interface for thin film solar cells and modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahashi, T.; Morishima, M.; Fujibayashi, T.; Yang, R.; Lin, J.; Matsunaga, D.

    2015-10-01

    Anti-reflection coating (ARC) is well known as an important technique to enhance solar cell performance. Typical ARC has been applied on the glass surface to reduce light reflection loss at the air/glass interface. However, reflection loss occurs not only at glass surface but also at other interfaces such as glass/transparent conductive oxide (TCO) interface. The refractive index of SiNx is tunable from 1.6 to 2.7, and the range from 1.7 to 2.0 is suitable for ARC at glass/TCO interface. In this study, we examined the AR effect of silicon nitride (SiNx) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at the glass/TCO interface with thin film silicon solar cell and module. Reflectivity reduction of 1.6% for glass/ZnO substrate has been obtained with optimal SiNx layer, which contribute 2.0% gain in cell efficiency. Besides, we also confirmed the relative efficiency gain of around 2% for large-sized solar module, leading to a world-record large area stabilized module conversion efficiency of 12.34%.

  2. Transmission photocathodes based on stainless steel mesh and quartz glass coated with N-doped DLC thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balalykin, N. I.; Huran, J.; Nozdrin, M. A.; Feshchenko, A. A.; Kobzev, A. P.; Arbet, J.

    2016-03-01

    The influence was investigated of N-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films properties on the quantum efficiency of a prepared transmission photocathode. N-doped DLC thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate, a stainless steel mesh and quartz glass (coated with 5 nm thick Cr adhesion film) by reactive magnetron sputtering using a carbon target and gas mixture Ar, 90%N2+10%H2. The elements' concentration in the films was determined by RBS and ERD. The quantum efficiency was calculated from the measured laser energy and the measured cathode charge. For the study of the vectorial photoelectric effect, the quartz type photocathode was irradiated by intensive laser pulses to form pin-holes in the DLC film. The quantum efficiency (QE), calculated at a laser energy of 0.4 mJ, rose as the nitrogen concentration in the DLC films was increased and rose dramatically after the micron-size perforation in the quartz type photocathodes.

  3. Annealing effects on structural, electrical and optical properties of antimony-tinoxide thin films deposited by sol gel dip coating technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lekshmy, S. Sujatha Anitha, V. S. Berlin, I. John Joy, K.

    2014-01-28

    Antimony-doped tin dioxide possess interesting physical and chemical properties. These properties have a wide range of applications such as catalysis and optoelectronic devices. In the present study, antimony-doped tin oxide (SnO2:Sb) thin films were deposited on the quartz substrates by sol-gel dip coating technique. The films were annealed at temperatures 350°C, 550°C and 850°C in air for 2 hours. The structure and surface morphologies were observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD patterns shows tetragonal structure for the SnO2:Sb films annealed at different temperatures. Crystallite size increased from 6 to 14 nm as annealing temperature increased from 350°C to 850°C. SEM studies reveals crack free and smooth surface for all the films. The grains are found to be homogenously distributed for films annealed at higher temperature. The electrical conductivity of the films annealed at 350°C and 550°C decreased and increased for the films annealed at 850°C. The optical properties of the films were investigated in the UV-visible-NIR region (200-900 nm) using UV spectra. The transmittance of the films decreased for films annealed at higher temperature. The optical energy band gap values (4.13 eV-4.83 eV) increased with the increase in annealing temperature.

  4. Coating of plasma polymerized film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

  5. Detection of water in jet fuel using layer-by-layer thin film coated long period grating sensor.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Sean D; Pacey, Gilbert E

    2009-04-15

    The quantitative measurement of jet fuel additives in the field is of interest to the Air Force. The "smart nozzle" project was designed as a state-of-the-art diagnostics package attached to a single-point refueling nozzle for assessing key fuel properties as the fuel is dispensed. The objective of the work was to show proof of concept that a layer-by-layer thin film and long period grating fibers could be used to detect the presence of water in jet fuel. The data for the nafion/PDMA film and a long period grating fiber is a combination capable of quantitative measurement of water in kerosene. The average response (spectral loss wavelength shift) to the kerosene sample ranged from -6.0 for 15 ppm to -126.5 for 60 ppm water. The average calculated value for the check standard was 21.71 and ranged from 21.25 to 22.00 with a true value of 22.5 ppm water. Potential interferences were observed and are judged to be insignificant in real samples. PMID:19174242

  6. Glucose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in a biphasic system over solid acid foams.

    PubMed

    Ordomsky, Vitaly V; van der Schaaf, John; Schouten, Jaap C; Nijhuis, T Alexander

    2013-09-01

    A solid acid foam-structured catalyst based on a binderless zirconium phosphate (ZrPO) coating on aluminum foam was prepared. The catalyst layer was obtained by performing a multiple washcoating procedure of ZrPO slurry on the anodized aluminum foam. The effect of the pretreatment of ZrPO, the concentration of the slurry, and the amount of coating on the properties of the foam was studied. The catalytic properties of the prepared foams have been evaluated in the dehydration of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in a biphasic reactor. The catalytic behavior of ZrPO foam-based catalysts was studied in a rotating foam reactor and compared with that of bulk ZrPO. The effect of a silylation procedure on the selectivity of the process was shown over bulk and foam catalysts. This treatment resulted in a higher selectivity due to the deactivation of unselective Lewis acid sites. Addition of methylisobutylketone leads to extraction of HMF from the aqueous phase and stabilization of the selectivity to HMF over bulk ZrPO. A more intensive contact of the foam with the aqueous and organic phases leads to an increase in the selectivity and resistance to deactivation of the foam in comparison with a bulk catalyst. PMID:23616489

  7. Diamond Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Advances in materials technology have demonstrated that it is possible to get the advantages of diamond in a number of applications without the cost penalty, by coating and chemically bonding an inexpensive substrate with a thin film of diamond-like carbon (DLC). Diamond films offer tremendous technical and economic potential in such advances as chemically inert protective coatings; machine tools and parts capable of resisting wear 10 times longer; ball bearings and metal cutting tools; a broad variety of optical instruments and systems; and consumer products. Among the American companies engaged in DLC commercialization is Diamonex, Inc., a diamond coating spinoff of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Along with its own proprietary technology for both polycrystalline diamond and DLC coatings, Diamonex is using, under an exclusive license, NASA technology for depositing DLC on a substrate. Diamonex is developing, and offering commercially, under the trade name Diamond Aegis, a line of polycrystalline diamond-coated products that can be custom tailored for optical, electronic and engineering applications. Diamonex's initial focus is on optical products and the first commercial product is expected in late 1990. Other target applications include electronic heat sink substrates, x-ray lithography masks, metal cutting tools and bearings.

  8. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process. PMID:26843320

  9. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-02-01

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process.

  10. Biphasic Response of Ciprofloxacin in Human Fibroblast Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hincal, Filiz; Gürbay, Aylin; Favier, Alain

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of the involvement of an oxidative stress induction in the mechanism of the cytotoxic effect of quinolone antibiotics, we examined the viability of human fibroblast cells exposed to ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and measured the levels of lipid peroxidation (LP), glutathione (GSH), and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The data showed that the effect of CPFX on the viability of cells, as determined by neutral red uptake assay, was time-dependent, and the dose-response relation was biphasic. Cytotoxicity was not observed in the concentration range 5–150 mg/l CPFX when the cells were incubated for 24 h. In contrast, lower concentrations (5 and 12.5 mg/l) of CPFX increased the cell growth in all incubation periods tested. Marked decreases in the viability of fibroblasts were observed at concentrations 50 and 75 mg/l, and ≥50 mg/l, following 48 and 72 h exposure, respectively (p < 0.05). However, when the cells were exposed to > 75 mg/l CPFX for 48 h, no cytotoxicity was observed. By exposing fibroblast cultures to 75 mg/l CPFX for 48 h, an induction of LP enhancement and a marked decrease in intracellular GSH were observed. Vitamin E pretreatment of the cells lowered the level of LP, increased the total GSH content, and provided significant protection against CPFX-induced cytotoxicity. The biphasic effect of CPFX possibly resulted from the complex dose-dependent relationships between reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell proliferation, and cell viability. It was previously reported, in fact, for several cell models that ROS exert a biphasic effect on cell growth. Furthermore, cultured fibroblasts release their own free radicals, and the inhibition of endogenous ROS inhibits the fibroblast cell proliferation, whereas the effect of exogenous ROS is biphasic. PMID:19330132

  11. Improved internal defibrillation efficacy with a biphasic waveform.

    PubMed

    Fain, E S; Sweeney, M B; Franz, M R

    1989-02-01

    Clinically available automatic implantable defibrillators use a monophasic truncated exponential waveform shock; after delivery the charge remaining on the device's capacitors is "dumped" internally and wasted. The efficacy of a monophasic and biphasic truncated exponential defibrillation waveform produced by a single capacitor discharge was compared in seven closed-chest, pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. Defibrillation leads consisted of a new deployable intrapericardial electrode system. The monophasic waveform was positive and 6 msec in duration. The biphasic waveform had a positive phase identical to that of the monophasic waveform and a negative phase of equal duration with its initial voltage equal to 50% of the final voltage of the positive phase. Defibrillation shocks of varying initial voltage were delivered to construct curves of the percentage of successful defibrillation versus initial voltage and delivered energy, and the voltage and energy required for 50% (V50 and E50, respectively) and 80% (V80 and E80, respectively) success were compared. The biphasic waveform had significantly lower initial voltage (V50: 194 +/- 48 volts vs 227 +/- 48 volts, p less than 0.001; V80: 217 +/- 55 volts vs 256 +/- 66 volts, p less than 0.02) and energy (E50: 2.7 +/- 1.3 joules vs 3.4 +/- 1.5 joules, p less than 0.01; E80: 3.4 +/- 1.6 joules vs 4.3 +/- 2.2 joules, p less than 0.05) requirements than the monophasic waveform. It is concluded that a biphasic waveform produced by a single discharge that uses the "free" energy remaining on the capacitors significantly reduces the initial voltage and energy requirements for successful defibrillation and may improve the efficacy of future automatic implantable defibrillators. PMID:2916410

  12. Thin film metrology.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, Gerald; Flinn, Gregory

    2007-10-01

    Thin film metrology is suitable for characterising and performing quality control of a variety of coatings and films used in medical applications. The capabilities of today's systems are described. PMID:18078184

  13. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  14. Biphasic Dose Response in Low Level Light Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Carroll, James D.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing cell death and tissue damage has been known for over forty years since the invention of lasers. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial in mainstream medicine. The biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. A biphasic dose response has been frequently observed where low levels of light have a much better effect on stimulating and repairing tissues than higher levels of light. The so-called Arndt-Schulz curve is frequently used to describe this biphasic dose response. This review will cover the molecular and cellular mechanisms in LLLT, and describe some of our recent results in vitro and in vivo that provide scientific explanations for this biphasic dose response. PMID:20011653

  15. The Impact of Compact Layer in Biphasic Scaffold on Osteochondral Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Zhuo; Mu, Yun-Jing; Liu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    The structure of an osteochondral biphasic scaffold is required to mimic native tissue, which owns a calcified layer associated with mechanical and separation function. The two phases of biphasic scaffold should possess efficient integration to provide chondrocytes and osteocytes with an independent living environment. In this study, a novel biphasic scaffold composed of a bony phase, chondral phase and compact layer was developed. The compact layer-free biphasic scaffold taken as control group was also fabricated. The purpose of current study was to evaluate the impact of the compact layer in the biphasic scaffold. Bony and chondral phases were seeded with autogeneic osteoblast- or chondrocyte-induced bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), respectively. The biphasic scaffolds-cells constructs were then implanted into osteochondral defects of rabbits’ knees, and the regenerated osteochondral tissue was evaluated at 3 and 6 months after surgery. Anti-tensile and anti-shear properties of the compact layer-containing biphasic scaffold were significantly higher than those of the compact layer-free biphasic scaffold in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo studies revealed superior macroscopic scores, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen content, micro tomograph imaging results, and histological properties of regenerated tissue in the compact layer-containing biphasic scaffold compared to the control group. These results indicated that the compact layer could significantly enhance the biomechanical properties of biphasic scaffold in vitro and regeneration of osteochondral tissue in vivo, and thus represented a promising approach to osteochondral tissue engineering. PMID:23382984

  16. Ceramic coatings on smooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A. (Inventor); Brindley, W. J. (Inventor); Rouge, C. J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A metallic coating is plasma sprayed onto a smooth surface of a metal alloy substitute or on a bond coating. An initial thin ceramic layer is low pressure sprayed onto the smooth surface of the substrate or bond coating. Another ceramic layer is atmospheric plasma sprayed onto the initial ceramic layer.

  17. Advanced thin film thermocouples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

    1984-10-01

    The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

  18. Advanced thin film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

  19. Partition of fine particles in aqueous biphase systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xi

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems. In the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/salt/H2O system, it was found that pyrite partition was highly dependent upon pH conditions: at high pH the particles preferred the salt-rich (bottom) phase, while they moved to the polymer-rich (top) phase at low pH. This behavior is attributable to the different surface oxidation products associated with the pH variations: formation of FeOOH in alkaline solution, and a hydrophobic iron-deficient product (Fe 1-xS2) in acidic environment. The partitioning behavior of oxide particles (e.g., Al2O3, Fe2O 3, SiO2, TiO2) in the PEG/Na2SO 4/H2O system indicated that, in the absence of polymer-solid interaction, the surface hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties determined solid partition; otherwise, the specific polymer-solid interaction dominated the distribution of the solid particles. Aside from the polymer/salt aqueous biphase systems, the partitioning behavior of hematite and silica was also investigated in polymer/polymer (PEG/dextran) and polymer/nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100 (TX100

  20. The role of film interfaces in near-ultraviolet absorption and pulsed-laser damage in ion-beam-sputtered coatings based on HfO2/SiO2 thin-film pairs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ristau, Detlev; Papernov, S.; Kozlov, A. A.; Oliver, J. B.; Smith, C.; Jensen, L.; Gunster, S.; Madebach, H.

    2015-11-23

    The role of thin-film interfaces in the near-ultraviolet absorption and pulsed-laser–induced damage was studied for ion-beam–sputtered and electron-beam–evaporated coatings comprised from HfO2 and SiO2 thin-film pairs. To separate contributions from the bulk of the film and from interfacial areas, absorption and damage-threshold measurements were performed for a one-wave (355-nm wavelength) thick, HfO2 single-layer film and for a film containing seven narrow HfO2 layers separated by SiO2 layers. The seven-layer film was designed to have a total optical thickness of HfO2 layers, equal to one wave at 355 nm and an E-field peak and average intensity similar to a single-layer HfO2more » film. Absorption in both types of films was measured using laser calorimetry and photothermal heterodyne imaging. The results showed a small contribution to total absorption from thin-film interfaces, as compared to HfO2 film material. The relevance of obtained absorption data to coating near-ultraviolet, nanosecond-pulse laser damage was verified by measuring the damage threshold and characterizing damage morphology. The results of this study revealed a higher damage resistance in the seven-layer coating as compared to the single-layer HfO2 film in both sputtered and evaporated coatings. Here, the results are explained through the similarity of interfacial film structure with structure formed during the co-deposition of HfO2 and SiO2 materials.« less

  1. The role of film interfaces in near-ultraviolet absorption and pulsed-laser damage in ion-beam-sputtered coatings based on HfO2/SiO2 thin-film pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Ristau, Detlev; Papernov, S.; Kozlov, A. A.; Oliver, J. B.; Smith, C.; Jensen, L.; Gunster, S.; Madebach, H.

    2015-11-23

    The role of thin-film interfaces in the near-ultraviolet absorption and pulsed-laser–induced damage was studied for ion-beam–sputtered and electron-beam–evaporated coatings comprised from HfO2 and SiO2 thin-film pairs. To separate contributions from the bulk of the film and from interfacial areas, absorption and damage-threshold measurements were performed for a one-wave (355-nm wavelength) thick, HfO2 single-layer film and for a film containing seven narrow HfO2 layers separated by SiO2 layers. The seven-layer film was designed to have a total optical thickness of HfO2 layers, equal to one wave at 355 nm and an E-field peak and average intensity similar to a single-layer HfO2 film. Absorption in both types of films was measured using laser calorimetry and photothermal heterodyne imaging. The results showed a small contribution to total absorption from thin-film interfaces, as compared to HfO2 film material. The relevance of obtained absorption data to coating near-ultraviolet, nanosecond-pulse laser damage was verified by measuring the damage threshold and characterizing damage morphology. The results of this study revealed a higher damage resistance in the seven-layer coating as compared to the single-layer HfO2 film in both sputtered and evaporated coatings. Here, the results are explained through the similarity of interfacial film structure with structure formed during the co-deposition of HfO2 and SiO2 materials.

  2. The role of film interfaces in near-ultraviolet absorption and pulsed-laser damage in ion-beam-sputtered coatings based on HfO2/SiO2 thin-films pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Papernov, S.; Kozlov, A. A.; Oliver, J. B.; Smith, C.; Jensen, L.; Ristau, D.; Gunster, S.; Madebach, H.

    2015-11-23

    Here, the role of thin-film interfaces in the near-ultraviolet absorption and pulsed-laser–induced damage was studied for ion-beam–sputtered and electron-beam–evaporated coatings comprised from HfO2 and SiO2 thin-film pairs. To separate contributions from the bulk of the film and from interfacial areas, absorption and damage-threshold measurements were performed for a one-wave (355-nm wavelength) thick, HfO2 single-layer film and for a film containing seven narrow HfO2 layers separated by SiO2 layers. The seven-layer film was designed to have a total optical thickness of HfO2 layers, equal to one wave at 355 nm and an E-field peak and average intensity similar to a single-layer HfO2 film. Absorption in both types of films was measured using laser calorimetry and Photothermal heterodyne imaging. The results showed a small contribution to total absorption from thin-film interfaces, as compared to HfO2 film material. The relevance of obtained absorption data to coating near-ultraviolet, nanosecond-pulse laser damage was verified by measuring the damage threshold and characterizing damage morphology. The results of this study revealed a higher damage resistance in the seven-layer coating as compared to the single-layer HfO2 film in both sputtered and evaporated coatings. The results are explained through the similarity of interfacial film structure with structure formed during the co-deposition of HfO2 and SiO2 materials.

  3. The role of film interfaces in near-ultraviolet absorption and pulsed-laser damage in ion-beam-sputtered coatings based on HfO2/SiO2 thin-films pairs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Papernov, S.; Kozlov, A. A.; Oliver, J. B.; Smith, C.; Jensen, L.; Ristau, D.; Gunster, S.; Madebach, H.

    2015-11-23

    Here, the role of thin-film interfaces in the near-ultraviolet absorption and pulsed-laser–induced damage was studied for ion-beam–sputtered and electron-beam–evaporated coatings comprised from HfO2 and SiO2 thin-film pairs. To separate contributions from the bulk of the film and from interfacial areas, absorption and damage-threshold measurements were performed for a one-wave (355-nm wavelength) thick, HfO2 single-layer film and for a film containing seven narrow HfO2 layers separated by SiO2 layers. The seven-layer film was designed to have a total optical thickness of HfO2 layers, equal to one wave at 355 nm and an E-field peak and average intensity similar to a single-layermore » HfO2 film. Absorption in both types of films was measured using laser calorimetry and Photothermal heterodyne imaging. The results showed a small contribution to total absorption from thin-film interfaces, as compared to HfO2 film material. The relevance of obtained absorption data to coating near-ultraviolet, nanosecond-pulse laser damage was verified by measuring the damage threshold and characterizing damage morphology. The results of this study revealed a higher damage resistance in the seven-layer coating as compared to the single-layer HfO2 film in both sputtered and evaporated coatings. The results are explained through the similarity of interfacial film structure with structure formed during the co-deposition of HfO2 and SiO2 materials.« less

  4. FinalReport for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects:"High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications"

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Ian

    2009-09-01

    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join in this collaborative research. The

  5. Role of associated defects in oxygen ion conduction and surface exchange reaction for epitaxial samaria-doped ceria thin films as catalytic coatings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Nan; Shi, Yanuo; Schweiger, Sebastian; Strelcov, Evgheni; Foglietti, Vittorio; Orgiani, Pasquale; Balestrino, Giuseppe; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jennifer L. M. Rupp; Aruta, Carmela; et al

    2016-05-18

    Samaria-doped ceria (SDC) thin films are particularly important for energy and electronic applications such as micro-solid oxide fuel cells, electrolysers, sensors and memristors. In this paper we report a comparative study investigating ionic conductivity and surface reactions for well-grown epitaxial SDC films varying the samaria doping concentration. With increasing doping above 20 mol% of samaria, an enhancement in the defect association was observed by Raman spectroscopy. The role of such defect associates on the films` oxygen ion transport and exchange was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM). The measurements reveal that the ionic transport has amore » sharp maximum in ionic conductivity and drop in its activation energy down to 0.6 eV for 20 mol% doping. Increasing the doping concentration further up to 40 mol%, raises the activation energy substantially by a factor of two. We ascribe the sluggish transport kinetics to the "bulk" ionic-near ordering in case of the heavily doped epitaxial films. Analysis of the ESM first order reversal curve measurements indicate that these associated defects may have a beneficial role by lowering the activation of the oxygen exchange "surface" reaction for heavily doped 40 mol% of samaria. We reveal in a model experiment through a solid solution series of samaria doped ceria epitaxial films that the occurrence of associate defects in the bulk affects the surface charging state of the films to increase the exchange rates. Lastly, the implication of these findings are the design of coatings with tuned oxygen surface exchange by control of bulk associate clusters for future electro-catalytic applications.« less

  6. Role of Associated Defects in Oxygen Ion Conduction and Surface Exchange Reaction for Epitaxial Samaria-Doped Ceria Thin Films as Catalytic Coatings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Shi, Yanuo; Schweiger, Sebastian; Strelcov, Evgheni; Belianinov, Alex; Foglietti, Vittorio; Orgiani, Pasquale; Balestrino, Giuseppe; Kalinin, Sergei V; Rupp, Jennifer L M; Aruta, Carmela

    2016-06-15

    Samaria-doped ceria (SDC) thin films are particularly important for energy and electronic applications such as microsolid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, and memristors. In this paper, we report a comparative study investigating ionic conductivity and surface reactions for well-grown epitaxial SDC films varying the samaria doping concentration. With increasing doping above 20 mol % of samaria, an enhancement in the defect association is observed by Raman spectroscopy. The role of such associated defects on the films̀ oxygen ion transport and exchange is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM). The measurements reveal that the ionic transport has a sharp maximum in ionic conductivity and drops in its activation energy down to 0.6 eV for 20 mol % doping. Increasing the doping concentration further up to 40 mol %, it raises the activation energy substantially by a factor of 2. We ascribe the sluggish transport kinetics to the "bulk" ionic-near ordering in case of the heavily doped epitaxial films. Analysis of the ESM first-order reversal curve measurements indicates that these associated defects may have a beneficial role by lowering the activation of the oxygen exchange "surface" reaction for heavily doped 40 mol % of samaria. In a model experiment, through a solid solution series of samaria doped ceria epitaxial films, we reveal that the occurrence of associated defects in the bulk affects the surface charging state of the SDC films to increase the exchange rates. The implication of these findings is the design of coatings with tuned oxygen surface exchange by controlling the bulk associated clusters for future electrocatalytic applications. PMID:27192540

  7. The Effect of Covalently Immobilized FGF-2 on Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Substitute on Enhanced Biological Compatibility and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Eun-Joo; Oh, Seunghan; Kim, Sungtae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to covalently graft fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) onto biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) via a bifunctional cross-linker technique and to estimate the optimal dose of FGF-2 resulting in the best osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). SEM observation revealed that the surface of the 100 ng FGF-2 coated BCP was completely covered with the nanoparticles expected to be from the silane coupling agent. XRD, FT-IR, and XPS analysis showed that silane treatment, bifunctional cross-linker coating, and FGF-2 covalent grafts were conducted successfully without deforming the crystalline structure of BCP. An MTT assay demonstrated that FGF-2 coated BCP had good biocompatibility, regardless of the concentration of FGF-2, after 24 or 48 h of incubation. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay (14 days of incubation) and the ALP gene expression level of real-time PCR analysis (7 days of incubation) revealed that 50, 100, and 200 ng FGF-2 coated BCP induced the highest activities among all experimental groups and control group (P < 0.05). Thus, low concentrations of FGF-2 facilitated excellent osteogenesis and were effective at enhancing osteogenic potential. Also, the bifunctional cross-linker technique is expected to be a more feasible way to induce osteogenic differentiation while minimizing the risk of FGF-2 overdose. PMID:26436096

  8. Biphasic Effects of Alcohol as a Function of Circadian Phase

    PubMed Central

    Van Reen, Eliza; Rupp, Tracy L.; Acebo, Christine; Seifer, Ronald; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess how alcohol affects multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) and subjective measures of stimulation/sedation when alcohol is given at different circadian phases. Participants: Twenty-seven healthy young adults (age 21-26 yr) were studied. Design: Double-blind placebo and alcohol (vodka tonic targeting 0.05 g% concentration) beverages were each administered three times during the 20-h forced desynchrony protocol. Sleep latency tests and Biphasic Effects of Alcohol Scale (BAES) were administered on each forced desynchrony day. The outcome variables for this study include sleep onset latency (SOL) and stimulation and sedation value (from the BAES). Each outcome variable was associated with the ascending or descending limb of the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) curve and assigned a circadian phase within a 90° bin. Measurements and Results: BrAC confirmed targeted maximal levels. Only outcome variables associated with the ascending and descending limb of the alcohol curve were analyzed for this article. Alcohol administered at a circadian time associated with greatest sleepiness showed longer SOL compared with placebo when measured on the ascending limb of the BrAC curve. We also found longer SOL with alcohol on the ascending limb of the BrAC curve in a circadian bin that favors greatest alertness. We observed shorter SOLs on the descending limb of the BrAC curve, but with no circadian phase interaction. The subjective data were partially consistent with the objective data. Conclusions: The physiologic findings in this study support the biphasic stimulating and sedating properties of alcohol, but limit the effect to specific circadian times. Citation: Van Reen E; Rupp TL; Acebo C; Seifer R; Carskadon MA. Biphasic effects of alcohol as a function of circadian phase. SLEEP 2013;36(1):137-145. PMID:23288980

  9. Biphasic Investigation of Tissue Mechanical Response During Freezing Front Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jamie; Han, Bumsoo; Chuong, Cheng-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Cryopreservation of engineered tissue (ET) has achieved limited success due to limited understanding of freezing-induced biophysical phenomena in ETs, especially fluid-matrix interaction within ETs. To further our understanding of the freezing-induced fluid-matrix interaction, we have developed a biphasic model formulation that simulates the transient heat transfer and volumetric expansion during freezing, its resulting fluid movement in the ET, elastic deformation of the solid matrix and the corresponding pressure redistribution within. Treated as a biphasic material, the ET consists of a porous solid matrix fully saturated with interstitial fluid. Temperature-dependent material properties were employed and phase change was included by incorporating the latent heat of phase change into an effective specific heat term. Model-predicted temperature distribution, the location of the moving freezing front, and the ET deformation rates through the time course compare reasonably well with experiments reported previously. Results from our theoretical model show that behind the marching freezing front, the ET undergoes expansion due to phase change of its fluid contents. It compresses the region preceding the freezing front leading to its fluid expulsion and reduced regional fluid volume fractions. The expelled fluid is forced forward and upward into the region further ahead of the compression zone causing a secondary expansion zone; which then compresses the region further downstream with much reduced intensity. Overall, it forms an alternating expansion-compression pattern which moves with the marching freezing front. The present biphasic model helps us to gain insights into some facets of the freezing process and cryopreservation treatment that could not be gleaned experimentally. Its resulting understanding will ultimately be useful to design and improve cryopreservation protocols for ETs. PMID:22757502

  10. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  11. Development of modified-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate by biphasic quick/slow delivery system.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N H; Murthy, P N

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium starch glycolate acts as a superdisintegrant in immediate-release part and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a release retarding agent in extended-release core. Tablets were prepared by direct compression. Both the core and the coat contained the drug. The pre-compression blends were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, and compressibility index. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, weight variation test, friability, and in vitro release studies. No interaction was observed between zolpidem tartrate and excipients from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results of all the formulations prepared were compared with reference product Stilnoct®. Optimized formulations showed release patterns that match the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines for zolpidem tartrate extended-release tablets. The mechanism of drug release was studied using different mathematical models, and the optimized formulation has shown Fickian diffusion. Accelerated stability studies were performed on the optimized formulation. PMID:25391273

  12. Biphasic Analysis of Cartilage Stresses in the Patellofemoral Joint.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the state of stress within the solid matrix of articular cartilage in the patellofemoral joint, using anatomically faithful biphasic models of the articular layers, with the joint subjected to physiologic muscle force magnitudes. Finite element models of five joints were created from human cadaver knees. Biphasic sliding contact analyses were performed using FEBio software to analyze the response of the joint from 30 to 60 degrees of knee flexion. Results demonstrated that the collagen matrix always sustains tensile stresses, despite the fact that the articular layers are loaded in compression. The principal direction of maximum solid stresses was consistent with the known orientation of collagen fibrils in cartilage. The magnitudes of these tensile stresses under muscle forces representative of activities of daily living were well below tensile failure stresses reported in the prior literature. Results also hinted that solid matrix stresses were higher in the patellar versus femoral superficial zone. These anatomically correct finite element models predicted outcomes consistent with our understanding of structure-function relationships in articular cartilage, while also producing solid matrix stress estimates not observable from experiments alone, yet highly relevant to our understanding of tissue degeneration. PMID:26641078

  13. Cell–material interactions on biphasic polyurethane matrix

    PubMed Central

    Dicesare, Patrick; Fox, Wade M.; Hill, Michael J.; Krishnan, G. Rajesh; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2013-01-01

    Cell–matrix interaction is a key regulator for controlling stem cell fate in regenerative tissue engineering. These interactions are induced and controlled by the nanoscale features of extracellular matrix and are mimicked on synthetic matrices to control cell structure and functions. Recent studies have shown that nanostructured matrices can modulate stem cell behavior and exert specific role in tissue regeneration. In this study, we have demonstrated that nanostructured phase morphology of synthetic matrix can control adhesion, proliferation, organization and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nanostructured biodegradable polyurethanes (PU) with segmental composition exhibit biphasic morphology at nanoscale dimensions and can control cellular features of MSCs. Biodegradable PU with polyester soft segment and hard segment composed of aliphatic diisocyanates and dipeptide chain extender were designed to examine the effect polyurethane phase morphology. By altering the polyurethane composition, morphological architecture of PU was modulated and its effect was examined on MSC. Results show that MSCs can sense the nanoscale morphology of biphasic polyurethane matrix to exhibit distinct cellular features and, thus, signifies the relevance of matrix phase morphology. The role of nanostructured phases of a synthetic matrix in controlling cell–matrix interaction provides important insights for regulation of cell behavior on synthetic matrix and, therefore, is an important tool for engineering tissue regeneration. PMID:23255285

  14. Development and Characterization of Biphasic Hydroxyapatite/β-TCP Cements

    PubMed Central

    Gallinetti, Sara; Canal, Cristina; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Ferreira, J

    2014-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have relevant properties as synthetic bone grafts, such as tunable resorption, bioactivity, and intrinsic osteoinduction. However, they have some limitations associated to their condition of high-temperature ceramics. In this work self-setting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cements (BCPCs) with different HA/β-TCP ratios were obtained from self-setting α-TCP/β-TCP pastes. The strategy used allowed synthesizing BCPCs with modulated composition, compressive strength, and specific surface area. Due to its higher solubility, α-TCP was fully hydrolyzed to a calcium-deficient HA (CDHA), whereas β-TCP remained unreacted and completely embedded in the CDHA matrix. Increasing amounts of the non-reacting β-TCP phase resulted in a linear decrease of the compressive strength, in association to the decreasing amount of precipitated HA crystals, which are responsible for the mechanical consolidation of apatitic cements. Ca2+ release and degradation in acidic medium was similar in all the BCPCs within the timeframe studied, although differences might be expected in longer term studies once β-TCP, the more soluble phase was exposed to the surrounding media. PMID:25866411

  15. Biphasic Ferrogels for Triggered Drug and Cell Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cezar, Christine A.; Kennedy, Stephen M.; Mehta, Manav; Weaver, James C.; Gu, Luo; Vandenburgh, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Ferrogels are an attractive material for many biomedical applications due to their ability to deliver a wide variety of therapeutic drugs on-demand. However, typical ferrogels have yet to be optimized for use in cell-based therapies, as they possess limited ability to harbor and release viable cells. Previously, we have demonstrated an active porous scaffold that exhibits large deformations under moderate magnetic fields, resulting in enhanced biological agent release. However, at small device sizes optimal for implantation (e.g., 2 mm thickness), these monophasic ferrogels no longer achieve significant deformation due to a reduced body force. In this study, we present a new biphasic ferrogel containing an iron oxide gradient capable of large deformations and triggered release even at small gel dimensions. Biphasic ferrogels demonstrate increased porosity, enhanced mechanical properties, and potentially increased biocompatibility due to their reduced iron oxide content. With their ability to deliver drugs and cells on-demand, it is expected that these ferrogels will have wide utility in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:24862232

  16. Biphasic cardiovascular and respiratory effects induced by β-citronellol.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Filho, Helder Veras; de Souza Silva, Camila Meirelles; de Siqueira, Rodrigo JoséBezerra; Lahlou, Saad; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas

    2016-03-15

    β-Citronellol is a monoterpene found in the essential oil of various plants with antihypertensive properties. In fact, β-citronellol possesses hypotensive actions due to its vasodilator abilities. Here we aimed to show that β-citronellol recruits airway sensory neural circuitry to evoke cardiorespiratory effects. In anesthetized rats, intravenous injection of β-citronellol caused biphasic hypotension, bradycardia and apnea. Bilateral vagotomy, perivagal capsaicin treatment or injection into the left ventricle abolished first rapid phase (named P1) but not delayed phase P2 of the β-citronellol effects. P1 persisted after pretreatment with capsazepine, ondansetron, HC-030031 or suramin. Suramin abolished P2 of apnea. In awake rats, β-citronellol induced biphasic hypotension and bradycardia being P1 abolished by methylatropine. In vitro, β-citronellol inhibited spontaneous or electrically-evoked contractions of rat isolated right or left atrium, respectively, and fully relaxed sustained contractions of phenylephrine in mesenteric artery rings. In conclusion, chemosensitive pulmonary vagal afferent fibers appear to mediate the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of β-citronellol. The transduction mechanism in P1 seems not to involve the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 (TRPA1), purinergic (P2X) or 5-HT3 receptors located on airways sensory nerves. P2 of hypotension and bradycardia seems resulting from a cardioinhibitory and vasodilatory effect of β-citronellol and the apnea from a purinergic signaling. PMID:26872991

  17. Biphasic patterns of diversification and the emergence of modules

    PubMed Central

    Mittenthal, Jay; Caetano-Anollés, Derek; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The intricate molecular and cellular structure of organisms converts energy to work, which builds and maintains structure. Evolving structure implements modules, in which parts are tightly linked. Each module performs characteristic functions. In this work we propose that a module can emerge through two phases of diversification of parts. Early in the first phase of this biphasic pattern, the parts have weak linkage—they interact weakly and associate variously. The parts diversify and compete. Under selection for performance, interactions among the parts increasingly constrain their structure and associations. As many variants are eliminated, parts self-organize into modules with tight linkage. Linkage may increase in response to exogenous stresses as well as endogenous processes. In the second phase of diversification, variants of the module and its functions evolve and become new parts for a new cycle of generation of higher-level modules. This linkage hypothesis can interpret biphasic patterns in the diversification of protein domain structure, RNA and protein shapes, and networks in metabolism, codes, and embryos, and can explain hierarchical levels of structural organization that are widespread in biology. PMID:22891076

  18. Cell-material interactions on biphasic polyurethane matrix.

    PubMed

    Dicesare, Patrick; Fox, Wade M; Hill, Michael J; Krishnan, G Rajesh; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2013-08-01

    Cell-matrix interaction is a key regulator for controlling stem cell fate in regenerative tissue engineering. These interactions are induced and controlled by the nanoscale features of extracellular matrix and are mimicked on synthetic matrices to control cell structure and functions. Recent studies have shown that nanostructured matrices can modulate stem cell behavior and exert specific role in tissue regeneration. In this study, we have demonstrated that nanostructured phase morphology of synthetic matrix can control adhesion, proliferation, organization and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nanostructured biodegradable polyurethanes (PU) with segmental composition exhibit biphasic morphology at nanoscale dimensions and can control cellular features of MSCs. Biodegradable PU with polyester soft segment and hard segment composed of aliphatic diisocyanates and dipeptide chain extender were designed to examine the effect polyurethane phase morphology. By altering the polyurethane composition, morphological architecture of PU was modulated and its effect was examined on MSC. Results show that MSCs can sense the nanoscale morphology of biphasic polyurethane matrix to exhibit distinct cellular features and, thus, signifies the relevance of matrix phase morphology. The role of nanostructured phases of a synthetic matrix in controlling cell-matrix interaction provides important insights for regulation of cell behavior on synthetic matrix and, therefore, is an important tool for engineering tissue regeneration. PMID:23255285

  19. Biphasic behavior of energy in a stepped chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping-Jian, Wang; Ai-Xiang, He; Zhong-Hai, Lin; Guang-Fen, Wei; Yan-Li, Liu

    2016-06-01

    The impact energy decay in a step-up chain containing two sections is numerically studied. There is a marked biphasic behavior of energy decay in the first section. Two sections close to the interface are in compression state. The degree of compression of the first section first decreases and becomes weakest at “crossing” time of biphasic behavior of energy, then increases. The further calculations provide the dependence of the character time on mass ratio (m 1/m 2), where m 1 and m 2 are the particle mass in the first and second section respectively. The bigger the α (α = [(Ωm 1 – m 2)/(Ωm 1 + m 2)]2 with Ω = 1.345), the bigger the energy ratio is. The multipulse structure restricts the transport of energy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61174007 and 61307041) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2013AL014).

  20. An augmented Lagrangian finite element formulation for 3D contact of biphasic tissues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongqiang; Spilker, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Biphasic contact analysis is essential to obtain a complete understanding of soft tissue biomechanics, and the importance of physiological structure on the joint biomechanics has long been recognised; however, up to date, there are no successful developments of biphasic finite element contact analysis for three-dimensional (3D) geometries of physiological joints. The aim of this study was to develop a finite element formulation for biphasic contact of 3D physiological joints. The augmented Lagrangian method was used to enforce the continuity of contact traction and fluid pressure across the contact interface. The biphasic contact method was implemented in the commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2(®) (COMSOL, Inc., Burlington, MA). The accuracy of the implementation was verified using 3D biphasic contact problems, including indentation with a flat-ended indenter and contact of glenohumeral cartilage layers. The ability of the method to model multibody biphasic contact of physiological joints was proved by a 3D knee model. The 3D biphasic finite element contact method developed in this study can be used to study the biphasic behaviours of the physiological joints. PMID:23181617

  1. Oscillatory Motion of a Bi-Phasic Slug in a Teflon Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolhasani, Milad; Jensen, Klavs

    2015-11-01

    Bi-phasic physical/chemical processes require transfer of solute/reagent molecules across the interface. Continuous multi-phase flow approaches (using gas as the continuous phase), usually fail in providing sufficient interfacial area for transfer of molecules between the aqueous and organic phases. In continuous segmented flow platforms (with a fluorinated polymer-based reactor), the higher surface tension of the aqueous phase compared to the organic phase of a bi-phasic slug, in combination with the low surface energy of the reactor wall result in a more facile motion of the aqueous phase. Thus, upon applying a pressure gradient across the bi-phasic slug, the aqueous phase of the slug moves through the organic phase and leads the bi-phasic slug, thereby limiting the available interfacial area for the bi-phasic mass transfer only to the semi-spherical interface between the two phases. Disrupting the quasi-equilibrium state of the bi-phasic slug through reversing the pressure gradient across the bi-phasic slug causes the aqueous phase to move back through the organic phase. In this work, we experimentally investigate the dynamics of periodic alteration of the pressure gradient across a bi-phasic slug, and characterize the resulting enhanced interfacial area on the bi-phasic mass transfer rate. We demonstrate the enhanced mass transfer rate of the oscillatory flow strategy compared to the continuous multi-phase approach using bi-phasic Pd catalyzed carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen cross coupling reactions. NSERC Postdoctoral Fellowship, Novartis Center for Continuous Manufacturing.

  2. Electrostatic bonding of thin (cycle sine 3 mil) 7070 cover glass to Ta2O5 AR-coated thin (cycle sine 2 mil) silicon wafers and solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egelkrout, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic bonding of thin cover glass to thin solar cells was researched. Silicon solar cells, wafers, and Corning 7070 glass of from about 0.002" to about 0.003" in thickness were used in the investigation to establish optimum parameters for producing mechanically acceptable bonds while minimizing thermal stresses and resultant solar cell electrical parameter degradation.

  3. A boundary-integral representation for biphasic mixture theory, with application to the post-capillary glycocalyx

    PubMed Central

    Sumets, P. P.; Cater, J. E.; Long, D. S.; Clarke, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new boundary-integral representation for biphasic mixture theory, which allows us to efficiently solve certain elastohydrodynamic–mobility problems using boundary element methods. We apply this formulation to model the motion of a rigid particle through a microtube which has non-uniform wall shape, is filled with a viscous Newtonian fluid, and is lined with a thin poroelastic layer. This is relevant to scenarios such as the transport of small rigid cells (such as neutrophils) through microvessels that are lined with an endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL). In this context, we examine the impact of geometry upon some recently reported phenomena, including the creation of viscous eddies, fluid flux into the EGL, as well as the role of the EGL in transmitting mechanical signals to the underlying endothelial cells. PMID:26345494

  4. Effect of a thin ceramic-coating layer on thermal and electrochemical properties of polyethylene separator for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chuan; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Lixiao; Yang, Pingting; Zhao, Jinbao

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a new kind of ceramic-coating separator for lithium-ion batteries is successfully prepared by forming a ceramic layer consisted of Al2O3 powder, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) mix binder onto one side of pristine PE separator. During the preparation of the separator, water is used as solvent and a very small amount of SBR-CMC mixture is applied as binder to obtain better thermal stability. The effect of thickness of the ceramic-coating layer on its thermal stability, physical properties and electrochemical performance is also investigated. The results clearly showed that the ceramic-coating separator with SBR-CMC binder has wonderful thermal stability, good wettability and high uptake of liquid electrolyte. Pouch cell tests with the ceramic-coating separator also show excellent stable cycle performance.

  5. Effect of the pulsed laser deposition conditions on the tribological properties of thin-film nanostructured coatings based on molybdenum diselenide and carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fominskii, V. Yu.; Grigor'ev, S. N.; Romanov, R. I.; Nevolin, V. N.

    2012-04-01

    The structural state and tribological properties of gradient and composite antifriction coatings produced by pulsed laser codeposition from MoSe2(Ni) and graphite targets are studied. The coatings are deposited onto steel substrates in vacuum and an inert gas, and an antidrop shield is used to prevent the deposition of micron-size particles from a laser jet onto the coating. The deposition of a laser jet from the graphite target and the application of a negative potential to the substrate ensure additional high-energy atom bombardment of growing coatings. Comparative tribological tests performed at a relative air humidity of ˜50% demonstrate that the "drop-free" deposition of a laser-induced atomic flux in the shield shadow significantly improves the antifriction properties of MoSe x coatings, decreasing the friction coefficient from 0.07 to 0.04. The best tribological properties, which combine a low friction coefficient and high wear resistance, are detected in drop-free MoSe x coatings additionally alloyed with carbon (up to ˜55 at %) and subjected to effective bombardment by high-energy atoms during growth. Under these conditions, a dense nanocomposite structure containing the self-lubricating MoSe2 phase and an amorphous carbon phase with a rather high concentration of diamond bonds forms.

  6. On optimization of integration properties of biphase coded signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Wanzhi; Xiang, Jingcheng

    Within the context of the requirements for agile waveforms with a large compression ratio in biphase coded radars and on the basis of the characteristics of interpulse integration processing of radar signals, the study proposes two sequence optimization criteria which are suitable for radar processing patterns: interpulse waveform agility - pulse compression - FFT, and MTI - pulse compression - noncoherent integration. Applications of these criteria to optimizing sequences of length 127 are carried out. The output peak ratio of mainlobe to sidelobe (RMS) is improved considerably without a weighting network, while the autocorrelation and cross correlation profles of the sequences are very satisfactory. The RMS of coherent integration and noncoherent integration of eight sequences are 34.12 and 28.1 dB, respectively, when the return signals have zero Doppler shift. These values are about 12 and 6 dB higher than the RMS of single signals before integration.

  7. Surface modification of biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. Z.; Zhou, D. L.; Yin, G. F.; Li, G. D.

    2008-11-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP)/poly L-lactide (PLLA) biocomposite is proven to be a promising bone graft material or scaffold for bone tissue engineering. To improve the interfacial compatibility of BCP bioceramic with biopolymer-PLLA, BCP powders were surface-modified in different condition to graft polymer groups onto the surface of the BCP powders. L-lactide and L-lactic acid (LA) oligomer were used to modify the BCP surface with stannous octanoate (Sn(Oct) 2) and stannous chloride (SnCl 2) as catalyst, respectively. Results show that the surface modification effect is obvious and the amount of grafted organic group is above 6.5 wt.%. Sn(Oct) 2 and SnCl 2 are the optimal catalysts for the surface grafting reaction of L-lactide and L-LA oligomer, respectively. The surface grafting slightly increase the particle size of BCP powders and reduce the tendency for their agglomeration.

  8. Bioplastique: a new biphasic polymer for minimally invasive injection implantation.

    PubMed

    Ersek, R A; Beisang, A A

    1992-01-01

    The search for prosthetic materials that are biocompatible, nontoxic, and permanent led the authors to develop a micronized, inert, biphasic polymer particle for permanent soft tissue augmentation which neither migrates nor is absorbed by the body. Placed in a bioexcretable gel carrier, these textured microparticles are easily implanted using a specially designed blunt-tipped cannula with local anesthesia on an outpatient basis. Research using this implant material, Bioplastique (Bioplasty, St. Paul, MN), in rabbits has shown that when the textured particle size is maintained within a critical range, neither particle migration nor storage disease occurs. The gel carrier is rapidly phagocytized and replaced by fibrin matrix within a few days. Host collagen then gradually forms a fibrotic capsule around each textured particle, making use of the naturally occurring foreign body reaction to create a stable inplant. After being followed for over two years, Bioplastique has proven to be useful in many clinical applications with few complications. PMID:1734632

  9. Intervertebral Disk Tissue Engineering Using Biphasic Silk Composite Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Gil, Eun Seok; Cho, Hongsik; Mandal, Biman B.; Tien, Lee W.; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolds composed of synthetic, natural, and hybrid materials have been investigated as options to restore intervertebral disk (IVD) tissue function. These systems fall short of the lamellar features of the native annulus fibrosus (AF) tissue or focus only on the nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue. However, successful regeneration of the entire IVD requires a combination approach to restore functions of both the AF and NP. To address this need, a biphasic biomaterial structure was generated by using silk protein for the AF and fibrin/hyaluronic acid (HA) gels for the NP. Two cell types, porcine AF cells and chondrocytes, were utilized. For the AF tissue, two types of scaffold morphologies, lamellar and porous, were studied with the porous system serving as a control. Toroidal scaffolds formed out of the lamellar, and porous silk materials were used to generate structures with an outer diameter of 8 mm, inner diameter of 3.5 mm, and a height of 3 mm (the interlamellar distance in the lamellar scaffold was 150–250 μm, and the average pore sizes in the porous scaffolds were 100–250 μm). The scaffolds were seeded with porcine AF cells to form AF tissue, whereas porcine chondrocytes were encapsulated in fibrin/HA hydrogels for the NP tissue and embedded in the center of the toroidal disk. Histology, biochemical assays, and gene expression indicated that the lamellar scaffolds supported AF-like tissue over 2 weeks. Porcine chondrocytes formed the NP phenotype within the hydrogel after 4 weeks of culture with the AF tissue that had been previously cultured for 2 weeks, for a total of 6 weeks of cultivation. This biphasic scaffold simulating in combination of both AF and NP tissues was effective in the formation of the total IVD in vitro. PMID:21919790

  10. Biphasic Role of Calcium in Mouse Sperm Capacitation Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Alvau, Antonio; Escoffier, Jessica; Krapf, Dario; Sánchez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Salicioni, Ana M.; Darszon, Alberto; Visconti, Pablo E.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire fertilizing ability in the female tract in a process known as capacitation. At the molecular level, capacitation is associated with up-regulation of a cAMP-dependent pathway, changes in intracellular pH, intracellular Ca2+ and an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. How these signaling systems interact during capacitation is not well understood. Results presented in this study indicate that Ca2+ ions have a biphasic role in the regulation of cAMP-dependent signaling. Media without added Ca2+ salts (nominal zero Ca2+) still contain micromolar concentrations of this ion. Sperm incubated in this medium did not undergo PKA activation or the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation suggesting that these phosphorylation pathways require Ca2+. However, chelation of the extracellular Ca2+ traces by EGTA induced both cAMP-dependent phosphorylation and the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. The EGTA effect in nominal zero Ca2+ media was mimicked by two calmodulin antagonists, W7 and calmidazolium, and by the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A. These results suggest that Ca2+ ions regulate sperm cAMP and tyrosine phosphorylation pathways in a biphasic manner and that some of its effects are mediated by calmodulin. Interestingly, contrary to wild type mouse sperm, sperm from CatSper1 KO mice underwent PKA activation and an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation upon incubation in nominal zero Ca2+ media. Therefore, sperm lacking Catsper Ca2+ channels behave as wild-type sperm incubated in the presence of EGTA. This latter result suggests that Catsper transports the Ca2+ involved in the regulation of cAMP-dependent and tyrosine phosphorylation pathways required for sperm capacitation. PMID:25597298

  11. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of hematite in the dextran (Dex)/Triton X-100 (TX100) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran systems were investigated and the effects of some ionic surfactants on solid partition were studied. In both biphase systems, the particles stayed in the bottom dextran-rich phase under all pH conditions. This behavior is attributable to the fact that the hydrophilic oxide particles prefer the more hydrophilic bottom phase. Also, the strong favorable interaction between dextran and ferric oxide facilitates the dispersion of the solids in the polysaccharide-rich phase. In the Dex/TX100 system, addition of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or potassium oleate had no effect on the solid partition; on the other hand, addition of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) transferred the particles to the top phase or interface at high pH values. In the PEG/Dex system, the preferred location of hematite remained the bottom phase in the presence of either SDS or DTAB. The effects of anionic surfactants on the partition behavior are attributable to the fact that they are not able to replace the strongly adsorbed polysaccharide layer on the ferric oxide surface. The results with the cationic surfactant are due to electrostatic interaction between the cationic surfactant and the charged surface of the solid particles. The difference in solids partitioning in the two systems is the result of the different distribution of DTAB in these systems. In the Dex/TX100 system, DTAB prefers the top surfactant-rich phase, while it concentrates in the bottom phase in the PEG/dextran system.

  12. Biphasic Presence of Fibrocytes in a Porcine Hypertrophic Scar Model

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Taryn E.; Mino, Matthew J.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Mauskar, Neil A.; Prindeze, Nicholas J.; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Jordan, Marion H.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The duroc pig has been described as a promising animal model for use in the study of human wound healing and scar formation. However little is known about the presence and chronology of the fibrocyte cell population in the healing process of these animals. Methods Wounds known to form scar were created on red duroc swine (3“ × 3”) with a dermatome to a total depth of either 0.06“ or 0.09”. These wounds were allowed to heal completely and were biopsied at scheduled time points during the healing process. Biopsies were formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded for immunohistochemical analysis. Porcine-reactive antibodies to CD-45 and procollagen-1 and a human-reactive antibody to LSP-1 were used to detect the presence of fibrocytes in immunohistochemistry an immunocytochemistry. Results Initial immunohistochemical studies showed evidence of a biphasic presence of fibrocytes. Pigs with 0.06“ deep wounds showed positive staining for CD-45 and LSP-1 within highly cellular areas at days 2 and 4 after wounding. Additional animals with 0.09” deep wounds showed positive staining within similar areas at days 56, 70, and 113 after wounding. There was no immunohistochemical evidence of fibrocytes in skin biopsies taken at days 14, 28, or 42. Procollagen-1 staining was diffuse in all samples. Cultured cells stained for CD-45, LSP-1, and procollagen-1 by immunocytochemistry. Conclusions These data confirm that fibrocytes are indeed present in this porcine model. We conclude that these cells are present after initial wounding and later during scar formation and remodeling. We believe that this is evidence of a biphasic presence of fibrocytes, first as an acute response to skin wounding followed by later involvement in the remodeling process, prompted by continued inflammation in a deep partial thickness wound. PMID:25051518

  13. Effect of pre-treatment of the substrate surface by energetic C+ ion bombardment on structure and nano-tribological characteristics of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rismani, E.; Sinha, S. K.; Tripathy, S.; Yang, H.; Bhatia, C. S.

    2011-03-01

    Depositing an ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coating on the surface of the recording heads in magnetic tape drives can improve the tribological problems at the head/tape interface. In this work the effect of pre-treatment of the surface of AlTiC substrate (main bearing surface of head in contact with tape) by C+ ions of moderate energy (smaller than 400 eV) on the structural and tribo-mechanical behaviours of the coated surfaces is studied. Sample preparation consisted of two separate stages of surface pre-treatment and deposition of the protective film, and was done by means of filtered cathodic vacuum arc. Structure of the ta-C film and its interface with the substrate were studied by transmission electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. The results revealed the formation of a broader, dense atomically mixed layer at the ta-C film-substrate interface of the pre-treated samples comparing with that of the samples without pre-treatment. Chemical characterization of thin diamond-like carbon coatings was conducted by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface pre-treatment was found to have a remarkable effect on increasing the sp3 hybridization fraction in the ta-C overcoat. Nano-tribological properties of the treated surfaces were examined using ball-on-flat wear test at very low load (20 mN). There was a good correlation between the surface and structure characteristics of the film, and the tribological results and the pre-treated surfaces presented a very low coefficient of friction and higher wear life. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of bombardment of the surface with C+ ions of moderate ion energy to improve the structural and tribo-mechanical properties of the protective ta-C films on the magnetic head substrate material.

  14. Effects of Precursor Concentration on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Grown on Muscovite Mica Substrates by Sol-Gel Spin-Coating.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younggyu; Leem, Jae-Young

    2016-05-01

    The structural and optical properties of the ZnO thin films grown on mica substrates for different precursor concentrations were investigated. The surface morphologies of all the samples indicated that they consisted of granular structures with spherical nano-sized crystallites. The thickness of the ZnO thin films increased significantly and the optical band gap exhibited a blue shift with an increase in the precursor concentration. It is remarkable that the highest I(NBE)/I(DLE) ratio was observed for the ZnO thin film with 0.8 M precursor concentration, even though cracks formed on the surface of this film. PMID:27483897

  15. Effect of annealing treatment on electrical and optical properties of Nb doped TiO2 thin films as a TCO prepared by sol-gel spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah, Milad; Zamani-Meymian, Mohammad-Reza; Rahimi, Rahmatollah; Rabbani, Mahboubeh

    2014-10-01

    Anatase niobium doped TiO2 thin films (Ti0.94Nb0.06O2) were prepared on quartz substrates by sol-gel spin coating technique and various initial concentrations ([Ti + Nb] in the solution) of 0.1 M and 0.4 M. All the films dried at 100 °C and then the annealing treatment performed by three different procedures. The influence of different annealing processes and total metal concentrations was studied on crystallinity, transparency, conductivity and morphology of thin films by XRD, EDX, FT-IR and UV-vis transmittance spectroscopy, four point probe, AFM and SEM images. It was found that two-step annealing procedure under vacuum is a more proper way to increase the conductivity of TNO thin films compared to one-step annealing process. Two-step method exhibited the minimum resistivity of 4.4 Ω cm and the transparency of about 50% in the visible region with 36 nm thickness.

  16. A study of the optical properties and adhesion of zinc sulfide anti-reflection thin film coated on a germanium substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firoozifar, S. A. R.; Behjat, A.; Kadivar, E.; Ghorashi, S. M. B.; Zarandi, M. Borhani

    2011-11-01

    To conduct this study, zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films deposited on germanium (Ge) substrates were prepared by an evaporation method. The effects of deposition rate and annealing on the optical properties and adhesion of the ZnS thin films were investigated. The transmission intensity and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the samples showed that the transmittance of the samples decreases by increasing the evaporation rates. However, with the increase of the annealing temperature, crystallinity of the thin films improves which, in turn, results in the enhancement of the transmission intensity in a far infrared region. The maximum grain size was obtained at the annealing temperature of 225 °C. Our experimental results also show that evaporation rate and annealing influences the adhesion of ZnS thin films to Ge substrates.

  17. Electron transport in zinc-blende wurtzite biphasic gallium nitride nanowires and GaNFETs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Ayres, Virginia M.; Stallcup, Richard E.; Hartman, Alan; Tupta, Mary Ann; Baczewski, Andrew David; Crimp, Martin A.; Halpern, Joshua B.; He, Maoqi; Shaw, Harry C.

    2007-10-19

    Two-point and four-point probe electrical measurements of a biphasic gallium nitride nanowire and current–voltage characteristics of a gallium nitride nanowire based field effect transistor are reported. The biphasic gallium nitride nanowires have a crystalline homostructure consisting of wurtzite and zinc-blende phases that grow simultaneously in the longitudinal direction. There is a sharp transition of one to a few atomic layers between each phase. Here, all measurements showed high current densities. Evidence of single-phase current transport in the biphasic nanowire structure is discussed.

  18. Role of calcium in biphasic immunomodulation by gamma-HCH (lindane) in mice.

    PubMed

    Meera, P; Tripathi, O; Kamboj, K K; Rao, P R

    1993-01-01

    gamma-HCH (Lindane) is reported to cause a biphasic immunomodulation-stimulation followed by suppression-after oral administration in mice. Role of calcium in this biphasic immunomodulation was assessed after 4, 12 and 24 wks of gamma-HCH administration. 45Ca-uptake was enhanced during the initial immunostimulation followed by decrease concomitant with immunosuppression. Lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited during both the phases of immune response by verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, and by trifluoperazine, a calmodulin inhibitor. These findings show an impairment of calcium homeostasis in lymphocytes culminating into the biphasic immunomodulatory effects of gamma-HCH. PMID:7680676

  19. Enhanced optical and electrical properties of boron-doped zinc-oxide thin films prepared by using the sol-gel dip-coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-heon; Kim, MinSu; Jung, YuJin; Jung, Jae Hak; Kim, Soaram; Leem, Jae-Young; Kim, Howoon

    2013-11-01

    Undoped ZnO and B-dopoed ZnO (BZO) thin films with 0 to 2.5 at.% B were prepared by using sol-gel synthesis. Their optical and electrical properties and surface morphology were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and van der Pauw Hall-effect measurements. All of the thin films were deposited appropriately onto quartz substrates; they exhibited a fibrous root morphology, with structures that changed in size with increasing B concentration. The PL spectra showed near-band-edge (NBE) emissions and deep-level emissions (DLE). The NBE emission and the DLE for the BZO thin films were more blue-shifted than those for the undoped ZnO thin film, and the blue shift increased the efficiency of the NBE emission of the BZO thin films. The Hall-effect data suggested that B doping also improved the electrical properties, such as the carrier concentration, Hall mobility, and resistivity, of the thin films. The resistivity and the Hall mobility decreased with increasing B concentration and were inversely proportional to the carrier concentration.

  20. Coatings Boost Solar-Cell Outputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Campbell, Robert B.; O'Keefe, T. W.; Rai-Choudbury, Posenjit; Hoffman, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Efficiencies increased by more-complete utilization of incident light. Electrical outputs of thin solar photovoltaic cells made of dendritic-web silicon increased by combination of front-surface, antireflective coatings and back-surface, reflective coatings. Improvements achieved recently through theoretical and experimental studies of ways to optimize coatings for particular wavelengths of incident light, cell thicknesses, and cell materials.

  1. Characterization of ZnO thin films grown on different p-Si substrate elaborated by solgel spin-coating method

    SciTech Connect

    Chebil, W.; Fouzri, A.; Fargi, A.; Azeza, B.; Zaaboub, Z.; and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • High quality ZnO thin films grown on different p-Si substrates were successful obtained by sol–gel process. • PL measurement revealed that ZnO thin film grown on porous Si has the better optical quality. • I–V characteristics for all heterojunctions exhibit successful diode formation. • The diode ZnO/PSi shows a better photovoltaic effect under illumination with a maximum {sub Voc} of 0.2 V. - Abstract: In this study, ZnO thin films are deposited by sol–gel technique on p-type crystalline silicon (Si) with [100] orientation, etched silicon and porous silicon. The structural analyses showed that the obtained thin films were polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and preferentially oriented along the c-axis direction. Morphological study revealed the presence of rounded and facetted grains irregularly distributed on the surface of all samples. PL spectra at room temperature revealed that ZnO thin film grown on porous Si has a strong UV emission with low defects in the visible region comparing with ZnO grown on plat Si and etched Si surface. The heterojunction parameters were evaluated from the (I–V) under dark and illumination at room temperature. The ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance of heterojunction grown on different p-Si substrates are determined by using different methods. Best electrical properties are obtained for ZnO layer deposited on porous silicon.

  2. Aqueous biphasic plutonium oxide extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1997-04-29

    A method is described for simultaneously partitioning a metal oxide and silica from a material containing silica and the metal oxide, using a biphasic aqueous medium having immiscible salt and polymer phases. 2 figs.

  3. Evaluation of a new biphasic culture system for the recovery of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Giger, T; Burkardt, H J

    1990-06-01

    A newly developed biphasic culture system (MB-Check) for recovery of mycobacteria was evaluated. The biphasic system consists of a bottle containing selective modified Middlebrook 7H9 broth and a mounted dip slide with chocolate agar and modified Middlebrook 7H11 agar with and without NAP. The system was compared with culture on two egg-based media, Lowenstein medium and a selective Gottsacker medium, using 995 routine specimens and 90 artificially seeded sputa. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected in 17 of the 995 routine specimens by the biphasic system and in 14 specimens by the egg-based media together. In the artificially seeded sputa the biphasic system showed higher sensitivity in detection of both tuberculosis complex and non-tuberculous mycobacteria than the egg-based media. The recovery times of the new system were comparable to those of the two conventional culture methods. PMID:2387296

  4. Generation of useful energy from process fluids using the biphase turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgeson, N. L.

    1981-01-01

    The six largest energy consuming industries in the United States were surveyed to determine the energy savings that could result from applying the Biphase turbine to industrial process streams. A national potential energy savings of 58 million barrels of oil per year (technical market) was identified. This energy is recoverable from flashing gas liquid process streams and is separate and distinct from exhaust gas waste heat recovery. The industries surveyed in this program were the petroleum chemical, primary metals, paper and pulp, stone-clay-glass, and food. It was required to determine the applicability of the Biphase turbine to flashing operations connected with process streams, to determine the energy changes associated with these flashes if carried out in a Biphase turbine, and to determine the suitability (technical and economical feasibility) of applying the Biphase turbine to these processes.

  5. Influence of surface microstructure and chemistry on osteoinduction and osteoclastogenesis by biphasic calcium phosphate discs.

    PubMed

    Davison, N L; Su, J; Yuan, H; van den Beucken, J J J P; de Bruijn, J D; Barrère-de Groot, F

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that surface microstructural dimensions can influence the osteoinductivity of calcium phosphates (CaPs), and osteoclasts may play a role in this process. We hypothesised that surface structural dimensions of ≤ 1 μm trigger osteoinduction and osteoclast formation irrespective of macrostructure (e.g., concavities, interconnected macropores, interparticle space) or surface chemistry. To test this, planar discs made of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP: 80% hydroxyapatite, 20% tricalcium phosphate) were prepared with different surface structural dimensions - either ~ 1 μm (BCP1150) or ~ 2-4 μm (BCP1300) - and no macropores or concavities. A third material was made by sputter coating BCP1150 with titanium (BCP1150Ti), thereby changing its surface chemistry but preserving its surface structure and chemical reactivity. After intramuscular implantation in 5 dogs for 12 weeks, BCP1150 formed ectopic bone in 4 out of 5 samples, BCP1150Ti formed ectopic bone in 3 out of 5 samples, and BCP1300 formed no ectopic bone in any of the 5 samples. In vivo, large multinucleated osteoclast-like cells densely colonised BCP1150, smaller osteoclast-like cells formed on BCP1150Ti, and osteoclast-like cells scarcely formed on BCP1300. In vitro, RAW264.7 cells cultured on the surface of BCP1150 and BCP1150Ti in the presence of osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL (receptor activator for NF-κB ligand) proliferated then differentiated into multinucleated osteoclast-like cells with positive tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. However, cell proliferation, fusion, and TRAP activity were all significantly inhibited on BCP1300. These results indicate that of the material parameters tested - namely, surface microstructure, macrostructure, and surface chemistry - microstructural dimensions are critical in promoting osteoclastogenesis and triggering ectopic bone formation. PMID:26091730

  6. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the

  7. Progressive and biphasic cardiac responses during extreme mountain ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Maufrais, Claire; Millet, Grégoire P; Schuster, Iris; Rupp, Thomas; Nottin, Stéphane

    2016-05-15

    Investigations on the cardiac function consequences of mountain ultramarathon (MUM) >100 h are lacking. The present study assessed the progressive cardiac responses during the world's most challenging MUM (Tor des Géants; Italy; 330 km; 24,000 m of cumulative elevation gain). Resting echocardiographic evaluation of morphology, function, and mechanics of left and right ventricle (LV and RV) including speckle tracking echocardiography was conducted in 15 male participants (46 ± 13 yr) before (pre), during (mid; 148 km), and after (post) the race. Runners completed the race in 126 ± 15 h. From pre to post, the increase in stroke volume (SV) (103 ± 19 vs. 110 ± 23 vs. 116 ± 21 ml; P < 0.001 at pre, mid, and post) was concomitant to the increase in LV early filling (peak E; 72.9 ± 15.7 vs. 74.6 ± 13.1 vs. 82.1 ± 11.5 cm/s; P < 0.05). Left and right atrial end-diastolic areas, RV end-diastolic area, and LV end-diastolic volume were 12-19% higher at post compared with pre (P < 0.05). Resting heart rate and LV systolic strain rates demonstrated a biphasic adaptation with an increase from pre to mid (55 ± 8 vs. 72 ± 11 beats/min, P < 0.001) and a return to baseline values from mid to post (59 ± 8 beats/min). Significant correlations were found between pre-to-post percent changes in peak E and LV end-diastolic volume (r = 0.63, P < 0.05) or RV (r = 0.82, P < 0.001) or atrial end-diastolic areas (r = 0.83, P < 0.001). An extreme MUM induced a biphasic pattern of heart rate in parallel with specific cardiac responses characterized by a progressive increase in diastolic filling, biventricular volumes, and SV. The underlying mechanisms and their clinical implications remain challenging for the future. PMID:26921434

  8. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-11-15

    increased in mesenchymal cell mass treated by low concentration of Dex. Mmp-13 expression was obviously up-regulated by Dex in both mesenchymal cells and primary chondrocyte cultures. And Col10a1 expression was also increased by Dex exposure in chondrocyte. In summary, we have revealed that different concentrations of Dex exposure during early gestation could exert a biphasic effect on vertebrate skeletal development. - Highlights: • Chick embryos occurred shortening of the long bone following Dex exposure. • Dex suppressed chondrocytes proliferation and promoted apoptosis. • Dex exposure decreased ALP production and up-regulated Runx-2 and Mmp-13. • Dex exhibited biphasic effects on chondrogenic proliferation and nodule formation. • The hypertrophy and ossification were accelerated by Dex both in vivo and in vitro.

  9. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare

    2000-06-02

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behavior of fly ash in the PEG-2000 Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O system was studied and the solid in each fraction was characterized by CHN analysis (carbon content), X-ray diffraction (XRD; crystal component), and inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry (ICP; elemental composition in the ash). In the pH range from 2 to 5, the particles separated into two different layers, i.e., the polymer-rich (top) and salt-rich (bottom) layers. However, above pH 5, the particles in the polymer-rich phase split into two zones. The percent carbon content of the solids in the upper zone ({approximately}80 wt%) was higher than that in the parent sample (63.2 wt%), while the lower zone in the polymer-rich phase had the same percent ash content as the original sample. The particles in the salt-rich phase were mainly composed of ash (with < 4 wt% carbon content). However, when the solid concentration in the whole system increased from 1 wt% to 2 wt%, this 3-fraction phenomenon only occurred above pH 10. XRD results showed that the main crystal components in the ash included quartz, hematite, and mullite. The ICP results showed that Si, Al, and Fe were the major elements in the fly ash, with minor elements of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Ba. The composition of the ash in the lower zone of the polymer-rich phase remained almost the same as that in the parent fly ash. The largest amount of product ({approximately}60% yield) with the highest carbon content ({approximately}80 wt% C) was obtained in the range pH 6-9. Based on the experimental results obtained, a flowsheet is proposed for the beneficiation of high-carbon fly ash with the aqueous biphase extraction process.

  10. Thin coatings based on ZnO@C18-usnic acid nanoparticles prepared by MAPLE inhibit the development of Salmonella enterica early biofilm growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Miruna Silvia; Constanda, Sabrina; Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Ene, Ana Maria; Holban, Alina Maria; Vasile, Bogdan Stefan; Mogoantă, Laurenţiu; Bălşeanu, Tudor-Adrian; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Socol, Gabriel; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Dinischiotu, Anca; Lazar, Veronica; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a nanostructured bioactive surface based on zinc oxide, sodium stearate (C18) and usnic acid (UA) exhibiting harmless effects with respect to the human cells, but with a significant antimicrobial effect, limiting the attachment and biofilm formation of food pathogens. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method and functionalized with C18 and UA. The coatings were fabricated by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation technique (MAPLE) and further characterized by TEM, SEM, SAED, XRD and IRM. The biological characterization of the prepared coatings consisted in cytotoxicity and antimicrobial assays. The cytotoxicity of ZnO@C18 and ZnO@C18-UA films was evaluated with respect to the human skin fibroblasts (CCD 1070SK cell line) by phase contrast microscopy, MTT assay and nitric oxide (NO) release. The covered surfaces exhibited a decreased cell attachment, effect which was more pronounced in the presence of UA as shown by purple formazan staining of adhered cells. The unattached fibroblasts remained viable after 24 h in the culture media as it was revealed by their morphology analysis and NO level which were similar to uncovered slides. The quantitative microbiological assays results have demonstrated that the bioactive coatings have significantly inhibited the adherence and biofilm formation of Salmonella enterica. The obtained results recommend these materials as efficient approaches in developing anti-adherent coatings for various industrial, medical and food processing applications.

  11. Bone response to titanium implants coated with thin sputtered HA film subject to hydrothermal treatment and implanted in the canine mandible.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Okuyama, Y; Fukui, Y; Aoki, H

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) was coated onto titanium implants using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The HA films were crystallized in an autoclave tube using low temperature hydrothermal treatment. The average film thickness on the implant was 1.1 microm. HA-coated and pure-titanium implants were inserted into canine mandibles for up to 24 weeks. Forty-eight implants were placed in eight beagles. After 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks, implants were retrieved and prepared for histological observation, and the HA film thickness was determined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Light microscopy revealed that, after two weeks, the bone response to the HA-coated implants was much better than to the pure titanium implants, and osteoblasts were observed at the bone-implant interface. After four weeks, the screw threads of the HA-coated implants were almost completely covered with bone. The HA film thickness rapidly decreased up to four weeks of implantation, then gently decreased, reaching 0.40+/-0.03 microm at the upper region of the implant after 12 weeks. That indicates that about 80% of the HA film had dissolved after 12 weeks of implantation. The rate of decrease in the HA film thickness was greater with increasing implant depth. PMID:16971742

  12. Bone formation of a porous Gelatin-Pectin-biphasic calcium phosphate composite in presence of BMP-2 and VEGF.

    PubMed

    Amirian, Jhaleh; Linh, Nguyen Thuy Ba; Min, Young Ki; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2015-05-01

    A composite scaffold of gelatin (Gel)-pectin (Pec)-biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) was fabricated for the successful delivery of growth factors. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were coated on the Gel-Pec-BCP surface to investigate of effect of them on bone healing. Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and BCP dispersion in the hydrogel scaffolds was measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results obtained from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that BMP-2 and VEGF were successfully coated on Gel-Pec-BCP hydrogel scaffolds. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts were cultivated on the scaffolds to investigate the effect of BMP-2 and VEGF on cell viability and proliferation. VEGF and BMP-2 loaded on Gel-Pec-BCP scaffold facilitated increased cell spreading and proliferation compared to Gel-Pec-BCP scaffolds. In vivo, bone formation was examined using rat models. Bone formation was observed in Gel-Pec-BCP/BMP-2 and Gel-Pec-BCP/VEGF scaffolds within 4 weeks, and was greatest with Gel-Pec-BCP/BMP-2 scaffolds. In vitro and in vivo results suggest that Gel-Pec-BCP/BMP-2 and Gel-Pec-BCP/VEGF scaffolds could enhance bone regeneration. PMID:25709009

  13. In vivo implantation of porous titanium alloy implants coated with magnesium-doped octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite thin films using pulsed laser depostion.

    PubMed

    Mróz, Waldemar; Budner, Bogusław; Syroka, Renata; Niedzielski, Kryspin; Golański, Grzegorz; Slósarczyk, Anna; Schwarze, Dieter; Douglas, Timothy E L

    2015-01-01

    The use of porous titanium-based implant materials for bone contact has been gaining ground in recent years. Selective laser melting (SLM) is a rapid prototyping method by which porous implants with highly defined external dimensions and internal architecture can be produced. The coating of porous implants produced by SLM with ceramic layers based on calcium phosphate (CaP) remains relatively unexplored, as does the doping of such coatings with magnesium (Mg) to promote bone formation. In this study, Mg-doped coatings of the CaP types octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite (HA) were deposited on such porous implants using the pulsed laser deposition method. The coated implants were subsequently implanted in a rabbit femoral defect model for 6 months. Uncoated implants served as a reference material. Bone-implant contact and bone volume in the region of interest were evaluated by histopathological techniques using a tri-chromatographic Masson-Goldner staining method and by microcomputed tomography (µCT) analysis of the volume of interest in the vicinity of implants. Histopathological analysis revealed that all implant types integrated directly with surrounding bone with ingrowth of newly formed bone into the pores of the implants. Biocompatibility of all implant types was demonstrated by the absence of inflammatory infiltration by mononuclear cells (lymphocytes), neutrophils, and eosinophils. No osteoclastic or foreign body reaction was observed in the vicinity of the implants. µCT analysis revealed a significant increase in bone volume for implants coated with Mg-doped HA compared to uncoated implants. PMID:24801401

  14. Thin Film Solid Lubricant Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoy, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Tribological coatings for high temperature sliding applications are addressed. A sputter-deposited bilayer coating of gold and chromium is investigated as a potential solid lubricant for protection of alumina substrates during sliding at high temperature. Evaluation of the tribological properties of alumina pins sliding against thin sputtered gold films on alumina substrates is presented.

  15. Electrical and optical properties of thin films prepared by spin coating a dispersion of nano-sized tin-doped indium-oxide particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ederth, Jesper; Hultaker, Annette; Heszler, Peter; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes-Goeran; van Doorn, Arie K. J.; van Haag, Chris; Jongerius, Michel J.; Burgard, Detlef

    2001-11-01

    Thin films were made by spinning a dispersion of tin-doped indium-oxide particles, having an average diameter of 14 nm, onto glass substrates. As-deposited thin films displayed a resistivity (rho) of 0.3 (Omega) m and some optical absorption. Annealing in vacuum at 200 to 400 degree(s)C for 2 h, and subsequently in air at 500 degree(s)C for 2 h, produced films with (rho) equals10--3 (Omega) m and a visible transmittance exceeding 90 %. Leaving out the vacuum treatment yielded higher resistivity.

  16. Improved Photovoltaic Characteristics and Grain Boundary Potentials of CuIn0.7Ga0.3Se2 Thin Films Spin-Coated by Na-Dissolved Nontoxic Precursor Solution.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ik Jin; Jang, Jin Woo; Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Lee, Seung Min; Cho, Yong Soo

    2016-07-13

    This work introduces the incorporation of Na into the nontoxic precursor solution of CIGS to improve photovoltaic cell performance with the optimized benefits of Na. The extensive incorporation range of 0.05 to 0.5 mol % Na is used for the simple spin-coating process of high quality absorber thin films. A cell efficiency of ∼8.21%, which corresponds to an improvement of ∼10.2% compared to the reference sample, is achieved for the 0.25 mol % Na sample with enhanced open-circuit voltage and fill factor. The improvement was further analyzed as related to InCu defects and grain boundary potentials. PMID:27355408

  17. Facilitatory effect of paired-pulse stimulation by transcranial magnetic stimulation with biphasic wave-form.

    PubMed

    Julkunen, Petro; Järnefelt, Gustaf; Savolainen, Petri; Laine, Jarmo; Karhu, Jari

    2016-08-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used to probe corticospinal excitability by stimulating the motor cortex. Our aim was to enhance the effects of biphasic TMS by coupling a suprathreshold test pulse and a following subthreshold priming pulse to induce short-interval intracortical facilitation (SICF), which is conventionally produced with monophasic TMS. Biphasic TMS could potentially induce the SICF effect with better energy-efficiency and with lower stimulus intensities. This would make the biphasic paired-pulses better applicable in patients with reduced cortical excitability. A prototype stimulator was built to produce biphasic paired-pulses. Resting motor thresholds (rMTs) from the right and left hand abductor pollicis brevis muscles, and the right tibialis anterior muscle of eight healthy volunteers were determined using single-pulse paradigm with neuronavigated TMS. The rMTs and MEPs were measured using single-pulses and three paired-pulse setups (interstimulus interval, ISI of 3, 7 or 15ms). The rMTs were lower and MEPs were higher with biphasic paired-pulses compared to single-pulses. The SICF effect was greatest at 3ms ISI. This suggests that the application of biphasic paired-pulses to enhance stimulation effects is possible. PMID:27215172

  18. Biphasic Effect of Rifampicin on Bilirubin- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gopi, Manigandan; Seshadri, Mandalam Subramanian

    2016-04-01

    Drug induced hepatitis is a major problem which a physician encounters in his clinical practice. In view of increasing incidence of tuberculosis in our country a large number of infected individuals are started on Antituberculous (ATT) drugs and rifampicin is invariably part of the regimen. One of the major adverse effects of ATT drugs is drug- induced hepatitis which is characterized by elevation of liver enzymes and bilirubin. Hepatotoxicity is usually idiosyncratic or dose-dependent. Rifampicin causes transient elevation of transaminases in 10-20 percent of individuals and this does not warrant dose adjustments of the drug. Rarely rifampicin can lead to severe hepatitis with hyperbilirubinaemia and marked elevations of SGOT and SGPT and in some patients this can be fatal. The exact mechanism of Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity is not known but it is postulated to be due to idiosyncratic reaction to rifampicin metabolites which may be directly toxic or induce an immunologically mediated liver injury. Rarely rifampicin may cause hyperbilirubinaemia without enzyme elevation. Here we report a patient with bilateral pulmonary tuberculosis who developed transient severe indirect hyperbilirubinaemia on rifampicin. On review of relevant literature we find that rifampicin can have a biphasic effect on bilirubin, an initial increase in indirect bilirubin and later normalization of bilirubin. We have reported this case because of its rarity in clinical practice. PMID:27190870

  19. Biphasic binding kinetics between FepA and its ligands.

    PubMed

    Payne, M A; Igo, J D; Cao, Z; Foster, S B; Newton, S M; Klebba, P E

    1997-08-29

    The Escherichia coli FepA protein is an energy- and TonB-dependent, ligand-binding porin that functions as a receptor for the siderophore ferric enterobactin and colicins B and D. We characterized the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters associated with the initial, energy-independent steps in ligand binding to FepA. In vivo experiments produced Kd values of 24, 185, and 560 nM for ferric enterobactin, colicin B, and colicin D, respectively. The siderophore and colicin B bound to FepA with a 1:1 stoichiometry, but colicin D bound to a maximum level that was 3-fold lower. Preincubation with ferric enterobactin prevented colicin B binding, and preincubation with colicin B prevented ferric enterobactin binding. Colicin B release from FepA was unexpectedly slow in vivo, about 10-fold slower than ferric enterobactin release. This slow dissociation of the colicin B.FepA complex facilitated the affinity purification of FepA and FepA mutants with colicin B-Sepharose. Analysis of a fluorescent FepA derivative showed that ferric enterobactin and colicin B adsorbed with biphasic kinetics, suggesting that both ligands bind in at least two distinct steps, an initial rapid stage and a subsequent slower step, that presumably establishes a transport-competent complex. PMID:9268330

  20. Comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for biphasic contact problems.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingen; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Wilcox, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    Articular cartilage plays an important role in the function of diarthrodial joints. Computational methods have been used to study the biphasic mechanics of cartilage, and Abaqus has been one of the most widely used commercial software packages for this purpose. A newly developed open-source finite element solver, FEBio, has been developed specifically for biomechanical applications. The aim of this study was to undertake a direct comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for some practical contact problems involving cartilage. Three model types, representing a porous flat-ended indentation test, a spherical-ended indentation test, and a conceptual natural joint contact model, were compared. In addition, a parameter sensitivity study was also performed for the spherical-ended indentation test to investigate the effects of changes in the input material properties on the model outputs, using both FEBio and Abaqus. Excellent agreement was found between FEBio and Abaqus for all of the model types and across the range of material properties that were investigated. PMID:23804955

  1. A nonlinear biphasic viscohyperelastic model for articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    García, José Jaime; Cortés, Daniel Humberto

    2006-01-01

    Experiments on articular cartilage have shown nonlinear stress-strain curves under finite deformations as well as intrinsic viscous effects of the solid phase. The aim of this study was to propose a nonlinear biphasic viscohyperelastic model that combines the intrinsic viscous effects of the proteoglycan matrix with a nonlinear hyperelastic constitutive equation. The proposed equation satisfies objectivity and reduces for uniaxial loading to a solid type viscous model in which the actions of the springs are represented by the hyperelastic function proposed by Holmes and Mow [1990. J. Biomechanics 23, 1145-1156.]. Results of the model, that were efficiently implemented in an updated Lagrangian algorithm, were compared with experimental infinitesimal data reported by DiSilverstro and Suh [2001. J. Biomechanics 34, 519-525.] and showed acceptable fitting for the axial force (R(2)=0.991) and lateral displacement (R(2)=0.914) curves in unconfined compression as well as a good fitting of the axial indentation force curve (R(2)=0.982). In addition, the model showed an excellent fitting of finite-deformation confined compression stress relaxation data reported by Ateshian et al. [1997. J. Biomechanics 30, 1157-1164.] and Huang et al. [2005. J. Biomechanics 38, 799-809.] (R(2)=0.993 and R(2)=0.995, respectively). The constitutive equation may be used to represent the mechanical behavior of the proteoglycan matrix in a fiber reinforced model of articular cartilage. PMID:16316659

  2. Biphasic Effect of Rifampicin on Bilirubin- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Seshadri, Mandalam Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Drug induced hepatitis is a major problem which a physician encounters in his clinical practice. In view of increasing incidence of tuberculosis in our country a large number of infected individuals are started on Antituberculous (ATT) drugs and rifampicin is invariably part of the regimen. One of the major adverse effects of ATT drugs is drug- induced hepatitis which is characterized by elevation of liver enzymes and bilirubin. Hepatotoxicity is usually idiosyncratic or dose-dependent. Rifampicin causes transient elevation of transaminases in 10-20 percent of individuals and this does not warrant dose adjustments of the drug. Rarely rifampicin can lead to severe hepatitis with hyperbilirubinaemia and marked elevations of SGOT and SGPT and in some patients this can be fatal. The exact mechanism of Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity is not known but it is postulated to be due to idiosyncratic reaction to rifampicin metabolites which may be directly toxic or induce an immunologically mediated liver injury. Rarely rifampicin may cause hyperbilirubinaemia without enzyme elevation. Here we report a patient with bilateral pulmonary tuberculosis who developed transient severe indirect hyperbilirubinaemia on rifampicin. On review of relevant literature we find that rifampicin can have a biphasic effect on bilirubin, an initial increase in indirect bilirubin and later normalization of bilirubin. We have reported this case because of its rarity in clinical practice. PMID:27190870

  3. Finite element formulation of biphasic poroviscoelastic model for articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Suh, J K; Bai, S

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a computationally efficient finite element model that could be useful for parametric analysis of the biphasic poroviscoelastic (BPVE) behavior of articular cartilage under various loading conditions. The articular cartilage was modeled as the BPVE mixture of a porous, linear viscoelastic, and incompressible solid and an inviscid and incompressible fluid. A finite element (FE) formulation of the BPVE model was developed using two different algorithms, the continuous and discrete spectrum relaxation functions for the viscoelasticity of the solid matrix. These algorithms were applied to the creep and stress relaxation responses to the confined compression of articular cartilage, and a comparison of their performances was made. It was found that the discrete spectrum algorithm significantly saved CPU time and memory, as compared to the continuous spectrum algorithm. The consistency analysis for the present FE formulation was performed in comparison with the IMSL, a commercially available numerical software package. It was found that the present FE formulation yielded consistent results in predicting model behavior, whereas the IMSL subroutine produced inconsistent results in the velocity field, and thereby in the strain calculation. PMID:10412380

  4. Comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for biphasic contact problems

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Wilcox, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Articular cartilage plays an important role in the function of diarthrodial joints. Computational methods have been used to study the biphasic mechanics of cartilage, and Abaqus has been one of the most widely used commercial software packages for this purpose. A newly developed open-source finite element solver, FEBio, has been developed specifically for biomechanical applications. The aim of this study was to undertake a direct comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for some practical contact problems involving cartilage. Three model types, representing a porous flat-ended indentation test, a spherical-ended indentation test, and a conceptual natural joint contact model, were compared. In addition, a parameter sensitivity study was also performed for the spherical-ended indentation test to investigate the effects of changes in the input material properties on the model outputs, using both FEBio and Abaqus. Excellent agreement was found between FEBio and Abaqus for all of the model types and across the range of material properties that were investigated. PMID:23804955

  5. Macrophage and osteoblast responses to biphasic calcium phosphate microparticles.

    PubMed

    Fellah, Borhane Hakim; Delorme, Bruno; Sohier, Jérôme; Magne, David; Hardouin, Pierre; Layrolle, Pierre

    2010-06-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate in vitro the biological events leading to ectopic bone formation in contact with microporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics. After implantation, microparticles may arise from their degradation and induce an inflammatory response involving macrophages. The secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines may affect the differentiation of osteoblasts. Mouse macrophage-like (J774) and osteoblast-like (MC3T3-E1) cells were cultured in the presence of BCP microparticles of different sizes (<20, 40-80, or 80-200 microm). The smallest microparticles decreased the viability of both cell types as measured with LDH and methyl tetrazolium salt assays, and enhanced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) by macrophages after 24 h, as revealed by ELISA. Osteoblastic cells were then cultured for 96 h in the presence of these pro-inflammatory cytokines and their differentiation studied by RT-PCR. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with TNF-alpha showed a decrease in osterix, PTH receptor (PTHR1), and osteocalcin gene expression. On the contrary, IL-6 enhanced the expression of osterix, Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin compared with plastic. In conclusion, this study shows that the inflammatory response initiated by BCP microparticles may have both detrimental and beneficial effects on osteogenesis. PMID:20014296

  6. Neutron Polarization Analysis for Biphasic Solvent Extraction Systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Endo, Hitoshi; Nagao, Michihiro; Heller, William T.

    2016-06-16

    Here we performed neutron polarization analysis (NPA) of extracted organic phases containing complexes, comprised of Zr(NO3)4 and tri-n-butyl phosphate, which enabled decomposition of the intensity distribution of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) into the coherent and incoherent scattering components. The coherent scattering intensity, containing structural information, and the incoherent scattering compete over a wide range of magnitude of scattering vector, q, specifically when q is larger than q* ≈ 1/Rg, where Rg is the radius of gyration of scatterer. Therefore, it is important to determine the incoherent scattering intensity exactly to perform an accurate structural analysis from SANS data when Rgmore » is small, such as the aforementioned extracted coordination species. Although NPA is the best method for evaluating the incoherent scattering component for accurately determining the coherent scattering in SANS, this method is not used frequently in SANS data analysis because it is technically challenging. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that experimental determination of the incoherent scattering using NPA is suitable for sample systems containing a small scatterer with a weak coherent scattering intensity, such as extracted complexes in biphasic solvent extraction systems.« less

  7. Three-dimensional architecture of lithium-anodes made from graphite fibers coated with thin-films of silicon oxycarbide: Design, performance and manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Ibrahim; Raj, Rishi

    2016-04-01

    Silicon oxycarbide (SiCO) is an amorphous molecular network of Sisbnd Csbnd O tetrahedra anchored to graphene-like carbon. The graphene forms a three dimensional cellular network with a domain size of ∼5 nm. Therefore nanometer thick films of SiCO grown on graphite may be expected to have unusual behavior. We grow these films on a bed of commercially available graphite fibers that serve the dual function of a current collector. The electrochemical behavior of the composite is measured as a function of the thickness of the SiCO films. Thick films approach the typical behavior of bulk SiCO (which has three times the capacity of graphite, but suffers from poor first cycle efficiency). However, films, approximately 100 nm thick, show high first cycle efficiency as well as high capacity. The composite performs better than the prediction from the rule-of-mixtures, which further substantiates the unusual behavior of the thin-film architecture. The Raman spectra of these thin films also differ from bulk SiCO. The development of thin graphite fibers, with a high surface to volume ratio that have the same capacity as the current graphite-powder technology, coupled with manufacturing of these thin-films by a liquid-polymer precursor based process, can propel these results toward commercialization.

  8. Highly antibacterial activity of N-doped TiO2 thin films coated on stainless steel brackets under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Fan, Lingying; Yue, Ziqi; Liu, Bin; Cao, Baocheng

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method was used to prepare a TiO2 thin film on the surface of stainless steel brackets. Eighteen groups of samples were made according to the experimental parameters. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation were evaluated by measuring the degradation ratio of methylene blue. The sputtering temperature was set at 300 °C, and the time was set as 180 min, the ratio of Ar to N was 30:1, and annealing temperature was set at 450 °C. The thin films made under these parameters had the highest visible light photocatalytic activity of all the combinations of parameters tested. Antibacterial activities of the selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. The results demonstrated the thin film prepared under the parameters above showed the highest antibacterial activity.

  9. Structural and optical study of spin-coated camphorsulfonic acid-doped polyaniline/titanium-di-oxide nanoparticles hybrid thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geethalakshmi, D.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Balasundaraprabhu, R.

    2015-06-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) doped with Camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) has been prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization and blend with titanium-di-oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel method to form CSA-doped PANI/TiO2 hybrid thin films. The properties of as-deposited and heat-treated (100 °C) hybrid thin films having different PANI:TiO2 weight ratios (1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2) have been compared. FTIR study indicated that chemical bonding between CSA-doped PANI and TiO2 has been formed. XRD studies reveal that the as-deposited hybrid thin films are of amorphous nature and heat-treatment of such films initiates crystallization. SEM study shows that as-deposited hybrid films are rough; increase in TiO2 ratio and heat-treatment increased the roughness due to coalescing and agglomeration. UV-visible absorbance of hybrid films shows its characteristic peak in the visible region along with a peak in UV range and its intensity increased with TiO2 ratio and heat-treatment due to agglomeration of TiO2 particles. Photoluminescence spectra revealed that emission occurs in visible region (495 nm) for as-deposited hybrid thin film and this emission increased with TiO2 ratio and heat-treatment of hybrid films.

  10. Use of total internal reflection Raman (TIR) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to analyze component separation in thin offset ink films after setting on coated paper surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kivioja, Antti; Hartus, Timo; Vuorinen, Tapani; Gane, Patrick; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina

    2013-06-01

    The interactive behavior of ink constituents with porous substrates during and after the offset print process has an important effect on the quality of printed products. To help elucidate the distribution of ink components between the retained ink layer and the substrate, a variety of spectroscopic and microscopic analysis techniques have been developed. This paper describes for the first time the use of total internal reflection (TIR) Raman spectroscopy to analyze the penetration behavior of separated offset ink components (linseed oil, solid color pigment) in coated papers providing chemically intrinsic information rapidly, nondestructively, and with minimal sample preparation. In addition, the already widely applied technique of attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was evaluated in parallel and compared. The results of the ATR-IR Raman clearly revealed an improvement in uppermost depth resolution compared with values previously published from other nondestructive techniques, and the method is shown to be capable of providing new knowledge of the setting of thin (0.25-2 μm) offset ink films, allowing the spreading and the penetration behavior on physically different paper coating surfaces to be studied. PMID:23735252

  11. Evaporation-Driven Deposition of WO₃ Thin Films from Organic-Additive-Free Aqueous Solutions by Low-Speed Dip Coating and Their Photoelectrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Seishirou; Kozuka, Hiromitsu

    2016-04-01

    We prepared tungsten trioxide (WO3) photoelectrode films from organic-additive-free aqueous solutions by a low-speed dip-coating technique. The evaporation-driven deposition of the solutes occurred at the meniscus during low-speed dip coating, resulting in the formation of coating layer on the substrate. Homogeneous WO3 precursor films were obtained from (NH4)10W12O41·5H2O aqueous solutions and found to be crystallized to monoclinic WO3 films by the heat treatment at 400-700 °C. All the films showed a photoanodic response irrespective of the heat treatment temperature, where a good photoelectrochemical stability was observed for those heated over 500 °C. The highest photoanodic performance was observed for the WO3 film heated at 700 °C, where the IPCE (incident photon-to-current efficiency) was 36.2% and 4.6% at 300 and 400 nm, respectively. PMID:27010979

  12. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  13. Joint Development of Coated Conductor and Low Cost Thin Film Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-007-213

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, R.

    2011-02-01

    UES plans on developing CIGS thin films by using Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) technique as it is a low-cost, non-vacuum method for scale-up to large area PV modules. NREL will support UES, Inc. through expert processing, characterization and device fabrication. NREL scientists will also help develop a processing phase diagram which includes composition, film thickness, annealing temperature and ambient conditions. Routine measurements of devices and materials will be done under NREL's core support project.

  14. Biphasic Peptide Amphiphile Nanomatrix Embedded with Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Stimulated Osteoinductive Response

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joel M.; Patterson, Jessica L.; Vines, Jeremy B.; Javed, Amjad; Gilbert, Shawn R.; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Formation of the native bone extracellular matrix (ECM) provides an attractive template for bone tissue engineering. The structural support and biological complexity of bone ECM are provided within a composite microenvironment that consists of an organic fibrous network reinforced by inorganic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. Recreating this biphasic assembly, a bone ECM analogous scaffold comprised of self-assembling peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers and interspersed HA nanoparticles was investigated. PAs were endowed with biomolecular ligand signaling using a synthetically inscribed peptide sequence (i.e. RGDS) and integrated with HA nanoparticles to form a biphasic nanomatrix hydrogel. It was hypothesized the biphasic hydrogel would induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and improve bone healing as mediated by RGDS ligand signaling within PA nanofibers and embedded HA mineralization source. Viscoelastic stability of the biphasic PA hydrogels was evaluated with different weight concentrations of HA for improved gelation. After demonstrating initial viability, long-term cellularity and osteoinduction of encapsulated hMSCs in different PA hydrogels were studied in vitro. Temporal progression of osteogenic maturation was assessed by gene expression of key markers. A preliminary animal study demonstrated bone healing capacity of the biphasic PA nanomatrix under physiological conditions using a critical size femoral defect rat model. The combination of RGDS ligand signaling and HA nanoparticles within the biphasic PA nanomatrix hydrogel demonstrated the most effective osteoinduction and comparative bone healing response. Therefore, the biphasic PA nanomatrix establishes a well-organized scaffold with increased similarity to natural bone ECM with the prospect for improved bone tissue regeneration. PMID:22077993

  15. Doping effect on SILAR synthesized crystalline nanostructured Cu-doped ZnO thin films grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaygude, H. D.; Shinde, S. K.; Velhal, Ninad B.; Takale, M. V.; Fulari, V. J.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a novel chemical route is used to synthesize the undoped and Cu-doped ZnO thin films in aqueous solution by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The synthesized thin films are characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX), contact angle goniometer and UV–Vis spectroscopic techniques. XRD study shows that the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal crystal structure. The change in morphology for different doping is observed in the studies of FE-SEM. EDAX spectrum shows that the thin films consist of zinc, copper and oxygen elements. Contact angle goniometer is used to measure the contact angle between a liquid and a solid interface and after detection, the nature of the films is initiated from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The optical band gap energy for direct allowed transition ranging between 1.60–2.91 eV is observed.

  16. Biphasic forearm vascular responses to intraarterial arginine vasopressin.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, S; Takeshita, A; Imaizumi, T; Hirooka, Y; Yoshida, M; Ando, S; Nakamura, M

    1989-01-01

    Forearm vascular responses to arginine vasopressin (AVP) infused into a brachial artery in a wide range of infusion rates (0.05-2.0 ng/kg per min) were examined in 20 young healthy volunteers. Intraarterial AVP at lower doses (0.05 and 0.1 ng/kg per min) caused forearm vasoconstriction, whereas AVP at a dose of 0.2 ng/kg per min or higher caused forearm vasodilatation. The maximal forearm vasoconstriction was induced at the venous plasma AVP level of 76.3 +/- 8.8 pg/ml. Forearm vasodilatation was associated with the venous plasma AVP level of 369 +/- 43 pg/ml or higher. Forearm vasodilatation was the result of the direct effect of AVP since forearm blood flow and vascular resistance in the contralateral arm did not change. We attempted to explore the mechanisms involved in AVP-induced direct vasodilatation. The treatment with indomethacin, 75 mg/d for 3 d, did not alter AVP-induced forearm vasodilatation. In contrast, intraarterial infusion of isoosmolar CaCl2 totally prevented AVP-induced forearm vasodilatation. Intra-arterial CaCl2 also markedly attenuated forearm vasodilatation induced by intraarterial sodium nitroprusside, but did not alter forearm vasodilatation induced by intraarterial isoproterenol. These results indicate that the direct vascular effects of intra-arterial AVP on the forearm vessels are biphasic, causing vasoconstriction at lower doses and vasodilatation at higher doses. The direct vasodilatation induced by intraarterial AVP at higher doses is not mediated by prostaglandins but may involve cGMP-related mechanisms. PMID:2547832

  17. Core-shell nanoreactors for efficient aqueous biphasic catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuewei; Cardozo, Andrés F; Chen, Si; Zhang, Wenjing; Julcour, Carine; Lansalot, Muriel; Blanco, Jean-François; Gayet, Florence; Delmas, Henri; Charleux, Bernadette; Manoury, Eric; D'Agosto, Franck; Poli, Rinaldo

    2014-11-17

    Water-borne phosphine-functionalized core-cross-linked micelles (CCM) consisting of a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic shell were obtained as stable latexes by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) in water in a one-pot, three-step process. Initial homogeneous aqueous-phase copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate (PEOMA) is followed by copolymerization of styrene (S) and 4-diphenylphosphinostyrene (DPPS), yielding P(MAA-co-PEOMA)-b-P(S-co-DPPS) amphiphilic block copolymer micelles (M) by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA), and final micellar cross-linking with a mixture of S and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The CCM were characterized by dynamic light scattering and NMR spectroscopy to evaluate size, dispersity, stability, and the swelling ability of various organic substrates. Coordination of [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ] (acac=acetylacetonate) to the core-confined phosphine groups was rapid and quantitative. The CCM and M latexes were then used, in combination with [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ], to catalyze the aqueous biphasic hydroformylation of 1-octene, in which they showed high activity, recyclability, protection of the activated Rh center by the polymer scaffold, and low Rh leaching. The CCM latex gave slightly lower catalytic activity but significantly less Rh leaching than the M latex. A control experiment conducted in the presence of the sulfoxantphos ligand pointed to the action of the CCM as catalytic nanoreactors with substrate and product transport into and out of the polymer core, rather than as a surfactant in interfacial catalysis. PMID:25284685

  18. Design and characterization of cefuroxime axetil biphasic floating minitablets.

    PubMed

    Jammula, Sruti; Patra, Ch Niranjan; Swain, Suryakanta; Panigrahi, Kanhu Charan; Nayak, Sabita; Dinda, Subas Chandra; Rao, Muddana Eswara Bhanoji

    2015-01-01

    Biphasic floating minitablets of cefuroxime axetil were prepared by melt granulation technique using two different grades of gelucire namely 50/13 and 43/01 to maintain constant plasma drug concentration. Loading dose of cefuroxime axetil was formulated as immediate release (IR) minitablets by using hydrophilic grade of gelucire 50/13. Maintenance dose was formulated as floating sustained release (SR) minitablets by using hydrophobic grade of gelucire 43/01. The prepared IR and SR granules were subjected to micromeritic studies and scanning electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) study revealed that drug and selected carriers were compatible. In vitro dissolution study of optimized IR minitablets showed more than 85% of loading dose dissolved within 30 min. Optimized SR minitablets showed zero lag time with floating duration more than 12 h. The drug release from SR minitablets was linear with square root of time with non-Fickian diffusion-controlled release. The optimized batch of minitablets was filled into 0 size hard gelatin capsule. In vitro dissolution study for capsule showed an immediate burst release followed by SR up to 12 h. There is no significant change in dissolution data after storage at 40 °C and 75% RH for three months. Microbiological assay of dissolution samples of optimized minitablets filled in capsules showed proportionate increase in inhibition of growth against Escherichia coli up to 12 h samples. In vivo bioavailability study in albino rabbits showed three times improvement in oral bioavailability. PMID:24417642

  19. Single-grain Si thin-film transistors on flexible polyimide substrate fabricated from doctor-blade coated liquid-Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Trifunovic, M.; van der Zwan, M.; Takagishi, H.; Kawajiri, R.; Shimoda, T.; Beenakker, C. I. M.; Ishihara, R.

    2013-06-01

    Solution process of silicon will provide high-speed transistor fabrication with low-cost by, for example, roll-to-roll process. In this paper, a low-temperature process (350 °C) is reported for fabrication of high-quality Si devices on a polyimide substrate from doctor-blade coated liquid-Si. With this method, different semiconductor devices have been fabricated, reporting a carrier mobility of 460 cm2/V s and 121 cm2/V s for electrons and holes, respectively. The devices were peeled off and transferred onto a polyethylene naphthalate foil to achieve flexible devices. CMOS inverters were also fabricated and show full output swing.

  20. Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshidi, Zahra; Bahari, Ali; Gholipur, Reza

    2014-11-01

    Effect of annealing temperature on the characteristics of sol-gel-driven Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin film spin-coated on Si substrate as a high- k gate dielectric was studied. Ta ax La(1- a) x O y thin films with different amounts of a were prepared (as-prepared samples). X-ray diffraction measurements of the as-prepared samples indicated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x Oy film had an amorphous structure. Therefore, Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film was chosen to continue the present studies. The morphology of Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. The obtained results showed that the size of grain boundaries on Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y film surfaces was increased with increasing annealing temperature. Electrical and optical characterizations of the as-prepared and annealed films were investigated as a function of annealing temperature using capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and current density-voltage ( J- V) measurements and the Tauc method. The obtained results demonstrated that Ta0.3 x La0.7 x O y films had high dielectric constant (≈27), wide band gap (≈4.5 eV), and low leakage current density (≈10-6 A/cm2 at 1 V).